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Sample records for proteus mirabilis pseudomonas

  1. Bacteriophage typing of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Proteus morganii.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, W C; Jeffries, C D

    1974-01-01

    A bacteriphage typing scheme for differentiating Proteus isolated from clinical specimens was developed. Twenty-one distinct patterns of lysis were seen when 15 bacteriophages isolated on 8 Proteus mirabilis, 1 P. vulgaris, and 1 P. morganii were used to type 162 of 189 (85.7%) P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates. Seven phages isolated on 3 P. morganii were used to type 13 of 19 (68.4%) P. morganii isolates. Overall, 84.1% of the 208 isolates were lysed by at least 1 phage at routine test dilution (RTD) or 1,000 x RTD. Fifty isolates, retyped several weeks after the initial testing, showed no changes in lytic patterns. The phages retained their titers after storage at 4 C for several months. A computer analysis of the data showed that there was no relationship between the source of the isolate and bacteriophage type. This bacteriophage typing system may provide epidemiological information on strains involved in human infections.

  2. [Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    Qadripur, S A; Schauder, S; Schwartz, P

    2001-07-01

    Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis were seen in a motor mechanic and in a petrol pump attendant. Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that generates hydrogen sulfide. This compound reacts with traces of metals in the nail plate such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, tin, copper and lead. Metal sulfides blacken the nail plate. The protracted course of the discoloration over months corresponds to the slow reactions of metals with hydrogen sulfide. The disappearance of the blackening after topical treatment with chinosol, tincture of iodine and chloramphenicol solution supports the etiologic connection between black nails and Proteus mirabilis. Wet and dirty work encourages the colonisation of Proteus mirabilis between nail fold and nail plate.

  3. Production of superoxide dismutases from Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Dayton, T M; Diefenbach, K A; Fuller, M L; Valtos, J; Niederhoffer, E C

    1996-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris expressed a combination of superoxide dismutase (Sod) activities, which was assigned to FeSod1, FeSod2 and MnSod for P. mirabilis, and FeSod, MnSod and CuZnSod for P. vulgaris. Production of the Sod proteins was dependent on the availability of iron, whether cells were grown under anaerobiosis or aerobiosis and growth phase. Nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol inhibited cell growth and the iron- and dioxygen-dependent production of Sod. These results support the involvement of metal ions and redox status in the production of Proteus Sods.

  4. Anti-biofilm activity of biogenic selenium nanoparticles and selenium dioxide against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Forootanfar, Hamid; Golkari, Yaser; Mohammadi-Khorsand, Tayebe; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) against the biofilm produced by clinically isolated bacterial strains compared to that of selenium dioxide. Thirty strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were isolated from various specimens of the patients hospitalized in different hospitals (Kerman, Iran). Quantification of the biofilm using microtiter plate assay method introduced 30% of S. aureus, 13% of P. aeruginosa and 17% of P. mirabilis isolates as severely adherent strains. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Se NPs (produced by Bacillus sp. MSh-1) showed individual and spherical nano-structure in the size range of 80-220nm. Obtained results of the biofilm formation revealed that selenium nanoparticles inhibited the biofilm of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis by 42%, 34.3%, and 53.4%, respectively, compared to that of the non-treated samples. Effect of temperature and pH on the biofilm formation in the presence of Se NPs and SeO2 was also evaluated.

  5. Uropathogenic properties of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Peerbooms, P G; Verweij, A M; MacLaren, D M

    1985-02-01

    A group of faecal isolates of Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis was studied for the presence of possible virulence factors such as growth rates in urine and broth, haemolysin production, hydrophobicity, sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of human serum and cell invasiveness. Differences were found in haemolysin production, cell invasiveness and experimental virulence in a mouse model. These differences might explain why P. mirabilis is much more common in human urinary-tract infections than P. vulgaris.

  6. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of rifaximin on urease production and on other virulence factors expressed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Annalisa; Coppo, Erika; Barbieri, Ramona; Debbia, Eugenio A; Marchese, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Rifaximin, a topical derivative of rifampin, inhibited urease production and other virulence factors at sub-MIC concentrations in strains involved in hepatic encephalopathy and the expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, urease production was affected in all Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains as well as in all tested Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Other exotoxins, synthesized by P. aeruginosa, such as protease, gelatinase, lipase, lecithinase and DNAse were also not metabolized in the presence of rifaximin. This antibiotic inhibited pigment production in both P. aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum, a biosensor control strain. Lastly, rifaximin affected haemolysin production in S. aureus and was able to restore cefoxitin susceptibility when the strain was cultured in the presence of sub-MICs of the drug. The present findings confirm and extend previous observations about the beneficial effects of rifaximin for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, since in this anatomic site, it reaches a large array of concentrations which prevents enterobacteria from thriving and/or producing their major virulence factors.

  7. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  8. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis.

  9. Capsule structure of Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 49565).

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, L M; Dumanski, A J; McLean, R J; MacLean, L L; Richards, J C; Perry, M B

    1992-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis 2573 (ATCC 49565) produces an acidic capsular polysaccharide which was shown from glycose analysis, carboxyl reduction, methylation, periodate oxidation, and the application of one dimensional and two-dimensional high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to be a high-molecular-weight polymer of branched trisaccharide units composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-galactose (N-acetyl-L-fucosamine), and D-glucuronic acid, having the structure: [formula: see text] P. mirabilis 2573 also produces an O:6 serotype lipopolysaccharide in which the O-chain component has the same structure as the homologous capsular polysaccharide. This is the first report of a defined capsular polysaccharide in this bacterial genus. PMID:1551839

  10. Collective motion in Proteus mirabilis swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haoran, Xu

    Proteus mirabilisis a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is widely distributed in soil and water, and it is well known for exhibiting swarming motility on nutrient agar surfaces. In our study, we focused on the collective motility of P. mirabilis and uncovered a range of interesting phenomena. Here we will present our efforts to understand these phenomena through experiments and simulation. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail:xhrphx@gmail.com.

  11. Isolation and characterisation of dog uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains.

    PubMed

    Gaastra, W; van Oosterom, R A; Pieters, E W; Bergmans, H E; van Dijk, L; Agnes, A; ter Huurne, H M

    1996-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from the urine of dogs with urinary tract infections, were characterised with respect to the production of haemolysin and fimbriae. In contrast to healthy dogs, P. mirabilis was also isolated in high numbers from the faeces of dogs suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections. Production of fimbriae was demonstrated by electron microscopy and the presence of genes for two different types of major fimbrial subunits (MR/P-like or UCA-like) was demonstrated by Southern hybridisation. These genes were absent in the Proteus vulgaris, Providentia rettgeri and Morganella morganii strains tested. All but one P. mirabilis strains were haemolytic and most strains produced fimbriae albeit in different amounts. The UCA fimbrial subunits from dog and human isolates have identical molecular weights and N-terminal sequences and are immunologically cross reactive. It was concluded that dog uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains are very similar to human uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains.

  12. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis to brown tree frogs (Litoria ewingii).

    PubMed

    Schadich, Ermin; Cole, Anthony L J

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia liquifaciens. Here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) associated with an outbreak of fatal dermatosepticemia in New Zealand Litoria ewingii frogs. A bath challenge method was used to expose test frogs to individual bacterial species (2 x 10(7) cfu/mL in pond water); control frogs were exposed to uninfected pond water. None of the control frogs or those exposed to A. hydrophila or P. mirabilis showed any morbidity or mortality. Morbidity and mortality was 40% among frogs exposed to K. pneumonia, and the organism was reisolated from the hearts, spleens, and livers of affected animals.

  13. Draft Genome Assemblies of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Chertkov, O; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-10-23

    The pleomorphic swarming bacilli of the genus Proteus are common human gut commensal organisms but also the causative agents of recurrent urinary tract infections and bacteremia. We sequenced and assembled the 3.99-Mbp genome of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 (accession no. JOVJ00000000) and the 3.97-Mbp genome of Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132 (accession no. JPIX00000000), both of which are commonly used reference strains.

  14. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  15. Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 as a new representative of the O13 Proteus serogroup.

    PubMed

    Palusiak, Agata; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The unique feature of some Proteus O-polysaccharides is occurrence of an amide of galacturonic acid with N(ε)-[(S/R)-1-Carboxyethyl]-L-lysine, GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys). The results of the serological studies presented here, with reference to known O-antigens structures suggest that GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys) or 2S,8R-AlaLys contribute to cross-reactions of O13 Proteus antisera, and Proteeae LPSs. It was also revealed that the Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 strain can be classified into the O13 serogroup, represented so far by two strains: Proteus mirabilis 26/57 and Proteus vulgaris 8344. The O13 LPS is a serologically important antigen with a fragment common to LPSs of different species in the Proteeae tribe.

  16. Cell invasiveness of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains.

    PubMed

    Rózalski, A; Długońska, H; Kotełko, K

    1986-01-01

    Cell penetration ability of haemolytic and non haemolytic Proteus rods was compared. Among four Proteus strains all were able to invade the tested cells (Vero 135, HeLa, L-929 and human blood lymphocytes) but the expression of this feature by haemolytic strains was markedly higher. The survival and multiplication of intracellular bacteria, especially in the case of fresh human blood lymphocytes may be of importance for the development of infection in higher organisms.

  17. [Species-specific detection of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis by the polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Limanskiĭ, A; Minukhin, V; Limanskaia, O; Pavlenko, N; Mishina, M; Tsygenenko, A

    2005-01-01

    Sets of primers for the species-specific detection of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were developed. As targets for these primers beta-lactamase and 16S rRNA gene fragments were chosen on the basis of the multiple leveling of the sequences of the DNA of all known P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates. For differential detection oligonucleotides were selected in such a way that primers, specific for P. vulgaris, contained the non-paired nucleotide for P. mirabilis isolate at the 3'-end, and all other nucleotides were complementary to the beta-lactamase gene fragment. Primers, specific for gene 16S rRNA of P. mirabilis, contained the non-paired nucleotide for P. vulgaris isolates at the 3'-end. Standard PCR was carried out for 6 P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains. The use of PCR species-specific primers to P. vulgaris DNA made it possible to amplify the DNA fragment of the expected length only for P. vulgaris isolates, while the result of PCR for P. mirabilis was negative. PCR with primers specific to P. mirabilis permitted the detection of amplicon sized 101 nucleotides pairs only for P. mirabilis strains. These primers were optimized so as to use them in the specific differentiation of closely related P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris species by multiplex PCR. Genus-specific primers permitted the detection of bacterial gyrB gene of the genus Proteus were developed also.

  18. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria.

  19. Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-11-01

    Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single-species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections.

  20. An inducible tellurite-resistance operon in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Toptchieva, Anna; Sisson, Gary; Bryden, Louis J; Taylor, Diane E; Hoffman, Paul S

    2003-05-01

    Tellurite resistance (Te(r)) is widespread in nature and it is shown here that the natural resistance of Proteus mirabilis to tellurite is due to a chromosomally located orthologue of plasmid-borne ter genes found in enteric bacteria. The P. mirabilis ter locus (terZABCDE) was identified in a screen of Tn5lacZ-generated mutants of which one contained an insertion in terC. The P. mirabilis terC mutant displayed increased susceptibility to tellurite (Te(s)) and complementation with terC carried on a multicopy plasmid restored high-level Te(r). Primer extension analysis revealed a single transcriptional start site upstream of terZ, but only with RNA harvested from bacteria grown in the presence of tellurite. Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses confirmed that the ter operon was inducible by tellurite and to a lesser extent by oxidative stress inducers such as hydrogen peroxide and methyl viologen (paraquat). Direct and inverted repeat sequences were identified in the ter promoter region as well as motifs upstream of the -35 hexamer that resembled OxyR-binding sequences. Finally, the 390 bp intergenic promoter region located between orf3 and terZ showed no DNA sequence identity with any other published ter sequences, whereas terZABCDE genes exhibited 73-85 % DNA sequence identity. The ter operon was present in all clinical isolates of P. mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris tested and is inferred for Morganella and Providencia spp. based on screening for high level Te(r) and preliminary PCR analysis. Thus, a chromosomally located inducible tellurite resistance operon appears to be a common feature of the genus Proteus.

  1. Separate O-grouping schemes for serotyping clinical isolates of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Penner, J L; Hennessy, J N

    1980-09-01

    Antisera were prepared against type strains of the original scheme of B. Perch (Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 25:703-714, 1948) and against newly defined types to produce separate schemes for O-grouping Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. In assessing the schemes for their effectiveness it was found that 82% of 208 P. vulgaris isolates and 88% of 194 P. mirabilis isolates from two hospitals were typable. Only 3.4% of the P. vulgaris isolates agglutinated in P. mirabilis antisera, and 1.5% of the P. mirabilis agglutinated in P. vulgaris antisera, indicating that separation of the schemes would be more advantageous in routine typing. P. mirabilis of groups O3, O6, O10, O29, and O30 were most frequently isolated. Of the P. vulgaris isolates, 25% belonged to newly defined O-groups, and one of these was the largest with 14% of all isolates of this species. The application of serotyping using separate schemes for each species was advocated in epidemiological studies.

  2. Study of a melanic pigment of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Stefani, S; Corsaro, C; Campanile, F; Gribaldo, S; Sichel, G

    1996-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the pigment produced by Proteus mirabilis from the L-forms of various aromatic amino acids under aerobic conditions is melanic in nature. It is a black-brown pigment which behaves like a melanin in many respects, namely solubility features, bleaching by oxidizing agents and positive response to the Fontana-Masson assay. In the present study, for the first time, it was shown by electron spin resonance analysis that a bacterial melanin is able to act as a free radical trap, as was previously demonstrated for other melanins. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed a specific organized structure of the pigment as rounded aggregates of spherical bodies. DNA hybridization data did not reveal, in the P. mirabilis genome, any nucleotide sequence related to Shewanella colwelliana mel A, one of the two melanogenesis systems already defined at the molecular level in bacteria. Results obtained from experiments on pigment production inhibition suggest a possible role of tyrosinase in P. mirabilis melanogenesis. In conclusion, from the bulk of our results, it appears that the pigment produced by P. mirabilis is melanic in nature.

  3. O antigens of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from patients with bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P

    1980-10-01

    During the period of 1971 to 1979, 172 Proteus mirabilis and 17 Proteus vulgaris strains were collected from blood cultures. Of these strains, 144 could be grouped into 25 O antigens. The most common antigens were O3, O23, O10, O30, and O24, which represented 46.1% of all strains. The O antigen distribution of strains isolated from blood cultures did not differ significantly from that of fecal and urinary strains. No particular O antigen could thus be defined as a virulence factor in bacteremia.

  4. Ureolytic Biomineralization Reduces Proteus mirabilis Biofilm Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobao; Lu, Nanxi; Brady, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    Ureolytic biomineralization induced by urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis, is responsible for the formation of urinary tract calculi and the encrustation of indwelling urinary catheters. Such microbial biofilms are challenging to eradicate and contribute to the persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, but the mechanisms responsible for this recalcitrance remain obscure. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of wild-type (ure+) and urease-negative (ure−) P. mirabilis biofilms to killing by ciprofloxacin. Ure+ biofilms produced fine biomineral precipitates that were homogeneously distributed within the biofilm biomass in artificial urine, while ure− biofilms did not produce biomineral deposits under identical growth conditions. Following exposure to ciprofloxacin, ure+ biofilms showed greater survival (less killing) than ure− biofilms, indicating that biomineralization protected biofilm-resident cells against the antimicrobial. To evaluate the mechanism responsible for this recalcitrance, we observed and quantified the transport of Cy5-conjugated ciprofloxacin into the biofilm by video confocal microscopy. These observations revealed that the reduced susceptibility of ure+ biofilms resulted from hindered delivery of ciprofloxacin into biomineralized regions of the biofilm. Further, biomineralization enhanced retention of viable cells on the surface following antimicrobial exposure. These findings together show that ureolytic biomineralization induced by P. mirabilis metabolism strongly regulates antimicrobial susceptibility by reducing internal solute transport and increasing biofilm stability. PMID:26953206

  5. New aspects of RpoE in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Tsai, Yi-Lin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen causing recurrent or persistent urinary tract infections (UTIs). The underlying mechanisms for P. mirabilis to establish UTIs are not fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that loss of the sigma factor E (RpoE), mediating extracytoplasmic stress responses, decreased fimbria expression, survival in macrophages, cell invasion, and colonization in mice but increased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression of urothelial cells and swarming motility. This is the first study to demonstrate that RpoE modulated expression of MR/P fimbriae by regulating mrpI, a gene encoding a recombinase controlling the orientation of MR/P fimbria promoter. By real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we found that the IL-8 mRNA amount of urothelial cells was induced significantly by lipopolysaccharides extracted from rpoE mutant but not from the wild type. These RpoE-associated virulence factors should be coordinately expressed to enhance the fitness of P. mirabilis in the host, including the avoidance of immune attacks. Accordingly, rpoE mutant-infected mice displayed more immune cell infiltration in bladders and kidneys during early stages of infection, and the rpoE mutant had a dramatically impaired ability of colonization. Moreover, it is noteworthy that urea (the major component in urine) and polymyxin B (a cationic antimicrobial peptide) can induce expression of rpoE by the reporter assay, suggesting that RpoE might be activated in the urinary tract. Altogether, our results indicate that RpoE is important in sensing environmental cues of the urinary tract and subsequently triggering the expression of virulence factors, which are associated with the fitness of P. mirabilis, to build up a UTI.

  6. [Study on whorl swarming growth phenomenon of Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    He, Xianyuan; Liao, Sixiang; Liu, Junkang; Li, Kun; Liu, Yanxia; Yu, Lurong

    2015-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to explore the origins of Proteus mirabilis (PM) whorl swarming growth phenomenon. The whorl swarming growth phenomenon of PM was observed by changed bacterial culture inoculation time, humidity, vaccination practices, cultured flat placement, magnetic field, pH and other factors. Bacterial ring spiral direction of rotation is counterclockwise and the volatile growth process of PM was whorl swarming growth phenomenon. Spiro fluctuation phenomenon was of high frequency in the sealing tanks by cultured anytime inoculation, wherever inoculation technique applied or not, the presence or absence of the magnetic field, and wherever the dish position was. The experimental results showed that the whorl swarming growth phenomenon of PM requires specific pH environment, in which the facts may be relative to its genetic characteristics and the Earths rotation.

  7. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  8. The Pathogenic Potential of Proteus mirabilis Is Enhanced by Other Uropathogens during Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Johnson, Alexandra O; DeOrnellas, Valerie; Eaton, Kathryn A; Yep, Alejandra; Mody, Lona; Wu, Weisheng; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-02-01

    Urinary catheter use is prevalent in health care settings, and polymicrobial colonization by urease-positive organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii, commonly occurs with long-term catheterization. We previously demonstrated that coinfection with P. mirabilis and P. stuartii increased overall urease activity in vitro and disease severity in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). In this study, we expanded these findings to a murine model of catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI), delineated the contribution of enhanced urease activity to coinfection pathogenesis, and screened for enhanced urease activity with other common CAUTI pathogens. In the UTI model, mice coinfected with the two species exhibited higher urine pH values, urolithiasis, bacteremia, and more pronounced tissue damage and inflammation compared to the findings for mice infected with a single species, despite having a similar bacterial burden within the urinary tract. The presence of P. stuartii, regardless of urease production by this organism, was sufficient to enhance P. mirabilis urease activity and increase disease severity, and enhanced urease activity was the predominant factor driving tissue damage and the dissemination of both organisms to the bloodstream during coinfection. These findings were largely recapitulated in the CAUTI model. Other uropathogens also enhanced P. mirabilis urease activity in vitro, including recent clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa We therefore conclude that the underlying mechanism of enhanced urease activity may represent a widespread target for limiting the detrimental consequences of polymicrobial catheter colonization, particularly by P. mirabilis and other urease-positive bacteria.

  9. Immunochemical studies on the O-antigens of Proteus mirabilis O23 and Proteus vulgaris O23.

    PubMed

    Rózalski, Antoni; Perepelov, Andrei V; Bartodziejska, Beata; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Babicka, Dorota; Kaca, Wiesław; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2003-01-01

    Analysis by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the O-specific polysaccharides of Proteus mirabilis PrK 42/57 and P. vulgaris PrK 43/57 are structurally similar to that of P. vulgaris PrK 44/57 and different from the polysaccharide of P. mirabilis PrK 41/57 studied earlier. The lipopolysaccharides of these strains were tested using enzyme immunosorbent assay, passive hemolysis and Western blot with O-antisera against P. mirabilis 42/57 and P. vulgaris 43/57 and 44/57, as well as with cross-absorbed O-antisera. The chemical and serological data revealed the basis for combining the four strains into Proteus serogroup O23 and division of this serogroup to three subgroups, one for P. vulgaris 43/57 and 44/57 and two others for P. mirabilis 41/57 and 42/57.

  10. Outer membrane protein profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis for differentiation of clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kappos, T; John, M A; Hussain, Z; Valvano, M A

    1992-10-01

    Outer membrane protein (MP) profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) analysis were used as tools for differentiating clinical isolates of Proteus spp. Fourteen distinct MP profiles were established by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 54 clinical isolates of Proteus spp. (44 strains identified as P. mirabilis and 10 strains identified as P. vulgaris). Forty-one isolates of P. mirabilis and eight isolates of P. vulgaris were grouped within six and three MP profiles, respectively. The remaining P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates had unique profiles. MEE analysis was used to further discriminate among the strains belonging to the same MP groups. Thirty-five distinct electrophoretic types (ETs) were identified among P. mirabilis isolates. The isolates of P. mirabilis from the four most common MP groups were subgrouped into 30 ETs. All of the P. vulgaris strains had unique ETs. The results suggest that upon biochemical classification of Proteus isolates as P. mirabilis or P. vulgaris, further differentiation among strains of the same species can be obtained by the initial determination of MP profiles followed by MEE analysis of strains with identical MPs.

  11. Effects of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis rods.

    PubMed

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2013-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis rods are one of the most commonly isolated species of the Proteus genus from human infections, mainly those from the urinary tract and wounds. They are often related to biofilm structure formation. The bacterial cells of the biofilm are less susceptible to routinely used antimicrobials, making the treatment more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the influence of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation on the polyvinyl chloride surface by 42 P. mirabilis strains isolated from urine, purulence, wound swab and bedsore samples. It has been shown that ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin at concentrations equal to 1/4, 1/2 and 1 times their MIC values for particular Proteus spp. strains decrease their ability to form biofilms. Moreover, ciprofloxacin at concentrations equal to 1/4, 1/2 and 1 times their MIC values for particular P. mirabilis strains reduces biofilm formation more efficiently than ceftazidime at the corresponding concentration values.

  12. The XerC recombinase of Proteus mirabilis: characterization and interaction with other tyrosine recombinases.

    PubMed

    Villion, Manuela; Szatmari, George

    2003-09-12

    XerC and XerD are two site-specific recombinases, which act on different sites to maintain replicons in a monomeric state. This system, which was first discovered and studied in Escherichia coli, is present in several species including Proteus mirabilis, where the XerD recombinase was previously characterized by our laboratory. In this paper, we report the presence of the xerC gene in P. mirabilis. Using in vitro reactions, we show that the two P. mirabilis recombinases display binding and cleavage activity on the E. coli dif site and the ColE1 cer site, together or in collaboration with E. coli recombinases. In vivo, P. mirabilis XerC and XerD are able to resolve and monomerize a plasmid containing two cer sites, increasing its stability. However, P. mirabilis XerC, in combination with E. coli XerD, is unable to perform these functions.

  13. Genome Sequence of a Proteus mirabilis Strain Isolated from the Salivary Glands of Larval Lucilia sericata

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Shuhua; Crippen, Tawni L.; Visi, David K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Allen, Michael S.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Sze, Sing-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    We announce a draft genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain derived from Lucilia sericata salivary glands. This strain is demonstrated to attract and induce oviposition by L. sericata, a common blow fly important to medicine, agriculture, and forensics. The genome sequence will help dissect interkingdom communication between the species. PMID:27469950

  14. Genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from the salivary glands of larval Lucilia sericata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We announced a draft genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain derived from Lucilia sericata salivary glands. This strain is demonstrated to attract and induce oviposition by L. sericata, a common blow fly important to medicine, agriculture, and forensics. The genome will help to dissect inter...

  15. A new bacteriophage typing scheme for Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains. 3. Analysis of lytic properties.

    PubMed

    Sekaninová, G; Rychlík, I; Kolárová, M; Pillich, J; Seménka, J; Zajícová, V

    1998-01-01

    The lytic properties of 21 bacteriophages constituting a new typing set for Proteus were examined in 507 Proteus mirabilis and 29 P. vulgaris strains isolated from patients and healthy subjects. Comparison of their morphological, serological, genetic and lytic properties showed that, in the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families, some phages were so closely related that the presence of all of them in the set was redundant. Analysis of the lytic properties revealed that some of the bacteriophages were not active enough to facilitate the differentiation of Proteus strains. The size of the final typing set was reduced from 21 to 12 phages but it was suggested that, in order to improve the differentiation capacity of the set, new phages should be included.

  16. Transduction of a Proteus vulgaris strain by a Proteus mirabilis bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, J N

    1975-08-01

    Only Proteus vulgaris strain PV127 out of many P. vulgaris, P. morganii and Providence strains was transduced to kanamycin resistance by high-frequency transducing variants, 5006MHFTk and 5006MHFTak, of phage 5006M, a general transducing phage for P. mirabilis strain PM5006. The phages adsorbed poorly to strain PV127 and did not form plaques. The transduction frequency of PV127 by these phages was 5 x 10(-8)/p.f.u. adsorbed. Phage 5006M increased the transduction frequencies. Abortive transductants were not detected. Transductants segregated kanamycin-sensitive clones at high frequency and this, together with data from the inactivation of transducing activity of lysates by ultraviolet irradiation, indicated that transduction was by lysogenization. The general transducing property of the phages was not expressed in transductions to auxotrophs of PV127. Transductants (type I) resulting from low multiplicities of phage input adsorbed phage to the same extent as PV127. This suggested a defect in the transducing particles (or host) because single phage 5006M infection converted strain PM5006 to non-adsorption of homologous phage. Type I transductants did not liberate phage, suggesting a defective phage maturation function. Transductants (type II) which arose from higher multiplicities of phage input did not adsorb phage, indicating possible heterogeneity among transducing particles. Phage derived from type II transductants adsorbed poorly to PV127 and transduced it to kanamycin resistance at frequencies similar to those of phages 5006MHFTk and 5006MHFTak, ruling out host-controlled modification as a cause of the low transduction frequencies. This phage transduced PM5006 to antibiotic resistance at high frequencies but generalized transduction was again not detected. It was suggested that general transduction could be performed by particles which, due to a different composition and/or mode of chromosomal integration, made material they carried susceptible to host

  17. Involvement of polyphosphate kinase in virulence and stress tolerance of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Jiang, Qiao; Pan, Jia-Yun; Deng, Cong; Yu, Jing-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Sheng-He; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), a gram-negative enteric bacterium, frequently causes urinary tract infections. Many virulence factors of uropathogenic P. mirabilis have been identified, including urease, flagella, hemolysin and fimbriae. However, the functions of polyphosphate kinase (PPK), which are related to the pathogenicity of many bacteria, remain entirely unknown in P. mirabilis. In this study, a ppk gene encoding the PPK insertional mutant in P. mirabilis strain HI4320 was constructed, and its biological functions were examined. The results of survival studies demonstrated that the ppk mutant was deficient in resistance to oxidative, hyperosmotic and heat stress. The swarming and biofilm formation abilities of P. mirabilis were also attenuated after the ppk interruption. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that ppk was required for P. mirabilis to invade the bladder. The negative phenotypes of the ppk mutant could be restored by ppk gene complementation. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteomes of the wild-type strain and the ppk mutant. Compared with the wild-type strain, seven proteins including TonB-dependent receptor, universal stress protein G, major mannose-resistant/Proteus-like fimbrial protein (MR/P fimbriae), heat shock protein, flagellar capping protein, putative membrane protein and multidrug efflux protein were down-regulated, and four proteins including exported peptidase, repressor protein for FtsI, FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and phosphotransferase were up-regulated in the ppk mutant. As a whole, these results indicate that PPK is an important regulator and plays a crucial role in stress tolerance and virulence in uropathogenic P. mirabilis.

  18. Loss of FliL Alters Proteus mirabilis Surface Sensing and Temperature-Dependent Swarming

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic motile bacterium well known for its flagellum-dependent swarming motility over surfaces. In liquid, P. mirabilis cells are 1.5- to 2.0-μm swimmer cells with 4 to 6 flagella. When P. mirabilis encounters a solid surface, where flagellar rotation is limited, swimmer cells differentiate into elongated (10- to 80-μm), highly flagellated swarmer cells. In order for P. mirabilis to swarm, it first needs to detect a surface. The ubiquitous but functionally enigmatic flagellar basal body protein FliL is involved in P. mirabilis surface sensing. Previous studies have suggested that FliL is essential for swarming through its involvement in viscosity-dependent monitoring of flagellar rotation. In this study, we constructed and characterized ΔfliL mutants of P. mirabilis and Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly and unlike other fliL mutants, both P. mirabilis and E. coli ΔfliL cells swarm (Swr+). Further analysis revealed that P. mirabilis ΔfliL cells also exhibit an alteration in their ability to sense a surface: e.g., ΔfliL P. mirabilis cells swarm precociously over surfaces with low viscosity that normally impede wild-type swarming. Precocious swarming is due to an increase in the number of elongated swarmer cells in the population. Loss of fliL also results in an inhibition of swarming at <30°C. E. coli ΔfliL cells also exhibit temperature-sensitive swarming. These results suggest an involvement of FliL in the energetics and function of the flagellar motor. PMID:25331431

  19. Molecular characteristics of Salmonella genomic island 1 in Proteus mirabilis isolates from poultry farms in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Ning; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Qing-Qing; Cheng, Han; Zhang, Dong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Six out of the 64 studied Proteus mirabilis isolates from 11 poultry farms in China contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). PCR mapping showed that the complete nucleotide sequences of SGI1s ranged from 33.2 to 42.5 kb. Three novel variants, SGI1-W, SGI1-X, and SGI1-Y, have been characterized. Resistance genes lnuF, dfrA25, and qnrB2 were identified in SGI1 for the first time.

  20. Vaccination with proteus toxic agglutinin, a hemolysin-independent cytotoxin in vivo, protects against Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Alamuri, Praveen; Eaton, Kathryn A; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Smith, Sara N; Mobley, Harry L T

    2009-02-01

    Complicated urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are associated with severe pathology in the bladder and kidney. To investigate the roles of two established cytotoxins, the HpmA hemolysin, a secreted cytotoxin, and proteus toxic agglutinin (Pta), a surface-associated cytotoxin, mutant analysis was used in conjunction with a mouse model of ascending UTI. Inactivation of pta, but not inactivation of hpmA, resulted in significant decreases in the bacterial loads of the mutant in kidneys (P < 0.01) and spleens (P < 0.05) compared to the bacterial loads of the wild type; the 50% infective dose (ID(50)) of an isogenic pta mutant or hpmA pta double mutant was 100-fold higher (5 x 10(8) CFU) than the ID(50) of parent strain HI4320 (5 x 10(6) CFU). Colonization by the parent strain caused severe cystitis and interstitial nephritis as determined by histopathological examination. Mice infected with the same bacterial load of the hpmA pta double mutant showed significantly reduced pathology (P < 0.01), suggesting that the additive effect of these two cytotoxins is critical during Proteus infection. Since Pta is surface associated and important for the persistence of P. mirabilis in the host, it was selected as a vaccine candidate. Mice intranasally vaccinated with a site-directed (indicated by an asterisk) (S366A) mutant purified intact toxin (Pta*) or the passenger domain Pta-alpha*, each independently conjugated with cholera toxin (CT), had significantly lower bacterial counts in their kidneys ( P = 0.001) and spleens (P = 0.002) than mice that received CT alone. The serum immunoglobulin G levels correlated with protection (P = 0.03). This is the first report describing the in vivo cytotoxicity and antigenicity of an autotransporter in P. mirabilis and its use in vaccine development.

  1. Development of a Phage Cocktail to Control Proteus mirabilis Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luís D. R.; Veiga, Patrícia; Cerca, Nuno; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Almeida, Carina; Azeredo, Joana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterium that causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) due to its ability to colonize and form crystalline biofilms on the catheters surface. CAUTIs are very difficult to treat, since biofilm structures are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Phages have been used widely to control a diversity of bacterial species, however, a limited number of phages for P. mirabilis have been isolated and studied. Here we report the isolation of two novel virulent phages, the podovirus vB_PmiP_5460 and the myovirus vB_PmiM_5461, which are able to target, respectively, 16 of the 26 and all the Proteus strains tested in this study. Both phages have been characterized thoroughly and sequencing data revealed no traces of genes associated with lysogeny. To further evaluate the phages’ ability to prevent catheter’s colonization by Proteus, the phages adherence to silicone surfaces was assessed. Further tests in phage-coated catheters using a dynamic biofilm model simulating CAUTIs, have shown a significant reduction of P. mirabilis biofilm formation up to 168 h of catheterization. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the two isolated phages for the prevention of surface colonization by this bacterium. PMID:27446059

  2. Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P,0.05). The H(2)S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P,0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P.0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N510) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N55) and respiratory specimens of humans (N55) (P.0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts.

  3. Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The H2S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P>0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N = 10) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N = 5) and respiratory specimens of humans (N = 5) (P>0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts. PMID:23182140

  4. Rapidly spreading CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Akiko; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Saika, Takeshi; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, increased isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis has been reported in Japan. We undertook an investigation to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing P. mirabilis isolated in Japan and to characterise the genotype. Seventy-four P. mirabilis isolates recovered from specimens at 54 hospitals in Japan between March and October 2006 were included in the study. Of the 74 P. mirabilis isolates examined, 28 (37.8%) were ESBL-producers. The bla(CTX-M-2) gene was found in 27 isolates, whilst 1 isolate possessed bla(CTX-M-3). Amongst the 28 ESBL-producers, 25 (89.3%) were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whilst 11 (23.9%) of 46 ESBL-non-producing isolates were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the 28 ESBL-producing isolates from 19 hospitals revealed 17 clusters. The same PFGE type was observed in two or more hospitals especially in the greater Tokyo area, suggesting possible clonal spread and the need for monitoring to determine whether emergence of a dominant clone occurs. Our results show that in Japan there is a high prevalence of CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis. Moreover, these isolates are characterised by reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.

  5. Allicin from garlic inhibits the biofilm formation and urease activity of Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Omid, Mahsa; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Amani, Mojtaba; Shokri Al-Hashem, Seyyedeh Khadijeh; Amir Mozafari, Nour; Peeri Doghaheh, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis. This study determined the inhibitory effects of allicin on urease, hemolysin and biofilm of P. mirabilis ATCC 12453 and its antimicrobial activity against 20 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis. Allicin did not inhibit hemolysin, whereas it did inhibit relative urease activity in both pre-lysed (half-maximum inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 4.15 μg) and intact cells (IC50 = 21 μg) in a concentration-dependent manner. Allicin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (2-32 μg mL(-1)) showed no significant effects on the growth of the bacteria (P > 0.05), but it reduced biofilm development in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.001). A higher concentration of allicin was needed to inhibit the established biofilms. Using the microdilution technique, the MIC90 and MBC90 values of allicin against P. mirabilis isolates were determined to be 128 and 512 μg mL(-1), respectively. The results suggest that allicin could have clinical applications in controlling P. mirabilis infections.

  6. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  7. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant. PMID:25763050

  8. Flagellum density regulates Proteus mirabilis swarmer cell motility in viscous environments.

    PubMed

    Tuson, Hannah H; Copeland, Matthew F; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes that occur during swarming--increases in cell length and flagellum density--and discovered that an increase in the surface density of flagella enabled cells to translate rapidly through fluids of increasing viscosity; in contrast, cell length had a small effect on motility. We found that swarm cells had a surface density of flagella that was ∼5 times larger than that of vegetative cells and were motile in fluids with a viscosity that inhibits vegetative cell motility. To test the relationship between flagellum density and velocity, we overexpressed FlhD(4)C(2), the master regulator of the flagellar operon, in vegetative cells of P. mirabilis and found that increased flagellum density produced an increase in cell velocity. Our results establish a relationship between P. mirabilis flagellum density and cell motility in viscous environments that may be relevant to its adaptation during the infection of mammalian urinary tracts and movement in contact with indwelling catheters.

  9. Environmental scanning electron microscopy analysis of Proteus mirabilis biofilms grown on chitin and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Duque, Zoilabet; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, María A; Alciaturi, Carlos

    Proteus mirabilis is a human pathogen able to form biofilms on the surface of urinary catheters. Little is known about P. mirabilis biofilms on natural or industrial surfaces and the potential consequences for these settings. The main aim of this work was to assess and compare the adhesion and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains from different origins on chitin and stainless steel surfaces within 4 to 96 h. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the biofilms of a clinical strain grown on chitin at 4 h showed greater adhesion, aggregation, thickness, and extracellular matrix production than those grown on stainless steel, whereas biofilms of an environmental strain had less aggregation on both surfaces. Biofilms of both P. mirabilis strains developed different structures on chitin, such as pillars, mushrooms, channels, and crystalline-like precipitates between 24 and 96 h, in contrast with flat-layer biofilms produced on stainless steel. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the frequency of pillars and channels. Images of transmission electron microscopy demonstrated abundant fimbriae in 100 % of cells from both strains, which could be related to surface adherence and biofilm formation. This represents the first study of P. mirabilis showing adhesion, biofilm formation, and development of different structures on surfaces found outside the human host.

  10. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  11. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p < 0.001, and p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, p = 0.002, and p < 0.001, correspondingly. Also, elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against the UreF Proteus peptide-which are non-cross-reactive with human tissue antigens-were observed and their significant difference compared to healthy controls (p = 0.007, p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Anti-peptide antibodies in RA patients showed a significant correlation with rheumatoid factors (Rf), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), especially when patients were divided into subgroups according to the receiving treatment. Greek RA patients present elevated levels of antibodies against P. mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  12. Lytic bacteriophage PM16 specific for Proteus mirabilis: a novel member of the genus Phikmvvirus.

    PubMed

    Morozova, V; Kozlova, Yu; Shedko, E; Kurilshikov, A; Babkin, I; Tupikin, A; Yunusova, A; Chernonosov, A; Baykov, I; Кondratov, I; Kabilov, M; Ryabchikova, E; Vlassov, V; Tikunova, N

    2016-09-01

    Lytic Proteus phage PM16, isolated from human faeces, is a novel virus that is specific for Proteus mirabilis cells. Bacteriophage PM16 is characterized by high stability, a short latency period, large burst size and the occurrence of low phage resistance. Phage PM16 was classified as a member of the genus Phikmvvirus on the basis of genome organization, gene synteny, and protein sequences similarities. Within the genus Phikmvvirus, phage PM16 is grouped with Vibrio phage VP93, Pantoea phage LIMElight, Acinetobacter phage Petty, Enterobacter phage phiKDA1, and KP34-like bacteriophages. An investigation of the phage-cell interaction demonstrated that phage PM16 attached to the cell surface, not to the bacterial flagella. The study of P. mirabilis mutant cells obtained during the phage-resistant bacterial cell assay that were resistant to phage PM16 re-infection revealed a non-swarming phenotype, changes in membrane characteristics, and the absence of flagella. Presumably, the resistance of non-swarming P. mirabilis cells to phage PM16 re-infection is determined by changes in membrane macromolecular composition and is associated with the absence of flagella and a non-swarming phenotype.

  13. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  14. Anti-biofilm effects of honey against wound pathogens Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Juraj; Bohova, Jana; Horniackova, Miroslava; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm growth and its persistence within wounds have recently been suggested as contributing factors to impaired healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of several honey samples of different botanical origin, including manuka honey against Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae wound isolates. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay. All honeys at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 10% (w/v) significantly reduced the biofilm development of both isolates. Similarly, at a concentration of 50% (w/v), each of the honeys caused significant partial detachment of Pr. mirabilis biofilm after 24 h. On the other hand, no honey was able to significantly detach Ent. cloacae biofilm. In addition, treatment of Ent. cloacae and Pr. mirabilis biofilms with all honeys resulted in a significant decrease in colony-forming units per well values in a range of 0.35-1.16 and 1.2-7.5 log units, respectively. Of the tested honeys, manuka honey possessed the most potent anti-biofilm properties. Furthermore, methylglyoxal, an antibacterial compound of manuka honey, was shown to be responsible for killing biofilm-embedded wound bacteria. These findings suggest that manuka honey could be used as a potential therapy for the treatment of wounds containing Pr. mirabilis or Ent. cloacae.

  15. Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Activity of Proteus mirabilis Clinically Isolated Strains.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Alessandra; Coretti, Lorena; Savio, Vittoria; Buommino, Elisabetta; Lembo, Francesca; Donnarumma, Giovanna

    2017-02-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) are the principal hospital-acquired infections. Proteus mirabilis is characterized by several virulence factors able to promote adhesion and biofilm formation and ameliorate the colonization of urinary tract and the formation of crystalline biofilms on the abiotic surface of the urinary catheters. Since, to date, the role of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of different types of urinary tract infections is not well established, in this study we sought to characterize two different clinically isolated strains of P. mirabilis (PM1 and PM2) with distinctive phenotypes and analyzed various virulence factors possibly implicated in the ability to induce UTIs and CAUTIs. In particular, we analyzed motility, biofilm formation both on abiotic and biotic surfaces of PM1 and PM2 and paralleled these parameters with the ability to induce an inflammatory response in an epithelial cell model. Results showed that PM1 displayed major motility and a capacity to form biofilm and was associated with an anti-inflammatory response of host cells. Conversely, PM2 exhibited lack motility and a had slower organization in biofilm but promoted an increase of proinflammatory cytokine expression in infected epithelial cells. Our study provides data useful to start uncovering the pathologic basis of P. mirabilis-associated urinary infections. The evidence of different virulence factors expressed by PM1 and PM2 highlights the possibility to use precise and personalized therapies targeting specific virulence pathways.

  16. Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Activity of Proteus mirabilis Clinically Isolated Strains

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Alessandra; Coretti, Lorena; Savio, Vittoria; Buommino, Elisabetta; Lembo, Francesca; Donnarumma, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) are the principal hospital-acquired infections. Proteus mirabilis is characterized by several virulence factors able to promote adhesion and biofilm formation and ameliorate the colonization of urinary tract and the formation of crystalline biofilms on the abiotic surface of the urinary catheters. Since, to date, the role of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of different types of urinary tract infections is not well established, in this study we sought to characterize two different clinically isolated strains of P. mirabilis (PM1 and PM2) with distinctive phenotypes and analyzed various virulence factors possibly implicated in the ability to induce UTIs and CAUTIs. In particular, we analyzed motility, biofilm formation both on abiotic and biotic surfaces of PM1 and PM2 and paralleled these parameters with the ability to induce an inflammatory response in an epithelial cell model. Results showed that PM1 displayed major motility and a capacity to form biofilm and was associated with an anti-inflammatory response of host cells. Conversely, PM2 exhibited lack motility and a had slower organization in biofilm but promoted an increase of proinflammatory cytokine expression in infected epithelial cells. Our study provides data useful to start uncovering the pathologic basis of P. mirabilis-associated urinary infections. The evidence of different virulence factors expressed by PM1 and PM2 highlights the possibility to use precise and personalized therapies targeting specific virulence pathways. PMID:28212280

  17. Proteobactin and a yersiniabactin-related siderophore mediate iron acquisition in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Himpsl, Stephanie D; Pearson, Melanie M; Arewång, Carl J; Nusca, Tyler D; Sherman, David H; Mobley, Harry L T

    2010-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis causes complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). While the urinary tract is an iron-limiting environment, iron acquisition remains poorly characterized for this uropathogen. Microarray analysis of P. mirabilis HI4320 cultured under iron limitation identified 45 significantly upregulated genes (P ≤ 0.05) that represent 21 putative iron-regulated systems. Two gene clusters, PMI0229-0239 and PMI2596-2605, encode putative siderophore systems. PMI0229-0239 encodes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-independent siderophore system for producing a novel siderophore, proteobactin. PMI2596-2605 are contained within the high-pathogenicity island, originally described in Yersinia pestis, and encodes proteins with apparent homology and organization to those involved in yersiniabactin production and uptake. Cross-feeding and biochemical analysis shows that P. mirabilis is unable to utilize or produce yersiniabactin, suggesting that this yersiniabactin-related locus is functionally distinct. Only disruption of both systems resulted in an in vitro iron-chelating defect; demonstrating production and iron-chelating activity for both siderophores. These findings clearly show that proteobactin and the yersiniabactin-related siderophore function as iron acquisition systems. Despite the activity of both siderophores, only mutants lacking the yersiniabactin-related siderophore have reduced fitness in vivo. The fitness requirement for the yersiniabactin-related siderophore during UTI shows, for the first time, the importance of siderophore production in vivo for P. mirabilis.

  18. Proteobactin and a yersiniabactin-related siderophore mediate iron acquisition in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Pearson, Melanie M.; Arewång, Carl J.; Nusca, Tyler D.; Sherman, David H.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2010-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis causes complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). While the urinary tract is an iron-limiting environment, iron acquisition remains poorly characterized for this uropathogen. Microarray analysis of P. mirabilis HI4320 cultured under iron limitation identified 45 significantly up-regulated genes (P ≤ 0.05) that represent 21 putative iron-regulated systems. Two gene clusters, PMI0229-0239 and PMI2596–2605, encode putative siderophore systems. PMI0229-0239 encodes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-independent siderophore (NIS) system for producing a novel siderophore, proteobactin. PMI2596-2605 are contained within the high-pathogenicity island, originally described in Yersinia pestis, and encodes proteins with apparent homology and organization to those involved in yersiniabactin production and uptake. Cross-feeding and biochemical analysis shows that P. mirabilis is unable to utilize or produce yersiniabactin, suggesting that this yersiniabactin-related locus is functionally distinct. Only disruption of both systems resulted in an in vitro iron-chelating defect; demonstrating production and iron-chelating activity for both siderophores. These findings clearly show that proteobactin and the yersiniabactin-related siderophore function as iron acquisition systems. Despite the activity of both siderophores, only mutants lacking the yersiniabactin-related siderophore reduce fitness in vivo. The fitness requirement for the yersiniabactin-related siderophore during UTI shows, for the first time, the importance of siderophore production in vivo for P. mirabilis. PMID:20923418

  19. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Proteus mirabilis isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale monitoring of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents was performed using 103 Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from dogs in Japan. Resistant strains were analysed to identify their resistance mechanisms. Rates of resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime were 20.4, 15.5, 12.6, 10.7, 9.7, 8.7, 5.8, 2.9, 2.9, 1.9 and 1.9%, respectively. No resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam or imipenem was found. Class 1 and 2 integrases were detected in 2.9 and 11.7% of isolates, respectively. Class 1 integrons contained aadB or aadB-catB-like-blaOXA10-aadA1, whereas those of class 2 contained sat-aadA1, dhfr1-sat-aadA1 or none of the anticipated resistance genes. Of five distinct plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes, only qnrD gene was detected in 1.9% of isolates. Quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC from 13 enrofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates were sequenced. Seven strains had double mutations and three had single mutations. Three of nine ampicillin-resistant isolates harboured AmpC-type β-lactamases (i.e. blaCMY-2, blaCMY-4 and blaDHA-1). These results suggest that canine Proteus mirabilis deserves continued surveillance as an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing integrons, PMQRs and QRDR mutations in Proteus mirabilis isolates from companion animals.

  20. New TEM variant (TEM-92) produced by Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii isolates.

    PubMed

    de Champs, C; Monne, C; Bonnet, R; Sougakoff, W; Sirot, D; Chanal, C; Sirot, J

    2001-04-01

    The sequences of the bla(TEM) genes encoding TEM-92 in Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii isolates were determined and were found to be identical. Except for positions 218 (Lys-6) and 512 (Lys-104), the nucleotide sequence of bla(TEM-92) was identical to that of bla(TEM-20), including the sequence of the promoter region harboring a 135-bp deletion combined with a G-162-->T substitution. The deduced amino acid sequence of TEM-92 differed from that of TEM-52 by the presence of a substitution (Gln-6-->Lys) in the peptide signal.

