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Sample records for proto-oncogene bcl6 promotes

  1. Evi9 Encodes a Novel Zinc Finger Protein That Physically Interacts with BCL6, a Known Human B-Cell Proto-Oncogene Product

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takuro; Yamazaki, Yukari; Saiki, Yuriko; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Largaespada, David A.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.

    2000-01-01

    Evi9 is a common site of retroviral integration in BXH2 murine myeloid leukemias. Here we show that Evi9 encodes a novel zinc finger protein with three tissue-specific isoforms: Evi9a (773 amino acids [aa]) contains two C2H2-type zinc finger motifs, a proline-rich region, and an acidic domain; Evi9b (486 aa) lacks the first zinc finger motif and part of the proline-rich region; Evi9c (239 aa) lacks all but the first zinc finger motif. Proviral integration sites are located in the first intron of the gene and lead to increased gene expression. Evi9a and Evi9c, but not Evi9b, show transforming activity for NIH 3T3 cells, suggesting that Evi9 is a dominantly acting proto-oncogene. Immunolocalization studies show that Evi9c is restricted to the cytoplasm whereas Evi9a and Evi9b are located in the nucleus, where they form a speckled localization pattern identical to that observed for BCL6, a human B-cell proto-oncogene product. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments show that Evi9a and Evi9b, but not Evi9c, physically interact with BCL6, while deletion mutagenesis localized the interaction domains in or near the second zinc finger and POZ domains of Evi9 and BCL6, respectively. These results suggest that Evi9 is a leukemia disease gene that functions, in part, through its interaction with BCL6. PMID:10757802

  2. Bcl6 promotes osteoblastogenesis through Stat1 inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Fujie, Atsuhiro; Funayama, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Hao, Wu; Tando, Toshimi; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Miyamoto, Kana; Kanaji, Arihiko; Morioka, Hideo; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2015-02-13

    Bone mass is tightly controlled by a balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. Although these cell types mature via different pathways, some factors reportedly regulate differentiation of both. Here, in a search for factors governing osteoblastogenesis but also expressed in osteoclasts to control both cell types by one molecule, we identified B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) as one of those factors and show that it promotes osteoblast differentiation. Bcl6 was previously shown to negatively regulate osteoclastogenesis. We report that lack of Bcl6 results in significant inhibition of osteoblastogensis in vivo and in vitro and in defects in secondary ossification center formation in vivo. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) reportedly attenuates osteoblast differentiation by inhibiting nuclear translocation of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which is essential for osteoblast differentiation. We found that lack of Bcl6 resulted in significant elevation of Stat1 mRNA and protein expression in osteoblasts and showed that Stat1 is a direct target of Bcl6 using a chromatin immune-precipitation assay. Mice lacking both Bcl6 and Stat1 (DKO) exhibited significant rescue of bone mass and osteoblastic parameters as well as partial rescue of secondary ossification center formation compared with Bcl6-deficient mice in vivo. Altered osteoblastogenesis in Bcl6-deficient cells was also restored in DKO in vitro. Thus, Bcl6 plays crucial roles in regulating both osteoblast activation and osteoclast inhibition. - Highlights: • Bcl6 is required for osteoblast differentiation. • Bcl6{sup −/−} mice exhibited altered osteoblastogenesis and reduced bone mass in vivo and in vitro. • We identified Stat1 as a direct target of Bcl6 in osteoblasts. • Bcl6 and Stat1 doubly deficient mice exhibited rescued bone phenotypes compared with Bcl6{sup −/−} mice.

  3. Modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor proto-oncogene transcription by a promoter site sensitive to S1 nuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A C; Jinno, Y; Merlino, G T

    1988-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is the functional target of the mitogen EGF and the cellular homolog of the avian erythroblastosis virus erbB oncogene product. Regulation of expression of the proto-oncogene encoding the EGF receptor can be elucidated by studying the structure and function of the gene promoter outside the confines of the cell. Previously, we reported the isolation of the human EGF receptor gene promoter. The promoter is highly GC rich, contains no TATA or CAAT box, and has multiple transcription start sites. An S1 nuclease-sensitive site has now been found 80 to 110 base pairs (bp) upstream from the major in vivo transcription initiation site. Two sets of direct repeat sequences were found in this area; both conform to the motif TCCTCCTCC. When deletion mutations were made in this region of the promoter by using either Bal 31 exonuclease or S1 nuclease, we found that in vivo activity dropped three- to fivefold, on the basis of transient-transfection analysis. Examination of nuclear protein binding to normal and mutated promoter DNAs by gel retardation analysis and DNase I footprinting revealed that two specific factors bind to the direct repeat region but cannot bind to the S1 nuclease-mutated promoter. One of the specific factors is the transcription factor Sp1. The results suggest that these nuclear trans-acting factors interact with the S1 nuclease-sensitive region of the EGF receptor gene promoter and either directly or indirectly stimulate transcription. Images PMID:2847030

  4. Inhibition of the hTERT promoter by the proto-oncogenic protein TAL1.

    PubMed

    Terme, J-M; Mocquet, V; Kuhlmann, A-S; Zane, L; Mortreux, F; Wattel, E; Duc Dodon, M; Jalinot, P

    2009-11-01

    Telomerase activity, which has fundamental roles in development and carcinogenesis, strongly depends on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), its catalytic subunit. In this report, we show that the basic helix-loop-helix factor, TAL1 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1), is a negative regulator of the hTERT promoter. Indeed, TAL1 overexpression leads to a decrease in hTERT mRNA abundance and hence to reduced telomerase activity. Conversely, suppression of TAL1 by RNA interference in Jurkat cells increases hTERT expression. Analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TAL1 binds to the hTERT proximal promoter and recruits HDAC1. Considering the relationship recently established between TAL1 and the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein, which was confirmed in T lymphocyte clones derived from adult T-cell leukemia patients, we analyzed the effect of TAL1 with respect to the earlier characterized effects of Tax and HBZ (HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper) on hTERT expression. TAL1 was observed to reinforce the negative effect of Tax, whereas hTERT transactivation by the HBZ-JunD complex was repressed by TAL1 overexpression. Moreover, HBZ was found to induce proteasome-mediated degradation of TAL1. These observations support a model in which Tax and TAL1 by repressing hTERT would initially favor genomic instability, whereas expression of factors such as HBZ allows at a later stage an increase in hTERT production and consequently in telomerase activity.

  5. Detection of cytosine and CpG density in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in promoter sequences of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Senol; Cilic, Anis; Marjanovic, Damir; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina

    2017-03-21

    Aberrant methylation is one of the driving forces of cancer genome development. Although the rate of methylation appears massively variable across the genome, it is mainly observed in histone modification, chromatin organization, DNA accessibility, or promoter sequence. Methylation of promoter sequence occurs mostly to cytosine nucleotides, which can affect transcription factors' binding affinities. In this study, we demonstrated that cytosine repeats (C types density), consisting of CC, CCC, CCCC, CCCCC, CCCCCC, CCCCCCC motifs and CpG islands density in 25 proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and control genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. The promoter sequences were divided into a 100 nucleotide window from -500 to +100 nucleotides and 20 nucleotide window from -100 to +100. Each window is analyzed to find the higher C type and CpG islands density, which may cause the increased methylation in the promoter sequence. Our novel findings show that promoter sequence cytosine repeats and CpG density increase closer to transcription sites, especially just before and after the transcription start site (TSS). The results demonstrate that cytosine density increases while proto-oncogenes and TSG promoter sequences are closer to TSS 50.8% and 41.0% respectively, if (-500 to -200) and (-100 to +100) windows of the nucleotide sequences are compared. This proves that around TSS location has special nucleotide motifs and could be an important implication for our understanding of potential methylating locations in promoters.

  6. MicroRNA 10b promotes abnormal expression of the proto-oncogene c-Jun in metastatic breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Knirsh, Revital; Ben-Dror, Iris; Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam; Vardimon, Lily

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressers via various cellular pathways. Specifically, in breast cancer, upregulation of miR-10b is positively associated with aggressiveness of tumors. However, the mechanism by which miR-10b contributes to cell malignancy is largely unknown. Here we show that at the receiving end of the miR-10b pathway is the proto-oncogene c-Jun, a transcription factor that plays a critical role in stimulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. c-Jun is known to be translationally activated by loss of cell contacts or restructuring of the cytoskeleton. A comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression exhibited a significant increase in miR-10b expression. This was supported by analysis of breast cancer cells, which showed that loss of E-cadherin in metastatic cells is accompanied by elevation of miR-10b and interestingly, by a marked increase in accumulation of c-Jun. Silencing miR-10b in metastatic breast cancer cells leads to a decline in c-Jun expression, whereas overexpression of miR-10b in HaCaT cells is sufficient to elevate the accumulation of c-Jun. The increase in c-Jun protein accumulation in metastatic cells is not accompanied by an increase in c-Jun mRNA and is not dependent on MAPK activity. Knockdown and overexpression experiments revealed that the increase is mediated by NF1 and RhoC, downstream targets of miR-10b that affect cytoskeletal dynamics through the ROCK pathway. Overall, we show the ability of miR-10b to activate the expression of c-Jun through RhoC and NF1, which represents a novel pathway for promoting migration and invasion of human cancer cells. PMID:27494896

  7. BCL6 induces EMT by promoting the ZEB1-mediated transcription repression of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Mei; Sun, Wei; Hua, Fang; Xie, Jing; Lin, Heng; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Hu, Zhuo-Wei

    2015-09-01

    B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor, is involved in the development and progression of breast cancers with uncertain mechanism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential effect and mechanism of BCL6 in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical cellular process for controlling the development and progression of breast cancers. We found that BCL6 promoted invasion, migration and growth by stimulating EMT in breast cancer cells. BCL6 induced EMT by enhancing the expression of transcriptional repressor ZEB1 which bound to the E-cadherin promoter and repressing the E-cadherin transcription. Deletion of ZEB1 protected against the pro-EMT roles of BCL6 by restoring the expression of E-cadherin in these cells. Moreover, inhibition of BCL6 with BCL6 inhibitor 79-6 suppressed these functions of BCL6 in breast cancer cells. These findings indicate that BCL6 promotes EMT via enhancing the ZEB1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells. Targeting BCL6 has therapeutic potential against the development and progression of breast cancer.

  8. Inhibition of the transcriptional repressor complex Bcl-6/BCoR induces endothelial sprouting but does not promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Buchberger, Elisabeth; Payrhuber, Dietmar; Harchi, Miriam El; Zagrapan, Branislav; Scheuba, Katharina; Zommer, Anna; Bugyik, Edina; Dome, Balazs; Kral, Julia Barbara; Schrottmaier, Waltraud Cornelia; Schabbauer, Gernot; Petzelbauer, Peter; Gröger, Marion; Bilban, Martin; Brostjan, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 (B-cell lymphoma 6) was originally discovered in non-Hodgkin patients and the soluble Bcl-6 inhibitor 79-6 was developed to treat diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with aberrant Bcl-6 expression. Since we found Bcl-6 and its co-repressor BCoR (Bcl-6 interacting co-repressor) to be regulated in human microvascular endothelium by colorectal cancer cells, we investigated their function in sprouting angiogenesis which is central to tumor growth. Based on Bcl-6/BCoR gene silencing we found that the transcriptional repressor complex in fact constitutes an endogenous inhibitor of vascular sprouting by supporting the stalk cell phenotype: control of Notch target genes (HES1, HEY1, DLL4) and cell cycle regulators (cyclin A and B1). Thus, when endothelial cells were transiently transfected with Bcl-6 and/or BCoR siRNA, vascular sprouting was prominently induced. Comparably, when the soluble Bcl-6 inhibitor 79-6 was applied in the mouse retina model of physiological angiogenesis, endothelial sprouting and branching were significantly enhanced. To address the question whether clinical treatment with 79-6 might therefore have detrimental therapeutic effects by promoting tumor angiogenesis, mouse xenograft models of colorectal cancer and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were tested. Despite a tendency to increased tumor vessel density, 79-6 therapy did not enhance tumor expansion. In contrast, growth of colorectal carcinomas was significantly reduced which is likely due to a combined 79-6 effect on cancer cells and tumor stroma. These findings may provide valuable information regarding the future clinical development of Bcl-6 inhibitors. PMID:27880939

  9. Sequencing and G-Quadruplex Folding of the Canine Proto-Oncogene KIT Promoter Region: Might Dog Be Used as a Model for Human Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Da Ros, Silvia; Zorzan, Eleonora; Giantin, Mery; Zorro Shahidian, Lara; Palumbo, Manlio; Dacasto, Mauro; Sissi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Downregulation of gene expression by induction of non-canonical DNA structures at promotorial level is a novel attractive anticancer strategy. In human, two guanine-rich sequences (h_kit1 and h_kit2) were identified in the promotorial region of oncogene KIT. Their stabilization into G-quadruplex structures can find applications in the treatment of leukemias, mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lung carcinomas which are often associated to c-kit mis-regulation. Also the most common skin cancer in domestic dog, mast cell tumor, is linked to a mutation and/or to an over-expression of c-kit, thus supporting dog as an excellent animal model. In order to assess if the G-quadruplex mediated mechanism of regulation of c-kit expression is conserved among the two species, herein we cloned and sequenced the canine KIT promoter region and we compared it with the human one in terms of sequence and conformational equilibria in physiologically relevant conditions. Our results evidenced a general conserved promotorial sequence between the two species. As experimentally confirmed, this grants that the conformational features of the canine kit1 sequence are substantially shared with the human one. Conversely, two isoforms of the kit2 sequences were identified in the analyzed dog population. In comparison with the human counterpart, both of them showed an altered distribution among several folded conformations. PMID:25084283

  10. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Lindor, N.M.; Honchel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have recently been demonstrated in kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B. Both of these autosomal dominant disorders are characterized by the development of neoplasia in cell lines of neural crest origin, such as medullary throid carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Individuals with MEN 2B have, in addition, ganglioneuromas of the lips, tongue and colon, a marfanoid habitus, and corneal nerve thickening. Approximately 90% of patients with MEN 2A have a germline mutation in exons 10 or 11, while 95% of patients with MEN 2B have a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 of exon 16. In this study, pheochromocytomas from 29 individuals who had no clinical evidence of MEN 2A or 2B (sporadic) were examined for the presence of either germline or somatic mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Of the 29 tumors examined, 3 (10%) were found to have a mutation in one of the three exons. One tumor had a G{yields}A transition in codon 609 (exon 10), another had a 6 bp deletion encompassing codons 632 & 633 (exon 11), and the final tumor had a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 (exon 16). These mutations were not found in the corresponding normal DNA from these individuals, indicating that the mutation were somatic in origin. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of mutations in other regions of the RET proto-oncogene, our data suggests that: (1) individuals presenting with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas are not likely to have undiagnosed MEN 2A or 2B; and (2) somatic mutations in the RET proto-oncogene contribute to the process of tumorigenesis in a small percentage of sporadic pheochromocytomas.

  11. Expression of hpttg proto-oncogene in lymphoid neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carmen; Pereda, Teresa; Borrero, Juan J; Espina, Agueda; Romero, Francisco; Tortolero, María; Pintor-Toro, José A; Segura, Dolores I; Japón, Miguel A

    2002-11-21

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (pttg) is a distinct proto-oncogene which is expressed in certain normal tissues with high proliferation rate and in a variety of tumors. PTTG is the vertebrate analog of yeast securins Pds1 and Cut2 with a key role in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Impairment of PTTG regulated functions is expected to lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Human pttg (hpttg) is abundantly expressed in Jurkat T lymphoblastic lymphoma cells but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes. To obtain additional data on the potential role of hpttg in lymphomagenesis we selected 150 cases of lymphoid tumors for the assessment of hpttg expression in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemical studies on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues revealed hPTTG in 38.8% of B-cell lymphomas, 70.2% of T-cell lymphomas, and 73.1% of Hodgkin's lymphomas. Among B-cell lymphomas, the most frequently immunostained tumors were plasma cell tumors, diffuse large cell lymphomas, and follicle center cell lymphomas. In Hodgkin's disease, immunoreactivity was mainly noted in Reed-Sternberg cells. In conclusion, the frequent overexpression of hpttg in many histological subtypes of lymphoma suggests the involvement of this proto-oncogene in lymphomagenesis.

  12. BCL6 mediates the effects of Gastrodin on promoting M2-like macrophage polarization and protecting against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and cell death in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jing; Shi, Xiaojie; Jing, Xiaoqian; Li, Jianguo; Gao, Jie; Liu, Mengya; Lin, Chi-Iou; Guo, Xinzhi; Hua, Qian

    2017-03-16

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood disability worldwide, yet biomarkers for predicting CP are lacking. By subjecting peripheral blood samples from 62 CP patients and 30 healthy controls to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) PrimeView™ HumanGene Expression Microarray analysis, we identified the novel biomarker B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) as the most upregulated gene in the CP samples. Gastrodin is a traditional Chinese medicine and bioactive compound that promotes adductor angle release, as well as gross and fine motor performance by increasing Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and Fine Motor Function Measure-45 scores. Gastrodin upregulates the mRNA expression of Mgl2 and Mrc1, M2 macrophage markers, and arginase activity, an M2 polarization indicator, in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, these effects were blocked by BCL6 siRNA, which also abrogated the protective effects of Gastrodin against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and death in RAW264.7 cells. Our work identified BCL6 as a novel biomarker for early prediction of CP. Moreover, we demonstrated that Gastrodin not only stimulated polarization toward M2-like macrophages, which promote tissue repair, but also rescued macrophages from oxidative stress, apoptosis and death by inducing BCL6 expression. BCL6-targeted therapeutic strategies have promise for improving motor performance in CP patients.

  13. EZH2 and BCL6 Cooperate to Assemble CBX8-BCOR Complex to Repress Bivalent Promoters, Mediate Germinal Center Formation and Lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Béguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matt; Gearhart, Micah D; Calvo Fernández, María Teresa; Goldstein, Rebecca L; Cárdenas, Mariano G; Hatzi, Katerina; Rosen, Monica; Shen, Hao; Corcoran, Connie M; Hamline, Michelle Y; Gascoyne, Randy D; Levine, Ross L; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Licht, Jonathan D; Shaknovich, Rita; Elemento, Olivier; Bardwell, Vivian J; Melnick, Ari M

    2016-08-08

    The EZH2 histone methyltransferase mediates the humoral immune response and drives lymphomagenesis through formation of bivalent chromatin domains at critical germinal center (GC) B cell promoters. Herein we show that the actions of EZH2 in driving GC formation and lymphoma precursor lesions require site-specific binding by the BCL6 transcriptional repressor and the presence of a non-canonical PRC1-BCOR-CBX8 complex. The chromodomain protein CBX8 is induced in GC B cells, binds to H3K27me3 at bivalent promoters, and is required for stable association of the complex and the resulting histone modifications. Moreover, oncogenic BCL6 and EZH2 cooperate to accelerate diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) development and combinatorial targeting of these repressors results in enhanced anti-lymphoma activity in DLBCLs.

  14. Viral oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and homoeotic genes related to cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Antohi, S; Antohi-Talle, O

    1987-01-01

    Molecular studies on viral oncogenes and their products have led to the discovery of physiological proto-oncogenes, involved in the control of cell proliferation and gene activation. Other genetic and molecular investigations, initiated in Drosophila melanogaster and continued in different multicellular eukaryotes, have made evident the homoeotic genes, which are directly correlated with cell specialization, in the complex processes of differentiation and morphogenesis. Both gene classes are conserved to a high extent during evolution. They are involved in the eukaryotic mechanisms of differentiation control and proto-oncogenes, in particular, are related to malignant transformation. Some available data suggest a certain extent of relatedness between the gene products of both gene classes. A differentiation trigger model, including retroviral transposition, homoeotic genes and proto-oncogenes is discussed.

  15. Association of Ig/BCL6 translocations with germinal center B lymphocytes in human lymphoid tissues: implications for malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuwei; Lee, Koutetsu; Said, Jonathan; Gong, Xun; Zhang, Ke

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations (CTs) between immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and the BCL6 proto-oncogene are frequently associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and follicular lymphomas (FLs) and are implicated in the development of these lymphomas. However, whether Ig/BCL6 translocation per se is sufficient to drive malignant transformation is not clear. To understand the biology of Ig/BCL6-translocated cells prior to their malignant transformation, we developed a system capable of detecting 1 to 3 Igμ/BCL6 CT cells in 1 million mixed cells through the detection of chimeric Iμ-BCL6E2 and BCL6E1-Cμ1 transcripts that reflect reciprocal Igμ/BCL6 translocations. The chimeric transcripts that existed in the vast majority of normal lymphoid tissues are due to Igμ/BCL6 CT and were not generated from trans-splicing. Both Iμ-BCL6E2 and BCL6E1-Cμ1 transcripts were coexpressed in the same cell populations. The Ig/BCL6 recombination junctions themselves were isolated from B-cell subpopulations expressing the Iμ-BCL6 transcripts. The appearance of Igμ/BCL6 CT was associated with cells expressing germinal center but not naive B-cell markers. This study shows that Ig/BCL6 translocations occur in germinal center–stage B cells in healthy humans, and that Ig/BCL6 CTs per se are not likely sufficient to cause the malignant transformation in the context of human B cells. PMID:16728698

  16. Absence of RET proto-oncogene abnormalities in sporadic parathyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pausova, Z.; Janicic, N.; Konrad, E.

    1994-09-01

    Parathyroid tumors can occur either sporadically or as a part of inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A. Recently, development of this syndrome has been shown to be related to specific mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, a putative receptor tyrosine kinase. Activation of this proto-oncogene has been demonstrated not only in tumors of the MEN 2A syndrome, but also in other neoplasia of neuroectoderm origin, namely papillary thyroid carcinoma where a rearrangement of the RET proto-oncogene has been found. In the present study, a role of the RET proto-oncogene in the development of sporadic parathyroid tumors was investigated by analyzing DNA samples obtained from 13 parathyroid adenomas and 6 parathyroid hyperplasias. Southern blot, using BamHI restricted DNA, did not reveal any gross alteration of the gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was then employed to amplify DNA fragments corresponding to exons 10 and 11 in which all MEN 2A mutations have been identified. Amplified DNA fragments were all of expected size (exon 10, 182 bp; exon 11, 233 bp). Since a single point mutation at codon 634 has been found to be associated in close to 90% of cases with development of parathyroid tumors in patients with the MEN 2A syndrome, exon 11, containing this codon, was further examined by direct sequence analysis. Sequences obtained from all tumors tested, however, did not differ from the wild type sequence. Therefore, the mutation of the RET proto-oncogene commonly associated with parathyroid neoplasias in MEN 2A is uncommon in sporadic parathyroid tumors. This suggests that the pathogenesis of parathyroid tumors occurring sporadically may be different from those occurring in patients with the MEN 2A syndrome.

  17. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-10-24

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation.

  18. Pro-invasive Effect of Proto-oncogene PBF Is Modulated by an Interaction with Cortactin

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Rachel J.; Imruetaicharoenchoke, Waraporn; Read, Martin L.; Sharma, Neil; Poole, Vikki L.; Gentilin, Erica; Bansal, Sukhchain; Bosseboeuf, Emy; Fletcher, Rachel; Nieto, Hannah R.; Mallick, Ujjal; Hackshaw, Allan; Mehanna, Hisham; Boelaert, Kristien; Smith, Vicki E.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metastatic disease is responsible for the majority of endocrine cancer deaths. New therapeutic targets are urgently needed to improve patient survival rates. Objective: The proto-oncogene PTTG1-binding factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) is overexpressed in multiple endocrine cancers and circumstantially associated with tumor aggressiveness. This study aimed to understand the role of PBF in tumor cell invasion and identify possible routes to inhibit its action. Design, Setting, Patients, and Interventions: Thyroid, breast, and colorectal cells were transfected with PBF and cultured for in vitro analysis. PBF and cortactin (CTTN) expression was determined in differentiated thyroid cancer and The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA-seq data. Primary Outcome Measure: Pro-invasive effects of PBF were evaluated by 2D Boyden chamber, 3D organotypic, and proximity ligation assays. Results: Our study identified that PBF and CTTN physically interact and co-localize, and that this occurs at the cell periphery, particularly at the leading edge of migrating cancer cells. Critically, PBF induces potent cellular invasion and migration in thyroid and breast cancer cells, which is entirely abrogated in the absence of CTTN. Importantly, we found that CTTN is over-expressed in differentiated thyroid cancer, particularly in patients with regional lymph node metastasis, which significantly correlates with elevated PBF expression. Mutation of PBF (Y174A) or pharmacological intervention modulates the PBF: CTTN interaction and attenuates the invasive properties of cancer cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a unique role for PBF in regulating CTTN function to promote endocrine cell invasion and migration, as well as identify a new targetable interaction to block tumor cell movement. PMID:27603901

  19. A comprehensive overview of the role of the RET proto-oncogene in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romei, Cristina; Ciampi, Raffaele; Elisei, Rossella

    2016-04-01

    The rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene was identified in 1985 and, very soon thereafter, a rearrangement named RET/PTC was discovered in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). After this discovery, other RET rearrangements were found in PTCs, particularly in those induced by radiation. For many years, it was thought that these genetic alterations only occurred in PTC, but, in the past couple of years, some RET/PTC rearrangements have been found in other human tumours. 5 years after the discovery of RET/PTC rearrangements in PTC, activating point mutations in the RET proto-oncogene were discovered in both hereditary and sporadic forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In contrast to the alterations found in PTC, the activation of RET in MTC is mainly due to activating point mutations. Interestingly, in the past year, RET rearrangements that were different to those described in PTC were observed in sporadic MTC. The identification of RET mutations is relevant to the early diagnosis of hereditary MTC and the prognosis of sporadic MTC. The diagnostic and prognostic role of the RET/PTC rearrangements in PTC is less relevant but still important in patient management, particularly for deciding if a targeted therapy should be initiated. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenic, diagnostic and prognostic roles of the RET proto-oncogene in both PTC and MTC.

  20. A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Wolfgang; Mineva, Ivelina; Daneva, Teodora; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Niederle, Bruno; Vierhapper, Heinrich; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-07-01

    Multiple RET proto-oncogene transcripts, due to genomic variations and alternate splicing, have been described. To investigate endocrine tumor tissue characteristic RET proto-oncogene expression, we performed quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot and Southern blot analyses of benign and malignant endocrine-derived tissues. We newly describe RET proto-oncogene expression in carcinoid-, gastrinoma- and insulinoma-derived tissue samples. In addition, the presence of a 3'-terminally truncated RET proto-oncogene mRNA variant in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias, as well as in a pheochromocytoma, an ovarian carcinoma and a medullary thyroid carcinoma, is demonstrated. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of gross RET proto-oncogene rearrangements or deletions. As the underlying cause for a bi-allelic TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), a C (allele 1)/T (allele 2) transition within intron 19, was characterized. This polymorphism is close to a recently described polyadenylation site and lies within a binding site for the nucleic acid binding protein Pbx-1. Screening of healthy subjects and of patients suffering from various endocrine malignancies revealed exclusively allele 1 homozygous and allele 1/allele 2 heterozygous genotypes. Heterozygous genotypes were found in a significantly higher percentage in samples derived from endocrine tumor patients when compared with those from healthy control subjects. Homozygosity for allele 2 was found exclusively in somatic DNA derived from endocrine tumors with high malignant potential. Analysis of DNA derived from varying regions within individual anaplastic thyroid carcinomas revealed an allele 1/allele 2 switch of the RFLP banding pattern, indicating loss of heterozygosity at the RET proto-oncogene locus. In conclusion, our data demonstrate presence of a 5'-terminal RET proto-oncogene transcript in endocrine tissues and reveal a bi-allelic RET proto-oncogene polymorphism. A heterozygous genotype for

  1. B cell IFN-γ receptor signaling promotes autoimmune germinal centers via cell-intrinsic induction of BCL-6

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Shaun W.; Jacobs, Holly M.; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Dam, Elizabeth M.; Scharping, Nicole E.; Kolhatkar, Nikita S.; Hou, Baidong; Buckner, Jane H.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated germinal center (GC) responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although both type 1 and type 2 interferons (IFNs) are involved in lupus pathogenesis, their respective impacts on the establishment of autoimmune GCs has not been addressed. In this study, using a chimeric model of B cell-driven autoimmunity, we demonstrate that B cell type 1 IFN receptor signals accelerate, but are not required for, lupus development. In contrast, B cells functioning as antigen-presenting cells initiate CD4+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production, and strikingly, B cell–intrinsic deletion of the IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) abrogates autoimmune GCs, class-switched autoantibodies (auto-Abs), and systemic autoimmunity. Mechanistically, although IFN-γR signals increase B cell T-bet expression, B cell–intrinsic deletion of T-bet exerts an isolated impact on class-switch recombination to pathogenic auto-Ab subclasses without impacting GC development. Rather, in both mouse and human B cells, IFN-γ synergized with B cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and/or CD40 activation signals to promote cell-intrinsic expression of the GC master transcription factor, B cell lymphoma 6 protein. Our combined findings identify a novel B cell–intrinsic mechanism whereby IFN signals promote lupus pathogenesis, implicating this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:27069113

  2. Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2B and RET proto-oncogene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is an autosomal dominant complex oncologic neurocristopathy including medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal disorders, marphanoid face, and mucosal multiple ganglioneuromas. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the major cause of mortality in MEN 2B syndrome, and it often appears during the first years of life. RET proto-oncogene germline activating mutations are causative for MEN 2B. The 95% of MEN 2B patients are associated with a point mutation in exon 16 (M918/T). A second point mutation at codon 883 has been found in 2%-3% of MEN 2B cases. RET proto-oncogene is also involved in different neoplastic and not neoplastic neurocristopathies. Other RET mutations cause MEN 2A syndrome, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, or Hirschsprung's disease. RET gene expression is also involved in Neuroblastoma. The main diagnosis standards are the acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa and the molecular analysis of RET. In our protocol the rectal biopsy is, therefore, the first approach. RET mutation detection offers the possibility to diagnose MEN 2B predisposition at a pre-clinical stage in familial cases, and to perform an early total prophylactic thyroidectomy. The surgical treatment of MEN 2B is total thyroidectomy with cervical limphadenectomy of the central compartment of the neck. When possible, this intervention should be performed with prophylactic aim before 1 year of age in patients with molecular genetic diagnosis. Recent advances into the mechanisms of RET proto-oncogene signaling and pathways of RET signal transduction in the development of MEN 2 and MTC will allow new treatment possibilities. PMID:22429913

  3. Identification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor as the c-met proto-oncogene product

    SciTech Connect

    Bottaro, D.P.; Rubin, J.S.; Chan, A.M.L.; Aaronson, S.A. ); Faletto, D.L.; Kmiecik, T.E.; Vande Woude, G.F. )

    1991-02-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a plasminogen-like protein thought to be a humoral mediator of liver regeneration. A 145-kilodalton tyrosyl phosphoprotein observed in rapid response to HGF treatment of intact target cells was identified by immunoblot analysis as the {beta} subunit of the c-met proto-oncogene product, a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase. Covalent cross-linking of {sup 125}I-labeled ligand to cellular proteins of appropriate size that were recognized by antibodies to c-met directly established the c-met product as the cell-surface receptor for HGF.

  4. Retargeted Foamy Virus Vectors Integrate Less Frequently Near Proto-oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Hocum, Jonah D.; Linde, Ian; Rae, Dustin T.; Collins, Casey P.; Matern, Lindsay K.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral gene therapy offers immense potential to treat many genetic diseases and has already shown efficacy in clinical trials. However, retroviral vector mediated genotoxicity remains a major challenge and clinically relevant approaches to reduce integration near genes and proto-oncogenes are needed. Foamy retroviral vectors have several advantages over gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors including a potentially safer integration profile and a lower propensity to activate nearby genes. Here we successfully retargeted foamy retroviral vectors away from genes and into satellite regions enriched for trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 9 by modifying the foamy virus Gag and Pol proteins. Retargeted foamy retroviral vectors integrated near genes and proto-oncogenes less often (p < 0.001) than controls. Importantly, retargeted foamy retroviral vectors can be produced at high, clinically relevant titers (>107 transducing units/ml), and unlike other reported retargeting approaches engineered target cells are not needed to achieve retargeting. As proof of principle for use in the clinic we show efficient transduction and retargeting in human cord blood CD34+ cells. The modified Gag and Pol helper constructs we describe will allow any investigator to simply use these helper plasmids during vector production to retarget therapeutic foamy retroviral vectors. PMID:27812034

  5. Proto-Oncogenic Src Phosphorylates EB1 to Regulate the Microtubule-Focal Adhesion Crosstalk and Stimulate Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijun; Luo, Youguang; Lyu, Rui; Chen, Jie; Liu, Ruming; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration, a complex process critical for tumor progression and metastasis, requires a dynamic crosstalk between microtubules (MTs) and focal adhesions (FAs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this event remain elusive. Herein we identify the proto-oncogenic protein Src as an important player in the regulation of the MT-FA crosstalk. Src interacts with and phosphorylates end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a member of MT plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), both in cells and in vitro. Systematic mutagenesis reveals that tyrosine-247 (Y247) is the primary residue of EB1 phosphorylated by Src. Interestingly, both constitutively activated Src and Y247-phosphorylated EB1 localize to the centrosome and FAs. Src-mediated EB1 phosphorylation diminishes its interactions with other +TIPs, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and mitotic centromere associated kinesin (MCAK). In addition, EB1 phosphorylation at Y247 enhances the rate of MT catastrophe and significantly stimulates cell migration. These findings thus demonstrate that the Src-EB1 axis plays a crucial role in regulating the crosstalk between MTs and FAs to promote cell migration.

  6. The gene structure of the Drosophila melanogaster proto-oncogene, kayak, and its nested gene, fos-intronic gene.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Stephanie Gidget; Goldstein, Elliott S

    2008-08-15

    We present herein a new model for the structure of the Drosophila kayak gene as well as preliminary data on the functional differences of its various isoforms. kayak is a homolog of the human proto-oncogene, c-fos. kayak has three different starts of transcription, and therefore promoters (P)kay-alpha, (P)kay-beta and (P)kay-gamma. These three promoters lead to four different transcripts: kay-alpha, kay(sro), kay-beta and kay-gamma. (P)kay-alpha produces two different transcripts: kay-alpha and kay(sro) where the other two promoters, (P)kay-beta and (P)kay-gamma, produce a single transcript each. The transcripts kay-alpha, beta and gamma all splice into the mainbody of the kay gene, which codes for the DNA binding domain and leucine zipper; kay(sro) is not spliced. Also, within this region is a nested gene, fos-intronic gene (fig) which is transcribed in the opposite direction. fig codes for a predicted PP2C phosphatase. fig has two different promoters which produce two different transcripts, both in the same reading frame, fig-alpha and beta. This is an unusual gene structure for Drosophila. Only 13% of Drosophila genes have multiple promoters and only 7% have a nested gene. RT-PCR was performed on each transcript to determine the relative amounts of each RNA produced. All spliced kay transcripts appear to have equal abundance. The unspliced kay(sro) transcript has a lower abundance than kay-alpha. Both fig transcripts are also detected in all stages tested. Lethal phase analysis and complementation testing suggest that the three isoforms of kayak may have different functions.