  1. First report of an OXA-48-producing multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain from Gaza, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Al Laham, Nahed; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mediavilla, Jose R; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2015-07-01

    We report the first multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain producing the carbapenemase OXA-48 (Pm-OXA-48) isolated at Al-Shifa hospital in Gaza, Palestine. Draft genome sequencing of Pm-OXA-48 identified 16 antimicrobial resistance genes, encoding resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols, streptothricin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complete sequencing of the bla(OXA-48)-harboring plasmid revealed that it is a 72 kb long IncL/M plasmid, harboring carbapenemase gene bla(OXA-48), extended spectrum β-lactamase gene bla(CTX-M-14), and aminoglycoside resistance genes strA, strB, and aph(3')-VIb.

  2. Computational study concerning the effect of some pesticides on the Proteus Mirabilis catalase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isvoran, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of the effects of the herbicides nicosulfuron and chlorsulfuron and the fungicides difenoconazole and drazoxlone upon catalase produced by soil microorganism Proteus mirabilis is performed using the molecular docking technique. The interactions of pesticides with the enzymes are predicted using SwissDock and PatchDock docking tools. There are correlations for predicted binding energy values for enzyme-pesticide complexes obtained using the two docking tools, all the considered pesticides revealing favorable binding to the enzyme, but only the herbicides bind to the catalytic site. These results suggest the inhibitory potential of chlorsulfuron and nicosulfuron on the catalase activity in soil.

  3. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Norsworthy, Allison N.; Sun, Tung-Tien

    2016-01-01

    The catheter-associated uropathogen Proteus mirabilis frequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found that P. mirabilis rapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistant Proteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation by P. mirabilis stands in direct contrast to uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism of P. mirabilis survival and virulence in the bladder. PMID:27044107

  4. Proteus mirabilis uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA) fimbria plays a role in the colonization of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Rafael; Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Maskell, Duncan J; Zunino, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen, capable of causing severe UTIs, with serious kidney damage that may even lead to death. Several virulence factors are involved in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. Among these, adherence to the uroepithelium mediated by fimbriae appears to be a significant bacterial attribute related to urovirulence. Proteus mirabilis expresses several types of fimbriae that could be involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, including uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA). In this report, we used an uropathogenic P. mirabilis wild-type strain and an isogenic ucaA mutant unable to express UCA to study the pathogenic role of this fimbria in UTI. Ability of the mutant to adhere to desquamated uroepithelial cells and to infect mice using different experimental UTI models was significantly impaired. These results allow us to conclude that P. mirabilis UCA plays an important role in the colonization of the urinary tract.

  5. Genome Sequences of Two Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Strains Harboring CTX-M-65 Isolated from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngeow, Yun Fong; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that is commonly associated with urinary tract infections. Here, we present draft genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant P. mirabilis strains, isolated from urine samples in Malaysia, that harbored a CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase-encoding gene, as well as a repertoire of other antimicrobial-resistant determinants. PMID:27856593

  6. Native valve Proteus mirabilis endocarditis: successful treatment of a rare entity formulated by in vitro synergy antibiotic testing

    PubMed Central

    Brotzki, Caroline R; Mergenhagen, Kari A; Bulman, Zackery P; Tsuji, Brian T; Berenson, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Infective endocarditis caused by Proteus mirabilis is a rare and poorly reported disease, with no well-defined effective antibiotic regimen. Here, we present a case of P. mirabilis aortic valve endocarditis. We reviewed prior cases and treatment regimens, and devised effective treatment, which was guided by in vitro sensitivity and synergy testing on the pathogen. Our patient survived without complications or the need for a surgical intervention. PMID:27797858

  7. Native valve Proteus mirabilis endocarditis: successful treatment of a rare entity formulated by in vitro synergy antibiotic testing.

    PubMed

    Brotzki, Caroline R; Mergenhagen, Kari A; Bulman, Zackery P; Tsuji, Brian T; Berenson, Charles S

    2016-10-20

    Infective endocarditis caused by Proteus mirabilis is a rare and poorly reported disease, with no well-defined effective antibiotic regimen. Here, we present a case of P. mirabilis aortic valve endocarditis. We reviewed prior cases and treatment regimens, and devised effective treatment, which was guided by in vitro sensitivity and synergy testing on the pathogen. Our patient survived without complications or the need for a surgical intervention.

  8. [Effect of the proteolytic enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis and the lysoamidase of Lysobacter sp. XL1 on Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    Riazanova, L P; Ledova, L A; Tsurikova, N V; Stepnaia, O A; Sinitsyn, A P; Kulaev, I S

    2005-01-01

    Preparations of culture liquid of three Bacullus licheniformis strains (S, 103, and 60.4) and the enzymatic preparation lysoamidase from culture liquid of Lysobacter sp. strain XL1 actively lysed preliminarily autoclaved cells of gram-negative bacteria Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis. Living Proteus cells treated with these enzymatic preparations were lysed during their subsequent autoclaving. Inoculation of enzyme-treated Proteus cells, taken either separately or in combination with one another and polymyxin B, into a rich medium led to cell repair and restoration of viability of culture.

  9. The Ciprofloxacin Impact on Biofilm Formation by Proteus Mirabilis and P. Vulgaris Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecinska-Pirog, Joanna; Skowron, Krzysztof; Bartczak, Wojciech; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Background Proteus spp. bacilli belong to opportunistic human pathogens, which are primarily responsible for urinary tract and wound infections. An important virulence factor is their ability to form biofilms that greatly reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics in the site of infection. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the value of the minimum concentration of ciprofloxacin that eradicates a biofilm of Proteus spp. strains. Materials and Methods A biofilm formation of 20 strains of P. mirabilis and 20 strains of P. vulgaris were evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using 0.1% 2, 3, 5-Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride solution (TTC, AVANTORTM). On the basis of the results of the absorbance of the formazan, a degree of reduction of biofilm and minimum biofilm eradication (MBE) values of MBE50 and MBE90 were determined. Results All tested strains formed a biofilm. A value of 1.0 μg/mL ciprofloxacin is MBE50 for the strains of both tested species. An MBE90 value of ciprofloxacin for isolates of P. vulgaris was 2 μg/mL and for P. mirabilis was 512 μg/mL. Conclusions Minimum biofilm eradication values of ciprofloxacin obtained in the study are close to the values of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). PMID:27303616

  10. Characteristics of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yoko; Hitomi, Shigemi; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Tsugio; Funayama, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    Although Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen, bacteremia caused by the organism, especially strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), has rarely been investigated. We examined 64 cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia identified in the Minami Ibaraki Area, Japan, between 2001 and 2010 and compared the characteristics of cases with ESBL-producing and ESBL-non-producing strains (13 and 51 cases, respectively). All ESBL-producing strains with the gene encoding the CTX-M-2-group were genetically nonidentical. Isolation of ESBL-producing strains was significantly associated with onset in a hospital (p = 0.030), receiving hemodialysis (p = 0.0050), and previous antibiotic use within 1 month (p = 0.036; especially penicillin and/or cephalosporin (p = 0.010) and fluoroquinolone (p = 0.0069)). Isolation was also associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy on the 1st and 4th days (p = 0.011 and 0.032, respectively) but not with mortality on the 30th day. These findings indicate that, for P. mirabilis bacteremia, isolation of ESBL-producing strains causes delay of initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy but may not be associated with mortality.

  11. Putrescine importer PlaP contributes to swarming motility and urothelial cell invasion in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N

    2013-05-31

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437-446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant.

  12. Modified insulator semiconductor electrode with functionalized nanoparticles for Proteus mirabilis bacteria biosensor development.

    PubMed

    Braham, Yosra; Barhoumi, Houcine; Maaref, Abderrazak; Bakhrouf, Amina; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    The development of enzymatic sensors for biological purposes such as biomedicine, pharmacy, food industry, and environmental toxicity requires the purification step of the enzyme. To prevent the loss of the enzyme activity, a new strategy is held in order to immobilize the bacteria. It will constitute the biological sensing element leading to a high operational stability and multiple adaptations to various conditions such as temperature, pH and ionic strength changes. In this work we describe the development of a urea biosensor by immobilizing Proteus mirabilis bacteria onto an insulator-semiconductor electrode on functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), using cationic, Poly (allylamine hydrochloride) then anionic, Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) polyelectrolytes, BSA (serum bovin albumin), and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The response of P. mirabilis to urea addition is evaluated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. Before the immobilization step, the activity of urease produced from the P. mirabilis bacteria was attempted using the ion ammonium selective electrodes (ISEs). Adhesion of the bacteria cells on IS electrodes have been studied using contact angle measurements. After immobilization of the bacteria, on the (Si/SiO2/Si3N4) and (Si/SiO2) substrates, the relationship between the evolution of the flat band potential ∆VFB and the urea concentration is found to be linear for values ranging from 10(-2)M to 10(-5)M.

  13. Novel Insights into the Proteus mirabilis Crystalline Biofilm Using Real-Time Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wilks, Sandra A.; Fader, Mandy J.; Keevil, C. William

    2015-01-01

    The long-term use of indwelling catheters results in a high risk from urinary tract infections (UTI) and blockage. Blockages often occur from crystalline deposits, formed as the pH rises due to the action of urease-producing bacteria; the most commonly found species being Proteus mirabilis. These crystalline biofilms have been found to develop on all catheter materials with P. mirabilis attaching to all surfaces and forming encrustations. Previous studies have mainly relied on electron microscopy to describe this process but there remains a lack of understanding into the stages of biofilm formation. Using an advanced light microscopy technique, episcopic differential interference contrast (EDIC) microscopy combined with epifluorescence (EF), we describe a non-destructive, non-contact, real-time imaging method used to track all stages of biofilm development from initial single cell attachment to complex crystalline biofilm formation. Using a simple six-well plate system, attachment of P. mirabilis (in artificial urine) to sections of silicone and hydrogel latex catheters was tracked over time (up to 24 days). Using EDIC and EF we show how initial attachment occurred in less than 1 h following exposure to P. mirabilis. This was rapidly followed by an accumulation of an additional material (indicated to be carbohydrate based using lectin staining) and the presence of highly elongated, motile cells. After 24 h exposure, a layer developed above this conditioning film and within 4 days the entire surface (of both catheter materials) was covered with diffuse crystalline deposits with defined crystals embedded. Using three-dimensional image reconstruction software, cells of P. mirabilis were seen covering the crystal surfaces. EDIC microscopy could resolve these four components of the complex crystalline biofilm and the close relationship between P. mirabilis and the crystals. This real-time imaging technique permits study of this complex biofilm development with no risk

  14. Structure and serological properties of the O-antigen of two clinical Proteus mirabilis strains classified into a new Proteus O77 serogroup.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Staczek, Paweł; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2008-11-01

    Two Proteus mirabilis strains, 3 B-m and 3 B-k, were isolated from urine and faeces of a hospitalized patient from Lodz, Poland. It was suggested that one strain originated from the other, and the presence of the bacilli in the patient's urinary tract was most probably a consequence of autoinfection. The O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of P. mirabilis 3 B-m and studied by sugar analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including two-dimensional rotating frame Overhause effect spectroscopy (ROESY) and 1H,13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) experiments. The following structure of the linear trisaccharide-repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established:-->2)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-6dTalp2Ac-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->where 6dTal2Ac stands for 2-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-L-talose. It resembles the structure of the O-polysaccharide of Proteus penneri O66, which includes additional lateral residues of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-L-mannose. The lipopolysaccharides from two P. mirabilis strains studied were serologically identical to each other but not to that from any of the existing 76 Proteus O-serogroups. Therefore, the strains were classified into a new O77 serogroup specially created in the genus Proteus. Serological studies using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with intact and adsorbed O-antisera showed that the P. mirabilis O77 antigen is related to Proteus vulgaris O2 and P. penneri O68 antigens, and a putative disaccharide epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity was revealed.

  15. Structural and serological studies of the related O-specific polysaccharides of Proteus vulgaris O21 and Proteus mirabilis O48 having oligosaccharide-phosphate repeating units.

    PubMed

    Bartodziejska, B; Toukach, F V; Vinogradov, E V; Senchenkova, S N; Shashkov, A S; Ziolkowski, A; Czaja, J; Perry, M B; Knirel, Y A; Rozalski, A

    2000-12-01

    The O-specific polysaccharide chains (O-antigens) of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of Proteus mirabilis O48 and Proteus vulgaris O21 were found to have tetrasaccharide and pentasaccharide repeating units, respectively, interlinked by a glycosidic phosphate. Polysaccharides and an oligosaccharide were derived from the LPSs by various degradation procedures and studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H,13C and 1H,31P HMQC experiments. The following related structures of the repeating units of the O-antigens were established (top: Proteus mirabilis O48; bottom: Proteus vulgaris O21) The O-specific polysaccharide of P. vulgaris O21 has the same structure as that of Hafnia allvei 744 and PCM 1194 [Petersson C., Jachymek, W., Klonowska, A., Lugowski, C., Niedziela, T. & Kenne, L. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem., 245, 668-675], except that the GlcN residue carries the N-acetyl rather than the N-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyryl] group. Serological investigations confirmed the close relatedness of the Proteus and Hafnia O-antigens studied.

  16. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity.

  17. The role of Proteus mirabilis cell wall features in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Guzy, Anna; Kałuża, Klaudia; Grosicka, Michalina; Dańczuk, Magdalena; Lechowicz, Łukasz; Gmiter, Dawid; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Kaca, Wiesław

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms formed by Proteus mirabilis strains are a serious medical problem, especially in the case of urinary tract infections. Early stages of biofilm formation, such as reversible and irreversible adhesion, are essential for bacteria to form biofilm and avoid eradication by antibiotic therapy. Adhesion to solid surfaces is a complex process where numerous factors play a role, where hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with solid surface seem to be substantial. Cell surface hydrophobicity and electrokinetic potential of bacterial cells depend on their surface composition and structure, where lipopolysaccharide, in Gram-negative bacteria, is prevailing. Our studies focused on clinical and laboratory P. mirabilis strains, where laboratory strains have determined LPS structures. Adherence and biofilm formation tests revealed significant differences between strains adhered in early stages of biofilm formation. Amounts of formed biofilm were expressed by the absorption of crystal violet. Higher biofilm amounts were formed by the strains with more negative values of zeta potential. In contrast, high cell surface hydrophobicity correlated with low biofilm amount.

  18. The Rcs regulon in Proteus mirabilis: implications for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Howery, Kristen E; Clemmer, Katy M; Rather, Philip N

    2016-11-01

    The overall role of the Rcs phosphorelay in Proteus mirabilis is largely unknown. Previous work had demonstrated that the Rcs phosphorelay represses the flhDC operon and activates the minCDE cell division inhibition system. To identify additional cellular functions regulated by the Rcs phosphorelay, an analysis of RNA-seq data was undertaken. In this report, the results of the RNA-sequencing are discussed with an emphasis on the predicted roles of the Rcs phosphorelay in swarmer cell differentiation, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. RcsB is shown to activate genes important for differentiation and fimbriae formation, while repressing the expression of genes important for motility and virulence. Additionally, to follow up on the RNA-Seq data, we demonstrate that an rcsB mutant is deficient in its ability to form biofilm and exhibits enhanced virulence in a Galleria mellonella waxworm model. Overall, these results indicate the Rcs regulon in P. mirabilis extends beyond flagellar genes to include those involved in biofilm formation and virulence. Furthermore, the information presented in this study may provide clues to additional roles of the Rcs phosphorelay in other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.

  19. Proteus mirabilis mutants defective in swarmer cell differentiation and multicellular behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Belas, R; Erskine, D; Flaherty, D

    1991-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic bacterium which exists in liquid cultures as a 1.5- to 2.0-microns motile swimmer cell possessing 6 to 10 peritrichous flagella. When swimmer cells are placed on a surface, they differentiate by a combination of events that ultimately produce a swarmer cell. Unlike the swimmer cell, the polyploid swarmer cell is 60 to 80 microns long and possesses hundreds to thousands of surface-induced flagella. These features, combined with multicellular behavior, allow the swarmer cells to move over a surface in a process called swarming. Transposon Tn5 was used to produce P. mirabilis mutants defective in wild-type swarming motility. Two general classes of mutants were found to be defective in swarming. The first class was composed of null mutants that were completely devoid of swarming motility. The majority of nonswarming mutations were the result of defects in the synthesis of flagella or in the ability to rotate the flagella. The remaining nonswarming mutants produced flagella but were defective in surface-induced elongation. Strains in the second general class of mutants, which made up more than 65% of all defects in swarming were motile but were defective in the control and coordination of multicellular swarming. Analysis of consolidation zones produced by such crippled mutants suggested that this pleiotropic phenotype was caused by a defect in the regulation of multicellular behavior. A possible mechanism controlling the cyclic process of differentiation and dediferentiation involved in the swarming behavior of P. mirabilis is discussed. Images PMID:1917860

  20. Interaction of Proteus mirabilis Urease Apoenzyme and Accessory Proteins Identified with Yeast Two-Hybrid Technology

    PubMed Central

    Heimer, Susan R.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2001-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with complicated urinary tract infections, produces a metalloenzyme urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The apourease is comprised of three structural subunits, UreA, UreB, and UreC, assembled as a homotrimer of individual UreABC heterotrimers (UreABC)3. To become catalytically active, apourease acquires divalent nickel ions through a poorly understood process involving four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG. While homologues of UreD, UreF, and UreG have been copurified with apourease, it remains unclear specifically how these polypeptides associate with the apourease or each other. To identify interactions among P. mirabilis accessory proteins, in vitro immunoprecipitation and in vivo yeast two-hybrid assays were employed. A complex containing accessory protein UreD and structural protein UreC was isolated by immunoprecipitation and characterized with immunoblots. This association occurs independently of coaccessory proteins UreE, UreF, and UreG and structural protein UreA. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, UreD was found to directly interact in vivo with coaccessory protein UreF. Unique homomultimeric interactions of UreD and UreF were also detected in vivo. To substantiate the study of urease proteins with a yeast two-hybrid assay, previously described UreE dimers and homomultimeric UreA interactions among apourease trimers were confirmed in vivo. Similarly, a known structural interaction involving UreA and UreC was also verified. This report suggests that in vivo, P. mirabilis UreD may be important for recruitment of UreF to the apourease and that crucial homomultimeric associations occur among these accessory proteins. PMID:11157956

  1. Bacteriophage Can Prevent Encrustation and Blockage of Urinary Catheters by Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Nzakizwanayo, Jonathan; Hanin, Aurélie; Alves, Diana R.; McCutcheon, Benjamin; Dedi, Cinzia; Salvage, Jonathan; Knox, Karen; Stewart, Bruce; Metcalfe, Anthony; Clark, Jason; Gilmore, Brendan F.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms dense crystalline biofilms on catheter surfaces that occlude urine flow, leading to serious clinical complications in long-term catheterized patients, but there are presently no truly effective approaches to control catheter blockage by this organism. This study evaluated the potential for bacteriophage therapy to control P. mirabilis infection and prevent catheter blockage. Representative in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, simulating a complete closed drainage system as used in clinical practice, were employed to evaluate the performance of phage therapy in preventing blockage. Models mimicking either an established infection or early colonization of the catheterized urinary tract were treated with a single dose of a 3-phage cocktail, and the impact on time taken for catheters to block, as well as levels of crystalline biofilm formation, was measured. In models of established infection, phage treatment significantly increased time taken for catheters to block (∼3-fold) compared to untreated controls. However, in models simulating early-stage infection, phage treatment eradicated P. mirabilis and prevented blockage entirely. Analysis of catheters from models of established infection 10 h after phage application demonstrated that phage significantly reduced crystalline biofilm formation but did not significantly reduce the level of planktonic cells in the residual bladder urine. Taken together, these results show that bacteriophage constitute a promising strategy for the prevention of catheter blockage but that methods to deliver phage in sufficient numbers and within a key therapeutic window (early infection) will also be important to the successful application of phage to this problem. PMID:26711744

  2. Protective immunity induced by the vaccination of recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Dai, Xiumei; Liu, Liping; Jiang, Xiaodong; Shao, Mingxu; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Chuanwen; Yu, Cuilian; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is a zoonotic pathogen that has recently presented a rising infection rate in the poultry industry. To develop an effective vaccine to protect chickens against P. mirabilis infection, OmpA, one of the major outer membrane proteins of P. mirabilis, was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The concentration of the expressed recombinant OmpA protein reached 8.0μg/mL after induction for 96h with 1.0% methanol in the culture. In addition, OmpA protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using the antibody against Escherichia coli-expressed OmpA protein. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide, a known plant-derived adjuvant, was mixed into the recombinant OmpA protein to prepare the OmpA subunit vaccine. We then subcutaneously inoculated this vaccine into chickens to examine the immunoprotective effects. ELISA analysis indicated that an excellent antibody response against OmpA was elicited in the vaccinated chickens. Moreover, a high protection rate of 80.0% was observed in the vaccinated group, which was subsequently challenged with P. mirabilis. The results suggest that the eukaryotic P. mirabilis OmpA was an ideal candidate protein for developing an effective subunit vaccine against P. mirabilis infection.

  3. Inhibition of Urease Enzyme Production and some Other Virulence Factors Expression in Proteus mirabilis by N-Acetyl Cysteine and Dipropyl Disulphide.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baky, Rehab Mahmoud; Ali, Mohamed Abdullah; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din Ali A; AbdelAziz, Neveen

    2017-02-12

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the important pathogens that colonize the urinary tract and catheters resulting in various complications, such as blockage of the catheters and the formation of infective stones.

  4. TEM-187, a new extended-spectrum β-lactamase with weak activity in a Proteus mirabilis clinical strain.

    PubMed

    Corvec, Stéphane; Beyrouthy, Racha; Crémet, Lise; Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Robin, Frédéric; Bonnet, Richard; Reynaud, Alain

    2013-05-01

    A Proteus mirabilis clinical strain (7001324) was isolated from urine sample of a patient hospitalized in a long-term-care facility. PCR and cloning experiments performed with this strain identified a novel TEM-type β-lactamase (TEM-187) differing by four amino acid substitutions (Leu21Phe, Arg164His, Ala184Val, and Thr265Met) from TEM-1. This characterization provides further evidence for the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) produced by P. mirabilis and for their potential spread to other Enterobacteriaceae due to a lack of sensitive detection methods used in daily practice.

  5. Enhanced motility of a Proteus mirabilis strain expressing hybrid FlaAB flagella.

    PubMed

    Manos, Jim; Artimovich, Elena; Belas, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Proteus mirabilis has two tandemly arranged flagellin-encoding genes, flaA and flaB. flaA is transcribed from a sigma(28) promoter, while flaB is silent. flaA and flaB can undergo reversible rearrangement to produce a set of hybrid genes referred to as flaAB. Flagellins composed of FlaAB protein have a different amino acid sequence and are antigenically distinct from flagellin composed of FlaA, implicating flagellin gene conversion as a putative virulence mechanism for P. mirabilis. The change in amino acid sequence is also hypothesized to alter the filament helix and, hence, affect the motility of FlaAB-expressing strains. To test this hypothesis, the motility of wild-type P. mirabilis was compared with that of a strain, DF1003, locked into the FlaAB(+) hybrid phase, under conditions of altered ionic strength, pH and viscosity. Cell motion tracking analysis showed that DF1003 has wild-type swimming velocity at physiological conditions, but moves significantly faster and travels further compared to the wild-type at NaCl concentrations greater than 170 mM. DF1003 is also significantly faster than the wild-type at pH 5.2, 5.8 and 8.2, and at 5 and 10 % polyvinylpyrrolidone. Measurements of amplitude and wavelength for isolated flagella subjected to pH 5.8 or 425 mM NaCl showed a loss of helical structure in FlaA flagella compared to FlaAB filaments, a feature that could significantly affect motility under these conditions. These results support a hypothesis that FlaAB flagellin imparts a motile advantage to P. mirabilis in conditions that otherwise may impede bacterial movement. In a broader context, flagellar antigenic variation, commonly thought to serve as means to avoid host defences, may also enhance motility in other bacterial species, thus aiding in the adaptation and survival of the cells.

  6. Overexpression of an outer membrane protein associated with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lin; Wang, Min-Cheng; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Ming-Che; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Wu, Yue-Jin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis isolates commonly have decreased susceptibility to imipenem. Previously, we found P. mirabilis hfq mutant was more resistant to imipenem and an outer membrane protein (OMP) could be involved. Therefore, we investigated the role of this OMP in carbapenem susceptibility. By SDS-PAGE we found this OMP (named ImpR) was increased in hfq mutant and LC-MS/MS revealed it to be the homologue of Salmonella YbfM, which is a porin for chitobiose and subject to MicM (a small RNA) regulation. We demonstrated that ImpR overexpression resulted in increased carbapenem MICs in the laboratory strain and clinical isolates. Chitobiose induced expression of chb (a chitobiose utilization operon). Real-time RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE were performed to elucidate the relationship of hfq, impR, chb and MicM in P. mirabilis. We found MicM RNA was decreased in hfq mutant and chbBC-intergenic region (chbBC-IGR) overexpression strain (chbIGRov), while impR mRNA was increased in hfq mutant, micM mutant and chbIGRov strain. In addition, mutation of hfq or micM and overexpression of chbBC-IGR increased ImpR protein level. Accordingly, chitobiose made wild-type have higher levels of ImpR protein and are more resistant to carbapenems. Hfq- and MicM-complemented strains restored wild-type MICs. Mutation of both impR and hfq eliminated the increase in carbapenem MICs observed in hfq mutant and ImpR-complementation of hfq/impR double mutant resulted in MICs as hfq mutant, indicating that the ImpR-dependent decreased carbapenem susceptibility of hfq mutant. These indicate MicM was antisense to impR mRNA and was negatively-regulated by chbBC-IGR. Together, overexpression of ImpR contributed to the decreased carbapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis.

  7. Studies of antibiotic resistance of rough and smooth Proteus mirabilis strains and influence of polymyxin E on their lipopolysaccharide composition.

    PubMed

    Kaca, W; Ujazda, E

    1996-01-01

    The influence of type of bacterial culture media on antibiotic resistance of Proteus mirabilis R and S forms, was tested. P. mirabilis S1959 (S form), R45 and R110 strains (Re and Ra mutant, respectively) cultivated in media supplemented with 10% heat inactivated bovine serum were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid and nitroxoline. Proteus strains cultivated in media without serum were sensitive to these antibacterial agents. The presence of serum did not change the polymyxin E (colistin) resistance of there Proteus strains tested. The effects of the presence of colistin (1000 U/ml) in culture media on Proteus lipopolysaccharide composition was studied. The content of uronic acids and phosphate residues in lipopolysaccharides isolated from bacteria cultivated in the presence of colistin (LPS-col), were lower than in control LPSs. The contents of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose decreases in S1959 LPS-col, increases in R110 LPS-col and remains unchanged in R45 LPS-col. These results indicate that the presence of colistin in cultivation media exerts an influence on the contents of charged components of LPSs isolated from polymyxin E-resistant Proteus R and S strains.

  8. Structure of the glycerol phosphate-containing O-polysaccharides and serological studies of the lipopolysaccharides of Proteus mirabilis CCUG 10704 (OE) and Proteus vulgaris TG 103 classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O54.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejska, Katarzyna; Perepelov, Andrei V; Zabłotni, Agnieszka; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Zych, Krystyna; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2006-07-01

    O-Polysaccharides were obtained from the lipopolysaccharides of Proteus mirabilis CCUG 10704 (OE) and Proteus vulgaris TG 103 and studied by chemical analyses and one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, H-detected (1)H,(13)C heteronuclear single-quantum spectroscopy and (1)H,(31)P heteronuclear multiple-quantum spectroscopy experiments. The Proteus mirabilis OE polysaccharide was found to have a trisaccharide repeating unit with a lateral glycerol phosphate group. The Proteus vulgaris TG 103 produces a similar O-polysaccharide, which differs in incomplete substitution with glycerol phosphate (c. 50% of the stoichiometric amount) and the presence of an O-acetyl group at position 6 of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxygalactose (GalNAc) residue. These structures are unique among the known bacterial polysaccharide structures. Based on the structural and serological data of the lipopolysaccharides, it is proposed to classify both strains studied into a new Proteus serogroup, O54, as two subgroups, O54a,54b and O54a,54c. The serological relatedness of the Proteus O54 and some other Proteus lipopolysaccharides is discussed.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the First KPC-Type Carbapenemase-Positive Proteus mirabilis Strain from a Bloodstream Infection.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Chiarelli, Adriana; Boinett, Christine J; Riccobono, Eleonora; Harris, Simon R; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Thomson, Nicholas R; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Giani, Tommaso

    2016-06-23

    Sequencing of the blaKPC-positive strain Proteus mirabilis AOUC-001 was performed using both the MiSeq and PacBio RS II platforms and yielded a single molecule of 4,272,433 bp, representing the complete chromosome. Genome analysis showed the presence of several acquired resistance determinants, including two copies of blaKPC-2 carried on a fragment of a KPC-producing plasmid previously described in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the First KPC-Type Carbapenemase-Positive Proteus mirabilis Strain from a Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Chiarelli, Adriana; Boinett, Christine J.; Riccobono, Eleonora; Harris, Simon R.; D’Andrea, Marco Maria; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of the blaKPC-positive strain Proteus mirabilis AOUC-001 was performed using both the MiSeq and PacBio RS II platforms and yielded a single molecule of 4,272,433 bp, representing the complete chromosome. Genome analysis showed the presence of several acquired resistance determinants, including two copies of blaKPC-2 carried on a fragment of a KPC-producing plasmid previously described in Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:27340072

  11. Whole-cell Proteus mirabilis urease inhibition by aminophosphinates for the control of struvite formation.

    PubMed

    Grela, Ewa; Dziełak, Anna; Szydłowska, Katarzyna; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Paweł; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka Monika

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the in vitro impact of a series of aminophosphinic urease inhibitors on Proteusmirabilis. The group of compounds comprised structurally diverse analogues of diamidophosphate built on an N-C-P scaffold. The influence of urease inhibition on urea-splitting activity was assessed by whole-cell pH-static kinetic measurements. The potential to prevent struvite formation was determined by monitoring changes in pH and ionic composition of artificial urine medium during P. mirabilis growth. The most active compounds exhibited stronger positive effect on urine stability than the acknowledged inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid. The high anti-ureolytic and pH-stabilizing effect of urease inhibitors 4 and 14 was well correlated with their reported kinetic properties against pure urease from P. mirabilis (Ki values of 0.62±0.09 and 0.202±0.057 µM, respectively, compared to 5.7±0.4 µM for acetohydroxamic acid). The effect of repressed ureolysis upon the viability of Proteus cells was studied using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] metabolic efficiency assay and LIVE/DEAD fluorescent staining. Most of the compounds caused whole-cell dehydrogenase activity loss; four structures (1, 2, 4 and 14) reduced the culture viability by nearly 70 % at 1 mM concentration. Results of dual fluorescent staining suggested that besides urea-splitting prevention, the structures additionally exerted an outer-membrane-destabilizing effect.

  12. [Evaluation of biofilm formation by Proteus mirabilis strains on the surface of different biomaterials by two methods].

    PubMed

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Proteus sp. rods are opportunistic human pathogens. These microorganisms are mainly isolated from patients with urinary tract infections, particularly associated with using of biomaterials, on which surface they can form biofilm. The aim of our study was the estimation of Proteus mirabilis rods ability to form biofilm on the surface of 5 biomaterials (polychloride vinyl, silicone latex, polypropylene, polybutylen teraftalan and polyamide) using Richards' and quantitative method and comparison results of both methods. A total number of 84 P. mirabilis strains were included into the study. All of them were isolated in the Department of Clinical Microbiology University Hospital no. 1 of dr A. Jurasz Collegium Medicum of L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń between 2005 and 2008. Examined P. mirabilis strains formed heavy biofilm with statistically significantly values on the surface of silicone latex than on polychloride vinyl and on polypropylene surface than polybutylen teraftalen or polyamide. High correlation of both methods was established. The Richards' method can be used to quick identification of P. mirabilis biofilm.

  13. Anaerobic respiration using a complete oxidative TCA cycle drives multicellular swarming in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Engstrom, Michael D; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-10-30

    Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. Bacterial locomotion and the existence of microbes were the first scientific

  14. Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4ṡ7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

  15. Immune enhancement of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide on recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Ya; Li, Bing; Zhu, Fujie; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide (TRPPS) on immune responses of chickens immunized with Proteus mirabilis outer membrane protein A (OmpA) recombinant protein vaccine. OmpA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and mixed with TRPPS. 360 chickens were randomly divided into six groups. Groups I to IV were treated with OmpA which contained TRPPS of three different dosages, Freund's adjuvant, respectively. Groups V and VI were treated with pure OmpA and physiological saline, respectively. The data showed that the antibody titers against OmpA, the concentration of IL-2, CD4 +, and CD8 +, T lymphocyte proliferation rate in Group II were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the other groups, little difference in SIgA content was observed among groups I to VI. These results indicated that TRPPS strengthened humoral and cellular immune responses against recombinant OmpA vaccine. Moreover, 200 mg/mL TRPPS showed significance (P < 0.05) compared with Freund's adjuvant. Therefore, TRPPS can be developed into an adjuvant for recombinant subunit vaccine.

  16. Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. PMID:18202436

  17. First Isolation of carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis from an uncomplicated cystitis patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oana, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Nagata, Mika; Washino, Kei-Ichi; Akahane, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Yu-Uki; Tsutsui, Chie; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An uncomplicated cystitis caused by CO2-dependent Proteus mirabilis was observed in a 64-year-old Japanese female patient with Sjögren's syndrome in the Aomori Kyoritsu Hospital, Aomori, Japan. The initial P. mirabilis isolate came from a midstream urine specimen containing large numbers of Gram-negative, rod-shaped organisms that failed to grow on both Drigalski agar and sheep blood agar incubated in ambient air. The organism did grow when the urine was cultured overnight on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. Hence, we believed that the organism was an anaerobe. Further investigation revealed that the isolate grew on sheep blood agar along with swarming when the atmospheric CO2 concentrations were increased to 5%. Initially, we failed to characterize or identify the P. mirabilis isolate or determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 System because the isolate did not grow in the system. However, the isolate was subsequently identified as P. mirabilis based on its morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties by using the commercially available kit systems, Quick ID-GN and ID-Test EB-20. This identification of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical isolation of capnophilic P. mirabilis.

  18. Single-disk diffusion testing (Kirby-Bauer) of susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis to chloramphenicol: significance of the intermediate category.

    PubMed

    Furtado, G L; Medeiros, A A

    1980-10-01

    The significance of the intermediate category of the single-disk diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer) of antibiotic susceptibility has never been clearly defined. Thirty-two percent of 756 clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were of intermediate susceptibility to chloramphenicol, a higher percentage than for any other species. The breakpoint separating susceptible and intermediate isolates nearly bisected the frequency distribution of zone diameters of P. mirabilis but not that of the other species. The breakpoint separating susceptible and intermediate isolates nearly bisected the frequency distribution of zone diameters of P. mirabillis but not that of the other species tested. By serial broth dilution testing, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chloramphenicol of 50 individual isolates of P. mirabilis were 3.9 to 22.1 micrograms/ml (geometric mean, 8.0), whereas the MICs of susceptible Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter strains were 2.0 to 3.9 micrograms/ml (geometric mean, 2.9). Seventy percent of isolates of P. mirabilis with MICs of 7.8 to 15.6 micrograms/ml were classified as susceptible by disk testing. We conclude that existing Kirby-Bauer breakpoints do not accurately discriminate P. mirabilis isolates that are marginally susceptible to chloramphenicol. These data underscore the difficulty of applying a single set of breakpoints to all species and suggest that species-specific breakpoints would more accurately predict the MIC equivalent of given zone diameters.

  19. Cranberry derivatives enhance biofilm formation and transiently impair swarming motility of the uropathogen Proteus mirabilis HI4320.

    PubMed

    O'May, Che; Amzallag, Olivier; Bechir, Karim; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a major cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), emphasizing that novel strategies for targeting this bacterium are needed. Potential targets are P. mirabilis surface-associated swarming motility and the propensity of these bacteria to form biofilms that may lead to catheter blockage. We previously showed that the addition of cranberry powder (CP) to lysogeny broth (LB) medium resulted in impaired P. mirabilis swarming motility over short time periods (up to 16 h). Herein, we significantly expanded on those findings by exploring (i) the effects of cranberry derivatives on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis, (ii) whether swarming inhibition occurred transiently or over longer periods more relevant to real infections (∼3 days), (iii) whether swarming was also blocked by commercially available cranberry juices, (iv) whether CP or cranberry juices exhibited effects under natural urine conditions, and (v) the effects of cranberry on medium pH, which is an indirect indicator of urease activity. At short time scales (24 h), CP and commercially available pure cranberry juice impaired swarming motility and repelled actively swarming bacteria in LB medium. Over longer time periods more representative of infections (∼3 days), the capacity of the cranberry material to impair swarming diminished and bacteria would start to migrate across the surface, albeit by exhibiting a different motility phenotype to the regular "bull's-eye" swarming phenotype of P. mirabilis. This bacterium did not swarm on urine agar or LB agar supplemented with urea, suggesting that any potential application of anti-swarming compounds may be better suited to settings external to the urine environment. Anti-swarming effects were confounded by the ability of cranberry products to enhance biofilm formation in both LB and urine conditions. These findings provide key insights into the long-term strategy of targeting P. mirabilis CAUTIs.

  20. Production and characterization of a bioflocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jianfu; Leonard, Didier; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2008-09-01

    A bioflocculant TJ-F1 with high flocculating activity, produced by strain TJ-1 from a mixed activated sludge, was investigated with regard to its production and characterization. By 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain TJ-1 was identified as Proteus mirabilis. The most preferred carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio (w/w) for strain TJ-1 to produce the bioflocculant were found to be glucose, peptone and 10, respectively. TJ-F1 production could be greatly stimulated by cations Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+). The optimal conditions for TJ-F1 production were inoculum size 2 per thousand (v/v), initial pH 7.0, culture temperature 25 degrees C, and shaking speed 130r/min, under which the flocculating activity of the bioflocculant reached 93.13%. About 1.33 g of the purified bioflocculant, whose molecular weight (MW) was 1.2 x 10(5) Da, could be recovered from 1.0 l of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis of bioflocculant TJ-F1 indicated that it contained protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w), including neutral sugar, glucuronic acid and amino sugar as the principal constituents in the relative weight proportions of 8.2:5.3:1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the purified solid-state TJ-F1 showed that it had a crystal-linear structure. Spectroscopic analysis of the bioflocculant by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry indicated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups preferred for the flocculation process.

  1. Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 μg/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis.

  2. Increased Incidence of Urolithiasis and Bacteremia During Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Coinfection Due to Synergistic Induction of Urease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Smith, Sara N.; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366

  3. Modification biological activity of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia lipopolysaccharides by carrageenans.

    PubMed

    Arabski, Michał; Barabanova, Anna; Gałczyńska, Katarzyna; Węgierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Dzidowska, Kamila; Augustyniak, Daria; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Lankoff, Anna; Yermak, Irina; Molinaro, Antonio; Kaca, Wiesław

    2016-09-20

    The modification of biological features of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia LPS by kappa/iota and kappa/beta carrageenans was shown in Limulus activation test, ELISA, human complement activation and apoptotic assay. The role of positively charged substituent Ara4N in lipid A was evaluated as a suspected major domain for interactions with sulphate groups of carrageenans.The experiments obtained by three serological methods indicated that not only lipid A part of LPS but also polysaccharide elements such as core and O-specific chain are involved in interaction with carrageenes. Carrageenans turned out to be non-cytotoxic for A549 cells and were able to inhibit the apoptotic effect caused by lipid A of P. mirabilis and B. cepacia.

  4. Epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase, AmpC, and carbapenemase production in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Priya; Gupta, Varsha; Arora, Shilpa; Garg, Shivani; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase pose potential threats to patient care because most clinical diagnostic laboratories may not attempt to detect these three major groups of enzymes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to ascertain if P. mirabilis isolates collected from our heathcare facility possess various mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams (i.e., ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemases) and to additionally arrive at conclusions regarding concurrent testing for these three mechanism of drug resistance in order to reduce cost and time in routine diagnostic testing. Between January 2011 and June 2011, 60 consecutive non-repeated strains of P. mirabilis were evaluated for production of ESBLs, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases. Of these, 36 isolates were found to be ESBL producers, and 7 (12%) were positive for production of AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs. Therefore, 19.4% of ESBL-producing Proteus strains coproduced AmpC enzymes. The modified Hodge test confirmed carbapenemase production in only 1 isolate (1.7%), which was also ESBL- and AmpC-positive. The clinical impact of additional AmpC expression in ESBL-producing P. mirabilis results in a newly acquired resistance to β-lactamase inhibitors. In addition, to save time and costs, we recommend the use of cefepime/cefepime-clavulanate or boronic acid for the ESBL detection but in only those strains that were positive for ESBL by screening and negative by confirmatory tests.

  5. Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Harboring a Conjugative NDM-1 Plasmid and a Novel Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variant, SGI1-Z.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shangshang; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Qijing; Zhao, Di; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Tian, Hao; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Mengmeng; Feng, Xianju; Liu, Hong-Min

    2015-10-01

    Acquisition of blaNDM-1 in bacterial species, such as Proteus mirabilis that is intrinsically resistant to tetracycline, tigecycline and colistin, will make clinical treatment extremely difficult. Here, we characterized an NDM-1-producing clinical isolate of P. mirabilis (PM58) that displayed an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype, susceptible only to aztreonam. Molecular analysis revealed that PM58 harbored both a conjugative NDM-1 plasmid and a novel Salmonella genomic island 1 variant on chromosome.

  6. Outbreak caused by Proteus mirabilis isolates producing weakly expressed TEM-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase in spinal cord injury patients with recurrent bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Cremet, Lise; Bemer, Pascale; Rome, Joanna; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Navas, Dominique; Bourigault, Celine; Guillouzouic, Aurelie; Caroff, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Asseray, Nathalie; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Corvec, Stephane

    2011-12-01

    We performed a retrospective extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) molecular characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from urine of spinal cord injury patients. A incorrectly detected TEM-24-producing clone and a new weakly expressed TEM-derived ESBL were discovered. In such patients, ESBL detection in daily practice should be improved by systematic use of a synergy test in strains of P. mirabilis resistant to penicillins.

  7. Distinct Residues Contribute to Motility Repression and Autoregulation in the Proteus mirabilis Fimbria-Associated Transcriptional Regulator AtfJ

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nadine J.; Chan, Kun-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis contributes to a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, where coordinated regulation of adherence and motility is critical for ascending disease progression. Previously, the mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator MrpJ has been shown to both repress motility and directly induce the transcription of its own operon; in addition, it affects the expression of a wide range of cellular processes. Interestingly, 14 additional mrpJ paralogs are included in the P. mirabilis genome. Looking at a selection of MrpJ paralogs, we discovered that these proteins, which consistently repress motility, also have nonidentical functions that include cross-regulation of fimbrial operons. A subset of paralogs, including AtfJ (encoded by the ambient temperature fimbrial operon), Fim8J, and MrpJ, are capable of autoinduction. We identified an element of the atf promoter extending from 487 to 655 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site that is responsive to AtfJ, and we found that AtfJ directly binds this fragment. Mutational analysis of AtfJ revealed that its two identified functions, autoregulation and motility repression, are not invariably linked. Residues within the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix domain are required for motility repression but not necessarily autoregulation. Likewise, the C-terminal domain is dispensable for motility repression but is essential for autoregulation. Supported by a three-dimensional (3D) structural model, we hypothesize that the C-terminal domain confers unique regulatory capacities on the AtfJ family of regulators. IMPORTANCE Balancing adherence with motility is essential for uropathogens to successfully establish a foothold in their host. Proteus mirabilis uses a fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator to switch between these antagonistic processes by increasing fimbrial adherence while simultaneously downregulating flagella. The

  8. Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

    2014-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation.

  9. Emergence of Proteus mirabilis harboring blaKPC-2 and qnrD in a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-yan; Cai, Jia-chang; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong-wei; Sun, Qian; Chen, Gong-xiang

    2012-05-01

    Nineteen carbapenem-nonsusceptible Proteus mirabilis isolates were recovered from intensive care units in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University during a 3-month period. The isolates showed a high level of resistance against ciprofloxacin, in addition to their resistance against the carbapenems. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that these isolates belonged to three clonal strains. PCRs and DNA sequence analysis of the carbapenemase and other β-lactamase genes indicated that all the isolates harbored the bla(KPC-2) gene. Twelve of 19 isolates harbored the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, both the qnrD and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes. Eight representative isolates with high levels of quinolone resistance carried the similar mutation profiles of S83I in gyrA, E466D in gyrB, and S80I in parC. Reduced carbapenem susceptibility was transferred to Escherichia coli (EC600) in a conjugation experiment, while the quinolone resistance was not. DNA hybridization showed that qnrD was located on a plasmid of approximately 4.5 kb. In summary, large clonally related isolates of KPC-2-producing P. mirabilis emerged in a Chinese hospital, and qnrD was detected in KPC-producing P. mirabilis for the first time.

  10. Zinc uptake contributes to motility and provides a competitive advantage to Proteus mirabilis during experimental urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nielubowicz, Greta R; Smith, Sara N; Mobley, Harry L T

    2010-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, represents a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections in catheterized patients or those with functional or anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract. ZnuB, the membrane component of the high-affinity zinc (Zn(2+)) transport system ZnuACB, was previously shown to be recognized by sera from infected mice. Since this system has been shown to contribute to virulence in other pathogens, its role in Proteus mirabilis was investigated by constructing a strain with an insertionally interrupted copy of znuC. The znuC::Kan mutant was more sensitive to zinc limitation than the wild type, was outcompeted by the wild type in minimal medium, displayed reduced swimming and swarming motility, and produced less flaA transcript and flagellin protein. The production of flagellin and swarming motility were restored by complementation with znuCB in trans. Swarming motility was also restored by the addition of Zn(2+) to the agar prior to inoculation; the addition of Fe(2+) to the agar also partially restored the swarming motility of the znuC::Kan strain, but the addition of Co(2+), Cu(2+), or Ni(2+) did not. ZnuC contributes to but is not required for virulence in the urinary tract; the znuC::Kan strain was outcompeted by the wild type during a cochallenge experiment but was able to colonize mice to levels similar to the wild-type level during independent challenge. Since we demonstrated a role for ZnuC in zinc transport, we hypothesize that there is limited zinc present in the urinary tract and P. mirabilis must scavenge this ion to colonize and persist in the host.

  11. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis strains recently isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2015-02-01

    Here we report on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis from a nationwide antimicrobial resistance survey in different geographical regions of Japan. A total of 799 P. mirabilis isolates recovered between July 2009 and June 2010 from 314 healthcare facilities were characterised according to ESBL production, source, location and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. ESBL production was found in 364 (45.6%) of the isolates, among which 354 (97.3%) produced CTX-M-2 group β-lactamases. Of the 349 ESBL-producing isolates in which the inpatient or outpatient status of the source was known, 324 (92.8%) were from inpatients and 25 (7.2%) were from outpatients (P<0.05). Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis performed on 66 of the ESBL-producers generated a distribution of PFGE patterns into 21 groups. Genetic relatedness was seen among isolates within a region, which is consistent with horizontal transmission. With respect to the frequency of ESBL-producers by specimen source, 12/14 (85.7%) central venous catheter specimens yielded ESBL-producing P. mirabilis compared with 159/405 (39.3%), 119/209 (56.9%), 42/77 (54.5%) and 20/49 (40.8%), respectively, for isolates from urine, sputum, decubitus ulcer and wound specimens. Among the ESBL-producers, non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 74.2% of the ESBL-producing isolates compared with 17.7% of the ESBL-non-producing isolates. These results show that approximately one-half of the P. mirabilis isolates from clinical specimens in Japan are ESBL-producers and that the potential for concomitant fluoroquinolone resistance must also be considered.

  12. Differentiation of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains by means of proticine typing: a longitudinal epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Sekaninová, G; Kolárová, M

    1996-05-01

    In the years 1979, 1980, 1982-83, 1986-87 and 1992-93, 673 strains of P. mirabilis and 25 strains of P. vulgaris were isolated from the urinary tracts of patients at a Teaching Hospital in Brno. In 1982-83 and 1992-93, strains of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris were isolated from the urine and faeces of two groups of Brno population and used as controls. Using the P/S typing method, 94.7% of hospital isolates and 85.5% of control strains could be differentiated by their types. The strains that could not be typed (8.2%) were classified as PO/SO or N types; in the remaining strains, 182 various P/S types could be distinguished. The strains that could not be typed occurred more frequently in control groups (48 out of 337) than in hospital isolates (37 out of 698). Over the whole period, P5/S6, S7, S9 and P1/S2, S11 were the prevailing P/S types of hospital isolates and were placed, together with related types, in groups P5 and P1, respectively. In 1982-83, a significant shift (p < 0.01) from the initially prevailing P5/S6, S7, S9 type to the P1/S2, S11 type of P. mirabilis was recorded. Approximately one third of the hospital isolates in all the periods examined was found to be sporadic, with the exception of 1992-93 when the sporadic strains doubled in frequency (p < 0.01). In control strains, the frequency of sporadic types was twice that of the hospital isolates (p < 0.01) in 1982-83 and, 1992-93, it was equal to the frequency of hospital isolates. This implied a fall in the presence of hospital-acquired strains in the last period of study.

  13. Secondary metabolites produced by marine streptomyces as antibiofilm and quorum-sensing inhibitor of uropathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-03-01

    Quorum-sensing regulates bacterial biofilm formation and virulence factors, thereby making it an interesting target for attenuating pathogens. In this study, we investigated anti-biofilm and anti-quorum-sensing compounds from secondary metabolites of halophiles marine streptomyces against urinary catheter biofilm forming Proteus mirabilis without effect on growth viability. A total of 40 actinomycetes were isolated from samples collected from different places in Iraq including marine sediments and soil samples. Fifteen isolates identified as streptomyces and their supernatant screened as anti-quorum-sensing by inhibiting quorum-sensing regulated prodigiosin biosynthesis of Serratia marcescens strain Smj-11 as a reporter strain. Isolate Sediment Lake Iraq (sdLi) showed potential anti-quorum-sensing activity. Out of 35 clinical isolates obtained from Urinary catheter used by patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, 22 isolates were characterized and identified as Proteus mirabilis. Isolate Urinary Catheter B4 (UCB4) showed the highest biofilm formation with highest resistance to used antibiotic and was chosen for further studies. Ethyl acetate secondary metabolites extract was produced from sdLi isolate. First, we determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of sdLi crude extract against UCB4 isolate, and all further experiments used concentrations below the MIC. Tests of subinhibitory concentrations of sdLi crude extract showed good inhibition against UCB4 isolate biofilm formation on urinary catheter and cover glass using Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy respectively. The influence of sub-MIC of sdLi crude extract was also found to attenuate the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent factors such as hemolysin activity, urease activity, pH value, and motility of UCB4 isolate. Evidence is presented that these nontoxic secondary metabolites may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with quorum-sensing signals

  14. Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-10-01

    Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.1-20 mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (ΔpH) and proton motive force (μH(+) ) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ΔpH (and therefore μH(+) ) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ΔpH and μH(+) for motility.

  15. Various intensity of Proteus mirabilis-induced crystallization resulting from the changes in the mineral composition of urine.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Różalski, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a result of recurrent and chronic urinary tract infections caused by urease-positive bacteria, especially Proteus mirabilis. The main role in the development of this kind of stones is played by bacterial factors such as urease and extracellular polysaccharides, but urinary tract environment also contributes to this process. We used an in vitro model to establish how the changes in the basic minerals concentrations affect the intensity of crystallization which occurs in urine. In each experiment crystallization was induced by an addition of P. mirabilis to artificial urine with a precisely defined chemical composition. Crystallization intensity was determined using the spectrophotometric microdilution method and the chemical composition of formed crystals was established by atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetric methods. Increasing the concentration of all crystals forming ions such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and phosphate strongly intensified the process of crystallization, whereas reducing the amount of these components below the proper physiological concentration did not affect its intensity. The inhibitory influence of citrate on calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization and competitive actions of calcium and oxalate ions on struvite crystals formation were not confirmed. In the case of infectious stones the chemical composition of urine plays an important role, which creates a necessity to support the treatment by developing a model of proper diet.

  16. Integrons, β-lactamase and qnr genes in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Gruszczyńska, Beata; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-three isolates of Proteus mirabilis and two P. vulgaris were examined for their antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons with regard to gene cassette content, and genetic determinants of β-lactam and low-level quinolone resistance. Integrons were detected in 23 (69.7%) P. mirabilis isolates; six (18.2%) of them had class 1 integrons, 11 (33.3%) possessed class 2 integrons and six (18.2%) carried integrons of both classes. One P. vulgaris strain possessed class 1 and class 2 integrons. The presence of integrons was associated with increased frequency of resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and co-trimoxazole. Moreover, integron presence was associated with increased resistance range in terms of both the number of antimicrobials and the number of classes of antimicrobials to which a strain was resistant. Class 1 integrons contained aadA1, aadB-aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, bla(PSE-1) -aadA1 and aacA4-orfA-orfB-aadA1 gene cassette arrays, whereas all class 2 integrons had a dfrA1-sat2-aada1 array. β-lactamase genes not associated with integrons comprised bla(TEM-2) , bla(DHA-1) and bla(CMY-15) . Plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance was determined by qnrD and qnrS1 genes. This is the first report of P. vulgaris strains harbouring qnrD genes in Europe.

  17. A total internal reflection ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study of interactions between Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gleńska-Olender, J; Sęk, S; Dworecki, K; Kaca, W

    2015-07-01

    Specific antigen-antibody interactions play a central role in the human immune system. The objective of this paper is to detect immune complexes using label-free detection techniques, that is, total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based topography and recognition imaging. Interactions of purified rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with bacterial endotoxins (Proteus mirabilis S1959 O3 lipopolysaccharides) were studied. Lipopolysaccharide was adsorbed on gold surface for TIRE. In the AFM imaging experiments, LPS was attachment to the PEG linker (AFM tip modification). The mica surface was covered by IgG. In TIRE, the optical parameters Ψ and Δ change when a complex is formed. It was found that even highly structured molecules, such as IgG antibodies (anti-O3 LPS rabbit serum), preserve their specific affinity to their antigens (LPS O3). LPS P. mirabilis O3 response of rabbit serum anti-O3 was also tested by topography and recognition imaging. Both TIRE and AFM techniques were recruited to check for possible detection of antigen-antibody recognition event. The presented data allow for determination of interactions between a variety of biomolecules. In future research, this technique has considerable potential for studying a wide range of antigen-antibody interactions and its use may be extended to other biomacromolecular systems.

  18. Native flagellin does not protect mice against an experimental Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection and neutralizes the protective effect of MrpA fimbrial protein.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Rial, Analía; Chabalgoity, José A; Zunino, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis expresses several virulence factors including MR/P fimbriae and flagella. Bacterial flagellin has frequently shown interesting adjuvant and protective properties in vaccine formulations. However, native P. mirabilis flagellin has not been analyzed so far. Native P. mirabilis flagellin was evaluated as a protective antigen and as an adjuvant in co-immunizations with MrpA (structural subunit of MR/P fimbriae) using an ascending UTI model in the mouse. Four groups of mice were intranasally treated with either MrpA, native flagellin, both proteins and PBS. Urine and blood samples were collected before and after immunization for specific antibodies determination. Cytokine production was assessed in immunized mice splenocytes cultures. Mice were challenged with P. mirabilis, and bacteria quantified in kidneys and bladders. MrpA immunization induced serum and urine specific anti-MrpA antibodies while MrpA coadministered with native flagellin did not. None of the animals developed significant anti-flagellin antibodies. Only MrpA-immunized mice showed a significant decrease of P. mirabilis in bladders and kidneys. Instead, infection levels in MrpA-flagellin or flagellin-treated mice showed no significant differences with the control group. IL-10 was significantly induced in splenocytes of mice that received native flagellin or MrpA-flagellin. Native P. mirabilis flagellin did not protect mice against an ascending UTI. Moreover, it showed an immunomodulatory effect, neutralizing the protective role of MrpA. P. mirabilis flagellin exhibits particular immunological properties compared to other bacterial flagellins.

  19. Antibody-producing cell responses to an isolated outer membrane protein and to complexes of this antigen with lipopolysaccharide or with vesicles of phospholipids from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Karch, H; Nixdorff, K

    1981-01-01

    Antibody-producing cell responses of mice to a protein isolated from the outer membrane of Proteus mirabilis were typical of the responses to a thymus-dependent antigen. The immunoglobulin G antibody-producing cell responses to the protein were increased after administration of the antigen complexed with either lipopolysaccharide or with vesicles of phospholipids extracted from P. mirabilis. The protein in turn significantly increased the immune response to lipopolysaccharide and also converted this response from predominantly immunoglobulin M to predominantly immunoglobulin G. PMID:6164651

  20. High Prevalence of SXT/R391-Related Integrative and Conjugative Elements Carrying blaCMY-2 in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Gulls in the South of France.

    PubMed

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Decré, Dominique; Dupont, Chloé; Laurens, Chrislène; Vittecoq, Marion; Pantel, Alix; Solassol, Jérôme; Carrière, Christian; Renaud, François; Brieu, Nathalie; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    The genetic structures involved in the dissemination of blaCMY-2 carried by Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from different gull species in the South of France were characterized and compared to clinical isolates. blaCMY-2 was identified in P. mirabilis isolates from 27/93 yellow-legged gulls and from 37/65 slender-billed gulls. It was carried by a conjugative SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative element (ICE) in all avian strains and in 3/7 human strains. Two clinical isolates had the same genetic background as six avian isolates.

  1. High Prevalence of SXT/R391-Related Integrative and Conjugative Elements Carrying blaCMY-2 in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Gulls in the South of France

    PubMed Central

    Compain, Fabrice; Decré, Dominique; Dupont, Chloé; Laurens, Chrislène; Vittecoq, Marion; Pantel, Alix; Solassol, Jérôme; Carrière, Christian; Renaud, François; Brieu, Nathalie; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structures involved in the dissemination of blaCMY-2 carried by Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from different gull species in the South of France were characterized and compared to clinical isolates. blaCMY-2 was identified in P. mirabilis isolates from 27/93 yellow-legged gulls and from 37/65 slender-billed gulls. It was carried by a conjugative SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative element (ICE) in all avian strains and in 3/7 human strains. Two clinical isolates had the same genetic background as six avian isolates. PMID:26643344

  2. Characterization of a stable spheroplast type L-form of Proteus mirabilis D 52 as cell envelope mutant. I. Isolation, growth characteristics, biochemical activities, and sensitivity to bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Gumpert, J; Taubeneck, U

    1975-01-01

    A stable spheroplast type L-form could be isolated by transferring 627 single colonies and 195 agar blocks with several colonies of unstable L-forms of Proteus mirabilis D 52 on agar media without supplements of penicillin. The L-form grows well on complex and synthetic agar media, however, it failed to grow in any of the liquid media which have been proved. With one exception (formation of acid from maltose) the L-form shows the same bioche mical activities like the parent rod-shaped bacterium. However, the insensitivity for various phages and the failure of DAP in the envelopes demonstrate that there are profound alterations in the biosynthesis and structure of the murein and of the outer wall layers. The results of these investigations and an ultrastructural analysis (Gumpert and Taubeneck 1975) show that the stable spheroplast type L-form LD 52 B of Proteus mirabilis must be considered as a true cell envelope mutant.

  3. The Self-Identity Protein IdsD Is Communicated between Cells in Swarming Proteus mirabilis Colonies.

    PubMed

    Saak, Christina C; Gibbs, Karine A

    2016-12-15

    Proteus mirabilis is a social bacterium that is capable of self (kin) versus nonself recognition. Swarming colonies of this bacterium expand outward on surfaces to centimeter-scale distances due to the collective motility of individual cells. Colonies of genetically distinct populations remain separate, while those of identical populations merge. Ids proteins are essential for this recognition behavior. Two of these proteins, IdsD and IdsE, encode identity information for each strain. These two proteins bind in vitro in an allele-restrictive manner. IdsD-IdsE binding is correlated with the merging of populations, whereas a lack of binding is correlated with the separation of populations. Key questions remained about the in vivo interactions of IdsD and IdsE, specifically, whether IdsD and IdsE bind within single cells or whether IdsD-IdsE interactions occur across neighboring cells and, if so, which of the two proteins is exchanged. Here we demonstrate that IdsD must originate from another cell to communicate identity and that this nonresident IdsD interacts with IdsE resident in the recipient cell. Furthermore, we show that unbound IdsD in recipient cells does not cause cell death and instead appears to contribute to a restriction in the expansion radius of the swarming colony. We conclude that P. mirabilis communicates IdsD between neighboring cells for nonlethal kin recognition, which suggests that the Ids proteins constitute a type of cell-cell communication.

  4. Case-control study of the risk factors for acquisition of Pseudomonas and Proteus species during tigecycline therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Wi, Yu Mi; Ko, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Woo Joo; Lee, Ji Yong; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    Tigecycline is an important agent in clinical practice because of its broad-spectrum activity. However, it has no activity against Pseudomonas or Proteus species. We conducted a case-control study to analyze risk factors for the acquisition of Pseudomonas or Proteus spp. during tigecycline therapy. Placement of suction drainage at infected wound sites, ICU stay, and neurologic disease were identified as independent risk factors for the acquisition of Pseudomonas and Proteus spp.

  5. Cooccurrence of Multiple AmpC β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chérif, Thouraya; Saidani, Mabrouka; Decré, Dominique; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Arlet, Guillaume

    2015-10-12

    Over a period of 40 months, plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases were detected in Tunis, Tunisia, in 78 isolates (0.59%) of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. In 67 isolates, only one ampC gene was detected, i.e., blaCMY-2-type (n = 33), blaACC (n = 23), blaDHA (n = 6) or blaEBC (n = 5). Multiple ampC genes were detected in 11 isolates, with the following distribution: blaMOX-2, blaFOX-3, and blaCMY-4/16 (n = 6), blaFOX-3 and blaMOX-2 (n = 3), and blaCMY-4 and blaMOX-2 (n = 2). A great variety of plasmids carrying these genes was found, independently of the species and the bla gene. If the genetic context of blaCMY-2-type is variable, that of blaMOX-2, reported in part previously, is unique and that of blaFOX-3 is unique and new.

  6. Expression and characterization of a second L-amino acid deaminase isolated from Proteus mirabilis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jin-Oh; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kwon, Ohsuk; Seong, Su-Il; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Kim, Chul Ho

    2011-04-01

    L-amino acid deaminases catalyze the deamination of natural L-amino acids. Two types of L-amino acid deaminase have been identified in Proteus species. One exhibits high levels of activity toward a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic L-amino acids, typically L-phenylalanine, whereas the other acts on a relatively narrow range of basic L-amino acids, typically L-histidine. In this study, we cloned, expressed, and characterized a second amino acid deaminase, termed Pm1, from P. mirabilis KCTC 2566. Homology alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of Pm1 demonstrated that the greatest similarity (96%) was with the L-amino acid deaminase (LAD) of P. vulgaris, and that homology with Pma was relatively low (72%). Also, similar to LAD, Pm1 was most active on L-histidine, indicating that Pm1 belongs to the second type of amino acid deaminase. In agreement with this conclusion, the V(max) and K(m) values of Pm1 were 119.7 (μg phenylpyruvic acid/mg/min) and 31.55 mM phenylalanine, respectively, values lower than those of Pma. The Pml deaminase will be very useful industrially in the preparation of commercially valuable materials including urocanic acid and α-oxoglutarate.

  7. Role of Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella in adhesion, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction in T24 and Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Villar, Silvia; Umpiérrez, Ana; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). It is proposed that several virulence factors are associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. The aim of this work was to elucidate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects mediated by MR/P fimbriae and flagella in eukaryotic cells in vitro. Two cell lines (kidney- and bladder-derived) were infected with a clinical wild-type P. mirabilis strain and an MR/P and a flagellar mutant. We evaluated adhesion, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by microscopy, comet assay and triple staining technique, respectively. Mutant strains displayed lower adhesion rates than the P. mirabilis wild-type strain and were significantly less effective to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects compared to the wild type. We report for the first time that P. mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella mediate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells, at least in in vitro conditions. These results could contribute to design new strategies for the control of UTI.

  8. VEB-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis sepsis outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit in India: clinical and diagnostic implications

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sarika; Kothari, Charu; Sehgal, Rachna; Shamweel, A.; Thukral, S. S.; Chellani, Harish K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, are increasingly implicated in nosocomial outbreaksworldwide, particularly in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Proteus mirabilis is an uncommon nosocomial pathogen causing sepsis in neonates. Case Presentation: We report an outbreak of ESBL-positive MDR P. mirabilis sepsis involving five babies within 10 days in a NICU, which was promptly detected and managed. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanism of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) in the bacteria. Surveillance cultures were collected from health-care personnel (hand swabs, urine) and the surrounding patient-care environment. Ribotyping was performed to determine the clonality of the strain. Thirteen P. mirabilis were recovered from the blood cultures of the five babies and surveillance cultures. Twelve isolates were positive for the VEB-1 ESBL type, and were susceptible only to ciprofloxacin and carbapenems. There was an unusual phenotypic synergy observed between the 3GCs and imipenem/cefoxitin. The source of infection was traced to a contaminated multidose vial. The outbreak was associated with a high mortality (80 %). A change of empirical antibiotic policy to ciprofloxacin, with strict infection control measures, brought the outbreak to an abrupt end. Conclusion: This is believed to be the first report of a nosocomial outbreak of VEB-1 ESBL-producing P. mirabilis sepsis in neonates from India. The present report of infection due to VEB-1-producing P. mirabilis, an uncommon pathogen for an epidemic in a neonatal unit, highlights the growing significance of such Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of infections in newborns. Epidemic spread in a neonatal unit of an ESBL-producing Proteus species, which also had an intrinsically reduced susceptibility to imipenem, and resistance to colistin and tigecycline, can be a threatening situation and

  9. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Proteus mirabilis strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases from clinical samples in the Kinki Region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Masaru; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Fukuda, Saori; Miyamoto, Yugo; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kenji; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Wada, Yasunao; Zikimoto, Takuya; Koike, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Hirai, Itaru; Takahashi, Hakuo; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, nonduplicate, clinical isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Proteus mirabilis were collected during a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 at several hospitals in the Kinki region, Japan. The detection rate of E coli markedly increased from 0.24% to 7.25%. The detection rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae increased from 0% to 2.44% and that of P mirabilis from 6.97% to 12.85%. The most frequently detected genotypes were the CTX-M9 group for E coli, the CTX-M2 group for K pneumoniae, and the CTX-M2 group for P mirabilis. E coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15, which is spreading worldwide, was first detected in 2007. The most common replicon type of E coli was the IncF type, particularly FIB, detected in 466 strains (69.7%). Of the K pneumoniae strains, 47 (55.3%) were of the IncN type; 77 P mirabilis strains (96.3%) were of the IncT type. In the future, the surveillance of various resistant bacteria, mainly ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, should be expanded to prevent their spread.

  10. Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract.

  11. Immunochemical characterization of the O antigens of two Proteus strains, O8-related antigen of Proteus mirabilis 12 B-r and O2-related antigen of Proteus genomospecies 5/6 12 B-k, infecting a hospitalized patient in Poland.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    A hospitalized 73-year-old woman was infected with a Proteus mirabilis strain, 12 B-r, isolated from the place of injection of a blood catheter. Another strain, 12 B-k, recognized as Proteus genomospecies 5 or 6, was isolated from the patient's faeces, which was an example of a nosocomial infection rather than an auto-infection. Serological investigation using ELISA and Western blotting showed that strain 12 B-k from faeces belonged to the Proteus O2 serogroup. Strain 12 B-r from the wound displayed cross-reactions with several Proteus O serogroups due to common epitopes on the core or O-specific parts of the lipopolysaccharide. Studies of the isolated 12 B-r O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy revealed its close structural similarity to that of Proteus O8. The only difference in 12 B-r was the presence of an additional GlcNAc-linked phosphoethanolamine residue, which creates a putative epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity with Pt. mirabilis O16. The new O-antigen form could appear as a result of adaptation of the bacterium to a changing environment. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest division of the O8 serogroup into two subgroups: O8a for strains of various Proteus species that have been previously classified into the O8 serogroup, and O8a,b for Pt. mirabilis 12 B-r, where 'a' is a common epitope and 'b' is a phosphoethanolamine-associated epitope. These findings further confirm serological and structural heterogeneity of O antigens of Proteus strains isolated lately from patients in Poland.

  12. Proteus mirabilis Genes That Contribute to Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infection: Identification of 25 Signature-Tagged Mutants Attenuated at Least 100-Fold

    PubMed Central

    Burall, Laurel S.; Harro, Janette M.; Li, Xin; Lockatell, C.Virginia; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Hebel, J. Richard; Johnson, David E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2004-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities or with long-term catheterization, forms bladder and kidney stones as a consequence of urease-mediated urea hydrolysis. Known virulence factors, besides urease, are hemolysin, fimbriae, metalloproteases, and flagella. In this study we utilized the CBA mouse model of ascending UTI to evaluate the colonization of mutants of P. mirabilis HI4320 that were generated by signature-tagged mutagenesis. By performing primary screening of 2,088 P. mirabilis transposon mutants, we identified 502 mutants that ranged from slightly attenuated to unrecoverable. Secondary screening of these mutants revealed that 114 transposon mutants were reproducibly attenuated. Cochallenge of 84 of these single mutants with the parent strain in the mouse model resulted in identification of 37 consistently out-competed P. mirabilis transposon mutants, 25 of which were out-competed >100-fold for colonization of the bladder and/or kidneys by the parent strain. We determined the sequence flanking the site of transposon insertion in 29 attenuated mutants and identified genes affecting motility, iron acquisition, transcriptional regulation, phosphate transport, urease activity, cell surface structure, and key metabolic pathways as requirements for P. mirabilis infection of the urinary tract. Two mutations localized to a ∼42-kb plasmid present in the parent strain, suggesting that the plasmid is important for colonization. Isolation of disrupted genes encoding proteins with homologies to known bacterial virulence factors, especially the urease accessory protein UreF and the disulfide formation protein DsbA, showed that the CBA mouse model and mutant pools are a reliable source of attenuated mutants with mutations in virulence genes. PMID:15102805

  13. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature.

  14. Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

  15. Nucleotide sequences of two fimbrial major subunit genes, pmpA and ucaA, from canine-uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, I G; van Dijk, L; Kusters, J G; Gaastra, W

    1995-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains were isolated from dogs with urinary tract infection (UTI) and fimbriae were prepared from two strains. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major fimbrial subunits were determined and both sequences appeared identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of a urinary cell adhesin (UCA) (Wray, S. K., Hull, S. I., Cook, R. G., Barrish, J. & Hull, R. A., 1986, Infect Immun 54, 43-49). The genes of two different major fimbrial subunits were cloned using oligonucleotide probes that were designed on the basis of the N-terminal UCA sequence. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the complete ucaA gene of 540 bp (from strain IVB247) encoding a polypeptide of 180 amino acids, including a 22 amino acid signal sequence peptide, and the pmpA (P. mirabilis P-like pili) gene of 549 bp (from strain IVB219) encoding a polypeptide of 183 amino acids, including a 23 amino acid signal sequence. Hybridization experiments gave clear indications of the presence of both kinds of fimbriae in many UTI-related canine P. mirabilis isolates. However, the presence of these fimbriae could not be demonstrated in P. vulgaris or other Proteus-related species. Database analysis of amino acid sequences of major subunit proteins revealed that the UcaA protein shares about 56% amino acid identity with the F17A and F111A major fimbrial subunits from bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. In turn, the PmpA protein more closely resembled the pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap)-like major subunit protein from UTI-related E. coli. The evolutionary relationship of UcaA, PmpA and various other fimbrial subunit proteins is presented in a phylogenetic tree.

  16. [Antibiotic sensitivity of Proteus, Pseudomonas pyocyanea and staphyloccoci isolated from scleroma and ozena patients].

    PubMed

    Krylov, I A

    1977-01-01

    Antibiotic sensitivity of 292 strains of Proteus, 60 strains of Ps, aeruginosa, 309 strains of S. aureus and 88 strains of S. epidermidis isolated from the upper respiratory tract of patients with scleroma and ozena was studied. The cultures of Pr. mirabilis were sensitive to aminoglucosides (54.9-96.2 per cent) and Pr. morganii were sensitive to levomycetin (81.5 per cent) and neomycin (92.6 per cnet). Sensitivity of Pr. vulgaris and Pr. morganii was reliably higher (p less than 0.001) than that of Pr. mirabilis. The strains of Pr. morganii were less sensitive to monomycin (P less than 0.001) and streptomycin (p less than 0.01) as compared to the cultures of other Proteus species tested. The strains of Ps. aeruginosa were sensitive only to gentamicin (90 per cent) and neomycin (81.1 per cent). Most of the strains of S. aureus (85.4-100 per cent) were sensitive to oleadomycin, erythromycin, olemorphocycline, tetraolean, oxacillin, methicillin ceporin, lincomycin, ristomycin, kanamycin, monomycin and gentamicin. Benzylpenicillin (90.8 per cent of the sensitive strains), ampicillin (67.1 per cent), tetracycline (66.7 per cent), levomycetin (68.6 per cent) and streptomycin (38.1 per cent) were less effective. Antibacterial therapy in cases with scleroma and ozena should be directed not only against causative agents of the diseases but also against the microbes developing due to disbacteriosis. Combination of parenteral and local use of the antibiotics in the treatment of chronic clebsiellesis decreased the isolation rate of Proteus and Ps. aeruginosa in the patients.

  17. Community spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis: a long-term study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yong; Shimoda, Shinji; Yakushiji, Hiroko; Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Kamimura, Tomohiko; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi

    2013-07-01

    Community-acquired infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, particularly CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli, are a rising concern worldwide. There are few data from Japan on the acquisition of ESBLs in the community or the influx of these bacteria into hospitals. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of ESBL carriage in outpatients, in order to estimate the spread of ESBLs in community settings. We analysed bacterial isolates from outpatient samples at our institution over a 9-year period from 2003 to 2011, with respect to epidemiological data on ESBL-producing bacteria and their genotypic features. Out of 5137 isolates, 321 (6.3 %) were ESBL producers, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The detection rates of the ESBL-producing isolates gradually increased and reached 14.3, 8.7 and 19.6 % for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis strains, respectively, in 2011. Genotyping analysis showed that many of the strains produced multiple β-lactamases, including TEM, SHV and CTX-M, rather than just CTX-M. The CTX-M-9 group was dominant among the CTX-M genotypes; further, the CTX-M-1 and M-2 groups were also detected (~30 %). This is believed to be the first report from Japan showing a definite increase in ESBL detection in outpatients. In addition, our findings suggest the simultaneous community spread of diverse ESBL genotypes, not an expansion of particular ESBL genes.

  18. β-Lactamases Responsible for Resistance to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Recovered in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pitout, J. D. D.; Thomson, K. S.; Hanson, N. D.; Ehrhardt, A. F.; Moland, E. S.; Sanders, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Although resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible β-lactamases occurs virtually worldwide, little is known about this problem among isolates recovered in South Africa. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from patients in various parts of South Africa over a 3-month period were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamase production. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard disk diffusion and agar dilution procedures. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases was evaluated by using the double-disk test, and the β-lactamases were characterized by spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays and an isoelectric focusing overlay technique which simultaneously determined isoelectric points and general substrate or inhibitor characteristics. DNA amplification and sequencing were performed to confirm the identities of these enzymes. The P. mirabilis and E. coli isolates were found to produce TEM-26-type, SHV-2, and SHV-5 extended-spectrum β-lactamases. An AmpC-related enzyme which had a pI of 8.0 and which conferred resistance to cefoxitin as well as the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins was found in a strain of K. pneumoniae. This is the first study which has identified organisms producing different extended-spectrum β-lactamases from South Africa and the first report describing strains of P. mirabilis producing a TEM-26-type enzyme. The variety of extended-spectrum β-lactamases found among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from major medical centers in South Africa is troubling and adds to the growing list of countries where these enzymes pose a serious problem for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:9624474

  19. Carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tang, Hung-Jen; Huang, Chi-Chang; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chu, Fang-Yeh; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-11-01

    This study was intended to delineate the role of carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam in treating bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis. We performed a multicenter and retrospective study of the patients with ESBL-producing P. mirabilis bacteremia. The outcomes of the patients treated by piperacillin/tazobactam or a carbapenem for at least 48 hours and the MICs of the prescribed drugs for these isolates were analyzed. Forty-seven patients with available clinical data were included. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 29.8%. All available isolates (n = 44) were susceptible to ertapenem, meropenem, and doripenem, and 95.6% were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam; however, only 11.4% of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Among the 3 patients infected with isolates exhibiting non-susceptibility to imipenem (MIC ≥2 mg/L) who were treated with imipenem, none died within 28 days. The 30-day (14.3% versus 23.1%, P = 0.65) or in-hospital (19.1% versus 30.8%, P = 0.68) mortality rate of 21 patients treated by a carbapenem was lower than that of 13 treated by piperacillin/tazobactam. However, among those treated by piperacillin/tazobactam, the mortality rate of those infected by the isolates with lower piperacillin/tazobactam MICs (≤0.5/4 mg/L) was lower than that of the isolates with MICs of ≥1/4 mg/L (0%, 0/7 versus 60%, 3/5; P = 0.045). ESBL-producing P. mirabilis bacteremia is associated with significant mortality, and carbapenem therapy could be regarded as the drugs of choice. The role of piperacillin/tazobactam, especially for the infections due to the isolates with an MIC ≤0.5/4 mg/L, warrants more clinical studies.

  20. Differentiation of polyvalent bacteriophages specific to uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains based on the host range pattern and RFLP.

    PubMed

    Maszewska, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Ewelina; Ciurzyńska, Aneta; Wojtasik, Arkadiusz; Piątkowska, Iwona; Dastych, Jarosław; Różalski, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by P. mirabilis are difficult to cure because of the increasing antimicrobial resistance of these bacteria. Phage therapy is proposed as an alternative infection treatment. The aim of this study was to isolate and differentiate uropathogenic P. mirabilis strain specific polyvalent bacteriophages producing polysaccharide depolymerases (PDs). 51 specific phages were obtained. The plaques of 29 bacteriophages were surrounded by halos, which indicated that they produced PDs. The host range analysis showed that, except phages 58B and 58C, the phage host range profiles differed from each other. Phages 35 and 45 infected all P. mirabilis strains tested. Another 10 phages lysed more than 90% of isolates. Among these phages, 65A, 70, 66 and 66A caused a complete lysis of the bacterial lawn formed by 62% to 78% of strains. Additionally, phages 39A and 70 probably produced PDs. The phages' DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis demonstrated that genomes of 51 isolated phages represented 34 different restriction profiles. DNA of phage 58A seemed to be resistant to selected EcoRV endonuclease. The 33 RFLP-EcoRV profiles showed a Dice similarity index of 38.8%. 22 RFLP patterns were obtained from single phage isolates. The remaining 12 restriction profiles consisted of 2 to 4 viruses. The results obtained from phage characterization based on the pattern of phage host range in combination with the RFLP method enabled effective differentiation of the studied phages and selection of PD producing polyvalent phages for further study.

  1. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Norsworthy, Allison N; Sun, Tung-Tien; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-04-19

    The catheter-associated uropathogenProteus mirabilisfrequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found thatP. mirabilisrapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistantProteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation byP. mirabilisstands in direct contrast to uropathogenicEscherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism ofP. mirabilissurvival and virulence in the bladder.

  2. Characterization and Sequence Analysis of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Encoding Genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Collected during Tigecycline Phase 3 Clinical Trials▿

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. Hal; Tuckman, Margareta; Keeney, David; Ruzin, Alexey; Bradford, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    In concert with the development of novel β-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded β-lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were developed to identify and clone the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCTX genes from clinical strains. Isolates were also screened for AmpC genes of the blaCMY, blaACT, blaFOX, and blaDHA families as well as the blaKPC genes encoding class A carbapenemases. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates with ceftazidime MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were designated possible ESBL-producing pathogens and were then subjected to a confirmatory test for ESBLs by use of Etest. Of 272 unique patient isolates, 239 were confirmed by PCR and sequencing to carry the genes for at least one ESBL, with 44% of the positive isolates harboring the genes for multiple ESBLs. In agreement with current trends for ESBL distribution, blaCTX-M-type β-lactamase genes were found in 83% and 71% of the ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively, whereas blaSHV genes were found in 41% and 28% of the ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were tigecycline susceptible (MIC90 = 2 μg/ml), warranting further studies to define the therapeutic utility of tigecycline against strains producing ESBLs in a clinical setting. PMID:19015360

  3. Characterization and sequence analysis of extended-spectrum-{beta}-lactamase-encoding genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Hal; Tuckman, Margareta; Keeney, David; Ruzin, Alexey; Bradford, Patricia A

    2009-02-01

    In concert with the development of novel beta-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded beta-lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were developed to identify and clone the bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(OXA), and bla(CTX) genes from clinical strains. Isolates were also screened for AmpC genes of the bla(CMY), bla(ACT), bla(FOX), and bla(DHA) families as well as the bla(KPC) genes encoding class A carbapenemases. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates with ceftazidime MICs of > or =2 microg/ml were designated possible ESBL-producing pathogens and were then subjected to a confirmatory test for ESBLs by use of Etest. Of 272 unique patient isolates, 239 were confirmed by PCR and sequencing to carry the genes for at least one ESBL, with 44% of the positive isolates harboring the genes for multiple ESBLs. In agreement with current trends for ESBL distribution, bla(CTX-M)-type beta-lactamase genes were found in 83% and 71% of the ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively, whereas bla(SHV) genes were found in 41% and 28% of the ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were tigecycline susceptible (MIC(90) = 2 microg/ml), warranting further studies to define the therapeutic utility of tigecycline against strains producing ESBLs in a clinical setting.

  4. Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in the sera of ankylosing spondylitis patients with/without iritis and enthesitis.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Ikola, O; Lehtinen, K; Toivanen, P; Granfors, K

    1995-05-01

    IgM, IgG and IgA class serum antibodies against the whole Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis bacteria, as well as against K. pneumoniae and E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) were studied earlier in the sera of 98 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and in 102 healthy blood donors by enzyme immunoassay. In this study the patients were divided into groups according to the clinical picture, i.e. presence or absence of iritis and enthesitis. The previous major finding of increased IgA class antibody levels against the whole K. pneumoniae bacteria in AS patients when compared to the healthy controls was not specifically associated with any single patient group in the present study. However, the patients with iritis had higher levels of IgA class antibodies to LPS of K. pneumoniae and E. coli when compared to the patients without iritis. In addition, the patients without enthesitis had higher level of IgG class antibodies against whole K. pneumoniae bacteria compared to the patients with enthesitis. The increased IgA class antibody levels against K. pneumoniae and E. coli LPS in AS patients with iritis may reflect an inflammatory process in the gut area. Furthermore, there were certain other differences in the immunological parameters between the AS patients with and without iritis or enthesitis and the possibility that they reflect different mechanisms involved in the disease processes cannot be excluded.

  5. Treatment of endocarditis due to Proteus species: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ankur; Cooley, Christine; Tsigrelis, Constantine

    2011-04-01

    Endocarditis due to Proteus species is very rare. We report a case of endocarditis due to Proteus mirabilis that was successfully treated with ampicillin and gentamicin, and review the treatment regimens of previously published cases of Proteus endocarditis.

  6. In vitro activity of flomoxef and comparators against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwen; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Zhipeng; Xu, Yingchun; Cao, Bin; Kong, Haishen; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Sun, Ziyong; Hu, Bijie; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Liao, Kang; Shen, Dingxia; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Lu, Juan; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the in vitro activity of flomoxef against clinical extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 401 ESBL-producing isolates, including 196 Escherichia coli, 124 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 81 Proteus mirabilis, were collected consecutively from 21 hospitals in China in 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution methods. Phenotypic identification of ESBL production was detected as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). ESBL genes were detected by PCR and sequencing. Flomoxef, doripenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefmetazole and piperacillin/tazobactam exhibited good activity against ESBL-producing isolates, with susceptibility rates >90%. Tigecycline showed good activity against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (100% and 97.6%, respectively). Cefotaxime and cefepime showed very low activities against ESBL-producing isolates, with susceptibility rates of 0-0.8% and 1.0-13.6%, respectively. blaCTX-M were the major ESBL genes, with occurrence in 99.5% of E. coli, 91.1% of K. pneumoniae and 97.5% of P. mirabilis. blaCTX-M-14 was the predominant ESBL gene, detected in 46.9% (188/401) of the isolates, followed by blaCTX-M-15 (21.4%), blaCTX-M-55 (17.2%), blaCTX-M-65 (12.7%) and blaCTX-M-3 (6.7%). Flomoxef exhibited excellent activity against the different CTX-M-type ESBL-producing isolates, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.064-0.125μg/mL and 0.25-0.5μg/mL, respectively. Against the isolates solely producing CTX-M-14, -15, -55, -3 or -65, flomoxef showed susceptibility rates of 98.6%, 98.0%, 98.1%, 100.0% and 97.4%, respectively. In conclusion, flomoxef showed good activity against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and may be a choice to treat infections caused by these isolates in China.

  7. A binational cohort study of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in patients admitted to rehabilitation centres.

    PubMed

    Adler, A; Baraniak, A; Izdebski, R; Fiett, J; Gniadkowski, M; Hryniewicz, W; Salvia, A; Rossini, A; Goossens, H; Malhotra, S; Lerman, Y; Elenbogen, M; Carmeli, Y

    2013-02-01

    The aims of our study were to analyse the risk factors for colonization by Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis (ESBL-PM) in rehabilitation patients and to characterize the molecular features of these strains. The study was conducted in two rehabilitation centres located in Rome, Italy (Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS (FSL)), and Tel-Aviv, Israel (Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (TASMC)). Carriage of ESBL-PM was surveyed by rectal swabs. Strain typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identification of ESBL genes was done by PCR and sequencing. Patients admitted to the same institutions without ESBL carriage were included as controls. The study group included 70 and 41 patients from FSL and TASMC, respectively. In FSL, the multivariate analysis identified severe acute brain injury (OR = 15, 95% CI = 3.2-69.5, p 0.001), decubitus ulcer (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.2-9.8, p 0.018) and recent treatment with quinolones (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.07-30.1, p 0.042) as independent risk factors. ESBL-PM carriers stayed longer in the hospital on average and were less likely to be discharged home. No significant risk factor was identified in TASMC. There were no similarities in PFGE types or ESBL genes between the ESBL-PM isolates from the two institutions. In both hospitals, a variety of PFGE types existed but a single ESBL type predominated, namely TEM-92 in FSL (n = 64/70; 91%) and CTX-M-2 in TASMC (n = 37/41; 90%). A new TEM ESBL variant, TEM-177 was identified in FSL. The clonal diversity and the predominance of a single ESBL type suggested that horizontal gene transfer played an important role in dissemination of resistance. The development of a population analysis tool that would allow tracing deeper genetic relationships is required.

  8. One-step production of α-ketoglutaric acid from glutamic acid with an engineered L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-03-10

    Currently, α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) is industrially produced by multi-step chemical synthesis, which can cause heavy environmental pollution. Here we reported a simple one-step approach for the production of α-KG by transforming l-glutamic acid with an engineered l-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) from Proteus mirabilis. First, to facilitate the purification of membrane-bound l-AAD, one N-terminal transmembrane region (from 21 to 87th nucleotide) was removed from l-AAD to block the binding of l-AAD with membrane, and the relatively low-usage codons were replaced by high-usage codons in Escherichia coli to improve the expression level. However, inclusion bodies formed when expressing the ΔN-LAAD in E. coli BL 21, and then the soluble and active ΔN-LAAD was obtained by the solubilization and renaturation of ΔN-LAAD. Furthermore, the biochemical properties of the refolded ΔN-LAAD were characterized and compared with those of full-length l-AAD. Finally, the ΔN-LAAD was used to synthesize α-KG and the maximal formation rate of α-KG reached 12.6% (w/w) at 6h under the following conditions: 12g/L l-glutamic acid, 0.1g/L ΔN-LAAD, 5mM MgCl2, temperature 45°C and pH 8.0. Compared with the multi-step chemical synthesis, the transformation approach has less environmental pollution and has a great potential for α-KG production.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of MPL and delivery route on immunogenicity and protectivity of different formulations of FimH and MrpH from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in a UTI mouse model.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are an important cause of morbidity and with the high rate of relapse and spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens, pose a significant public health challenge worldwide. Lack of an efficacious commercial vaccine targeting both uropathogens makes development of a combined vaccine highly desirable. In this study the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different formulations of FimH of UPEC, MrpH of P. mirabilis and their fusion protein (MrpH.FimH) subcutaneously administered with and without Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant were evaluated. Our data showed that the subcutaneously administered proteins induced both serum and mucosal IgG, which MPL significantly improved developing a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. However, the preparations induced a higher systemic and mucosal IgG and IL-2 levels by this route compared to the intranasal. Immunization of mice with MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL or a mixture of FimH, MrpH and MPL conferred the highest protection of the bladder and kidneys when challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis in a UTI mouse model. Therefore considering these results MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL administered subcutaneously or intranasally could be a promising vaccine candidate for elimination of UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis.

  10. The novel CTX-M-116 β-lactamase gene discovered in Proteus mirabilis is composed of parts of the CTX-M-22 and CTX-M-23 genes.

    PubMed

    Fursova, N; Pryamchuk, S; Kruglov, A; Abaev, I; Pecherskikh, E; Kartsev, N; Svetoch, E; Dyatlov, I

    2013-03-01

    The novel β-lactamase gene bla(CTX-M-116) was identified in a Proteus mirabilis nosocomial isolate recovered from the urine of a patient in Moscow in 2005. DNA sequence analysis showed bla(CTX-M-116) to be a hybrid gene consisting of 5' bla(CTX-M-23) (nucleotides 1 to 278) and 3' bla(CTX-M-22) (nucleotides 286 to 876) moieties separated by an intervening putative site of recombination (GTTAAAT). A retrospective analysis of available bla(CTX-M) genes in the GenBank database revealed 19 bla(CTX-M) genes that display the same hybrid structure.

  11. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus mirabilis isolated from urinary tract infections in Egyptian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Mai M; Wasfi, Reham

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA) and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC β-lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC β-lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 β-lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt.

  12. Production of phenylpyruvic acid from L-phenylalanine using an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis: comparison of enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation approaches.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng

    2015-10-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an important organic acid that has a wide range of applications. In this study, the membrane-bound L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD) gene from Proteus mirabilis KCTC 2566 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then the L-AAD was purified. After that, we used the purified enzyme and the recombinant E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst to produce PPA via a one-step biotransformation from L-phenylalanine. L-AAD was solubilized from the membrane and purified 52-fold with an overall yield of 13 %, which corresponded to a specific activity of 0.94 ± 0.01 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1). Then, the biotransformation conditions for the pure enzyme and the whole-cell biocatalyst were optimized. The maximal production was 2.6 ± 0.1 g·L(-1) (specific activity of 1.02 ± 0.02 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 86.7 ± 5 % mass conversion rate, and 1.04 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) and 3.3 ± 0.2 g L(-1) (specific activity of 0.013 ± 0.003 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 82.5 ± 4 % mass conversion rate, and 0.55 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) for the pure enzyme and whole-cell biocatalyst, respectively. Comparative studies of the enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation were performed in terms of specific activity, production, conversion, productivity, stability, need of external cofactors, and recycling. We have developed two eco-friendly and efficient approaches for PPA production. The strategy described herein may aid the biotransformational synthesis of other α-keto acids from their corresponding amino acids.

  13. Evaluation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute phenotypic confirmatory test to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases from 4005 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ian; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl; Badal, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    A subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected for the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends that were positive for the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic confirmatory test (n = 3245) or had an ertapenem MIC of ≥0.5 µg ml(-1) (n = 293), or both (n = 467), were analysed for ESBL genes. Most ESBL phenotype E. coli or K. pneumoniae possessed an ESBL gene (95.8 and 88.4 %, respectively), and this was 93.1 % if carbapenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were removed. This rate was lower for P. mirabilis (73.4 %) and K. oxytoca (62.5 %). Virtually all ESBL-positive isolates (99.5 %) were cefotaxime non-susceptible [CLSI or European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints)]. Fewer isolates (82 %) were ceftazidime non-susceptible (CLSI breakpoints). In addition, 21.1 % of E. coli, 25 % of K. oxytoca and 78.7 % of P. mirabilis isolates were ceftazidime susceptible but ESBL positive. This suggests that CLSI breakpoints for ceftazidime are too high to detect ESBLs. The lower EUCAST breakpoints detected ESBLs in E. coli and K. oxytoca better, but 59.6 % of ESBL-positive isolates of P. mirabilis were ceftazidime susceptible. For isolates with ertapenem MICs ≥0.5 µg ml(-1), more accurate ESBL phenotype analysis was observed for E. coli and K. pneumoniae (sensitivity >95 % for both, specificity 94.4 and 54.1 %, respectively). If carbapenemase-positive K. pneumoniae were excluded, the specificity increased to 78 %. The positive predictive values for the ESBL phenotypic test with E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 97.6 and 81.8 %, respectively, and negative predictive values were 75.9 and 95.2 %, respectively. We therefore suggest that it would be prudent to confirm phenotypic ESBL-positive P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca with molecular analysis.

  14. Transcriptional analysis of the MrpJ network: modulation of diverse virulence-associated genes and direct regulation of mrp fimbrial and flhDC flagellar operons in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Bode, Nadine J; Debnath, Irina; Kuan, Lisa; Schulfer, Anjelique; Ty, Maureen; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-06-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is associated with a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Strict regulation of the antagonistic processes of adhesion and motility, mediated by fimbriae and flagella, respectively, is essential for disease progression. Previously, the transcriptional regulator MrpJ, which is encoded by the mrp fimbrial operon, has been shown to repress both swimming and swarming motility. Here we show that MrpJ affects an array of cellular processes beyond adherence and motility. Microarray analysis found that expression of mrpJ mimicking levels observed during UTIs leads to differential expression of 217 genes related to, among other functions, bacterial virulence, type VI secretion, and metabolism. We probed the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MrpJ using transcriptional reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Binding of MrpJ to two virulence-associated target gene promoters, the promoters of the flagellar master regulator flhDC and mrp itself, appears to be affected by the condensation state of the native chromosome, although both targets share a direct MrpJ binding site proximal to the transcriptional start. Furthermore, an mrpJ deletion mutant colonized the bladders of mice at significantly lower levels in a transurethral model of infection. Additionally, we observed that mrpJ is widely conserved in a collection of recent clinical isolates. Altogether, these findings support a role of MrpJ as a global regulator of P. mirabilis virulence.

  15. Construction of a flagellum-negative mutant of Proteus mirabilis: effect on internalization by human renal epithelial cells and virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, H L; Belas, R; Lockatell, V; Chippendale, G; Trifillis, A L; Johnson, D E; Warren, J W

    1996-01-01

    To examine the role of flagella in pathogenesis of urinary tract infection caused by Proteus mirabilis, we constructed a nonmotile, nonswarming flagellum mutant of strain WPM111 (an hpmA hemolysin mutant of strain BA6163, chosen because of its lack of in vitro cytotoxicity in renal epithelial cell internalization studies). A nonpolar mutation was introduced into the flaD gene, which encodes the flagellar cap protein. This mutation does not affect the synthesis of flagellin but rather prevents the assembly of an intact flagellar filament. In in vitro assays, the genetically characterized nonmotile mutant was found to be internalized by cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells in numbers less than 1% of those of the flagellated parent strain. Internalization of the nonmotile mutant was increased significantly (14- to 21-fold) by centrifugation onto the monolayer. To assess virulence in vivo, CBA mice were challenged transurethrally with 10(7) CFU of P. mirabilis BA6163 (wild type) (n = 16), WPM111 (hpmA mutant) (n = 46), or BB2401 (hmpA flaD mutant) (n = 46). Differences in quantitative cultures between the parent strain and the hemolysin-negative mutant were not significant. However, the hpmA flaD mutant was recovered in numbers approximately 100-fold lower than those of the hmpA mutant or the wild-type parent strain and thus was clearly attenuated. We conclude that while hemolysin does not significantly influence virulence, flagella contribute significantly to the ability of P. mirabilis to colonize the urinary tract and cause acute pyelonephritis in an experimental model of ascending urinary tract infection. PMID:8945585

  16. Role of the Umo proteins and the Rcs phosphorelay in the swarming motility of the wild type and an O-antigen (waaL) mutant of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Morgenstein, Randy M; Rather, Philip N

    2012-02-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that exists as a short rod when grown in liquid medium, but during growth on surfaces it undergoes a distinct physical and biochemical change that culminates in the formation of a swarmer cell. How P. mirabilis senses a surface is not fully understood; however, the inhibition of flagellar rotation and accumulation of putrescine have been proposed to be sensory mechanisms. Our lab recently isolated a transposon insertion in waaL, encoding O-antigen ligase, that resulted in a loss of swarming but not swimming motility. The waaL mutant failed to activate flhDC, the class 1 activator of the flagellar gene cascade, when grown on solid surfaces. Swarming in the waaL mutant was restored by overexpression of flhDC in trans or by a mutation in the response regulator rcsB. To further investigate the role of the Rcs signal transduction pathway and its possible relationship with O-antigen surface sensing, mutations were made in the rcsC, rcsB, rcsF, umoB (igaA), and umoD genes in wild-type and waaL backgrounds. Comparison of the swarming phenotypes of the single and double mutants and of strains overexpressing combinations of the UmoB, UmoD, and RcsF proteins demonstrated the following: (i) there is a differential effect of RcsF and UmoB on swarming in wild-type and waaL backgrounds, (ii) RcsF inhibits UmoB activity but not UmoD activity in a wild-type background, and (iii) UmoD is able to modulate activity of the Rcs system.