  7. Mutation analysis of the c-mos proto-oncogene in human ovarian teratomas.

    PubMed Central

    de Foy, K. A.; Gayther, S. A.; Colledge, W. H.; Crockett, S.; Scott, I. V.; Evans, M. J.; Ponder, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    Female transgenic mice lacking a functional c-mos proto-oncogene develop ovarian teratomas, indicating that c-mos may behave as a tumour-suppressor gene for this type of tumour. We have analysed the entire coding region of the c-MOS gene in a series of human ovarian teratomas to determine whether there are any cancer-causing alterations. DNA from twenty teratomas was analysed by single-strand conformational analysis (SSCA) and heteroduplex analysis (HA) to screen for somatic and germline mutations. In nine of these tumours the entire gene was also sequenced. A previously reported polymorphism and a single new sequence variant were identified, neither of which we would predict to be disease-causing alterations. These results suggest that mutations in the coding region of the c-MOS gene do not play a significant role in the genesis of human ovarian teratomas. Images Figure 1 PMID:9635841

  8. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  9. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Limtrakul, Porn-ngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Lipigorngoson, Suwiwek; Dunn, Floyd W

    2001-01-01

    Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin. PMID:11231886

  10. Mutations in exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Attie, T.; Eng, C.; Mulligan, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR) is a frequent congenital malformation ascribed to the absence of autonomic ganglion cells in the terminal hindgut. Recently, we have identified mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in HSCR families. Mutations of the RET gene have also been reported in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). While RET mutations in HSCR are scattered on the whole coding sequence, MEN 2A and FMTC mutations are clustered in 5 cystein codons of exons 10 and 11. Here, we report on HSCR families carrying mutations in exon 10 of the RET gene, one of them involving a cystein codon. Germ-line mutations in exon 10 of the RET gene may contribute to either an early development defect (HSCR) or inherited predisposition to cancer (MEN 2A and FMTC), probable depending on the nature and location of the mutation. These data also suggest that HSCR patients with mutations in exon 10 might subsequently prove to be at risk for MEN 2A or FMTC since several MEN 2A/HSCR associations have been reported.

  11. Proto-oncogene PBF/PTTG1IP regulates thyroid cell growth and represses radioiodide treatment.

    PubMed

    Read, Martin L; Lewy, Greg D; Fong, Jim C W; Sharma, Neil; Seed, Robert I; Smith, Vicki E; Gentilin, Erica; Warfield, Adrian; Eggo, Margaret C; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Leadbeater, Wendy E; Watkinson, John C; Franklyn, Jayne A; Boelaert, Kristien; McCabe, Christopher J

    2011-10-01

    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)-binding factor (PBF or PTTG1IP) is a little characterized proto-oncogene that has been implicated in the etiology of breast and thyroid tumors. In this study, we created a murine transgenic model to target PBF expression to the thyroid gland (PBF-Tg mice) and found that these mice exhibited normal thyroid function, but a striking enlargement of the thyroid gland associated with hyperplastic and macrofollicular lesions. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), a gene essential to the radioiodine ablation of thyroid hyperplasia, neoplasia, and metastasis, was also potently inhibited in PBF-Tg mice. Critically, iodide uptake was repressed in primary thyroid cultures from PBF-Tg mice, which could be rescued by PBF depletion. PBF-Tg thyroids exhibited upregulation of Akt and the TSH receptor (TSHR), each known regulators of thyrocyte proliferation, along with upregulation of the downstream proliferative marker cyclin D1. We extended and confirmed findings from the mouse model by examining PBF expression in human multinodular goiters (MNG), a hyperproliferative thyroid disorder, where PBF and TSHR was strongly upregulated relative to normal thyroid tissue. Furthermore, we showed that depleting PBF in human primary thyrocytes was sufficient to increase radioiodine uptake. Together, our findings indicate that overexpression of PBF causes thyroid cell proliferation, macrofollicular lesions, and hyperplasia, as well as repression of the critical therapeutic route for radioiodide uptake.

  12. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  13. Osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma: correlation of proto-oncogene product and matrix protein expression.

    PubMed

    Maki, Masahiiko; Athanasou, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) and adamantinoma, we analyzed the expression of several proto-oncogene products and extracellular matrix proteins by immunohistochemistry and correlated our results with histological and ultrastructural findings. C-fos and c-jun, but not c-Met, were observed in OFD and in the fibrous and epithelial components of differentiated and classical adamantinomas. Staining for collagen IV, laminin and galectin-3, a laminin binding protein was seen in OFD and around cell nests in adamantinoma. E-, P-, and N-cadherin expression was found in all cases of classical adamantinoma, but not in differentiated adamantinoma or OFD. Osteonectin was detected in both the epithelial and fibrous components of adamantinomas, but osteopontin and osteocalcin were not seen in classical adamantinomas. The results show common expression of a number of oncoproteins and bone matrix proteins in adamantinoma and OFD, some of which are associated with mesenchymal-to-epithelial cell transformation. These findings would be in keeping with the hypothesis that OFD represents a precursor lesion of adamantinoma. Differential expression of a number of bone matrix protein in adamantinoma may also be of diagnostic use in distinguishing these 2 lesions immunohistochemically.

  14. The proto-oncogene C-KIT maps to canid B-chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Kukekova, Anna V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatskaya, Daria A; Trut, Lyudmila N; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2005-01-01

    Plant and animal karyotypes sometimes contain variable elements, that are referred to as additional or B-chromosomes. It is generally believed that B-chromosomes lack major genes and represent parasitic and selfish elements of a genome. Here we report, for the first time, the localization of a gene to B-chromosomes of mammals: red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and two subspecies of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Identification of the proto-oncogene C-KIT on B-chromosomes of two Canidae species that diverged from a common ancestor more than 12.5 million years ago argues against the current view of B-chromosomes. Analyses of fox B-chromosomal C-KIT gene from a flow-sorted fox B-chromosome-specific library revealed the presence of intron-exon boundaries and high identity between sequenced regions of canine and fox B-chromosomal C-KIT copies. Identification of C-KIT gene on all B-chromosomes of two canid species provides new insight into the origin and evolution of supernumeraries and their potential role in the genome.

  15. Primary structure of the human fgr proto-oncogene product p55/sup c-fgr/

    SciTech Connect

    Katamine, S.; Notario, V.; Rao, C.D.; Miki, T.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Tronick, S.R.; Robbins, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Normal human c-fgr cDNA clones were constructed by using normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence analysis of two such clones revealed a 1,587-base-pair-long open reading frame which predicted the primary amino acid sequence of the c-fgr translational product. Homology of this protein with the v-fgr translational product stretched from codons 128 to 516, where 32 differences among 388 codons were observed. Sequence similarity with human c-src, c-yes, and fyn translations products began at amino acid position 76 of the predicted c-fgr protein and extended nearly to its C-terminus. In contrast, the stretch of 75 amino acids at the N-terminus demonstrated a greatly reduced degree of relatedness to these same proteins. To verify the deduced amino acid sequence, antibodies were prepared against peptides representing amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the predicted c-fgr translational product. Both antibodies specifically recognized a 55-kilodalton protein expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with a c-fgr cDNA expression plasmid. Moreover, the same protein was immunoprecipitated from an Epstein-Barr virus-infected Burkitt's lymphoma cell line which expressed c-fgr mRNA but not in its uninfected fgr mRNA-negative counterpart. These findings identified the 55-kilodalton protein as the product of the human fgr proto-oncogene.

  16. Expression of the proto-oncogene Fos after exposure to radiofrequency radiation relevant to wireless communications.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Timothy D; Brownstein, Bernard H; Parry, Jesse J; Thompson, Dominic; Cha, Bibianna A; Moros, Eduardo G; Rogers, Buck E; Roti Roti, Joseph L

    2005-10-01

    In this study the expression levels of the proto-oncogene Fos were measured after exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation at two relatively high specific absorption rates (SARs) of 5 and 10 W/kg for three types of modulated signals: 847.74 MHz code division multiple access (CDMA), 835.62 MHz frequency division multiple access (FDMA), and 836.55 MHz time division multiple access (TDMA). This work was undertaken to confirm a previous report by Goswami et al. (Radiat. Res. 151, 300-309, 1999) that CDMA and FDMA radiation caused small but statistically significant increases in Fos levels as cells entered plateau phase during exposure. No effects on Myc or Jun levels were observed in that study. Therefore, in the present study, analyses were restricted to Fos expression during the transition from exponential growth to plateau phase. Fos expression was measured using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Serum-stimulated C3H 10T(1/2) cells were used as a positive control for Fos expression. Possible influences of final cell number or pH variability on Fos expression were evaluated. Expression of Fos mRNA in C3H 10T(1/2) cells was not significantly different from that found after sham exposure at either SAR level for any signal modulation. Therefore, the results of Goswami et al. could not be confirmed.

  17. Exclusion of the RET proto-oncogene as candidate for total colonic aganglionsis in the spotting lethal (sl) rat strain

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccherini, I.; Matera, I.; Devoto, M.

    1994-09-01

    Causative germline mutations and deletions of the RET proto-oncogene have been demonstrated in a number of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) patients showing either short- or long-segment intestinal aganglionosis, including both sporadic and familial cases with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The spotting lethal (sl) rats show autosomal recessive recurrence of total colonic aganglionosis which resembles the long-segment HSCR type in humans with 100% mortality of the homozygotes at 4-5 weeks of age. Heterozygotes were backcrossed with DA rats and the F2 offspring was used to test the possible cosegregation of the aganglionosis and the RET proto-oncogene. A genomic DNA fragment of the rat RET gene was amplified using degenerated oligonucleotides, subcloned and sequenced. The coding portion of this DNA fragment (300bp) shares 93% and 81% of its amino acids with the murine and human RET proto-oncogene, respectively. An A{yields}G transition in the third nucleotide of the alanine codon corresponding to amino acid Glu90 of the human RET gene was identified in the sl but not in the wild type DA strain. This mutation creates a Bsp 1286I restriction site. Restriction analysis performed on 57 affected rats (mutated homozygotes) of the F2 generation revealed independent segregation between the rat colonic aganglionosis gene and RET, thus allowing the exclusion of the latter proto-oncogene as candidate for the mutation present in the sl rat strain. Several different candidate rat chromosomal regions are being analyzed in order to proceed with the mapping of the genetic defect in the sl rats.

  18. Control of c-fos and c-myc proto-oncogene induction in rat thyroid cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Isozaki, O.; Kohn, L.D. )

    1987-11-01

    Removal of TSH, insulin, and cortisol from the medium, and decreasing the serum content to 0.2%, abolishes both the proliferate and differentiated state of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in culture. In these basal conditions, the individual addition of TSH, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), alpha 1-adrenergic agents, or A23187, increase c-myc and/or c-fos proto-oncogene expression. Under the same conditions, only the addition of TSH increased cAMP levels; 8-bromo-cAMP can increase c-myc or c-fos mRNA levels. Pretreatment of cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, an agent which down regulates the C-kinase, completely inhibits the effect of TPA on proto-oncogene expression but has no affect on the A23187 induced-increase. The sum of these results indicate that at least four separate signal systems independently increase c-myc or c-fos gene expression in FRTL-5 cells cAMP (TSH), C-kinase (TPA), Ca++/phosphoinositide (A23187), and that influenced by insulin/IGF-I. None of the ligands, when individually returned to cells in basal medium (no TSH, insulin, or cortisol and only 0.2% serum), increases cell number; norepinephrine, and A23187 do not increase (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA under these conditions; and combinations of the ligands can be more than additive in effecting (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA but are only additive in effecting proto-oncogene expression. Insulin/IGF-I plus TSH or insulin/IGF-I plus norepinephrine can increase both proto-oncogene expression and (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA to the same extent; however, the former combination can increase cell number whereas the latter cannot. There is therefore no simple correlation between the ability of the above ligands to increase proto-oncogene expression and their ability to increase cell number or induce DNA synthesis.

  19. Comparative analysis of ras proto-oncogene mutations in selected mammalian tumors.

    PubMed

    Watzinger, F; Mayr, B; Gamerith, R; Vetter, C; Lion, T

    2001-04-01

    Point mutations within ras proto-oncogenes are frequently detected in human malignancies and in different types of experimentally induced tumors in animals. In contrast to findings in experimental animal models of carcinogenesis, little is known about the incidence of ras mutations in naturally occurring animal tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot-spot codons 12, 13, and 61, occur at comparable frequencies in human malignancies and spontaneously occurring tumors in other mammalian species. Two hundred seventy-nine of the most frequent canine and feline neoplasms were analyzed for changes in mutational hot-spot regions of the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras genes. DNA fragments from exons 1 and 2 of all three ras genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the presence of point mutations was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of amplified products. Only one sample, a case of canine melanoma, exhibited an Ha-ras mutation. Thus, our data strongly suggested that ras mutations at the hot-spot loci are apparently very rare and do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of the spontaneously occurring canine and feline tumors investigated. These observations were in marked contrast to those in experimental rodent models of carcinogen-induced mammary and skin tumors that described a consistent association with Ha- or Ki-ras activation. The role of ras oncogene activation in related human malignancies therefore cannot be readily inferred from studies of experimental carcinogenesis in animal models.

  20. Expression of the Ets-1 proto-oncogene in human gastric carcinoma: correlation with tumor invasion.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, T.; Ito, M.; Ohtsuru, A.; Naito, S.; Nakashima, M.; Fagin, J. A.; Yamashita, S.; Sekine, I.

    1996-01-01

    The proto-oncogene Ets-1 is a transcription factor known to control the expression of a number of genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and has been postulated to play a role in cell migration and tumor invasion. To elucidate the involvement of Ets-1 in human gastric carcinomas, we examined 11 cases of gastric adenoma and 110 cases of gastric carcinoma by immunohistochemistry and compared the degree of Ets-1 expression with the depth of carcinoma invasion. Ets-1 was not expressed either in the normal gastric epithelium or in gastric adenomas. Among the 110 cases with gastric adenocarcinoma, 70 (63.6%) showed positive staining for the Ets-1 protein. In mucosal carcinomas, only 3 of 26 cases (11.5%) showed positive immunostaining for Ets-1. In contrast, 67 of 84 cases (79.8%) with submucosal or more invasive carcinomas showed immunopositivity and intense staining for Ets-1 in the tumor cells. The pattern of Ets-1 immunostaining in mucosal carcinomas was weak and differed from that of other local invasive carcinomas (P < 0.001). Histologically, signet-ring cell and mucinous carcinomas expressed relatively weak positivity for Ets-1. Ets-1 expression correlated significantly with the presence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). In situ hybridization, using an Ets-1 oligonucleotide probe, also confirmed the presence of Ets-1 mRNA in gastric carcinomas. Expression of Ets-1 mRNA was also detected in four different kinds of cultured human gastric carcinoma cell lines by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. These findings suggest that Ets-1 is overexpressed in gastric mucosal cells that have undergone malignant conversion and that Ets-1 is one of the factors involved in the penetration of gastric carcinoma beyond the muscularis mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8952528

  1. Search for NTRK1 proto-oncogene rearrangements in human thyroid tumours originated after therapeutic radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bounacer, A; Schlumberger, M; Wicker, R; Du-Villard, J A; Caillou, B; Sarasin, A; Suárez, H G

    2000-01-01

    Rearrangements of NTRK1 proto-oncogene were detected in ‘spontaneous’ papillary thyroid carcinomas with a frequency varying from 5 to 25% in different studies. These rearrangements result in the formation of chimaeric genes composed of the tyrosine kinase domain of NTRK1 fused to 5′ sequences of different genes. To investigate if the NTRK1 gene plays a role in radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis, we looked for the presence of NTRK1 -activating rearrangements in 32 human thyroid tumours (16 follicular adenomas, 14 papillary carcinomas and two lymph-node metastases of papillary thyroid carcinomas) from patients who had received external radiation, using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot and direct sequencing techniques. These data were compared with those obtained in a series of 28 ‘spontaneous’ benign and malignant thyroid tumours, collected from patients without a history of radiation exposure and four in vitro culture cell lines derived from ‘spontaneous’ thyroid cancers. Our results concerning the radiation-associated tumours showed that only rearrangements between NTRK1 and TPM3 genes (TRK oncogene) were detected in 2/14 papillary carcinomas and in one lymph-node metastasis of one of these papillary thyroid carcinomas. All the radiation-associated adenomas were negative. In the ‘spontaneous’ tumours, only one of the 14 papillary carcinomas and one of the four in vitro culture cell lines, derived from a papillary carcinoma, presented a NTRK1 rearrangement also with the TPM3 gene. Twenty-five of this series of radiation-associated tumours were previously studied for the ras and RET/PTC oncogenes. In conclusion, our data: (a) show that the overall frequency of NTRK1 rearrangements is similar between radiation-associated (2/31: 6%) and ‘spontaneous’ epithelial thyroid tumours (2/32: 6%). The frequency, if we consider exclusively the papillary carcinomas, is in both cases 12%; (b) show that the TRK oncogene

  2. Gene expression profiling to define the cell intrinsic role of the SKI proto-oncogene in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian J J; Walkley, Carl R; Singbrant, Sofie

    2014-12-01

    The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced gene signatures associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation. Here we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis for the gene expression profiling described in our recently published study of Singbrant et al. (2014) in Haematologica. Our data sets (available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE39457) provide a resource for exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms of the involvement of the proto-oncogene SKI in hematopoietic stem cell function and development of myeloid neoplasms.

  3. Characterization of Leukemia-Inducing Genes Using a Proto-Oncogene/Homeobox Gene Retroviral Human cDNA Library in a Mouse In Vivo Model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Hwa; Lee, Sohyun; Chung, Hee Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method to screen a large number of potential driver mutations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a retroviral cDNA library and murine bone marrow transduction-transplantation system. As a proof-of-concept, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were transduced with a retroviral cDNA library encoding well-characterized oncogenes and homeobox genes, and the virus-transduced cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. The proto-oncogenes responsible for leukemia initiation were identified by PCR amplification of cDNA inserts from genomic DNA isolated from leukemic cells. In an initial screen of ten leukemic mice, the MYC proto-oncogene was detected in all the leukemic mice. Of ten leukemic mice, 3 (30%) had MYC as the only transgene, and seven mice (70%) had additional proto-oncogene inserts. We repeated the same experiment after removing MYC-related genes from the library to characterize additional leukemia-inducing gene combinations. Our second screen using the MYC-deleted proto-oncogene library confirmed MEIS1and the HOX family as cooperating oncogenes in leukemia pathogenesis. The model system we introduced in this study will be valuable in functionally screening novel combinations of genes for leukemogenic potential in vivo, and the system will help in the discovery of new targets for leukemia therapy.

  4. Absence of RET proto-oncogene point mutations in sporadic hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the parathyroid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Padberg, B. C.; Schröder, S.; Jochum, W.; Kastendieck, H.; Roth, J.; Heitz, P. U.; Komminoth, P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the possible role of RET proto-oncogene mutations in the development of sporadic hyperplastic, benign, and malignant parathyroid lesions. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens of forty parathyroid lesions was screened for RET proto-oncogene point mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 by nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex gel electrophoresis. The nucleotide sequence of samples with aberrant band patterns was identified by nonisotopic direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. Parathyroids of seven patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and MEN 2B served as positive controls. None of the eight hyperplastic lesions, three cases of parathyromatosis, ten parathyroid adenomas, eleven carcinomas or one normal parathyroid gland contained mutations in each of the three RET exons tested. Six MEN-2A-associated hyperplastic glands exhibited identical band shifts in the polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 11, which corresponded to a Cys 634-->Arg substitution in the nucleotide sequence analysis (TGC-->CGC), whereas in the MEN 2B parathyroid specimen a point mutation was found at codon 918 of exon 16 (ATG-->ACG), causing a Met 918-->Thr substitution. Our data indicate that RET mutations of the MEN 2 loci in exons 10, 11, and 16 are not involved in the development of sporadically occurring benign or malignant parathyroid lesions. Furthermore, our results are in accordance with the observation that MEN 2A patients with Cys 634-->Arg (germline) mutations have a higher risk of developing parathyroid disease than those with other mutations at codon 634. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7495285

  5. miR-23b represses proto-oncogene Src kinase and functions as methylation-silenced tumor suppressor with diagnostic and prognostic significance in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Majid, Shahana; Dar, Altaf A; Saini, Sharanjot; Arora, Sumit; Shahryari, Varahram; Zaman, Mohd Saif; Chang, Inik; Yamamura, Soichiro; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2012-12-15

    The miRNAs have great potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents owing to their ability to control multiple genes and potential to influence cellular behavior. Here, we identified that miR-23b is a methylation-silenced tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. We showed that miR-23b expression is controlled by promoter methylation and has great promise as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer. High levels of miR-23b expression are positively correlated with higher overall and recurrence-free survival in patients with prostate cancer. Furthermore, we elucidated the tumor suppressor role of miR-23b using in vitro and in vivo models. We showed that proto-oncogene Src kinase and Akt are direct targets of miR-23b. Increased expression of miR-23b inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration/invasion, and triggered G(0)-G(1) cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer. Overexpression of miR-23b inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) causing a decline in mesenchymal markers Vimentin and Snail and increasing the epithelial marker, E-cadherin. Depletion of Src by RNA interference conferred similar functional effects as that of miR-23b reconstitution. miR-23b expression caused a dramatic decrease in tumor growth in nude mice and attenuated Src expression in excised tumors compared with a control miR. These findings suggest that miR-23b is a methylation-silenced tumor suppressor that may be a useful biomarker in prostate cancer. Loss of miR-23b may confer proliferative advantage and promote prostate cancer migration and invasion, and reexpression of miR-23b may contribute to the epigenetic therapy for prostate cancer.

  6. MicroRNA-23b represses proto-oncogene Src kinase and functions as methylation-silenced tumor suppressor with diagnostic and prognostic significance in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Shahana; Dar, Altaf A; Saini, Sharanjot; Arora, Sumit; Shahryari, Varahram; Zaman, Mohd Saif; Chang, Inik; Yamamura, Soichiro; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have great potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents owing to their ability to control multiple genes and potential to influence cellular behavior. Here we identified that miR-23b is a methylation-silenced tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrated that miR-23b expression is controlled by promoter methylation and has great promise as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in PCa. High levels of miR-23b expression are positively correlated with higher overall and recurrence-free survival in PCa patients. Further we elucidated the tumor suppressor role of miR-23b using in vitro and in vivo models. We demonstrated that proto-oncogene Src kinase and Akt are direct targets of miR-23b. Increased expression of miR-23b inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration/invasion and triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Over-expression of miR-23b inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) causing a decline in mesenchymal markers Vimentin and Snail and increasing the epithelial marker, E-cadherin. Depletion of Src by RNA interference conferred similar functional effects as that of miR-23b reconstitution. miR-23b expression caused a dramatic decrease in tumor growth in nude mice and attenuated Src expression in excised tumors compared to a control miR. These findings suggest that miR-23b is a methylation-silenced tumor suppressor that may be useful biomarker in PCa. Loss of miR-23b may confer proliferative advantage and promote PCa migration and invasion and re-expression of miR-23b may contribute to the epigenetic therapy for PCa. PMID:23074286

  7. The transcriptional modulator BCL6 as a molecular target for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah R.; Liu, Suhu; Xiang, Michael; Nicolais, Maria; Hatzi, Katerina; Giannopoulou, Eugenia; Elemento, Olivier; Cerchietti, Leandro; Melnick, Ari; Frank, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate expression or activation of transcription factors can drive patterns of gene expression leading to the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells. We have found that the transcriptional repressor BCL6 is highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines, and its locus is amplified in about half of primary breast cancers. To understand how BCL6 regulates gene expression in breast cancer cells, we utilized ChIP-seq to identify the BCL6 binding sites on a genomic scale. This revealed that BCL6 regulates a unique cohort of genes in breast cancer cell lines compared to B cell lymphomas. Furthermore, BCL6 expression promotes the survival of breast cancer cells, and targeting BCL6 with a peptidomimetic inhibitor leads to apoptosis of these cells. Finally, combining a BCL6 inhibitor and a STAT3 inhibitor provided enhanced cell killing in triple negative breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that combination therapy may be particularly useful. Thus, targeting BCL6 alone or in conjunction with other signaling pathways may be a useful therapeutic strategy for treating breast cancer. PMID:24662818

  8. C-myc proto-oncogene amplification detected by polymerase chain reaction in archival human ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, G.; Dubeau, L.

    1990-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology was used to examine the state of amplification of the proto-oncogene c-myc in archival ovarian carcinomas. Sequences from the c-myc gene and from a control gene were amplified simultaneously by PCR and the ratios of the two products measured. The results provided an accurate measurement of the relative number of copies of the two genes in each tumor genome if the control and test sequences amplified by PCR were of equal lengths. The results were not affected by the number of PCR cycles used. This technique should facilitate gene amplification studies in clinical medicine. Increased c-myc copy number was found in 17% of the 30 cases examined when a control from the same chromosome as c-myc was used, but in 37% of cases if a control from another chromosome was used. This underlines the importance of the genetic location of the selected control genes for such studies. Images Figure 2 PMID:2205100

  9. The SKI proto-oncogene enhances the in vivo repopulation of hematopoietic stem cells and causes myeloproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Singbrant, Sofie; Wall, Meaghan; Moody, Jennifer; Karlsson, Göran; Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian; Russell, Megan R; Walkley, Carl R; Karlsson, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced a gene signature associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation, as well as hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to what has generally been assumed, the significant impact of SKI on hematopoiesis is independent of its ability to inhibit TGF-beta signaling. Instead, myeloid progenitors expressing SKI are partially dependent on functional hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Collectively our results demonstrate that SKI is an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell activity and its overexpression leads to myeloproliferative disease.

  10. Cloning and characterization of the murine homolog of the sno proto-oncogene reveals a novel splice variant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelzer, T.; Lyons, G. E.; Kim, S.; Moreadith, R. W.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The cellular function(s) of the SNO protein remain undefined. To gain a better understanding of possible developmental roles of this cellular proto-oncogene, we have cloned two murine sno cDNAs and have investigated their expression patterns in embryonic and postnatal tissues. A single major transcript of 7.5 kb is detected in multiple tissues by Northern blot. However, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNAse protection assays revealed a novel splice variant in every tissue examined. Two isoforms, termed sno N and sno-dE3 (dE3, deletion within exon 3), were identified. The sno-dE3 isoform employs a novel 5' splice site located within the coding region of the third exon and deletes potential kinase recognition motifs. Transcripts of both sno isoforms accumulate ubiquitously but are most abundant in the developing central nervous system. The in situ hybridization patterns of sno expression during murine development suggest potential roles in tissues with a high degree of cellular proliferation. Expression in terminally differentiated tissues such as muscle and neurons indicates that SNO may have multiple functional activities.

  11. Prognostic value of codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) RET proto-oncogene mutations in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schilling, T; Bürck, J; Sinn, H P; Clemens, A; Otto, H F; Höppner, W; Herfarth, C; Ziegler, R; Schwab, M; Raue, F

    2001-01-20

    We have determined the frequency of 918 RET proto-oncogene mutations (ATG-->ACG) in primary MTC tumors and metastases and correlated the presence or absence of this mutation with the clinical outcome of patients suffering from sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A total of 197 samples, consisting of both primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 34 patients with sporadic MTC, were collected for PCR analysis of the RET 918 mutation. In 75 of the samples (38%), codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) mutations could be detected. The mutations showed a heterogeneous distribution: 21/34 patients (62%) had mutations in at least 1 tumor sample, and in 13 patients (38%) the mutation was present in all examined samples. Patients were considered 918mt when at least 1 tumor sample showed the RET 918 mutation. These 918mt and 918 wild-type (918wt) patients did not differ significantly concerning sex, age at diagnosis, TNM stage at diagnosis, number of examined tumor samples or follow-up time. However, 918mt patients showed more aggressive development of distant metastases during follow-up (p = 0.032, Fisher's exact test) with decreased metastases-free survival (p < 0.005, log-rank test). Furthermore, 918mt patients had a significantly lower survival rate than 918wt patients (p = 0.048, log-rank test). These data show that the RET codon 918 mutation has a prognostic impact on patients with sporadic MTC which may influence follow-up treatment.

  12. Mutations of codon 918 in the RET proto-oncogene correlate to poor prognosis in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zedenius, J.; Svensson, A.; Baeckdahl, M.; Wallin, G.

    1995-10-01

    The hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes types 2A and B (MEN 2A and B) were recently linked to germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, altering one of five cysteine residues in exon 10 or 11 (MEN 2A), or substituting a methionine for a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16 (MEN 2B). The latter mutation also occurs somatically in some sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), and has in a previous study been correlated with a less favorable clinical outcome. In the present study, 46 MTCs were selected for investigation of the codon 918 mutation. The mutation was found in 29 tumors (63%), and was significantly correlated with a poor outcome, with regard to distant metastasis or tumor recurrence (p<10{sup 4}). Two tumors showed multifocal growth and C-cell hyperplasia, and these patients were therefore also investigated for germline mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16. The codon 918 mutation was found only in the tumors, thus of somatic origin. The RET codon 918 mutation may have prognostic impact, and therefore preoperative assessment may influence decision-making in the treatment of patients suffering from MTC. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Expression and function of the novel proto-oncogene PBF in thyroid cancer: a new target for augmenting radioiodine uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vicki E; Franklyn, Jayne A; McCabe, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG)-binding factor (PBF; PTTG1IP) was initially identified through its interaction with the human securin, PTTG. Like PTTG, PBF is upregulated in multiple endocrine tumours including thyroid cancer. PBF is believed to induce the translocation of PTTG into the cell nucleus where it can drive tumourigenesis via a number of different mechanisms. However, an independent transforming ability has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that PBF is itself a proto-oncogene. Studied in only a limited number of publications to date, PBF is emerging as a protein with a growing repertoire of roles. Recent data suggest that PBF possesses a complex multifunctionality in an increasing number of tumour settings. For example, PBF is upregulated by oestrogen and mediates oestrogen-stimulated cell invasion in breast cancer cells. In addition to a possible role in the induction of thyroid tumourigenesis, PBF overexpression in thyroid cancers inhibits iodide uptake. PBF has been shown to repress sodium iodide symporter (NIS) activity by transcriptional regulation of NIS expression through the human NIS upstream enhancer and further inhibits iodide uptake via a post-translational mechanism of NIS governing subcellular localisation. This review discusses the current data describing PBF expression and function in thyroid cancer and highlights PBF as a novel target for improving radioiodine uptake and thus prognosis in thyroid cancer.

  14. Xenopus myc proto-oncogene during development: expression as a stable maternal mRNA uncoupled from cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M V; Gusse, M; Evan, G I; Dathan, N; Mechali, M

    1986-01-01

    A Xenopus cDNA clone highly homologous to the proto-oncogene c-myc has been isolated and used to derive a homologous probe to study myc expression during embryonic development. Myc RNA is identified as a member of the class of maternal mRNAs expressed before fertilisation. It is highly accumulated from early oogenesis and an unfertilised egg contains 8 pg, about 10(5)-fold the myc content of proliferative somatic cells. After fertilisation a post-transcriptional regulation of the gene is induced and the accumulated myc RNA is degraded (t1/2 = 4 h 20 min) to reach a level at gastrula of 10 transcripts per cell; a value maintained during subsequent embryonic development. The Xenopus myc protein has also been identified by both myc-specific antibodies and hybrid selection experiments. Translation in vitro of Xenopus myc RNA shows that it encodes a 62-kd protein which is also recognised by myc antibodies in oocyte extracts. This protein is accumulated in late oogenesis. The results indicate an unusual uncoupling of myc expression and cell proliferation linked to a stabilisation of the RNA product. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3549280

  15. Three dimensional structure of the transmembrane region of the proto-oncogenic and oncogenic forms of the neu protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gullick, W J; Bottomley, A C; Lofts, F J; Doak, D G; Mulvey, D; Newman, R; Crumpton, M J; Sternberg, M J; Campbell, I D

    1992-01-01

    The neu proto-oncogene may be converted into a dominantly transforming oncogene by a single point mutation. Substitution of a valine residue at position 664 in the transmembrane region with glutamic acid activates the tyrosine kinase of the molecule and is associated with increased receptor dimerization. Previously we have proposed a model in which the glutamic acid side chain stabilizes receptor dimerization by hydrogen bonding. Other models have been proposed in which the mutation leads to a conformational change in the transmembrane region mimicking that assumed to occur following binding of a natural ligand. Synthetic peptides representing part of the transmembrane region were prepared. Some residues were replaced with serine in order to improve peptide solubility to allow purification and analysis. Both the peptides containing valine and glutamic acid dissolved in water and in an artificial lipid monolayer. The structures of the peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy to be alpha-helical. No significant difference in conformation was observed between the two peptides. This result does not support the model proposing a conformational change. The receptor structures determined experimentally do allow alternative models involving receptor transmembrane region packing. Images PMID:1346763

  16. The proto-oncogene c-Src and its downstream signaling pathways are inhibited by the metastasis suppressor, NDRG1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensheng; Yue, Fei; Zheng, Minhua; Merlot, Angelica; Bae, Dong-Hun; Huang, Michael; Lane, Darius; Jansson, Patric; Lui, Goldie Yuan Lam; Richardson, Vera; Sahni, Sumit; Kalinowski, Danuta; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2015-04-20

    N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor that plays a key role in regulating signaling pathways involved in mediating cancer cell invasion and migration, including those derived from prostate, colon, etc. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets through which NDRG1 reduces cancer cell invasion and migration, leading to inhibition of cancer metastasis, are not fully elucidated. In this investigation, using NDRG1 over-expression models in three tumor cell-types (namely, DU145, PC3MM and HT29) and also NDRG1 silencing in DU145 and HT29 cells, we reveal that NDRG1 decreases phosphorylation of a key proto-oncogene, cellular Src (c-Src), at a well-characterized activating site (Tyr416). NDRG1-mediated down-regulation of EGFR expression and activation were responsible for the decreased phosphorylation of c-Src (Tyr416). Indeed, NDRG1 prevented recruitment of c-Src to EGFR and c-Src activation. Moreover, NDRG1 suppressed Rac1 activity by modulating phosphorylation of a c-Src downstream effector, p130Cas, and its association with CrkII, which acts as a "molecular switch" to activate Rac1. NDRG1 also affected another signaling molecule involved in modulating Rac1 signaling, c-Abl, which then inhibited CrkII phosphorylation. Silencing NDRG1 increased cell migration relative to the control and inhibition of c-Src signaling using siRNA, or a pharmacological inhibitor (SU6656), prevented this increase. Hence, the role of NDRG1 in decreasing cell migration is, in part, due to its inhibition of c-Src activation. In addition, novel pharmacological agents, which induce NDRG1 expression and are currently under development as anti-metastatic agents, markedly increase NDRG1 and decrease c-Src activation. This study leads to important insights into the mechanism involved in inhibiting metastasis by NDRG1 and how to target these pathways with novel therapeutics.

  17. Microsatellite instability and B-type Raf proto-oncogene mutation in colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological characteristics and effects on survival

    PubMed Central

    Batur, Sebnem; Bakkaloglu, Dogu Vuralli; Kepil, Nuray; Erdamar, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic significance of microsatellite instability (MSI) status and B-type Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutation in colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological characteristics associated with microsatellite stability and the effect of MSI and BRAF mutation on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The study included 145 colorectal cancer cases. All the patients were examined for DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins with an immunohistochemical method. Molecular assessment of MSI was available in a subset of 41 patients. In addition, BRAF mutation analysis was performed in 30 cases. Immunohistochemically, MMR deficiency was present in 28 (19.3%) patients. Female gender (p = 0.001), lesion size ≥5 cm (p = 0.013), Crohn-like response (p = 0.035), and right-sided localization (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent among MMR-deficient patients. The overall survival was 44.1 ± 5.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.7-54.4). Multivariate analyses identified only high tumor grade as an independent predictor of poor overall survival: odd ratio, 6.7 (95% CI 2.1-21.7), p = 0.002. In the subset of patients with available BRAF assessment (n = 30), a negative BRAF status was associated with better survival when compared to a positive BRAF status (36.7 ± 2.1 vs. 34.1 ± 7.2 months, p = 0.048). The sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical method in predicting positive MSI status, with the molecular method as a reference, were 85.7% (95% CI: 56.2%-97.5%) and 88.9% (95% CI: 69.7%-97.1%), respectively. BRAF appears to be a significant predictor of a worse outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. Further studies with a large spectrum of clinical and biological variables are warranted. PMID:27131021

  18. B Lymphocyte commitment program is driven by the proto-oncogene c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Vallespinós, Mireia; Fernández, David; Rodríguez, Lorena; Alvaro-Blanco, Josué; Baena, Esther; Ortiz, Maitane; Dukovska, Daniela; Martínez, Dolores; Rojas, Ana; Campanero, Miguel R; Moreno de Alborán, Ignacio

    2011-06-15

    c-Myc, a member of the Myc family of transcription factors, is involved in numerous biological functions including the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cell types. Of all of its functions, the role of c-Myc in cell differentiation is one of the least understood. We addressed the role of c-Myc in B lymphocyte differentiation. We found that c-Myc is essential from early stages of B lymphocyte differentiation in vivo and regulates this process by providing B cell identity via direct transcriptional regulation of the ebf-1 gene. Our data show that c-Myc influences early B lymphocyte differentiation by promoting activation of B cell identity genes, thus linking this transcription factor to the EBF-1/Pax-5 pathway.

  19. A microarray model system identifies potential new target genes of the proto-oncogene HOX11.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Dixon, Darcelle N; Greene, Wayne K; Ford, Jette; Taplin, Ross; Kees, Ursula R

    2004-12-01

    HOX11 is a homeobox gene originally identified at a chromosomal breakpoint in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). It is one of the most frequently deregulated genes in T-ALL, although the precise role of HOX11 in leukemogenesis as well as in normal development remains obscure. To gain more insight into the functional role of HOX11, we utilized a microarray model system to characterize the gene expression network that it directs. Using one of our T-ALL cell lines that had been stably transfected to express HOX11 and high-density oligonucleotide HG-U95A arrays, we identified a large number of differentially expressed genes in response to the enforced expression of HOX11. We focused on examining genes found to be up-regulated according to the microarray analysis and selected three putative target genes, NFKB2, SMARCD3, and NR4A3, for further investigation. We could not only confirm the up-regulation of NR4A3 by an independent method in all clones expressing HOX11, but luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the effect that HOX11 exerted on the proximal promoter of NR4A3 was dependent on the presence of an intact homeodomain, providing support for the idea that HOX11 manifests its regulatory function via its action as a transcription factor.

  20. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) represses transcription of the tumor suppressor Rb gene via binding competition with Sp1 and recruitment of co-repressors.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-11-28

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp -308 to -188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp -65 to -56) and GC-box 2 (bp -18 to -9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp -244 to -236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression.

  1. Concordant down-regulation of proto-oncogene PML and major histocompatibility antigen HLA class I expression in high-grade prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiming; Melamed, Jonathan; Wei, Ping; Cox, Karen; Frankel, Wendy; Bahnson, Robert R; Robinson, Nikki; Pyka, Ron; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Pan

    2003-02-14

    Recognition of tumor cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes depends on cell surface MHC class I expression. As a mechanism to evade T cell recognition, many malignant cancer cells, including those of prostate cancer, down-regulate MHC class I. For the majority of human cancers, the molecular mechanism of MHC class I down regulation is unclear, although it is well established that MHC class I down-regulation is often associated with the down-regulation of multiple genes devoted to antigen presentation. Since the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) proto-oncogene controls multiple antigen-presentation genes in some murine cancer cells, we analyzed the expression of proto-oncogene PML and MHC class I in high-grade prostate cancer. We found that 30 of 37 (81%) prostate adenocarcinoma cases with a Gleason grade of 7-8 had more than 50% down-regulation of HLA class I expression. Among these, 22 cases (73.3%) had no detectable PML protein, while 4 cases (13.3%) showed partial PML down-regulation. In contrast, all 7 cases of prostate cancer with high expression of cell surface HLA class I had high levels of PML expression. Concordant down-regulation of HLA and PML was observed in different histological patterns of prostate adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that in high-grade prostate cancer, malfunction of proto-oncogene PML is a major factor in the down-regulation of cell surface HLA class I molecules, the target molecules essential for the direct recognition of cancer cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes.

  2. Long-term cultivation of in vitro Apis mellifera cells by gene transfer of human c-myc proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kitagishi, Yasuko; Okumura, Naoko; Yoshida, Hitomi; Nishimura, Yuri; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Matsuda, Satoru

    2011-08-01

    Establishment of cell lines representative of honeybee character would greatly assist in their analysis. Here, we show that immortalized cell line, designated as MYN9, has been generated from honeybee embryo by the gene transfer of human c-myc proto-oncogene. The morphology of the cell is characteristic of embryonic stem cell, although the cell is stable and does not spontaneously differentiate. Polymerase chain reaction analyses show that the cell is originated from authentic honeybee cell. It is proposed that the integration of human c-myc gene into honeybee precursor populations results in the establishment of stable cell line suitable for cellular and molecular studies.

  3. Development of chronic allergic responses by dampening Bcl6-mediated suppressor activity in memory T helper 2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Hatano, Masahiko; Satake, Hisae; Ikari, Jun; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuhide; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Fujimura, Lisa; Sakamoto, Akemi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurasawa, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Arima, Masafumi

    2017-01-31

    Mice deficient in the transcriptional repressor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) exhibit similar T helper 2 (TH2) immune responses as patients with allergic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Bcl6-directed regulation of TH2 cytokine genes remain unclear. We identified multiple Bcl6/STAT binding sites (BSs) in TH2 cytokine gene loci. We found that Bcl6 is modestly associated with the BSs, and it had no significant effect on cytokine production in newly differentiated TH2 cells. Contrarily, in memory TH2 (mTH2) cells derived from adaptively transferred TH2 effectors, Bcl6 outcompeted STAT5 for binding to TH2 cytokine gene loci, particularly Interleukin4 (Il4) loci, and attenuated GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) binding to highly conserved intron enhancer regions in mTH2 cells. Bcl6 suppressed cytokine production epigenetically in mTH2 cells to negatively tune histone acetylation at TH2 cytokine gene loci, including Il4 loci. In addition, IL-33, a pro-TH2 cytokine, diminished Bcl6's association with loci to which GATA3 recruitment was inversely augmented, resulting in altered IL-4, but not IL-5 and IL-13, production in mTH2 cells but no altered production in newly differentiated TH2 cells. Use of a murine asthma model that generates high levels of pro-TH2 cytokines, such as IL-33, suggested that the suppressive function of Bcl6 in mTH2 cells is abolished in severe asthma. These findings indicate a role of the interaction between TH2-promoting factors and Bcl6 in promoting appropriate IL-4 production in mTH2 cells and suggest that chronic allergic diseases involve the TH2-promoting factor-mediated functional breakdown of Bcl6, resulting in allergy exacerbation.

  4. Interstitial telomeric sequences in human chromosomes cluster with common fragile sites, mutagen sensitive sites, viral integration sites, cancer breakpoints, proto-oncogenes and breakpoints involved in primate evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Adekunle, S.S.A.; Wyandt, H.; Mark, H.F.L.

    1994-09-01

    Recently we mapped the telomeric repeat sequences to 111 interstitial sites in the human genome and to sites of gaps and breaks induced by aphidicolin and sister chromatid exchange sites detected by BrdU. Many of these sites correspond to conserved fragile sites in man, gorilla and chimpazee, to sites of conserved sister chromatid exchange in the mammalian X chromosome, to mutagenic sensitive sites, mapped locations of proto-oncogenes, breakpoints implicated in primate evolution and to breakpoints indicated as the sole anomaly in neoplasia. This observation prompted us to investigate if the interstitial telomeric sites cluster with these sites. An extensive literature search was carried out to find all the available published sites mentioned above. For comparison, we also carried out a statistical analysis of the clustering of the sites of the telomeric repeats with the gene locations where only nucleotide mutations have been observed as the only chromosomal abnormality. Our results indicate that the telomeric repeats cluster most with fragile sites, mutagenic sensitive sites and breakpoints implicated in primate evolution and least with cancer breakpoints, mapped locations of proto-oncogenes and other genes with nucleotide mutations.

  5. A rapid screening method for the detection of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma families

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, D.J.; Andrew, S.; Richardson, A.L. |

    1994-09-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes with incomplete penetrance. Following the identification of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene that segregate with the disease phenotype in MEN2A, MEN2B, and FMTC, genetic screening of individuals with mutations in RET may be performed. The authors have employed restriction endonuclease digestion of polymerase chain reaction products as an alternative to sequence analysis for rapid identification of mutant gene carriers in families in which MEN2A and RMTC are segregating. Twenty-one Australasian MEN2A and FMTC families have been screened for mutations in a cysteine-rich region of the RET proto-oncogene. Seven independent mutations were identified in key individuals in 16 of these families. The authors have identified a mutation in codon 620, 2053 T {r_arrow}C (Cys620Arg), and two mutations in codon 634 of exon 11 of RET, 2095 T {r_arrow} C (Cys634Arg) and 2096 G {r_arrow} A (Cys634Tyr), all three of which were present in both MEN2A and FMTC families. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Detection of RET proto-oncogene point mutations in paraffin-embedded pheochromocytoma specimens by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Komminoth, P.; Kunz, E.; Hiort, O.; Schröder, S.; Matias-Guiu, X.; Christiansen, G.; Roth, J.; Heitz, P. U.

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor material was evaluated for molecular analysis of the RET proto-oncogene. We analyzed exons 10, 11, and 16 for point mutations in seven sporadic and six multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A-associated pheochromocytomas by a nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism assay followed by nonradioactive direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA using an automated DNA sequencer. All MEN 2A-associated pheochromocytomas contained a heterozygous missense germline mutation within cystine codons of the cysteine-rich extracellular domain encoded by exons 10 and 11. Mutations were located in codon 619 (TGC-->TCC; Cys-->Ser) in one, in codon 635 (TGC-->CGC; Cys--Arg) in three, and in codon 635 (TGC-->TAC; Cys-->Tyr) in two pheochromocytomas. No tumor-specific (somatic) mutations were detected in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the sporadic pheochromocytomas. These data support recent findings that germline point mutations that are clustered in distinct cysteine codons of the RET proto-oncogene are involved in the neoplastic phenotype of the MEN 2A syndrome. Our results demonstrate that both nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing are suitable methods to detect single base substitutions in DNA extracted from archival material. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7943181

  7. The feedback loop of LITAF and BCL6 is involved in regulating apoptosis in B cell non-Hodgkin's-lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yaoyao; Kuai, Yue; Lei, Lizhen; Weng, Yuanyuan; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Zhang, Xinxia; Wang, Jinjie; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xin; Ren, Guoping; Pan, Hongyang; Mao, Zhengrong; Zhou, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the apoptotic pathway is widely recognized as a key step in lymphomagenesis. Notably, LITAF was initially identified as a p53-inducible gene, subsequently implicated as a tumor suppressor. Our previous study also showed LITAF to be methylated in 89.5% B-NHL samples. Conversely, deregulated expression of BCL6 is a pathogenic event in many lymphomas. Interestingly, our study found an oppositional expression of LITAF and BCL6 in B-NHL. In addition, LITAF was recently identified as a novel target gene of BCL6. Therefore, we sought to explore the feedback loop between LITAF and BCL6 in B-NHL. Here, our data for the first time show that LITAF can repress expression of BCL6 by binding to Region A (−87 to +65) containing a putative LITAF-binding motif (CTCCC) within the BCL6 promoter. Furthermore, the regulation of BCL6 targets (PRDM1 or c-Myc) by LITAF may be associated with B-cell differentiation. Results also demonstrate that ectopic expression of LITAF induces cell apoptosis, activated by releasing cytochrome c, cleaving PARP and caspase 3 in B-NHL cells whereas knockdown of LITAF robustly protected cells from apoptosis. Interestingly, BCL6, in turn, could reverse cell apoptosis mediated by LITAF. Collectively, our findings provide a novel apoptotic regulatory pathway in which LITAF, as a transcription factor, inhibits the expression of BCL6, which leads to activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and tumor apoptosis. Our study is expected to provide a possible biomarker as well as a target for clinical therapies to promote tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:27764808

  8. Proto-oncogene ACTR/AIB1 promotes cancer cell invasion by up-regulating specific matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Li B; Louie, Maggie C; Chen, H-W; Zou, June X

    2008-03-08

    Overexpression of ACTR/AIB1 is frequently found in different cancers with distant metastasis. To address its possible involvement in tumor metastasis, we performed invasion assays to examine the effect of ACTR alteration on the invasiveness of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 or T-47D) and found that high levels of ACTR are required for their strong invasiveness. Molecular analysis indicates that ACTR functions as a coactivator of AP-1 to up-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases such as MMP-7 and MMP-10 and reduce cell adhesion to specific extracellular matrix proteins. These novel findings provide a mechanistic link between ACTR and MMPs, and suggest that ACTR may also play an important role in cancer progression by facilitating tumor invasion.

  9. BCL6 modulation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Slone, William L; Moses, Blake S; Hare, Ian; Evans, Rebecca; Piktel, Debbie; Gibson, Laura F

    2016-04-26

    The bone marrow niche has a significant impact on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell phenotype. Of clinical relevance is the frequency with which quiescent leukemic cells, in this niche, survive treatment and contribute to relapse. This study suggests that marrow microenvironment regulation of BCL6 in ALL is one factor that may be involved in the transition between proliferative and quiescent states of ALL cells. Utilizing ALL cell lines, and primary patient tumor cells we observed that tumor cell BCL6 protein abundance is decreased in the presence of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and osteoblasts (HOB). Chemical inhibition, or shRNA knockdown, of BCL6 in ALL cells resulted in diminished ALL proliferation. As many chemotherapy regimens require tumor cell proliferation for optimal efficacy, we investigated the consequences of constitutive BCL6 expression in leukemic cells during co-culture with BMSC or HOB. Forced chronic expression of BCL6 during co-culture with BMSC or HOB sensitized the tumor to chemotherapy induced cell death. Combination treatment of caffeine, which increases BCL6 expression in ALL cells, with chemotherapy extended the event free survival of mice. These data suggest that BCL6 is one factor, modulated by microenvironment derived cues that may contribute to regulation of ALL therapeutic response.

  10. BCL6 modulation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Slone, William L.; Moses, Blake S.; Hare, Ian; Evans, Rebecca; Piktel, Debbie; Gibson, Laura F.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow niche has a significant impact on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell phenotype. Of clinical relevance is the frequency with which quiescent leukemic cells, in this niche, survive treatment and contribute to relapse. This study suggests that marrow microenvironment regulation of BCL6 in ALL is one factor that may be involved in the transition between proliferative and quiescent states of ALL cells. Utilizing ALL cell lines, and primary patient tumor cells we observed that tumor cell BCL6 protein abundance is decreased in the presence of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and osteoblasts (HOB). Chemical inhibition, or shRNA knockdown, of BCL6 in ALL cells resulted in diminished ALL proliferation. As many chemotherapy regimens require tumor cell proliferation for optimal efficacy, we investigated the consequences of constitutive BCL6 expression in leukemic cells during co-culture with BMSC or HOB. Forced chronic expression of BCL6 during co-culture with BMSC or HOB sensitized the tumor to chemotherapy induced cell death. Combination treatment of caffeine, which increases BCL6 expression in ALL cells, with chemotherapy extended the event free survival of mice. These data suggest that BCL6 is one factor, modulated by microenvironment derived cues that may contribute to regulation of ALL therapeutic response. PMID:27015556

  11. Dominant negative and loss of function mutations of the c-kit (mast/stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Giebel, L.B.; Holmes, S.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development and is characterized by congenital white parches of skin and hair from which melanocytes are completely absent. A similar disorder of the mouse, 'dominant white spotting' (W), results from mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular tyrosine kinases receptor for the mast/stem cell growth factor. The authors have identified c-kit gene mutations in three patients with piebaldism. A missense substitution (Phe[r arrow]Leu) at codon 584, within the tyrosine kinases domain, is associated with a severe piebald phenotype, whereas two different frameshifts, within codons 561 and 642, are both associated with a variable and relatively mild piebald phenotype. This is consistent with a possible 'dominant negative' effect of missense c-kit polypeptides on the function of the dimeric receptor.

  12. Mutations of the KIT (Mast/Stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene account for a continuous range of phenotypes in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Holmes, S.A. ); Ramesar, R.; Greenberg, J.; Beighton, P.; Curtis, D.

    1992-11-01

    Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of pigmentation, characterized by congenital patches of white skin and hair from which melanocytes are absent. The authors have previously shown that piebaldism can result from missense and frameshift mutations of the KIT proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular receptor tyrosine kinase for the mast/stem cell growth factor. Here, the authors report two novel KIT mutations associated with human piebaldism. A proximal frameshift is associated with a mild piebald phenotype, and a splice-junction mutation is associated with a highly variable piebald phenotype. They discuss the apparent relationship between the predicted impact of specific KIT mutations on total KIT-dependent signal transduction and the severity of the resultant piebald phenotypes. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Diagnostic correlation between RET proto-oncogene mutation, imaging techniques, biochemical markers and morphological examination in MEN2A syndrome: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sovrea, Alina Simona; Dronca, Eleonora; Galatâr, Mihaela; Radian, Serban; Vornicescu, Corina; Georgescu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is a rare autosomal dominant monogenic disorder caused mostly by missense mutations in the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene on chromosome 10q11.2. MEN2A represents more than 50% of all MEN2 cases, having a regular pattern with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) incidence of 90-100%, bilateral pheochromocytoma (PCC) incidence of 40-50% and primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) incidence of 10-25%. Until recently, the diagnosis of MTC was most frequently based on fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules, after an ultrasound examination and endocrine evaluation of serum calcitonin levels. Nowadays, RET gene screening (starting with exons 10 and 11) is a mandatory test used for identification of both symptomatic and non-symptomatic MTC carriers or for exclusion of healthy individuals from subsequent periodical clinical/biochemical screening. In this context, and in the idea of PCC preceding MTC, the early detection of germline RET mutations are highly suggestive for hereditary disease. PCC diagnosis is established in classical manner by abdominal ultrasound imaging or computed tomography confirming the presence of adrenal gland masses, elevated plasma metanephrines and normetanephrines values and histopathological examination. Additional HPT diagnosis is acknowledged by serum ionized calcium and parathormone levels. Here we report a hereditary case of MEN2A in a two-generation Romanian family, along with data presenting the importance of correlative plurifactorial diagnostic scheme in this syndrome and a short literature review.

  14. A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease affects the tyrosine kinase activity associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B.

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, M P; Panariello, L; Quadro, L; Dathan, N A; Fattoruso, O; Colantuoni, V

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that a Hirschsprung (HSCR) mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene abolishes in cis the tyrosine-phosphorylation associated with the activating mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) in transiently transfected Cos cells. Yet the double mutant RET2AHS retains the ability to form stable dimers, thus dissociating the dimerization from the phosphorylation potential. Co-transfection experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids RET2A and RET2AHS in different ratios drastically reduced the phosphorylation levels of the RET2A protein, suggesting a dominant-negative effect of the HSCR mutation. Also, the phosphorylation associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) allele was affected in experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids co-transfected under the same conditions. Finally, analysis of the enzymic activity of MEN2A and MEN2B tumours confirmed the relative levels of tyrosine phosphorylation observed in Cos cells, indicating that this condition, in vivo, may account for the RET transforming potential. PMID:8670046

  15. A PCR-mutagenesis strategy for rapid detection of mutations in codon 634 of the ret proto-oncogene related to MEN 2A.

    PubMed Central

    Roqué, María; Pusiol, Eduardo; Perinetti, Héctor; Godoy, Clara Pott; Mayorga, Luis S

    2002-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A (MEN 2A) is a dominantly inherited cancer syndrome. Missence mutations in the codon encoding cysteine 634 of the ret proto-oncogene have been found in 85% of the MEN 2A families. The main tumour type always present in MEN 2A is medullar thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Only 25% of all MTC are hereditary, and generally they are identified by a careful family history. However, some familial MTCs are not easily detected by this means and underdiagnosis of MEN 2A is suspected. Methods DNA samples from MEN 2A patients were amplified by PCR. The products were incubated with the restriction enzyme Bst ApI or Bgl I. The samples were loaded in non-denaturing 10% Polyacrilamyde Gel and run at 120 volts for 40 min. The gels were stained with 10 μg/ml ethidium bromide, and the bands were visualized under a UV lamp. Results We developed a PCR-mutagenic method to check the integrity of the three bases of the cysteine 634 codon. Conclusion The method can be used to detect inherited mutations in MTC patients without a clear family history. The method is relatively simple to use as a routine test in these patients to decrease the underdiagnosis of MEN 2A. In addition, the assay can be used to screen affected families with any mutation in cysteine 634. PMID:12033991

  16. Identification of polymorphisms and transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene KIT located on both autosomal and B chromosomes of the Chinese raccoon dog.

    PubMed

    Li, Y M; Zhang, Y; Zhu, W J; Yan, S Q; Sun, J H

    2016-02-05

    B chromosomes are dispensable and co-exist with autosomal and sex chromosomes. The karyotype of the Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides) comprises 0-4 B chromosomes. The proto-oncogene KIT is found on all B chromosomes of the Chinese raccoon dog. In the present study, partial DNA and mRNA sequences of KIT were amplified and sequenced from four individuals containing B chromosomes. Sequence analyses revealed that polymorphisms including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and inserts/deletions were rich in the KIT gene of Chinese raccoon dog at the genomic level. However, no polymorphism was detected at the mRNA level. A comparison of mRNA sequences from Chinese raccoon dogs with the corresponding sequences derived from arctic fox and dog, which do not contain B chromosomes, revealed the mRNA sequences of the 10 SNPs to be identical between these three species. Therefore, these findings suggest that KIT located on the B chromosomes in Chinese raccoon dog lacks transcriptional activity.

  17. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the mouse zinc finger gene Krox-20: multiple gene products and coregulation with the proto-oncogene c-fos.

    PubMed Central

    Chavrier, P; Janssen-Timmen, U; Mattéi, M G; Zerial, M; Bravo, R; Charnay, P

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the structure and the regulation of Krox-20, a mouse zinc finger-encoding gene which is transiently activated following serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblast cells in culture. The gene is localized on chromosome 10, band B5, in the mouse, and the homologous human gene also maps to chromosome 10 (region q21.1 to q22.1). Alternative splicing of the 5'-most intron of the Krox-20 gene gives rise to mRNAs encoding putative zinc finger proteins with different N termini. The first exon contains a sequence element with strong similarity to the c-fos proto-oncogene serum response element (SRE). This element can functionally substitute for the c-fos SRE, and it binds the same nuclear protein. It is probably responsible for the serum induction of Krox-20, possibly in combination with a weaker SRE located in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. Our findings suggest that c-fos, Krox-20, and a number of immediate-early serum response genes are coregulated and that the SRE and its cognate protein are essential components of this regulatory pathway. Images PMID:2496302

  18. Histone Arginine Methylation by PRMT7 Controls Germinal Center Formation via Regulating Bcl6 Transcription.

    PubMed

    Ying, Zhengzhou; Mei, Mei; Zhang, Peizhun; Liu, Chunyi; He, Huacheng; Gao, Fei; Bao, Shilai

    2015-08-15

    B cells are the center of humoral immunity and produce Abs to protect against foreign Ags. B cell defects lead to diseases such as leukemia and lymphomas. Histone arginine methylation is important for regulating gene activation and silencing in cells. Although the process commonly exists in mammalian cells, its roles in B cells are unknown. To explore the effects of aberrant histone arginine methylation on B cells, we generated mice with a B cell-specific knockout of PRMT7, a member of the methyltransferases that mediate arginine methylation of histones. In this article, we showed that the loss of PRMT7 led to decreased mature marginal zone B cells and increased follicular B cells and promoted germinal center formation after immunization. Furthermore, mice lacking PRMT7 expression in B cells secreted low levels of IgG1 and IgA. Abnormal expression of germinal center genes (i.e., Bcl6, Prdm1, and Irf4) was detected in conditional knockout mice. By overexpressing PRMT7 in the Raji and A20 cell lines derived from B cell lymphomas, we validated the fact that PRMT7 negatively regulated Bcl6 expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR, we found that PRMT7 could recruit H4R3me1 and symmetric H4R3me2 to the Bcl6 promoter. These results provide evidence for the important roles played by PRMT7 in germinal center formation.

  19. Do products of the myc proto-oncogene play a role in transcriptional regulation of the prothymosin alpha gene?

    PubMed Central

    Mol, P C; Wang, R H; Batey, D W; Lee, L A; Dang, C V; Berger, S L

    1995-01-01

    The Myc protein has been reported to activate transcription of the rat prothymosin alpha gene by binding to an enhancer element or E box (CACGTG) located in the first intron (S. Gaubatz et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:3853-3862, 1994). The human prothymosin alpha gene contains two such motifs: in the promoter region at kb -1.2 and in intron 1, approximately 2 kb downstream of the transcriptional start site in a region which otherwise bears little homology to the rat gene. Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs driven either by the 5-kb human prothymosin alpha promoter or by a series of truncated promoters, we showed that removal of the E-box sequence had no effect on transient expression of CAT activity in mouse L cells. When intron 1 of the prothymosin alpha gene was inserted into the most extensive promoter construct downstream of the CAT coding region, a diminution in transcription, which remained virtually unchanged upon disruption of the E boxes, was observed. CAT constructs driven by the native prothymosin alpha promoter or the native promoter and intron were indifferent to Myc; equivalent CAT activity was observed in the presence of ectopic normal or mutant Myc genes. Similarly, expression of a transiently transfected wild-type prothymosin alpha gene as the reporter was not affected by a repertoire of myc-derived genes, including myc itself and dominant or recessive negative myc mutants. In COS-1 cells, equivalent amounts of the protein were produced from transfected prothymosin alpha genes regardless of whether genomic E boxes were disrupted, intron 1 was removed, or a repertoire of myc-derived genes was included in the transfection cocktail. More importantly, cotransfection of a dominant negative Max gene failed to reduce transcription of the endogenous prothymosin alpha gene in COS cells or the wild-type transfected gene in COS or L cells. Taken together, the data do not support the idea that Myc activates transcription of the

  20. Targeted disruption of the murine fps/fes proto-oncogene reveals that Fps/Fes kinase activity is dispensable for hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Senis, Y; Zirngibl, R; McVeigh, J; Haman, A; Hoang, T; Greer, P A

    1999-11-01

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase that is functionally implicated in the survival and terminal differentiation of myeloid progenitors and in signaling from several members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. To gain further insight into the physiological function of fps/fes, we targeted the mouse locus with a kinase-inactivating missense mutation. Mutant Fps/Fes protein was expressed at normal levels in these mice, but it lacked detectable kinase activity. Homozygous mutant animals were viable and fertile, and they showed no obvious defects. Flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow showed no statistically significant differences in the levels of myeloid, erythroid, or B-cell precursors. Subtle abnormalities observed in mutant mice included slightly elevated total leukocyte counts and splenomegaly. In bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell colony-forming assays, mutant mice gave slightly elevated numbers and variable sizes of CFU-granulocyte macrophage in response to interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 and Stat5A in bone marrow-derived macrophages was dramatically reduced in response to GM-CSF but not to IL-3 or IL-6. This suggests a distinct nonredundant role for Fps/Fes in signaling from the GM-CSF receptor that does not extend to the closely related IL-3 receptor. Lipopolysaccharide-induced Erk1/2 activation was also reduced in mutant macrophages. These subtle molecular phenotypes suggest a possible nonredundant role for Fps/Fes in myelopoiesis and immune responses.

  1. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis Identifies the Proto-oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Src as a Crucial Virulence Determinant of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus in Chicken Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Wang, Fengjie; Han, Zongxi; Gao, Qi; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Sun, Nana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the side effects of vaccination against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), novel strategies for ILT control and therapy are urgently needed. The modulation of host-virus interactions is a promising strategy to combat the virus; however, the interactions between the host and avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) are unclear. Using genome-wide transcriptome studies in combination with a bioinformatic analysis, we identified proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) to be an important modulator of ILTV infection. Src controls the virulence of ILTV and is phosphorylated upon ILTV infection. Functional studies revealed that Src prolongs the survival of host cells by increasing the threshold of virus-induced cell death. Therefore, Src is essential for viral replication in vitro and in ovo but is not required for ILTV-induced cell death. Furthermore, our results identify a positive-feedback loop between Src and the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is necessary for the phosphorylation of either Src or FAK and is required for Src to modulate ILTV infection. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to identify a key host regulator controlling host-ILTV interactions. We believe that our findings have revealed a new potential therapeutic target for ILT control and therapy. IMPORTANCE Despite the extensive administration of live attenuated vaccines starting from the mid-20th century and the administration of recombinant vaccines in recent years, infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreaks due to avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) occur worldwide annually. Presently, there are no drugs or control strategies that effectively treat ILT. Targeting of host-virus interactions is considered to be a promising strategy for controlling ILTV infections. However, little is known about the mechanisms governing host-ILTV interactions. The results from our study advance our understanding of host-ILTV interactions on a molecular level and provide experimental

  2. Initial Segment Differentiation Begins During a Critical Window and Is Dependent upon Lumicrine Factors and SRC Proto-Oncogene (SRC) in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingfang; Washington, Angela M; Hinton, Barry T

    2016-07-01

    Without a fully developed and functioning initial segment, the most proximal region of the epididymis, male infertility results. Therefore, it is important to understand the development of the initial segment. During postnatal development of the epididymis, many cellular processes of the initial segment are regulated by lumicrine factors, which are produced by the testis and enter the epididymis with testicular luminal fluid. In this report, we showed that prior to Postnatal Day 15 (P15), the initial segment was lumicrine factor independent in the mouse. However, from P19 onward, lumicrine factors were essential for the proliferation and survival of initial segment epithelial cells. Therefore, P15 to P19 was a critical window that established the dependency of lumicrine factors in the initial segment epithelium. The initial segment-specific kinase activity profile, a marker of initial segment differentiation, was also established during this window. The SFK (SRC proto-oncogene family kinases), ERK pathway (known as the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway) components, and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinases) pathway components had increased activities from P15 to P19, suggesting that lumicrine factors regulated SFK/ERK/AMPK signaling to initiate differentiation of the initial segment from P15 to P19. Compared with litter mate controls, juvenile Src null mice displayed lower levels of MAPK3/1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1) activity and a reduced level of differentiation in the initial segment epithelium, a similar phenotype resulting from inhibition of SRC activity within the window of P15 to P19. Therefore, lumicrine factor-dependent SRC activity signaling through MAPK3/1 is important for the initiation of initial segment differentiation during a critical window of development.

  3. High frequency of BRAF proto-oncogene hot spot mutation V600E in cohort of colorectal cancer patients from Ahvaz City, southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Almasi, Shekoufeh; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancer around the world. Sporadic CRCs are caused by accumulation of mutations in essential genes regulating normal proliferation and differentiation of cells. The proto-oncogene BRAF encoded by the BRAF gene is involved in the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway of signal transduction during cell growth. Acquired mutations in BRAF have been found at high frequencies in adult patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and sporadic CRC. One of the predominant hot spot point mutations is T1799A (V600E) mutation among a cohort of CRC patients from Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of V600E mutation in CRC patients from Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. We analyzed exon 15 of the BRAF gene in isolated DNA from 80 Formalin Fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CRC tumor tissues using PCR-RFLP method. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical program. According to our results 37 out of 80 cases (46.25%) were heterozygous for the mutation while the remaining 43 cases (53.75%) had normal homozygous genotype. No homozygous mutant genotype was found. Based on our findings, the frequency of V600E mutation appears to be significantly increased among CRC patients of the studied population but there was no significant relationship between genotypes and age and sex. In conclusion, these findings might prove the effect of V600E mutation on CRC pathogenesis. However, the exact effect of the mutation in CRC progression requires further work.

  4. ras proto-oncogene activation in dichloroacetic acid-, trichloroethylene- and tetrachloroethylene-induced liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Anna, C H; Maronpot, R R; Pereira, M A; Foley, J F; Malarkey, D E; Anderson, M W

    1994-10-01

    The frequency and mutation spectra of proto-oncogene activation in hepatocellular neoplasms induced by tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and dichloroacetic acid were examined to help define the molecular basis for their carcinogenicity. H-ras codon 61 activation was not significantly different among dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced and combined historical and concurrent control hepatocellular tumors (62%, 51% and 69% respectively). The mutation spectra of H-ras codon 61 mutations showed a significant decrease in AAA and increase in CTA mutations for dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced tumors when compared to combined controls. The H-ras codon 61 mutation frequency for tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors was significantly lower (24%) than that of combined controls and also that of the two other chemicals. Mutations at codons 13 and 117 plus a second exon insert contributed 4% to the total H-ras frequencies for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. There was also a higher incidence of K-ras activation (13%) in tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors than in the other chemically induced or control tumors. Four liver tumors were found to contain insertions of additional bases within the second exon of K- or H-ras. These findings suggest that exposure to dichloroacetic acid, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene provides a selective growth advantage to spontaneously occurring mutations in codon 61 of H-ras and, at the same time, is responsible for a small number of unique molecular lesions suggestive of either a random genotoxic mode of action or a non-specific result of secondary DNA damage. However, the absence of ras activation in many of the liver neoplasms suggests that alternative mechanisms are also important in B6C3F1 mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. The Ansamycin Antibiotic, Rifamycin SV, Inhibits BCL6 Transcriptional Repression and Forms a Complex with the BCL6-BTB/POZ Domain

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Sian E.; Goult, Benjamin T.; Fairall, Louise; Jamieson, Andrew G.; Ko Ferrigno, Paul; Ford, Robert; Schwabe, John W. R.; Wagner, Simon D.