  17. Proteus species isolated from human eyes.

    PubMed

    Okumoto, M; Smolin, G; Belfort, R; Kim, H B; Siverio, C E

    1976-04-01

    Of 34 species of Proteus isolated from human eyes, 29 (85%) were P. mirabilis and five (15%) were P. morganii. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity studies showed that gentamicin best controlled both P. mirabilis and P. morganii of all the antibiotics tested. In vivo tests on experimental Proteus infections of rabbit coreas, treated with gentamicin and tobramycin, yielded comparable clinical results, but gentamicin was more effective in eliminating the organism from the experimental lesions.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of a Proteus mirabilis DNA fragment homologous to the 60K-rnpA-rpmH-dnaA-dnaN-recF-gyrB region of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, O

    1990-09-01

    A 6.5-kb DNA fragment from Proteus mirabilis hybridized to the Escherichia coli dnaA gene. This DNA fragment was cloned and the nucleotide (nt) sequence determined. The fragment is homologous to a region of the E. coli chromosome containing a part of the gene encoding a 60-kDa membrane-associated protein (60K), the rnpA-rpmH-dnaA-dnaN-recF genes, and the N-terminal part of the gyrB gene. The degree of homology is variable: the amino-acid (aa) sequence of a part of the 60K protein and a part of the DnaA protein is only minimally conserved, whereas the C-terminal 148 aa of DnaA are identical in the two species. The conservation of the nt sequence between the rnpA gene and the gene encoding the 60K protein suggests that this region encodes a hitherto unrecognized protein. The ORF for this protein partially overlaps the 3' end of the rnpA structural gene, and the degree of conservation suggests that this gene is important for these bacteria.

  19. [Proteus penneri].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Moreno, M Paz; Morosini Reilly, María Isabel

    2006-10-01

    Proteus penneri, formerly P. vulgaris biogroup 1, was recognized as a new species in 1982. This species is associated with clinical processes similar to those involving P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris and expresses similar pathogenic determinants. In clinical samples, P. penneri is mainly isolated from urine (50%), wound and soft tissue exudates (25%), and blood cultures (15%), mostly of nosocomial origin. Although P. penneri is easy to identify, it can be misidentified as P. vulgaris by automatic systems that do not include the indol test result in the identification process. This species has a characteristic susceptibility profile, essentially due to the production of the chromosomal inducible beta-lactamase HugA, which presents a high homology (86%) with CumA from P. vulgaris. HugA is inhibited by clavulanic acid and determines resistance to aminopenicillins and first- and second-generation cephalosporins, including cefuroxime, but does not affect cephamycins or carbapenems, and is inhibited by clavulanic acid. HugA is derepressed due to mutational processes in gene regulators, affecting the activity of cefotaxime and, to a much lesser extent, that of ceftazidime and aztreonam. This phenotype resembles the production of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase. Like other Proteus species, P. penneri is resistant to tetracyclines and should be considered resistant to nitrofurantoin.

  20. [Synergism of colistin and sulfonamide in proteus species (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kunz, H H

    1975-11-01

    In agar diffusion testing of Proteus mirabilis strains sensitive to sulfonamide a synergistic effect of colistine (C) and sulfonamide (S) was demonstrated. By quantitative evaluation these results were confirmed in 100 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 100 strains of indol-positive Proteus spp. using broth dilution method. Combining 1 part C with 10 parts S the mean increase in sulfonamide sensitivity was enhanced fourfold. Increasing the inoculum sensitivity of Proteus against the combination of C and S was still found to range within therapeutic blood levels. Therefore in treatment of Proteus infection the positive synergistic effect of C+S should be taken into consideration.

  1. Propensity score-matched analysis comparing the therapeutic efficacies of cefazolin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of cefazolin was compared with that of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. or Proteus mirabilis (EKP). Compared with cefazolin-treated patients (n = 135), significantly higher proportions of patients in the ESC treatment group (n = 456) had critical illness at bacteraemia onset (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). Of the 591 patients, 121 from each group were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) based on the following independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification); Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4 at bacteraemia onset; initial syndrome of septic shock; and bacteraemia due to pneumonia. After appropriate PSM, no significant differences were observed in the early clinical failure rate (10.7% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.37), the proportion of critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) (0% vs. 0%; P = 1.00) and defervescence (52.6% vs. 42.6%; P = 0.13) on Day 3 between the cefazolin and ESC treatment groups. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the mean of time to defervescence (4.1 days vs. 4.9 days; P = 0.15), late clinical failure rate (18.2% vs. 10.7%; P = 0.10) and 28-day crude mortality rate (0.8% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.37) between the two groups. These data suggest that the efficacy of cefazolin is similar to that of ESCs when used as appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment for community-onset EKP bacteraemia.

  2. Bioconversion of l-glutamic acid to α-ketoglutaric acid by an immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst expressing l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop an immobilized whole-cell biocatalytic process for the environment-friendly synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) from l-glutamic acid. We compared the suitability of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains overexpressing Proteus mirabilisl-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) as potential biocatalysts. Although both recombinant strains were biocatalytically active, the performance of B. subtilis was superior to that of E. coli. With l-glutamic acid as the substrate, α-KG production levels by membranes isolated from B. subtilis and E. coli were 55.3±1.73 and 21.7±0.39μg/mg protein/min, respectively. The maximal conversion ratio of l-glutamic acid to α-KG was 31% (w/w) under the following optimal conditions: 15g/L l-glutamic acid, 20g/L whole-cell biocatalyst, 5mM MgCl2, 40°C, pH 8.0, and 24-h incubation. Immobilization of whole cells with alginate increased the recyclability by an average of 23.33% per cycle. This work established an efficient one-step biotransformation process for the production of α-KG using immobilized whole B. subtilis overexpressing P. mirabilisl-AAD. Compared with traditional multistep chemical synthesis, the biocatalytic process described here has the advantage of reducing environmental pollution and thus has great potential for the large-scale production of α-KG.

  3. Proteus Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Cash Donation Life Insurance Gift Matching Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome ... approved by the Proteus Syndrome Foundation Assessment and management of the orthopedic and other complications of Proteus ...

  4. Chromosomal location of the fosA3 and blaCTX-M genes in Proteus mirabilis and clonal spread of Escherichia coli ST117 carrying fosA3-positive IncHI2/ST3 or F2:A-:B- plasmids in a chicken farm.

    PubMed

    He, Dandan; Liu, Lanping; Guo, Baowei; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spread and location of the fosA3 gene among Enterobacteriaceae from diseased broiler chickens. Twenty-nine Escherichia coli and seven Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from one chicken farm were screened for the presence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes by PCR. The clonal relatedness of fosA3-positive isolates, the transferability and location of fosA3, and the genetic context of the fosA3 gene were determined. Seven P. mirabilis isolates with three different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and five E. coli isolates belonging to sequence type 117 (ST117) and phylogenetic group D were positive for fosA3 and all carried the blaCTX-M gene. In E. coli, the genetic structures IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-65-IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-3-blaTEM-1-IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 were present on transferable IncHI2/ST3 and F2:A-:B- plasmids, respectively. However, fosA3 was located on the chromosome of the seven P. mirabilis isolates. IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-65-IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-blaCTX-M-14-611 bp-fosA3-1222 bp-IS26 were detected in three and four P. mirabilis isolates, respectively. Minicircles that contained both fosA3 and blaCTX-M-65 were shared between E. coli and P. mirabilis. This is the first report of the fosA3 gene integrated into the chromosome of P. mirabilis isolates with the blaCTX-M gene. The emergence and clonal spread of avian pathogenic E. coli ST117 with the feature of multidrug resistance and high virulence are a serious problem.

  5. [Proteus bacilli: features and virulence factors].

    PubMed

    Rózalski, Antoni; Kwil, Iwona; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Baranowska, Magdalena; Staczek, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    In this article, different aspects of virulence factors of Proteus bacilii (P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri i P. hauseri) are presented. These are opportunistic pathogens that cause different kinds of infections, most frequently of the urinary tract. These bacteria have developed several virulence factors, such as adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic activity, urea hydrolysis, proteolysis, and endotoxicity. Below we focus on data concerning the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of Proteus bacilli.

  6. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... 1 Trial with ARQ 092 in Proteus Syndrome Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  7. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kotełko, K

    1997-01-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  8. Cloning of a creatinase gene from Pseudomonas putida in Escherichia coli by using an indicator plate.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, M C; Chang, C C; Chang, J C

    1992-01-01

    A genomic library of Pseudomonas putida DNA was constructed by using plasmid pBR322. Transformants of Escherichia coli in combination with Proteus mirabilis cells grown on creatinase test plates were screened for creatinase activity; transformants were considered positive for creatinase activity if a red-pink zone appeared around the colonies. One creatinase-positive clone was further analyzed, and the gene was reduced to a 2.7-kb DNA fragment. A unique protein band (with a molecular weight of approximately 50,000) was observed in recombinant E. coli by minicell analysis. Images PMID:1444379

  9. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Proteus penneri: a rare missed pathogen?

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Verma, Himani; Asthana, Ashish K; Madan, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as Proteus mirabilis, often missing out isolates of Proteus penneri. We report a case of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing and multidrug-resistant P. penneri isolated from pus from pressure sore of a patient of road traffic accident. Correct and rapid isolation and identification of such resistant pathogen are important as they are significant nosocomial threat.

  10. [Biochemical differentiation of proteus strains from various clinical materials].

    PubMed

    Józefowicz-Piatkowska, H; Woch, G

    1993-01-01

    The material consisted of 729 strain of Proteus isolated from clinical samples in three microbiological laboratories of city of Lódź region. Our of these strains, 466 were Proteus mirabilis, and remaining represented: P. penneri-13 strains, P. vulgaris (II biogroup)-56 and 54 strains which were not classifiable on the basis of biochemical properties and scheme elaborated by Hickman et al. for biogroups of P. vulgaris. The authors indicate feasibility of differentiation of P. vulgaris basing on biochemical tests as a supplementary method to other tests of intracellular differentiation of Proteus.

  11. Proteus endocarditis in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rohan; Sekar, Baskar; Payne, Mark N

    2015-11-26

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition with adverse consequences and increased mortality, despite improvements in treatment options. Diagnosed patients usually require a prolonged course of antibiotics, with up to 40-50% requiring surgery during initial hospital admission. We report a case of a 42-year-old intravenous drug user who presented feeling generally unwell, with lethargy, rigours, confusion and a painful swollen right leg. He was subsequently diagnosed with Proteus mirabilis endocarditis (fulfilling modified Duke criteria for possible IE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). He was successfully treated with single antibiotic therapy without needing surgical intervention or requiring anticoagulation for his DVT. Proteus endocarditis is extremely uncommon, with a limited number of case reports available in the literature. This case illustrates how blood cultures are invaluable in the diagnosis of IE, especially that due to unusual microorganisms. Our case also highlights how single antibiotic therapy can be effective in treating Proteus endocarditis.

  12. In vitro sensitivity of Proteus organisms to gentamicin and sisomicin.

    PubMed

    Legakis, N J; Sakellaropoulos, R; Papavassiliou, J

    1979-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of gentamicin and sisomicin was studied in 148 recent clinical isolates of Proteus obtained from patients hospitalized in Athens. Both gentamicin and sisomicin were found to be active with sisomicin generally being the more active of the two; P. mirabilis strains were less susceptible than the indole-positive strains, but P. mirabilis organisms isolated from the respiratory tract were more sensitive to sisomicin than those isolated from the urine. Susceptibility testing with the two aminoglycoside antibiotics was affected by inoculum size and by the test broth used. Sisomicin sensitivity testing with the disc-agar diffusion method and broth dilution method was reliable for the indole-positive strains of Proteus but did not separate all sensitive from resistant strains of P. mirabilis. An in vitro synergism was demonstrated between sisomicin and the semisynthetic penicillin, ticarcillin.

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by a Proteus urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha

    2014-05-01

    Genetic, molecular and biological studies indicate that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a severe arthritic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population in developed countries, is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by the microbe, Proteus mirabilis. Elevated levels of specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria have been reported from 16 different countries. The pathogenetic mechanism involves six stages triggered by cross-reactive autoantibodies evoked by Proteus infection. The causative amino acid sequences of Proteus namely, ESRRAL and IRRET, contain arginine doublets which can be acted upon by peptidyl arginine deiminase thereby explaining the early appearance of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in patients with RA. Consequently, RA patients should be treated early with anti-Proteus antibiotics as well as biological agents to avoid irreversible joint damages.

  14. Significance and Roles of Proteus spp. Bacteria in Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Proteus spp. bacteria were first described in 1885 by Gustav Hauser, who had revealed their feature of intensive swarming growth. Currently, the genus is divided into Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, and three unnamed genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 and consists of 80 O-antigenic serogroups. The bacteria are known to be human opportunistic pathogens, isolated from urine, wounds, and other clinical sources. It is postulated that intestines are a reservoir of these proteolytic organisms. Many wild and domestic animals may be hosts of Proteus spp. bacteria, which are commonly known to play a role of parasites or commensals. However, interesting examples of their symbiotic relationships with higher organisms have also been described. Proteus spp. bacteria present in soil or water habitats are often regarded as indicators of fecal pollution, posing a threat of poisoning when the contaminated water or seafood is consumed. The health risk may also be connected with drug-resistant strains sourcing from intestines. Positive aspects of the bacteria presence in water and soil are connected with exceptional features displayed by autochthonic Proteus spp. strains detected in these environments. These rods acquire various metabolic abilities allowing their adaptation to different environmental conditions, such as high concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances, which may be exploited as sources of energy and nutrition by the bacteria. The Proteus spp. abilities to tolerate or utilize polluting compounds as well as promote plant growth provide a possibility of employing these microorganisms in bioremediation and environmental protection.

  15. Proteus mirabilis abscess involving the entire neural axis.

    PubMed

    Kamat, A S; Thango, N S; Husein, M Ben

    2016-08-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord abscesses are rare and potentially devastating lesions usually associated with other infective processes such as bacterial endocarditis, or pulmonary or urogenital infection. We describe a 2-year-old girl who presented with an infected dermal sinus leading to an intraspinal abscess. This abscess eventually spread and involved the entire neural axis leaving her quadriparetic. Drainage of the abscess resulted in recovery and the child regained normal function of her limbs. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of an intramedullary abscess involving the entire neural axis.

  16. PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. [Comparison of different methods in order to identify Proteus spp].

    PubMed

    Castro, S T; Rodríguez, C R; Perazzi, B E; Radice, M; Paz Sticott, M; Muzio, H; Juárez, J; Gutkind, G; Famiglietti, A M R; Santini, P I; Vay, C A

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of different methods in order to identify Proteus spp. The objectives were: (a) to identify Proteus strains to species level, following Farmer's and O'Hara's conventional biochemical reactions; b) to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of both the API 20E method and a schema of reduced reactions (TSI and MIO agar: motility, indole and ornithine) comparing them with conventional methodology, and c) to evaluate the utility of SDS-PAGE (total proteins) in order to identify Proteus strains to species level. Two hundred and five Proteus spp. clinical isolates, were collected between January 1998 and September 2004, from inpatients and outpatients at Hospital de Clinicas. Strains were identified by means of conventional methodology, the API 20E method, and a schema of reduced reactions. SDS-PAGE (total proteins) was used in 48 out of the 205 strains. The API 20E method identified 79 out of 87 (90.8%) strains of P. mirabilis, 103 out of 103 P. vulgaris complex, and 15 out of 15 P. penneri. Eight strains of P. mirabilis were identified as Proteus spp., the acid production from maltose being necessary to identify them to species level. The schema of reduced reactions identified 205 out of 205 (100%) strains, that is, this schema of reduced reactions identified all the strains to species level without any additional tests, in marked contrast to the API 20E method. The SDS-PAGE (total proteins) identified the three species of the genus, even if the strains of P. mirabilis showed different biochemical reactions.

  18. [Sensitivity to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics of clinical Proteus strains as dependent upon on their species classification and the source of their isolation].

    PubMed

    Shvidenko, I G

    1987-11-01

    Sensitivity of 130 Proteus clinical strains was studied. Among beta-lactam antibiotics cefotaxime showed marked advantages with respect to various Proteus species. All the isolates of Proteus mirabilis were sensitive to cefuroxime. Cefamezin and cephapirin were inferior by their activity to cefotaxime and cefuroxime. They were characterized by close antibacterial activity and almost complete cross resistance. Ampicillin and carbenicillin proved to be the least efficient among the tested beta-lactam antibiotics. Isolates of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri were more resistant to the penicillins and cephalosporins than the cultures of Proteus mirabilis. Sensitivity of separate Proteus species to gentamicin, tobramycin, sisomicin and amikacin was close. No cross resistance to the aminoglycosides was detected. Studies on the effect of different doses of the antibiotics revealed pronounced heterogeneity of Proteus by the feature of sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. The level of the heterogeneity was not the same for separate antibiotics. Cultures of Proteus mirabilis resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, cefamezin and cephapirin were more frequent in patients with urogenital infections as compared to patients with intestinal infections and suppurative-inflammatory processes of other localization.

  19. [Characteristics of bacteria in the genus Proteus isolated from patients with sporadic and group intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Apollonin, A V; Romanenko, E E; Iorzh, A L; Zueva, L P

    1985-02-01

    The biochemical and biological properties of 148 Proteus strains isolated from patients both in sporadic intestinal infections and in a case of group infection in children's hospital was studied. The study revealed that the etiological factor of the group infection was P. mirabilis belonging to rare serovar 48:2. Proteus organisms isolated in sporadic infections belonged to a great number of serovars. No relationship between the isolated serovar and the nosological form of the intestinal disease was established. Among the Proteus strains under study, 82 strains showed atypical biochemical properties in 1 test or more. No correlation between the clinical diagnosis and the occurrence of atypical strains was established.

  20. [Joint action of aminoglycoside antibiotics and nitrofurans with bile on bacteria of the genus Proteus].

    PubMed

    Sytnik, I A; Puzakova, E V

    1980-06-01

    The combined effect of monomycin, kanamycin, neomycin and nitrofurans, such as furacillin, furagin, nitrofurantoin and furazolidone with bovine bile was studied on 36 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 14 strains of Proteus vulgaris. It was found that sub-bacteriostatic doses of the bile significantly increased the antiproteus activity of the aminoglycoside antibiotics and nitrofurans. The combinations of the bile with monomycin and kanamycin and the bile with furazolidone and nitrofurantoin proved to be most effective. Clinical trials of the drugs in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the biliferous system of the Proteus etiology are recommended.

  1. Structures and serospecificity of threonine-containing O polysaccharides of two clinical isolates belonging to the genus Proteus and their classification into O11 subserogroups.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Kondakova, Anna N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-11-01

    Two clinical isolates from Polish patients, Proteus mirabilis 9B-m and Proteus genomospecies 3J-r, were found to be serologically related to P mirabilis O11. However, serological studies involving ELISA and Western blotting methods, using lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from the strains as antigens and native or adsorbed rabbit polyclonal O antisera, specific to the studied strains, revealed slight differences in the cross-reactivity and specificity of the two studied Proteus isolates, when compared to P. mirabilis O11. Two different O polysaccharides containing N-(d-galacturonoyl)-l-threonine were isolated from the LPSs of the isolates. Their structures were determined by chemical analysis and NMR spectroscopy and found to be related to the P. mirabilis O11 antigen structure established earlier, the 9B-m structure differing in the absence of the lateral glucose residue and the 3J-r structure in non-stoichiometric O-acetylation of the threonine residue only. Thus, the Proteus O11 serogroup should be divided into two subgroups: O11a, represented by the 9B-m isolate and O11a, b possessing the additional b epitope, containing the lateral residue of glucose and formed by the 3J-r isolate as well as P. mirabilis 25/57 belonging to O11 serogroup so far. O11a is the sixth new serotype found in Proteus spp. strains recently isolated from patients in central Poland.

  2. Haemagglutination, haemolysin production and serum resistance of proteus and related species isolated from clinical sources.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M; Thakar, Y S; Pathak, A A

    2001-01-01

    A total of 148 strains of Proteus and related species comprising of Proteus mirabilis (116), Proteus vulgaris (24), Providentia rettgeri (4), Providentia alcalifaciens (2), Providentia stuarti (1) and Morganella morganii (1), isolated from various sources, were examined for haemagglutination (HA), haemolysin production (HL) and serum resistance (SR). Maximum isolates were obtained from urine (47.30%) and pus (40.54%) and they were multidrug resistant. The sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin was 78.38%, Gentamicin: 62.84%, Cefotaxime: 29.73%, Norfloxacin: 22.97%, Tetracycline: 20.95% and Ampicillin: 6.76%. There were four commonest resistance patterns shown by 58.62% of Proteus mirabilis and 66.67% of Proteus vulgaris strains. Haemagglutination was shown by 91 (61.49%) strains, HL production in 126 (85.14%) strains and SR by 124 (83.78%) isolates. All the three i.e. HA, HL and SR were simultaneously present in 77 (52.27%) strains, any two were present in 40 (27.03%) strains and any one was positive in 30 (20.03%) strains. Thus in as many as 147 (98.32%) isolates, any one or more virulence factors were present. The virulence in commensal pathogen like Proteus is basically a multifactorial phenomenon. The presence of more virulence factors in one strain may increase its pathogenic ability. The evaluation of multiple virulence factors instead of one single parameter will be of greater help in assessing its pathogenic potential.

  3. 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions in four Proteus species.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Zhemin; Wen, Shaoping; Rozalski, Antoni; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-01

    Proteus is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium. In this study, 813 Proteus 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were determined from 46 Proteus strains, including 388 ITS from 22 P. mirabilis strains, 211 ITS from 12 P. vulgaris strains, 169 ITS from 10 P. penneri strains, and 45 ITS from 2 P. myxofaciens strains. The Proteus strains carry mainly two types of ITS, ITS(Glu) (containing tRNA(Glu (UUC)) gene) and ITS(Ile+Ala) (containing tRNA(Ile (GAU)) and tRNA(Ala (UGC)) gene), and are in the forms of 28 variants with 25 genomic origins. The ITS sequences are a mosaic-like structure consisting of three conservative regions and two variable regions. The nucleotide identity of ITS subtypes in strains of the same species ranges from 96.2% to 100%. The divergence of Proteus ITS divergence was most likely due to intraspecies recombinations or horizontal transfers of sequence blocks. The phylogenetic relationship deduced from the second variable region of ITS sequences of the three facultative human pathogenic species P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. penneri is similar with that based on 16S rDNA sequences, but has higher resolution to differentiate closely related P. vulgaris and P. penneri. This study is the first comprehensive study of ITS in four Proteus species and laid solid foundation for the development of high-throughput technology for quick and accurate identification of the important foodborne and nosocomial pathogens.

  4. Proteus at Sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  5. Metabolic variations of Proteus in the Memphis area and other geographical areas.

    PubMed

    Suter, L S; Ulrich, E W; Koelz, B S; Street, V W

    1968-06-01

    The number of strains of Proteus studied was 413, and these were obtained from all clinical materials with the exception of fecal specimens. Lactose was fermented by 37 strains (P. inconstans, 29%; P. rettgeri, 16%; P. mirabilis, 4.2%; P. morganii, 3.6%; and P. vulgaris, 0%) of which 33 were from the genitourinary system. These 33 strains constituted 12.7% of the 260 strains isolated from this source. Biochemically, P. mirabilis was the least variable, and P. rettgeri was the most variable of the five species of Proteus tested. P. inconstans and P. rettgeri resembled each other more closely than any of the other species of Proteus. Comparison of results obtained in the Memphis area with those found in other locations showed that biochemical characteristics varied most with the substances citrate, salicin, xylose, trehalose, and mannitol. In contrast to earlier reports from Israel and England, none of the strains of P. inconstans in the present study was able to attack urea. All five species of Proteus tested (by the disc method) were highly susceptible to methenamine mandelate. P. mirabilis, P. morganii, and P. vulgaris were also highly susceptible to nitrofurantoin. All strains of P. mirabilis were susceptible to ampicillin. P. inconstans was the most resistant species of Proteus. Of the other 356 urease-positive strains tested, 79% were susceptible to chloramphenicol, whereas only 3.8% of the 56 urease-negative strains (P. inconstans) were susceptible. When tested with streptomycin, 61% of urease-positive strains were susceptible and 1.8% of the urease-negative strains were susceptible. Of 36 lactose-positive strains, 33.8% were susceptible to chloramphenicol, whereas 72.8% of all lactose-negative strains were susceptible. Again, of the lactose-positive strains, 17% were susceptible to streptomycin, whereas 56.3% of all lactose-negative strains were susceptible.

  6. In vitro activities of antimicrobial agents against Proteus species from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Na'was, T E; Mawajdeh, S; Dababneh, A; al-Omari, A

    1994-06-01

    Two hundred clinical isolates of members of the genus Proteus were definitively identified and their antimicrobial susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials tested, 176 isolates (88%) being identified as Proteus mirabilis, 12 strains (6%) as Proteus vulgaris and 12 strains (6%) as Proteus penneri. Most strains were isolated from pus (62.5%) and urine (34%), but in general there were no significant differences in the rates of isolation of any of the species by age or sex, although it was noted that P. vulgaris was only isolated from patients belonging to the older age group (> 5 years). The Proteus spp. were notably susceptible to nalidixic acid, ceftazidime and the aminoglycosides tested, and resistant to polymyxin B and colistin. The inclination of certain Proteus species to be susceptible or resistant to certain antimicrobials was noted, but strain differences also existed. The results of the study confirm the importance of performing antimicrobials susceptibility testing of each Proteus isolate to avoid potentially misleading therapy. The noted discrepancy in the result of the susceptibility of P. penneri to chloramphenicol as tested by different standard methods merits further investigation.

  7. Proteus cibarius sp. nov., a swarming bacterium from Jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood, and emended description of the genus Proteus.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Jung, Mi-Ja; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Pil Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2016-06-01

    A novel Proteus-like, Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JS9T, was isolated from Korean fermented seafood, Jeotgal. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain JS9T belonged to the genus Proteus in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain JS9T was to Proteus vulgaris KCTC 2579T (98.98 %) and the genomic DNA G+C content is 39.0 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values were measured and strain JS9T showed <20.8 % genomic relatedness with closely-related members of the genus Proteus. The isolate showed bacterial motility and swarming activity similar to those of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis but distinct from those of other species of the genus Proteus. The isolate grows optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7, and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The main respiratory quinones are ubiquinone Q-8 and Q-10, and the major cellular fatty acids are C16 : 0, summed feature 3 and summed feature 8. The polar lipids comprise phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified amino lipid, two unidentified amino-phospholipids, and three unidentified lipids. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses, strain JS9T represents a novel species of the genus Proteus, for which the name Proteus cibarius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS9T (=KACC 18404T=JCM 30699T). An emended description of the genus Proteus is also provided.

  8. Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2014-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 μg/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Abolition of Swarming of Proteus by p-Nitrophenyl Glycerin: General Properties

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Fred D.

    1973-01-01

    Para-nitrophenyl glycerin (PNPG) was shown to be an effective agent to abolish the swarming of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris on predried solid culture media. The level required to abolish swarming varied with the strain of Proteus, the components of the medium, and also with the conditions of incubation. Generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM PNPG effectively abolished swarming for at least 24 h with aerobic incubation. Levels of PNPG that abolished swarming showed no effect upon the growth of the cells, little or no effect upon the motility characteristics of the organisms, and no effect upon the cellular morphology. PNPG was found to be freely water soluble, stable to autoclaving, and to retain biological activity for at least one month in prepared culture media stored under refrigeration. PMID:4577177

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis is an Autoimmune Disease Triggered by Proteus Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and disabling polyarthritic disease, which affects mainly women in middle and old age. Extensive evidence based on the results of various microbial, immunological and molecular studies from different parts of the world, shows that a strong link exists between Proteus mirabilis microbes and RA. We propose that sub-clinical Proteus urinary tract infections are the main triggering factors and that the presence of molecular mimicry and cross-reactivity between these bacteria and RA-targeted tissue antigens assists in the perpetuation of the disease process through production of cytopathic auto-antibodies. Patients with RA especially during the early stages of the disease could benefit from Proteus anti-bacterial measures involving the use of antibiotics, vegetarian diets and high intake of water and fruit juices such as cranberry juice in addition to the currently employed treatments. PMID:16603443

  11. N-(1-carboxyethyl)alanine (alanopine), a new non-sugar component of lipopolysaccharides of Providencia and Proteus.

    PubMed

    Kocharova, Nina A; Kondakova, Anna N; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Perepelov, Andrei V; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2009-10-12

    O-Polysaccharides were released by mild acid degradation of lipopolysaccharides of Providencia alcalifaciens O35 and Proteus vulgaris O76 and were studied by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies, including HMBC and NOESY (ROESY) experiments. Both polysaccharides were found to contain N-(1-carboxyethyl)alanine (alanopine) that is N-linked to 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose. Analysis of published data [Vinogradov, E.; Perry, M. B. Eur. J. Biochem.2000, 267, 2439-2446] shows that alanopine is present also on the same sugar in the lipopolysaccharide core of Proteus mirabilis O6 and O57.

  12. Proteus Syndrome with Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Asilian, Ali; Kamali, Atefeh Sadat; Riahi, Nabet Tajmir; Adibi, Neda; Mokhtari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare sporadic disorder that appears with localized macrosomia, congenital lipomatosis, and slow flow vascular malformations, connective tissue nevus, and epidermal nevus. There are usually some manifestations at birth. The vascular abnormalities that have been reported in Proteus syndrome are capillary and slow flow venous malformation. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy with confirmed Proteus syndrome characterized by high flow vascular malformation (arteriovenous [AV] malformation) unlike the usual vascular malformations seen in this syndrome. This case adds a new perspective to the established clinical findings of the Proteus syndrome.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 95. Review. Citation on PubMed Cohen MM Jr, Turner JT, Biesecker LG. Proteus syndrome: misdiagnosis with PTEN mutations. Am J Med Genet ... on PubMed or Free article on PubMed ... of the Proteus syndrome literature: application of diagnostic criteria to published cases. ...

  14. Proteus penneri isolated from the pus of a patient with epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wang, X; Bian, Z; Li, S; Zheng, H; Zhao, B; Chen, J

    1992-02-01

    P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris are the two wellknown species in the genus Proteus. P. myxofaciens and P. penneri are recent additions to the genus. We isolated P. penneri from the pus of a patient with suppurative otitis media and an epidural abscess. The characteristics of the organism, including morphology, staining, physiology and biochemistry, were studied. Clinical microbiological laboratories should suspect P. penneri in the case of as Proteus strain that is negative for indole, salicin and esculin, but otherwise resembles P. vulgaris. Proteus penneri, formerly known as Proteus vulgaris indole-negative or as Proteus vulgaris biogroup 1, was named by Hickman et al in 1932. Little information about human infection by this organism is available. In 1982, Hickman and co-workers studied 20 strain of P. penneri which were isolated from clinical specimens (urine, stool, etc.) in the USA. However, its clinical significance, until recently, was unknown. We isolated a strain of P. penneri from the pus of a patient with suppurative otitis media and an epidural abscess on June 10 and 15, 1989. This paper concerns the problems encountered in identifying this organism and its clinical significance.

  15. The association of particular types of Proteus with chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Senior, B W; Sweeney, G

    1984-04-01

    During a period of 12 months, 57 strains of Proteus were isolated from the ears of 38 unrelated patients with chronic suppurative otitis media. Each strain was identified, typed for bacteriocin production and sensitivity, and tested for Dienes compatibility. The majority of the strains (79%) were P. mirabilis; all but one of the remainder were P.vulgaris. Although 19 different bacteriocin production/sensitivity types were found, two rare types, P. mirabilis P7/S5,12 and P. vulgaris P0/S9, were associated with 47% of these infections. This was confirmed by Dienes typing. Patients with bilateral ear disease carried a different strain in each ear. There was no evidence that persistence of infection had arisen because of the development of antibiotic resistance. Although there was some evidence that persistence may have been the result of reinfection, the isolation of these rare types of Proteus from so many patients with chronic suppurative otitis media may indicate that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Most of the Proteus isolates were of "non-faecal" types and it is believed that infection had arisen by a route other than the faecal-aural one.

  16. Proteus: Mythology to modern times

    PubMed Central

    Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries. PMID:23450503

  17. Investigation of the types and characteristics of the proteolytic enzymes formed by diverse strains of Proteus species.

    PubMed

    Senior, B W

    1999-07-01

    Many diverse clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis (48 strains), P. penneri (25), P. vulgaris biogroup 2 (48) and P. vulgaris biogroup 3 (21) from man were examined for their ability to produce proteolytic enzymes and the nature and characteristics of the proteases were studied. All the P. penneri isolates, most (94-90%) of the P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris biogroup 2 isolates, but only 71% of the P. vulgaris biogroup 3 isolates, secreted proteolytic enzymes. These were detected most readily at pH 8 with gelatin as substrate. A strong correlation was found between the ability of a strain to form swarming growth and its ability to secrete proteases. Non-swarming isolates invariably appeared to be non-proteolytic. However, some isolates, particularly of P. vulgaris biogroup 3, were non-proteolytic even when they formed swarming growth. Analysis of the secreted enzymes of the different Proteus spp. on polyacrylamide-gelatin gels under various constraints of pH and other factors showed that they were all EDTA-sensitive metalloproteinases. Analysis of the kinetics of production of the proteases revealed the formation of an additional protease of undefined type and function that was cell-associated and formed before the others were secreted. The secreted protease was subsequently modified to two isoforms whose mass (53-46 kDa) varied with the Proteus spp. and the strain. There was no evidence that the secreted proteases of strains of Proteus spp. were of types other than metalloproteinases.

  18. A MAP Kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans is required for defense against infection by opportunistic Proteus species.

    PubMed

    JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Vigneshwari, Loganathan; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity requires a conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors. Being in the group of opportunistic pathogens, Proteus spp. cause large number of nosocomial infections. Since, Proteus spp. do not cause death in wild type C. elegans, to understand the role and contribution of MAP Kinase pathway, the mutants (sek-1 and pmk-1) of this pathway were employed. Physiological experiments revealed that the Proteus spp. were able to kill MAP Kinase pathway mutant's C. elegans significantly. To understand the involvement of innate immune pathways specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes were kinetically investigated during Proteus spp. infections. Real-time PCR analysis indicated a regulation of few candidate immune regulatory genes (F08G5.6, lys-7, nlp-29, ATF-7 and daf-16) during the course of Proteus spp. infections. In addition, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from Proteus mirabilis upon exposure to mutant C. elegans showed modifications at their functional regions suggesting that the pathogen modifies its internal machinery according to the specific host for effective pathogenesis.

  19. The ureases of Proteus strains in relation to virulence for the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Senior, B W; Bradford, N C; Simpson, D S

    1980-11-01

    The ureases produced by a large number of strains of different Proteus species, some of which were known to have a special affinity for the urinary tract, were examined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Each Proteus strain gave a pattern of urease isoenzymes that was characteristic and unique to its species although strains of P. Mirabilis and P. vulgaris gave isoenzyme patterns that were closely similar. There was some minor variation in the patterns of urease isoenzymes even between strains of the same species. This was most noticeable among P. rettgeri strains and to a lesser extent among P. vulgaris strains. No correlation was found between the types of ureases a strain produced and its pathogenicity for the urinary tract.

  20. PROTEUS-SN User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Shemon, Emily R.; Smith, Micheal A.; Lee, Changho

    2016-02-16

    PROTEUS-SN is a three-dimensional, highly scalable, high-fidelity neutron transport code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The code is applicable to all spectrum reactor transport calculations, particularly those in which a high degree of fidelity is needed either to represent spatial detail or to resolve solution gradients. PROTEUS-SN solves the second order formulation of the transport equation using the continuous Galerkin finite element method in space, the discrete ordinates approximation in angle, and the multigroup approximation in energy. PROTEUS-SN’s parallel methodology permits the efficient decomposition of the problem by both space and angle, permitting large problems to run efficiently on hundreds of thousands of cores. PROTEUS-SN can also be used in serial or on smaller compute clusters (10’s to 100’s of cores) for smaller homogenized problems, although it is generally more computationally expensive than traditional homogenized methodology codes. PROTEUS-SN has been used to model partially homogenized systems, where regions of interest are represented explicitly and other regions are homogenized to reduce the problem size and required computational resources. PROTEUS-SN solves forward and adjoint eigenvalue problems and permits both neutron upscattering and downscattering. An adiabatic kinetics option has recently been included for performing simple time-dependent calculations in addition to standard steady state calculations. PROTEUS-SN handles void and reflective boundary conditions. Multigroup cross sections can be generated externally using the MC2-3 fast reactor multigroup cross section generation code or internally using the cross section application programming interface (API) which can treat the subgroup or resonance table libraries. PROTEUS-SN is written in Fortran 90 and also includes C preprocessor definitions. The code links against the PETSc, METIS, HDF5, and MPICH libraries. It optionally links against the MOAB library and

  1. SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements in Proteus species reveal abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyue; Du, Yu; Du, Pengcheng; Dai, Hang; Fang, Yujie; Li, Zhenpeng; Lv, Na; Zhu, Baoli; Kan, Biao; Wang, Duochun

    2016-01-01

    SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates. The SXT/R391 ICEs shared a common structure with a set of conserved genes, five hotspots and two variable regions, which contained more foreign genes, including drug-resistance genes. Notably, a class A β-lactamase gene was identified in nine SXT/R391 ICEs. Collectively, the ICE-carrying isolates carried resistance genes for 20 tested drugs. Six isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, which are drug resistances commonly encoded by ICEs. Our results demonstrate abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance of the SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates, which may have significance for public health. It is therefore necessary to continuously monitor the antimicrobial resistance and related mobile elements among Proteus isolates. PMID:27892525

  2. Structural studies on the lipopolysaccharide core of Proteus OX strains used in Weil-Felix test: a mass spectrometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Anna N; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lindner, Buko; Knirel, Yuriy A; Amano, Ken-ichi

    2003-11-14

    The core region of the lipopolysaccharides of Proteus group OX bacteria, which are used as antigens in Weil-Felix test for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis, were studied by chemical degradations in combination with ESI FTMS, including infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS and capillary skimmer dissociation. Structural variants of the inner core region were found to be the same as in Proteus non-OX strains that have been studied earlier. The outer core region has essentially the same structure in Proteus vulgaris OX19 (serogroup O1) and OX2 (serogroup O2) and a different structure in Proteus mirabilis OXK (serogroup O3). A fragmentation due to the rupture of the linkage between GlcN or GalN and GalA was observed in IRMPD-MS/MS of core oligosaccharides and found to be useful for screening of Proteus strains to assign structures of the relatively conserved inner core region and to select for further studies strains with distinct structures of a more variable outer core region.

  3. Genetic and biochemical diversity of ureases of Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella species isolated from urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

    1987-09-01

    Bacterial urease, particularly from Proteus mirabilis, has been implicated as a contributing factor in the formation of urinary and kidney stones, obstruction of urinary catheters, and pyelonephritis. Weekly urine specimens (n = 1,135) from 32 patients, residing at two chronic-care facilities, with urinary catheters in place for greater than or equal to 30 days yielded 5,088 phenotypically and serotypically diverse bacterial isolates at greater than or equal to 10(5) CFU/ml. A total of 86% of specimens contained at least one urease-positive species, and 46% of 3,939 gram-negative bacilli were urease positive. For investigation of genetic relatedness of urease determinants, whole-cell DNA from 50 urease-positive isolates each of Providencia stuartii, Providencia rettgeri, P. mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii were hybridized with a urease gene probe derived from within the urease operon of Providencia stuartii BE2467. The percentage of strains hybridizing with the gene probe was 98 for Providencia stuartii, 100 for Providencia rettgeri, 70 for P. mirabilis, 2 for M. morganii, and 0 for P. vulgaris. Electrophoretic mobilities of ureases from representative isolates revealed nine different patterns among the five species. The urease gene probe hybridized with fragments of HindIII-digested chromosomal DNA from all isolates except M. morganii. Fragment sizes differed between species. Molecular sizes of the enzymes, determined by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, were found to be 280 kilodaltons (kDa) (P. mirabilis), 323 to 337 kDa (Providencia stuartii, Providencia rettgeri, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris), 620 kDa (providencia rettgeri), and greater than 700 kDa (M. morganii, Providencia rettgeri). Kms ranged from 0.7 mM urea for M. morganii to 60 mM urea for a P. mirabilis isolate. In general, P. mirabilis ureases demonstrated lower affinities for substrate but hydrolyzed urea at rates 6- to 25-fold faster than did enzymes from other species, which may

  4. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A; Varma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  5. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  6. Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Proteus serogroup O34 containing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactosyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna; Kondakova, Anna N; Wykrota, Marianna; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt; Rozalski, Antoni

    2004-08-23

    On mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O34, strain CCUG 4669, the O-polysaccharide was cleaved at a glycosyl-phosphate linkage that is present in the main chain. The resultant phosphorylated oligosaccharides and an alkali-treated lipopolysaccharide were studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and the following structure of the branched tetrasaccharide phosphate repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: [carbohydrate structure: see text]The O-polysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis strain TG 276 was found to have the same structure and, based on the structural and serological data, this strain was proposed to be classified into the same Proteus serogroup O34.

  7. New structures of the O-specific polysaccharides of Proteus. 3. Polysaccharides containing non-carbohydrate organic acids.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, A N; Toukach, F V; Senchenkova, S N; Arbatsky, N P; Shashkov, A S; Knirel, Y A; Bartodziejska, B; Zych, K; Rozalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z

    2003-04-01

    Four new Proteus O-specific polysaccharides were isolated by mild acid degradation from the lipopolysaccharides of P. penneri 28 (1), P. vulgaris O44 (2), P. mirabilis G1 (O3) (3), and P. myxofaciens (4), and their structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. They were found to contain non-carbohydrate organic acids, including ether-linked lactic acid and amide-linked amino acids, and the following structures of the repeating units were established: [Figure: see text], where (S)-Lac and (R)-aLys stand for (S)-1-carboxyethyl (residue of lactic acid) and N(epsilon)-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-L-lysine ("alaninolysine"), respectively. The data obtained in this work and earlier serve as the chemical basis for classification of the bacteria Proteus.

  8. Proteus - Geology, shape, and catastrophic destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1992-01-01

    Least-squares fits to the two available limb profiles of Proteus yield a sphericity close to unity; the visual irregularity is due to a degree of surface roughness comparable to that of Hyperion and the smaller icy satellites. A network of streaks that can be interpreted as tectonic troughs cuts the surface of Proteus, and is organized concentrically around either one of the two nearly-coincident Proteus-Neptune of Pharos axes of symmetry. If the streaks are tectonic, they may be due to tidal stresses generated by a past change in Proteus' equilibrium orientation. The streaks may also be disruptive-stress fractures.

  9. Silver Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis Using an ATCC Reference Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Activity as Broad Spectrum Clinical Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Quinteros, Melisa A.; Aiassa Martínez, Ivana M.; Dalmasso, Pablo R.; Páez, Paulina L.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the biosynthesis of silver-based nanomaterials attracts enormous attention owing to the documented antimicrobial properties of these ones. This study reports the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a reference culture collection. A greenish culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa incubated at 37°C with a silver nitrate solution for 24 h changed to a yellowish brown color, indicating the formation of Ag-NPs, which was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. TEM analysis showed spherical and pseudospherical nanoparticles with a distributed size mainly between 25 and 45 nm, and the XRD pattern revealed the crystalline nature of Ag-NPs. Also it provides an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs against human pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Ag-NPs were found to be bioactive at picomolar concentration levels showing bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. This work demonstrates the first helpful use of biosynthesized Ag-NPs as broad spectrum bactericidal agents for clinical strains of pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, A. baumannii, and E. coli. In addition, these Ag-NPs showed negligible cytotoxic effect in human neutrophils suggesting low toxicity to the host. PMID:27340405

  10. Classification of Proteus penneri lipopolysaccharides into core region serotypes.

    PubMed

    Palusiak, Agata

    2016-12-01

    The frequency of P. penneri isolation from hospital patients, mostly from urine and wounds, keeps on growing, and numerous isolates are multi-drug resistant. P. penneri rods produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which may lead to the septic shock. Until now, O-specific polysaccharide has been the best structurally and serologically characterized region of P. penneri LPS. It is worth having an insight into the serological specificity of both poly- and oligosaccharide parts of P. penneri LPS. The P. penneri core region is less structurally diverse than OPS, but still, among other enterobacterial LPS core regions, it is characterized by structural variability. In the present study, the serological reactivity of 25 P. penneri LPS core regions was analyzed by ELISA, passive immunohemolysis and Western blot technique using five polyclonal P. penneri antisera after or without their adsorption with the respective LPSs. The results allowed the assignment of the tested strains to five new core serotypes, which together with published serological studies led to the creation of the first serotyping scheme based on LPS core reactivities of 35 P. penneri and three P. mirabilis strains. Together with the O types scheme, it will facilitate assigning Proteus LPSs of clinical isolates into appropriate O and R serotypes.

  11. Molecular characterization of the genera Proteus, Morganella, and Providencia by ribotyping.

    PubMed

    Pignato, S; Giammanco, G M; Grimont, F; Grimont, P A; Giammanco, G

    1999-09-01

    The so-called Proteus-Providencia group is constituted at present by three genera and 10 species. Several of the recognized species are common opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Different methods based on the study of phenotypic characters have been used in the past with variable levels of efficiency for typing some species for epidemiological purposes. We have determined the rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes) for the type strains of the 10 different species of the genera Proteus, Morganella, and Providencia. Visual inspection of EcoRV- and HincII-digested DNA from the type strains showed remarkably different patterns for both enzymes, but EcoRV provided better differentiation. Both endonucleases were retained to study a large number of wild and collection strains belonging to the different species. Clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus penneri, Morganella morganii, and Providencia heimbachae showed patterns identical or very similar to those of the respective type strains, so that groups of related patterns (ribogroups) were found to correspond to the diverse species. On the contrary, distinct ribogroups were detected within Providencia alcalifaciens (two ribogroups with both enzymes), Providencia rettgeri (four ribogroups with EcoRV and five with HincII), Providencia stuartii (two ribogroups with EcoRV), Providencia rustigianii (two ribogroups with HincII), and Proteus vulgaris (two ribogroups with both enzymes). The pattern shown by the ancient P. vulgaris type strain NCTC 4175 differed considerably from both P. vulgaris ribogroups as well as from the newly proposed type strain ATCC 29905 and from any other strain in this study, thus confirming its atypical nature. Minor differences were frequently observed among patterns of strains belonging to the same ribogroup. These differences were assumed to define ribotypes within each ribogroup. No correlation was observed between ribogroups or ribotypes and biogroups of P. vulgaris, P

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Genera Proteus, Morganella, and Providencia by Ribotyping

    PubMed Central

    Pignato, S.; Giammanco, G. M.; Grimont, F.; Grimont, P. A. D.; Giammanco, G.