    2014-01-01

    BCL6 is a transcriptional repressor that is over-expressed due to chromosomal translocations, or other abnormalities, in ∼40% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. BCL6 interacts with co-repressor, SMRT, and this is essential for its role in lymphomas. Peptide or small molecule inhibitors, which prevent the association of SMRT with BCL6, inhibit transcriptional repression and cause apoptosis of lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to discover compounds, which have the potential to be developed into BCL6 inhibitors, we screened a natural product library. The ansamycin antibiotic, rifamycin SV, inhibited BCL6 transcriptional repression and NMR spectroscopy confirmed a direct interaction between rifamycin SV and BCL6. To further determine the characteristics of compounds binding to BCL6-POZ we analyzed four other members of this family and showed that rifabutin, bound most strongly. An X-ray crystal structure of the rifabutin-BCL6 complex revealed that rifabutin occupies a partly non-polar pocket making interactions with tyrosine58, asparagine21 and arginine24 of the BCL6-POZ domain. Importantly these residues are also important for the interaction of BLC6 with SMRT. This work demonstrates a unique approach to developing a structure activity relationship for a compound that will form the basis of a therapeutically useful BCL6 inhibitor. PMID:24595451

  6. The Dioxin Receptor Regulates the Constitutive Expression of the Vav3 Proto-Oncogene and Modulates Cell Shape and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Roman, Angel Carlos; Sauzeau, Vincent; Merino, Jaime M.; Bustelo, Xose R.

    2009-01-01

    The dioxin receptor (AhR) modulates cell plasticity and migration, although the signaling involved remains unknown. Here, we report a mechanism that integrates AhR into these cytoskeleton-related functions. Immortalized and mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking AhR (AhR−/−) had increased cell area due to spread cytoplasms that reverted to wild-type morphology upon AhR re-expression. The AhR-null phenotype included increased F-actin stress fibers, depolarized focal adhesions, and enhanced spreading and adhesion. The cytoskeleton alterations of AhR−/− cells were due to down-regulation of constitutive Vav3 expression, a guanosine diphosphate/guanosine triphosphate exchange factor for Rho/Rac GTPases and a novel transcriptional target of AhR. AhR was recruited to the vav3 promoter and maintained constitutive mRNA expression in a ligand-independent manner. Consistently, AhR−/− fibroblasts had reduced Rac1 activity and increased activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase (Rock) pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 shifted AhR+/+ fibroblasts to the null phenotype, whereas Rock inhibition changed AhR-null cells to the AhR+/+ morphology. Knockdown of vav3 transcripts by small interfering RNA induced cytoskeleton defects and changes in adhesion and spreading mimicking those of AhR-null cells. Moreover, vav3−/− MEFs, as AhR−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, had increased cell area and enhanced stress fibers. By modulating Vav3-dependent signaling, AhR could regulate cell shape, adhesion, and migration under physiological conditions and, perhaps, in certain pathological states. PMID:19158396

  7. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and RET proto-oncogene: mutation spectrum in the familial cases and a meta-analysis of studies on the sporadic form.

    PubMed

    Figlioli, Gisella; Landi, Stefano; Romei, Cristina; Elisei, Rossella; Gemignani, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon malignant tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular cells (C cells) of thyroid. It accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers, and it mostly occurs as a sporadic entity (sMTC), but a familial pattern (fMTC) is also possible. RET proto-oncogene germline mutations are crucial for the onset and the progression of fMTC, and the occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms could predispose to the sporadic form. In order to clarify the role of this gene in MTC, we carefully reviewed the PubMed database using appropriate terms. First, we summarized current knowledge of the germline RET mutations, mutation spectrum, and prevalence. We then performed a meta-analysis on the available case-control association studies for sMTC. Finally, we carried out in silico predictions of the best associated variants in the attempt to better define their role in the disease. To date, a total of 39 different RET germline mutations have been identified in fMTC families. The most affected codons are 609, 611, 618, 620 (exon 10) and 634 (exon 11), encoding for the extracellular cysteine-rich domain, and codons 768 (exon 13) and 804 (exon 14) of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Six polymorphisms with at least three studies were included in the meta-analysis (A45A [rs1800858], G691S [rs1799939], L769L [rs1800861], S836S [rs1800862], S904S [rs1800863], and IVS1-126G>T [rs2565206]). The meta-analysis demonstrated a modest association of sMTC susceptibility with S836S and a strong association with the IVS1-126G>T polymorphism. Besides RET polymorphisms, we also investigated the role of a few other low-penetrance alleles of genes involved in the RET pathway or in xenobiotic metabolism, but none of these were confirmed. Thus, despite the well-known molecular basis of fMTC, the genetic variants of the sporadic form are still poorly understood, and functional analyses are needed to better understand the consequence of such RET

  8. Magnesium deficiency upregulates sphingomyelinases in cardiovascular tissues and cells: cross-talk among proto-oncogenes, Mg(2+), NF-κB and ceramide and their potential relationships to resistant hypertension, atherogenesis and cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Shah, Gatha J; Li, Wenyan; Zhang, Aimin; Zheng, Tao; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Perez-Albela, Jose Luis; Altura, Bella T

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypotheses that 1) short-term (ST) dietary deficiency of magnesium (MgD; 21 days) in rats would result in the upregulation of neutral-, acid-, and alkaline- sphingomyelinases SMases) in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles (VSMCs), 2) ST MgD would result in an upregulation of proto-oncogenes, i.e., c-Fos and c-Jun, as well as the p65 and c-Rel components of NF-κB in cardiac and VSMCs, 3) low levels of Mg(2+) added to drinking water would either prevent or greatly reduce the upregulation of the SMases and proto-oncogene expression, 4) exposure of primary cultured VSMCs to low extracellular Mg(2+) concentration would lead to release of ceramide in both cerebral and aortic VSMCs, 5) specific inhibitors of neutral- and acid-SMAs would reduce the release of ceramide in cultured VSMCs exposed to low extracellular Mg(2+), and 6) specific inhibitors of neutral- and acid-SMases would lead to reductions in the expression of c-fos, c-Jun, and NF-κB components. The data indicate that neutral-, acid-and alkaline-SMases exist in rat cardiac and VSMCs. ST MgD resulted in over 150% increases in SMase activity and proto-oncogene expression in left and right ventricular muscle, atrial muscle, and abdominal aortic smooth muscle; even very low levels of Mg(2+) added to drinking water either prevented or ameliorated the activation of all 3-SMases as well as expression of c-Fos and c-Jun; scyphostatin and desipramine reduced the low Mg(2+) - induced expression of the proto-oncogenes as well as p65 and c-Rel in VSMCs. Exposure of the VSMCs to low Mg(2+) resulted in more than a 100% increase in release of ceramide; scyphostatin and desipramine reduced greatly the release of ceramide from the VSMCs. We believe when the present data are viewed in light of our previous, recent findings on the effects of Mg deficiency on most of the major enzymes in the sphingomyelin-ceramide pathway, that they could provide a rational basis for the treatment and prevention of

  9. Overexpression of the Transcriptional Repressor Complex BCL-6/BCoR Leads to Nuclear Aggregates Distinct from Classical Aggresomes

    PubMed Central

    Buchberger, Elisabeth; El Harchi, Miriam; Payrhuber, Dietmar; Zommer, Anna; Schauer, Dominic; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Bilban, Martin; Brostjan, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear inclusions of aggregated proteins have primarily been characterized for molecules with aberrant poly-glutamine repeats and for mutated or structurally altered proteins. They were termed “nuclear aggresomes” and misfolding was shown to promote association with molecular chaperones and proteasomes. Here, we report that two components of a transcriptional repressor complex (BCL-6 and BCoR) of wildtype amino acid sequence can independently or jointly induce the formation of nuclear aggregates when overexpressed. The observation that the majority of cells rapidly downregulate BCL-6/BCoR levels, supports the notion that expression of these proteins is under tight control. The inclusions occur when BCL-6/BCoR expression exceeds 150-fold of endogenous levels. They preferentially develop in the nucleus by a gradual increase in aggregate size to form large, spheroid structures which are not associated with heat shock proteins or marked by ubiquitin. In contrast, we find the close association of BCL-6/BCoR inclusions with PML bodies and a reduction in aggregation upon the concomitant overexpression of histone deacetylases or heat shock protein 70. In summary, our data offer a perspective on nuclear aggregates distinct from classical “nuclear aggresomes”: Large complexes of spheroid structure can evolve in the nucleus without being marked by the cellular machinery for protein refolding and degradation. However, nuclear proteostasis can be restored by balancing the levels of chaperones. PMID:24146931

  10. Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Mariano G.; Yu, Wenbo; Beguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matthew R.; Geng, Huimin; Goldstein, Rebecca L.; Oswald, Erin; Hatzi, Katerina; Yang, Shao-Ning; Cohen, Joanna; Shaknovich, Rita; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Cheng, Huimin; Liang, Dongdong; Cho, Hyo Je; Tam, Wayne; Du, Wei; Leonard, John P.; Elemento, Olivier; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Melnick, Ari M.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands. PMID:27482887

  11. Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Mariano G; Yu, Wenbo; Beguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matthew R; Geng, Huimin; Goldstein, Rebecca L; Oswald, Erin; Hatzi, Katerina; Yang, Shao-Ning; Cohen, Joanna; Shaknovich, Rita; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Cheng, Huimin; Liang, Dongdong; Cho, Hyo Je; Abbott, Joshua; Tam, Wayne; Du, Wei; Leonard, John P; Elemento, Olivier; Cerchietti, Leandro; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D; Melnick, Ari M

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands.

  12. Mechanisms of action of BCL6 during germinal center B cell development.

    PubMed

    Huang, ChuanXin; Melnick, Ari

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional repressor B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) controls a large transcriptional network that is required for the formation and maintenance of germinal centers (GC). GC B cells represent the normal counterpart of most human B-cell lymphomas, which are often characterized by deregulated BCL6 expression or BCL6-mediated pathways. BCL6 suppresses gene transcription largely through recruitment of its co-repressors through its distinct repression domain. Understanding the precise biological roles of each repression domain in normal and malignant B cells is helpful for development of targeted inhibition of BCL6 functions that is emerging as the basis for design of anti-lymphoma therapies. This review focuses on recent progress in the molecular mechanisms of action of BCL6 in B cells and discusses remaining unresolved questions related to how these mechanisms are linked to normal and malignant B cell development.

  13. The Expanding Role of the BCL6 Oncoprotein as a Cancer Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Mariano G; Oswald, Erin; Yu, Wenbo; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D; Melnick, Ari M

    2017-02-15

    BCL6 was initially discovered as an oncogene in B-cell lymphomas, where it drives the malignant phenotype by repressing proliferation and DNA damage checkpoints and blocking B-cell terminal differentiation. BCL6 mediates its effects by binding to hundreds of target genes and then repressing these genes by recruiting several different chromatin-modifying corepressor complexes. Structural characterization of BCL6-corepressor complexes suggested that BCL6 might be a druggable target. Accordingly, a number of compounds have been designed to bind to BCL6 and block corepressor recruitment. These compounds, based on peptide or small-molecule scaffolds, can potently block BCL6 repression of target genes and kill lymphoma cells. In the case of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), BCL6 inhibitors are equally effective in suppressing both the germinal center B-cell (GCB)- and the more aggressive activated B-cell (ABC)-DLBCL subtypes, both of which require BCL6 to maintain their survival. In addition, BCL6 is implicated in an expanding scope of hematologic and solid tumors. These include, but are not limited to, B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. BCL6 inhibitors have been shown to exert potent effects against these tumor types. Moreover, mechanism-based combinations of BCL6 inhibitors with other agents have yielded synergistic and often quite dramatic activity. Hence, there is a compelling case to accelerate the development of BCL6-targeted therapies for translation to the clinical setting. Clin Cancer Res; 23(4); 885-93. ©2016 AACR.

  14. Mutagenesis in monkey cells of a vector containing a single d(GPG) cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adduct placed on codon 13 of the human H-ras proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Pillaire, M J; Margot, A; Villani, G; Sarasin, A; Defais, M; Gentil, A

    1994-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2]) is a widely used antitumor agent whose mutagenic activity raises the possibility of the induction of secondary cancer as a result of treatment. Mutation of the proto-oncogene H-ras is found in more than 30% of all human tumors, where it has been postulated to contribute to the initiation and progression of human cancers. Activating mutations in the H-ras gene are predominantly single-base substitutions, most frequently at codons 12, 13 and 61. In the present work we have studied the mutational spectra induced by a single cis-[Pt(NH3)2d(GpG)] adduct, the most frequent DNA crosslink formed by cisplatin. We have constructed a 25-mer-Pt oligonucleotide singly modified at codon 13 (GGT) within the human H-ras DNA sequence and we have inserted it into a single-stranded SV40-based shuttle vector able to replicate in simian COS7 cells. After replication in the mammalian host, vectors were extracted, amplified in bacteria and DNA from 124 randomly chosen colonies was sequenced. The observed mutation frequency was 21%. Base substitutions were the most frequent modification. 92% of the mutagenic events occurred at one or both of the platinated guanines of codon 13. The single G-->T transversion accounted for 65% of the total mutations scored. All single base substitutions were located at the G in the 3' position showing, for the first time, that the guanine at the 3' side of a cis-[Pt(NH3)2d(GpG)] adduct may be a preferential site for cisplatin induced mutations. The substitution G-->T at this position of the codon 13 of the H-ras proto-oncogene is known to induce the oncogenic properties of the p21ras protein. Images PMID:8041613

  15. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of BCL6 Kills DLBCL Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchietti, L.C.; Ghetu, A.F.; Zhu, X.; Da Silva, G.F.; Zhong, S.; Matthews, M.; Bunting, K.L.; Polo, J.M.; Fares, C.; Arrowsmith, C.H.; Yang, S.N.; Garcia, M.; Coop, A.; Mackerell, A.D.; Prive, G.G.; Melnick, A.

    2010-09-22

    The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is the most frequently involved oncogene in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We combined computer-aided drug design with functional assays to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the corepressor binding groove of the BCL6 BTB domain. One such compound disrupted BCL6/corepressor complexes in vitro and in vivo, and was observed by X-ray crystallography and NMR to bind the critical site within the BTB groove. This compound could induce expression of BCL6 target genes and kill BCL6-positive DLBCL cell lines. In xenotransplantation experiments, the compound was nontoxic and potently suppressed DLBCL tumors in vivo. The compound also killed primary DLBCLs from human patients.

  16. Plastic downregulation of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 during maturation of human dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pantano, Serafino . E-mail: serafino.pantano@unil.ch; Jarrossay, David; Saccani, Simona; Bosisio, Daniela; Natoli, Gioacchino

    2006-05-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation links peripheral events initiated by the encounter with pathogens to the activation and expansion of antigen-specific T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we describe an as yet unrecognized modulator of human DC maturation, the transcriptional repressor BCL6. We found that both myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs constitutively express BCL6, which is rapidly downregulated following maturation triggered by selected stimuli. Both in unstimulated and maturing DCs, control of BCL6 protein levels reflects the convergence of several mechanisms regulating BCL6 stability, mRNA transcription and nuclear export. By regulating the induction of several genes implicated in the immune response, including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and survival genes, BCL6 may represent a pivotal modulator of the afferent branch of the immune response.

  17. BCL6 mRNA Expression Level in Invasive Duct Carcinoma not otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Eman; Masoud, Eman; Eldien, Marwa Serag

    2016-01-01

    Introduction B-Cell Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) has an oncogenic role in tumourigenesis of various malignancies. It represses genes involved in terminal differentiation and plays complementary role with Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in triple-negative breast cancer cellular function. Aim To evaluate the expression of BCL6 in cancer breast and determine its correlation with the clinico-pathological features including the molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods This prospective case control study was carried out on 150 patients, divided into 100 cases of invasive duct carcinoma not otherwise specified and 50 benign breast lesions including fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease. Fresh tissues were excised, which were then subjected to RNA extraction. The BCL6 mRNA level was assessed using real-time reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results There was a significant higher levels of BCL6 mRNA in malignant cases compared to benign ones (p<0.001). The level of BCL6 mRNA was higher in cases showing advanced tumor stage (p<0.04), triple negative subtype and associated in situ component (p<0.001) compared to cases with an early stage, luminal or Her 2-neu positive subtypes and those lacking in situ component. Conclusion BCL6 is up-regulated in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognostic features such as advanced stage and triple negative molecular subtype. BCL6 inhibitors might be considered as targeted therapy for breast cancer. PMID:28208987

  18. Memory B cells contribute to rapid Bcl6 expression by memory follicular helper T cells.

    PubMed

    Ise, Wataru; Inoue, Takeshi; McLachlan, James B; Kometani, Kohei; Kubo, Masato; Okada, Takaharu; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2014-08-12

    In primary humoral responses, B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) is a master regulator of follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation; however, its activation mechanisms and role in memory responses remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that survival of CXCR5(+) TFH memory cells, and thus subsequent recall antibody response, require Bcl6 expression. Furthermore, we show that, upon rechallenge with soluble antigen Bcl6 in memory TFH cells is rapidly induced in a dendritic cell-independent manner and that peptide:class II complexes (pMHC) on cognate memory B cells significantly contribute to this induction. Given the previous evidence that antigen-specific B cells residing in the follicles acquire antigens within minutes of injection, our results suggest that memory B cells present antigens to the cognate TFH memory cells, thereby contributing to rapid Bcl6 reexpression and differentiation of the TFH memory cells during humoral memory responses.

  19. Bcl6 and Maf cooperate to instruct human follicular helper CD4 T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kroenke, Mark A; Eto, Danelle; Locci, Michela; Cho, Michael; Davidson, Terence; Haddad, Elias K; Crotty, Shane

    2012-04-15

    Follicular helper CD4 T (Tfh) cells provide B cells with signals that are important for the generation of high-affinity Abs and immunological memory and, therefore, are critical for the protective immunity elicited by most human vaccines. Transcriptional regulators of human Tfh cell differentiation are poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that Bcl6 controls specific gene modules for human Tfh cell differentiation. The introduction of Bcl6 expression in primary human CD4 T cells resulted in the regulation of a core set of migration genes that enable trafficking to germinal centers: CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR7, and EBI2. Bcl6 expression also induced a module of protein expression critical for T-B interactions, including SAP, CD40L, PD-1, ICOS, and CXCL13. This constitutes direct evidence for Bcl6 control of most of these functions and includes three genes known to be loci of severe human genetic immunodeficiencies (CD40L, SH2D1A, and ICOS). Introduction of Bcl6 did not alter the expression of IL-21 or IL-4, the primary cytokines of human Tfh cells. We show in this article that introduction of Maf (c-Maf) does induce the capacity to express IL-21. Surprisingly, Maf also induced CXCR5 expression. Coexpression of Bcl6 and Maf revealed that Bcl6 and Maf cooperate in the induction of CXCR4, PD-1, and ICOS. Altogether, these findings reveal that Bcl6 and Maf collaborate to orchestrate a suite of genes that define core characteristics of human Tfh cell biology.

  20. STAT5 Outcompetes STAT3 To Regulate the Expression of the Oncogenic Transcriptional Modulator BCL6

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah R.; Nelson, Erik A.; Yeh, Jennifer E.; Pinello, Luca; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5 has been shown to drive cancer pathogenesis through dysregulation of genes involved in cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Although STAT3 and STAT5 are structurally related, they can have opposite effects on key genes, including BCL6. BCL6, a transcriptional repressor, has been shown to be oncogenic in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. BCL6 also plays an important role in breast cancer pathogenesis, a disease in which STAT3 and STAT5 can be activated individually or concomitantly. To determine the mechanism by which these oncogenic transcription factors regulate BCL6 transcription, we analyzed their effects at the levels of chromatin and gene expression. We found that STAT3 increases expression of BCL6 and enhances recruitment of RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at a site associated with transcriptional initiation. STAT5, in contrast, represses BCL6 expression below basal levels and decreases the association of RNA polymerase II at the gene. Furthermore, the repression mediated by STAT5 is dominant over STAT3-mediated induction. STAT5 exerts this effect by displacing STAT3 from one of the two regulatory regions to which it binds. These findings may underlie the divergent biology of breast cancers containing activated STAT3 alone or in conjunction with activated STAT5. PMID:23716595

  1. Morphological and quantitative analysis of BCL6 expression in human colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sena, Paola; Mariani, Francesco; Benincasa, Marta; De Leon, Maurizio Ponz; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Mancini, Stefano; Cavani, Francesco; Smargiassi, Alberto; Palumbo, Carla; Roncucci, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether BCL6 is expressed during malignant transformation of the large bowel and to assess whether, and to what extent, immunoreactivity is related to the different stages of neoplastic progression. Samples of normal colorectal mucosa (n=22), microadenomas (n=22) and colorectal cancer (n=22), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence coupled with confocal microscopy and western blotting. Our results clearly outlined the marked increase occurring in both intensity and density of BCL6 protein expression in the normal mucosa-microadenoma-carcinoma sequence. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses showed that BCL6 is expressed at low levels in normal mucosa and increases in microadenoma and in cancer with statistical significance. These results were confirmed by western blotting data. The increasing expression of BCL6 in human colorectal cancer development suggests the involvement of BCL6 in tumor progression, from the earliest stages of carcinogenesis with significant increase in cancer. The enhanced understanding of the biological role of BCL6, previously shown to exert a key role in lymphomagenesis, may lead to a re-evaluation of this protein and may highlight the importance of performing further studies in order to identify novel therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer.

  2. Eukaryotic translation initiator protein 1A isoform, CCS-3, enhances the transcriptional repression of p21CIP1 by proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yuri; Yu, Mi-young; Park, Jungeun; Lee, Choong-Eun; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    FBI-1, a member of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcription factors, plays a role in differentiation, oncogenesis, and adipogenesis. eEF1A is a eukaryotic translation elongation factor involved in several cellular processes including embryogenesis, oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization. CCS-3, a potential cervical cancer suppressor, is an isoform of eEF1A. We found that eEF1A forms a complex with FBI-1 by co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF Mass analysis of the immunoprecipitate. GST fusion protein pull-downs showed that FBI-1 directly interacts with eEF1A and CCS-3 via the zinc finger and POZ-domain of FBI-1. FBI-1 co-localizes with either eEF1A or CCS-3 at the nuclear periplasm. CCS-3 enhances transcriptional repression of the p21CIP1 gene (hereafter referred to as p21) by FBI-1. The POZ-domain of FBI-1 interacts with the co-repressors, SMRT and BCoR. We found that CCS-3 also interacts with the co-repressors independently. The molecular interaction between the co-repressors and CCS-3 at the POZ-domain of FBI-1 appears to enhance FBI-1 mediated transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that CCS-3 may be important in cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and oncogenesis by interacting with the proto-oncogene FBI-1 and transcriptional co-repressors.

  3. Activation of endogenous c-fos proto-oncogene expression by human T-cell leukemia virus type I-encoded p40 sup tax protein in the human T-cell line, Jurkat

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Kinya; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masataka; Sugamura, Kazuo )

    1989-08-01

    The authors examined the ability of the trans-acting factor p40{sup tax} of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), which is thought to be a crucial molecule in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I, to activate expression of a set of endogenous cellular genes related to T-cell proliferation. For this purpose, they established a subclone (JPX-9) of Jurkat cells that was stably transfected with an expression plasmid containing the p40{sup tax} gene, whose expression is definitively dependent on heavy-metal ions. Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor {alpha} chain in JPX-9 cells was induced in response to the induction of p40{sup tax} expression, as has been demonstrated by others in transient transfection experiments with Jurkat cells. In addition, they found that significant enhancement of expression of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos was closely associated with expression of p40{sup tax}. Continuous enhancement in the level of c-fos mRNA was observed in the presence of p40{sup tax}. These results suggest that (i) in addition to the interleukin-2-interleukin-2 receptor system, cellular genes such as c-fos, which regulate normal T-cell growth, are also activated directly or indirectly by p40{sup tax} and (ii) p40{sup tax}-induced modulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I.

  4. Paraffin immunoreactivity of CD10, CDw75, and Bcl-6 in follicle center cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, C H; Polski, J M; Lance Evans, H; Gardner, L J

    2001-05-01

    Follicle center cell lymphoma(FCCL) has the following immunophenotype(IP): sIg+, Pan B+, CD10+/-, CD5-, CD23-/+, CD43-, CD11c-, CD25-. In addition, reactivities of a malignant lymphoma with CDw75(LN-1) and bcl-6 are considered indicators of FCCL. Bcl-6 expression is common in Grade 1 FCCL (100%) and rare in other indolent B-cell lymphomas(BCL). In contrast, bcl-2 expression is common in FCCL (80%) and in other BCL subtypes. Since no previous study has correlated paraffin immunoreactivity(PIR) of CD10, CDw75, and bcl-6 in FCCL (Grades 1-3), this is this study's purpose. Twenty-nine FCCL's were identified and reviewed (6, Grade 1; 10, Grade 2; 13, Grade 3) from the Division of Hematopathology, St. Louis University. The diagnoses were based on morphology and immunohistochemistry(IH)(21 cases) +/- the flow cytometric IP(14 cases). The paraffin blocks were stained for CD10 (Novacastra, Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA), CDw75 and bcl-6 (DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA). Results showed that, CD10 by paraffin IH(PIH) was positive in 23 [18(strong); 3(moderate); 2(weak)] and negative in 6(3, Grade 2; 3, Grade 3). All CD10-cases were CDw75+; 4, bcl-6+. The two CD10-, bcl-6-cases were Grade 2. CDw75 was positive in 28 cases [16(strong); 11(moderate); 1(weak)] and negative in 1 (Grade 3; CD10+, bcl-2+, bcl-6+). Bcl-6 was positive in 26 [16(strong); 6(moderate); 4(weak)] and negative in 3(Grade 2's). Thus, the sensitivity of CD10, CDw75, and bcl-6 by PIH for FCCL was 79%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. Of the three stains evaluated by PIH in FCCL, CDw75 was the most sensitive, closely followed by bcl-6. CD10 was least sensitive-79%. By combining these 3 stains, the sensitivity was 100%; thus, a combined approach is recommended.

  5. Expression of the nuclear factor-kappaB and proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun are induced by low extracellular Mg2+ in aortic and cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells: possible links to hypertension, atherogenesis, and stroke.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Kostellow, Adele B; Zhang, Aimin; Li, Wenyan; Morrill, Gene A; Gupta, Raj K; Altura, Bella T

    2003-09-01

    Proto-oncogene (c-fos, c-jun) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) expression, as well as DNA synthesis, in aortic and cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were upregulated by a decrease in extracellular magnesium ions ([Mg2+]o). Upregulation of these transcriptional factors was inversely proportional to the [Mg2+]o and occurred over the pathophysiologic range of serum Mg2+ found in patients presenting with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o), use of nifedipine or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors prevented the upregulation of the proto-oncogenes and DNA synthesis in VSMCs. These data show that [Mg2+]o may be an important, heretofore, overlooked natural modulator of proto-oncogene and NF-kappaB expression in VSMCs and that Ca2+ and PKC may play critical roles in induction of c-fos and c-jun in VSMCs induced by a decrease in [Mg2+]o. These results point to a role for low serum Mg2+ in potential development of hypertension, atherogenesis, vascular disease, and stroke.

  6. BCL6, MUM1 AND CD10 EXPRESSION IN MANTLE CELL LYMPHOMA

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M.; Harrington, William J.; Bacchi, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) characteristically express CD20, CD5 and cyclin-D1, carries the translocation t(11;14) (q13;q32) and typically has no expression of germinal center (GC) cell markers. So-called aberrant phenotypes such as CD5 negative and cyclin-D1-negative-MCL have been described. Also few cases with CD10 and/or BCL-6 protein expression have been reported. We analyzed 127 MCL looking for the frequency of aberrant immunophenotype, CD10, BCL-6 and MUM1 expression. All cases were CD20 and cyclin-D1 positive, 96% expressed CD5 and 98% showed the t(11;14). BCL-6 expression was observed in 12 % of the cases and MUM1 in 35%. No one case showed CD10 positivity in 30% or more neoplastic cells. Only 3 cases showed 10 to 20% of tumoral cells positive for CD10. MUM1 expression was observed in 67% of the BCL-6 positive cases. 32% of the cases showed a MUM1+/BCL-6-/CD10- phenotype and 56% had a triple-negative-pattern. Aberrant phenotype is infrequent but not rare, and does not rule out a diagnosis of MCL in an otherwise typical case. PMID:19826251

  7. Degradation of the proto-oncogene product p39mos is not necessary for cyclin proteolysis and exit from meiotic metaphase: requirement for a Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent event.

    PubMed Central

    Lorca, T; Galas, S; Fesquet, D; Devault, A; Cavadore, J C; Dorée, M

    1991-01-01

    Exit from M phase, which requires cyclin degradation, is prevented from occurring in unfertilized eggs of vertebrates arrested at second meiotic metaphase due to a cytostatic factor recently identified as p39mos, the product of the proto-oncogene c-mos. Calpain can destroy both p39mos and cyclin in vitro in extracts prepared from metaphase-arrested Xenopus eggs, but only when free Ca2+ concentration is raised to the millimolar range. When free Ca2+ concentration is raised for only 30 s to the micromolar range, as occurs in physiological conditions after fertilization, cyclin degradation is induced, byt p39mos is not degraded. Cyclin proteolysis at micromolar free Ca2+, is not inhibited by calpastatin, and therefore does not involve calpain. A cyclin mutant modified in the destruction box is found to be resistant at micromolar, but not millimolar free Ca2+, suggesting that the ubiquitin pathway mediates cyclin degradation at micromolar Ca2+ concentration whereas calpain is involved at the millimolar level. A synthetic peptide which binds Ca(2+)-calmodulin with high affinity suppresses cyclin degradation at micromolar but not millimolar free Ca2+, and this only when it is present in the extract during the first 30 s after raising free Ca2+ concentration. The inhibition of the cyclin degradation pathway by the Ca(2+)-calmodulin binding peptide can be overcome by adding calmodulin. These results strongly suggest that a Ca(2+)-calmodulin process is required as an early event following fertilization to release the cyclin degradation pathway from inhibition in metaphase-arrested eggs. In contrast, p39mos degradation is not required. Images PMID:1829675

  8. The proto-oncogene product c-Crk associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 4PS. Modulation by insulin growth factor-I (IGF) and enhanced IGF-I signaling.

    PubMed

    Beitner-Johnson, D; Blakesley, V A; Shen-Orr, Z; Jimenez, M; Stannard, B; Wang, L M; Pierce, J; LeRoith, D

    1996-04-19

    The Crk proto-oncogene product is an SH2 and SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein which we have previously shown to become rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to stimulation with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in NIH-3T3 cells. In order to further characterize the role of Crk in the IGF-I signaling pathway, NIH-3T3 and 293 cells were stably transfected with an expression vector containing the Crk cDNA. The various resultant 3T3-Crk clones expressed Crk at approximately 2-15-fold higher levels than parental 3T3 cells. In 3T3-Crk cells, Crk immunoreactivity was detected in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) immunoprecipitates. Stimulation with IGF-I resulted in a dissociation of Crk protein from IRS-1. In contrast, the association of the related adaptor protein Grb2 with IRS-1 was enhanced by IGF-I stimulation. Similar results were obtained in stably transfected 293-Crk cells, which express both IRS-1 and the IRS-1-related signaling protein 4PS. In these cells, IRS-1 and 4PS both associated with Crk, and this association was also decreased by IGF-I treatment, whereas the association of Grb2 with IRS-1 and 4PS was enhanced by IGF-I. Overexpression of Crk also enhanced IGF-I-induced mitogenesis of NIH-3T3 cells, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The levels of IGF-I-induced mitogenesis were proportional to the level of Crk expression. These results suggest that Crk is a positive effector of IGF-I signaling, and may mediate its effects via interaction with IRS-1 and/or 4PS.

  9. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 represses transcription of p21CIP1 by inhibition of transcription activation by p53 and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Se Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-05-08

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1-3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target.

  10. Bcl6a function is required during optic cup formation to prevent p53-dependent apoptosis and colobomata.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiwoon; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Mutations in BCOR (Bcl6 corepressor) are found in patients with oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome, a congenital disorder affecting visual system development, and loss-of-function studies in zebrafish and Xenopus demonstrate a role for Bcor during normal optic cup development in preventing colobomata. The mechanism whereby BCOR functions during eye development to prevent colobomata is not known, but in other contexts it serves as a transcriptional corepressor that potentiates transcriptional repression by B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6). Here, we have explored the function of the zebrafish ortholog of Bcl6, Bcl6a, during eye development, and our results demonstrate that Bcl6a, like Bcor, is required to prevent colobomata during optic cup formation. Our data demonstrate that Bcl6a acts downstream of Vax1 and Vax2, known regulators of ventral optic cup formation and choroid fissure closure, and that bcl6a is a direct target of Vax2. Together, this regulatory network functions to repress p53 expression and thereby suppress apoptosis in the developing optic cup. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that Bcl6a functions cooperatively with Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 in a common gene regulatory network that acts to repress p53 and prevent colobomata. Together, these data support a model in which p53-dependent apoptosis needs to be tightly regulated for normal optic cup formation and that Bcl6a, Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 activities mediate this regulation.

  11. Dynamic regulation of c-Myc proto-oncogene expression during lymphocyte development revealed by a GFP-c-Myc knock-in mouse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Bredemeyer, Andrea L; Walker, Laura M; Bassing, Craig H; Sleckman, Barry P

    2008-02-01

    c-Myc induces widely varying cellular effects, including cell proliferation and cell death. These different cellular effects are determined, in part, by c-Myc protein expression levels, which are regulated through several transcriptional and post-transcriptional pathways. c-Myc transcripts can be detected in cells at all stages of B and T lymphocyte development. However, little is known about c-Myc protein expression, and how it varies, in developing lymphocytes. Here mice have been generated in which the endogenous c-Myc locus has been modified (c-Myc(G)) so that it encodes a GFP-c-Myc fusion protein. c-Myc(G/G) mice are viable, appear normal and exhibit grossly normal lymphocyte development. Flow cytometric analyses revealed significant heterogeneity in c-Myc protein expression levels in developing c-Myc(G/G) B and T lymphocytes. GFP-c-Myc expression levels were highest in proliferating lymphocytes, suggesting that c-Myc up-regulation is important for promoting lymphocyte cell division, and demonstrating that GFP-c-Myc expression is a marker of proliferating lymphocytes in vivo.

  12. IL-7 signalling represses Bcl-6 and the TFH gene program.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul W; Read, Kaitlin A; Baker, Chandra E; Anderson, Ashlyn E; Powell, Michael D; Ballesteros-Tato, André; Oestreich, Kenneth J

    2016-01-08

    The transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 is linked to the development of both CD4(+) T follicular helper (TFH) and central memory T (TCM) cells. Here, we demonstrate that in response to decreased IL-2 signalling, T helper 1 (TH1) cells upregulate Bcl-6 and co-initiate TFH- and TCM-like gene programs, including expression of the cytokine receptors IL-6Rα and IL-7R. Exposure of this potentially bi-potent cell population to IL-6 favours the TFH gene program, whereas IL-7 signalling represses TFH-associated genes including Bcl6 and Cxcr5, but not the TCM-related genes Klf2 and Sell. Mechanistically, IL-7-dependent activation of STAT5 contributes to Bcl-6 repression. Importantly, antigen-specific IL-6Rα(+)IL-7R(+) CD4(+) T cells emerge from the effector population at late time points post influenza infection. These data support a novel role for IL-7 in the repression of the TFH gene program and evoke a divergent regulatory mechanism by which post-effector TH1 cells may contribute to long-term cell-mediated and humoral immunity.

  13. Cytogenetic, FISH and molecular characterization of 3q27/BCL-6 rearrangements in NHL

    SciTech Connect

    Wiodarska, I.; Styl, M.; Mecucci, C.