    1999-01-01

    The so-called Proteus-Providencia group is constituted at present by three genera and 10 species. Several of the recognized species are common opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Different methods based on the study of phenotypic characters have been used in the past with variable levels of efficiency for typing some species for epidemiological purposes. We have determined the rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes) for the type strains of the 10 different species of the genera Proteus, Morganella, and Providencia. Visual inspection of EcoRV- and HincII-digested DNA from the type strains showed remarkably different patterns for both enzymes, but EcoRV provided better differentiation. Both endonucleases were retained to study a large number of wild and collection strains belonging to the different species. Clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus penneri, Morganella morganii, and Providencia heimbachae showed patterns identical or very similar to those of the respective type strains, so that groups of related patterns (ribogroups) were found to correspond to the diverse species. On the contrary, distinct ribogroups were detected within Providencia alcalifaciens (two ribogroups with both enzymes), Providencia rettgeri (four ribogroups with EcoRV and five with HincII), Providencia stuartii (two ribogroups with EcoRV), Providencia rustigianii (two ribogroups with HincII), and Proteus vulgaris (two ribogroups with both enzymes). The pattern shown by the ancient P. vulgaris type strain NCTC 4175 differed considerably from both P. vulgaris ribogroups as well as from the newly proposed type strain ATCC 29905 and from any other strain in this study, thus confirming its atypical nature. Minor differences were frequently observed among patterns of strains belonging to the same ribogroup. These differences were assumed to define ribotypes within each ribogroup. No correlation was observed between ribogroups or ribotypes and biogroups of P. vulgaris, P

  13. The potential of selected Australian medicinal plants with anti-Proteus activity for the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cock, I. E.; Winnett, V.; Sirdaarta, J.; Matthews, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A wide variety of herbal medicines are used in indigenous Australian traditional medicinal systems to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to test the ability of a panel of Australian plants with a history of the ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation for the ability to block the microbial trigger of RA. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six extracts from 40 plant species were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of the bacterial trigger of RA (Proteus mirabilis). The extracts were tested for toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The most potent inhibitor of P. mirabilis growth was further analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to high accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results: Sixty-five of the 106 extracts tested (61.3%) inhibited the growth of P. The Aleurites moluccanus, Datura leichardtii, Eucalyptus major, Leptospermum bracteata, L. juniperium, Macadamia integriflora nut, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Petalostigma pubescens, P. triloculorae, P. augustifolium, Scaevola spinescens, Syzygiumaustrale, and Tasmannia lanceolata extracts were determined to be the most effective inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values generally significantly below 1000 μg/ml. T. lanceolata fruit extracts were the most effective P. mirabilis growth inhibitors, with a MIC values of 11 and 126 μg/ml for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the T. lanceolata fruit extracts by RP-HPLC coupled to high-resolution TOF mass spectroscopy failed to detect resveratrol in either T. lanceolata fruit extract. However, the resveratrol glycoside piceid and 2 combretastatin stilbenes (A-1 and A-4) were detected in both T. lanceolata fruit extracts. With the exception of the Eucalyptus and Syzygium extracts, all extracts exhibiting Proteus

  14. Cloning of L-amino acid deaminase gene from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, E; Ito, K; Yoshimoto, T

    1999-12-01

    The L-amino acid degrading enzyme gene from Proteus vulgaris was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the enzyme gene was clarified. An open reading frame of 1,413 bp starting at an ATG methionine codon was found, which encodes a protein of 471 amino acid residues, the calculated molecular weight of which is 51,518. The amino acid sequence of P. vulgaris was 58.6% identical with the L-amino acid deaminase of P. mirabilis. A significantly conserved sequence was found around the FAD-binding sequence of flavo-proteins. The partially purified wild and recombinant enzymes had the same substrate specificity for L-amino acids to form the respective keto-acids, however not for D-amino acids.

  15. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of the bacterium Proteus vulgaris O23.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, A V; Shashkov, A S; Babichka, D; Senchenkova, S N; Bartodziejska, B; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    2000-09-01

    An acidic O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of the bacterium Proteus vulgaris O23 (strain PrK 44/57) and found to contain 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and D-galacturonic acid. Based on 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopic studies, including two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (COSY), total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), and 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments, the following structure of the branched tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established: [figure], where the degree of O-acetylation of the terminal GalA residue at position 4 is about 80%. A structural similarity of the O-specific polysaccharides of P. vulgaris O23 and P. mirabilis O23 is discussed.

  16. Proteus virulence: involvement of the pore forming alpha-hemolysin (a short review).

    PubMed

    Tóth, V; Emódy, L

    2000-01-01

    The genus Proteus belongs to the tribe of Proteae in the family of Enterobacteriaceae, and consists of five species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. morganii, P. penneri and P. myxofaciens. They are distinguished from the rest of Enterobacteriaceae by their ability to deaminate phenylalanine and tryptophane. They hydrolyze urea and gelatin and fail to ferment lactose, mannose, dulcitol and malonate; and do not form lysine and arginine decarboxylase or beta-galactosidase [1]. Colonies produce distinct "burned chocolate" odor and frequently show the characteristics of swarming motility on solid media. P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. morganii are widely recognized human pathogens. They have been isolated from urinary tract infections, wounds, ear, and nosocomial bacteremic infections, often in immuncompromised patients [2-6]. P. myxofaciens has no clinical interest to this time. P. penneri as species nova was nominated by the recommendation of Hickman and co-workers [7]. Formerly it was recognized as P. vulgaris biogroup 1 or indole negative P. vulgaris [8, 9]. Although it has been less commonly isolated from clinical samples than the other three human pathogenic Proteus species, it has nevertheless been connected with infections of the urinary tract, wounds and has been isolated from the feces of both healthy and diarrheic individuals [10-12]. Potential virulence factors responsible for virulence of Proteae are: IgA protease, urease, type3 fimbriae associated with MR/K haemagglutinins of at least two antigenic types, endotoxin, swarming motility and HlyA and/or HpmA type hemolysins [for review see ref. 13]. In the followings we give a survey of accumulated concepts about the position and characteristics of HlyA type alpha-hemolysins both in general and with emphasis on virulence functions in the tribe of Proteae.

  17. Brain abscesses during Proteus vulgaris bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jennifer; Lemaire, Xavier; Legout, Laurence; Ferriby, Didier; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Senneville, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Proteus vulgaris is only rarely the cause of multiple septic metastases. We describe multiple brain abscesses due to P. vulgaris in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by antibiotic therapy and colonectomy.

  18. Intestinal bacterial flora of the household lizard, Gecko gecko.

    PubMed

    Tan, R J; Lim, E W; Ishak, B

    1978-03-01

    A total of 114 isolates was recovered from the intestines of 43 househould lizards, Gecko gecko. Among the important ones were Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Edwardsiella tarda.

  19. The Proteus Navier-Stokes code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Bui, Trong T.; Cavicchi, Richard H.; Conley, Julianne M.; Molls, Frank B.; Schwab, John R.

    1992-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. The emphasis in the development of Proteus is not algorithm development or research on numerical methods, but rather the development of the code itself. The objective is to develop codes that are user-oriented, easily-modified, and well-documented. Well-proven, state-of-the-art solution algorithms are being used. Code readability, documentation (both internal and external), and validation are being emphasized. This paper is a status report on the Proteus development effort. The analysis and solution procedure are described briefly, and the various features in the code are summarized. The results from some of the validation cases that have been run are presented for both the two- and three-dimensional codes.

  20. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  1. [Alkaline phosphatase in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2005-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), 3 phosphatase were found after disc-electrophoresis of 10 microg of protein in PAGE and using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate a pH 9.0. These phosphatases differed in their electrophoretic mobilities - "slow" (1-3 bands), "middle" (one band) and "fast" (one band). In addition to 1-naphthyl phosphate, "slow" phosphatases were able to hydrolyse 2-naphthyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. They were slightly activated by Mg2+, completely inhibited by 3 chelators (EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline), L-cysteine, sodium dodecyl sulfate and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ (50 mM), considerably inactivated by orthovanadate, molybdate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Na2HPO4, DL-dithiothreitol and urea and partly inhibited by H2O2, DL-phenylalanine, 2-mercaptoethanol, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 and Ca2+. Imidazole, L-(+)-tartrate, okadaic acid, NaF and sulfhydryl reagents -p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate and N-ethylmaleimide - had no influence on the activity of "slow" phosphatases. "Middle" and "fast" phosphatases, in contrast to "slow" ones, were not inactivated by 3 chelators. The "middle" phosphatase differed from the "fast" one by smaller resistance to urea, Ca2+, Mn2+, phosphates and H2O2 and greater resistance to dithiothreitol and L-(+)-tartrate. In addition, the "fast" phosphatase was inhibited by L-cysteine but the "middle" one was activated by it. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+), only Zn2+ reactivated "slow" phosphatases after their inactivation by EDTA treatment. The reactivation of apoenzyme was only partial (about 35 %). Thus, among phosphatases found in amoebae at pH 9.0, only "slow" ones are Zn-metalloenzymes and may be considered as alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1). It still remains uncertain, to which particular phosphatase class "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may belong.

  2. Using optoelectronic sensors in the system PROTEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Piszczek, M.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity. The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.

  3. Classification of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3 with recognition of Proteus hauseri sp. nov., nom. rev. and unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, C M; Brenner, F W; Steigerwalt, A G; Hill, B C; Holmes, B; Grimont, P A; Hawkey, P M; Penner, J L; Miller, J M; Brenner, D J

    2000-09-01

    Strains traditionally identified as Proteus vulgaris formed three biogroups. Biogroup 1, characterized by negative reactions for indole production, salicin fermentation and aesculin hydrolysis, is now known as Proteus penneri. Biogroup 2, characterized by positive reactions for indole, salicin and aesculin, was shown by DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) to be a genetic species separate from biogroup 1 and from biogroup 3 which is positive for indole production and negative for salicin and aesculin. In this study, 52 strains were examined, of which 36 strains were Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3, which included the current type strain of the species P. vulgaris (ATCC 29905T), and compared to seven strains of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 2 and nine type strains of other species in the genera Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. By DNA hybridization, these 36 strains were separated into four distinct groups, designated as Proteus genomospecies 3, 4, 5 and 6. DNAs within each separate Proteus genomospecies were 74-99% related to each other in 60 degrees C hybridization reactions with < or = 4.5% divergence between related sequences. Proteus genomospecies 3 contained the former P. vulgaris type strain and one other strain and was negative in reactions for salicin fermentation, aesculin hydrolysis and deoxyribonuclease, unlike the reactions associated with strains considered as typical P. vulgaris which are positive in reactions for salicin, aesculin and DNase. Genomospecies 3 can be distinguished from Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6 because it is negative for Jordan's tartrate. Proteus genomospecies 4, containing five strains, was differentiated from Proteus penneri, genomospecies 3 and 6 and most, but not all, strains of genomospecies 5, by its ability to ferment L-rhamnose. Proteus genomospecies 5 and 6, containing 18 and 11 strains, respectively, could not be separated from each other by traditional biochemical tests, by carbon source utilization tests or SDS

  4. Antibiotic resistance pattern among biofilm producing and non producing Proteus strains isolated from hospitalized patients; matter of hospital hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Shikh-Bardsiri, Houshang; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza

    2013-11-15

    A retrospective study on antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm production were carried out for eighty eight strains of Proteus strains isolated from UTI and other hospital samples during April 2011-April 2012. The antibiotic susceptibility was carried out by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and MIC by E-test. Biofilm production was measured by microtiter method and confirmed by Scanning electron microscopy. Plasmids from biofilm producing isolates were detected by alkaline lysis technique. From 88 patients infected by proteus species, 58% were female and 42% were mail. The most frequent age range was 20-29 (77.39%) and the least were 60-69 years old (3.4%) (p = 0.05). Eighty one isolates were identified as P. mirabilis while, 7 identified as P. vulgaris. 67.04% [n = 59] of the isolates showed MIC range (16-32 +/- 0.05 microg mL(-1)) to ceftriaxone, 46.59% [n = 41] exhibited least MIC range to chloramphenicol (8-64 +/- 0.08 microg mL(-1)). 31% [n = 28] of the isolates also exhibited MIC range 1-4 microg mL(-1) to ciprofloxacin. 17% [n = 15] of the isolates exhibited strong biofilm while, 6% [n = 6] did not show any biofilm (p < or = 0.05). Plasmid isolation from biofilm producing isolates revealed that stains number 19, 24 and 87' that produced strong biofilm carried similar high M. Wt. plasmid. From above results it can be concluded that the majority of Proteus isolated from UTI patients were belong to P. mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic for treatment of the infected patients. Limited number of the isolates could produce strong biofilm that were bearing plasmids. Majority of the biofilm producing isolates were also resistance at least to 4 antibiotics routinely prescribed in our hospital.

  5. Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides of Proteus spp. and their interactions with polymyxin B and an 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP18)-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    St Swierzko, A; Kirikae, T; Kirikae, F; Hirata, M; Cedzynski, M; Ziolkowski, A; Hirai, Y; Kusumoto, S; Yokochi, T; Nakano, M

    2000-02-01

    The saccharide constituents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus spp. vary with the strain and contain unique components about which little is known. The biological activities of LPS and lipid A from S- and R-forms of 10 Proteus strains were examined. LPS from all S-form Proteus strains was lethal to D-(+)-galactosamine (GalN)-loaded, LPS-responsive, C3H/HeN mice, but not to LPS-hypo-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. P. vulgaris 025 LPS evoked strong anaphylactoid reactions in N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)-primed C3H/HeJ mice. LPS from S- and R-form Proteus strains induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages isolated from C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. Lipid A from Proteus strains also induced NO and TNF production, although lipid A was less potent than LPS. The effects of LPS were mainly dependent on CD14; LPS-induced NO and TNF production in CD14+ J774.1 cells was significantly greater than in CD14-J7.DEF.3 cells. All LPS from Proteus strains, and especially from P. vulgaris 025, exhibited higher anti-complementary activity than LPS from Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxin B inactivated proteus LPS in a dose-dependent manner, but these LPS preparations were more resistant to polymyxin B than E. coli LPS. CAP18(109-135), a granulocyte-derived peptide, inhibited proteus LPS endotoxicity only when the LPS:CAP18(109-135) ratio was appropriate, which suggests that CAP18(109-135) acts through a different mechanism than polymyxin B. The results indicate that LPS from Proteus spp. are potently endotoxic, but that the toxicity is different from that of LPS from E. coli or Salmonella spp. and even varies among different Proteus strains. The variation in biological activities among proteus LPS may be due to unique components within the respective LPS.

  6. User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Micheal A.; Shemon, Emily R.

    2015-06-01

    This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial or .merge) can be used as “mesh” input for any of the mesh tools discussed in this manual.

  7. HST BVI Photometry of Triton and Proteus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-15

    rights reserved. Keywords: Triton ; Satellites, surfaces; Neptune , magnetosphere1. Introduction Triton is an enigmatic satellite—seemingly without a...2003. The BVRI and methane lightcurve of Triton in 2003. Bull. Am. As- tron. Soc. 35, 1483. Smith, B., and 64 colleagues, 1989. Voyager 2 at Neptune ...Icarus 185 (2006) 487–491 www.elsevier.com/locate/icarus HST BVI photometry of Triton and Proteus Dan Pascu a,∗, Alex D. Storrs b, Eddie N. Wells c,1

  8. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  9. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed.

  10. [Response to antibiotics of Proteus strains isolated from different types of clinical material].

    PubMed

    Ovetchin, P V; Tsyganenko, A Ia

    1984-04-01

    The data on the study of the antibiotic response to 42 Proteus strains isolated from different sources in the hospitals of Kharkov are presented. The isolates belonged to P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris. Many strains were resistant to gentamicin, ampicillin and carbenicillin irrespective of the isolation source. 58.0 and 90.3 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with intestinal infections, 66.6 and 100 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with otitis, 33.3 and 66.6 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with bronchopulmonary affections and 100 and 100 per cent of the strains isolated from patients with urological diseases were resistant to gentamicin and carbenicillin, respectively. As for ampicillin, the respective figures were 74.2, 66.6, 66.6 and 100 per cent. All the strains of P. vulgaris isolated from patients with otitis, urological diseases and bronchopulmonary affections were resistant to ampicillin. The MIC of carbenicillin for all the strains except 4 indole-positive strains of P. vulgaris isolated from the faeces and bronchial excreta was much higher than the borderline values.

  11. Characterization of Proteus vulgaris K80 lipase immobilized on amine-terminated magnetic microparticles.

    PubMed

    Natalia, Agnes; Kristiani, Lidya; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2014-10-01

    Proteus vulgaris K80 lipase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and immobilized on amine-terminated magnetic microparticles (Mag-MPs). The immobilization yield and activity retention were 84.15% and 7.87%, respectively. A homology model of lipase K80 was constructed using P. mirabilis lipase as the template. Many lysine residues were located on the protein surface, remote from active sites. The biochemical characteristics of immobilized lipase K80 were compared with the soluble free form of lipase K80. The optimum temperature of K80-Mag-MPs was 60°C, which was 20°C higher than that of the soluble form. K80-Mag-MPs also tended to be more stable than the soluble form at elevated temperatures and a broad range of pH. K80-Mag-MP maintained its stable form at up to 40°C and in a pH range of 5.0- 10.0, whereas soluble K80 maintained its activity up to 35°C and pH 6.0-10.0. K80-Mag-MPs had broader substrate specificity compared with that of soluble K80. K80-Mag-MPs showed about 80% residual relative activity after five recovery trials. These results indicate the potential benefit of K80-Mag-MPs as a biocatalyst in various industries.

  12. The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nield, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

  13. Proteus aircraft over Las Cruces International Airport in New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  14. Proteus aircraft low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  15. Proteus in flight over mountains near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  16. Structures of the O-polysaccharides and classification of Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6 into respective Proteus serogroups.

    PubMed

    Zych, Krystyna; Perepelov, Andrei V; Siwinska, Małgorzata; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2005-11-01

    An acidic branched O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Proteus genomospecies 4 and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, ROESY and H-detected 1H, 13C HSQC experiments. The following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established, which is unique among Proteus polysaccharide structures: [structure: see text] where Qui3NAc stands for 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxyglucose. Based on the O-polysaccharide structure and serological data, we propose classifying Proteus genomospecies 4 into a new, separate Proteus serogroup, O56. A weak cross-reactivity of Proteus genomospecies 4 antiserum with LPS of Providencia stuartii O18 and Proteus vulgaris OX2 was observed and is discussed in view of a similarity of the O-polysaccharide structures. Structural and serological investigations showed that Proteus genomospecies 5 and 6 should be classified into the existing Proteus serogroups O8 and O69, respectively.

  17. Nucleus-associated actin in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Berdieva, Mariia; Bogolyubov, Dmitry; Podlipaeva, Yuliya; Goodkov, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The presence, spatial distribution and forms of intranuclear and nucleus-associated cytoplasmic actin were studied in Amoeba proteus with immunocytochemical approaches. Labeling with different anti-actin antibodies and staining with TRITC-phalloidin and fluorescent deoxyribonuclease I were used. We showed that actin is abundant within the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm of A. proteus cells. According to DNase I experiments, the predominant form of intranuclear actin is G-actin which is associated with chromatin strands. Besides, unpolymerized actin was shown to participate in organization of a prominent actin layer adjacent to the outer surface of nuclear envelope. No significant amount of F-actin was found in the nucleus. At the same time, the amoeba nucleus is enclosed in a basket-like structure formed by circumnuclear actin filaments and bundles connected with global cytoplasmic actin cytoskeleton. A supposed architectural function of actin filaments was studied by treatment with actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin A. It disassembled the circumnuclear actin system, but did not affect the intranuclear chromatin structure. The results obtained for amoeba cells support the modern concept that actin is involved in fundamental nuclear processes that have evolved in the cells of multicellular organisms.

  18. Impact of Morphological Changes on the Motility of Amoeba proteus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroff N, Sunitha

    2016-11-01

    Bio-mechanical properties of cell membrane, actin and cytoskeleton have influence on the cell locomotion. To explore, morphological changes were induced in Amoeba proteus by depriving nutrition, also either through ATP mediated or through KCl mediated membrane depolarization. We observed that, membrane depolarization leads to complete loss/reduction of pseudopodia in a dose dependent manner, gradually A. proteus becomes globular. We also report that with depravation of its nutrition (Chilomonas) A. proteus transforms them into tube/filament like structure and this transformation is reversible with the supply of Chilomonas. Results indicate that the structural and locomotion variation of A. proteus through nucleotides may not be just a membrane phenomenon, but may involve signaling mechanisms. Further, we carried out immunostaining of A. proteus with P2X2 and P2Y2 antibodies to analyze their localization and the extent of expression. The result indicated that in normal A. proteus receptors are dispersed uniformly, whereas in filament shaped A. proteus P2X2-receptor was found to be localized, unlike P2Y2 receptor. As nucleotides are known to cause structural changes in the organism, we report corresponding changes in their locomotion. Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology. Mount Carmel College, Bangalore 560 052.

  19. Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the first part of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the Proteus computer code. A review is given of previous studies on the implementation of multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. Also presented is a detailed stability analysis of upwind and central-difference based numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Results are given of a convergence study of the Proteus code on computational grids of different sizes. The results presented here form the foundation for the implementation of multigrid methods in the Proteus code.

  20. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

  1. The Proteus syndrome: the Elephant Man diagnosed.

    PubMed

    Tibbles, J A; Cohen, M M

    1986-09-13

    Sir Frederick Treves first showed Joseph Merrick, the famous Elephant Man, to the Pathological Society of London in 1884. A diagnosis of neurofibromatosis was suggested in 1909 and was widely accepted. There is no evidence, however, of café au lait spots or histological proof of neurofibromas. It is also clear that Joseph Merrick's manifestations were much more bizarre than those commonly seen in neurofibromatosis. Evidence indicates that Merrick suffered from the Proteus syndrome and had the following features compatible with this diagnosis: macrocephaly; hyperostosis of the skull; hypertrophy of long bones; and thickened skin and subcutaneous tissues, particularly of the hands and feet, including plantar hyperplasia, lipomas, and other unspecified subcutaneous masses.

  2. Characterization of Amoeba proteus myosin VI immunoanalog.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Magdalena; Kłopocka, Wanda; Pomorski, Paweł; Kocik, Elzbieta; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2005-07-01

    Amoeba proteus, the highly motile free-living unicellular organism, has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion and intracellular actin-based-only trafficking remain poorly understood. A search for myosin motors responsible for vesicular transport in these giant cells resulted in detection of 130-kDa protein interacting with several polyclonal antibodies against different tail regions of human and chicken myosin VI. This protein was binding to actin in the ATP-dependent manner, and immunoprecipitated with anti-myosin VI antibodies. In order to characterize its possible functions in vivo, its cellular distribution and colocalization with actin filaments and dynamin II during migration and pinocytosis were examined. In migrating amoebae, myosin VI immunoanalog localized to vesicular structures, particularly within the perinuclear and sub-plasma membrane areas, and colocalized with dynamin II immunoanalog and actin filaments. The colocalization was even more evident in pinocytotic cells as proteins concentrated within pinocytotic pseudopodia. Moreover, dynamin II and myosin VI immunoanalogs cosedimented with actin filaments, and were found on the same isolated vesicles. Blocking endogenous myosin VI immunoanalog with anti-myosin VI antibodies inhibited the rate of pseudopodia protrusion (about 19% decrease) and uroidal retraction (about 28% decrease) but did not affect cell morphology and the manner of cell migration. Treatment with anti-human dynamin II antibodies led to changes in directionality of amebae migration and affected the rate of only uroidal translocation (about 30% inhibition). These results indicate that myosin VI immunoanalog is expressed in protist Amoeba proteus and may be involved in vesicle translocation and cell locomotion.

  3. Characterization of Two Novel Type I Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from the Storage Roots of the Andean Crop Mirabilis expansa1

    PubMed Central

    Vivanco, Jorge M.; Savary, Brett J.; Flores, Hector E.

    1999-01-01

    Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others. PMID:10198104

  4. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    PubMed

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  5. Rare occurrence of Proteus vulgaris in faeces: a reason for its rare association with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Senior, B W; Leslie, D L

    1986-03-01

    The faecal carriage rates of different species of Proteeae were assessed in studies with 220 faecal isolates from 219 individuals of whom approximately one-third were well and the remainder had gastro-enteritis. As a result of the development of new media that allowed replacement of the phenylalanine deaminase test with the tryptophan deaminase test and made it possible to combine tests for indole and urease production and for hydrogen sulphide and ornithine decarboxylase formation in two single-tube tests, all strains were speciated with speed, economy and accuracy. Most (96%) isolates were either Proteus mirabilis (62%) or Morganella morgani (34%). The significance of these findings in relation to urinary tract infection is discussed. P. vulgaris was found in only one (0.45%) faecal specimen and this rarity of carriage in faeces is believed to be the main reason for its rare association with urinary tract infections. The frequent association of M. morgani, in the absence of other enteropathogenic bacteria, with severe gastroenteritis was noted with interest.

  6. Studies on the Formation of Murein-Bound Lipoprotein in Escherichia coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    sequences of prolipoproteins from 19 ~. ~ and four other enterobacteriaceae species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6. Construction of lQQ mutations by...caused spheroplast formation of Alcaligenes cells, and these amino acids exerted a synergistic effect with penicillin (Lark and Lark, 1959). 16...Proteus mirabilis, Morqanella morqanii, Erwinia amylovora and serratia marcescens, and in Pseudomonas aeruqinosa lipoprotein I (Fig. 5., YU, 1987

  7. Immunochemical properties of Proteus penneri lipopolysaccharides--one of the major Proteus sp. virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Palusiak, Agata

    2013-10-18

    Proteus penneri, like the other seven species from the genus, are Gram-negative, peritrichously flagellated rods capable of swarming growth on humid solid media. These bacteria are human opportunistic pathogens involved in many infections but they mainly affect the urinary tract of hospitalized, long-term catheterized patients. P. penneri rods produce a lot of virulence factors, among which the lipopolysaccharide seems to be the most interesting due to its structural and serological diversity. From the three LPS regions of P. penneri strains only the core region and O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) were structurally and serologically examined. P. penneri LPS core region is characterized by a common inner part representing the III glycoform and a diverse distal part (12 different structures). The P. penneri O-antigens contain sugar and non-sugar compounds and some of them rarely occur in nature. In both P. penneri LPS regions putative epitopes have been pointed out. Serospecificity of OPS allowed classifying many P. penneri isolates to different Proteus sp. O-serogroups, among which 12 contain P. penneri strains only.

  8. Pseudomonas chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Parales, Rebecca E; Krell, Tino; Hill, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonads sense changes in the concentration of chemicals in their environment and exhibit a behavioral response mediated by flagella or pili coupled with a chemosensory system. The two known chemotaxis pathways, a flagella-mediated pathway and a putative pili-mediated system, are described in this review. Pseudomonas shows chemotaxis response toward a wide range of chemicals, and this review includes a summary of them organized by chemical structure. The assays used to measure positive and negative chemotaxis swimming and twitching Pseudomonas as well as improvements to those assays and new assays are also described. This review demonstrates that there is ample research and intellectual space for future investigators to elucidate the role of chemotaxis in important processes such as pathogenesis, bioremediation, and the bioprotection of plants and animals.

  9. The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

  10. Structure and serology of O-antigens as the basis for classification of Proteus strains.

    PubMed

    Knirel, Yuriy A; Perepelov, Andrei V; Kondakova, Anna N; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt; Rozalski, Antoni; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2011-02-01

    This review is devoted to structural and serological characteristics of the O-antigens (O-polysaccharides) of the lipopolysaccharides of various Proteus species, which provide the basis for classifying Proteus strains to O-serogroups. The antigenic relationships of Proteus strains within and beyond the genus as well as their O-antigen-related bioactivities are also discussed.

  11. Warthog: Progress on Coupling BISON and PROTEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Shane W.D.

    2016-09-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program from the Office of Nuclear Energy at the Department of Energy (DOE) provides a robust toolkit for modeling and simulation of current and future advanced nuclear reactor designs. This toolkit provides these technologies organized across product lines, with two divisions targeted at fuels and end-to-end reactor modeling, and a third for integration, coupling, and high-level workflow management. The Fuels Product Line (FPL) and the Reactor Product Line (RPL) provide advanced computational technologies that serve each respective field effectively. There is currently a lack of integration between the product lines, impeding future improvements of simulation solution fidelity. In order to mix and match tools across the product lines, a new application called Warthog was produced. Warthog is built on the Multi-physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report details the continuing efforts to provide the Integration Product Line (IPL) with interoperability using the Warthog code. Currently, this application strives to couple the BISON fuel performance application from the FPL using the PROTEUS Core Neutronics application from the RPL. Warthog leverages as much prior work from the NEAMS program as possible, enabling interoperability between the independently developed MOOSE and SHARP frameworks, and the libMesh and MOAB mesh data formats. Previous work performed on Warthog allowed it to couple a pin cell between the two codes. However, as the temperature changed due to the BISON calculation, the cross sections were not recalculated, leading to errors as the temperature got further away from the initial conditions. XSProc from the SCALE code suite was used to calculate the cross sections as needed. The remainder of this report discusses the changes to Warthog to allow for the implementation of XSProc as an external code. It also

  12. Proteus - An experimenter's view. [of spacecraft carrying exchangable Explorer scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific experiments package to be carried by the Proteus system takes the form of an Instrument Load carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle, and there mated to a Proteus spacecraft with the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System. The Proteus system extends to ground support equipment, development tools, and communications, as well as the orbiting satellites. It is expected that Proteus will be able to triple the number of Explorer missions while staying within the current budgetary allocation for such missions. The Proteus spacecraft encompasses a system interface assembly plug, a data handling module, remote interface units, and a power distribution module.

  13. Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Proteus penneri 28 and Proteus vulgaris O31 and classification of P. penneri 26 and 28 in Proteus serogroup O31.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Anna N; Zych, Krystyna; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Bartodziejska, Beata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Rozalski, Antoni A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2003-10-24

    The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus penneri 28 and Proteus vulgaris O31 (PrK 55/57) were degraded with dilute acetic acid and structurally identical high-molecular-mass O-polysaccharides were isolated by gel-permeation chromatography. Sugar analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies showed that both polysaccharides contain D-GlcNAc, 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-glucose (L-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxyglucose (N-acetylquinovosamine)) and 2-acetamido-3-O-[(S)-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetylisomuramic acid) and have the following structure: [carbohydrate structure: see text] where (S)-1-carboxyethyl [a residue of (S)-lactic acid] (S-Lac) is an ether-linked residue of (S)-lactic acid. The O-polysaccharide studied is structurally similar to that of P. penneri 26, which differs only in the absence of S-Lac from the GlcNAc residue. Based on the O-polysaccharide structures and serological data of the LPS, it was suggested classifying these strains in one Proteus serogroup, O31, as two subgroups: O(31a), 31b for P. penneri 28 and P. vulgaris PrK 55/57 and O31a for P. penneri 26. A serological relatedness of the LPS of Proteus O(31a), 31b and P. penneri 62 was revealed and substantiated by sharing epitope O31b, which is associated with N-acetylisomuramic acid. It was suggested that a cross-reactivity of P. penneri 28 O-antiserum with the LPS of several other P. penneri strains is due to a common epitope(s) on the LPS core.

  14. Wave Features of the Neptune's Satellites: Triton, Proteus, Nereid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2014-07-01

    Fastly orbiting Triton shows Mars-like tectonic dichotomy and very fine granulation 18 km across. Observed Proteus' granules are due to wave modulation. Nereid's fr.is close to that of Earth, thus their relatively sized granules are quite similar.

  15. Molecular and genetic analyses of the putative Proteus O antigen gene locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ruan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xiaoting; Rozalski, Antoni; Shao, Zhujun; Guo, Xi; Zhou, Haijian; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Proteus species are well-characterized opportunistic pathogens primarily associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) of humans. The Proteus O antigen is one of the most variable constituents of the cell surface, and O antigen heterogeneity is used for serological classification of Proteus isolates. Even though most Proteus O antigen structures have been identified, the O antigen locus has not been well characterized. In this study, we identified the putative Proteus O antigen locus and demonstrated this region's high degree of heterogeneity by comparing sequences of 40 Proteus isolates using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). This analysis identified five putative Proteus O antigen gene clusters, and the probable functions of these O antigen-related genes were proposed, based on their similarity to genes in the available databases. Finally, Proteus-specific genes from these five serogroups were identified by screening 79 strains belonging to the 68 Proteus O antigen serogroups. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of the putative Proteus O antigen locus, and we describe a novel molecular classification method for the identification of different Proteus serogroups.

  16. Characterization of an alkaline lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 and the DNA sequence of the encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, H K; Lee, J K; Kim, H; Oh, T K

    1996-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic bacterium producing an extracellular alkaline lipase was isolated from the soil collected near a sewage disposal plant in Korea and identified to be a strain of Proteus vulgaris. The molecular mass of the purified lipase K80 was estimated to be 31 kDa by SDS-PAGE. It was found to be an alkaline enzyme having maximum hydrolytic activity at pH 10, while fairly stable in a wide pH range from 5 to 11. The gene for lipase K80 was cloned in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis showed an open reading frame of 861 bp coding for a polypeptide of 287 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lipase gene had 46.3% identity to the lipase from Pseudomonas fragi.

  17. Structure of the O-polysaccharide leads to classification of Proteus penneri 31 in Proteus serogroup O19.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Anna N; Zych, Krystyna; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Zabłotni, Agnieszka; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2003-10-24

    O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Proteus penneri strain 31. Sugar and methylation analyses along with NMR spectroscopic studies, including 2D 1H,1H COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, 1H,13C and 1H,31P HMQC experiments, demonstrated the following structure of the polysaccharide: [carbohydrate structure: see text] where FucNAc is 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxygalactose and EtnP is 2-aminoethyl phosphate. The polysaccharide studied has the same carbohydrate backbone as the O-polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O19. Based on this finding and close serological relatedness of the LPS of the two strains, it is proposed to classify P. penneri 31 in Proteus serogroup O19 as an additional subgroup. In contrast, D-GlcNAc6PEtn and alpha-L-FucNAc-(1-->3)-D-GlcNAc shared with a number of other Proteus O-polysaccharides could not provide any significant cross-reactivity of the corresponding LPS with rabbit polyclonal O-antiserum against P. penneri 31.

  18. Multicenter laboratory evaluation of the bioMérieux Vitek antimicrobial susceptibility testing system with 11 antimicrobial agents versus members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Doern, G V; Brueggemann, A B; Perla, R; Daly, J; Halkias, D; Jones, R N; Saubolle, M A

    1997-01-01

    A four-center study in which a total of 1,082 recent clinical isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined versus 11 antimicrobial agents with the bioMérieux Vitek susceptibility test system (Hazelwood, Mo.) and the GNS-F6 card was conducted. In addition, a challenge set consisting of the same 200 organisms was examined in each of the four participating laboratories. Results obtained with the Vitek system were compared to MICs determined by a standardized broth microdilution method. For purposes of comparison, susceptibility categories (susceptible, intermediate, or resistant) were assigned on the basis of the results of both methods. The result of the broth microdilution test was considered definitive. The total category error rate with the Vitek system and the recent clinical isolates (11,902 organism-antimicrobial comparisons) was 4.5%, i.e., 1.7% very major errors, 0.9% major errors, and 1.9% minor errors. The total category error rate calculated from tests performed with the challenge set (i.e., 8,800 organism-antimicrobial comparisons) was 5.9%, i.e., 2.2% very major errors, 1.1% major errors, and 2.6% minor errors. Very major error rates higher than the totals were noted with Enterobacter cloacae versus ampicillin-sulbactam, aztreonam, ticarcillin, and ticarcillin-clavulanate and with P. aeruginosa versus mezlocillin, ticarcillin, and ticarcillin-clavulanate. Major error rates higher than the averages were observed with Proteus mirabilis versus imipenem and with Klebsiella pneumoniae versus ofloxacin. Excellent overall interlaboratory reproducibility was observed with the Vitek system. The importance of inoculum size as a primary determinant in the accuracy of susceptibility test results with the Vitek system was clearly demonstrated in this study. Specifically, when an inoculum density fourfold higher than that recommended by the manufacturer was used, high rates of false resistance results were obtained

  19. Abolition of Swarming of Proteus by p-Nitrophenyl Glycerin: Application to Blood Agar Media

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Fred D.

    1973-01-01

    Comparative plate counts were made of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes growing on blood agar supplemented with individual chemicals to abolish the swarming of Proteus. B-phenylethanol, sodium azide, and p-nitrophenyl glycerin (PNPG) were used as anti-swarm agents. Each anti-swarm agent effectively abolished swarming for 24 h, but azide failed to control swarming for longer periods of incubation. In addition, azide displayed growth inhibition towards the staphylococci and streptococci resulting in no hemolysis and reduced viable cell numbers with the streptococci. Phenylethanol showed reduced viable cell numbers with the streptococci and unreliable hemolytic reactions. At 0.1 to 0.3 mM, PNPG proved to be a superior anti-swarm agent in that it showed no growth inhibition and allowed normal hemolysis, but abolished swarming for extended periods of time. When laboratory strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio cholerae were screened on a blood agar medium containing 0.1 mm PNPG, they displayed similar growth and hemolytic characteristics to the identical medium without PNPG. PMID:4715553

  20. Structural studies on the fucosamine-containing O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O19.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, E V; Kaca, W; Knirel, Y A; Rózalski, A; Kochetkov, N K

    1989-03-01

    The polysaccharide chain of Proteus vulgaris O19 lipopolysaccharide contains D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-L-fucosamine in the ratio 1:1:1:1. The structure of the polysaccharide was established by full acid hydrolysis and methylation analysis, as well as by non-destructive methods, i.e. the computer-assisted evaluation of the 13C-NMR spectrum and computer-assisted evaluation of the specific optical rotation by Klyne's rule. The polysaccharide is regular and built up of tetrasaccharide repeating units of the following structure: ----3)-alpha-L-FucNAcp-(1----3)-beta-D-GlcNAcp-(1----3)-alph a-D-Galp- (1----4)-alpha-D-GalNAcp-(1---- The O19-antiserum cross-reacts with lipopolysaccharide from P. vulgaris O42, the structure of which is still unknown. No cross-reactions were observed with O-polysaccharides Pseudomonas aeruginosa O7 and Salmonella arizonae O59 in spite of some structural similarities.

  1. Status Report on NEAMS PROTEUS/ORIGEN Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Wieselquist, William A

    2016-02-18

    The US Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has contributed significantly to the development of the PROTEUS neutron transport code at Argonne National Laboratory and to the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion Code (ORIGEN) depletion/decay code at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROTEUS’s key capability is the efficient and scalable (up to hundreds of thousands of cores) neutron transport solver on general, unstructured, three-dimensional finite-element-type meshes. The scalability and mesh generality enable the transfer of neutron and power distributions to other codes in the NEAMS toolkit for advanced multiphysics analysis. Recently, ORIGEN has received considerable modernization to provide the high-performance depletion/decay capability within the NEAMS toolkit. This work presents a description of the initial integration of ORIGEN in PROTEUS, mainly performed during FY 2015, with minor updates in FY 2016.

  2. Anaerobic choline metabolism in microcompartments promotes growth and swarming of P roteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Eleanor; Fu, Tiantian; Brown, Ian R.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Purdy, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gammaproteobacteria are important gut microbes but only persist at low levels in the healthy gut. The ecology of G ammaproteobacteria in the gut environment is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that choline is an important growth substrate for representatives of G ammaproteobacteria. Using P roteus mirabilis as a model, we investigate the role of choline metabolism and demonstrate that the cut C gene, encoding a choline‐trimethylamine lyase, is essential for choline degradation to trimethylamine by targeted mutagenesis of cut C and subsequent complementation experiments. P roteus mirabilis can rapidly utilize choline to enhance growth rate and cell yield in broth culture. Importantly, choline also enhances swarming‐associated colony expansion of P . mirabilis under anaerobic conditions on a solid surface. Comparative transcriptomics demonstrated that choline not only induces choline‐trimethylamine lyase but also genes encoding shell proteins for the formation of bacterial microcompartments. Subsequent analyses by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of such novel microcompartments in cells cultivated in liquid broth and hyper‐flagellated swarmer cells from solid medium. Together, our study reveals choline metabolism as an adaptation strategy for P . mirabilis and contributes to better understand the ecology of this bacterium in health and disease. PMID:26404097

  3. Typing of Proteus strains by proticine production and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Senior, B W

    1977-02-01

    A simple, reliable and highly discriminating scheme for the bacteriocine typing of Proteus has been developed. Strains are typed on MacConkey's agar according to their ability to produce a proticine active against one of 14 indicator strains having a single and specific proticine sensitivity and also according to their sensitivity to the different proticines of 13 proticine-producing strains. This new scheme of combined production and sensitivity typing was formulated after 250 strains of Proteus from clinical material had been examined for the production of proticines active against the 24 indicator strains of Cradock-Watson's proticine typing scheme and for proticine activity and sensitivity towards each other. Three new types of proticinogenic strains were discovered and defined. Strains producing proticines of types 1, 2 and 3 were isolated frequently. These common proticines could be subtyped by their different actions on newly characterised indicator strains. By means of this production/sensitivity (P/S) typing scheme, 250 Proteus strains were differentiated into 90 distinct types, whereas typing by sensitivity alone distinguished only 40 types and typing by production alone distinguished only 20 types (including subtypes).

  4. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... early mortality caused by Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are... in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli... old for treatment of porcine colibacillosis caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to gentamicin....

  6. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... early mortality caused by Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are... in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli... old for treatment of porcine colibacillosis caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to gentamicin....

  7. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... early mortality caused by Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are... in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli... old for treatment of porcine colibacillosis caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to gentamicin....

  8. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... early mortality caused by Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are... in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli... old for treatment of porcine colibacillosis caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to gentamicin....

  9. 21 CFR 522.1044 - Gentamicin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... early mortality caused by Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are... in the treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli... old for treatment of porcine colibacillosis caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to gentamicin....

  10. [Investigation of hydrophobicity of Proteus vulgaris strains and ability of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri strains to penetrate bladder membrane HCV T-29 cells ].

    PubMed

    Bartodziejska, Beata; Błaszczyk, Aleksandra; Wykrota, Marianna; Kwil, Iwona; Babicka, Dorota; Rózalski, Antoni

    2002-01-01

    Proteus bacilli play a particularly important role in urinary tract infections (UTI). Fimbriae and adherence ability and hemolysins production (HpmA, HlyA) are one of the factors of pathogenicity of these bacteria. In this paper we describe the invasion of HCV T-29 transitional bladder urothelial cells carcinoma strains of P. penneri, as well as P. vulgaris strains belonging to different serogroups. The cytotoxic effect was observed at 8 hour of incubation of the tested cells with P. vulgaris O21 and the same effect (complete lysis) at 6 hours by P. vulgaris O4 (this strain manifests maximal activity in the production of HlyA hemolysin). P. penneri strains, produce different types of fimbriae, expressed similar bacterial invasiveness. The hydrophobic properties of 25 P. vulgaris strains were also tested and only 3 strains occur to have hydrophobic cell surface.

  11. PROTEUS2: a web server for comprehensive protein structure prediction and structure-based annotation.

    PubMed

    Montgomerie, Scott; Cruz, Joseph A; Shrivastava, Savita; Arndt, David; Berjanskii, Mark; Wishart, David S

    2008-07-01

    PROTEUS2 is a web server designed to support comprehensive protein structure prediction and structure-based annotation. PROTEUS2 accepts either single sequences (for directed studies) or multiple sequences (for whole proteome annotation) and predicts the secondary and, if possible, tertiary structure of the query protein(s). Unlike most other tools or servers, PROTEUS2 bundles signal peptide identification, transmembrane helix prediction, transmembrane beta-strand prediction, secondary structure prediction (for soluble proteins) and homology modeling (i.e. 3D structure generation) into a single prediction pipeline. Using a combination of progressive multi-sequence alignment, structure-based mapping, hidden Markov models, multi-component neural nets and up-to-date databases of known secondary structure assignments, PROTEUS is able to achieve among the highest reported levels of predictive accuracy for signal peptides (Q2 = 94%), membrane spanning helices (Q2 = 87%) and secondary structure (Q3 score of 81.3%). PROTEUS2's homology modeling services also provide high quality 3D models that compare favorably with those generated by SWISS-MODEL and 3D JigSaw (within 0.2 A RMSD). The average PROTEUS2 prediction takes approximately 3 min per query sequence. The PROTEUS2 server along with source code for many of its modules is accessible a http://wishart.biology.ualberta.ca/proteus2.

  12. The rtn gene of Proteus vulgaris is actually from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hall, B G

    1997-04-01

    The rtn gene, identified as coming from Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315, is present in Escherichia coli K-12, and over a 440-bp region of rtn is identical to the published Proteus sequence, with the exception of a single G insertion. It was not possible to verify the presence of rtn in P. vulgaris.

  13. Confirmation of presumptive Salmonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Rojo, Rosalba; Torres Chavolla, Edith

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, zero tolerance regulation is practiced regarding Salmonella in food products. the presence of which is verified by the procedure described in NOM 114-SSA-1994. During the period between August 2002 and March 2003, 245 food samples were tested using this procedure in the Central Laboratories of the Department of Health for the State of Jalisco (CEESLAB). Of these 245 samples, 35 showed presumptive colonies contaminated with Proteus swarm cells even after selective isolation. These swarm cells make Salmonella recovery and biochemical identification difficult due to the occurance of atypical biochemical profiles which generally correspond to that of Proteus. Out of the 35 samples contaminated with Proteus, 65 presumptive colonies were isolated. These colonies were analyzed using both normative microbiological method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR method detected two positive samples while normative microbiological method was not able to identify. In order to determine the extent of interference of Proteus swarming on the Salmonella-specific PCR band amplification, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was grown in the presence of Proteus swarming. These results show that Proteus swarming did not interfere with Salmonella PCR-amplification, although the appearance of Sanlmonella was altered such that the black precipitate was no observed in the presence of Proteus swarming. Ours result indicate that the PCR method used in this study may be successfully applied to confirm presumptive Salmnonella colonies contaminated with Proteus swarming.

  14. Mechanics and control of the cytoskeleton in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, M

    1989-01-01

    Many models of the cytoskeletal motility of Amoeba proteus can be formulated in terms of the theory of reactive interpenetrating flow (Dembo and Harlow, 1986). We have devised numerical methodology for testing such models against the phenomenon of steady axisymmetric fountain flow. The simplest workable scheme revealed by such tests (the minimal model) is the main preoccupation of this study. All parameters of the minimal model are determined from available data. Using these parameters the model quantitatively accounts for the self assembly of the cytoskeleton of A. proteus: for the formation and detailed morphology of the endoplasmic channel, the ectoplasmic tube, the uropod, the plasma gel sheet, and the hyaline cap. The model accounts for the kinematics of the cytoskeleton: the detailed velocity field of the forward flow of the endoplasm, the contraction of the ectoplasmic tube, and the inversion of the flow in the fountain zone. The model also gives a satisfactory account of measurements of pressure gradients, measurements of heat dissipation, and measurements of the output of useful work by amoeba. Finally, the model suggests a very promising (but still hypothetical) continuum formulation of the free boundary problem of amoeboid motion. by balancing normal forces on the plasma membrane as closely as possible, the minimal model is able to predict the turgor pressure and surface tension of A. proteus. Several dynamical factors are crucial to the success of the minimal model and are likely to be general features of cytoskeletal mechanics and control in amoeboid cells. These are: a constitutive law for the viscosity of the contractile network that includes an automatic process of gelation as the network density gets large; a very vigorous cycle of network polymerization and depolymerization (in the case of A. proteus, the time constant for this reaction is approximately 12 s); control of network contractility by a diffusible factor (probably calcium ion); and

  15. Bronchoscopic concerns in Proteus syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Hae-Kyu; Jeon, Soeun; Kim, Hyae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare congenital hamartomatous disorder with multisystem involvement. PS shows highly clinical variability due to overgrowth of the affected areas, and several features can make anesthetic management challenging. Little is known about the airway problem associated with anesthesia in PS patients. An 11-year-old girl with PS was scheduled for ear surgery under general anesthesia. She had features complicating intubation including facial asymmetry and disproportion, abnormal teeth, limitation of neck movement due to torticollis, and thoracolumbar scoliosis. This study reports on a case of deformed airway of a PS patient under fiberoptic bronchoscopy. PMID:27703636

  16. Effects of trifluoromethyl ketones on the motility of Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wolfart, Krisztina; Molnar, Annamaria; Kawase, Masami; Motohashi, Noboru; Molnar, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    In the present study, we showed the inhibition of motility by trifluoromethyl ketone (TF) derivatives (1-8) in Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) cultures. Among them, 1-(2-benzoxazoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-propanone (1) showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on the motility of P. vulgaris than other TF compounds at 10% MIC. Our results suggest the possibility of an inhibitory action of TF compounds on the proton motive forces by affecting the action of biological motor and proton efflux in the membranes, resulting in a reduction of the ratio of running and the increased number of tumbling and non-motile cells.