    1994-09-01

    Reciprocal translocations involving the chromosomal region 3q27 and one of the immunoglobulin loci at 14q32, 2p12 or 22q11 have been identified as the third most common type of chromosomal abnormality in Non Hodgkin`s lymphomas (NHLs), in addition to t(14;18) and t(8;14). These abnormalities appeared to be strongly associated with a diffuse, large cell subtype of B-cell NHL. Recently, a t(3;14) and t(3;22) have been cloned and a new transcriptional unit at 3q27, designated BCL-5, BCL-6 or LAZ3, has been identified. The gene appears to encode a new zinc finger protein with the putative function of a transcription factor. Rearrangements of the BCL-6 gene have been detected not only in cases with a typical t(3;14), t(2;3) and t(3;22), but also in a few NHL cases carrying 3q27 translocations not involving Ig genes. We report on nine B-NHL cases with a 3q27/BCL-6 rearrangement demonstrated by cytogenetic, FISH, and Southern analysis. Cytogenetic analysis complemented by FISH studies showed the presence of a classical t(3;14) or a t(3;22) in three cases and a variety of chromosomal aberrations involving the 3q27 locus in the remaining cases. Some of these translocations were not previously identified by conventional banding analysis. In three patients chromosome painting demonstrated involvement of both chromosome at the 3q24 band. We conclude: 3q27/BCL-6 rearrangements seem not to be restricted to diffuse large cell lymphoma. We here documented 3q27/BCL-6 abnormalities in Richter syndrome and follicular lymphomas. The variety of 3q27 aberrations at cytogenetic level suggests that, in addition to immunoglobulin genes, a number of other genes spreading over the human genome may deregulate BCL-6 in lymphomas. Chromosome painting is a powerful tool to demonstrate 3q27 abnormalities, not identified by conventional banding analysis.

  14. An animal model for the rapid induction of tongue neoplasms in human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide: its potential use for preclinical chemoprevention studies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Rikako; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Suzui, Masumi; Yoshimi, Naoki; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Tanaka, Takuji

    2006-03-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common human neoplasms, and prevention of this malignancy requires a better understanding of its carcinogenesis process. To this end, we tried to establish an animal model using the human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene-carrying transgenic (Tg) rats and the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). 4-NQO (20 p.p.m.) was administered to Tg and non-Tg rats for 8 weeks in their drinking water, and then the occurrence of tongue carcinogenesis was compared during the experimental period of 22 weeks. In addition, we determined the DNA ploidy in tongue lesions and examined the immunohistochemical expression of five biomarkers such as cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase placental form, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and beta-catenin. Next, the cancer chemopreventive effects of nimesulide, pioglitazone and a synthetic geranylated derivative, which have been reported to be inhibitors of tongue carcinogenesis, were examined in Tg rats treated with 4-NQO. Either during or after treatment with 4-NQO in the drinking water, tongue dysplasia and tumors were observed on the tongues of both Tg and non-Tg rats, with a greater incidence and multiplicity in Tg rats. Histopathologically, squamous cell dysplasia, papilloma and carcinoma with or without invasion were present in the tongue. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression levels against five biomarkers increase with disease progression, and the changes correlated with those of the DNA ploidy pattern. Interestingly, a strong expression of COX-2, iNOS and beta-catenin was observed on the invasive front of squamous cell carcinomas. A subsequent chemoprevention study using Tg rats showed that the chemicals tested suppressed the occurrence of tongue carcinomas when they were administered after 4-NQO-exposure. These results may thus indicate that our 4-NQO-induced Tg rat tongue carcinogenesis model simulates many aspects of human oral carcinogenesis and it

  15. Switching to BCL-6 Negativity in Relapsed Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Correlated with More Aggressive Disease Course.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Milena; Balint, Bela; Andjelic, Bosko; Radisavljevic, Ziv; Mihaljevic, Biljana

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent, complex and heterogeneous lymphoma of adulthood. Heterogeneity is expressed at clinical, genetic, and molecular levels. It is known that BCL-6 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in DLBCL. However, the underlying mechanisms of BCL-6 expression in DLBCL relapse are not yet elucidated. Here, we present so far undescribed clinical phenomenon of switching BCL-6(+) protein expression into BCL-6(-) expression in 19 of 41 relapsed DLBCL patients. The switch in relapsed DLBCL was associated with more aggressive clinical course of the disease. Bone marrow infiltration and high IPI risk were more often present in BCL-6(-) patients. Significantly increased biochemical parameters, such as LDH, beta-2 macroglobulin, CRP, and ferritin have been found, as well as significantly decreased serum Fe, TIBC, and hemoglobin. A Ki-67 proliferation marker was considerably high in relapsed DLBCL, but without significant differences between BCL-6(+) and BCL-6(-) groups of patients. Thus, switching of the positive into negative BCL-6 expression during DLBCL relapse could be used as a prognostic factor and a valuable criterion for treatment decision.

  16. Interferon Regulatory Factor 8 (IRF8) Interacts with the B Cell Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) Corepressor BCOR*

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeongheon; Feng, Xianxum; Kim, Yong-Soo; Shin, Dong-Mi; Hatzi, Katerina; Wang, Hongsheng; Morse, Herbert C.

    2014-01-01

    B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) corepressor (BCOR) was discovered as a BCL6-interacting corepressor, but little is known about its other biological activities in normal B cell development and function. Previously, we found that interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein, directly targets a large number of genes in germinal center B cells including BCL6. In this study, we screened potential binding partners of IRF8 using a retrovirus-based protein complementation assay screen in a mouse pre-B cell line. We found that IRF8 interacts directly with BCOR and that the α-helical region of IRF8 and the BCL6 binding domain of BCOR are required for this interaction. In addition, IRF8 protein interacts directly with BCL6. Using an siRNA-mediated IRF8 knockdown mouse B cell lymphoma cell line, we showed that IRF8 represses Bcor and enhances Bcl6 transcription. Taken together, these data suggest that a complex comprising BCOR-BCL6-IRF8 modulates BCL6-associated transcriptional regulation of germinal center B cell function. PMID:25331958

  17. HSPH1 inhibition downregulates Bcl-6 and c-Myc and hampers the growth of human aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zappasodi, Roberta; Ruggiero, Giusi; Guarnotta, Carla; Tortoreto, Monica; Tringali, Cristina; Cavanè, Alessandra; Cabras, Antonello D; Castagnoli, Lorenzo; Venerando, Bruno; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Gianni, Alessandro M; De Braud, Filippo; Tripodo, Claudio; Pupa, Serenella M; Di Nicola, Massimo

    2015-03-12

    We have shown that human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) express heat shock protein (HSP)H1/105 in function of their aggressiveness. Here, we now clarify its role as a functional B-NHL target by testing the hypothesis that it promotes the stabilization of key lymphoma oncoproteins. HSPH1 silencing in 4 models of aggressive B-NHLs was paralleled by Bcl-6 and c-Myc downregulation. In vitro and in vivo analysis of HSPH1-silenced Namalwa cells showed that this effect was associated with a significant growth delay and the loss of tumorigenicity when 10(4) cells were injected into mice. Interestingly, we found that HSPH1 physically interacts with c-Myc and Bcl-6 in both Namalwa cells and primary aggressive B-NHLs. Accordingly, expression of HSPH1 and either c-Myc or Bcl-6 positively correlated in these diseases. Our study indicates that HSPH1 concurrently favors the expression of 2 key lymphoma oncoproteins, thus confirming its candidacy as a valuable therapeutic target of aggressive B-NHLs.

  18. The TCF1-Bcl6 axis counteracts type I interferon to repress exhaustion and maintain T cell stemness

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tuoqi; Ji, Yun; Moseman, E. Ashley; Xu, Haifeng C.; Manglani, Monica; Kirby, Martha; Anderson, Stacie M.; Handon, Robin; Kenyon, Elizabeth; Elkahloun, Abdel; Wu, Weiwei; Lang, Philipp A.; Gattinoni, Luca; McGavern, Dorian B.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.

    2016-01-01

    During chronic viral infections and in cancer, T cells become dysfunctional, a state known as T cell exhaustion. Although it is well recognized that memory CD8 T cells account for the persistence of CD8 T cell immunity after acute infection, how exhausted T cells persist remains less clear. Using chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 and tumor samples, we demonstrate that CD8 T cells differentiate into a less exhausted TCF1high and a more exhausted TCF1low population. Virus-specific TCF1high CD8 T cells, which resemble T follicular helper (TFH) cells, persist and recall better than do TCF1low cells and act as progenitor cells to replenish TCF1low cells. We show that TCF1 is both necessary and sufficient to support this progenitor-like CD8 subset, whereas cell-intrinsic type I interferon signaling suppresses their differentiation. Accordingly, cell-intrinsic TCF1 deficiency led to a loss of these progenitor CD8 T cells, sharp contraction of virus-specific T cells, and uncontrolled viremia. Mechanistically, TCF1 repressed several pro-exhaustion factors and induced Bcl6 in CD8 T cells, which promoted the progenitor fate. We propose that the TCF1-Bcl6 axis counteracts type I interferon to repress T cell exhaustion and maintain T cell stemness, which is critical for persistent antiviral CD8 T cell responses in chronic infection. These findings provide insight into the requirements for persistence of T cell immune responses in the face of exhaustion and suggest mechanisms by which effective T cell–mediated immunity may be enhanced during chronic infections and cancer. PMID:28018990

  19. A data integration framework for prediction of transcription factor targets: a BCL6 case study

    PubMed Central

    Nykter, Matti; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Rust, Alistair; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    We present a computational framework for predicting targets of transcription factor regulation. The framework is based on the integration of a number of sources of evidence, derived from DNA sequence and gene expression data, using a weighted sum approach. Sources of evidence are prioritized based on a training set, and their relative contributions are then optimized. The performance of the proposed framework is demonstrated in the context of BCL6 target prediction. We show that this framework is able to uncover BCL6 targets reliably when biological prior information is utilized effectively, particularly in the case of sequence analysis. The framework results in a considerable gain in performance over scores in which sequence information was not incorporated. This analysis shows that with assessment of the quality and biological relevance of the data, reliable predictions can be obtained with this computational framework. PMID:19348642

  20. Transient expression of Bcl6 is sufficient for oncogenic function and induction of mature B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael R; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Long Liu, Chih; Dai, Bo; González-Herrero, Inés; García-Ramírez, Idoia; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Iqbal, Javeed; Chan, Wing C; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Orfao, Alberto; Pintado, Belén; Flores, Teresa; Blanco, Oscar; Jiménez, Rafael; Martínez-Climent, Jose Angel; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Lossos, Izidore S; Majeti, Ravindra; Melnick, Ari; Cobaleda, César; Alizadeh, Ash A; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2014-06-02

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma and can be separated into two subtypes based upon molecular features with similarities to germinal centre B-cells (GCB-like) or activated B-cells (ABC-like). Here we identify gain of 3q27.2 as being significantly associated with adverse outcome in DLBCL and linked with the ABC-like subtype. This lesion includes the BCL6 oncogene, but does not alter BCL6 transcript levels or target-gene repression. Separately, we identify expression of BCL6 in a subset of human haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). We therefore hypothesize that BCL6 may act by 'hit-and-run' oncogenesis. We model this hit-and-run mechanism by transiently expressing Bcl6 within murine HSPCs, and find that it causes mature B-cell lymphomas that lack Bcl6 expression and target-gene repression, are transcriptionally similar to post-GCB cells, and show epigenetic changes that are conserved from HSPCs to mature B-cells. Together, these results suggest that BCL6 may function in a 'hit-and-run' role in lymphomagenesis.

  1. Transient expression of Bcl6 is sufficient for oncogenic function and induction of mature B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael R; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Liu, Chih Long; Dai, Bo; González-Herrero, Inés; García-Ramírez, Idoia; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Iqbal, Javeed; Chan, Wing C; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Orfao, Alberto; Pintado, Belén; Flores, Teresa; Blanco, Oscar; Jiménez, Rafael; Martínez-Climent, Jose Angel; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Lossos, Izidore S; Majeti, Ravindra; Melnick, Ari; Cobaleda, César; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma and can be separated into two subtypes based upon molecular features with similarities to germinal center B-cells (GCB-like) or activated B-cells (ABC-like). Here we identify gain of 3q27.2 as being significantly associated with adverse outcome in DLBCL and linked with the ABC-like subtype. This lesion includes the BCL6 oncogene, but does not alter BCL6 transcript levels or target-gene repression. Separately, we identify expression of BCL6 in a subset of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). We therefore hypothesize that BCL6 may act by hit-and-run oncogenesis. We model this by transiently expressing Bcl6 within murine HSPCs, and find it causes mature B-cell lymphomas that lack Bcl6 expression and target-gene repression, are transcriptionally similar to post-GCB cells, and show epigenetic changes that are conserved from HSPCs to mature B-cells. Together these results suggest that Bcl6 may function in a hit-and-run role in lymphomagenesis. PMID:24887457

  2. The ITM2B (BRI2) gene is a target of BCL6 repression: Implications for lymphomas and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Baron, Beverly W; Baron, Rebecca M; Baron, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The human BCL6 gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that is crucial for germinal center B cell development and T follicular helper cell differentiation. It is involved in the pathogenesis of certain human lymphomas. In an effort to identify targets of BCL6 repression, we used a previously described cell system in which BCL6 repressive effects are inhibited, followed by subtractive hybridization, and identified the integral membrane 2B gene (ITM2B, formerly BRI2) as a potential target. Here we show that BCL6 can bind to its preferential consensus binding site within the first intron of ITM2B and represses its transcription. Knockdown of endogenous BCL6 in a human B cell lymphoma line increases ITM2B expression. Further, there is an inverse relationship between the expression levels of BCL6 and ITM2B proteins in 16 human B- and T-cell lymphomas studied by immunohistochemistry. Both the BCL6 and ITM2B proteins are expressed ubiquitously. Similar to some other targets of BCL6, a short form of the ITM2B protein generated by alternative splicing induces apoptosis in hematopoietic cell lines. Molecular alterations in the ITM2B gene are associated with two neurodegenerative diseases, Familial British and Familial Danish dementia. ITM2B dysfunction also may be relevant for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Our data confirm ITM2B as a target of BCL6 repression in lymphoma. A further understanding of the genes that function as regulators of the ITM2B protein may provide insights for the development of new molecular tools not only for targeted lymphoma therapy but also for the treatment of these dementias.

  3. Analysis of cDNAs of the proto-oncogene c-src: heterogeneity in 5' exons and possible mechanism for the genesis of the 3' end of v-src.

    PubMed Central

    Dorai, T; Levy, J B; Kang, L; Brugge, J S; Wang, L H

    1991-01-01

    To further characterize the gene structure of the proto-oncogene c-src and the mechanism for the genesis of the v-src sequence in Rous sarcoma virus, we have analyzed genomic and cDNA copies of the chicken c-src gene. From a cDNA library of chicken embryo fibroblasts, we isolated and sequenced several overlapping cDNA clones covering the full length of the 4-kb c-src mRNA. The cDNA sequence contains a 1.84-kb sequence downstream from the 1.6-kb pp60c-src coding region. An open reading frame of 217 amino acids, called sdr (src downstream region), was found 105 nucleotides from the termination codon for pp60c-src. Within the 3' noncoding region, a 39-bp sequence corresponding to the 3' end of the RSV v-src was detected 660 bases downstream of the pp60c-src termination codon. The presence of this sequence in the c-src mRNA exon supports a model involving an RNA intermediate during transduction of the c-src sequence. The 5' region of the c-src cDNA was determined by analyzing several cDNA clones generated by conventional cloning methods and by polymerase chain reaction. Sequences of these chicken embryo fibroblast clones plus two c-src cDNA clones isolated from a brain cDNA library show that there is considerable heterogeneity in sequences upstream from the c-src coding sequence. Within this region, which contains at least 300 nucleotides upstream of the translational initiation site in exon 2, there exist at least two exons in each cDNA which fall into five cDNA classes. Four unique 5' exon sequences, designated exons UE1, UE2, UEX, and UEY, were observed. All of them are spliced to the previously characterized c-src exons 1 and 2 with the exception of type 2 cDNA. In type 2, the exon 1 is spliced to a novel downstream exon, designated exon 1a, which maps in the region of the c-src DNA defined previously as intron 1. Exon UE1 is rich in G+C content and is mapped at 7.8 kb upstream from exon 1. This exon is also present in the two cDNA clones from the brain c

  4. Cutting Edge: T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation Is Defective in the Absence of Bcl6 BTB Repressor Domain Function

    PubMed Central

    Nance, J. Philip; Bélanger, Simon; Johnston, Robert J.; Takemori, Toshitada

    2015-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for germinal centers (GCs) and most long-term humoral immunity. Differentiation of Tfh cells depends on the transcriptional repressor B cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (Bcl6). Bcl6 mediates gene repression via the recruitment of corepressors. Currently, it is unknown how Bcl6 recruits corepressors to regulate gene expression of Tfh cells. In this article, we demonstrate, using a mutant form of Bcl6 with two BTB (bric-a-brac, tramtrack, broad-complex) mutations that abrogate corepressor binding, that the Bcl6 BTB domain is required for proper differentiation of Tfh and GC-Tfh cells in vivo. Importantly, we also observe a significant defect in GC B cell development. These results are consistent in multiple contexts, including a novel lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein-specific TCR-transgenic mouse model. Taken together, these data suggest that the Bcl6 BTB domain is a key mediator of the differentiation of Tfh cells. PMID:25957170

  5. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-12-13

    Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  6. BCL6--regulated by AhR/ARNT and wild-type MEF2B--drives expression of germinal center markers MYBL1 and LMO2.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Geffers, Robert; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Nagel, Stefan; Pommerenke, Claudia; Romani, Julia; Scherr, Michaela; Vaas, Lea A I; Zaborski, Margarete; Drexler, Hans G; Quentmeier, Hilmar

    2015-06-01

    Genetic heterogeneity is widespread in tumors, but poorly documented in cell lines. According to immunoglobulin hypermutation analysis, the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line U-2932 comprises two subpopulations faithfully representing original tumor subclones. We set out to identify molecular causes underlying subclone-specific expression affecting 221 genes including surface markers and the germinal center oncogenes BCL6 and MYC. Genomic copy number variations explained 58/221 genes differentially expressed in the two U-2932 clones. Subclone-specific expression of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the resulting activity of the AhR/ARNT complex underlaid differential regulation of 11 genes including MEF2B. Knock-down and inhibitor experiments confirmed that AhR/ARNT regulates MEF2B, a key transcription factor for BCL6. AhR, MEF2B and BCL6 levels correlated not only in the U-2932 subclones but in the majority of 23 cell lines tested, indicting overexpression of AhR as a novel mechanism behind BCL6 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Enforced modulation of BCL6 affected 48/221 signature genes. Although BCL6 is known as a transcriptional repressor, 28 genes were up-regulated, including LMO2 and MYBL1 which, like BCL6, signify germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Supporting the notion that BCL6 can induce gene expression, BCL6 and the majority of potential targets were co-regulated in a series of B-cell lines. In conclusion, genomic copy number aberrations, activation of AhR/ARNT, and overexpression of BCL6 are collectively responsible for differential expression of more than 100 genes in subclones of the U-2932 cell line. It is particularly interesting that BCL6 - regulated by AhR/ARNT and wild-type MEF2B - may drive expression of germinal center markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  7. A novel five-way translocation, t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), with concurrent MYC and BCL6 rearrangements in a primary bone marrow B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Funakoshi, Yohei; Okamura, Atsuo; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Minami, Hironobu

    2011-09-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving MYC at 8q24 are found in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL (BCLU). Here, we describe a novel five-way translocation, t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), involving MYC, BCL6, and the immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH@) in a 73-year-old man with BCLU. The bone marrow was massively infiltrated with 95.6% abnormal medium- to large-sized lymphoid cells without vacuoles. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that the infiltrating cells were positive for CD10, CD19, CD20, CD25, HLA-DR, and κ chain. Immunohistochemistry revealed that they were also positive for BCL2 and CD10, and weakly positive for BCL6. The MIB1 index was approximately 99%. G-banding and spectral karyotyping demonstrated the presence of a t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32). Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected an IGH/MYC fusion signal on the der(14)t(8;14)(q24;q32). In addition, 5' and 3'BCL6 signals were separated onto the der(9)t(3;9)(q27;p13) and the der(3)t(3;14)(q27;q32), respectively. Unexpectedly, no BCL6 signal was found on the non-translocated chromosome 3. Finally, the revised karyotype was as follows: 49,XY,del(3)(q27q27),t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), +der(6)t(6;13)(q13;q32)t(9;13)(p13;q32),+7,+12,i(18)(q10)[2]/50,sl,+7[2]/50,sl,+2[1]. These results suggest that this five-way translocation could bring about the deregulated expression of MYC on the der(14)t(8;14) and BCL6 on the der(3)t(3;14) by the IGH@ enhancer/promoter in a single event and may have contributed to the development of this BCLU.

  8. Detection of germinal center B-cell lymphoma in archival specimens: critical evaluation of Bcl-6 protein expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Ree, Howe J; Ohsima, Koichi; Aozasa, Katsuyuki; Takeuchi, Kengo; Kim, Chul Woo; Yang, Woo Ick; Huh, Joor Yung; Lee, Seung-Sook; Ko, Yong-Hye; Kwon, Mi Seon; Cho, Eun Yoon; Choi, Yoon-La; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Mori, Shigeo

    2003-06-01

    Expression of Bcl-6 and CD10, markers for the tumor of the germinal center (GC) B-cell derivation, has been studied in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) of the lymph node, gastrointestinal tract, and mediastinum. In these studies, the coexpression rate of CD10 and Bcl-6 was relatively constant at 30% approximately 40%, but the frequency of Bcl-6+ tumors varied from 55% to 100%, raising doubts about the usefulness of Bcl-6 expression in identifying the tumor of GC B-cell derivation. Because the expression of Bcl-6 in tumors of non-GC B-cell origin has recently been reported, we critically evaluated the expression of Bcl-6 and CD10 in primary DLBCLs of the tonsil, a relatively common tumor in Japan and Korea. The cases (n = 51) represented a consecutive series for any recent 2-year period at several teaching hospitals in Korea and Japan. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were used for immunostaining. Staining for Bcl-6 and CD10 was positive in 44 (86%) and 22 cases (45%), respectively. However, among those positive for Bcl-6 (>10% Bcl-6+ tumor cells), 2 basic patterns were recognized: uniform and nonuniform. The uniform pattern was characterized by a dense population (>75%) and a consistent density in any given area, resembling the staining pattern observed in GC or follicular lymphoma (FL) (the "GC/FL" pattern). In contrast, the nonuniform pattern exhibited a varying density from area to area, as well as a less-dense population (<75%). The uniform pattern was observed in 26 cases (51%). All but 1 (95%) of the CD10+ tumors coexpressed Bcl-6, with most (82%) displaying the uniform pattern. We conclude that tumors showing a uniform pattern of Bcl-6 expression should be distinguished from those showing a nonuniform pattern, because the former most likely represent tumors of GC B-cell derivation and the latter most likely represent tumors of non-GC derivation. GC B-cell lymphoma thus defined accounted for 51% of tonsillar DLBCL, a proportion

  9. Synergistic activity of Card11 mutant and Bcl6 in the development of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Taishi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Seto, Masao; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tsuzuki, Shinobu

    2016-11-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of malignant lymphoma; it derives from germinal center B cells. Although DLBCL harbors many genetic alterations, synergistic roles between such alterations in the development of lymphoma are largely undefined. We previously established a mouse model of lymphoma by transplanting gene-transduced germinal center B cells into mice. Here, we chose one of the frequently mutated genes in DLBCL, Card11 mutant, to explore its possible synergy with other genes, using our lymphoma model. Given that BCL6 and BCL2 expression and/or function are often deregulated in human lymphoma, we examined the possible synergy between Card11, Bcl6, and Bcl2. Germinal center B cells were induced in vitro, transduced with Card11 mutant, Bcl6, and Bcl2, and transplanted. Mice rapidly developed lymphomas, with exogenously transduced Bcl2 being dispensable. Although some mice developed lymphoma in the absence of transduced Bcl6, the absence was compensated by elevated expression of endogenous Bcl6. Additionally, the synergy between Card11 mutant and Bcl6 in the development of lymphoma was confirmed by the fact that the combination of Card11 mutant and Bcl6 caused lymphoma or death significantly earlier and with higher penetrance than Card11 mutant or Bcl6 alone. Lymphoma cells expressed interferon regulatory factor 4 and PR domain 1, indicating their differentiation toward plasmablasts, which characterize activated B cell-like DLBCL that represents a clinically aggressive subtype in humans. Thus, our mouse model provides a versatile tool for studying the synergistic roles of altered genes underlying lymphoma development.

  10. LEF-1 and TCF-1 orchestrate T(FH) differentiation by regulating differentiation circuits upstream of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Soo; Gullicksrud, Jodi A; Xing, Shaojun; Zeng, Zhouhao; Shan, Qiang; Li, Fengyin; Love, Paul E; Peng, Weiqun; Xue, Hai-Hui; Crotty, Shane

    2015-09-01

    Follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) are specialized effector CD4(+) T cells that help B cells develop germinal centers (GCs) and memory. However, the transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of T(FH) cells remain incompletely understood. Here we report that selective loss of Lef1 or Tcf7 (which encode the transcription factor LEF-1 or TCF-1, respectively) resulted in T(FH) cell defects, while deletion of both Lef1 and Tcf7 severely impaired the differentiation of T(FH) cells and the formation of GCs. Forced expression of LEF-1 enhanced T(FH) differentiation. LEF-1 and TCF-1 coordinated such differentiation by two general mechanisms. First, they established the responsiveness of naive CD4(+) T cells to T(FH) cell signals. Second, they promoted early T(FH) differentiation via the multipronged approach of sustaining expression of the cytokine receptors IL-6Rα and gp130, enhancing expression of the costimulatory receptor ICOS and promoting expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6.

  11. ICOS and Bcl6-dependent pathways maintain a CD4 T cell population with memory-like properties during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Moguche, Albanus O.; Shafiani, Shahin; Clemons, Corey; Larson, Ryan P.; Dinh, Crystal; Higdon, Lauren E.; Cambier, C.J.; Sissons, James R.; Gallegos, Alena M.; Fink, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Immune control of persistent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires a sustained pathogen-specific CD4 T cell response; however, the molecular pathways governing the generation and maintenance of Mtb protective CD4 T cells are poorly understood. Using MHCII tetramers, we show that Mtb-specific CD4 T cells are subject to ongoing antigenic stimulation. Despite this chronic stimulation, a subset of PD-1+ cells is maintained within the lung parenchyma during tuberculosis (TB). When transferred into uninfected animals, these cells persist, mount a robust recall response, and provide superior protection to Mtb rechallenge when compared to terminally differentiated Th1 cells that reside preferentially in the lung-associated vasculature. The PD-1+ cells share features with memory CD4 T cells in that their generation and maintenance requires intrinsic Bcl6 and intrinsic ICOS expression. Thus, the molecular pathways required to maintain Mtb-specific CD4 T cells during ongoing infection are similar to those that maintain memory CD4 T cells in scenarios of antigen deprivation. These results suggest that vaccination strategies targeting the ICOS and Bcl6 pathways in CD4 T cells may provide new avenues to prevent TB. PMID:25918344

  12. IL-21 restricts T follicular regulatory T cell proliferation through Bcl-6 mediated inhibition of responsiveness to IL-2.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Christoph; Liu, Sue M; Cañete, Pablo F; Warren, Joanna; Hughes, William E; Vogelzang, Alexis; Webster, Kylie; Craig, Maria E; Uzel, Gulbu; Dent, Alexander; Stepensky, Polina; Keller, Bärbel; Warnatz, Klaus; Sprent, Jonathan; King, Cecile

    2017-03-17

    T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells control the magnitude and specificity of the germinal centre reaction, but how regulation is contained to ensure generation of high-affinity antibody is unknown. Here we show that this balance is maintained by the reciprocal influence of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21. The number of IL-2-dependent FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells is increased in the peripheral blood of human patients with loss-of-function mutations in the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R). In mice, IL-21:IL-21R interactions influence the phenotype of T follicular cells, reducing the expression of CXCR4 and inhibiting the expansion of Tfr cells after T-cell-dependent immunization. The negative effect of IL-21 on Tfr cells in mice is cell intrinsic and associated with decreased expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25). Bcl-6, expressed in abundance in Tfr cells, inhibits CD25 expression and IL-21-mediated inhibition of CD25 is Bcl-6 dependent. These findings identify a mechanism by which IL-21 reinforces humoral immunity by restricting Tfr cell proliferation.

  13. IL-21 restricts T follicular regulatory T cell proliferation through Bcl-6 mediated inhibition of responsiveness to IL-2

    PubMed Central

    Jandl, Christoph; Liu, Sue M.; Cañete, Pablo F.; Warren, Joanna; Hughes, William E.; Vogelzang, Alexis; Webster, Kylie; Craig, Maria E.; Uzel, Gulbu; Dent, Alexander; Stepensky, Polina; Keller, Bärbel; Warnatz, Klaus; Sprent, Jonathan; King, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells control the magnitude and specificity of the germinal centre reaction, but how regulation is contained to ensure generation of high-affinity antibody is unknown. Here we show that this balance is maintained by the reciprocal influence of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21. The number of IL-2-dependent FoxP3+ regulatory T cells is increased in the peripheral blood of human patients with loss-of-function mutations in the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R). In mice, IL-21:IL-21R interactions influence the phenotype of T follicular cells, reducing the expression of CXCR4 and inhibiting the expansion of Tfr cells after T-cell-dependent immunization. The negative effect of IL-21 on Tfr cells in mice is cell intrinsic and associated with decreased expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25). Bcl-6, expressed in abundance in Tfr cells, inhibits CD25 expression and IL-21-mediated inhibition of CD25 is Bcl-6 dependent. These findings identify a mechanism by which IL-21 reinforces humoral immunity by restricting Tfr cell proliferation. PMID:28303891

  14. Cigarette smoke extracts induce overexpression of the proto-oncogenic gene interleukin-13 receptor α2 through activation of the PKA-CREB signaling pathway to trigger malignant transformation of lung vascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; Liao, Huaidong; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Yanyan; Kong, Ying; Liu, Wenming; Yang, Ping; Huo, Zihe; Cao, Zhifei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2017-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) play important roles in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, whether cigarette smoking can trigger genesis of lung TAECs has not been reported yet. In the current study, we used lung endothelial cell (EC) lines as a model to study the pathological effect of cigarette smoke extracts (CSEs) on human lung ECs, and found that a lower dose of 4% CSEs obviously caused abnormal morphological changes in ECs, increased the permeability of endothelial monolayer, while a higher concentration of 8% CSEs caused EC apoptosis. Strikingly, CSEs induced a 117-fold overexpression of a pro-tumorigenic interleukin-13 receptor α2 gene (IL-13Rα2, also named as CT-19) through activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway. A PKA specific inhibitor H89 completely abolished CSEs-induced IL-13Rα2 overexpression. The overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in lung ECs significantly increased the tumorigenic, migratory, and angiogenic capabilities of the cells, suggesting that IL-13Rα2 promotes genesis of lung TAECs. Together, our data show that CSEs activate the PKA, CREB, and IL-13Rα2 axis in lung ECs, and IL-13Rα2 promotes the malignant transformation of lung ECs and genesis of TAECs with robust angiogenic and oncogenic capabilities. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism of CSEs-triggered lung cancer angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, suggesting that the PKA-CREB-IL-13Rα2 axis is a potential target for novel anti-lung tumor angiogenesis and anti-lung cancer drug discovery.

  15. CD25(+) Bcl6(low) T follicular helper cells provide help to maturing B cells in germinal centers of human tonsil.

    PubMed

    Li, Haishan; Pauza, C David

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CXCR5(+) PD1(+) CD4(+) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells (>90%) are CD25(-) Bcl6(hi) , while a small subpopulation (<10%) are CD25(+) Bcl6(low) but do not express FoxP3 and are not T regulatory cells. We purified T:B-cell conjugates from tonsils and found they were enriched for the CD25(+) Bcl6(low) Tfh-cell subpopulation. In response to IL-2, these CD25(+) Tfh cells increased expression of costimulatory molecules ICOS or OX40, upregulated transcription factor cMaf, produced cytokines IL-21, IL-17, and IL-10, and raised the levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl2. Conjugates formed with CD25(+) BCl6(low) Tfh cells included B cells expressing higher levels of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), memory marker CD45RO, surface IgG or IgA, and MHC class II compared to B-cell conjugates including CD25(-) Bcl6(hi) Tfh cells. While IL-2 suppresses early Tfh-cell differentiation, Tfh-cell recognition of antigen-presenting B cells and signaling through the T-cell receptor likely triggers expression of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor and responses to IL-2 including downregulation of Bcl6. CD25 expression on Tfh cells and local production of IL-2 in tonsil or lymph node may support B helper T-cell function during later stages of B-cell maturation and the development of immune memory.

  16. Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C R; Sato, T; Peck, A R; Girondo, M A; Yang, N; Liu, C; Yanac, A F; Kovatich, A J; Hooke, J A; Shriver, C D; Mitchell, E P; Hyslop, T; Rui, H

    2016-03-17

    Therapy resistance remains a major problem in estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. A subgroup of ERα-positive breast cancer is characterized by mosaic presence of a minor population of ERα-negative cancer cells expressing the basal cytokeratin-5 (CK5). These CK5-positive cells are therapy resistant and have increased tumor-initiating potential. Although a series of reports document induction of the CK5-positive cells by progestins, it is unknown if other 3-ketosteroids share this ability. We now report that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids effectively expand the CK5-positive cell population. CK5-positive cells induced by 3-ketosteroids lacked ERα and progesterone receptors, expressed stem cell marker, CD44, and displayed increased clonogenicity in soft agar and broad drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of CK5-positive cells by 3-ketosteroids required induction of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 based on suppression of BCL6 by two independent BCL6 small hairpin RNAs or by prolactin. Prolactin also suppressed 3-ketosteroid induction of CK5+ cells in T47D xenografts in vivo. Survival analysis with recursive partitioning in node-negative ERα-positive breast cancer using quantitative CK5 and BCL6 mRNA or protein expression data identified patients at high or low risk for tumor recurrence in two independent patient cohorts. The data provide a mechanism by which common pathophysiological or pharmacologic elevations in glucocorticoids or other 3-ketosteroids may adversely affect patients with mixed ERα+/CK5+ breast cancer. The observations further suggest a cooperative diagnostic utility of CK5 and BCL6 expression levels and justify exploring efficacy of inhibitors of BCL6 and 3-ketosteroid receptors for a subset of ERα-positive breast cancers.

  17. Direct regulation of GAS6/AXL signaling by HIF promotes renal metastasis through SRC and MET

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Erinn B.; Fuh, Katherine C.; Castellini, Laura; Viswanathan, Kartik; Finger, Elizabeth C.; Diep, Anh N.; LaGory, Edward L.; Kariolis, Mihalis S.; Chan, Andy; Lindgren, David; Axelson, Håkan; Miao, Yu R.; Krieg, Adam J.; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of the von Hippel–Lindau/hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) signaling pathway promotes clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression and metastasis. The protein kinase GAS6/AXL signaling pathway has recently been implicated as an essential mediator of metastasis and receptor tyrosine kinase crosstalk in cancer. Here we establish a molecular link between HIF stabilization and induction of AXL receptor expression in metastatic ccRCC. We found that HIF-1 and HIF-2 directly activate the expression of AXL by binding to the hypoxia-response element in the AXL proximal promoter. Importantly, genetic and therapeutic inactivation of AXL signaling in metastatic ccRCC cells reversed the invasive and metastatic phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we define a pathway by which GAS6/AXL signaling uses lateral activation of the met proto-oncogene (MET) through SRC proto-oncogene nonreceptor tyrosine kinase to maximize cellular invasion. Clinically, AXL expression in primary tumors of ccRCC patients correlates with aggressive tumor behavior and patient lethality. These findings provide an alternative model for SRC and MET activation by growth arrest-specific 6 in ccRCC and identify AXL as a therapeutic target driving the aggressive phenotype in renal clear cell carcinoma. PMID:25187556

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells diversify and differentiate in vivo via a nonclassical Th1-dependent, Bcl-6-deficient process.

    PubMed

    Patten, Piers E M; Ferrer, Gerardo; Chen, Shih-Shih; Simone, Rita; Marsilio, Sonia; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Gitto, Zachary; Yuan, Chaohui; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Barrientos, Jacqueline; Allen, Steven L; Rai, Kanti R; MacCarthy, Thomas; Chu, Charles C; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2016-04-07

    Xenografting primary tumor cells allows modeling of the heterogeneous natures of malignant diseases and the influences of the tissue microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that xenografting primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B lymphocytes with activated autologous T cells into alymphoid mice results in considerable CLL B cell division and sizable T cell expansion. Nevertheless, most/all CD5(+)CD19(+) cells are eventually lost, due in part to differentiation into antibody-secreting plasmablasts/plasma cells. CLL B cell differentiation is associated with isotype class switching and development of new IGHV-D-J mutations and occurs via an activation-induced deaminase-dependent pathway that upregulates IRF4 and Blimp-1 without appreciable levels of the expected Bcl-6. These processes were induced in IGHV-unmutated and IGHV-mutated clones by Th1-polarized T-bet(+) T cells, not classical T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Thus, the block in B cell maturation, defects in T cell action, and absence of antigen-receptor diversification, which are often cardinal characteristics of CLL, are not inherent but imposed by external signals and the microenvironment. Although these activities are not dominant features in human CLL, each occurs in tissue proliferation centers where the mechanisms responsible for clonal evolution operate. Thus, in this setting, CLL B cell diversification and differentiation develop by a nonclassical germinal center-like reaction that might reflect the cell of origin of this leukemia.

  19. t(14;18)-negative Follicular Lymphomas Are Associated with a High Frequency of BCL6 Rearrangement at the Alternative Breakpoint Region

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Keni; Fu, Kai; Jain, Smrati; Liu, Zhongfen; Iqbal, Javeed; Li, Min; Sanger, Warren G; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Greiner, Timothy C; Aoun, Patricia; Dave, Bhavana J; Chan, Wing C

    2009-01-01

    A frequent chromosomal translocation in mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma affects band 3q27 and results in deregulation of the B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) gene. Two breakpoint clusters have been described thus far, the major breakpoint region (MBR) and an alternative breakpoint region (ABR) that is located 245 - 285 kb 5' to BCL6. Translocation at the MBR predominates in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, whereas translocation at the ABR is reported to be frequently associated with grade 3B follicular lymphoma. However, translocation at the ABR has not been studied in a large series of follicular lymphomas, particularly t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphomas. Therefore, we studied BLC6 rearrangements at the MBR and ABR by using break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes in 142 cases of follicular lymphomas, including 63 t(14;18)-negative and 79 t(14;18)-positive cases. Conventional cytogenetic (karyotype) analysis was also performed in 58 of the 63 t(14;18)-negative cases. BCL6 rearrangement was found in 26% of t(14;18)-negative and 19% of t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma. t(14;18)-negative cases showed a high frequency of rearrangement at the ABR (12%) with an ABR:MBR ratio of 0.86, compared to only 5% with an ABR:MBR ratio of 0.36 in the t(14;18)-positive cases. BCL6 rearrangements were found in all grades of follicular lymphoma but were most frequent in grade 3 t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma (60%). FISH analysis had a higher sensitivity for detecting BCL6 rearrangements than conventional cytogenetics. In conclusion, BCL6 rearrangements occur at a similar frequency in t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma appears to have a higher frequency of rearrangement at the ABR compared with t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Therefore, it is important to perform FISH analysis with ABR to determine possible involvement of BCL6

  20. PIAS1 Promotes Lymphomagenesis Through MYC Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Rabellino, Andrea; Melegari, Margherita; Tompkins, Van S.; Chen, Weina; Van Ness, Brian G.; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Janz, Siegfried; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary The MYC proto-oncogene is a transcription factor implicated in a broad range of cancers. MYC is regulated by several post-translational modifications including SUMOylation, but the functional impact of this post-translational modification is still unclear. Here we report that the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 SUMOylates MYC. We demonstrate that PIAS1 promotes, in a SUMOylation-dependent manner, MYC phosphorylation at serine 62 and dephosphorylation at threonine 58. These events reduce the MYC turnover leading to increased transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we find that MYC is SUMOylated in primary B-cell lymphomas and that PIAS1 is required for the viability of MYC-dependent B-cell lymphoma cells as well as several cancer cell lines of epithelial origin. Finally, Pias1 null mice display endothelial defects reminiscent of Myc null mice. Taken together these results indicate that PIAS1 is a positive regulator of MYC. PMID:27239040

  1. PATZ1 expression correlates positively with BAX and negatively with BCL6 and survival in human diffuse large B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Elena; Vitiello, Michela; Luciano, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio; Mantia, Elvira La; Panico, Luigi; Tenneriello, Valentina; Pinto, Antonello; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Capobianco, Gaetana; Botti, Gerardo; Cerchia, Laura; De Chiara, Annarosaria; Fedele, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) include a heterogeneous group of diseases, which differ in both cellular origin and clinical behavior. Among the aggressive malignancies of this group, the diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are the most frequently observed. They are themselves clinically and molecularly heterogeneous and have been further sub-divided in three sub-types according to different cell of origin, mechanisms of oncogenesis and clinical outcome. Among them, the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) derives from the germinal center and expresses the BCL6 oncogene. We have previously shown that Patz1-knockout mice develop B-cell neoplasias, suggesting a tumor suppressor role for PATZ1 in human NHLs. Here, by immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue-microarray including 170 NHLs, we found that PATZ1 nuclear expression is down-regulated in follicular lymphomas and DLBCLs. Moreover, consistent with our previous results showing a PATZ1-dependent regulation of BCL6 and BAX transcription, we show that low PATZ1 nuclear expression significantly correlates with high BCL6 expression, mainly in DLBCLs, and with low BAX expression, also considering separately follicular lymphomas and DLBCLs. Finally, by analyzing overall and progression-free survival in DLBCL patients that underwent rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy, low levels of PATZ1 were significantly associated to a worst outcome and demonstrated an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors of DLBCL, IPI score and cell of origin (GCB/non-GCB). Therefore, we propose PATZ1 as a new prognostic marker of DLBCLs, which may act as a tumor suppressor by enhancing apoptosis through inhibiting and enhancing transcription of BCL6 and BAX, respectively. PMID:27494852

  2. PATZ1 expression correlates positively with BAX and negatively with BCL6 and survival in human diffuse large B cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Franco, Renato; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Valentino, Elena; Vitiello, Michela; Luciano, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio; La Mantia, Elvira; Panico, Luigi; Tenneriello, Valentina; Pinto, Antonello; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Capobianco, Gaetana; Botti, Gerardo; Cerchia, Laura; De Chiara, Annarosaria; Fedele, Monica

    2016-09-13

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) include a heterogeneous group of diseases, which differ in both cellular origin and clinical behavior. Among the aggressive malignancies of this group, the diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are the most frequently observed. They are themselves clinically and molecularly heterogeneous and have been further sub-divided in three sub-types according to different cell of origin, mechanisms of oncogenesis and clinical outcome. Among them, the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) derives from the germinal center and expresses the BCL6 oncogene. We have previously shown that Patz1-knockout mice develop B-cell neoplasias, suggesting a tumor suppressor role for PATZ1 in human NHLs. Here, by immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue-microarray including 170 NHLs, we found that PATZ1 nuclear expression is down-regulated in follicular lymphomas and DLBCLs. Moreover, consistent with our previous results showing a PATZ1-dependent regulation of BCL6 and BAX transcription, we show that low PATZ1 nuclear expression significantly correlates with high BCL6 expression, mainly in DLBCLs, and with low BAX expression, also considering separately follicular lymphomas and DLBCLs. Finally, by analyzing overall and progression-free survival in DLBCL patients that underwent rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy, low levels of PATZ1 were significantly associated to a worst outcome and demonstrated an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors of DLBCL, IPI score and cell of origin (GCB/non-GCB). Therefore, we propose PATZ1 as a new prognostic marker of DLBCLs, which may act as a tumor suppressor by enhancing apoptosis through inhibiting and enhancing transcription of BCL6 and BAX, respectively.

  3. TUMORAL TISSUE SPECIFIC PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION OF DISTINCT TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES IN A CASE WITH NONSMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Sulhattin; Dogan, Tamer; Koksal, Binnur; Yildirim, Malik Ejder; Gumus, Cesur; Elagoz, Sahenda; Akkurt, Ibrahim; Ozdemir, Oztürk

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: Non-small cell lung carcinoma is an aggressive phenomenon and the epigenetical alterations of some tumor supressor genes have been reported for the different tumor types. Case Presentation: It is presented a case report concerning a 43 years old male with NSCLC on the lower segment of the right lung. The patient underwent a diag-nostic excisional thin-needle biopsy and after the histological confirmation. We examined the promoter methylation status of some distinct tumor supressor genes in tumoral and blood tissues of the case after sodium bisulfite conversion and DNA amplification with methylation specific multiplex PCR technique. Both tissues were also searched for G to A transitions in codons 12 and 13 of the K-ras proto-oncogene. Results: Tumor specimen showed fully methyl pattern profiles for the SFRP2, p16, DAPK1 and partially hyper-methylated profile for the p53 and MGMT genes in this case with non-small lung carci-noma. Blood speicemen showed normal hypomethylated profiles for all studied TS genes. The K-ras proto-oncogene was in normal structure both in blood and tumoral spiecemens that examined. Conclusion: Results indicate that genes exhibit tumor suppressor activi-ties in blood, but exhibit epigenetic inactivation in carcinoma cell. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role in the non-small cell lung carcinogenesis in human. PMID:21264081

  4. DNMT3B7 expression related to MENT expression and its promoter methylation in human lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Alkebsi, Lobna; Handa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yoshiko; Osaki, Yohei; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Ogawa, Yoshiaki; Yokohama, Akihiko; Hattori, Hikaru; Koiso, Hiromi; Saitoh, Takayuki; Mitsui, Takeki; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2013-12-01

    DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B7 is the most expressed DNMT3B splice variant. It was reported that the loss of DNMT3B function led to overexpression of the MEthylated in Normal Thymocyes (MENT) and accelerated mouse lymphomagenesis. We investigated the DNMT3B7 expression and its relationship to MENT expression and promoter methylation in human lymphomas. DNMT3B7 and MENT expression were significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.01) higher in lymphomas than in non-malignant. Expression of DNMT3B7 and MENT were associated with MENT promoter hypomethylation. DNMT3B7 overexpression might interfere with the normal DNA methylation mechanism required for silencing the MENT proto-oncogene, and may accelerate human lymphomagenesis.

  5. MicroRNA-544 down-regulates both Bcl6 and Stat3 to inhibit tumor growth of human triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhengzhi; Wang, Shengying; Zhu, Jinhai; Yang, Qifeng; Dong, Huiming; Huang, Jiankang

    2016-10-01

    Triple negative breast cancer lacking estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor and Her2 account for account for the majority of the breast cancer deaths, due to the lack of specific gene targeted therapy. Our current study aimed to investigate the role of miR-544 in triple negative breast cancer. Endogenous levels of miR-544 were significantly lower in breast cancer cell lines than in human breast non-tumorigenic and mammary epithelial cell lines. We found that miR-544 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) on both Bcl6 and Stat3 mRNAs, and overexpression of miR-544 in triple negative breast cancer cells significantly down-regulated expressions of Bcl6 and Stat3, which in turn severely inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Employing a mouse xenograft model to examine the in vivo function of miR-544, we found that expression of miR-544 significantly repressed the growth of xenograft tumors. Our current study reported miR-544 as a tumor-suppressor microRNA particularly in triple negative breast cancer. Our data supported the role of miR-544 as a potential biomarker in developing gene targeted therapies in the clinical treatment of triple negative breast cancer.

  6. Recurrent BCOR internal tandem duplication and BCOR or BCL6 expression distinguish primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy from congenital infantile fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Teresa; Clay, Michael R; Allen, Sariah J; Orr, Brent A

    2017-03-03

    Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy is a rare sarcoma that preferentially affects infants. It can be locally aggressive and rarely metastasizes, but the long-term outcome of children with this tumor is mostly unknown. Histologically, it is characterized by primitive cells with abundant myxoid stroma. Internal tandem duplication of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6)-interacting co-repressor (BCOR) exon 15 has recently been described in clear cell sarcoma of kidney, central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR alteration, and primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy. Herein, we report five cases of primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy: three girls and two boys with mean age of 6.5 months. The tumors were located in the paraspinal region (n=3), back (n=1), or foot (n=1) and ranged in size from 2.5 to 10.2 cm. BCOR internal tandem duplication was confirmed by PCR and sequencing in all five cases. The minimally duplicated region consisted of nine residues, which is shorter than was previously reported in other BCOR-associated tumors. To assess the clinical value and specificity of the BCOR internal tandem duplication, a group of 11 ETV6-rearranged congenital infantile fibrosarcomas were evaluated and no BCOR internal tandem duplication was identified in any case. Though not detected in congenital infantile fibrosarcomas, BCOR and BCL6 immunoreactivity was present in >90% of the nuclei of tumor cells in each of the five primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy. The presence of BCOR internal tandem duplication in all five primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumors of infancy provides evidence that it is a recurrent somatic abnormality and substantiates the concept that this tumor is a unique sarcoma of infancy. Our findings indicate that identification of BCOR internal tandem duplication and/or nuclear immunoreactivity for BCOR or BCL6 can aid in the diagnosis of primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy and help to differentiate

  7. A G-Rich Sequence within the c-kit Oncogene Promoter Forms a Parallel G-Quadruplex Having Asymmetric G-Tetrad Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P.; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  8. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells diversify and differentiate in vivo via a nonclassical Th1-dependent, Bcl-6–deficient process

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Piers E.M.; Ferrer, Gerardo; Chen, Shih-Shih; Simone, Rita; Marsilio, Sonia; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Gitto, Zachary; Yuan, Chaohui; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Barrientos, Jacqueline; Allen, Steven L.; Rai, Kanti R.; MacCarthy, Thomas; Chu, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Xenografting primary tumor cells allows modeling of the heterogeneous natures of malignant diseases and the influences of the tissue microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that xenografting primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B lymphocytes with activated autologous T cells into alymphoid mice results in considerable CLL B cell division and sizable T cell expansion. Nevertheless, most/all CD5+CD19+ cells are eventually lost, due in part to differentiation into antibody-secreting plasmablasts/plasma cells. CLL B cell differentiation is associated with isotype class switching and development of new IGHV-D-J mutations and occurs via an activation-induced deaminase-dependent pathway that upregulates IRF4 and Blimp-1 without appreciable levels of the expected Bcl-6. These processes were induced in IGHV-unmutated and IGHV-mutated clones by Th1-polarized T-bet+ T cells, not classical T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Thus, the block in B cell maturation, defects in T cell action, and absence of antigen-receptor diversification, which are often cardinal characteristics of CLL, are not inherent but imposed by external signals and the microenvironment. Although these activities are not dominant features in human CLL, each occurs in tissue proliferation centers where the mechanisms responsible for clonal evolution operate. Thus, in this setting, CLL B cell diversification and differentiation develop by a nonclassical germinal center–like reaction that might reflect the cell of origin of this leukemia. PMID:27158669

  9. Fra-1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS-like antigen-1 (Fra-1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra-1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra-1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra-1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway.

  10. Tumor promotion by depleting cells of protein kinase C delta.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z; Hornia, A; Jiang, Y W; Zang, Q; Ohno, S; Foster, D A

    1997-01-01

    Tumor-promoting phorbol esters activate, but then deplete cells of, protein kinase C (PKC) with prolonged treatment. It is not known whether phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion is due to activation or depletion of PKC. In rat fibroblasts overexpressing the c-Src proto-oncogene, the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced anchorage-independent growth and other transformation-related phenotypes. The appearance of transformed phenotypes induced by TPA in these cells correlated not with activation but rather with depletion of expressed PKC isoforms. Consistent with this observation, PKC inhibitors also induced transformed phenotypes in c-Src-overexpressing cells. Bryostatin 1, which inhibited the TPA-induced down-regulation of the PKCdelta isoform specifically, blocked the tumor-promoting effects of TPA, implicating PKCdelta as the target of the tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Consistent with this hypothesis, expression of a dominant negative PKCdelta mutant in cells expressing c-Src caused transformation of these cells, and rottlerin, a protein kinase inhibitor with specificity for PKCdelta, like TPA, caused transformation of c-Src-overexpressing cells. These data suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of phorbol esters is due to depletion of PKCdelta, which has an apparent tumor suppressor function. PMID:9154841

  11. Regulation of proto-oncogene expression in adult and developing lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Molinar-Rode, R; Smeyne, R J; Curran, T; Morgan, J I

    1993-01-01

    Activation of immediate-early gene expression has been associated with mitogenesis, differentiation, nerve cell depolarization, and recently, terminal differentiation processes and programmed cell death. Previous evidence also suggested that immediate-early genes play a role in the physiology of the lungs (J. I. Morgan, D. R. Cohen, J. L. Hempstead, and T. Curran, Science 237:192-197, 1987). Therefore, we analyzed c-fos expression in adult and developing lung tissues. Seizures elicited by chemoconvulsants induced expression of mRNA for c-fos, c-jun, and junB and Fos-like immunoreactivity in lung tissue. The use of pharmacological antagonists and adrenalectomy indicated that this increased expression was neurogenic. Interestingly, by using a fos-lacZ transgenic mouse, it was shown that Fos-LacZ expression in response to seizure occurred preferentially in clusters of epithelial cells at the poles of the bronchioles. This was the same location of Fos-LacZ expression detected during early lung development. These data imply that pharmacological induction of immediate-early gene expression in adult mice recapitulates an embryological program of gene expression. Images PMID:8497249

  12. Axotomized neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl2 proto-oncogene retain functional electrophysiological properties.

    PubMed Central

    Alberi, S; Raggenbass, M; de Bilbao, F; Dubois-Dauphin, M

    1996-01-01

    Bcl2 overexpression prevents axotomy-induced neuronal death of neonatal facial motoneurons, as defined by morphological criteria. However, the functional properties of these surviving lesioned transgenic neurons are unknown. Using transgenic mice overexpressing the protein Bcl2, we have investigated the bioelectrical properties of transgenic facial motoneurons from 7 to 20 days after neonatal unilateral axotomy using brain-stem slices and whole cell patch-clamp recording. Nonaxotomized facial motoneurons from wild-type and transgenic mice had similar properties; they had an input resistance of 38 +/- 6 M omega and fired repetitively after injection of positive current pulses. When cells were voltage-clamped at or near their resting membrane potential, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), or vasopressin generated sustained inward currents. In transgenic axotomized mice, facial motoneurons could be found located ipsilaterally to the lesion; they had an input resistance of 150 +/- 30 M omega, indicating that they were smaller in size, fired repetitively, and were also responsive to AMPA, NMDA, and vasopressin. Morphological measurements achieved 1 week after the lesion have shown that application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevented the reduction in size of axotomized transgenic motoneurons. These data indicate that Bcl2 not only prevents morphological apoptotic death of axotomized neonatal transgenic motoneurons but also permits motoneurons to conserve functional electrophysiological properties. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633001

  13. HindIII polymorphism in the human c-sis proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Fourney, R.M.; Dietrich, K.D.; Aubin, R.A.; Paterson, M.C. )

    1988-08-25

    The 2.0 kb BamH1 restriction fragment corresponding to a cDNA insert encoding the human c-sis PDGF A chain and nucleotide sequences homologous to the v-sis gene was isolated from plasmid pSM-1. An identical polymorphism was noted using the 1.2 kb PstI fragment or the 1.0 kb PstI/XbaI fragment isolated from the v-sis sequence subcloned in the plasmid pV-sis. HindIII identifies a single bi-allelic polymorphism with bands at 22.6 kb and 19.4 kb. Co-dominant segregation was demonstrated in 1 family. This polymorphism is not easily detected unless the restricted DNA is separated on 0.6-0.8% agarose gels. Resolution was optimal if gels were run until the bromophenol blue tracking dye had migrated 14 cm from the origin and Southern blotting was performed under alkaline conditions.

  14. DEK Proto-Oncogene Expression Interferes with the Normal Epithelial Differentiation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Morreale, Richard J.; Morris, Teresa A.; Mintz-Cole, Rachael A.; Hoskins, Elizabeth E.; Balsitis, Scott J.; Husseinzadeh, Nader; Witte, David P.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of the DEK gene is associated with multiple human cancers, but its specific roles as a putative oncogene are not well defined. DEK transcription was previously shown to be induced by the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncogene via E2F and Rb pathways. Transient DEK overexpression was able to inhibit both senescence and apoptosis in cultured cells. In at least the latter case, this mechanism involved the destabilization of p53 and the decreased expression of p53 target genes. We show here that DEK overexpression disrupts the normal differentiation program in a manner that is independent of either p53 or cell death. DEK expression was distinctly repressed upon the differentiation of cultured primary human keratinocytes, and stable DEK overexpression caused epidermal thickening in an organotypic raft model system. The observed hyperplasia involved a delay in keratinocyte differentiation toward a more undifferentiated state, and expansion of the basal cell compartment was due to increased proliferation, but not apoptosis. These phenotypes were accompanied by elevated p63 expression in the absence of p53 destabilization. In further support of bona fide oncogenic DEK activities, we report here up-regulated DEK protein levels in both human papilloma virus-positive hyperplastic murine skin and a subset of human squamous cell carcinomas. We suggest that DEK up-regulation may contribute to carcinoma development at least in part through increased proliferation and retardation of differentiation. PMID:19036808

  15. Does cell-of-origin or MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 translocation status provide prognostic information beyond the International Prognostic Index score in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab and chemotherapy? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Berendse, Sabine; Marafioti, Teresa; McNamara, Christopher

    2017-02-09

    We examined the additional prognostic value for survival of cell-of-origin, and MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 translocation status to that provided by the International Prognostic Index in newly-diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated firstline with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy. We searched Medline, Premedline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ISI Proceedings (2000-2015) and assessed study risk-of-bias using a prognostic study checklist. Forty-four studies of moderate-high risk of bias with 100-712 participants were included. Immunohistochemistry-determined cell-of-origin, and BCL2 and BCL6 translocation status added no additional prognostic value. Half of the studies on gene expression profiling-determined cell-of-origin and MYC translocation status found that germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and no translocation were associated with better overall survival (OS) whereas the remaining studies found no effect of these covariates. Further studies are required to ensure that biological information assessed using newer technologies can be reliably used for studies that incorporate newer agents targeting distinct molecular abnormalities identified in high-risk DLBCL patients.

  16. Nucleic acid clamp-mediated recognition and stabilization of the physiologically relevant MYC promoter G-quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Taisen; Gaerig, Vanessa C.; Brooks, Tracy A.

    2016-01-01

    The MYC proto-oncogene is upregulated, often at the transcriptional level, in ∼80% of all cancers. MYC's promoter is governed by a higher order G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the NHE III1 region. Under a variety of conditions, multiple isoforms have been described to form from the first four continuous guanine runs (G41–4) predominating under the physiologically relevant supercoiled conditions. In the current study, short oligonucleotides complementing the 5′- and 3′-regions flanking the G4 have been connected by an abasic linker to form G4 clamps, varying both linker length and G4 isoform being targeted. Clamp A with an 18 Å linker was found to have marked affinity for its target isomer (G41–4) over the other major structures (G42–5 and G41–5, recognized by clamps B and C, respectively), and to be able to shift equilibrating DNA to foster greater G4 formation. In addition, clamp A, but not B or C, is able to modulate MYC promoter activity with a significant and dose-dependent effect on transcription driven by the Del4 plasmid. This linked clamp-mediated approach to G4 recognition represents a novel therapeutic mechanism with specificity for an individual promoter structure, amenable to a large array of promoters. PMID:27789698

  17. DSC deconvolution of the structural complexity of c-MYC P1 promoter G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Dettler, Jamie M; Buscaglia, Robert; Le, Vu H; Lewis, Edwin A

    2011-03-16

    We completed a biophysical characterization of the c-MYC proto-oncogene P1 promoter quadruplex and its interaction with a cationic porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4), using differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. We examined three different 24-mer oligonucleotides, including the wild-type (WT) sequence found in the c-MYC P(1) promoter and two mutant G→T sequences that are known to fold into single 1:2:1 and 1:6:1 loop isomer quadruplexes. Biophysical experiments were performed on all three oligonucleotide sequences at two different ionic strengths (30 mM [K(+)] and 130 mM [K(+)]). Differential scanning calorimetry experiments demonstrated that the WT quadruplex consists of a mixture of at least two different folded conformers at both ionic strengths, whereas both mutant sequences exhibit a single two-state melting transition at both ionic strengths. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrated that both mutant sequences bind 4 mols of TMPyP4 to 1 mol of DNA, in similarity to the WT sequence. The circular dichroism spectroscopy signatures for all three oligonucleotides at both ionic strengths are consistent with an intramolecular parallel stranded G-quadruplex structure, and no change in quadruplex structure is observed upon addition of saturating amounts of TMPyP4 (i.e., 4:1 TMPyP4/DNA).

  18. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  19. FOXC2 promotes colorectal cancer metastasis by directly targeting MET.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y-M; Jiao, H-L; Ye, Y-P; Chen, C-M; Wang, J-X; Tang, N; Li, T-T; Lin, J; Qi, L; Wu, P; Wang, S-Y; He, M-R; Liang, L; Bian, X-W; Liao, W-T; Ding, Y-Q

    2015-08-13

    Metastasis is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple genes have been identified to be responsible for the development of CRC, the molecular changes that enable CRC cells to undergo early local invasion and to form distant metastatic colonies still remain largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of Forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2) and explored the underlying mechanisms in invasion and metastasis of CRC. We show that both high FOXC2 expression and nuclear localization of FOXC2 are significantly correlated with advanced TNM (T=primary tumor; N=regional lymph nodes; M=distant metastasis) stages. FOXC2 enhanced the invasive abilities of CRC cells in vitro and promoted local invasion and distant metastasis in an orthotopic mouse metastatic model of CRC. Microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of FOXC2 increased the proto-oncogene MET tyrosine kinase expression and activated the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-MET signaling pathway. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that FOXC2 directly associated with MET promoter to increase the transcriptional activity of MET. Inhibition of MET attenuates the invasive phenotype and metastatic potential of FOXC2-overexpressing CRC cells, indicating that MET is a major mediator of FOXC2-promoted metastasis. In addition, FOXC2 expression was positively correlated with MET expression in CRC tissue samples. Our findings suggest that FOXC2 has a crucial role in CRC metastasis by regulating HGF-MET signaling via inducing MET expression, highlighting FOXC2 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing or reducing metastasis in CRC.

  20. NELF-mediated stalling of Pol II can enhance gene expression by blocking promoter-proximal nucleosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Nechaev, Sergei; Lee, Chanhyo; Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B.; Collins, Jennifer B.; Li, Leping; Gilmour, David S.; Adelman, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) is a transcription regulatory complex that induces stalling of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during early transcription elongation and represses expression of several genes studied to date, including Drosophila Hsp70, mammalian proto-oncogene junB, and HIV RNA. To determine the full spectrum of NELF target genes in Drosophila, we performed a microarray analysis of S2 cells depleted of NELF and discovered that NELF RNAi affects many rapidly inducible genes involved in cellular responses to stimuli. Surprisingly, only one-third of NELF target genes were, like Hsp70, up-regulated by NELF-depletion, whereas the majority of target genes showed decreased expression levels upon NELF RNAi. Our data reveal that the presence of stalled Pol II at this latter group of genes enhances gene expression by maintaining a permissive chromatin architecture around the promoter-proximal region, and that loss of Pol II stalling at these promoters is accompanied by a significant increase in nucleosome occupancy and a decrease in histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation. These findings identify a novel, positive role for stalled Pol II in regulating gene expression and suggest that there is a dynamic interplay between stalled Pol II and chromatin structure. PMID:18628398

  1. Quinazoline derivative QPB-15e stabilizes the c-myc promoter G-quadruplex and inhibits tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zeng; Liu, Chen; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; He, Jinhui; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The ribozyme-sensitive element NHE-III1 in the P1 promoter region of the important proto-oncogene c-myc contains many guanine (G)-rich sequences. Induction and stabilization of the G-quadruplex formed by NHE-III1 can downregulate c-myc expression. In the present study, we found that QPB-15e, a quinazoline derivative designed and synthesized by our laboratory, binds to and stabilizes the c-myc G-quadruplex in vitro, thereby inhibiting double-stranded DNA replication, downregulating c-myc gene expression and arresting cancer cell proliferation. PCR termination experiments showed that QPB-15e blocked double-stranded DNA replication by inducing or stabilizing the c-myc G-quadruplex. FRET-melting further confirmed that QPB-15e improved the stability of the G-quadruplex, and CD spectroscopy indicated that the compound interacted directly with the G-rich sequence. In competitive dialysis experiments, QPB-15e bound preferentially to quadruplex DNA in various structures, especially the G-quadruplex within the c-myc promoter region. Moreover, QPB-15e reduced the weights and volumes of tumors transplanted into nude mice. These findings strongly suggest that QPB-15e is a c-myc G-quadruplex ligand with anti-tumor properties, and may be efficacious for treating cancer in humans. PMID:27144522

  2. Expression of the woodchuck N-myc2 retroposon in brain and in liver tumors is driven by a cryptic N-myc promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Fourel, G; Transy, C; Tennant, B C; Buendia, M A

    1992-01-01

    The woodchuck intronless proto-oncogene N-myc2 was initially discovered as a frequent target site for hepadnavirus integration in hepatocellular carcinoma. N-myc2 possesses characteristics of a functional retroposon derived from the woodchuck N-myc gene. We have investigated the regulatory signals governing N-myc2 expression and found that a short promoter, including a variant TATA box and potential binding sites for several transcription factors, is localized in the N-myc2 sequences homologous to the 5' untranslated region of the second N-myc exon. The corresponding region in the intron-containing woodchuck N-myc gene also exhibited promoter activity in transient transfection assays. The high evolutionary conservation of these sequences in mammalian N-myc genes suggests that they contain a cryptic N-myc promoter which may be unmasked in the particular context provided by the N-myc2 retroposon. Although N-myc2, like the woodchuck N-myc gene, contributes to an extended CpG island and was found constitutively hypomethylated, it presents a highly restricted expression pattern in adult animals. Whereas the intron-containing N-myc gene is expressed at low levels in different tissues, N-myc2 mRNA was detected only in brain tissue, raising questions about the functional significance of the maintenance of a second N-myc gene in the woodchuck genome. Images PMID:1333041

  3. The adenoviral E1A N-terminal domain represses MYC transcription in human cancer cells by targeting both p300 and TRRAP and inhibiting MYC promoter acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling-Jun; Loewenstein, Paul M.; Green, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Human cancers frequently arise from increased expression of proto-oncogenes, such as MYC and HER2. Understanding the cellular pathways regulating the transcription and expression of proto-oncogenes is important for targeted therapies for cancer treatment. Adenoviral (Ad) E1A 243R (243 aa residues) is a viral oncoprotein that interacts with key regulators of gene transcription and cell proliferation. We have shown previously that the 80 amino acid N-terminal transcriptional repression domain of E1A 243R (E1A 1-80) can target the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 and repress HER2 in the HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell line SKBR3. Expression of E1A 1-80 induces death of SKBR3 and other cancer cell lines. In this study, we performed total cell RNA sequence analysis and identified MYC as the regulatory gene for cellular proliferation most strongly repressed by E1A 1-80. By RT-quantitative PCR analysis we show that repression of MYC in SKBR3 cells occurs early after expression of E1A 1-80, suggesting that MYC may be an early responder of E1A 1-80-mediated transcriptional repression. Of interest, while E1A 1-80 repression of MYC occurs in all eight human cancer cell lines examined, repression of HER2 is cell-type dependent. We demonstrate by ChIP analysis that MYC transcriptional repression by E1A 1-80 is associated with inhibition of acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16 on the MYC promoter, as well as inhibition of RNA Pol II binding to the MYC promoter. Deletion mutant analysis of E1A 1-80 suggests that both p300/CBP and TRRAP are involved in E1A 1-80 repression of MYC transcription. Further, E1A 1-80 interaction with p300/CBP and TRRAP is correlated with inhibition of H3K18 and H4K16 acetylation on the MYC promoter, respectively. Our results indicate that E1A 1-80 may target two important pathways for histone modification to repress transcription in human cancer cells. PMID:27382434

  4. Promotion of morphological transformation by Di-n-butyltin dichloride in C3H/10T1/2 cells: prediction by prior expression of tumour promoter-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Parfett, C L; Marquardt, T; Pilon, R

    2000-04-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that chemical treatments may induce increases in proliferin gene family mRNA accumulation in cultured murine embryonic cells. Proliferin inductions are highly correlated with subsequent promotional outcomes during two-stage focus-formation assays in C3H/10T1/2 cell cultures. In work reported here, the strong affiliation between these two responses was further validated after treating cells with di-n-butyltin dichloride which is a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic additive that often contaminates food and water. Increased proliferin expression and promotion of morphological transformation occurred at similar concentrations. Promotion of transformation was detected at di-n-butyltin dichloride concentrations of 80 nM (24 ng/ml) and above, if added to initiated cultures before confluent monolayers had formed. Proliferin induction and morphological transformation were both reduced in confluent cultures treated with di-n-butyltin dichloride, as compared to subconfluent cultures. Proliferin expression measured in near-confluent cultures was induced up to 10-fold during the 36-hr period following di-n-butyltin dichloride exposure and was accompanied by increased accumulation of transcripts from many genes regulated by oxidative stresses, growth-inducing agents, and/or other promoting agents (asbestos, superoxide radicals ). Di-n-butyltin dichloride-induced mRNA species included members of the fos and jun proto-oncogene families, c-myc, egr1, ribonucleotide reductase (R2 subunit), odc, macrophage chemotactic protein/je, hsp70, metallothionine IIA, c-sod and mn-sod. The observed patterns of RNA accumulation suggested that a small subset of mRNA species, including proliferin, exhibit regulatory behaviour as a response to dissimilar agents or conditions that promote focus-formation in C3H/10T1/2 cultures. Plausible predictions of promotional effects in two-stage morphological transformation assays can be made from gene

  5. Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dun; Liu, Hong; Goga, Andrei; Kim, Suwon; Yuneva, Mariia; Bishop, J Michael

    2010-08-03

    The Myc protein and proteins that participate in mitosis represent attractive targets for cancer therapy. However, their potential is presently compromised by the threat of side effects and by a lack of pharmacological inhibitors of Myc. Here we report that a circumscribed exposure to the aurora kinase inhibitor, VX-680, selectively kills cells that overexpress Myc. This synthetic lethal interaction is attributable to inhibition of aurora-B kinase, with consequent disabling of the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPPC) and ensuing DNA replication in the absence of cell division; executed by sequential apoptosis and autophagy; not reliant on the tumor suppressor protein p53; and effective against mouse models for B-cell and T-cell lymphomas initiated by transgenes of MYC. Our findings cast light on how inhibitors of aurora-B kinase may kill tumor cells, implicate Myc in the induction of a lethal form of autophagy, indicate that expression of Myc be a useful biomarker for sensitivity of tumor cells to inhibition of the CPPC, dramatize the virtue of bimodal killing by a single therapeutic agent, and suggest a therapeutic strategy for killing tumor cells that overexpress Myc while sparing normal cells.