  17. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

  18. Specific Microbial Communities Associate with the Rhizosphere of Welwitschia mirabilis, a Living Fossil

    PubMed Central

    De Maayer, Pieter; Oberholster, Tanzelle; Henschel, Joh; Louw, Michele K.; Cowan, Don

    2016-01-01

    Welwitschia mirabilis is an ancient and rare plant distributed along the western coast of Namibia and Angola. Several aspects of Welwitschia biology and ecology have been investigated, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with this plant. This study reports on the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of W. mirabilis and the surrounding bulk soil. Rhizosphere communities were dominated by sequences of Alphaproteobacteria and Euromycetes, while Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and fungi of the class Dothideomycetes jointly dominated bulk soil communities. Although microbial communities within the rhizosphere and soil samples were highly variable, very few “species” (OTUs defined at a 97% identity cut-off) were shared between these two environments. There was a small ‘core’ rhizosphere bacterial community (formed by Nitratireductor, Steroidobacter, Pseudonocardia and three Phylobacteriaceae) that together with Rhizophagus, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, and other putative plant growth-promoting microbes may interact synergistically to promote Welwitschia growth. PMID:27064484

  19. The Proteus aircraft and NASA Dryden's T-34 in flight over Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  20. Structure of a Kdo-containing O polysaccharide representing Proteus O79, a newly described serogroup for some clinical Proteus genomospecies isolates from Poland.

    PubMed

    Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Palusiak, Agata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zabłotni, Agnieszka; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-09-20

    From 41 Proteus genomospecies strains isolated in Poland, seven displayed similar serospecificity in ELISA with intact and adsorbed O antisera as well as in Western blot. The cross-reacting strains were found to belong to Proteus genomospecies 5/6 and classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O79, which seems to be widespread among Proteus genomospecies clinical isolates in Lodz, Poland. The O polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide of a representative O79 strain, 11 B-r, was studied by chemical analyses and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the following structure of the repeating unit was established: →4)-α-D-GlcpNAlaAc-(1→5)-α-Kdop-(2→2)-α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→ where AlaAc indicates N-acetyl-L-alanyl and Kdo indicates 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid. The O polysaccharide was unstable under mild acidic conditions and cleaved by acid-labile linkages of Kdo residues to yield a tetrasaccharide with Kdo at the reducing end. The structure established is unique among Proteus O polysaccharides, which is in agreement with the lack of any significant cross-reactivity for the lipopolysaccharide of strain 11 B-r and O antisera against strains of all known Proteus O serogroups and vice versa.

  1. Convergence acceleration of the Proteus computer code with multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to implement convergence acceleration techniques based on the multigrid concept in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Proteus computer code. The first section presents a review of the relevant literature on the implementation of the multigrid methods in computer codes for compressible flow analysis. The next two sections present detailed stability analysis of numerical schemes for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, based on conventional von Neumann analysis and the bi-grid analysis, respectively. The next section presents details of the computational method used in the Proteus computer code. Finally, the multigrid implementation and applications to several two-dimensional and three-dimensional test problems are presented. The results of the present study show that the multigrid method always leads to a reduction in the number of iterations (or time steps) required for convergence. However, there is an overhead associated with the use of multigrid acceleration. The overhead is higher in 2-D problems than in 3-D problems, thus overall multigrid savings in CPU time are in general better in the latter. Savings of about 40-50 percent are typical in 3-D problems, but they are about 20-30 percent in large 2-D problems. The present multigrid method is applicable to steady-state problems and is therefore ineffective in problems with inherently unstable solutions.

  2. Characteristics of trajectory in the migration of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hiromi; Masaki, Noritaka; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the behavior of migration of Amoeba proteus in an isotropic environment. We found that the trajectory in the migration of A. proteus is smooth in the observation time of 500-1000 s, but its migration every second (the cell velocity) on the trajectory randomly changes. Stochastic analysis of the cell velocity and the turn angle of the trajectory has shown that the histograms of the both variables well fit to Gaussian curves. Supposing a simple model equation for the cell motion, we have estimated the motive force of the migrating cell, which is of the order of piconewton. Furthermore, we have found that the cell velocity and the turn angle have a negative cross-correlation coefficient, which suggests that the amoeba explores better environment by changing frequently its migrating direction at a low speed and it moves rectilinearly to the best environment at a high speed. On the other hand, the model equation has simulated the negative correlation between the cell velocity and the turn angle. This indicates that the apparently rational behavior comes from intrinsic characteristics in the dynamical system where the motive force is not torquelike.

  3. [Comparative evaluation of different methods for typing bacteria in the genus Proteus].

    PubMed

    Shvidenko, I G

    1986-05-01

    The work presents the comparative evaluation of different methods used for differentiating bacteria of the genus Proteus. A scheme of the combined typing of Proteus is presented. This scheme includes the determination of enzymatic and serological variants with the subsequent additional bacteriocinogenic and phage typing. Among the Proteus strains in our collection (600 strains), 123 sero-enzymatic variants, 71 enzymo-lysogenic variants, 64 enzymo-bacteriocinogenic variants, 162 sero-lysogenic variants, 164 sero-bacteriocinogenic variants and 52 bacteriocinogeno-lysogenic variants have been detected.

  4. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  5. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  6. Deciphering simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization using Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son; Liu, Shi-Qi; Hung, Jhao-Yin

    2012-04-01

    This first-attempt study disclosed how and why electron-shuttling mediators were capable to stimulate bioelectricity-generating capabilities of dye-bearing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Proteus hauseri. Due to significant biotoxicity of 4-aminophenol (4AP) and the absence of electron-mediating potential of 3AP, only 2AP among all isomers could work as an exogenous mediator to stimulate bioelectricity generation of P. hauseri. Dye toxicity to cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs apparently affected the performance of simultaneous bioelectricity production and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Plus, dose-response analysis upon toxicity potency of reactive blue 160 revealed that cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs had a higher tolerance to reactive blue 160 than suspended cells. Apparently, augmentation of electron mediator(s) with low toxicity was a feasible means to facilitate bioelectricity-generating capability of SBP&CR.

  7. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Surette, M; Gill, T; MacLean, S

    1990-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was isolated and purified from cell extracts of Proteus vulgaris recovered from spoiling cod fish (Gadus morhua). The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 120,000 +/- 2,000 and pH 6.8. The Michaelis constant for inosine as substrate was 3.9 x 10(-5). Guanosine also served as a substrate (Km = 2.9 x 10(-5). However, the enzyme was incapable of phosphorylizing adenosine. Adenosine proved to be useful as a competitive inhibitor and was used as a ligand for affinity chromatography of purine nucleoside phosphorylase following initial purification steps of gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. PMID:2111121

  8. Monocyte Profiles in Critically Ill Patients With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sepsis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-02

    Pseudomonas Infections; Pseudomonas Septicemia; Pseudomonas; Pneumonia; Pseudomonal Bacteraemia; Pseudomonas Urinary Tract Infection; Pseudomonas Gastrointestinal Tract Infection; Sepsis; Sepsis, Severe; Critically Ill

  9. 2-methylbutanal, a volatile biomarker, for non-invasive surveillance of Proteus.

    PubMed

    Aarthi, Raju; Saranya, Raju; Sankaran, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen detection needs a paradigm shift from time-consuming conventional microbiological and biochemical tests to much simpler identification methods with higher sensitivity and specificity. In this regard, a simple detection method for frequently isolated nosocomial uropathogen, Proteus spp., was developed using the characteristic volatile 2-methylbutanal released in Luria Bertani broth. The instant reaction of the compound with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylhydrazine (DNSH) has been adapted to develop a sensitive fluorescence assay named "ProteAl" (Prote, "Proteus" & Al, "Aldehyde"). The assay was performed by direct addition of the fluorescence reagent to the culture after 7 h of growth. The distinct green fluorescence by Proteus (other organisms show orange fluorescence) served as the simplest and quicker identification test available for Proteus. In the laboratory, it exhibited 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity during testing of 95 strains including standard and known clinical isolates representing frequently encountered uropathogens.

  10. Structure of the N-acetyl-L-rhamnosamine-containing O-polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris TG 155 from a new Proteus serogroup, O55.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Anna N; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Zych, Krystyna; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2003-09-10

    The O-polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Proteus vulgaris TG 155 was found to contain 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-mannose (N-acetyl-L-rhamnosamine, L-RhaNAc), a monosaccharide that occurs rarely in Nature. The following structure of the O-polysaccharide was established by NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, ROESY and 1H,13C HSQC experiments, along with chemical methods: [carbohydrate structure in text] Rabbit polyclonal O-antiserum against P. vulgaris TG 155 reacted with both core and O-polysaccharide moieties of the homologous LPS but showed no cross-reactivity with other LPS from the complete set of serologically different Proteus strains. Based on the unique O-polysaccharide structure and the serological data, we propose classifying P. vulgaris TG 155 into a new, separate Proteus O-serogroup, O55.

  11. Effects of some tricyclic psychopharmacons and structurally related compounds on motility of Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Molnár, J; Ren, J; Kristiansen, J E; Nakamura, M J

    1992-11-01

    A simple test for the evaluation of drugs interfering with bacterial motility was established with Proteus vulgaris. With this model, promethazine, 7-hydroxy-chlorpromazine, imipramine, 7,8-dioxochlorpromazine and acridine orange were shown to exert significant motility and swarming inhibitory action on Proteus vulgaris strains at subinhibitory concentrations. Quinidine enhanced the antimotility effect of promethazine. The antimotility effect of promethazine was synergized by proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and abscissic acid, but antagonized by extracellular potassium and sodium ions.

  12. Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-06-01

    PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

  13. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  14. Pseudomonas orchitis in puberty.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ambil S

    2004-10-01

    Acute epididymo-orchitis is a common cause of 'acute scrotum' in adolescence and young adults, and the common causative pathogens are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This is a rare case of acute epididymo-orchitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a pubertal boy with a history of 'ano-receptive' intercourse. On Medline search there are no reports of pseudomonas orchitis in this age group.

  15. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; Snoj, Luka

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  16. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    DOE PAGES

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; ...

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greatermore » than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.« less

  17. Computational protein design: the Proteus software and selected applications.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Thomas; Gaillard, Thomas; Mignon, David; Schmidt am Busch, Marcel; Lopes, Anne; Amara, Najette; Polydorides, Savvas; Sedano, Audrey; Druart, Karen; Archontis, Georgios

    2013-10-30

    We describe an automated procedure for protein design, implemented in a flexible software package, called Proteus. System setup and calculation of an energy matrix are done with the XPLOR modeling program and its sophisticated command language, supporting several force fields and solvent models. A second program provides algorithms to search sequence space. It allows a decomposition of the system into groups, which can be combined in different ways in the energy function, for both positive and negative design. The whole procedure can be controlled by editing 2-4 scripts. Two applications consider the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme and its successful redesign to bind both O-methyl-tyrosine and D-tyrosine. For the latter, we present Monte Carlo simulations where the D-tyrosine concentration is gradually increased, displacing L-tyrosine from the binding pocket and yielding the binding free energy difference, in good agreement with experiment. Complete redesign of the Crk SH3 domain is presented. The top 10000 sequences are all assigned to the correct fold by the SUPERFAMILY library of Hidden Markov Models. Finally, we report the acid/base behavior of the SNase protein. Sidechain protonation is treated as a form of mutation; it is then straightforward to perform constant-pH Monte Carlo simulations, which yield good agreement with experiment. Overall, the software can be used for a wide range of application, producing not only native-like sequences but also thermodynamic properties with errors that appear comparable to other current software packages.

  18. Classification of a Proteus penneri clinical isolate with a unique O-antigen structure to a new Proteus serogroup, O80.

    PubMed

    Siwińska, Małgorzata; Levina, Evgeniya A; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Różalski, Antoni; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-04-30

    Proteus penneri is an opportunistic pathogen, which may cause severe diseases, most frequently urinary tract infections in immunocompromised patients. P. penneri Br 114 exhibiting a good swarming growth ability as an S-form strain was isolated from a wound of a patient in Łódź, Poland. Serological studies using ELISA and Western blotting and chemical analyses along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that the O-antigen (O-polysaccharide) of this strain is unique among the known Proteus serotypes O1-O79. It possesses a linear pentasaccharide repeating unit containing a partially O-acetylated amide of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) with L-serine having the following structure: [structure: see text]. These data are a basis for creating a new Proteus serogroup, O80, so far represented by the single Br 114 isolate. The O80 is the 21st O-serogroup containing P. penneri strains and the fourth serogroup based on Proteus spp. clinical isolates from Łódź, Poland.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  20. Environmental DNA in subterranean biology: range extension and taxonomic implications for Proteus.

    PubMed

    Gorički, Špela; Stanković, David; Snoj, Aleš; Kuntner, Matjaž; Jeffery, William R; Trontelj, Peter; Pavićević, Miloš; Grizelj, Zlatko; Năpăruş-Aljančič, Magdalena; Aljančič, Gregor

    2017-03-27

    Europe's obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander's exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro. Next, using specific molecular probes to discriminate the rare black morph of Proteus from the closely related white morph, we detected its eDNA at five new sites, thus more than doubling the known number of sites. In one of these we found both black and white Proteus eDNA together. This finding suggests that the two morphs may live in contact with each other in the same body of groundwater and that they may be reproductively isolated species. Our results show that the eDNA approach is suitable and efficient in addressing questions in biogeography, evolution, taxonomy and conservation of the cryptic subterranean fauna.

  1. Evaluation of Proteus as a Tool for the Rapid Development of Models of Hydrologic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, T. M.; Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of modern hydrologic systems can be complex and involve a variety of operators with varying character. The goal is to implement approximations of such models that are both efficient for the developer and computationally efficient, which is a set of naturally competing objectives. Proteus is a Python-based toolbox that supports prototyping of model formulations as well as a wide variety of modern numerical methods and parallel computing. We used Proteus to develop numerical approximations for three models: Richards' equation, a brine flow model derived using the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT), and a multiphase TCAT-based tumor growth model. For Richards' equation, we investigated discontinuous Galerkin solutions with higher order time integration based on the backward difference formulas. The TCAT brine flow model was implemented using Proteus and a variety of numerical methods were compared to hand coded solutions. Finally, an existing tumor growth model was implemented in Proteus to introduce more advanced numerics and allow the code to be run in parallel. From these three example models, Proteus was found to be an attractive open-source option for rapidly developing high quality code for solving existing and evolving computational science models.

  2. Environmental DNA in subterranean biology: range extension and taxonomic implications for Proteus

    PubMed Central

    Gorički, Špela; Stanković, David; Snoj, Aleš; Kuntner, Matjaž; Jeffery, William R.; Trontelj, Peter; Pavićević, Miloš; Grizelj, Zlatko; Năpăruş-Aljančič, Magdalena; Aljančič, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Europe’s obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander’s exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro. Next, using specific molecular probes to discriminate the rare black morph of Proteus from the closely related white morph, we detected its eDNA at five new sites, thus more than doubling the known number of sites. In one of these we found both black and white Proteus eDNA together. This finding suggests that the two morphs may live in contact with each other in the same body of groundwater and that they may be reproductively isolated species. Our results show that the eDNA approach is suitable and efficient in addressing questions in biogeography, evolution, taxonomy and conservation of the cryptic subterranean fauna. PMID:28345609

  3. Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trell, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

  4. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at low pH].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2009-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), three forms of tartrate-sensitive phosphatase were revealed using PAGE of the supernatant of ameba homogenates obtained with 1% Triton X-100 or distilled water and subsequent staining of gels with 2-naphthyl phosphate as substrate (pH 4.0). The form with the highest mobility in the ameba supernatant was sensitive to all tested phosphatase activity modulators. Two other forms with the lower mobilities were completely or significantly inactivated not only by sodium L-(+)-tartrate, but also by L-(+)-tartaric acid, sodium orthovanadate, ammonium molybdate, EDTA, EGTA, o-phospho-L-tyrosine, DL-dithiotreitol, H2O2, 2-mercaptoethanol, and ions of heavy metals - Fe2+, Fe3+, and Cu2+. Based on results of inhibitory analysis, lysosome location in the ameba cell, and wide substrate specificity of these two forms, it has been concluded that they belong to nonspecific acid phosphomonoesterases (AcP, EC 3.1.3.2). This AcP is suggested to have both phosphomonoesterase and phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activitis. Two ecto-phosphatases were revealed in the culture medium, in which amebas were cultivated. One of them was inhibited by the same reagents as the ameba tartrate-sensitive AcP and seems to be the AcP released into the culture medium in the process of exocytosis of the content of food vacuoles. In the culture medium, apart from this AcP, another phosphatase was revealed, which was not inhibited by any tested inhibitors of AcP and alkaline phosphatase. It cannot be ruled out that this phosphatase belong to the ecto-ATPases found in many protists; however, its ability to hydrolyze ATP has not yet been proven.

  5. Proteomic analysis of cardiac response to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal goby fish Gillichthys mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Tomanek, Lars; Dowd, W Wesley; Somero, George N

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac function is thought to play a central role in determining thermal optima and tolerance limits in teleost fishes. Investigating proteomic responses to temperature in cardiac tissues may provide insights into mechanisms supporting the thermal plasticity of cardiac function. Here, we utilized a global proteomic analysis to investigate changes in cardiac protein abundance in response to temperature acclimation (transfer from 13°C to 9, 19 and 26°C) in a eurythermal goby, Gillichthys mirabilis. Proteomic data revealed 122 differentially expressed proteins across acclimation groups, 37 of which were identified using tandem mass-spectrometry. These 37 proteins are involved in energy metabolism, mitochondrial regulation, iron homeostasis, cytoprotection against hypoxia, and cytoskeletal organization. Compared with the 9 and 26°C groups, proteins involved in energy metabolism increased in 19°C-acclimated fish, indicating an overall increase in the capacity for ATP production. Creatine kinase abundance increased in 9°C-acclimated fish, suggesting an important role for the phosphocreatine energy shuttle in cold-acclimated hearts. Both 9 and 26°C fish also increased abundance of hexosaminidase, a protein directly involved in post-hypoxia stress cytoprotection of cardiac tissues. Cytoskeletal restructuring appears to occur in all acclimation groups; however, the most prominent effect was detected in 26°C-acclimated fish, which exhibited significantly increased actin levels. Overall, proteomic analysis of cardiac tissue suggests that the capacity to adjust ATP-generating processes is crucial to the thermal plasticity of cardiac function. Furthermore, G. mirabilis may optimize cellular functions at temperatures near 19°C, which lies within the species' preferred temperature range.

  6. Polymicrobial ventriculitis involving Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Paulina A; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S; Anderson, Evan J; Burd, Eileen M

    2014-06-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin.

  7. An ultrastructural study, effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the rabbit spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nursel; Ozkorkmaz, Ebru Gokalp; Kelesoglu, Ilknur; Ozluk, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the spleen cells of rabbits were investigated. Control group (n=5) and Proteus treated group (n=5) of New Zealand male rabbits were used in this study. Bacteria were injected to the rabbits in five days periods with increasing dosages for one month. Thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope (Jeol 100CXII). Ultrastructural changes were defined in spleen tissue cells due to the antigenic stimulation of bacteria. Spleen cells observed in control group were in normal structure and cells were in close contact with each other. However, spleen cells of Proteus treated group displayed structural changes with regard to the control group in electron microscopic examinations. Chemotaxis of macrophages, forming of pseudopodia and presence of phagocytic vacuoles were observed. Lymphocytes, the major cells of spleen revealed mitotic activity. In addition, chromatin condensation in nucleus and dilatations in perinuclear space were significant. Interactions of lymphocytes and macrophages were noteworthy.

  8. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  9. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  10. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  11. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  12. Scaled Composites' Proteus and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are seen h

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  13. Efficacy of some colloidal silver preparations and silver salts against Proteus bacteria, one possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Disaanayake, D M B T; Faoagali, Joan; Laroo, Hans; Hancock, Gerald; Whitehouse, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There has been increased interest in the role of anti-Proteus antibodies in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether chemotherapeutic agents active against Proteus species might reduce the risk and/or exacerbations of RA. We examined the in vitro antibacterial effects of ten different silver preparations which were either ionic silver [Ag(I)] solutions or nanoparticulate silver (NPS) (Ag(0)) suspensions against ATCC and two wild (clinical) strains of Proteus. The data establish the low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of all the silver formulations tested against these four Proteus strains. In a pilot study, a potent NPS preparation ex vivo showed long-lasting anti-Proteus activity in a normal human volunteer.

  14. [Proteus syndrome: Case report of bladder vascular malformation causing massive hematuria].

    PubMed

    Abbo, O; Bouali, O; Galinier, P; Moscovici, J

    2012-02-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare, sporadic disorder consisting of disproportionate overgrowth of multiple tissues, vascular malformations, and connective tissue or epidermal nevi. Due to mosaic pattern of distribution, the phenotypes are variable and diverse. Vascular malformations are part of the major criteria used to define and diagnose this syndrome. It can involve the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, or the urinary tract but bladder malformations are rare. We report here a case of bladder vascular malformation in a 12-year-old boy known to have Proteus syndrome and review the literature on bladder malformations or tumors in this syndrome.

  15. [The detection of a choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin in clinical strains of Proteus isolated in different infections].

    PubMed

    Gabidullin, Z G; Zhukova, S L; Ezepchuk, Iu V; Bondarenko, V M

    1989-12-01

    The capacity of Proteus strains, isolated from patients with purulent inflammatory, urological and enteric infections, for the production of choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin was studied by means of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the use of antitoxic serum to Escherichia coli enterotoxin. Out of 125 strains, 27 (21.6%) showed the capacity for producing choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin in EIA experiments. The results thus obtained indicate that EIA techniques can be used, in principle, for detecting the capacity of Proteus for the production of choleriform thermolabile enterotoxin.

  16. A new species of lithistid sponge hiding within the Isabella mirabilis species complex (Porifera: Demospongiae: Tetractinellida) from seamounts of the Norfolk Ridge.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Merrick; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hooper, John N A

    2016-07-07

    A population level study of the lithistid ('rock') sponge, Isabella mirabilis, revealed a new species, Isabella tanoa sp. nov., living on five seamounts on the Norfolk Ridge, SW Pacific, and representing the third species to be discovered since the genus was first described in 2005. Comparisons between the three species showed significant differences in morphological characters that corresponded to differences in their respective CO1 barcoding sequences. Conversely, three of the four genotypes of Isabella mirabilis remain unresolved using morphological markers.

  17. Structure of the O-polysaccharide and serological studies of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus penneri 60 classified into a new Proteus serogroup O70.

    PubMed

    Zych, Krystyna; Perepelov, Andrei; Baranowska, Agata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2005-03-01

    An alkali-treated lipopolysaccharide of Proteus penneri strain 60 was studied by chemical analyses and 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and the following structure of the linear pentasaccharide-phosphate repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: 6)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-beta-D-Quip4NAc-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-1-P-(O--> Rabbit polyclonal O-antiserum against P. penneri 60 reacted with both core and O-polysaccharide moieties of the homologous LPS. Based on the unique O-polysaccharide structure and serological data, we propose to classify P. penneri 60 into a new, separate Proteus serogroup O70. A weak cross-reactivity of P. penneri 60 O-antiserum with the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O8, O15 and O19 was observed and discussed in view of the chemical structures of the O-polysaccharides.

  18. Effects of Aridity and Fog Deposition on C3/CAM Photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental controls on photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis are evaluated through δ13C and δ15N analyses of leaf material from 26 individuals in the southermost population of this long-lived gymnosperm, which is endemic to the Namib Desert. The coastal Namib Desert in southwestern Africa is hyperarid in terms of rainfall, but receives up to 100 days of fog each year. This climate regime leads to interesting water relations in the Namib flora and fauna. Among many enigmatic characteristics, photosynthesis in W. mirabilis has puzzled researchers since the 1970's. Although it is predominantly a C3 plant, δ13C ranges from -17.5 to -23.5‰ in natural habitats, and can be as enriched as -14.4‰ under artificial growing conditions. Recently the CAM pathway has been confirmed, but the driver for CAM utilization has not been identified. In this study we incorporate new δ13C compositions for plants in the middle of the 100 km aridity gradient which spans the natural distribution of W. mirabilis. Initial results show an enriched δ13C signal (-20‰) in the more exposed individuals compared with those in a sandy drainage depression (-22‰). In addition, the documented correlation between rainfall and δ15N found in Kalahari C3 plants (Swap et al. 2004) is used to interpret the δ15N values in this W. mirabilis population. Initial results indicate that the fog deposition may significantly affect the nutrition of these unusual plants from the Namib Desert.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. 866.3410 Section 866.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  3. The antigens contributing to the serological cross-reactions of Proteus antisera with Klebsiella representatives.

    PubMed

    Palusiak, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Proteus sp. and Klebsiella sp. mainly cause infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts or wounds in humans. The representatives of both genera produce virulence factors like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or outer membrane proteins (OMPs) having much in common in the structures and/or functions. To check how far this similarity is revealed in the serological cross-reactivity, the bacterial masses of 24 tested Klebsiella sp. strains were tested in ELISA with polyclonal rabbit antisera specific to the representatives of 79 Proteus O serogroups. The strongest reacting systems were selected to Western blot, where the majority of Klebsiella masses reacted in a way characteristic for electrophoretic patterns of proteins. The strongest reactions were obtained for proteins of near 67 and 40 kDa and 12.5 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins samples of one Proteus sp. and one Klebsiella sp. strain showed the GroEL like protein of a sequence GI number 2980926 to be similar for both strains. In Western blot some Klebsiella sp. masses reacted similarly to the homologous Proteus LPSs. The LPS contribution in the observed reactions of the high molecular-mass LPS species was confirmed for Klebsiella oxytoca 0.062.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy.

  5. Endometrioid Paraovarian Borderline Cystic Tumor in an Infant with Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Liliana; Tello, Mariela; Maza, Ivan; Oscanoa, Monica; Dueñas, Milagros; Castro, Haydee; Latorre, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and paraovarian neoplasms are uncommon in children, mainly originating from germ cell tumors and, least frequently, epithelial tumors. There is an association between genital tract tumors and Proteus syndrome, a rare, sporadic, and progressive entity, characterized by a postnatal overgrowth in several tissues caused by a mosaic mutation in the AKT1 gene. We describe a 20-month-old asymptomatic infant with Proteus syndrome who developed an endometrioid paraovarian borderline cystic tumor. This is the youngest patient so far reported in the literature with this rare syndrome and an adnexal tumor of borderline malignancy. A total of nine patients have been described with female tract tumors and associated Proteus syndrome, which includes bilateral ovarian cystadenomas and other benign masses. A paraovarian neoplasm is extremely rare in children and could be considered a criterion for Proteus syndrome. Standardized staging and treatment of these tumors are not well established; however, most authors conclude that these neoplasms must be treated as their ovarian counterparts. PMID:26558123

  6. An Update on Improvements to NiCE Support for PROTEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Andrew; McCaskey, Alexander J.; Billings, Jay Jay

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has supported the development of the NEAMS Integrated Computational Environment (NiCE), a modeling and simulation workflow environment that provides services and plugins to facilitate tasks such as code execution, model input construction, visualization, and data analysis. This report details the development of workflows for the reactor core neutronics application, PROTEUS. This advanced neutronics application (primarily developed at Argonne National Laboratory) aims to improve nuclear reactor design and analysis by providing an extensible and massively parallel, finite-element solver for current and advanced reactor fuel neutronics modeling. The integration of PROTEUS-specific tools into NiCE is intended to make the advanced capabilities that PROTEUS provides more accessible to the nuclear energy research and development community. This report will detail the work done to improve existing PROTEUS workflow support in NiCE. We will demonstrate and discuss these improvements, including the development of flexible IO services, an improved interface for input generation, and the addition of advanced Fortran development tools natively in the platform.

  7. Proteus - A Free and Open Source Sensor Observation Service (SOS) Client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, J.; Satapathy, G.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's 'electronic skin' is becoming ever more sophisticated with a growing number of sensors measuring everything from seawater salinity levels to atmospheric pressure. To further the scientific application of this data collection effort, it is important to make the data easily available to anyone who wants to use it. Making Earth Science data readily available will allow the data to be used in new and potentially groundbreaking ways. The US National Science and Technology Council made this clear in its most recent National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations report, when it remarked that Earth observations 'are often found to be useful for additional purposes not foreseen during the development of the observation system'. On the road to this goal the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is defining uniform data formats and service interfaces to facilitate the discovery and access of sensor data. This is being done through the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) stack of standards, which include the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), Sensor Model Language (SensorML), Observations & Measurements (O&M) and Catalog Service for the Web (CSW). End-users do not have to use these standards directly, but can use smart tools that leverage and implement them. We have developed such a tool named Proteus. Proteus is an open-source sensor data discovery client. The goal of Proteus is to be a general-purpose client that can be used by anyone for discovering and accessing sensor data via OGC-based services. Proteus is a desktop client and supports a straightforward workflow for finding sensor data. The workflow takes the user through the process of selecting appropriate services, bounding boxes, observed properties, time periods and other search facets. NASA World Wind is used to display the matching sensor offerings on a map. Data from any sensor offering can be previewed in a time series. The user can download data from a single sensor offering, or download data in bulk from all

  8. Two new naphthalene glucosides and other bioactive compounds from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Van; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Dat, Le Duc; Huong, Phan Thi Thanh; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jang, Hae Dong; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-01

    Two new naphthalene diglucosides named nepenthosides A (1) and B (2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13), were isolated from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS. The antioxidant activities of compounds 1-13 were evaluated in terms of their peroxyl radical-scavenging (trolox equivalent, TE) and reducing capacities. All isolates showed peroxyl radical-scavenging and reducing activities at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μM. Anti-osteoporotic activities were investigated using murine osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity down to 91.13 ± 1.18 to 42.39 ± 1.11%, relative to the control (100%) in nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANκL)-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

  9. Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μCT-scanning techniques

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Luke A.; Manger, Paul R.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2017-01-01

    Euchambersia mirabilis is an iconic species of Permo-Triassic therapsid because of its unusually large external maxillary fossa linked through a sulcus to a ridged canine. This anatomy led to the commonly accepted conclusion that the large fossa accommodated a venom gland. However, this hypothesis remains untested so far. Here, we conducted a μCT scan assisted reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia, with a special focus on the anatomy of the maxillary fossa and canines. This study shows that the fossa, presumably for the venom-producing gland, is directly linked to the maxillary canal, which carries the trigeminal nerve (responsible for the sensitivity of the face). The peculiar anatomy of the maxillary canal suggests important reorganisation in the somatosensory system and that a ganglion could possibly have been present in the maxillary fossa instead of a venom gland. Nevertheless, the venom gland hypothesis is still preferred since we describe, for the first time, the complete crown morphology of the incisiform teeth of Euchambersia, which strongly suggests that the complete dentition was ridged. Therefore Euchambersia manifests evidence of all characteristics of venomous animals: a venom gland (in the maxillary fossa), a mechanism to deliver the venom (the maxillary canal and/or the sulcus located ventrally to the fossa); and an apparatus with which to inflict a wound for venom delivery (the ridged dentition). PMID:28187210

  10. Mirabolides A and B; New Cytotoxic Glycerides from the Red Sea Sponge Theonella mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hussein, Dina R.; Youssef, Diaa T. A.

    2016-01-01

    As a part of our continuing work to find out bioactive lead molecules from marine invertebrates, the CHCl3 fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Theonella mirabilis showed cytotoxic activity in our primary screen. Bioassay-guided purification of the active fractions of the sponge’s extract resulted in the isolation of two new glycerides, mirabolides A and B (1 and 2), together with the reported 4-methylene sterols, conicasterol (3) and swinhosterol B (4). The structures of the compounds were assigned by interpretation of their 1D (1H, 13C), 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, ROESY) NMR spectral data and high-resolution mass determinations. Compounds 1–4 displayed marked cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) with IC50 values of 16.4, 5.18, 6.23 and 3.0 μg/mL, respectively, compared to 5.4 μg/mL observed by doxorubicin as reference drug. PMID:27548191

  11. Hypoxia-induced mobilization of stored triglycerides in the euryoxic goby Gillichthys mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Andrew Y; Lee, Tsung-Han; Higashi, Richard M; Fan, Teresa

    2011-09-15

    Environmental hypoxia is a common challenge that many aquatic organisms experience in their habitat. Responding to hypoxia requires metabolic reprogramming so that energy-demanding processes are regulated to match available energy reserves. In this study we explored the transcriptional control of metabolic reorganization in the liver of a hypoxia-tolerant burrow-dwelling goby, Gillichthys mirabilis. Gene expression data revealed that pathways associated with triglyceride hydrolysis were upregulated by hypoxia whereas pathways associated with triglyceride synthesis were downregulated. This finding was supported by tissue histology, which showed that the size of hepatic lipid droplets declined visibly during exposure to hypoxia. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis confirmed the mobilization of hepatic triglycerides, which declined 2.7-fold after 5 days of hypoxia. The enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase, was implicated in the mobilization of triglycerides because its expression increased at the level of both transcript and protein. This observation raises questions regarding the regulation of fat metabolism during hypoxia and the role played by the hypoxia-responsive gene leptin.

  12. Sperm removal during copulation confirmed in the oldest extant damselfly, Hemiphlebia mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection may favour mechanisms to reduce sperm competition, like physical sperm removal by males. To investigate the origin of sperm removal, I studied the reproductive behaviour and mechanisms of sperm competition in the only living member of the oldest damselfly family, Hemiphlebia mirabilis, one species that was considered extinct in the 1980s. This species displays scramble competition behaviour. Males search for females with short flights and both sexes exhibit a conspicuous "abdominal flicking". This behaviour is used by males during an elaborate precopulatory courtship, unique among Odonata. Females use a similar display to reject male attempts to form tandem, but eventually signal receptivity by a particular body position. Males immobilise females during courtship using their legs, which, contrarily to other damselflies, never autotomise. Copulation is short (range 4.1-18.7 min), and occurs in two sequential stages. In the first stage, males remove part of the stored sperm, and inseminate during the second stage, at the end of mating. The male genital ligula matches the size and form of female genitalia, and ends by two horns covered by back-oriented spines. The volume of sperm in females before copulation was 2.7 times larger than the volume stored in females whose copulation was interrupted at the end of stage I, indicative of a significant sperm removal. These results point out that sperm removal is an old character in the evolution of odonates, possibly dating back to the Permian.

  13. Fibrinolytic serine protease isolation from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 grown on Mirabilis jalapa tuber powders.

    PubMed

    Agrebi, Rym; Hmidet, Noomen; Hajji, Mohamed; Ktari, Nawrez; Haddar, Anissa; Fakhfakh-Zouari, Nahed; Nasri, Moncef

    2010-09-01

    In this study, Mirabilis jalapa tuber powder (MJTP) was used as a new complex organic substrate for the growth and production of fibrinolytic enzymes by a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6. Maximum protease activity (1,057 U/ml) with casein as a substrate was obtained when the strain was grown in medium containing (grams per liter) MJTP 30, yeast extract 6, CaCl(2) 1, K(2)HPO(4) 0.1, and K(2)HPO(4) 0.1. The strain was also found to grow and produce extracellular proteases in a medium containing only MJTP, indicating that it can obtain its carbon, nitrogen, and salts requirements directly from MJTP. The B. amyloliquefaciens An6 fibrinase (BAF1) was partially purified, and fibrinolytic activity was assayed in a test tube with an artificial fibrin clot. The molecular weight of the partially purified BAF1 fibrinolytic protease was estimated to be 30 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The optimum temperature and pH for the caseinolytic activity were 60 degrees C and 9.0, respectively. The enzyme was highly stable from pH 6.0 to 11.0 and retained 62% of its initial activity after 1 h incubation at 50 degrees C. However, the enzyme was inactivated at higher temperatures. The activity of the enzyme was totally lost in the presence of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, suggesting that BAF1 is a serine protease.

  14. Sperm removal during copulation confirmed in the oldest extant damselfly, Hemiphlebia mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection may favour mechanisms to reduce sperm competition, like physical sperm removal by males. To investigate the origin of sperm removal, I studied the reproductive behaviour and mechanisms of sperm competition in the only living member of the oldest damselfly family, Hemiphlebia mirabilis, one species that was considered extinct in the 1980s. This species displays scramble competition behaviour. Males search for females with short flights and both sexes exhibit a conspicuous “abdominal flicking”. This behaviour is used by males during an elaborate precopulatory courtship, unique among Odonata. Females use a similar display to reject male attempts to form tandem, but eventually signal receptivity by a particular body position. Males immobilise females during courtship using their legs, which, contrarily to other damselflies, never autotomise. Copulation is short (range 4.1–18.7 min), and occurs in two sequential stages. In the first stage, males remove part of the stored sperm, and inseminate during the second stage, at the end of mating. The male genital ligula matches the size and form of female genitalia, and ends by two horns covered by back-oriented spines. The volume of sperm in females before copulation was 2.7 times larger than the volume stored in females whose copulation was interrupted at the end of stage I, indicative of a significant sperm removal. These results point out that sperm removal is an old character in the evolution of odonates, possibly dating back to the Permian. PMID:27257552

  15. Female feeding regime and polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider, Pisaura mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pavol; Maxwell, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    We examined the influence of female feeding regime on polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis). In this species, the nuptial gift, a dead prey item wrapped in the male’s silk, is physically separate from the ejaculate. We manipulated female feeding regime (starved or fed) and the presence or absence of a gift with three successive males to test direct-benefits hypotheses (nuptial gift or sperm supply) for the expression of polyandry. The presence of a gift was necessary for copulation, as no male without a gift successfully copulated. Female mating behavior most strongly supports polyandry due to the accumulation of gifted food items (“nuptial gift” direct-benefits hypothesis). Starved females that were presented with a gift accepted significantly more gifts and inseminations than fed females. Most starved females (74%) copulated two or more times, as opposed to only 3% of the fed females. Nearly all of the females that accepted a gift subsequently copulated. The nuptial gift item seems to function as male mating effort and females appear to receive multiple matings as part of a feeding strategy.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

  17. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  18. [Antagonistic interrelationships of Bifidobacterium bifidum i Proteus vulgaris in vitro in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic chicks].

    PubMed

    Timoshko, M A; Vil'shanskaia, F L; Pospelova, V V; Rakhimova, N G

    1979-07-01

    The antagonistic relations between Bacterium bifidum, strain I/850 phi, and Proteus vulgaris, strain F-30, were studied. These organisms, when introduced together in equal doses into the digestive tract of gnotobiotic chickens in a single administration, were shown to create certain ecological correlations in various organs with the prevalence of bifidobacteria which exerted no negative influence on Proteus vulgaris. The additional daily administration of bifidobacteria for 3 days running in doses 1000 times as great as the initial dose, the content of both dibifobacteria and Proteus vulgaris in the intestine being at that time at its maximum, resulted in the suppression of the growth of Proteus vulgaris. Our findings indicate that the influence of the pH of the medium should be considered in order to obtain the evidence of significantly pronounced antagonistic relations between the two organisms in vitro.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Proteus, Morganella and Providencia by comparison of rpoB gene sequences of type and clinical strains suggests the reclassification of Proteus myxofaciens in a new genus, Cosenzaea gen. nov., as Cosenzaea myxofaciens comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Grimont, Patrick A D; Grimont, Francine; Lefevre, Martine; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Pignato, Sarina

    2011-07-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of partial rpoB gene sequences of type and clinical strains belonging to different 16S rRNA gene-fingerprinting ribogroups within 11 species of enterobacteria of the genera Proteus, Morganella and Providencia was performed and allowed the definition of rpoB clades, supported by high bootstrap values and confirmed by ≥2.5 % nucleotide divergence. None of the resulting clades included strains belonging to different species and the majority of the species were confirmed as discrete and homogeneous. However, more than one distinct rpoB clade could be defined among strains belonging to the species Proteus vulgaris (two clades), Providencia alcalifaciens (two clades) and Providencia rettgeri (three clades), suggesting that some strains represent novel species according to the genotypes outlined by rpoB gene sequence analysis. Percentage differences between the rpoB gene sequence of the type strain of Proteus myxofaciens and other members of the same genus (17.3-18.9 %) were similar to those calculated amongst strains of the genus Providencia (16.4-18.7 %), suggesting a genetic distance at the genus-level between Proteus myxofaciens and the rest of the Proteus-Providencia group. Proteus myxofaciens therefore represents a member of a new genus, for which the name Cosenzaea gen. nov., is proposed.

  20. Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  1. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S.; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Rai, Ashok Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix (紫茉莉根 zǐ mò lì gēn). Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions) with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR) analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3) showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S. aureus and C. albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S. aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring “A” of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively. PMID:26870679

  2. Empyema Necessitans Complicating Pleural Effusion Associated with Proteus Species Infection: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yauba, M. S.; Ahmed, H.; Imoudu, I. A.; Yusuf, M. O.; Makarfi, H. U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species. PMID:25893125

  3. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Obesumbacterium proteus, a Common Contaminant of Brewing Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Andrew G.; Hammond, John R. M.; Stewart, Gordon S. A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We have evaluated the effectiveness of API 20E, Biolog testing, plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and enteric repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR to characterize, classify, and differentiate nine bacterial isolates of the common brewery contaminant Obesumbacterium proteus. Of the five typing techniques, Biolog testing, plasmid profiling, and ERIC-PCR provided the most differentiation, and API 20E testing and ribotyping were relatively indiscriminate. The molecular biology approach of ERIC-PCR offered the ideal combination of speed, simplicity, and discrimination in this study. Overall, the results are supportive of the view that O. proteus can be subdivided into two biogroups, biogroup 1, which has considerable biochemical and genetic homology to Hafnia alvei, and biogroup 2, which is relatively heterogeneous. Images PMID:16349260

  4. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the

  5. Tryptophan indole-lyase from Proteus vulgaris: kinetic and spectral properties.

    PubMed

    Zakomirdina, L N; Kulikova, V V; Gogoleva, O I; Dementieva, I S; Faleev, N G; Demidkina, T V

    2002-10-01

    An efficient method for purification of recombinant tryptophanase from Proteus vulgaris was developed. Catalytic properties of the enzyme in reactions with L-tryptophan and some other substrates as well as competitive inhibition by various amino acids in the reaction with S-o-nitrophenyl-L-cysteine were studied. Absorption and circular dichroism spectra of holotryptophanase and its complexes with characteristic inhibitors modeling the structure of the principal reaction intermediates were examined. Kinetic and spectral properties of two tryptophanases which markedly differ in their primary structures are compared. It was found that although the spectral properties of the holoenzymes and their complexes with amino acid inhibitors are different, the principal kinetic properties of the enzymes from Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli are analogous. This indicates structural similarity of their active sites.

  6. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment.

  7. Separation of glutathione transferase subunits from Proteus vulgaris by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Giaming; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2003-10-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases of Proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kDa to 28.5 kDa; a different pI value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. All four subunits existed as basic proteins (pI > 7.0). From these results, we concluded that multiple forms of glutathione transferase enzymes existed in Proteus vulgaris, and four different glutathione transferase subunits were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis.

  8. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on phagocytosis and killing of Proteus vulgaris in Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Douglas, J S; Hunt, M D; Sullivan, J T

    1993-04-01

    With the use of a fluorescence microassay, in vitro phagocytosis and killing of Proteus vulgaris were measured in hemocytes of NIH albino Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 1, 2, 3, or 4 wk. Although hemocytes of infected snails displayed decreased phagocytosis, relative to hemocytes of uninfected snails, at 4 wk postinfection (PI), they exhibited enhanced microbicidal activity at 3 wk PI. No microbicidal activity was detected in the plasma of either infected or uninfected snails.

  9. Growth and cell structure of Proteus vulgaris when cultivated in weightlessness in the Cytos apparatus.

    PubMed

    Kordyum, V A; Mashinsky, A L; Man'ko, V G; Babski, V G; Sytnik, K M; Kordyum, E L; Bochagova, O P; Nefedov, Y L; Kozharinov, V I; Grechko, G M

    1980-01-01

    Growth data and electron-microscopic analyses are presented for Proteus vulgaris cultures which were grown during space flight in polyethylene packets in a semisolid medium with Tryptose for 96 h. In the suboptimal culture conditions the growth and morphological characteristics of the flight and ground control variants were nearly identical, but we were able to detect a number of differences between the cellular ultrastructure of these variants. These differences testify to changes in the bacterial cell metabolism during space flight.

  10. Venous sinus thrombosis after Proteus vulgaris meningitis and concomitant Clostridium abscess formation.

    PubMed

    Bodur, Hürrem; Colpan, Aylin; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Akinci, Esragul; Cevik, Mustafa Aydin; Balaban, Neriman

    2002-01-01

    A 19-y-old woman presented with Proteus vulgaris meningitis as a complication of chronic otitis media. Despite treatment with ceftazidime and amikacin no clinical improvement was observed. Cranial MRI revealed right-sided mastoiditis/otitis media and venous sinus thrombosis. After mastoidectomy, repeat cranial MRI demonstrated abscess formation in the venous sinuses. The abscess was drained. Clostridium spp. was isolated from the abscess culture.

  11. The Proteus Navier-Stokes code. [two and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.

    1992-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. Proteus solves the Reynolds-averaged, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. Turbulence is modeled using a Baldwin-Lomax based algebraic eddy viscosity model. In addition, options are available to solve thin layer or Euler equations, and to eliminate the energy equation by assuming constant stagnation enthalpy. An extensive series of validation cases have been run, primarily using the two dimensional planar/axisymmetric version of the code. Several flows were computed that have exact solution such as: fully developed channel and pipe flow; Couette flow with and without pressure gradients; unsteady Couette flow formation; flow near a suddenly accelerated flat plate; flow between concentric rotating cylinders; and flow near a rotating disk. The two dimensional version of the Proteus code has been released, and the three dimensional code is scheduled for release in late 1991.

  12. [CHROMATIN ORGANIZATION IN CELL CYCLE OF AMOEBA PROTEUS ACCORDING TO OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY DATA].

    PubMed

    Demin, S Yu; Berdieva, M A; Podlipaeva, Yu I; Yudin, A L; Goodkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the nuclear cycle of large freshwater amoeba Amoeba proteus was studied by the method of optical tomography. The nuclei were fixed in situ in the cells of synchronized culture, stained by DAPI and examined by confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D-images of intranuclear chromatin were studied in details at different stages of nuclear cycle. The obtained data, together with literary ones allow represent the dynamics of structural organization of the nucleus in Amoeba proteus cell cycle in a new fashion. It was concluded that in this species the two-stage interphase takes place, as well as mitosis of peculiar type which does not correspond to any known type of mitosis according to classification existing now. It is presumed that in the course of nuclear cycle the chromosomes and/or their fragments are amplified, this presumption being in a good correspondence with the data about nuclear DNA hyperreplication in the cell cycle of A. proteus. As a result of chromosomes amplification their number may vary at different stages of cell cycle, and it allows to explain the contradictory data concerning the exact number of chromosomes in this species. The elimination of extra-DNA occurs mainly at the stage between prophase and prometaphase. We presume the majority of chromosomes, or may be even all of them to be referred to cholocentric type according to their behaviour during the mitosis.

  13. Crystallization of urine mineral components may depend on the chemical nature of Proteus endotoxin polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Staczek, Paweł; Rózalski, Antoni

    2003-06-01

    Formation of infectious urinary calculi is the most common complication accompanying urinary tract infections by members of the genus Proteus. The major factor involved in stone formation is the urease produced by these bacteria, which causes local supersaturation and crystallization of magnesium and calcium phosphates as carbonate apatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6).CO(3)] and struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O), respectively. This effect may also be enhanced by bacterial polysaccharides. Macromolecules of such kind contain negatively charged residues that are able to bind Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), leading to the accumulation of these ions around bacterial cells and acceleration of the crystallization process. The levels of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions bound by whole Proteus cells were measured, as well as the chemical nature of isolated LPS polysaccharides, and the intensity of the in vitro crystallization process was compared in a synthetic urine. The results suggest that the sugar composition of Proteus LPS may either enhance or inhibit the crystallization of struvite and apatite, depending on its chemical structure and ability to bind cations. This points to the increased importance of endotoxin in urinary tract infections.

  14. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  15. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera

  16. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taking Off from Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The uniquely-shaped Proteus high-altitude research aircraft lifts off from the runway at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS

  17. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  18. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The uniquely shaped Proteus high-altitude aircraft soars over California's Mojave Desert during a July 1999 flight. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The

  19. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to

  20. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-03-28

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  1. The natural history of a fugitive prairie plant (Mirabilis hirsuta (Pursh) MacM.).

    PubMed

    Platt, William J

    1976-12-01

    Some perennial fugitive plants that colonize badger disturbances in xeric prairies have a limited dispersal capacity, and consequently propagules are dispersed over a small area. I hypothesized that high density-dependent mortality might occur early in the life history of such species, and thus increased survival might occur in subsequent age classes because intraspecific competition would be reduced. These hypotheses were tested using natural and experimental cohorts of Mirabilis hirsuta (Pursh) MacM. From these data and field observations, inferences were obtained concerning selective forces operating upon life history characteristics of this species.The distance between individuals of M. hirsuta increases in successive age classes; the greatest decrease in density occurs between the propagule and seedling age classes. Mortality of propagules due to predation by ants and mice was density-dependent. Predation rates were highest at high propagule densities and predation upon propagules located on badger disturbances was higher than the mortality of propagules at similar densities in undisturbed prairie. The results of mortality in the propagule age class are seedlings present only at low densities and located away from parent plants. Seedlings survive to maturity only if they are located on badger disturbances; this species apparently can not successfully compete with plants present in undistrubed prairie. On badger disturbances seedlings present at low densities have much higher survival (roughly 50%) to maturity than do seedlings present at high densities (essentially zero). Thus, if high densities of propagules occur on a disturbance, predation upon propagules results, indirectly, in increased survival of seedlings to maturity. Such predation potentially could have important effects upon interspecific competition of M. hirsuta with other fugitives also colonizing badger disturbances.Reproductive success of M. hirsuta on the Cayler Prairie Preserve is contingent

  2. CO2 gas exchange and transpiration of Welwitschia mirabilis Hook. fil. in the central Namib desert.

    PubMed

    von Willert, D J; Eller, B M; Brinckmann, E; Baasch, R

    1982-10-01

    The diurnal course of CO2 gas exchange, (14)CO2 incorporation, malate and citrate content, and traspiration of Welwitschia mirabilis were measured in one of its natural habitats, the Welwitschia-Vlakte in the central Namib desert (Namibia), in order to decide which CO2 fixation pathway is used by this gymnosperm.The CO2 gas exchange of Welwitschia is that of a C3 plant under arid conditions. Younger leaf parts show a two-peaked pattern of photosynthetic CO2 uptake whereas in older parts the morning peak is followed by net CO2 release during the rest of the day. The maximum rates of net photosynthesis decrease from 3.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in 1-year-old parts to 1 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in 7-year-old parts. No net CO2 uptake was detected during the night. The diurnal CO2 balance indicates that the old leaf parts live at the expense of the younger ones. Irrigation of Welwitschia plants resulted in an increased CO2 uptake throughout the light period with maximum rate of 4.1 μmol m(-2) s(-1). (14)CO2 was only incorporated during the day.The water loss of Welwitschia by transpiration is considerable, reaching a peak value of 1.9 mmol m(-2) s(-1) around noon. Leaf conductance corresponds with the twopeaked pattern of CO2 uptake.Although there is no sign of a crassulacean acid metabolism in Welwitschia the leaf contains rather high amounts of malate (up to 200 μmol g(-1) dry matter) and citrate (up to 250 μmol g(-1) dry matter), which depend on leaf age but do not show any significant day-night oscillation.In spite of all this the δ(13)C values are in the range of-17.77 to-19.64‰. Possible reasons for such a high (13)C content in a C3 plant are discussed.

  3. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sujeet Kumar; Jain, Harsh; Tripathy, Laxmi Narayan; Basu, Sunandan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms. PMID:27891039

  4. Structure of a new ribitol teichoic acid-like O-polysaccharide of a serologically separate Proteus vulgaris strain, TG 276-1, classified into a new Proteus serogroup O53.

    PubMed

    Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Kondakova, Anna N; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Siwińska, Malgorzata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zych, Krystyna; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2007-10-15

    An unusual ribitol teichoic acid-like O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide from a previously non-classified Proteus vulgaris strain TG 276-1. Structural studies using chemical analyses and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that the polysaccharide is a zwitterionic polymer with a repeating unit containing 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-galactose (D-FucNAc4N) and two D-ribitol phosphate (D-Rib-ol-5-P) residues and having the following structure:[formula: see text] where the non-glycosylated ribitol residue is randomly mono-O-acetylated. Based on the unique O-polysaccharide structure and the finding that the strain studied is serologically separate among Proteus bacteria, we propose to classify P. vulgaris strain TG 276-1 into a new Proteus serogroup, O53.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) with PROTEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Connaway, H. M.; Lee, C. H.

    2015-11-30

    The neutron transport code PROTEUS has been used to perform preliminary simulations of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). TREAT is an experimental reactor designed for the testing of nuclear fuels and other materials under transient conditions. It operated from 1959 to 1994, when it was placed on non-operational standby. The restart of TREAT to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s resumption of transient testing is currently underway. Both single assembly and assembly-homogenized full core models have been evaluated. Simulations were performed using a historic set of WIMS-ANL-generated cross-sections as well as a new set of Serpent-generated cross-sections. To support this work, further analyses were also performed using additional codes in order to investigate particular aspects of TREAT modeling. DIF3D and the Monte-Carlo codes MCNP and Serpent were utilized in these studies. MCNP and Serpent were used to evaluate the effect of geometry homogenization on the simulation results and to support code-to-code comparisons. New meshes for the PROTEUS simulations were created using the CUBIT toolkit, with additional meshes generated via conversion of selected DIF3D models to support code-to-code verifications. All current analyses have focused on code-to-code verifications, with additional verification and validation studies planned. The analysis of TREAT with PROTEUS-SN is an ongoing project. This report documents the studies that have been performed thus far, and highlights key challenges to address in future work.

  6. The 2:1 Mean-motion Resonance between Proteus and Larissa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, D. P.

    2006-06-01

    Voyager 2 discovered six small satellites orbiting near Neptune; Proteus and Larissa, the two largest and outermost ones, display larger eccentricities than average, as well as non-zero inclinations. These satellites formed in a thin debris disk resulting from the catastrophic destruction of the original Neptunian satellites shortly after the capture of Triton. The slim debris disk suggests that moonlet orbits should not acquire significant tilts at formation, and any initial eccentricities should damp away rapidly due to tides. Hence, the non-zero eccentricities and inclinations of these two satellites require an explanation. We investigate the possibility of mean-motion resonance passages as an excitation mechanism for the orbital eccentricities and inclinations of Proteus and Larissa. The most recent strong resonance between these two satellites, the 2:1, is located only 600 km outside Larissa's orbit, or 900 km inside Proteus'. This resonance probably occurred only a few hundred million years ago. We find that not only is this resonance partially responsible for the current orbital shapes and orientations of the moons, but it also provides interesting constraints on their physical properties. Our study of this resonance limits the average density of the moons to 0.05 g/cc < ρ < 1.5 g/cc, and puts a lower limit on their tidal quality factors, which parameterize energy loss due to tides: Q > 10. Through numerical simulations, we identify a new type of three-body resonance between the small satellite pair and Triton. These resonances occur near the traditional 2:1 mean-motion resonances and, surprisingly, are much stronger than their two-body counterparts, presumably due to Triton's large mass and orbital inclination. We derive a mathematical framework to analyze resonances in this system, and discuss applications to extra-Solar planetary systems.

  7. Effect of coliform and Proteus bacteria on growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    DiGiacinto, J V; Frazier, W C

    1966-01-01

    Cultures of coliform and Proteus bacteria, mostly from foods, were tested for their effect on growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Trypticase Soy Broth. Inhibition of the staphylococcus by these competitors increased with increasing proportions of inhibiting (effector) bacteria in the inoculum and decreasing incubation temperatures (37 to 10 C). Time required for 2 x 10(4) staphylococci to increase to 5 x 10(6) cells per milliliter, the minimal number assumed to be necessary for food poisoning, varied with the species of effector, the original ratio of effector bacteria to staphylococci in the medium, and the incubation temperature. When the original ratio was 100:1, the staphylococci did not reach 5 x 10(6) cells per milliliter at 10, 15, 22, or 30 C (with one exception), when growing with cultures representing six species of coliform bacteria and two of Proteus. When the ratio was 1:1, all effectors either greatly delayed the staphylococcus or prevented it from reaching hazardous numbers at 15 C, six of the eight caused a delay of 2 to 3 hr at 22 C, and only Escherichia coli delayed the coccus at 30 C. All effectors were ineffective at 22 and 30 C when original numbers of effectors and staphylococci were in the ratio 1:100. Greatest overall inhibition was by E. coli, E. freundii, and Proteus vulgaris, and these species were more effective than the others at 22 and 30 C. Aerobacter cloacae and Paracolobactrum aerogenoides were more effective at 15 C. In general, results were similar with different strains of a species. Except for Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella sp., and P. aerogenoides, which apparently did not compete for nutrients, inhibition of the staphylococcus was by a combination of antibiotic substances and competition for nutrients.

  8. Is the blind cave salamander Proteus anguinus equiped for magnetic orientation ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquerel, H.; Valet, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The Proteus anguinus is a blind cave salamander which can develop the ability of using the earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation. It has been shown that the strength of the geomagnetic field is not strong enough to excite the electroreceptors of these animals through induction mechanism so that the most likely hypothesis is that they would use cristals of magnetite as permanent magnets. We have been looking for evidence of remanent magnetism in several proteus collected from the underground CNRS laboratory at Moulis (France). Because the level of natural remanent magnetization, if any, was too low to be measured with confidence using a 3 axis squid 2G magnetometer (even bringing the animals as close as possible to the sensors), we stepwise remagnetized the samples between 0.2 and 1.2T. Measurements were performed in different parts of three proteus bodies. No significant magnetization was detected in the head, most of the signal being concentrated in the lower body of the animal. Saturation was attained after 0.2T while stepwise demagnetization by alternating field showed that most magnetization was removed after 40 mT (medium destructive field, MDF of about 10 mT), which is typical of magnetite. Independent measurements of clay soils taken from the surrounding immediate environment of the animals reveal a different magnetic signature for saturation, MDF and viscosity. Thus there is no apparent and direct link between food absorbed from their environment and the magnetic remamence of the animals. New experiments are currently in progress to determine whether magnetite is the unique magnetic carrier and also to provide better clue about the magnetic granulometry and its distribution.

  9. Rapid detection of urinary tract infections caused by Proteus spp. using PNA-FISH.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C; Azevedo, N F; Bento, J C; Cerca, N; Ramos, H; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

    2013-06-01

    We developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for the rapid detection of Proteus spp. in urine, using a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Testing on 137 urine samples from patients with urinary tract infections has shown specificity and sensitivity values of 98 % (95 % CI, 93.2-99.7) and 100 % (95 % CI, 80,8-100), respectively, when compared with CHROMagar Orientation medium. Results indicate that PNA-FISH is a reliable alternative to traditional culture methods and can reduce the diagnosis time to approximately 2 h.

  10. Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Gang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2005-01-01

    A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus eliminates the need for the determination of free parameters, such as the stiffness coefficient in the penalty scheme or the two relaxation parameters in the adaptive-forcing scheme. The method presents a significant improvement over the previously introduced immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) where the forcing term was computed using a penalty method and a user-defined parameter. The method allows the enforcement of the rigid body motion of a particle in a more efficient way. Compared to the "bounce-back" scheme used in the conventional LBM, the direct-forcing method provides a smoother computational boundary for particles and is capable of achieving results at higher Reynolds number flows. By using a set of Lagrangian points to track the boundary of a particle, Proteus eliminates any need for the determination of the boundary nodes that are prescribed by the "bounce-back" scheme at every time step. It also makes computations for particles of irregular shapes simpler and more efficient. Proteus has been developed in two- as well as three-dimensions. This new method has been validated by comparing its results with those from experimental measurements for a single sphere settling in an enclosure under gravity. As a demonstration of the efficiency and capabilities of the present method, the settling of a large number (1232) of spherical particles is simulated in a narrow box under two different boundary conditions. It is found that when the no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the front and rear sides of the box the particles motion is significantly hindered

  11. Warthog: A MOOSE-Based Application for the Direct Code Coupling of BISON and PROTEUS

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.; Slattery, Stuart; Billings, Jay Jay

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program from the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy provides a robust toolkit for the modeling and simulation of current and future advanced nuclear reactor designs. This toolkit provides these technologies organized across product lines: two divisions targeted at fuels and end-to-end reactor modeling, and a third for integration, coupling, and high-level workflow management. The Fuels Product Line and the Reactor Product line provide advanced computational technologies that serve each respective field well, however, their current lack of integration presents a major impediment to future improvements of simulation solution fidelity. There is a desire for the capability to mix and match tools across Product Lines in an effort to utilize the best from both to improve NEAMS modeling and simulation technologies. This report details a new effort to provide this Product Line interoperability through the development of a new application called Warthog. This application couples the BISON Fuel Performance application from the Fuels Product Line and the PROTEUS Core Neutronics application from the Reactors Product Line in an effort to utilize the best from all parts of the NEAMS toolkit and improve overall solution fidelity of nuclear fuel simulations. To achieve this, Warthog leverages as much prior work from the NEAMS program as possible, and in doing so, enables interoperability between the disparate MOOSE and SHARP frameworks, and the libMesh and MOAB mesh data formats. This report describes this work in full. We begin with a detailed look at the individual NEAMS framework technologies used and developed in the various Product Lines, and the current status of their interoperability. We then introduce the Warthog application: its overall architecture and the ways it leverages the best existing tools from across the NEAMS toolkit to enable BISON-PROTEUS integration. Furthermore, we show how Warthog

  12. Proteus - A Mission to Investigate the Origins of Earth’s Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie Claire

    2015-08-01

    We still do not know how water and ingredients necessary for life were delivered to our planet. Comets were long thought to have seeded Earth with water, but new models and measurements have shown that comets may not be the right place to look. A growing number of small volatile-rich worlds in the outer asteroid belt - the main belt comets (MBCs) - have been observed to shed dust tails near perihelion and may hold the key to understanding the origin of inner solar system water.Proteus is a proposed Discovery-class solar system origins mission. Proteus, a 6.5-year mission, launches in 2021 to rendezvous with MBC 238P/Read shortly before it reaches perihelion in early 2028 and remains there for five months during its period of maximum activity. 238P/Read is of special interest because en route we have the opportunity to fly past and characterize its likely parent, asteroid 24 Themis. Proteus addresses five science objectives: (1) to determine where Read’s ices formed; (2) to distinguish whether the ices have a nitrogen isotope signature more like Earth or the outer solar system; (3) to determine at what temperature the ices formed; (4) to determine Read’s physical properties using surface composition and geomorphology, and (5) to determine whether Read’s outgassing emanates from discrete sources or diffuse regions and measure the scattering properties of the outgassed dust.To answer questions about the origin of water, isotopic measurements of MBC volatiles will be made with a new sensitive, precise, highly mature mass spectrometer, measuring isotopic abundances of hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen as well as the abundances of noble gases. These measurements will be correlated with predictions from two types of models: chemical models which describe the distance-dependent chemistry in the nebula and dynamical models which describe where small bodies were gravitationally scattered during the era of giant-planet migration. Proteus additionally flies two redundant

  13. Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C.

    2013-07-01

    A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

  14. Effect of initial carbon sources on the performance of microbial fuel cells containing Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kim, N; Choi, Y; Jung, S; Kim, S

    2000-10-05

    Mediator-coupled microbial fuel cells containing Proteus vulgaris were constructed and the cell performance was tested. Fuel cell efficiency depended on the carbon source in the initial medium of the microorganism. Maltose and trehalose were not utilized substantially by P. vulgaris; however, their presence in the initial medium resulted in enhanced cell performance. In particular, galactose showed 63% coulombic efficiency in a biofuel cell after P. vulgaris was cultured in a trehalose-containing medium. This work demonstrates that optimum utilization of carbon sources by microorganisms, which leads to the maximization of fuel cell performance, is possible simply by adjusting initial carbon sources.

  15. Structure and cross-reactivity of the O-antigen of Proteus vulgaris O8.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, A V; Babicka, D; Shashkov, A S; Arbatsky, N P; Senchenkova, S N; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    1999-05-31

    A high-molecular-mass O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus vulgaris O8 lipopolysaccharide followed by gel permeation chromatography. Studies of the polysaccharide by sugar and methylation analyses and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, and H-detected 1H, 13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments, demonstrated the presence of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit having the following structure: [sequence: see text] The role of an epitope associated with the alpha-L-FucpNAc-(1-->3)-D-GlcpNAc disaccharide in serological cross-reactivity of P. vulgaris O8 is discussed.

  16. Characterization and heterologous expression of a PR-1 protein from traps of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Buch, Franziska; Pauchet, Yannick; Rott, Matthias; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-04-01

    Carnivorous plants capture and digest prey to obtain additional nutrients. Therefore, different trapping mechanisms were developed in different species. Plants of the genus Nepenthes possess pitfall-traps filled with a digestive fluid, which is secreted by the plants themselves. This pitcher fluid is composed of various enzymes to digest the captured prey. Besides hydrolytic enzymes, defense-related proteins have been identified in the fluid. The present study describes the identification and heterologous expression of a pathogenesis-related protein, NmPR-1, from pitchers of Nepenthes mirabilis with features that are unusual for PR-1 proteins. In particular, it was proven to be highly glycosylated and, furthermore, it exhibited antibacterial instead of antifungal activities. These properties are probably due to the specific environment of the pitcher fluid.

  17. Copper response of Proteus hauseri based on proteomic and genetic expression and cell morphology analyses.

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Zheng, Xuesong; Wang, Nan; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Xia; Lu, Yinghua

    2014-07-01

    The copper response of Proteus hauseri ZMd44 was determined using one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry for a similarity analysis of proteins isolated from P. hauseri ZMd44 cultured in CuSO4-bearing LB medium. Candidate proteins identified as a copper-transporting P-type ATPase (CTPP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), flagellin (Fla), and outer membrane proteins (Omps) were the major copper-associated proteins in P. hauseri. In a comparative analysis of subcellular (i.e., periplasmic, intracellular, and inner membranes) and cellular debris, proteomics analysis revealed a distinct differential expression of proteins in P. hauseri with and without copper ion exposure. These findings were consistent with the transcription level dynamics determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Based on a genetic cluster analysis of copper-associated proteins from P. hauseri, Fla and one of the Omps showed greater diversity in their protein sequences compared to those of other Proteus species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the observed growth on LB agar plates showed that the swarming motility of cells was significantly suppressed and inhibited upon Cu(II) exposure. Thus, copper stress could have important therapeutic significance due to the loss of swarming motility capacity in P. hauseri, which causes urinary tract infections.

  18. Targeted therapy for genetic cancer syndromes: Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-02-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome are cancer syndromes which affect multiple organs and lead to significant decline in quality of life in affected patients. These syndromes are rare and typically affect the adolescent and young adult population, resulting in greater cumulative years of life lost. Improved understanding of the underpinnings of the genetic pathways underlying these syndromes and the rapid evolution of targeted therapies in general have made it possible to develop therapeutic options for these patients and other genetic cancer syndromes. Targeted therapies especially antiangiogenics and inhibitors of the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway have shown activity in selected group of patients affected by these syndromes or in patients harboring specific sporadic mutations which are otherwise characteristic of these syndromes. Unfortunately due to the rare nature, patients with these syndromes are not the focus of clinical trials and unique results seen in these patients can easily go unnoticed. Most of the data suggesting benefits of targeted therapies are either case reports or small case series. Thus, a literature review was indicated. In this review we explore the use of molecularly targeted therapy options in Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden syndrome, and Proteus syndrome.

  19. Ultrastructure of previtellogene oocytes in the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela, Proteidae).

    PubMed

    Mali, Lilijana Bizjak; Bulog, Boris

    2010-10-01

    Oogenesis in the neotenic, cave dwelling salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus has not been studied yet, and this study provides a detailed description of the early growth of the oocytes. Early previtellogene oocytes ranging from 100 to 600 µm in diameter were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The oocytes were divided into two stages based on size, color, and histology. Stage I oocytes can be identified by their transparent cytoplasm and a homogenous juxtanuclear mass, composed of numerous lipid droplets and mitochondria. Stage II oocytes are no longer transparent and have increased in diameter to 300- 600 µm, and many cortical alveoli differing in size have appeared. The common and most predominant ultrastructural characteristics of both stages of previtellogene oocytes are extensive quantities of smooth membrane, numerous mitochondria, and lipid droplets, as well as abundant free ribosomes. Myeline-like structures and remarkable annulate lamellae of closely packed membrane stacks are also frequently observed. Previtellogenic oocytes are the most predominant oocytes in the ovaries of Proteus, and while they possess certain structural characteristics typical for other amphibians, some features are unique and could result from adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  20. Repression of common bull sperm flora and in vitro impairment of sperm motility with Pseudomonas aeruginosa introduced by contaminated lubricant.

    PubMed

    Smole, I; Thomann, A; Frey, J; Perreten, V

    2010-08-01

    Semen collected from clinically healthy bulls at an artificial insemination centre was examined for bacterial diversity. While bacteria that are normally present in the common flora of bovine semen were absent, such as Mycoplasma sp., Proteus sp. and Corynebacterium sp., all semen samples contained an unusually high number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Analysis via pulsed field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that one particular P. aeruginosa strain, present in a sealed bottle of lubricant, was widespread in bull semen. This strain was shown to secrete substances that inhibited both the growth of bacteria constituting the normal bull sperm flora and the motility of spermatozoa in vitro. This study demonstrated that commercially available lubricants might contain bacteria that can spread amongst breeding bulls and affect the quality of semen. Bacteriological controls and species' identification are necessary at several production levels, including lubricants and extenders, to ensure high semen quality and avoid the spread of pathogens.

  1. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Post-operative Wound Infection in a Referral Hospital in Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, K Prabhat; Ranjan, Neelima; Bansal, Satish K; Arora, D R

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the isolates of postoperative wound and its susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: During a 2-year period, specimens were received as postoperative wound swabs in Microbiology Laboratory, Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha (Hisar), Haryana, India. Result: Of the 300 bacterial isolates, 89 (29.6%) were P. aeruginosa, followed by Escherichia coli (61, 20.3%), Klebsiella spp. (50, 16.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (43, 14.3%), Proteus spp. (19, 6.3%), Acinetobacter spp. (9, 3.0%), and Citrobacter freundii (2, 0.6%). There was no growth in 27 (9.0%) specimens. Conclusion: P. aeruginosa isolation was higher in male patients and most common in the age group of 21-40 years. The susceptibility pattern showed the organism to be most commonly susceptible to imipenem, followed by meropenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate, and amikacin. PMID:21346900

  2. Structure of the alanopine-containing O-polysaccharide and serological cross-reactivity of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris HSC 438 classified into a new Proteus serogroup, O76.

    PubMed

    Siwinska, Malgorzata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Kondakova, Anna N; Drzewiecka, Dominika; Zablotni, Agnieszka; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Valueva, Olga A; Zych, Krystyna; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-06-01

    The O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris HSC 438, and the following structure was established by chemical methods and one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: →3)-β-d-Quip4NAlo-(1→3)-α-d-Galp6Ac-(1→6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→3)-α-l-FucpNAc-(1→3)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→, where d-Qui4N stands for 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose and Alo for N-((S)-1-carboxyethyl)-l-alanine (alanopine); only about half of the Gal residues are O-acetylated. This structure is unique among the Proteus O-polysaccharides, and therefore it is proposed to classify P. vulgaris HSC 438 into a new Proteus serogroup, O76. A serological cross-reactivity of HSC 438 O-antiserum and lipopolysaccharides of some other Proteus serogroups was observed and accounted for by shared epitopes on the O-polysaccharides or lipopolysaccharide core regions, including that associated with d-Qui4NAlo.

  3. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  4. Modeling Multiphase Coastal and Hydraulic Processes in an Interactive Python Environment with the Open Source Proteus Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Ahmadia, A. J.; Bakhtyar, R.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrology is dominated by multiphase flow processes, due to the importance of capturing water's interaction with soil and air phases. Unfortunately, many different mathematical model formulations are required to model particular processes and scales of interest, and each formulation often requires specialized numerical methods. The Proteus toolkit is a software package for research on models for coastal and hydraulic processes and improvements in numerics, particularly 3D multiphase processes and parallel numerics. The models considered include multiphase flow, shallow water flow, turbulent free surface flow, and various flow-driven processes. We will discuss the objectives of Proteus and recent evolution of the toolkit's design as well as present examples of how it has been used used to construct computational models of multiphase flows for the US Army Corps of Engineers. Proteus is also an open source toolkit authored primarily within the US Army Corps of Engineers, and used, developed, and maintained by a small community of researchers in both theoretical modeling and computational methods research. We will discuss how open source and community development practices have played a role in the creation of Proteus.

  5. Taxonomic characterisation of Proteus terrae sp. nov., a N2O-producing, nitrate-ammonifying soil bacterium.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Augustin, Jürgen; Spröer, Cathrin; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Schumann, Peter; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    In the context of studying the influence of N-fertilization on N2 and N2O flux rates in relation to the soil bacterial community composition in fen peat grassland, a group of bacterial strains was isolated that performed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and concomitantly produced N2O. The amount of nitrous oxide produced was influenced by the C/N ratio of the medium. The potential to generate nitrous oxide was increased by higher availability of nitrate-N. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and the rpoB gene sequences demonstrated that the investigated isolates belong to the genus Proteus, showing high similarity with the respective type strains of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed differences at the species level. These differences were substantiated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and several distinct physiological characteristics. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the soil isolates represent a novel species for which the name Proteus terrae sp. nov. (type strain N5/687(T) =DSM 29910(T) =LMG 28659(T)) is proposed.

  6. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  7. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  8. In-office rapid volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids under ultrasound imaging guidance: Preclinical and early clinical experience with the Mirabilis transabdominal HIFU treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, José G. Garza; León, Ivan Hernandez; Sáenz, Lorena Castillo; Aguirre, Juan M. Aguilar; Lagos, Joel J. Islas; Parsons, Jessica E.; Darlington, Gregory P.; Lau, Michael P. H.

    2017-03-01

    Mirabilis Medica, Inc. (Bothell, WA, USA) has developed a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for producing rapid transabdominal volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids in an office-based setting. The Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System utilizes integrated ultrasound imaging guidance and short treatment times under 15 minutes. Treatment with the Mirabilis system is generally well tolerated using only oral analgesia without anesthesia or sedation. This paper summarizes certain technical aspects of the Mirabilis HIFU technology, the preclinical development process, and the results of the first in-human clinical study using the Mirabilis system. During preclinical studies, an in vivo transcutaneous porcine lower extremity model was used in a total of 180 adult swine to develop the HIFU treatment regimen parameters. Additionally, 108 excised human uteri with fibroids obtained from scheduled hysterectomies were treated in an ex vivo experimental setup and evaluated. These preclinical activities resulted in a HIFU treatment technique referred to as Mirabilis Shell Ablation, which enables rapid volumetric fibroid ablation by directing the HIFU energy to the outer perimeter of the target volume (the `shell') without insonating its core. This method results in efficient fibroid treatment through a synergistic combination of direct tissue ablation, cooperative heating effects, and indirect ischemic necrosis in the interior of the volume. After refining this technique and performing safety testing in the in vivo porcine model, a clinical pilot study was conducted to assess the initial safety and performance of the Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System for transabdominal treatment of uterine fibroids in eligible women who were scheduled to undergo hysterectomy following treatment with the device. A total of 37 women meeting certain eligibility criteria were treated at two clinical sites in Mexico. Twenty-nine (29) of these 37 women received only prophylactic sublingual

  9. Structure of a glucosyl phosphate-containing O-polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O42.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Bartodziejska, Beata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Wykrota, Marianna; Knirel, Yuriy A; Rozalski, Antoni

    2007-12-28

    An O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O42 and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the polysaccharide having a linear pentasaccharide phosphate repeating unit was established: -->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc4Ac-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-1-P-(O-->4)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc4Ac-(1-->3))-alpha-D-GlcpNAc6Ac-(1--> where the degree of O-acetylation is approximately 80% on GlcNAc and approximately 40% on each of the FucNAc residues. A weak serological cross-reaction of anti-P. vulgaris O42 serum with the lipopolysaccharide of P. vulgaris O39 was observed and accounted for by the sharing of a disaccharide fragment of the O-polysaccharides.

  10. Insights into copper effect on Proteus hauseri through proteomic and metabolic analyses.

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Ye, Chiming; Li, Yuzhe; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2016-02-01

    This is the first-attempt to use liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass (LC-MS-MS) in deciphering the effects of copper ion on Proteus hauseri. Total 941 proteins in copper-addition (+Cu) group and 898 proteins in non-copper-addition (-Cu) group were found, which containing 221 and 178 differential proteins in +Cu and -Cu group, respectively. Differential proteins in both groups were defined into 14 groups by their functional classification which transport/membrane function proteins were the major different part between the two groups, which took 19.5% and 7.7%, respectively. The result of BioCyc and KEGG analyses on metabolic pathway indicated that copper could interrupted the pathway of chemotaxis CheY and inhibited the swarming of P. hauseri, which provided a potential in controlling the pathogenicity of this strain.

  11. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at pH 9.0].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2007-01-01

    In the free-living amoeba Amoeba proteus (strain B), after PAAG disk-electrophoresis of the homogenate supernatant, at using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate and pH 9.0, three forms of phosphatase activity were revealed; they were arbitrarily called "fast", "intermediate", and "slow" phosphatases. The fast phosphatase has been established to be a fraction of lysosomal acid phosphatase that preserves some low activity at alkaline pH. The question as to which particular class the intermediate phosphatase belongs to has remained unanswered: it can be both acid phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Based on data of inhibitor analysis, large substrate specificity, results of experiments with reactivation by Zn ions after inactivation with EDTA, other than in the fast and intermediate phosphatases localization in the amoeba cell, it is concluded that only slow phosphatase can be classified as alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1).

  12. Cloning of the lambda resistant genes from Brevibacterium albidum and Proteus vulgaris into Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chae, K S; Yoo, O J

    1986-11-14

    Genes from Proteus vulgaris ATCC13315 and Brevibacterium albidum ATCC15831 were introduced into Escherichia coli, which rendered the host resistant to coliphage lambda. The clones transformed by any one of the two recombinant plasmids, pRMG101 or pRMG216, were totally resistant against the infection of virulent lambda and N4, but sensitive to ø80, T4 and T7. However, when maltose transport systems of the clones were induced by maltose, the clones were no more resistant to the phage: thus, this phenotype was thought to be due to the inhibition of phage adsorption onto the cell surface. The gene product was shown by SDS-PAGE of membrane protein-enriched extract of the clone. Molecular weight as measured was about 40,000 dalton, which coincide with that inferred from the nucleotide sequences.

  13. The incidence and beta-lactam resistance of Proteus vulgaris in hospital infections: the last decade.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Alferez, A; Baquero, F; Canton, R; Loza, E; Martinez-Beltran, J

    1991-10-01

    During the period of 1980-1990, 581 Proteus vulgaris strains were obtained in a general hospital. They were considered as the significant isolate in 0.6% of soft tissue infections, 0.6% of urinary tract infections and in 0.2% of bacteremic episodes. Sixty-three percent of the 393 tested strains showed resistance to ampicillin, cefazolin and cefamandole or cefuroxime. About 7% were susceptible to all beta-lactam drugs, and showed a very low beta-lactamase activity and 5% of the strains showed a phenotype of resistance including ampicillin, carbenicillin-ticarcillin, cefazolin and cefamandole or cefuroxime, and presented increased chromosomal beta-lactamase activity. Cefotaxime-resistance was detected in 2% of the isolates which appeared in the period 1987-1990.

  14. Involvement of myosin VI immunoanalog in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; Kłopocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Recently, we found a 130-kDa myosin VI immunoanalog in amoeba, which bound to actin in an ATP-sensitive manner and in migrating amoebae colocalized to filamentous actin and dynamin II-containing vesicular structures. To further characterize this protein, we assessed its involvement in amoeba pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of immunogold-stained cells revealed that, in pinocytotic and phagocytotic amoebae, the myosin VI immunoanalog was visible throughout the cells, including pinocytotic channels and pinocytotic vesicles as well as phagosomes and emerging phagocytic cups. Blocking endogenous protein with anti-porcine myosin VI antibody (introduced into cells by means of microinjection) caused severe defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In comparison with control cells, the treated amoebae formed ~75% less pinocytotic channels and phagocytosed ~65% less Tetrahymena cells. These data indicate that the myosin VI immunoanalog has an important role in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus (Pal.).

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of holotryptophanases from Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Dementieva, I S; Zakomirdina, L N; Sinitzina, N I; Antson, A A; Wilson, K S; Isupov, M N; Lebedev, A A; Harutyunyan, E H

    1994-01-14

    Crystals of Proteus vulgaris holotryptophanase have been grown by the hanging-drop technique using polyethylene glycol 4000 as precipitant in the presence of monovalent cations K+ or Cs+. Orthorhombic crystals (P2(1)2(1)2(1)) grown with Cs+ have unit cell parameters a = 115.0 A, b = 118.2 A and c = 153.7 A and diffract to 1.8 A. There are four subunits of the tetrameric molecule in the asymmetric unit. Native data have been collected to 2.5 A resolution. The 3.4 A data were collected from tetragonal crystals of Escherichia coli holotryptophanase grown under conditions described by Kawata et al. (1991). The molecular replacement solution for this crystal form has been found using tyrosine phenol-lyase coordinates. The correct enantiomorph is P4(3)2(1)2. There are two subunits in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Co-solvent mediated thermal stabilization of chondroitinase ABC I form Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nazari-Robati, Mahdieh; Khajeh, Khosro; Aminian, Mahdi; Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Golestani, Abolfazl

    2012-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) from Proteus vulgaris cleaves glycosaminoglycan chains which are responsible for most of the inhibition of axon regrowth in spinal cord injury. The clinical utilization of this enzyme is mainly limited by its thermal instability. This study has been undertaken to determine the effects of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose on cABC I activity and thermal stability. The results indicated that the enzyme catalytic activity and intrinsic fluorescence intensity increased in the presence of these cosolvents whereas no considerable conformational changes observed in far-UV CD spectra. Thermal CD experiment revealed an increase in T(m) of cABC I in the presence of cosolvents which was significant for trehalose. Our results support the idea that cABC I has stabilized in the presence of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose. Therefore, the use of these cosolvents seems to be promising for improvement in shelf-life and clinical applications of this drug enzyme.

  17. R-factor in Proteus vulgaris from ulcerative disease of fish, Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Mandal, M; Pal, N K; Halder, P K; Basu, P S

    2002-05-01

    A Proteus vulgaris isolated from external ulcers of the fresh water fish Channa punctatus showed multidrug resistance and heavy metal tolerance. The isolate from the ulcer showed resistance to chloramphenicol (Ch), nalidixic acid (Nx), streptomycin (Str) and tetracycline (Tet) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 750, 150, 75 and 125 microg/ml, respectively. The isolate showed growth in medium containing cadmium (Cd2+), up to a concentration of 2.5 mM indicating its heavy metal tolerance. Resistance to Ch, Str, Tet and Cd2+ of the isolate was lost after plasmid curing. Presence of plasmid DNA in the wild type and its absence in the cured P. vulgaris suggested that the resistance were plasmid mediated.

  18. Plant beneficial effect of two strains of Proteus vulgaris isolated from tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Barthakur, M; Bezbaruah, B

    1999-09-01

    Two strains of Proteus isolated from tea plantation soil were tested for their ability to colonise the roots of gram (Cicer arietinum), bean (Phaseolus radiatus) and mung (Phaseolus mungo) using a gnotobiotic system. Seeds bacterized with the two strains grew faster and showed significant increase in root and shoot enlargement of the plants tested. The bioactive fractions obtained from the culture filtrates and separated through HPLC showed that the plant growth promoting fractions were not always fungicidal and that the insecticidal fraction which was found only in RRLJ 16 was not plant growth promoting. These results suggest that the plant growth promotion effect of the plant beneficial bacteria may not always be due to disease suppression.

  19. Biochemical identification and characterization of DNA groups within the Proteus vulgaris complex.

    PubMed

    Janda, J M; Abbott, S L; Khashe, S; Probert, W

    2001-04-01

    We placed 43 isolates belonging to the Proteus vulgaris complex into proposed DNA groups (genomovars) using five previously recommended tests (tests for esculin hydrolysis, production of acid from salicin, L-rhamnose fermentation, and elaboration of DNase and lipase). On the basis of the results of these five tests, 49% of the isolates fell into DNA groups 5 and 6, 37% fell into DNA group 2, and the remaining 14% fell into DNA groups 3 and 4. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of 11 members of DNA groups 5 and 6 indicated that 10 of these isolates (91%) could be unambiguously assigned to one of these two genomospecies. Overall expression of selected enzymatic and virulence-associated characteristics did not differ significantly among DNA groups.

  20. 21 CFR 522.88 - Amoxicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., tracheobronchitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary infections (cystitis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and...

  1. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually <0.01% of the total weight. Citrate synthase activities of pelagic worms showed excellent correlation with metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  2. Crystal structure of a membrane-bound l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yingchen; Tong, Shuilong; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Qi; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Zhou, Huihao

    2016-09-01

    l-amino acid oxidases/deaminases (LAAOs/LAADs) are a class of oxidoreductases catalyzing the oxidative deamination of l-amino acids to α-keto acids. They are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and exhibit diverse substrate specificity, post-translational modifications and cellular localization. While LAAOs isolated from snake venom have been extensively characterized, the structures and functions of LAAOs from other species are largely unknown. Here, we reported crystal structure of a bacterial membrane-bound LAAD from Proteus vulgaris (pvLAAD) in complex with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). We found that the overall fold of pvLAAD does not resemble typical LAAOs. Instead it, is similar to d-amino acid oxidases (DAAOs) with an additional hydrophobic insertion module on protein surface. Structural analysis and liposome-binding assays suggested that the hydrophobic module serves as an extra membrane-binding site for LAADs. Bacteria from genera Proteus and Providencia were found to encode two classes of membrane-bound LAADs. Based on our structure, the key roles of residues Q278 and L317 in substrate selectivity were proposed and biochemically analyzed. While LAADs on the membrane were proposed to transfer electrons to respiratory chain for FAD re-oxidization, we observed that the purified pvLAAD could generate a significant amount of hydrogen peroxide in vitro, suggesting it could use dioxygen to directly re-oxidize FADH2 as what typical LAAOs usually do. These findings provide a novel insights for a better understanding this class of enzymes and will help developing biocatalysts for industrial applications.

  3. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Grégory; Vlassopoulos, Efstathios; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The HCLWR-Proteus Phase II experiments were conducted from 1985 to 1990 in the zero-power reactor Proteus at PSI in Switzerland. The experimental program was dedicated to the physics of high conversion light water reactors and in particular to the measurement of reactor parameters such as reaction rate traverses, spectral indices, absorber reactivity worths and void coefficients. The HCLWR experiments are especially interesting because they generated knowledge in the epithermal range of the neutron flux spectrum, for which little integral experimental data is available. In an effort to assess the interest of this experimental data to validate modern nuclear data and improve their uncertainties, a preliminary re-analysis of selected configurations was conducted with Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP6/SERPENT2) and modern nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-4.0). The spectral ndices, flux spectra and sensitivity coefficients on k∞ were calculated using cell models representative of the tight-pitch measurement configurations containing 11% PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in different moderation conditions (air, water and dowtherm). Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV) is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  4. Basal Structure and Attachment of Flagella in Cells of Proteus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Dinah; Koffler, Henry; Vatter, A. E.

    1965-01-01

    Abram, Dinah (Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.), Henry Koffler, and A. E. Vatter. Basal structure and attachment of flagella in cells of Proteus vulgaris. J. Bacteriol. 90:1337–1354. 1965.—The attachment of flagella to cells of Proteus vulgaris was studied electron microscopically with negatively stained and shadow-cast preparations of ghosts from standard cultures and from special cultures that produced “long forms.” The flagellum, the basal portion of which is hooked, arises within the cell from a nearly spherical structure, 110 to 140 A in diameter. This structure appears to be associated with the cytoplasmic membrane; it may be a part of the membrane or a separate entity that lies just beneath the membrane. Flagella associated with cell walls free from cytoplasmic membrane frequently have larger bodies, 200 to 700 A in diameter, associated with their base. These structures probably consist at least partly of fragments of the cytoplasmic membrane, a portion of which folds around a smaller structure. Flagella in various stages of development were observed in long forms of P. vulgaris cells grown at low temperature. The basal structure of these flagella was similar to that of the long or “mature” flagella. Strands connecting the basal structures were observed in ghosts of long forms; these strands appear to be derived from the cytoplasmic membrane. Flagella were found to be attached to fragments of cell wall and to cytoplasmic membrane in a similar manner as they are attached to ghosts. In isolates of flagella that have been separated from the cells mechanically, the organelles often terminate in hooks which almost always appear naked, but have a different fine structure than the flagellum proper. Images PMID:5848332

  5. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  6. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  7. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  8. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  9. A link between LEAFY and B-gene homologues in Welwitschia mirabilis sheds light on ancestral mechanisms prefiguring floral development.

    PubMed

    Moyroud, Edwige; Monniaux, Marie; Thévenon, Emmanuel; Dumas, Renaud; Scutt, Charles P; Frohlich, Michael W; Parcy, François

    2017-02-24

    Flowering plants evolved from an unidentified gymnosperm ancestor. Comparison of the mechanisms controlling development in angiosperm flowers and gymnosperm cones may help to elucidate the mysterious origin of the flower. We combined gene expression studies with protein behaviour characterization in Welwitschia mirabilis to test whether the known regulatory links between LEAFY and its MADS-box gene targets, central to flower development, might also contribute to gymnosperm reproductive development. We found that WelLFY, one of two LEAFY-like genes in Welwitschia, could be an upstream regulator of the MADS-box genes APETALA3/PISTILLATA-like (B-genes). We demonstrated that, even though their DNA-binding domains are extremely similar, WelLFY and its paralogue WelNDLY exhibit distinct DNA-binding specificities, and that, unlike WelNDLY, WelLFY shares with its angiosperm orthologue the capacity to bind promoters of Welwitschia B-genes. Finally, we identified several cis-elements mediating these interactions in Welwitschia and obtained evidence that the link between LFY homologues and B-genes is also conserved in two other gymnosperms, Pinus and Picea. Although functional approaches to investigate cone development in gymnosperms are limited, our state-of-the-art biophysical techniques, coupled with expression studies, provide evidence that crucial links, central to the control of floral development, may already have existed before the appearance of flowers.

  10. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  11. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  12. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  13. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  14. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  15. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  16. Production of acylated homoserine lactone by a novel marine strain of Proteus vulgaris and inhibition of its swarming by phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-10-01

    A marine strain of Proteus vulgaris capable of activating multiple acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter cultures was isolated. The cognate signal molecule was characterized as octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) and its production was observed to be growth dependent, with maximum production (5.675 µg l(-1)) at 24 h growth. The strain exhibited swarming, but its motility was not affected upon addition of pure OHL or culture supernatant. Phytochemicals such as quercitin and berberine chloride inhibited OHL production and reduced swarming. FliA, the predominantly upregulated protein during swarming, was considered as a possible target for these inhibitors, and docking of the two most active and two least active inhibitors to this protein suggested preferential binding of the former set of compounds. Apart from adding new evidence to AHL production in Proteus vulgaris, active inhibitors shortlisted from this study could help in identifying lead compounds to act against this opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Verification of the proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

    1991-01-01

    The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for 2-D/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal, and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent developing pipe flows, and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations, and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, initial conditions, grid size, and grid packing is given for each case.

  18. Verification of the Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.

    1991-01-01

    The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for two-dimensional/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent dveloping pipe flows and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, intitial conditions, grid size and grid packing is given for each case.

  19. Structural and serological studies on a new acidic O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O32.

    PubMed

    Bartodziejska, B; Shashkov, A S; Babicka, D; Grachev, A A; Torzewska, A; Paramonov, N A; Chernyak, A Y; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    1998-09-01

    The following structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain (O-antigen) of the Proteus vulgaris 032 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NOESY and H-detected 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments: -->2)-alpha-L-RhapI-(1-->2)-alpha-L-RhapII-(1-->4)-beta-D-++ +GalpA(I)-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA(II)-(1-- >. In addition, an O-acetyl group was detected, which, most probably, is located at position 3 of a part of RhapI residues. Serological studies, using rabbit polyclonal anti-(P. vulgaris 032) serum, homologous and heterologous Proteus O-antigens and related artificial antigens, revealed the importance of an a-D-GalA-associated epitope in manifesting the immunospecificity of P. vulgaris 032 and substantiated serological relationships between the O-antigen studied and those of some other Proteus strains.

  20. [Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in free-living Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2002-01-01

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) of Amoeba proteus (strain B) was represented by 3 of 6 bands (= electromorphs) revealed after disc-electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels with the use of 2-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate at pH 4.0. The presence of MgCl2, CaCl2 or ZnCl2 (50 mM) in the incubation mixture used for gel staining stimulated activities of all 3 TRAP electromorphs or of two of them (in the case of ZnCl2). When gels were treated with MgCl2, CaCl2 or ZnCl2 (10 and 100 mM, 30 min) before their staining activity of TRAP electromorphs also increased. But unlike 1 M MgCl2 or 1 M CaCl2, 1 M ZnCl2 partly inactivated two of the three TRAP electromorphs. EDTA and EGTA (5 mM), and H2O2 (10 mM) completely inhibited TRAP electromorphs after gel treatment for 10, 20 and 30 min, resp. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Fe3+ and Zn2+), only the latter reactivated the TRAP electromorphs previously inactivated by EDTA or EGTA treatment. In addition, after EDTA inactivation, TRAP electromorphs were reactivated better than after EGTA. The resistance of TRAP electromorphs to okadaic acid and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1 used in different concentrations is indicative of the absence of PP1 and PP2A among these electromorphs. Mg2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ dependence of TRAP activity, and the resistance of its electromorphs to vanadate and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 prevents these electromorphs from being classified as PTP. It is suggested that the active center of A. proteus TRAP contains zinc ion, which is essential for catalytic activity of the enzyme. Thus, TRAP of these amoebae is metallophosphatase showing phosphomonoesterase activity in acidic medium. This metalloenzyme differs from both mammalian tartrate-resistant PAPs and tartrate-resistant metallophosphatase of Rana esculenta.

  1. [Antibiotic resistance at a hospital environment. Observations from 1980 to 1986].

    PubMed

    Pistono, P G; Piro, F; Guasco, C; Malcangi, A; Martinetto, P

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1659 bacteria Strains were examined for susceptibility to different drugs by the Kirby-Bauer method. The isolates came from the General Medicine ward of Castellamonte's hospital (USSL 40). The results were retrospectively studied and statistically elaborated. The study lasted from 2 to 7 years depending on the antibiotic considered. The isolates included: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus IND+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus faecalis. Penicillines, Cefalosporines, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Tetraciclines, Nitrofurantoin, Macrolides, Rifampins, Lincosides and peptide antibiotics were tested. The results of this study can be useful for the choice of the antibiotics in non-specific therapy of infectious diseases and show the frequency of isolation of resistant strains from hospitalized patients. Furthermore it would be important to constitute a regional-epidemiological centre of Infectious Diseases.

  2. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  3. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  4. Two-directional pattern of movements on the cell surface of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Grebecki, A

    1986-07-01

    Particles of latex, glass and precipitated Alcian Blue were studied cinematographically on the surface of migrating Amoeba proteus and in the surrounding medium. The majority of the attached and all unattached particles flow steadily forward in the direction of the endoplasmic streaming and cell locomotion. Flow on the surface is faster than in suspension. Some particles stuck on the membrane move backwards from the frontal region. This retrograde transport is slower than the anterograde flow, and the rate decreases further when the particles approach cell regions adhering to the substratum, accurately following the pattern of the withdrawal of ectoplasm in the same zone. Both movements coexist in the same region and retrograde particles may pass anterograde ones at a distance less than their diameter. Transition from forward flow to backward transport occurs just behind the frontal cap, where the new ectoplasm is formed. The anterograde movement is interpreted as reflecting the general forward flow of the laterally mobile fluid membrane components, which become added to the frontal surface of the locomoting cell; the retrograde movement as retraction of membrane components that, externally, are linked to the transported material and, on the cytoplasmic side, to the contractile microfilamentous layer, as is postulated for cap formation in tissue cells.

  5. Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

  6. Paradoxical activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris in experimental infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Fukuoka, Y; Motomura, K; Yasuda, T; Nishino, T

    1990-01-01

    In previous papers (Y. Ikeda and T. Nishino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1073-1077, 1988; Y. Ikeda, T. Nishino, and T. Tanino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:865-869, 1987), we reported that many of the 7-aminothiazolyl cephalosporins, such as cefmenoxime, showed paradoxically reduced activity against Proteus vulgaris at higher concentrations, whereas these paradoxical effects were not observed for other types of cephalosporins, such as cefbuperazone and cefoperazone. In this study, we compare the therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime with that of cefbuperazone and explore the in vivo paradoxical effect of cefmenoxime by using an experimental infection model in mice. In an intraperitoneal infection with P. vulgaris 11, the survival rate with cefmenoxime was increased to 43% at 3.13 mg/kg but was lower at higher doses. On the other hand, cefbuperazone did not show such a paradoxical therapeutic effect. In mice infected with P. vulgaris 11, cefmenoxime levels in both serum and peritoneal washings were rapidly reduced and beta-lactamase activities in the peritoneal cavity were increased at higher cefmenoxime doses. These findings suggested that high levels of cefmenoxime at the infection site induced increased production of beta-lactamase, which then rapidly inactivated the antibiotic. We conclude that the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris occurs by the same mechanisms as the in vitro effect and that the high beta-lactamase inducibility and low beta-lactamase stability may account for the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris.