  6. Modulation of c-fms proto-oncogene in an ovarian carcinoma cell line by a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Y.; Morishita, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Tamaya, T.

    1997-01-01

    Co-expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor (c-fms) is often found in ovarian epithelial carcinoma, suggesting the existence of autocrine regulation of cell growth by M-CSF. To block this autocrine loop, we have developed hammerhead ribozymes against c-fms mRNA. As target sites of the ribozyme, we chose the GUC sequence in codon 18 and codon 27 of c-fms mRNA. Two kinds of ribozymes were able to cleave an artificial c-fms RNA substrate in a cell-free system, although the ribozyme against codon 18 was much more efficient than that against codon 27. We next constructed an expression vector carrying a ribozyme sequence that targeted the GUC sequence in codon 18 of c-fms mRNA. It was introduced into TYK-nu cells that expressed M-CSF and its receptor. Its transfectant showed a reduced growth potential. The expression levels of c-fms protein and mRNA in the transfectant were clearly decreased with the expression of ribozyme RNA compared with that of an untransfected control or a transfectant with the vector without the ribozyme sequence. These results suggest that the ribozyme against GUC in codon 18 of c-fms mRNA is a promising tool for blocking the autocrine loop of M-CSF in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9376277

  7. G2 arrest and impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport in mouse embryos lacking the proto-oncogene CAN/Nup214.

    PubMed Central

    van Deursen, J; Boer, J; Kasper, L; Grosveld, G

    1996-01-01

    The vertebrate nucleopore complex (NPC) is a 125 MDa multiprotein assembly that mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport. One of its components, CAN/Nup214, is an FXFG repeat-containing protein known to be involved in myeloid leukemia in humans. We have devised a powerful genetic approach, using maternally derived protein in murine null embryos, to show that CAN/ Nup214 is essential for NPC function in vivo. We demonstrate that CAN-/- mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are not viable and that CAN-/- embryos die in utero between 4.0 and 4.5 days postcoitum, following the depletion of their CAN from maternal sources. In 3.5-day-old mutant embryos, cultured in vitro, progressive depletion of CAN leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase, and eventually to blastocoel collapse, impaired NLS-mediated protein uptake and nuclear accumulation of polyadenylated RNA. Remarkably, these defective CAN-depleted embryos do not display any gross morphological abnormalities in their nuclear envelopes or NPCs. Our data suggest that CAN is critical to cell cycle progression and required for both nuclear protein import and mRNA export. Images PMID:8896451

  8. An integrated genomic-transcriptomic approach supports a role for the proto-oncogene BCL3 in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Giovanna; Girelli, Domenico; Zerbinati, Carlotta; Lunghi, Barbara; Friso, Simonetta; Meneghetti, Silvia; Coen, Matteo; Gagliano, Teresa; Guastella, Giuseppe; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Pizzolo, Francesca; Mascoli, Francesco; Malerba, Giovanni; Bovolenta, Matteo; Ferracin, Manuela; Olivieri, Oliviero; Bernardi, Francesco; Martinelli, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Data with border-line statistical significance, copiously generated in genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD), could include functionally relevant associations. We propose an integrated genomic and transcriptomic approach for unravelling new potential genetic signatures of atherosclerosis. Fifteen among 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were first selected for association in a sex- and age-adjusted model by examining 510 patients with CAD and myocardial infarction and 388 subjects with normal coronary arteries (CAD-free) in the replication stages of a genome-wide association study. We investigated the expression of 71 genes proximal to the 15 tag-SNPs by two subsequent steps of microarray-based mRNA profiling, the former in vascular smooth muscle cell populations, isolated from non-atherosclerotic and atherosclerotic human carotid portions, and the latter in whole carotid specimens. BCL3 and PVRL2, contiguously located on chromosome 19, and ABCA1, extensively investigated before, were found to be differentially expressed. BCL3 and PVRL2 SNPs were genotyped within a second population of CAD patients (n=442) and compared with CAD-free subjects (n=393). The carriership of the BCL3 rs2965169 G allele was more represented among CAD patients and remained independently associated with CAD after adjustment for all the traditional cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio=1.70 with 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.71), while the BCL3 rs8100239 A allele correlated with metabolic abnormalities. The up-regulation of BCL3 mRNA levels in atherosclerotic tissue samples was consistent with BCL3 protein expression, which was detected by immunostaining in the intima-media of atherosclerotic specimens, but not within non-atherosclerotic ones. Our integrated approach suggests a role for BCL3 in cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Tissue Specific Activation and Inactivation of the Neu Proto-Oncogene in Transgenic Mice Using Cre Recombinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    132:6-13. P. G. Pelicci, and 0. Segatto . 1995. Analysis of protein-protein interactions 11. Gale, N. W., S. Kaplan, E. J. Lowenstein, J. Schlessinger...Grazia Cell. Biol. 18:2344-2359. Borrello, 0. Segatto , P. P. Di Fiore, and P. G. Pelicci. 1995. Constitutive 49. Yip, S. S., A. J. Crew, J. M. W. Gee

  10. Crystal Structures of Proto-oncogene Kinase Pim1: A Target of Aberrant Somatic Hypermutations in Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Abhinav; Mandiyan, Valsan; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Zhang, Chao; Rice, Julie; Tsai, James; Artis, Dean R.; Ibrahim, Prabha; Bremer, Ryan

    2010-07-19

    Pim1, a serine/threonine kinase, is involved in several biological functions including cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. While pim1 has been shown to be involved in several hematopoietic cancers, it was also recently identified as a target of aberrant somatic hypermutation in diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), the most common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The crystal structures of Pim1 in apo form and bound with AMPPNP have been solved and several unique features of Pim1 were identified, including the presence of an extra {beta}-hairpin in the N-terminal lobe and an unusual conformation of the hinge connecting the two lobes of the enzyme. While the apo Pim1 structure is nearly identical with that reported recently, the structure of AMPPNP bound to Pim1 is significantly different. Pim1 is unique among protein kinases due to the presence of a proline residue at position 123 that precludes the formation of the canonical second hydrogen bond between the hinge backbone and the adenine moiety of ATP. One crystal structure reported here shows that changing P123 to methionine, a common residue that offers the backbone hydrogen bond to ATP, does not restore the ATP binding pocket of Pim1 to that of a typical kinase. These unique structural features in Pim1 result in novel binding modes of AMP and a known kinase inhibitor scaffold, as shown by co-crystallography. In addition, the kinase activities of five Pim1 mutants identified in DLCL patients have been determined. In each case, the observed effects on kinase activity are consistent with the predicted consequences of the mutation on the Pim1 structure. Finally, 70 co-crystal structures of low molecular mass, low-affinity compounds with Pim1 have been solved in order to identify novel chemical classes as potential Pim1 inhibitors. Based on the structural information, opportunities for optimization of one specific example are discussed.

  11. The proto-oncogene PBF binds p53 and is associated with prognostic features in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Read, Martin L; Seed, Robert I; Modasia, Bhavika; Kwan, Perkin P K; Sharma, Neil; Smith, Vicki E; Watkins, Rachel J; Bansal, Sukhchain; Gagliano, Teresa; Stratford, Anna L; Ismail, Tariq; Wakelam, Michael J O; Kim, Dae S; Ward, Stephen T; Boelaert, Kristien; Franklyn, Jayne A; Turnell, Andrew S; McCabe, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF) is a transforming gene capable of eliciting tumor formation in xenograft models. However, the precise role of PBF in tumorigenesis and its prognostic value as a cancer biomarker remain largely uncharacterised, particularly in malignancies outside the thyroid. Here, we provide the first evidence that PBF represents a promising prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Examination of a total of 39 patients demonstrated higher PBF expression at both the mRNA (P = 0.009) and protein (P < 0.0001) level in colorectal tumors compared to matched normal tissue. Critically, PBF was most abundant in colorectal tumors associated with Extramural Vascular Invasion (EMVI), increased genetic instability (GI) and somatic TP53 mutations, all features linked with recurrence and poorer patient survival. We further demonstrate by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation that PBF binds to the tumor suppressor protein p53, as well as to p53 mutants (Δ126-132, M133K, V197E, G245D, I255F and R273C) identified in the colorectal tumors. Importantly, overexpression of PBF in colorectal HCT116 cells interfered with the transcriptional activity of p53-responsive genes such as mdm2, p21 and sfn. Diminished p53 stability (> 90%; P < 0.01) was also evident with a concurrent increase in ubiquitinated p53. Human colorectal tumors with wild-type TP53 and high PBF expression also had low p53 protein levels (P < 0.05), further emphasizing a putative interaction between these genes in vivo. Overall, these results demonstrate an emerging role for PBF in colorectal tumorigenesis through regulating p53 activity, with implications for PBF as a prognostic indicator for invasive tumors.

  12. Overcoming resistance to fulvestrant (ICI182,780) by downregulating the c-ABL proto-oncogene in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huajun; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Yu, Ling; Wang, Shao-Chun

    2011-05-01

    Inhibiting estrogen receptor (ER) function with specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) can achieve a primary response in cancer patients; however, intrinsic or subsequently acquired resistance to the therapy remains a major obstacle in treatment. The pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant has been shown to be a promising antagonist of ERα in treating advanced breast cancer. However, our knowledge of the mechanisms governing cellular responsiveness to this agent is limited. Here we show that down-regulation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-ABL enhanced sensitization to fulvestrant in breast cancer cells. Blocking c-ABL kinase activity with the inhibitor imatinib further increased ERα downregulation induced by fulvestrant, decreased the number of proliferating cells entering the cell cycle, and increased cellular sensitivity to fulvestrant treatment. Conversely, introducing kinase-activated c-ABL can rescue fulvestrant-induced ERα downregulation. Consistent with the effects of imatinib, the silencing of endogenous c-ABL increased the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to fulvestrant treatment. These results demonstrate a role for c-ABL in mediating resistance to the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant.

  13. Characterization of Putative Proto-Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes that are Transcriptionally Deregulated in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    for Alzheimer disease . Both alterations resulted in amino acid substitutions. Using a well-published assay for presenilins that involved C. elegans...functionally mutated in Alzheimer disease . Several studies suggest that presenilins may also have a role in cancer- related pathways. Work in C...patients’ normal tissue DNA, and lead to amino acid substitutions at codons distinct from the Alzheimer disease - associated mutations. In an in vivo assay

  14. The vav proto-oncogene is required early in embryogenesis but not for hematopoietic development in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Zmuidzinas, A; Fischer, K D; Lira, S A; Forrester, L; Bryant, S; Bernstein, A; Barbacid, M

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the vav protooncogene plays an important role in hematopoiesis. To study this further, we have ablated the vav protooncogene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Homozygous vav (-/-) ES clones differentiate normally in culture and generate cells of erythroid, myeloid and mast cell lineages. Mice heterozygous for the targeted vav allele do not display any obvious abnormalities. However, homozygous embryos die very early during development. Crosses of vav (+/-) heterozygous mice yield apparently normal vav (-/-) E3.5 embryos but not post-implantation embryos (> or = E7.5). Furthermore, homozygous vav (-/-) blastocysts do not hatch in vitro. These results indicate that vav is essential for an early developmental step(s) that precedes the onset of hematopoiesis. Consistent with the phenotypic analysis of vav (-/-) embryos, we have identified Vav immunoreactivity in the extra-embryonic trophoblastic cell layer but not in the inner embryonic cell mass of E3.5 preimplantation embryos or in the egg cylinder of E6.5 and E7.5 post-implantation embryos. These results suggest that the vav gene is essential for normal trophoblast development and for implantation of the developing embryo. Images PMID:7828581

  15. Convergence and divergence of tumor-suppressor and proto-oncogenes in chimpanzee from human chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.S.; Ramesh, K.H.

    1994-09-01

    Due to the emergence of molecular technology, the phylogenetic evolution of the human genome via apes has become a saltatory even. In the present investigation, cosmid probes for P53, Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMTIA], HER-2/NEU and myeloperoxidase [MPO] were used. Probes mapping to these genetic loci are well-defined on human chromosome 17 [HSA 17]. We localized these genes on chimpanzee [Pan troglodyte] chromosomes by FISH technique employing two different cell lines. Our results indicate that chimpanzee chromosome 19 [PTR 19] differs from HSA 17 by a pericentric inversion. The P53 gene assigned to HSA 17p13.1 is localized on PTR 19p15 and the MPO sequence of HSA 17q21.3-23 hybridized to PTR 19q23. Perplexing enough, HER-2/NEU assigned to HSA 17q11.2 localized to PTR 19p12. Obviously, there is convergence of P53 and MPO regions and distinctive divergence of HER-2/NEU and CMT1A regions of human and chimpanzee. This investigation has demonstrated the pronounced genetic shuffling which occurred during the origin of HSA 17. Molecular markers should serve as evolutionary punctuations in defining the precise sequence of genetic events that led to the evolution of other chromosomes whose genomic synteny, although similar, have surprisingly evolved through different mechanisms.

  16. Tissue Specific Activation and Inactivation of the Neu Proto-Oncogene in Transgenic Mice Using Cre Recombinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    mammary epithelium escapes from the normal confines of the stroma in these mice. Additional experiments have revealed double minute chromosomes...has revealed that the tumors contain double minute chromosomes, that the epithelium of the mammary gland can escape the normal confines of the fat...characterize ErbB2 mediated tumorigenesis in this model we have collaborated to employ FISH, SKY and CGH analysis and have identified double minute

  17. Association between proto-oncogene mutations and clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival in colorectal cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Bonyadi, Morteza; Sepehri, Bita; Boostani, Kamal; Azadbakht, Saleh; Fotouhi, Nikou; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-most common cancer in Iran. The increasing incidence of CRC in the past three decades has made it a major public health burden in the country. This study aimed to determine any relationship of specific mutations in CRCs with clinicopathologic aspects and outcome of patients. Materials and methods This study was conducted on 100 CRC patients by the case-only method. Polymerase chain-reaction products were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and sequence results were compared with the significant KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in the My Cancer Genome database. Logistic regression models were used to detect associations of clinicopathologic characteristics with each of the mutations. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression models were constructed to estimate overall survival in patients. Results A total of 26 subjects (26%) had heterozygote-mutant KRAS, and mutations were not detected in the amplified exon of BRAF in both tumor and normal tissues of the 100 CRCs. Rectal tumors had 1.53-fold higher likelihood of KRAS mutations than colon tumors, and men had 1.37-fold higher odds than women. The presence of metastasis increased the likelihood of KRAS mutations 2.36-fold over those with nonmetastatic CRCs. Compared to patients with KRAS wild-type cancers, those with KRAS mutations had significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.44–9.68; log-rank P=0.003). Conclusion Better understanding of the causality of CRC can be established by combining epidemiology and research on molecular mechanisms of the disease. PMID:27994469

  18. Regulation and Mechanism of Action of the c-Myc Proto-Oncogene in Human Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    ubiquitously expressed nuclear phosphoprotein (1-3). Despite clear evidence that c-Myc is important in the control of cellular proliferation, differentiation... physically associate in vitro and in the yeast two-hybrid system with transcription protein YY1 (19). YY1 is a ubiquitiously expressed zinc finger...protein B23 (36), p 3 0 0 (37) and transcription factor TFE3 (A. Shrivastava and K. Calame, unpublished); YY1 has also been identified as a nuclear

  19. Targeting of RET oncogene by naphthalene diimide-mediated gene promoter G-quadruplex stabilization exerts anti-tumor activity in oncogene-addicted human medullary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tortoreto, Monica; Doria, Filippo; Beretta, Giovanni L.; Zuco, Valentina; Freccero, Mauro; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia; Richter, Sara N.; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Folini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) relies on the aberrant activation of RET proto-oncogene. Though targeted approaches (i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors) are available, the absence of complete responses and the onset of resistance mechanisms indicate the need for novel therapeutic interventions. Due to their role in regulation of gene expression, G-quadruplexes (G4) represent attractive targets amenable to be recognized or stabilized by small molecules. Here, we report that exposure of MTC cells to a tri-substituted naphthalene diimide (NDI) resulted in a significant antiproliferative activity paralleled by inhibition of RET expression. Biophysical analysis and gene reporter assays showed that impairment of RET expression was consequent to the NDI-mediated stabilization of the G4 forming within the gene promoter. We also showed for the first time that systemic administration of the NDI in mice xenotransplanted with MTC cells resulted in a remarkable inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Overall, our findings indicate that NDI-dependent RET G4 stabilization represents a suitable approach to control RET transcription and delineate the rationale for the development of G4 stabilizing-based treatments for MTC as well as for other tumors in which RET may have functional and therapeutic implications. PMID:27351133

  20. Protein hnRNP A1 and its derivative Up1 unfold quadruplex DNA in the human KRAS promoter: implications for transcription

    PubMed Central

    Paramasivam, Manikandan; Membrino, Alexandro; Cogoi, Susanna; Fukuda, Hirokazu; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2009-01-01

    The promoter of the human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a structurally polymorphic nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) whose purine strand forms a parallel G-quadruplex structure (called 32R). In a previous work we reported that quadruplex 32R is recognized by three nuclear proteins: PARP-1, Ku70 and hnRNP A1. In this study we describe the interaction of recombinant hnRNP A1 (A1) and its derivative Up1 with the KRAS G-quadruplex. Mobility-shift experiments show that A1/Up1 binds specifically, and also with a high affinity, to quadruplex 32R, while CD demonstrates that the proteins strongly reduce the intensity of the 260 nm-ellipticity—the hallmark for parallel G4-DNA—and unfold the G-quadruplex. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer melting experiments reveal that A1/Up1 completely abrogates the cooperative quadruplex-to-ssDNA transition that characterizes the KRAS quadruplex and facilitates the association between quadruplex 32R and its complementary polypyrimidine strand. When quadruplex 32R is stabilized by TMPyP4, A1/Up1 brings about only a partial destabilization of the G4-DNA structure. The possible role played by hnRNP A1 in the mechanism of KRAS transcription is discussed. PMID:19282454

  1. A new transgenic mouse line for tetracycline inducible transgene expression in mature melanocytes and the melanocyte stem cells using the Dopachrome tautomerase promoter.

    PubMed

    Woods, Susan L; Bishop, J Michael

    2011-04-01

    We have generated a novel transgenic mouse to direct inducible and reversible transgene expression in the melanocytic compartment. The Dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) control sequences we used are active early in the development of melanocytes and so this system was designed to enable the manipulation of transgene expression during development in utero and in the melanocyte stem cells as well as mature melanocytes. We observed inducible lacZ and GFP reporter transgene activity specifically in melanocytes and melanocyte stem cells in mouse skin. This mouse model will be a useful tool for the pigment cell community to investigate the contribution of candidate genes to normal melanocyte and/or melanoma development in vivo. Deregulated expression of the proto-oncogene MYC has been observed in melanoma, however whether MYC is involved in tumorigenesis in pigment cells has yet to be directly investigated in vivo. We have used our system to over-express MYC in the melanocytic compartment and show for the first time that increased MYC expression can indeed promote melanocytic tumor formation.

  2. [Overexpression of miR-125b promotes apoptosis of macrophages].

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangyuan; Zhan, Xue; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Li, Yasha

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of miR-125b and target gene Raf1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase (RAF1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pediatric patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and observe the regulation of miR-125b on macrophage apoptosis and activity. Methods PBMCs of patients with PTB and healthy children were collected and separated. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect mRNA expression level of miR-125b and RAF1, and Western blotting was used to detect the protein level of RAF1. THP-1 macrophages were transfected into miR-125b mimic, negative control mimic (NC-mimic), miR-125b inhibitor and negative control inhibitor (NC-inhibitor), which were cultured for 48 hours. Western blotting was performed to observe the expression of RAF1 in THP-1 macrophages, annexin V-FITC/PI double staining combined with flow cytometry was used to test cell apoptosis, and CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Results The expression of miR-125b in PBMCs in pediatric patients with PTB was downregulated, and mRNA and protein levels of RAF1 were upregulated. When miR-125b was over-expressed in THP-1 macrophages, the expression of RAF1 was reduced to promote the apoptosis of macrophages and decrease cell activity; when the expression of miR-125b was inhibited in THP-1 macrophages, the expression of RAF1 was elevatedand the apoptosis of macrophages was inhibited, the cell activity was promoted. Conclusion In PBMCs of children with PTB, miR-125b level is low. Upregulation of miR-125b in THP-1 macrophages, the apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages is promoted and cell activity is inhibited.

  3. Interplay between TAp73 Protein and Selected Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) Family Members Promotes AP-1 Target Gene Activation and Cellular Growth.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Deepa; Bunjobpol, Wilawan; Sabapathy, Kanaga

    2015-07-24

    Unlike p53, which is mutated at a high rate in human cancers, its homologue p73 is not mutated but is often overexpressed, suggesting a possible context-dependent role in growth promotion. Previously, we have shown that co-expression of TAp73 with the proto-oncogene c-Jun can augment cellular growth and potentiate transactivation of activator protein (AP)-1 target genes such as cyclin D1. Here, we provide further mechanistic insights into the cooperative activity between these two transcription factors. Our data show that TAp73-mediated AP-1 target gene transactivation relies on c-Jun dimerization and requires the canonical AP-1 sites on target gene promoters. Interestingly, only selected members of the Fos family of proteins such as c-Fos and Fra1 were found to cooperate with TAp73 in a c-Jun-dependent manner to transactivate AP-1 target promoters. Inducible expression of TAp73 led to the recruitment of these Fos family members to the AP-1 target promoters on which TAp73 was found to be bound near the AP-1 site. Consistent with the binding of TAp73 and AP-1 members on the target promoters in a c-Jun-dependent manner, TAp73 was observed to physically interact with c-Jun specifically at the chromatin via its carboxyl-terminal region. Furthermore, co-expression of c-Fos or Fra1 was able to cooperate with TAp73 in potentiating cellular growth, similarly to c-Jun. These data together suggest that TAp73 plays a vital role in activation of AP-1 target genes via direct binding to c-Jun at the target promoters, leading to enhanced loading of other AP-1 family members, thereby leading to cellular growth.

  4. The human Pim-1 gene is selectively transcribed in different hemato-lymphoid cell lines in spite of a G + C-rich housekeeping promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, T C; Loeb, J; Ayres, M; Sellers, W

    1990-01-01

    The expression of the Pim-1 proto-oncogene was studied by using the K562, Daudi, and Jurkat cell lines. In K562, Pim-1 mRNA levels were more than 20-fold higher than in Daudi and 50-fold higher than in Jurkat. Nuclear run-on assay data correlated directly with the steady-state mRNA levels, suggesting that the rate of transcription was responsible for the selective expression of this gene. Furthermore, the half-life of Pim-1 mRNA was shown to be 47 min in K562, 71 min in Daudi, and 35 min in Jurkat. This indicated that selective Pim-1 mRNA expression did not depend on posttranscriptional regulation. Therefore, 1.7 kilobases of the Pim-1 promoter was sequenced and studied in detail. The sequence showed that the region from nucleotide -1 to -873 was G + C rich (71%). Study of promoter deletions defined two major functional regions, a proximal element (nucleotide -104 to -1) and a distal element (nucleotide -427 to -336). DNase I protection assays identified binding sites for the Sp1 and AP2 proteins in these elements. A possible new transcription factor binds at position -348 in the distal element. In our study of the 1.7-kilobase Pim-1 promoter, we found no differences between K562 and Jurkat that could explain large differences in transcription. Therefore, the Pim-1 promoter appears to function constitutively, and we conclude that distant elements must regulate the tissue-selective expression of this gene. Although the Pim-1 gene has a G + C-rich housekeeping promoter, expression is carefully regulated at the level of transcription. Images PMID:2181282

  5. Intracellular Theileria annulata Promote Invasive Cell Motility through Kinase Regulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Min; Baumgartner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular, protozoan Theileria species parasites are the only eukaryotes known to transform another eukaryotic cell. One consequence of this parasite-dependent transformation is the acquisition of motile and invasive properties of parasitized cells in vitro and their metastatic dissemination in the animal, which causes East Coast Fever (T. parva) or Tropical Theileriosis (T. annulata). These motile and invasive properties of infected host cells are enabled by parasite-dependent, poorly understood F-actin dynamics that control host cell membrane protrusions. Herein, we dissected functional and structural alterations that cause acquired motility and invasiveness of T. annulata-infected cells, to understand the molecular basis driving cell dissemination in Tropical Theileriosis. We found that chronic induction of TNFα by the parasite contributes to motility and invasiveness of parasitized host cells. We show that TNFα does so by specifically targeting expression and function of the host proto-oncogenic ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. Blocking either TNFα secretion or MAP4K4 expression dampens the formation of polar, F-actin-rich invasion structures and impairs cell motility in 3D. We identified the F-actin binding ERM family proteins as MAP4K4 downstream effectors in this process because TNFα-induced ERM activation and cell invasiveness are sensitive to MAP4K4 depletion. MAP4K4 expression in infected cells is induced by TNFα-JNK signalling and maintained by the inhibition of translational repression, whereby both effects are parasite dependent. Thus, parasite-induced TNFα promotes invasive motility of infected cells through the activation of MAP4K4, an evolutionary conserved kinase that controls cytoskeleton dynamics and cell motility. Hence, MAP4K4 couples inflammatory signaling to morphodynamic processes and cell motility, a process exploited by the intracellular Theileria parasite to increase its host cell's dissemination capabilities. PMID:24626571

  6. DDR2-CYR61-MMP1 Signaling Pathway Promotes Bone Erosion in Rheumatoid Arthritis Through Regulating Migration and Invasion of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tong-Lie; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jin-Tao; Shu, Zhen; Zhang, Kuo; Zhao, Jin-Kang; Zhang, Cun; Hao, Qiang; Li, Wei-Na; Zhang, Wang-Qian; Liu, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Xiao-Chang; Zhang, Ying-Qi

    2017-02-01

    Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by collagen in the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) plays a critical role in joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our previous study indicated that discoidin receptor 2 (DDR2) mediated collagen upregulation of MMPs. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains unclear. We report here that CYR61, a secreted, extracellular matrix-associated signaling protein which is capable of regulating a broad range of cellular activities, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, is significantly upregulated in collagen II-stimulated RA FLS. Further studies found that collagen II-activated phosphorylated-DDR2 induces CYR61 through activation of transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1). The elevated CYR61, in turn, accelerates MMP1 production via ETS1 (ETS proto-oncogene 1). In addition, CYR61 significantly promotes FLS invasion and migration. Blockade of CYR61 by an adenovirus expressing CYR61 shRNA (Ad-shCYR61) in vivo remarkably ameliorated the severity of arthritis, reduced inflammatory cytokine secretion, and attenuated bone erosion as detected by micro-computed tomography (μCT), in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Taken together, we uncovered the Collagen II-DDR2-AP-1-CYR61-ETS1-MMP1 loop in RA FLS. In which, CYR61 acts as a hinge to promote cartilage damage through regulating FLS invasion, migration, and MMP1 production and the inflammatory cascade in RA. Thus, CYR61 may be a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target for RA treatment. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FUBP1) is a potential c-Myc regulator in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its expression promotes ESCC progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhu, Jun-Ya; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Bao, Bo-Jun; Guan, Cheng-Qi; Yang, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Yan-Hua; Huang, Yue-Jiao; Ni, Run-Zhou; Ji, Li-Li

    2016-03-01

    The human far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein 1 (FUBP1) belongs to an ancient family which is required for proper regulation of the c-Myc proto-oncogene. Although c-Myc plays an important role in development of various carcinomas, the relevance of FUBP1 and their contribution to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between FUBP1 and c-Myc as well as their contribution to ESCC development. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate FUBP1 expression. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis was performed to explore the correlation between FUBP1 and c-Myc in ESCC. In addition, the role of FUBP1 in ESCC proliferation was studied in ESCC cells through knocking FUBP1 down. The regulation of FUBP1 on proliferation was confirmed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometric assays, and clone formation assays. The expressions of FUBP1 and c-Myc were both upregulated in ESCC tissues. In addition to correlation between expression of FUBP1 and tumor grade, we also confirmed the correlation of FUBP1, c-Myc, and Ki-67 expression by twos. Moreover, upregulation of FUBP1 and c-Myc in ESCC was associated with poor survival. FUBP1 was confirmed to activate c-Myc in ESCC tissues and cells. FUBP1 was demonstrated to promote proliferation of ESCC cells. Moreover, downregulation of both FUBP1 and c-Myc was confirmed to inhibit proliferation of ESCC cells. Our results indicated that FUBP1 may potentially stimulate c-Myc expression in ESCC and its expression may promote ESCC progression.

  8. Long interspersed nucleotide acid element-1 ORF-1 protein promotes proliferation and invasion of human colorectal cancer LoVo cells through enhancing ETS-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Li, M Y; Zhu, M; Feng, F; Cai, F Y; Fan, K C; Jiang, H; Wang, Z Q; Linghu, E Q

    2014-04-14

    The human proto-oncogene long interspersed nucleotide acid element-1 (LINE-1) open reading frame-1 protein (ORF-1p) is involved in the progress of several cancers. The transcription factor ETS-1 can mediate the transcription of some downstream genes that play specific roles in the regulation of cancerous cell invasion and metastasis. In this study, the effects of LINE-1 ORF-1p on ETS-1 activity and on the proliferation and invasion of human colorectal cancer LoVo cells were investigated. Results showed that the overexpression of LINE-1 ORF-1p enhanced the transcription of ETS-1 downstream genes and increased their protein levels, and downregulation of the LINE-1 ORF-1p level by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the transcriptional activation of ETS-1. In addition, overexpression of LINE-1 ORF-1p promoted LoVo cell proliferation and anchor-independent growth, and a knockdown of the LINE-1 protein level by siRNA reduced the proliferation and anchor-independent growth ability of LoVo cells. In vivo data revealed that LINE-1 ORF-1p overexpression increased LoVo tumor growth in nude mice, whereas the siRNA knockdown of endogenous LINE-1 ORF-1p expression decreased LoVo cell growth in nude mice. Therefore, LINE- 1 ORF-1p could promote LoVo cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that it might be a useful molecular target for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  9. Characterization and localization of cis-diamminedichloro-platinum(II) adducts on a purified oligonucleotide containing the codons 12 and 13 of H-ras proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Pillaire, M J; Villani, G; Hoffmann, J S; Mazard, A M; Defais, M

    1992-01-01

    The use of substrates containing well defined adducts at precise sites, is required to perform a careful analysis of the toxic and mutagenic potential of a lesion. As a first step in this direction the octamer 5'-d(CCGGCGGT), containing the sequence of the codons 12 d(GGC) and 13 d(GGT) of the human H-ras gene, was reacted with the antitumoral drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). The platinated products have been purified by HPLC. A first set of experiments, including enzymatic digestions with nuclease P1 followed by alkaline phosphatase and acid-catalysed hydrolysis, allowed us to determine which bases were engaged in the cis-DDP lesions. Our results indicate that only guanine residues were chelated with cisplatin to yield bifunctional adducts. Furthermore, by performing enzymatic digestions with phosphodiesterases, we have located the adducts with respect to the 5' end of the octamer. Among the purified and characterized platinated oligonucleotides, three present a particular interest, since we have shown here that the cis-d(GpG) adduct is precisely situated either at the d(GGC) or at the d(GGT) or at both sites of their sequence. Images PMID:1480469

  10. Dose dependency of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ binding on human high molecular weight DNA in the activation of proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.S.; Taub, J.V.; Modali, R.; Vieira, W.; Yasei, P.; Yang, G.C.

    1985-10-01

    The binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/, AFB/sub 1/, a potent hepatocarcinogen, to various high molecular weight (HMW) DNAs from human normal liver and two liver cancer cell lines, Alexander primary liver carcinoma (PLC) and Mahlavu hepatocellular carcinoma (hHC) and from NIH/3T3 cell have been investigated. The kinetics of AFB/sub 1/ binding to these DNAs showed similar initial rates but the extents of binding to the PLC and hHC DNAs seemed to be slightly higher. Preferential AFB/sub 1/ bindings were identified in both PLC and hHC DNAs compared to normal liver DNA. A critical AFB/sub 1/ binding dosage, ranging 100 to 460 fmole/..mu..g DNA, was found to activate the carcinogenic effect of the Mahlavu hHC HMW DNA, but not normal liver HMW DNA, rendering it capable of inducting focal transformation in NIH/3T3 cell. Excessive AFB/sub 1/ binding on the hHC and PLC HMW DNAs resulted in an over-kill of both cell transformation capability and templating activity of the DNA.

  11. Loss of the SKI proto-oncogene in individuals affected with 1p36 deletion syndrome is predicted by strain-dependent defects in Ski-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Clemencia; Heilstedt, Heidi A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Schwartz, Stuart; Berk, Michael; Murray, Jeffrey C; Stavnezer, Ed

    2002-01-01

    Experiments involving overexpression of Ski have suggested that this gene is involved in neural tube development and muscle differentiation. In agreement with these findings, Ski-/- mice display a cranial neural tube defect that results in exencephaly and a marked reduction in skeletal muscle mass. Here we show that the penetrance and expressivity of the phenotype changes when the null mutation is backcrossed into the C57BL6/J background, with the principal change involving a switch from a neural tube defect to midline facial clefting. Other defects, including depressed nasal bridge, eye abnormalities, skeletal muscle defects and digit abnormalities, show increased penetrance in the C57BL6/J background. These phenotypes are interesting because they resemble some of the features observed in individuals diagnosed with 1p36 deletion syndrome, a disorder caused by monosomy of the short arm of human chromosome 1p (refs. 6-9). These similarities prompted us to re-examine the chromosomal location of human SKI and to determine whether SKI is included in the deletions of 1p36. We found that human SKI is located at distal 1p36.3 and is deleted in all of the individuals tested so far who have this syndrome. Thus, SKI may contribute to some of the phenotypes common in 1p36 deletion syndrome, and particularly to facial clefting.