  7. Proteus vulgaris urinary tract infections in rats; treatment with nitrofuran derivatives.

    PubMed

    HOSSACK, D J

    1962-10-01

    Ascending urinary tract infections with stone formation have been produced experimentally in rats, using a modification of the method of Vermuelen & Goetz (1954a, b). A zinc disc infected with a culture of Proteus vulgaris was inserted into the bladder by suprapubic cystotomy under ether anaesthesia. The pH of the urine rises from 6.9 to 8 or 9 and calculi develop in the bladder within a few days of infection. The bladder and ureters become swollen, distended and inflamed, and renal abscesses develop. Death from renal failure generally occurs within 10 days of infection. Oral treatment with nitrofurantoin was commenced three days after infection and continued for one month. This arrested the initial rise in urine alkalinity and stone formation, and few, if any, macroscopic lesions were found at post-mortem examination. Of nine nitrofuran derivatives examined for activity against this infection several showed slight activity, but only one, N-(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)-gamma-butyric acid, was as active as nitrofurantoin when given at four times the dose, but it was also one-third as toxic. It is concluded that this technique is suitable for the examination of potential urinary antiseptics.

  8. Characteristics of motive force derived from trajectory analysis of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Noritaka; Miyoshi, Hiromi; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    We used a monochromatic charge-coupled-device camera to observe the migration behavior of Amoeba proteus every 5 s over a time course of 10000 s in order to investigate the characteristics of its centroid movement (cell velocity) over the long term. Fourier transformation of the time series of the cell velocity revealed that its power spectrum exhibits a Lorentz type profile with a relaxation time of a few hundred seconds. Moreover, some sharp peaks were found in the power spectrum, where the ratios of any two frequencies corresponding to the peaks were expressed as simple rational numbers. Analysis of the trajectory using a Langevin equation showed that the power spectrum reflects characteristics of the cell's motive force. These results suggest that some phenomena relating to the cell's motility, such as protoplasmic streaming and the sol-gel transformation of actin filaments, which seem to be independent phenomena and have different relaxation times, interact with each other and cooperatively participate in the generation process of the motive force.

  9. Immunodetection and intracellular localization of caldesmon-like proteins in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Gagola, M; Kłopocka, W; Greebecki, A; Makuch, R

    2003-09-01

    Caldesmon immunoanalogues were detected in Amoeba proteus cell homogenates by the Western blot technique. Three immunoreactive bands were recognized by polyclonal antibodies against the whole molecule of chicken gizzard caldesmon as well as by a monoclonal antibody against its C-terminal domain: one major and two minor bands corresponding to proteins with apparent molecular masses of 150, 69, and 60 kDa. The presence of caldesmon-like protein(s) in amoebae was revealed as well in single cells after their fixation, staining with the same antibodies, and recording their total fluorescence in a confocal laser scanning microscope. Proteins recognized by the antibodies bind to filamentous actin. This was established by a cosedimentation assay in cell homogenates and by colocalization of the caldesmon-related immunofluorescence with the fluorescence of filamentous actin stained with rhodamine-labelled phalloidin, demonstrated in optical sections of single cells in a confocal microscope. Caldesmon is colocalized with filamentous actin in the withdrawn cell regions where the cortical actomyosin network contracts and actin is depolymerized, in the frontal zone where actin is polymerized again and the cortical cytoskeleton is reconstructed, inside the nucleus and in the perinuclear cytoskeleton, and probably at the cell-to-substratum adhesion sites. The regulatory role of caldesmon in these functionally different regions of locomoting amoebae is discussed.

  10. Surveying Europe’s Only Cave-Dwelling Chordate Species (Proteus anguinus) Using Environmental DNA

    PubMed Central

    Márton, Orsolya; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Gál, Júlia Tünde; Jelić, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    In surveillance of subterranean fauna, especially in the case of rare or elusive aquatic species, traditional techniques used for epigean species are often not feasible. We developed a non-invasive survey method based on environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect the presence of the red-listed cave-dwelling amphibian, Proteus anguinus, in the caves of the Dinaric Karst. We tested the method in fifteen caves in Croatia, from which the species was previously recorded or expected to occur. We successfully confirmed the presence of P. anguinus from ten caves and detected the species for the first time in five others. Using a hierarchical occupancy model we compared the availability and detection probability of eDNA of two water sampling methods, filtration and precipitation. The statistical analysis showed that both availability and detection probability depended on the method and estimates for both probabilities were higher using filter samples than for precipitation samples. Combining reliable field and laboratory methods with robust statistical modeling will give the best estimates of species occurrence. PMID:28129383

  11. Surveying Europe's Only Cave-Dwelling Chordate Species (Proteus anguinus) Using Environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Judit; Márton, Orsolya; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Gál, Júlia Tünde; Jelić, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    In surveillance of subterranean fauna, especially in the case of rare or elusive aquatic species, traditional techniques used for epigean species are often not feasible. We developed a non-invasive survey method based on environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect the presence of the red-listed cave-dwelling amphibian, Proteus anguinus, in the caves of the Dinaric Karst. We tested the method in fifteen caves in Croatia, from which the species was previously recorded or expected to occur. We successfully confirmed the presence of P. anguinus from ten caves and detected the species for the first time in five others. Using a hierarchical occupancy model we compared the availability and detection probability of eDNA of two water sampling methods, filtration and precipitation. The statistical analysis showed that both availability and detection probability depended on the method and estimates for both probabilities were higher using filter samples than for precipitation samples. Combining reliable field and laboratory methods with robust statistical modeling will give the best estimates of species occurrence.

  12. Characterization of a cryptic plasmid from an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Park, Miey; Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Hwang, Sue-Yun; Ahn, Tae In

    2009-01-01

    A new cryptic plasmid pAP3.9 was discovered in symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria present in the cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus. The plasmid is 3869bp with a GC content of 34.66% and contains replication origins for both double-strand (dso) and single-strand (sso). It has three putative ORFs encoding Mob, Rep and phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGPase). The pAP3.9 plasmid appears to propagate by the conjugative rolling-circle replication (RCR), since it contains all required factors such as Rep, sso and dso. Mob and Rep showed highest similarities to those of the cryptic plasmid pBMYdx in Bacillus mycoides. The PGPase was homologous to that of Bacillus cereus and formed a clade with those of Bacillus sp. in molecular phylogeny. These results imply that the pAP3.9 plasmid evolved by the passage through Bacillus species. We hypothesize that the plasmid-encoded PGPase may have contributed to the establishment of bacterial symbiosis within the hostile environment of amoeba cytoplasm.

  13. [Effect of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase on the activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh, 1 microM) stimulates activity of the contractile vacuole of proteus. The effect of ACh is not mimicked by its analogs which are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), i. e., carbacholine and 5-methylfurmethide. The effect of ACh is not sensitive to the blocking action of M-cholinolytics, atropine and mytolone, but is suppressed by N-cholinolytic, tubocurarine. The inhibitors of AChE, eserine (0.01 microM) and armine (0.1 microM), suppress the effect of ACh on amoeba contractile vacuole. ACh does not affect activation of contractile vacuole induced by arginine-vasopressin (1 microM), but it blocks such effect of opiate receptors agonist, dynorphin A1-13 (0.01 microM). This effect of ACh is also suppressed by the inhibitors of AChE. These results suggest that, in the above-described effects of ACh, AChE acts not as an antagonist, but rather as a synergist.

  14. Structure of an extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamase from Proteus vulgaris K1.

    PubMed

    Nukaga, Michiyoshi; Mayama, Kayoko; Crichlow, Gregg V; Knox, James R

    2002-03-15

    The structure of a chromosomal extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) having the ability to hydrolyze cephalosporins including cefuroxime and ceftazidime has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.75 A resolution. The species-specific class A beta-lactamase from Proteus vulgaris K1 was crystallized at pH 6.25 and its structure solved by molecular replacement. Refinement of the model resulted in crystallographic R and R(free) of 16.9 % and 19.3 %, respectively. The folding of the K1 enzyme is broadly similar to that of non-ESBL TEM-type beta-lactamases (2 A rmsd for C(alpha)) and differs by only 0.35 A for all atoms of six conserved residues in the catalytic site. Other residues promoting extended-spectrum activity in K1 include the side-chains of atypical residues Ser237 and Lys276. These side-chains are linked by two water molecules, one of which lies in the position normally filled by the guanidinium group of Arg244, present in most non-ESBL enzymes but absent from K1. The ammonium group of Lys276, ca 3.5 A from the virtual Arg244 guanidinium position, may interact with polar R2 substitutents on the dihydrothiazene ring of cephalosporins.

  15. Overexpression and characterization in Bacillus subtilis of a positionally nonspecific lipase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaping; Lin, Qian; Wang, Jin; Wu, Yufan; Bao, Wuyundalai; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2010-09-01

    A Proteus vulgaris strain named T6 which produced lipase (PVL) with nonpositional specificity had been isolated in our laboratory. To produce the lipase in large quantities, we cloned its gene, which had an opening reading frame of 864 base pairs and encoded a deduced 287-amino-acid protein. The PVL gene was inserted into the Escherichia coli expression vector pET-DsbA, and active lipase was expressed in E. coli BL21 cells. The secretive expression of PVL gene in Bacillus subtilis was examined. Three vectors, i.e., pMM1525 (xylose-inducible), pMMP43 (constitutive vector, derivative of pMM1525), and pHPQ (sucrose-inducible, constructed based on pHB201), were used to produce lipase in B. subtilis. Recombinant B. subtilis WB800 cells harboring the pHPQ-PVL plasmid could synthesize and secrete the PVL protein in high yield. The lipase activity reached 356.8 U/mL after induction with sucrose for 72 h in shake-flask culture, representing a 12-fold increase over the native lipase activity in P. vulgaris. The characteristics of the heterologously expressed lipase were identical to those of the native one.

  16. Role of arginine 226 in the mechanism of tryptophan indole-lyase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kulikova, V V; Zakomirdina, L N; Bazhulina, N P; Dementieva, I S; Faleev, N G; Gollnick, P D; Demidkina, T V

    2003-11-01

    In the spatial structure of tryptophanase from Proteus vulgaris the guanidinium group of arginine 226 forms a salt bridge with the 3;-oxygen atom of the coenzyme. The replacement of arginine 226 with alanine using site-directed mutagenesis reduced the affinity of the coenzyme for the protein by one order of magnitude compared to the wild-type enzyme. The catalytic activity of the mutant enzyme in the reaction with L-tryptophan was reduced 10(5)-fold compared to the wild-type enzyme. The rates of the reactions with some other substrates decreased 10(3)-10(4)-fold. The mutant enzyme catalyzed exchange of the C-alpha-proton in complexes with some inhibitors with rates reduced 10(2)-fold compared to the wild-type enzyme. Absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the mutant enzyme and the enzyme-inhibitor complexes demonstrate that the replacement of arginine 226 with alanine does not significantly affect the tautomeric equilibrium of the internal aldimine, but it leads to an alteration of the optimal conformation of the coenzyme-substrate intermediates.

  17. Recombinant expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of chondroitinase ABC II from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Vikas; Capila, Ishan; Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Raman, Rahul; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-01-09

    Chondroitin lyases (or chondroitinases) are a family of enzymes that depolymerize chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) galactosaminoglycans, which have gained prominence as important players in central nervous system biology. Two distinct chondroitinase ABC enzymes, cABCI and cABCII, were identified in Proteus vulgaris. Recently, cABCI was cloned, recombinantly expressed, and extensively characterized structurally and biochemically. This study focuses on recombinant expression, purification, biochemical characterization, and understanding the structure-function relationship of cABCII. The biochemical parameters for optimal activity and kinetic parameters associated with processing of various CS and DS substrates were determined. The profile of products formed by action of cABCII on different substrates was compared with product profile of cABCI. A homology-based structural model of cABCII and its complexes with CS oligosaccharides was constructed. This structural model provided molecular insights into the experimentally observed differences in the product profile of cABCII as compared with that of cABCI. The critical active site residues involved in the catalytic activity of cABCII identified based on the structural model were validated using site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic characterization of the mutants. The development of such a contaminant-free cABCII enzyme provides additional tools to decode the biologically important structure-function relationship of CS and DS galactosaminoglycans and offers novel therapeutic strategies for recovery after central nervous system injury.

  18. Crystal structure of Proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase I at 1.9A resolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijun; Lunin, Vladimir V; Li, Yunge; Suzuki, Sakaru; Sugiura, Nobuo; Miyazono, Hirofumi; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2003-05-02

    Chondroitin Sulfate ABC lyase I from Proteus vulgaris is an endolytic, broad-specificity glycosaminoglycan lyase, which degrades chondroitin, chondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronan by beta-elimination of 1,4-hexosaminidic bond to unsaturated disaccharides and tetrasaccharides. Its structure revealed three domains. The N-terminal domain has a fold similar to that of carbohydrate-binding domains of xylanases and some lectins, the middle and C-terminal domains are similar to the structures of the two-domain chondroitin lyase AC and bacterial hyaluronidases. Although the middle domain shows a very low level of sequence identity with the catalytic domains of chondroitinase AC and hyaluronidase, the residues implicated in catalysis of the latter enzymes are present in chondroitinase ABC I. The substrate-binding site in chondroitinase ABC I is in a wide-open cleft, consistent with the endolytic action pattern of this enzyme. The tryptophan residues crucial for substrate binding in chondroitinase AC and hyaluronidases are lacking in chondroitinase ABC I. The structure of chondroitinase ABC I provides a framework for probing specific functions of active-site residues for understanding the remarkably broad specificity of this enzyme and perhaps engineering a desired specificity. The electron density map showed clearly that the deposited DNA sequence for residues 495-530 of chondroitin ABC lyase I, the segment containing two putative active-site residues, contains a frame-shift error resulting in an incorrectly translated amino acid sequence.

  19. Carbon nanoparticles-assisted mediator-less microbial fuel cells using Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong; Ahmed, Jalal; Zhou, Lihua; Zhao, Bo; Kim, Sunghyun

    2011-09-15

    Recently mediator-less microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are attracting great interest among researchers due to their potential applications to electricity generation as well as wastewater treatment. Common mediator-less MFCs employ electroactive bacteria called exoelectrogens to directly transfer electrons to the anode from the bacteria. However, exoelectrogens are rather limited in number and thus may not find general use for practical purposes. Here we showed our results in which mediator-less MFCs could be developed from Gram-negative non-exoelectrogens. By using carbon nanoparticles as a conductive medium to immobilize bacteria, it was possible to generate appreciable electricity from Proteus vulgaris without exogenous mediators. Maximum power density of 269 mW m(-2) and cell voltage of ca. 400 mV were obtained using glucose as a substrate. Power generation was attributed to direct electron transfer and to self-produced mediators, both of which were assisted by carbon nanoparticles. Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive bacterium, in the meantime, did not produce appreciable electricity.

  20. Regulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wade, Dana S; Calfee, M Worth; Rocha, Edson R; Ling, Elizabeth A; Engstrom, Elana; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2005-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients and is a major source of nosocomial infections. This bacterium controls many virulence factors by using two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is composed of the LasR regulator protein and its cell-to-cell signal, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone, and the rhl system is composed of RhlR and the signal N-butyryl homoserine lactone. A third intercellular signal, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone), also regulates numerous virulence factors. PQS synthesis requires the expression of multiple operons, one of which is pqsABCDE. Previous experiments showed that the transcription of this operon, and therefore PQS production, is negatively regulated by the rhl quorum-sensing system and positively regulated by the las quorum-sensing system and PqsR (also known as MvfR), a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. With the use of DNA mobility shift assays and beta-galactosidase reporter fusions, we have studied the regulation of pqsR and its relationship to pqsA, lasR, and rhlR. We show that PqsR binds the promoter of pqsA and that this binding increases dramatically in the presence of PQS, implying that PQS acts as a coinducer for PqsR. We have also mapped the transcriptional start site for pqsR and found that the transcription of pqsR is positively regulated by lasR and negatively regulated by rhlR. These results suggest that a regulatory chain occurs where pqsR is under the control of LasR and RhlR and where PqsR in turn controls pqsABCDE, which is required for the production of PQS.

  1. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    PubMed

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  2. Ice crystallization by Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Cochet, N; Widehem, P

    2000-08-01

    Several bacterial species can serve as biological ice nuclei. The best characterized of these is Pseudomonas syringae, a widely distributed bacterial epiphyte of plants. These biological ice nuclei find various applications in different fields, but an optimized production method was required in order to obtain the highly active cells which may be exploited as ice nucleators. The results presented here show that P. syringae cells reduce supercooling of liquid or solid media and enhance ice crystal formation at sub-zero temperatures, thus leading to a remarkable control of the crystallization phenomenon and a potential for energy savings. Our discussion focuses on recent and future applications of these ice nucleators in freezing operations, spray-ice technology and biotechnological processes.

  3. [Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Vallés, Jordi; Mariscal, Dolors

    2005-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. It is the most common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia and carries the highest mortality among hospital-acquired infections. P. aeruginosa produces a large number of toxins and surface components that make it especially virulent compared with other microorganisms. These include pili, flagella, membrane bound lipopolysaccharide, and secreted products such as exotoxins A, S and U, elastase, alkaline protease, cytotoxins and phospholipases. The most common mechanism of infection in mechanically ventilated patients is through aspiration of upper respiratory tract secretions previously colonized in the process of routine nursing care or via contaminated hands of hospital personnel. Intravenous therapy with an antipseudomonal regimen should be started immediately when P. aeruginosa pneumonia is suspected or confirmed. Empiric therapy with drugs active against P. aeruginosa should be started, especially in patients who have received previous antibiotics or present late-onset pneumonia.

  4. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  5. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  6. Rho/Rho-dependent kinase affects locomotion and actin-myosin II activity of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Kłopocka, W; Redowicz, M J

    2004-10-01

    The highly motile free-living unicellular organism Amoeba proteus has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion are still scarcely known. Recently, we have shown that blocking the amoebae's endogenous Rac- and Rho-like proteins led to distinct and irreversible changes in the appearance of these large migrating cells as well as to a significant inhibition of their locomotion. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the Rho pathway, we tested the effects of blocking the endogenous Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) by anti-ROCK antibodies and Y-27632, (+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, on migrating amoebae and the effect of the Rho and ROCK inhibition on the actin-activated Mg-ATPase of the cytosolic fraction of the amoebae. Amoebae microinjected with anti-ROCK inhibitors remained contracted and strongly attached to the glass surface and exhibited an atypical locomotion. Despite protruding many pseudopodia that were advancing in various directions, the amoebae could not effectively move. Immunofluorescence studies showed that ROCK-like protein was dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and was also found in the regions of actin-myosin II interaction during both isotonic and isometric contraction. The Mg-ATPase activity was about two- to threefold enhanced, indicating that blocking the Rho/Rho-dependent kinase activated myosin. It is possible then that in contrast to the vertebrate cells, the inactivation of Rho/Rho-dependent kinase in amoebae leads to the activation of myosin II and to the observed hypercontracted cells which cannot exert effective locomotion.

  7. High potential application in bioremediation of selenate by Proteus hauseri strain QW4

    PubMed Central

    Khalilian, Mohaddeseh; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Soleimani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Selenium is essential for biological systems at low concentrations and toxic at higher levels. Heavy metals and metalloids such as selenium are major contaminants in 40% of hazardous waste sites. Thus, bioremediation has been considered as an effective means of cleaning up of selenium-contaminated sites. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 strains were isolated from wastewater samples collected from selenium-contaminated sites in Qom, Iran using the enrichment culture technique. One bacterial strain designated QW4, identified as Proteus hauseri by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was studied for its ability to tolerate different concentrations of sodium selenate (100–800 mM). Also, the disk diffusion method was performed to determine resistance to some antibiotics Results: Strain QW4 showed maximum minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to selenate (760 mM). The maximum selenate removal was exhibited at 35 °C, while the removal activity reduced by 30.7% and 37% at 25 °C and 40 °C, respectively. The optimum pH and shaking incubator for removal activity was shown to be 7.0 and 150 rpm, with 60.2% and 60.3%, respectively. This bacterial strain was resistant to some antibiotics. Conclusion: The concentration of toxic sodium selenate (1000 μg/ml) in the supernatant of the bacterial culture medium decreased by 100% after 2 days and the color of the medium changed to red due to the formation of less toxic elemental selenium. Also, our results imply that heavy metal pollution may contribute to increased antibiotic resistance through indirect selection. PMID:26622970

  8. Lack of mutation-histopathology correlation in a patient with Proteus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Meggie E; Bloomhardt, Hadley M; Moroz, Krzysztof; Lindhurst, Marjorie J; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2016-06-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is characterized by progressive, disproportionate, segmental overgrowth, and tumor susceptibility caused by a somatic mosaic AKT1 activating mutation. Each individual has unique manifestations making this disorder extremely heterogeneous. We correlated three variables in 38 tissue samples from a patient who died with PS: the gross affection status, the microscopic affection status, and the mutation level. The AKT1 mutation was measured using a PCR-based RFLP assay. Thirteen samples were grossly normal; six had detectable mutation (2-29%) although four of these six were histopathologically normal. Of the seven grossly normal samples that had no mutation, only four were histologically normal. The mutation level in the grossly abnormal samples was 3-35% and all but the right and left kidneys, skull, and left knee bone, with mutation levels of 19%, 15%, 26%, and 17%, respectively, had abnormal histopathology. The highest mutation level was in a toe bone sample whereas the lowest levels were in the soft tissue surrounding that toe, and an omental fat nodule. We also show here that PS overgrowth can be caused by cellular proliferation or by extracellular matrix expansion. Additionally, papillary thyroid carcinoma was identified, a tumor not previously associated with PS. We conclude that gross pathology and histopathology correlate poorly with mutation levels in PS, that overgrowth can be mediated by cellular proliferation or extracellular matrix expansion, and that papillary thyroid carcinoma is part of the tumor susceptibility of PS. New methods need to be developed to facilitate genotype-phenotype correlation in mosaic disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

    2011-03-01

    The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative

  10. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide.

  11. Chondroitinase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris: cloning, recombinant expression and active site identification.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Vikas; Capila, Ishan; Bosques, Carlos J; Pojasek, Kevin; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2005-02-15

    GalAGs (galactosaminoglycans) are one subset of the GAG (glycosaminoglycan) family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that are involved in a wide range of biological processes. These complex biomacromolecules are believed to be responsible for the inhibition of nerve regeneration following injury to the central nervous system. The enzymic degradation of GAG chains in damaged nervous tissue by cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I), a broad-specificity lyase that degrades GalAGs, promotes neural recovery. In the present paper, we report the subcloning of cABC I from Proteus vulgaris, and discuss a simple methodology for the recombinant expression and purification of this enzyme. The originally expressed cABC I clone resulted in an enzyme with negligible activity against a variety of GalAG substrates. Sequencing of the cABC I clone revealed four point mutations at issue with the electron-density data of the cABC I crystal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis produced a clone with restored GalAG-degrading function. We have characterized this enzyme biochemically, including an analysis of its substrate specificity. By coupling structural inspections of cABC I and an evaluation of sequence homology against other GAG-degrading lyases, a set of amino acids was chosen for further study. Mutagenesis studies of these residues resulted in the first experimental evidence of cABC I's active site. This work will facilitate the structure-function characterization of biomedically relevant GalAGs and further the development of therapeutics for nerve regeneration.

  12. SU-E-T-566: Neutron Dose Cloud Map for Compact ProteusONE Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Syh, J; Patel, B; Syh, J; Rosen, L; Wu, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To establish the base line of neutron cloud during patient treatment in our new compact Proteus One proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) system with various beam delivery gantry angles, with or without range shifter (RS) at different body sites. Pencil beam scanning is an emerging treatment technique, for the concerns of neutron exposure, this study is to evaluate the neutron dose equivalent per given delivered dose under various treatment conditions at our proton therapy center. Methods: A wide energy neutron dose equivalent detector (SWENDI-II, Thermo Scientific, MA) was used for neutron dose measurements. It was conducted in the proton therapy vault during beam was on. The measurement location was specifically marked in order to obtain the equivalent dose of neutron activities (H). The distances of 100, 150 and 200 cm at various locations are from the patient isocenter. The neutron dose was measured of proton energy layers, # of spots, maximal energy range, modulation width, field radius, gantry angle, snout position and delivered dose in CGE. The neutron dose cloud is reproducible and is useful for the future reference. Results: When distance increased the neutron equivalent dose (H) reading did not decrease rapidly with changes of proton energy range, modulation width or spot layers. For cranial cases, the average mSv/CGE was about 0.02 versus 0.032 for pelvis cases. RS will induce higher H to be 0.10 mSv/CGE in average. Conclusion: From this study, neutron per dose ratio (mSv/CGE) slightly depends upon various treatment parameters for pencil beams. For similar treatment conditions, our measurement demonstrates this value for pencil beam scanning beam has lowest than uniform scanning or passive scattering beam with a factor of 5. This factor will be monitored continuously for other upcoming treatment parameters in our facility.

  13. Identification of bacterial species by untargeted NMR spectroscopy of the exo-metabolome.

    PubMed

    Palama, T L; Canard, I; Rautureau, G J P; Mirande, C; Chatellier, S; Elena-Herrmann, B

    2016-08-07

    Identification of bacterial species is a crucial bottleneck for clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Quick and reliable identification is a key factor to provide suitable antibiotherapies and avoid the development of multiple-drug resistance. We propose a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics strategy for rapid discrimination and identification of several bacterial species that relies on untargeted metabolic profiling of supernatants from bacterial culture media. We show that six bacterial species (Gram negative: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis; Gram positive: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) can be well discriminated from multivariate statistical analysis, opening new prospects for NMR applications to microbial clinical diagnosis.

  14. The use of penicillins in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A

    1984-11-01

    The main use of the penicillins in orthopedic surgery is in the treatment of infections due to Hemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Group D streptococci (enterococci). Penicillins have antimicrobial activity and have a characteristic pharmacodynamic action, including side effects. The tissue penetration characteristics of the penicillins into synovial fluid and human bone are significant. Semisynthetic penicillins, antistaphylococcal penicillins, and the antipseudomonal penicillins are used for treatment of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Oral penicillin therapy can be useful in treatment of osteomyelitis.

  15. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2007-01-01

    Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

  16. Predation in caves: the effects of prey immobility and darkness on the foraging behaviour of two salamanders, Euproctus asper and Proteus anguinus.

    PubMed

    Uiblein, F; Durand, J P; Juberthie, C; Parzefall, J

    1992-12-01

    The behavioural responses of the blind cave salamander Proteus anguinus and the Pyrenean salamander Euproctus asper (a facultative cave dweller) to living and dead chironomids offered in light or in darkness were studied experimentally. Both species were able to detect and locate single prey items positioned at distances of 30 cm. Proteus responded to dead prey in light faster and captured live prey in darkness earlier than E. asper. E. asper captured live prey in light earlier than in darkness. Proteus is well equipped to search for non-visual information and used an active, mechanically and chemically guided approach in all experiments. E. asper showed a more directed, visually dominated approach behaviour with live chironomids in light, but used an active, widely foraging mode with live prey in darkness and dead prey in light. E. asper may forage successfully both in epigean and hypogean habitats.

  17. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  18. [Interaction between Bifidobacterium bifidum, Proteus vulgaris, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 204 in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic chicks].

    PubMed

    Timoshko, M A; Vil'shanskaia, F L; Pospelova, V V; Rakhimova, N G

    1981-03-01

    Experiments on gnotobiont chickens indicated that the strains B. bifidum 1/85 phi, P. vulgaris F-30 and K. pneumoniae 204, when introduced simultaneously into the gastrointestinal tract in a single administration, proliferate there with the pronounced predominance of bifidobacteria. 6 additional administrations of B. bifidum 1/85 phi culture resulted in the complete suppression of microorganisms belonging to the genera Rroteus and Klebsiella as early as 10 days after the introduction of bifidobacteria. These data suggest that it is necessary to use B. bifidum 1/85 phi in cases of intestinal dysbacteriosis characterized by the predominance of microorganisms belonging to the genera Proteus and Klebsiella.

  19. Structure and serological specificity of a new acidic O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O45.

    PubMed

    Bartodziejska, B; Shashkov, A S; Torzewska, A; Grachev, A A; Ziolkowski, A; Paramonov, N A; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    1999-01-01

    The following structure of the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) of Proteus vulgaris O45 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established using 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NOESY and H-detected 1H, 13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence ( HMQC) experiments: [structure: see text text] Immunochemical studies, using rabbit polyclonal anti-P. vulgaris O45 serum and LPS, OPS and Smith-degraded OPS of P. vulgaris O45, showed the importance of beta-D-GlcA in manifesting the serological specificity of the O-antigen studied.

  20. Structure of a new acidic O-antigen of Proteus vulgaris O22 containing O-acetylated 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Toukach, F V; Bartodziejska, B; Senchenkova, S N; Wykrota, M; Shashkov, A S; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    1999-05-31

    The acidic O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O22 was studied using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, and H-detected 1H, 13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments, and the following structure for the branched pentasaccharide repeating unit was established: [sequence: see text] where Qui3NAc is 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxyglucose, O-acetylation of QuiNAc at position 4 is stoichiometric and at position 2 nonstoichiometric. Serological relationships of P. vulgaris O22 with some other Proteus strains were substantiated on the level of the O-antigen structures.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of two essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mickienė, Rūta; Bakutis, Bronius; Baliukonienė, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro for possible application to reduce the content of microorganisms in the air of animal houses. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. were screened against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the active essential oils was tested using broth dilution assay. The essential oils concentrations ranged from 0.1-50.0%. The combined effects of essential oils were tested for Malaleuca alternifolia L. and Cymbopogon citrarus L. concentrations ranged from 0.005-50.0%. The oils showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0.1-0.5% of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. reduced total microorganisms count of Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was also revealed for Cymbopogon citrarus L. with bactericidal concentrations of 0.8% for Escherichia coli, 5.0% for Enterococcus faecium, 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal concentrations of Malaleuca alternifolia L. were 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus and Malaleuca alternifolia may be a promising alternative of air disinfection in animal houses.

  2. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, D T; Cruden, D L; Haddock, J D; Zylstra, G J; Brand, J M

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms. PMID:8331086

  3. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  4. Reanalysis of the Gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility Proteus - Spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero power reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute which has been employed during the 1970's to study experimentally the physics of the gas-cooled fast reactor. Reaction rate distributions, flux spectrum and reactivity effects have been measured in several configurations featuring PuO2/UO2 fuel, absorbers, large iron shields, and thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasihomogeneously in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. This papers focus on the spectral indices - including fission and capture in 232Th and 237Np - measured in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattices and their predictions with an MCNPX model specially developed for the PROTEUS-GCFR core. Predictions were obtained with JEFF-3.1 and -3.11, ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, and JENDL-3.3 and -4.0. A general good agreement was demonstrated. The ratio of 232Th fission to 239Pu fission, however, was under-predicted by 8.7±2.1% and 6.5±2.1% using ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, respectively. Finally, the capture rates in 237Np tended to be underpredicted by the JEFF and JENDL libraries, although the new cross section in JEFF-3.1.1 slightly improved the 237Np capture to 239Pu fission results (3.4±2.4%).

  5. Comparative evaluations on bio-treatment of hexavalent chromate by resting cells of Pseudochrobactrum sp. and Proteus sp. in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shimei; Dong, Xinjiao; Zhou, Jiangmin; Ge, Shichao

    2013-09-15

    Two marine bacterial strains, B5 and H24, were isolated from long-term Cr(VI) contaminated seawater and identified as Pseudochrobactrum and Proteus, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Both strains were examined for their tolerance to Cr(VI) and other metal salts and their abilities to reduce Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]. Growing cells of Pseudochrobactrum sp. B5 and Proteus sp. H24 could tolerate Cr(VI) at a concentration of 2000 and 1500 mg/l and completely reduce 1000 mg/l Cr(VI) in LB medium within 96 and 144 h, respectively. Resting cells of the two strains were able to reduce 200mg/l Cr(VI) in Tris-HCl buffer within 16 and 24h, respectively. Furthermore, resting cells of both strains were able to reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewaters three times consecutively. Overall, this study provides evidence of the potential for application of chromate-reducing bacteria to direct Cr(VI) decontamination of industrial effluents.

  6. Characterization of a cDNA of peroxiredoxin II responding to hydrogen peroxide and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Park, Miey; Shin, Hae J; Lee, Soo Y; Ahn, Tae I

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytic cells have defense systems against reactive oxygen species generated as the first non-specific defense mechanism against invading pathogens or microorganisms. We cloned a cDNA encoding a 21.69-kDa protein in Amoeba proteus homologous to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx-Ap). In the disk inhibition assay using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent, Escherichia coli overproducing Prx-Ap showed better viability than did E. coli transformed with pBluescript II SK for control. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) produced against Prx-Ap reacted with a 22.5-kDa protein and several minor proteins. In Western blot analysis, levels of the 22.5-kDa protein in amoebae treated with 2-mM H2O2 for 1 h increased about 2-fold over those in control cells. Immunofluorescence scattered throughout the cytoplasm also increased after H2O2 treatment. In Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe, the level of transcripts also changed with H2O2 treatment. When amoebae were fed with Tetrahymena, the intensity of immunofluorescence increased from 15 min and persisted until 2 h after phagocytosis. These results suggest that the 22.5-kDa protein of A. proteus is a Prx protein and that it has an antioxidant property responding to phagocytosis.

  7. Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

  8. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: breaking down barriers.

    PubMed

    Berube, Bryan J; Rangel, Stephanie M; Hauser, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have evolved ingenious ways to escape from the lung during pneumonia to cause bacteremia. Unfortunately, the clinical consequences of this spread to the bloodstream are frequently dire. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to breach the lung barrier. We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia, utilizes the type III secretion system effector ExoS to intoxicate pulmonary epithelial cells. Injection of these cells leads to localized disruption of the pulmonary-vascular barrier and dissemination of P. aeruginosa to the bloodstream. We put these data in the context of previous studies to provide a holistic model of P. aeruginosa dissemination from the lung. Finally, we compare P. aeruginosa dissemination to that of other bacteria to highlight the complexity of bacterial pneumonia. Although respiratory pathogens use distinct and intricate strategies to escape from the lungs, a thorough understanding of these processes can lay the foundation for new therapeutic approaches for bacterial pneumonia.

  10. Carbenicillin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tebar, A; Rojo, F; Dámaso, D; Vázquez, D

    1982-01-01

    Four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates which are carbenicillin resistant were studied to find the cause(s) of resistance to this beta-lactam antibiotic. The electrophoresis patterns of the four strains (PH20610, PH20815, PH4011, and PH4301) were found to be different from those of a wild-type strain, P. aeruginosa NCTC 10662, and appeared to lack penicillin-binding protein 2. Affinity of other penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH20610 and PH20815 for carbenicillin seemed to be normal or slightly diminished. Electrophoretic patterns of penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH4011 and PH4301 had more profound differences, since the affinities of their penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 4 for carbenicillin were decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude relative to the preparations from the wild-type strain. Kinetic studies on binding of carbenicillin to penicillin-binding proteins both in isolated membrane preparations and in intact cells revealed that carbenicillin penetration into resistant cells was a much slower process than in susceptible cells, suggesting that the outer envelope structures serve as an efficient barrier against carbenicillin entry into our P. aeruginosa strains from clinical isolates. PMID:6821456

  11. The nitrogen supply from soils and insects during growth of the pitcher plants Nepenthes mirabilis, Cephalotus follicularis and Darlingtonia californica.

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Schulze, E D; Pate, J S; Gillison, A N

    1997-11-01

    This study investigated the nitrogen (N) acquisition from soil and insect capture during the growth of three species of pitcher plants, Nepenthes mirabilis, Cephalotus follicularis and Darlingtonia californica. (15)N/(14)N natural abundance ratios (δ(15)N) of plants and pitchers of different age, non-carnivorous reference plants, and insect prey were used to estimate proportional contributions of insects to the N content of leaves and whole plants. Young Nepenthes leaves (phyllodes) carrying closed pitchers comprised major sinks for N and developed mainly from insect N captured elsewhere on the plant. Their δ(15)N values of up to 7.2‰ were higher than the average δ(15)N value of captured insects (mean δ(15)N value = 5.3‰). In leaves carrying old pitchers that are acting as a N source, the δ(15)N decreased to 3.0‰ indicating either an increasing contribution of soil N to those plant parts which in fact captured the insects or N gain from N2 fixation by microorganisms which may exist in old pitchers. The δ(15)N value of N in water collected from old pitchers was 1.2‰ and contained free amino acids. The fraction of insect N in young and old pitchers and their associated leaves decreased from 1.0 to 0.3 mg g(-1). This fraction decreased further with the size of the investigated tiller. Nepenthes contained on average 61.5 ± 7.6% (mean ± SD, range 50-71%) insect N based on the N content of a whole tiller. In the absence of suitable non-carnivorous reference plants for Cephalotus, δ(15)N values were assessed across a developmental sequence from young plants lacking pitchers to large adults with up to 38 pitchers. The data indicated dependence on soil N until 4 pitchers had opened. Beyond that stage, plant size increased with the number of catching pitchers but the fraction of soil N remained high. Large Cephalotus plants were estimated to derive 26 ± 5.9% (mean ± SD of the three largest plants; range: 19-30%) of the N from insects

  12. Investigation into the microbial flora of healing and non-healing decubitus ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Daltrey, D C; Rhodes, B; Chattwood, J G

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-four pressure lesions in fifty-three geriatric patients were observed at weekly intervals to determine the bacterial flora and the healing index of each lesion, expressed as initial area of lesion (cm2) - final area of lesion (cm2) divided by time in days. The micro-organisms which caused infection included Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus. Many lesions contained a mixed flora. P mirabilis and Ps aeruginosa were associated with necrotic (p less than 0.005) and enlarging (p less than 5 x 10(-7)) lesions. Bacteroides spp were associated with necrotic lesions (p less than 0.05). The presence of S aureus in a lesion was not associated with any particular trend in healing index. The implications of the microbiological findings are discussed. PMID:6790579

  13. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Trojan, Rugira; Razdan, Lovely

    2016-01-01

    We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%), Citrobacter spp. (3.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.3%), and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins. S. aureus and Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to cloxacillin and vancomycin. However, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, and Streptococcus isolates were found to be less resistant to the spectrum of antibiotics tested. Overall, our findings indicate the prevalence of resistance to different classes of antibiotics in bacterial isolates from pus infections and hence highlight the need for effective surveillance, regulator reporting, and antibiogram-guided antibiotic prescription. PMID:27872643

  14. In vitro synthesis of biogenic amines by Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates from meat and meat products and the influence of other microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata

    2011-07-01

    Twenty Brochothrix thermosphacta strains tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, formed histamine (6.6-16.2 mg/kg) and tyramine (18.7-35.4 mg/kg) but neither putrescine nor cadaverine. Six of the twenty strains were also investigated in respect of their influence on the synthesis of BAs by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus mirabilis and Lactobacillus sakei. In pure culture Escherichia coli produced all of the studied amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) with a total concentration of 167.7 mg/kg, P. mirabilis produced a total of 56.7 mg/kg histamine, tyramine and cadaverine, while Lactobacillus sakei and Pseudomonas sp. produced histamine and tyramine, totaling 37.9 and 35.2 mg/kg respectively. All B. thermosphacta promoted cadaverine production by Escherichia coli which increased by 12-68%, and some of them contributed to the appearance of this amine among the metabolites of Pseudomonas. The presence of B. thermosphacta decreased the potential ability of P. mirabilis to produce BAs.

  15. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae.

  16. Implementation/validation of a low Reynolds number two-equation turbulence model in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code: Two-dimensional/axisymmetric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.

  17. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  18. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  19. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  20. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  1. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by S....

  2. Specific gonadotropin binding to Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Richert, N D; Ryan, R J

    1977-03-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to Pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and pH and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. The equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 X 10(-9) M. There are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (Hill coefficient, 1.05). The number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. NaCl and KCl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mM, have no effect on binding. Divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and 1 mM EDTA inhibit hormone binding. Binding is destroyed by heat or by treatment with Pronase of alpha-chymotrypsin and is increased by phospholipase C. Binding of the labeled gonadotropin is not observed with other gram-negative organisms--e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Enterobacter cloacae.

  3. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 5, 6, 7, & 8: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:2 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  4. HTR-Proteus Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 5,6,7,&8: Columnar Hexagonal Point-on-Point Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Sterbentz, James W.; Snoj, Luka; Lengar, Igor; Koberl, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  5. Comparison of aspartate transcarbamoylase regulation in Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas mendocina.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Manuel F; West, Thomas P

    2003-01-01

    The regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in cell extracts of Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909 and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411 was compared. Under saturating substrate concentrations, pyrophosphate, CTP, UDP and ADP were highly inhibitory of the P. alcaligenes transcarbamoylase activity while pyrophosphate, UDP, ADP, ATP and GTP were the most effective inhibitors of the P. mendocina transcarbamoylase. By examining transcarbamoylase inhibition by ribonucleotide triphosphates, it was possible to differentiate these species assigned to different DNA homology groups and such an analysis might prove useful in the reclassification of Pseudomonas species.

  6. A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

    1987-01-01

    A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare. PMID:3579287

  7. Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov., isolated from droppings of a seashore bird, and emended descriptions of Pseudomonas pohangensis, Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Pseudomonas segetis.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Asif; Shahina, Mariyam; Lin, Shih-Yao; Liu, You-Cheng; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-07-01

    Two Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains that are motile by a monopolar flagellum, designated CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5, were isolated from droppings of a seashore bird off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan. The strains showed 99.7% mutual pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, while exhibiting <96.2% sequence similarity to strains of other species of the genus Pseudomonas (95.7-95.9% similarity with type species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LMG 1242T), and formed a distinct co-phyletic lineage in the phylogenetic trees. The common major fatty acids (>5% of the total) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C16 : 0 and C12 : 0. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, an unidentified lipid and an unidentified phospholipid were detected as common polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 were 61.1 and 61.6 mol%, respectively. The common major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9), and the predominant polyamine was putrescine. The DNA-DNA hybridization obtained between the two strains was 79.0% (reciprocal value 89.4% using CC-AMHZ-5 DNA as the probe). The very high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness and the poorly distinguishable phenotypic features witnessed between CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 suggested unambiguously that they are two distinct strains of a single genomic species. However, the strains also showed several genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that distinguished them from other closely related species of Pseudomonas. Thus, the strains are proposed to represent a novel species of Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-AMH-11(T) ( = JCM 19513(T) = BCRC 80696(T)); a second strain of the same species is CC-AMHZ-5 ( = JCM 19512 = BCRC 80697). In addition, emended descriptions

  8. A comparison of certain extracting agents for extraction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from microorganisms for use in the firefly luciferase ATP assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knust, E. A.; Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    Firefly luciferase ATP assay is used in clinical and industrial applications, such as determination of urinary infection levels, microbial susceptibility testing, and monitoring of yeast levels in beverages. Three categories of extractants were investigated for their extracting efficiency. They were ionizing organic solvents, nonionizing organic solvents, and inorganic acids. Dimethylsulfoxide and formamide represented the ionizing organic solvents, while n-butanol, chloroform, ethanol, acetone, and methylene chloride were used for the nonionizing organic solvents. Nitric acid and perchloric acid were chosen for the inorganic acids category. Pathogens were tested with each solvent. They included: Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. These results are shown in graphic representations.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  10. Differences in the motility of Amoeba proteus isolated fragments are determined by F-actin arrangement and cell nucleus presence.

    PubMed

    Grebecka, L; Pomorski, P; Lopatowska, A

    1995-10-01

    Isolated fragments produced by bisection of Amoeba proteus differ by their position in the original cell and by the presence or absence of the cell nucleus. Immediately after the operation, both types of anterior fragments preserve the former motory polarity, and do not interrupt locomotion. In the same time, all posterior fragments stop, round up and fail to react stimuli. In the second phase of experiment, these anterior fragments, which had no nucleus ceased to move, whereas the nucleated posterior ones resumed locomotion. It was demonstrated, that the behaviour of a fragment is primarily determined by the peripheral F-actin distribution, which is different depending on the origin of the fragment either from the anterior or from the posterior cell region. Later, the "inherited" F-actin distribution may be stabilized or reorganized in the presence of the nucleus, or desorganized in its absence.

  11. Characterization of an Unusual Strain of Proteus rettgeri Associated with an Outbreak of Nosocomial Urinary-Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Traub, W. H.; Craddock, M. E.; Raymond, E. A.; Fox, M.; McCall, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial urinary-tract infection was caused by a strain of Proteus rettgeri that fermented lactose overnight and was resistant to all antimicrobial drugs tested. The nonmotile isolates shared an O (somatic) antigen that differed from those of wild-type P. rettgeri. The organisms proved markedly serum-sensitive. In rats, the isolates elicited an acute interstitial nephritis with associated transient bacteriuria. Attempts to transfer the lac+ trait and drug-resistance markers to recipient strains of Escherichia coli K-12 failed; exposure of the isolates to acridine orange yielded small numbers of non-lactose-fermenting variants which, however, were still as drug-resistant as before. Epidemiological studies failed to uncover the source of this unique strain and appeared to indicate exogenous spread of infection. PMID:4940869

  12. Structure of a glycerol teichoic acid-like O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O12.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, A V; Torzewska, A; Shashkov, A S; Senchenkova, S N; Rozalski, A; Knirel, Y A

    2000-02-01

    A phosphorylated O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus vulgaris O12 lipopolysaccharide and studied by sugar and methylation analyses, 1H-, 13C- and 31P-NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H, 13C and 1H, 31P heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence experiments. It was found that the polysaccharide consists of pentasaccharide repeating units connected via a glycerol phosphate group, and has the following structure: where FucNAc is 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxygalactose and the degree of O-acetylation at position 4 of GalNAc is approximately 25%. Immunochemical studies with P. vulgaris O12 O-antiserum suggested that the lipopolysaccharide studied shares common epitopes with the lipopolysaccharide core of P. vulgaris O8 and with the O-antigens of P. penneri strains 8 and 63.

  13. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G.

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  14. [A sarcoma-static new species of Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas jinanensis sp. nov].

    PubMed

    Cai, M Y; Lu, D S; Wang, D S; He, Z Z; Wang, J H

    1989-06-01

    A strain of Gram negative bacteria was isolated from the surface soil of Wuying Hill at Jinan, Shandong province with Gause's medium in 1973. It is a strain of antagonistic bacteria for hysterocervicoma, hepatoma and melanoma of mice screened from 2100 strains of bacteria. It is also antagonistic to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus. It is a Gram negative bacterium with lophotrichous polar flagella. Straight rods in shape or with a little slightly curved rods, 0.5-0.6 X 1-2 microns, randomly arranged, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules are accumulated in cells after 2-5 days cultivation. Water green soluble pigment and green fluorescent pigment are produced. Respiratory metabolism, chemoorganotroph, many carbon-containing organic compounds can be used as carbon sources, such as glucose, trehalose, ethanol, cellulobiose, fucose, arginine and betaine, but propionic acid or tartaric acid is not utilized. Inorganic nitrogen containing compounds can be used ae the sole source of nitrogen. No growth factor is necessary for growth. Gelatin is hydrolyzed. Starch and cellulose are not hydrolyzed. Nitrate is not reduced. Arginine dihydrolase is produced. Levan is produced from sucrose. Growth occurs from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C and from pH 5.65-8.40. No growth occurs at 40 degrees C and at pH value below 4.86. It can not grow autotrophically with hydrogen. Its G + C contents in DNA is 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments reveals a relatedness value of 58.6% between this strain and Ps. fluorescens. The above evidence shows that this strain differs from all species known in Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens group. Pseudomonas caryophylli, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas marginata, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas delafieldii.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

  16. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  17. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  18. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  19. PSEUDOMONAS PYOCYANEA AND THE ARGININE DIHYDROLASE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    TAYLOR, J J; WHITBY, J L

    1964-03-01

    Non-pigmented strains of Pseudomonas pyocyanea occur frequently and this organism has only limited activity in conventional biochemical tests; 50 strains were tested for the presence of arginine dihydrolase and found positive whereas only Salmonella sp. and Enterobacter sp. among other Gram-negative species were positive. The test for arginine dihydrolase is rapid and simple and suitable for routine use.

  20. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.