  12. Effect of teicoplanin on the expression of c-myc and c-fos proto-oncogenes in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ashouri, Saeideh; Khujin, Maryam Hosseindokht; Kazemi, Mohammad; Kheirollahi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teicoplanin is a member of vancomycin-ristocetin family of glycopeptide antibiotics. It mediated wound healing by increasing neovascularization possibly through activation of MAP kinase signaling pathway. The aim of this study is an evaluation of c-myc and c-fos genes expression after treatment of cells by teicoplanin and determines whether this glycopeptide antibiotic exerts its proliferation effects by influencing the expression of these genes. Hence, this study was designed to elucidate one possible mechanism underlying teicoplanin effects on cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was cultured, and three different concentrations of teicoplanin were added to the plates. We measured the cell proliferation rate by MTT assay. After cell harvesting, total RNA was extracted to synthesize single-stranded cDNA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed, and the data were analyzed. Results: It was observed that the level of c-fos and c-myc genes’ expressions was decreased at all three different concentrations of teicoplanin. Conclusion: it could be concluded that although teicoplanin is considered as an enhancing cell growth and proliferation, but probably its effect is not through MAP kinase signaling pathway or perhaps even has inhibitory effect on the expression of some genes such as c-myc and c-fos in this pathway. Hence, the mechanism of action of teicoplanin for increasing cell propagation, through cell signaling pathways or chromosomal abnormalities, remains unclear, and further studies should be conducted. PMID:28028512

  13. Mei-P26 Mediates Tissue-Specific Responses to the Brat Tumor Suppressor and the dMyc Proto-Oncogene in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana; Boulan, Laura; Perez, Lidia; Milán, Marco

    2014-01-01

    TRIM-NHL proteins are a family of translational regulators that control cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation during development. Drosophila Brat and Mei-P26 TRIM-NHL proteins serve as tumor suppressors in stem cell lineages and have been proposed to exert this action, in part, via the repression of the protooncogene dMyc. Here we analyze the role of Brat, Mei-P26, and dMyc in regulating growth in Drosophila imaginal discs. As in stem cell lineages, Brat and Mei-P26 repress dMyc in epithelial cells by acting at the post-transcriptional and protein level, respectively. Analysis of cell and organ size unravel that Mei-P26 mediates tissue-specific responses to Brat and dMyc activities. Loss-of-function of brat and overexpression of dMyc induce overgrowth in stem cell lineages and eventually can participate in tumor formation. In contrast, an increase in Mei-P26 levels inhibits growth of epithelial cells in these two conditions. Upon depletion of Brat, Mei-P26 up-regulation prevents an increase in dMyc protein levels and leads to tissue undergrowth. This mechanism appears to be tissue-specific since Mei-P26 is not upregulated in brain tumors resulting from brat loss-of-function. Driving Mei-P26 expression in these tumors —mimicking the situation in epithelial cells— is sufficient to prevent dMyc accumulation, thus rescuing the overgrowth. Finally, we show that Mei-P26 upregulation mediates dMyc-induced apoptosis and limits dMyc growth potential in epithelial cells. These findings shed light on the tumor suppressor roles of TRIM-NHL proteins and underscore a new mechanism that maintains tissue homeostasis upon dMyc deregulation. PMID:24990993

  14. The cnidarian origin of the proto-oncogenes NF-κB/STAT and WNT-like oncogenic pathway drives the ctenophores (Review).

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    The cell survival pathways of the diploblastic early multicellular eukaryotic hosts contain and operate the molecular machinery resembling those of malignantly transformed individual cells of highly advanced multicellular hosts (including Homo). In the present review, the STAT/NF-κB pathway of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is compared with that of human tumors (malignant lymphomas, including Reed-Sternberg cells) pointing out similarities, including possible viral initiation in both cases. In the ctenophore genome and proteome, β-catenin gains intranuclear advantages due to a physiologically weak destructive complex in the cytoplasm, and lack of natural inhibitors (the dickkopfs). Thus, a scenario similar to what tumor cells initiate and achieve is presented through several constitutive loss-of-function type mutations in the destructive complex and in the elimination of inhibitors. Vice versa, malignantly transformed individual cells of advanced multicellular hosts assume pheno-genotypic resemblance to cells of unicellular or early multicellular hosts, and presumably to their ancient predecessors, by returning to the semblance of immortality and to the resumption of the state of high degree of resistance to physicochemical insults. Human leukemogenic and oncogenic pathways are presented for comparisons. The supreme bioengineers RNA/DNA complex encoded both the malignantly transformed immortal cell and the human cerebral cortex. The former generates molecules for the immortality of cellular life in the Universe. The latter invents the inhibitors of the process in order to gain control over it.

  15. Developmental regulation of early mouse embryogenesis. A. Onset of insulin and related growth factor binding. B. Expression of selected proto-oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggest a role for insulin and related growth factors in fetal growth. It was therefore of interest to determine the onset of insulin binding to cells of early embryos. These studies are the first to demonstrate stage-specific insulin binding during mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. Insulin binding was detected at the morula, blastocyst, and blastocyst outgrowth stages using indirect immunofluorescence and light microscopic autoradiographic techniques. No evidence of insulin binding was seen on unfertilized oocytes, two-, four-, or eight-cell embryos. Results of competitive inhibition studies using unlabeled insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) suggest binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to type I IGF receptors as well. Further studies are needed to confirm the presence of an IGF receptor in preimplantation embryos.

  16. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA–DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix–loop–helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt–β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK–ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous “cancer cells”. PMID:25883792

  17. Non-covalent interactions of the carcinogen (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras proto-oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jorge H.; Deligkaris, Christos

    2013-03-01

    Investigating the complementary, but different, effects of physical (non-covalent) and chemical (covalent) mutagen-DNA and carcinogen-DNA interactions is important for understanding possible mechanisms of development and prevention of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. A highly mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[ α]pyrene, namely (+)-anti-BPDE, is known to undergo both physical and chemical complexation with DNA. The major covalent adduct, a promutagenic, is known to be an external (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N2-dGuanosine configuration whose origins are not fully understood. Thus, it is desirable to study the mechanisms of external non-covalent BPDE-DNA binding and their possible relationships to external covalent trans adduct formation. We present a detailed codon-by-codon computational study of the non-covalent interactions of (+)-anti-BPDE with DNA which explains and correctly predicts preferential (+)-anti-BPDE binding at minor groove guanosines. Due to its relevance to carcinogenesis, the interaction of (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras gene has been studied in detail. Present address: Department of Physics, Drury University

  18. The cnidarian origin of the proto-oncogenes NF-κB/STAT and WNT-like oncogenic pathway drives the ctenophores (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SINKOVICS, JOSEPH G.

    2015-01-01

    The cell survival pathways of the diploblastic early multicellular eukaryotic hosts contain and operate the molecular machinery resembling those of malignantly transformed individual cells of highly advanced multicellular hosts (including Homo). In the present review, the STAT/NF-κB pathway of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is compared with that of human tumors (malignant lymphomas, including Reed-Sternberg cells) pointing out similarities, including possible viral initiation in both cases. In the ctenophore genome and proteome, β-catenin gains intranuclear advantages due to a physiologically weak destructive complex in the cytoplasm, and lack of natural inhibitors (the Dickkopfs). Thus, a scenario similar to what tumor cells initiate and achieve is presented through several constitutive loss-of-function type mutations in the destructive complex and in the elimination of inhibitors. Vice versa, malignantly transformed individual cells of advanced multicellular hosts assume pheno-genotypic resemblance to cells of unicellular or early multicellular hosts, and presumably to their ancient predecessors, by returning to the semblance of immortality and to the resumption of the state of high degree of resistance to physicochemical insults. Human leukemogenic and oncogenic pathways are presented for comparisons. The supreme bioengineers RNA/DNA complex encoded both the malignantly transformed immortal cell and the human cerebral cortex. The former generates molecules for the immortality of cellular life in the Universe. The latter invents the inhibitors of the process in order to gain control over it. PMID:26239915

  19. Cytotoxic activity of Justicia spicigera is inhibited by bcl-2 proto-oncogene and induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R; Cantú-Garza, F A; Mendoza-Mata, M T; Chavez-González, M A; Ramos-Mandujano, G; Zambrano-Ramírez, I R

    2001-12-01

    Identification of organic compounds from plants is of clinical significance because of the effect that they might have in patients with haematopoietic disorders. We studied the effect of the plant extract Justicia spicigera (Acanthaceae) in different haematopoietic cells: human leukaemic cell lines, umbilical cord blood cells, and mouse bone marrow cells. By examining colony formation and performing the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay it was shown that the plant extract of Justicia spicigera contains cytotoxic factors for leukaemic cells and has no proliferative activity on normal haematopoietic progenitor cells. Our results show that this plant extract induces apoptosis in the human leukaemia cell line TF-1, but not in the bcl-2 transfectant cell line TB-1. Similar results were obtained using a haemopoietic cell line 32D and 32DBcl2. The cultures of umbilical cord blood cells and mouse bone marrow that contain granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) do not proliferate or become terminally differentiated in the presence of the infusion of Justicia spicigera. GM-CSF that acts by abrogating programmed cell death is not sufficient to inhibit the apoptotic stimulus in TF-1 and 32D cells. Moreover mouse fibroblasts (3T3) and two cervical carcinoma cell lines CALO and INBL, undergo apoptosis in the presence of different concentrations of an infusion from the plant. Our data show that there is a strong correlation between the cytotoxic effect and cell proliferation. Together, these results indicate that the plant infusion of Justicia spicigera does not contain any haematopoietic activity, induces apoptosis inhibited by bcl-2 and is linked to cell proliferation.

  20. Proto-oncogene HER-2 in normal, dysplastic and tumorous feline mammary glands: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization study

    PubMed Central

    Ordás, Javier; Millán, Yolanda; Dios, Rafaela; Reymundo, Carlos; Martín de las Mulas, Juana

    2007-01-01

    Background Feline mammary carcinoma has been proposed as a natural model of highly aggressive, hormone-independent human breast cancer. To further explore the utility of the model by adding new similarities between the two diseases, we have analyzed the oncogene HER-2 status at both the protein and the gene levels. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 30 invasive carcinomas, 7 benign lesions and two normal mammary glands were analyzed. Tumour features with prognostic value were recorded. The expression of protein HER-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the number of gene copies by means of DNA chromogenic in situ hybridization. Results Immunohistochemical HER-2 protein overexpression was found in 40% of feline mammary carcinomas, a percentage higher to that observed in human breast carcinoma. As in women, feline tumours with HER-2 protein overexpression had pathological features of high malignancy. However, amplification of HER-2 was detected in 16% of carcinomas with protein overexpression, a percentage much lower than that observed in their human counterpart. Conclusion Feline mammary carcinoma would be a suitable natural model of that subset of human breast carcinomas with HER-2 protein overexpression without gene amplification. PMID:17880730

  1. Changes in the phenotype of human small cell lung cancer cell lines after transfection and expression of the c-myc proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B E; Battey, J; Linnoila, I; Becker, K L; Makuch, R W; Snider, R H; Carney, D N; Minna, J D

    1986-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer growing in cell culture possesses biologic properties that allow classification into two categories: classic and variant. Compared with classic small cell lung cancer cell lines, variant lines have altered large cell morphology, shorter doubling times, higher cloning efficiencies in soft agarose, and very low levels of L dopa decarboxylase production and bombesin-like immunoreactivity. C-myc is amplified and expressed in some small cell lung cancer cell lines and all c-myc amplified lines studied to date display the variant phenotype. To investigate if c-myc amplification and expression is responsible for the variant phenotype, a normal human c-myc gene was transfected into a cloned classic small cell lung cancer cell line not amplified for or expressing detectable c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA). Clones were isolated with one to six copies of c-myc stably integrated into DNA that expressed c-myc mRNA. In addition, one clone with an integrated neo gene but a deleted c-myc gene was isolated and in this case c-myc was not expressed. C-myc expression in transfected clones was associated with altered large cell morphology, a shorter doubling time, and increased cloning efficiency, but no difference in L dopa decarboxylase levels and bombesin-like immunoreactivity. We conclude increased c-myc expression observed here in transfected clones correlates with some of the phenotypic properties distinguishing c-myc amplified variants from unamplified classic small cell lung cancer lines. Images PMID:3016030

  2. MDM2 promoter SNP55 (rs2870820) affects risk of colon cancer but not breast-, lung-, or prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Helwa, Reham; Gansmo, Liv B.; Romundstad, Pål; Hveem, Kristian; Vatten, Lars; Ryan, Bríd M.; Harris, Curtis C.; Lønning, Per E.; Knappskog, Stian

    2016-01-01

    Two functional SNPs (SNP285G > C; rs117039649 and SNP309T > G; rs2279744) have previously been reported to modulate Sp1 transcription factor binding to the promoter of the proto-oncogene MDM2, and to influence cancer risk. Recently, a third SNP (SNP55C > T; rs2870820) was also reported to affect Sp1 binding and MDM2 transcription. In this large population based case-control study, we genotyped MDM2 SNP55 in 10,779 Caucasian individuals, previously genotyped for SNP309 and SNP285, including cases of colon (n = 1,524), lung (n = 1,323), breast (n = 1,709) and prostate cancer (n = 2,488) and 3,735 non-cancer controls, as well as 299 healthy African-Americans. Applying the dominant model, we found an elevated risk of colon cancer among individuals harbouring SNP55TT/CT genotypes compared to the SNP55CC genotype (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01–1.30). The risk was found to be highest for left-sided colon cancer (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00–1.45) and among females (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.01–1.74). Assessing combined genotypes, we found the highest risk of colon cancer among individuals harbouring the SNP55TT or CT together with the SNP309TG genotype (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00–1.46). Supporting the conclusions from the risk estimates, we found colon cancer cases carrying the SNP55TT/CT genotypes to be diagnosed at younger age as compared to SNP55CC (p = 0.053), in particular among patients carrying the SNP309TG/TT genotypes (p = 0.009). PMID:27624283

  3. The proto-oncoprotein FBI-1 interacts with MBD3 to recruit the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex and BCoR and to silence p21WAF/CDKN1A by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Yu, Mi-Young; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Kyunggon; Hur, Sujin Susanne; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-07-01

    The tumour-suppressor gene CDKN1A (encoding p21Waf/Cip1) is thought to be epigenetically repressed in cancer cells. FBI-1 (ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor repressing the alternative reading frame and p21WAF/CDKN1A genes of the p53 pathway. FBI-1 interacts directly with MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3) in the nucleus. We demonstrated that FBI-1 binds both non-methylated and methylated DNA and that MBD3 is recruited to the CDKN1A promoter through its interaction with FBI-1, where it enhances transcriptional repression by FBI-1. FBI-1 also interacts with the co-repressors nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT) and BCL-6 corepressor (BCoR) to repress transcription. MBD3 regulates a molecular interaction between the co-repressor and FBI-1. MBD3 decreases the interaction between FBI-1 and NCoR/SMRT but increases the interaction between FBI-1 and BCoR. Because MBD3 is a subunit of the Mi-2 autoantigen (Mi-2)/nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD)-HDAC complex, FBI-1 recruits the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex via MBD3. BCoR interacts with the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex, DNMTs and HP1. MBD3 and BCoR play a significant role in the recruitment of the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex- and the NuRD complex-associated proteins, DNMTs and HP. By recruiting DNMTs and HP1, Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex appears to play key roles in epigenetic repression of CDKN1A by DNA methylation.

  4. Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development by SRSF1 Upregulation and mTOR Activation.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Pushkar; Shilo, Asaf; Mogilevsky, Adi; Stein, Ilan; Pikarsky, Eli; Nevo, Yuval; Benyamini, Hadar; Elgavish, Sharona; Zong, Xinying; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Karni, Rotem

    2017-03-01

    Several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are abrogated in cancer but their precise contributions to oncogenesis are still emerging. Here we report that the lncRNA MALAT1 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and acts as a proto-oncogene through Wnt pathway activation and induction of the oncogenic splicing factor SRSF1. Induction of SRSF1 by MALAT1 modulates SRSF1 splicing targets, enhancing the production of antiapoptotic splicing isoforms and activating the mTOR pathway by modulating the alternative splicing of S6K1. Inhibition of SRSF1 expression or mTOR activity abolishes the oncogenic properties of MALAT1, suggesting that SRSF1 induction and mTOR activation are essential for MALAT1-induced transformation. Our results reveal a mechanism by which lncRNA MALAT1 acts as a proto-oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma, modulating oncogenic alternative splicing through SRSF1 upregulation. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1155-67. ©2016 AACR.

  5. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

  6. Single molecule conformational analysis of DNA G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Shirude, Pravin S.; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2008-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be employed to study conformational heterogeneity and real-time dynamics of biological macromolecules. Here we present single molecule studies on human genomic DNA G-quadruplex sequences that occur in the telomeres and in the promoter of a proto-oncogene. The findings are discussed with respect to the proposed biological function(s) of such motifs in living cells. PMID:18295608

  7. Colorectal cancer: Looking for answers in the microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Jobin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Summary At a simplistic level, colorectal cancer (CRC) arises from mutations in various proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Aside from genetically inherited factors, environmental, lifestyle and dietary habits have all been identified as risk agents promoting mutational events leading to the development of CRC. In this review, I present evidence that the intestinal endogenous bacterial community represents a risk factor for the development of CRC. PMID:23580283

  8. The bcl-2 candidate proto-oncogene product is a 24-kilodalton integral-membrane protein highly expressed in lymphoid cell lines and lymphomas carrying the t(14;18) translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Levy, Z; Nourse, J; Cleary, M L

    1989-01-01

    We have identified a 24-kilodalton protein that is the product of the human bcl-2 gene, implicated as an oncogene because of its presence at the site of t(14;18) translocation breakpoints. The Bcl-2 protein was detected by specific, highly sensitive rabbit antibodies and was shown to be present in a number of human lymphoid cell lines and tissues, as well as in mouse B cells transfected with a bcl-2 cDNA construct. Characterization of the Bcl-2 protein demonstrated that it has a lipophilic nature and is associated with membrane structures, probably by means of its hydrophobic carboxy-terminal membrane-spanning domain. In t(14;18)-carrying cell lines, the protein is predominantly localized to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum, with a minor fraction in the plasma membrane. These properties, together with the observations that Bcl-2 does not have a characteristic signal peptide and is not glycosylated, suggest that it is an integral-membrane protein that spans the bilayer at its C-terminal hydrophobic region but is exposed only at the cytoplasmic surface. The relative abundance of the Bcl-2 protein in various human lymphoid cell lines correlated with transcription of the bcl-2 gene. The protein was abundant in all t(14;18)-carrying cell lines and lymphomas and was also found at lower levels in pre-B-cell lines and nonmalignant lymphoid tissues that do not carry t(14;18) translocations. These results suggest that the Bcl-2 protein is functional in normal B lymphocytes and that a quantitative difference in its expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of lymphomas carrying the t(14;18) translocation. Images PMID:2651903

  9. The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but not MPF, in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Nebreda, A R; Hunt, T

    1993-01-01

    During studies of the activation and inactivation of the cyclin B-p34cdc2 protein kinase (MPF) in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs, we found that a bacterially expressed fusion protein between the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein and the Xenopus c-mos protein kinase (malE-mos) activated a 42 kDa MAP kinase. The activation of MAP kinase on addition of malE-mos was consistent, whereas the activation of MPF was variable and failed to occur in some oocyte extracts in which cyclin A or okadaic acid activated both MPF and MAP kinase. In cases when MPF activation was transient, MAP kinase activity declined after MPF activity was lost, and MAP kinase, but not MPF, could be maintained at a high level by the presence of malE-mos. When intact oocytes were treated with progesterone, however, the activation of MPF and MAP kinase occurred simultaneously, in contrast to the behaviour of extracts. These observations suggest that one role of c-mos may be to maintain high MAP kinase activity in meiosis. They also imply that the activation of MPF and MAP kinase in vivo are synchronous events that normally rely on an agent that has still to be identified. Images PMID:8387916

  10. Quantifying the role of aberrant somatic hypermutation in transformation of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Halldórsdóttir, Anna Margrét; Frühwirth, Margareta; Deutsch, Alexander; Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Neumeister, Peter; Richard Burack, W

    2008-07-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) aberrantly targets proto-oncogenes in various non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To test the association of SHM with transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL), we sequenced mutational hot spots in five proto-oncogenes (BCL6, PAX5, RHOH, MYC and PIM1) in 32 low-grade FL (lgFL) with follicular histology and 26 transformed FL (tFL) with diffuse large cell histology. No difference was detected in the fraction of specimens mutated (75% of lgFL and 77% of tFL) or in the mutation load (0.08 for lgFL vs. 0.06 mutations/100 bp/allele for tFL). Serial specimens were examined from 25 patients showing stable low-grade FL (slgFL; n=6) or a low-grade FL that later transformed into diffuse large cell lymphoma (tFL; n=19). slgFL and tFL patients accumulated similar numbers of mutations in the interval between biopsies. These data indicate that mutations attributable to aberrant SHM occur with similar frequency in low-grade and transformed FL; transformation is not associated with a higher rate of aberrant SHM. Moreover, the frequency of mutations attributable to aberrant SHM in tFL was significantly lower than that reported for de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma, suggesting differing oncogenic mechanisms in transformed follicular lymphoma and de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  11. Materials Data on Cs(BCl)6 (SG:148) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on Ag(BCl)6 (SG:205) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Health Promotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    Department of Defense DIRECTIVEAD-A269 638 , , AD-A29 638March 11, 1986 IIIIii!IN 111111111,11 Ii1111,111111[NUMBER 1010.10 SUBJECT: Health Promotion ...34 March 13, 1985 INC A. URPOSE SThis Directive establishes a health promotion policy within the Department of Defense to improve and maintain military...civilian employees. C. DEFINITIONS 1. Health Promotion . Any combination of health education and related organizational, social, economic or health care

  14. AMBRA1 links autophagy to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by promoting c-Myc dephosphorylation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Cianfanelli, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Lorente, Mar; Salazar, Maria; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Gherardini, Pier Federico; De Zio, Daniela; Nazio, Francesca; Antonioli, Manuela; D'Orazio, Melania; Skobo, Tatjana; Bordi, Matteo; Rohde, Mikkel; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Gretzmeier, Christine; Dengjel, Joern; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Velasco, Guillermo; Cecconi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of a main regulator of cell metabolism, the protein kinase mTOR, induces autophagy and inhibits cell proliferation. However, the molecular pathways involved in the cross-talk between these two mTOR-dependent cell processes are largely unknown. Here we show that the scaffold protein AMBRA1, a member of the autophagy signalling network and a downstream target of mTOR, regulates cell proliferation by facilitating the dephosphorylation and degradation of the proto-oncogene c-Myc. We found that AMBRA1 favours the interaction between c-Myc and its phosphatase PP2A and that, when mTOR is inhibited, it enhances PP2A activity on this specific target, thereby reducing the cell division rate. As expected, such a de-regulation of c-Myc correlates with increased tumorigenesis in AMBRA1-defective systems, thus supporting a role for AMBRA1 as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene.

  15. AMBRA1 links autophagy to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by promoting c-MYC dephosphorylation and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Cianfanelli, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Lorente, Mar; Salazar, Maria; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Gherardini, Pier Federico; De Zio, Daniela; Nazio, Francesca; Antonioli, Manuela; D’Orazio, Melania; Skobo, Tatjana; Bordi, Matteo; Rohde, Mikkel; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Gretzmeier, Christine; Dengjel, Joern; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Velasco, Guillermo; Cecconi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of a main regulator of cell metabolism, the protein kinase mTOR, induces autophagy and inhibits cell proliferation. However, the molecular pathways involved in the cross-talk between these two mTOR-dependent cell processes are largely unknown. Here we show that the scaffold protein AMBRA1, a member of the autophagy signalling network and a downstream target of mTOR, regulates cell proliferation by facilitating the dephosphorylation and degradation of the proto-oncogene C-MYC. We found that AMBRA1 favors the interaction between C-MYC and its phosphatase PP2A and that, when mTOR is inhibited, it enhances PP2A activity on this specific target, thereby reducing the cell division rate. As expected, such a de-regulation of C-MYC correlates with increased tumorigenesis in AMBRA1-defective systems, thus supporting a role for AMBRA1 as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene. PMID:25438055

  16. Phenotypic Tfh development promoted by CXCR5-controlled re-localization and IL-6 from radiation-resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Ma, Weiwei; Zhang, Tingxin; Wu, Longyan; Qi, Hai

    2015-11-01

    How follicular T-helper (Tfh) cells develop is incompletely understood. We find that, upon antigen exposure in vivo, both naïve and antigen-experienced T cells sequentially upregulate CXCR5 and Bcl6 within the first 24 h, relocate to the T-B border, and give rise to phenotypic Bcl6(+)CXCR5(+) Tfh cells before the first cell division. CXCR5 upregulation is more dependent on ICOS costimulation than that of Bcl6, and early Bcl6 induction requires T-cell expression of CXCR5 and, presumably, relocation toward the follicle. This early and rapid upregulation of CXCR5 and Bcl6 depends on IL-6 produced by radiation-resistant cells. These results suggest that a Bcl6(hi)CXCR5(hi) phenotype does not automatically define a Tfh lineage but might reflect a state of antigen exposure and non-commitment to terminal effector fates and that niches in the T-B border and/or the follicle are important for optimal Bcl6 induction and maintenance.

  17. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259

  18. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Karmali-Rawji, Shameela; Kassim-Lakha, Shaheen; Taylor, Karmel

    1992-01-01

    Perceived lack or loss of control, stress, a rapidly again population and rising costs of health care necessitate effective health promotion and disease prevention in the elderly. In a collaborative health promotion effort, the private sector, public sector, and community partners have joined to increase the South Asian elders' sense of control over the decisions and circumstances that affect their everyday lives. The project was designed to help elders come to terms with the fragmentation of their extended families, cultural alienation, decreased autonomy, need for information, and greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Imagesp622-a

  19. Dysregulated TCL1 promotes multiple classes of mature B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Katrina K; French, Samuel W; Turner, Devin E; Nguyen, Mai T N; Renard, Mathilde; Malone, Cindy S; Knoetig, Sonja; Qi, Chen-Feng; Su, Thomas T; Cheroutre, Hilde; Wall, Randolph; Rawlings, David J; Morse, Herbert C; Teitell, Michael A

    2002-10-29

    The TCL1 protooncogene is overexpressed in many mature B cell lymphomas, especially from AIDS patients. To determine whether aberrant expression promotes B cell transformation, we generated a murine model in which a TCL1 transgene was overexpressed at similar levels in both B and T cells. Strikingly, transgenic mice developed Burkitt-like lymphoma (BLL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with attendant Bcl-6 expression and mutated J(H) gene segments at a very high penetrance beginning at 4 months of age. In contrast, only one mouse developed a T cell malignancy at 15 months, consistent with a longer latency for transformation of T cells by TCL1. Activation of premalignant splenic B cells by means of B cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement resulted in significantly increased proliferation and augmented AKT-dependent signaling, including increased S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation. Transgenic spleen cells also survived longer than wild-type spleen cells in long-term culture. Together these data demonstrate that TCL1 is a powerful oncogene that, when overexpressed in both B and T cells, predominantly yields mature B cell lymphomas.

  20. Promoting Retention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, LaToya N.; Ficker, Lisa J.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Green, Carmen R.; Jackson, James S.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of a research volunteer registry to retain community-dwelling African American older adults, and to explore demographic and health factors associated with retention. Method: A logistic regression model was used to determine the influence of demographics, health factors, and registry logic model activities on retention in a sample of 1,730 older African American adults. Results: Almost 80% of participants active in the volunteer research registry between January 2012 and June 2015 were retained. Employment, being referred to research studies, a higher number of medical conditions, and more follow-up contacts were associated with an increased likelihood of retention. Older age, more months in the registry, and more mobility problems decreased the likelihood of retention. Discussion: These results suggest the Michigan Center for Urban African American Aging Research logic model promotes retention through involving older African American adults in research through study referrals and intensive follow-up. The loss of participants due to age- and mobility-related issues indicate the registry may be losing its most vulnerable participants. PMID:28138501

  1. CCL5 promotes proliferation of MCF-7 cells through mTOR-dependent mRNA translation

    SciTech Connect

    Murooka, Thomas T.; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2009-09-18

    The proliferative capacity of cancer cells is regulated by factors intrinsic to cancer cells and by secreted factors in the microenvironment. Here, we investigated the proto-oncogenic potential of the chemokine receptor, CCR5, in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. At physiological levels, CCL5, a ligand for CCR5, enhanced MCF-7.CCR5 proliferation. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited this CCL5-inducible proliferation. Because mTOR directly modulates mRNA translation, we investigated whether CCL5 activation of CCR5 leads to increased translation. CCL5 induced the formation of the eIF4F translation initiation complex through an mTOR-dependent process. Indeed, CCL5 initiated mRNA translation, shown by an increase in high-molecular-weight polysomes. Specifically, we show that CCL5 mediated a rapid up-regulation of protein expression for cyclin D1, c-Myc and Dad-1, without affecting their mRNA levels. Taken together, we describe a mechanism by which CCL5 influences translation of rapamycin-sensitive mRNAs, thereby providing CCR5-positive breast cancer cells with a proliferative advantage.

  2. Structural polymorphism within a regulatory element of the human KRAS promoter: formation of G4-DNA recognized by nuclear proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cogoi, Susanna; Paramasivam, Manikandan; Spolaore, Barbara; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2008-01-01

    The human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a critical nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) upstream of the major transcription initiation site. In this article, we demonstrate by primer-extension experiments, PAGE, chemical footprinting, CD, UV and FRET experiments that the G-rich strand of NHE (32R) folds into intra-molecular G-quadruplex structures. Fluorescence data show that 32R in 100 mM KCl melts with a biphasic profile, showing the formation of two distinct G-quadruplexes with Tm of ∼55°C (Q1) and ∼72°C (Q2). DMS-footprinting and CD suggest that Q1 can be a parallel and Q2 a mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex. When dsNHE (32R hybridized to its complementary) is incubated with a nuclear extract from Panc-1 cells, three DNA–protein complexes are observed by EMSA. The complex of slower mobility is competed by quadruplex 32R, but not by mutant oligonucleotides, which cannot form a quadruplex structure. Using paramagnetic beads coupled with 32R, we pulled down from the Panc-1 extract proteins with affinity for quadruplex 32R. One of these is the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, which was previously reported to unfold quadruplex DNA. Our study suggests a role of quadruplex DNA in KRAS transcription and provides the basis for the rationale design of molecular strategies to inhibit the expression of KRAS. PMID:18490377

  3. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  4. Skp2 targeting suppresses tumorigenesis by Arf-p53-independent cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Kuan; Chen, Zhenbang; Wang, Guocan; Nardella, Caterina; Lee, Szu-Wei; Chan, Chia-Hsin; Yang, Wei-Lei; Wang, Jing; Egia, Ainara; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Cellular senescence has been recently shown to play an important role in opposing tumour initiation and promotion. Senescence induced by oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressor genes is thought to critically dependent on the induction of the p19Arf-p53 pathway. The Skp2 E3-ubiquitin ligase can act as a proto-oncogene and its aberrant overexpression is frequently observed in human cancers. Here we show that although Skp2 inactivation on its own does not induce cellular senescence, aberrant proto-oncogenic signals as well as inactivation of tumour suppressor genes do trigger a potent, tumor-suppressive senescence response in mice and cells devoid of Skp2. Notably, Skp2 inactivation and oncogenic stress driven senescence neither elicits activation of the p19Arf-p53 pathway nor DNA damage, but instead depends on ATF4, p27, and p21. We further demonstrate that genetic Skp2 inactivation evokes cellular senescence even in oncogenic conditions in which the p19Arf/p53 response is impaired, whereas a Skp2-SCF complex inhibitor can trigger cellular senescence in p53/PTEN deficient cells and tumour regression in preclinical studies. Our findings therefore provide proof of principle evidence that Skp2 pharmacological inhibition may represent a general approach for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:20237562

  5. A comparison of foamy and lentiviral vector genotoxicity in SCID-repopulating cells shows foamy vectors are less prone to clonal dominance

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Elizabeth M; Olzsko, Miles E; Leap, David J; Hocum, Jonah D; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy using retroviral vectors has immense potential, but vector-mediated genotoxicity limits use in the clinic. Lentiviral vectors are less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors and have become the vector of choice in clinical trials. Foamy retroviral vectors have a promising integration profile and are less prone to read-through transcription than gammaretroviral or lentiviral vectors. Here, we directly compared the safety and efficacy of foamy vectors to lentiviral vectors in human CD34+ repopulating cells in immunodeficient mice. To increase their genotoxic potential, foamy and lentiviral vectors with identical transgene cassettes with a known genotoxic spleen focus forming virus promoter were used. Both vectors resulted in efficient marking in vivo and a total of 825 foamy and 460 lentiviral vector unique integration sites were recovered in repopulating cells 19 weeks after transplantation. Foamy vector proviruses were observed less often near RefSeq gene and proto-oncogene transcription start sites than lentiviral vectors. The foamy vector group were also more polyclonal with fewer dominant clones (two out of six mice) than the lentiviral vector group (eight out of eight mice), and only lentiviral vectors had integrants near known proto-oncogenes in dominant clones. Our data further support the relative safety of foamy vectors for HSC gene therapy. PMID:27579335

  6. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  7. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  8. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  9. Promoting Resilience in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne A.

    2002-01-01

    This booklet invites reflection on ways in which childhood resilience can be promoted, thereby helping children to adapt effectively in the face of adversity. The attributes of resilient children are described, as is the importance of protective factors in building or promoting resilience. The booklet discusses the complex interplay between risk…

  10. Circulating precursor CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) CXCR5⁺ CD4⁺ T cells indicate Tfh cell activity and promote antibody responses upon antigen reexposure.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Tsai, Louis M; Leong, Yew Ann; Hu, Xin; Ma, Cindy S; Chevalier, Nina; Sun, Xiaolin; Vandenberg, Kirsten; Rockman, Steve; Ding, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Changqi; Karnowski, Alexander; Belz, Gabrielle T; Ghali, Joanna R; Cook, Matthew C; Riminton, D Sean; Veillette, André; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Mackay, Fabienne; Brink, Robert; Tangye, Stuart G; Vinuesa, Carola G; Mackay, Charles R; Li, Zhanguo; Yu, Di

    2013-10-17

    Follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells support high affinity and long-term antibody responses. Here we found that within circulating CXCR5⁺ CD4⁺ T cells in humans and mice, the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset has a partial Tfh effector phenotype, whereas CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) cells have a resting phenotype. The circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset was indicative of active Tfh differentiation in lymphoid organs and correlated with clinical indices in autoimmune diseases. Thus the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset provides a biomarker to monitor protective antibody responses during infection or vaccination and pathogenic antibody responses in autoimmune diseases. Differentiation of both CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) and CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subsets required ICOS and BCL6, but not SAP, suggesting that circulating CXCR5⁺ helper T cells are primarily generated before germinal centers. Upon antigen reencounter, CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) CXCR5⁺ precursors rapidly differentiate into mature Tfh cells to promote antibody responses. Therefore, circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) CXCR5⁺ CD4⁺ T cells are generated during active Tfh differentiation and represent a new mechanism of immunological early memory.

  11. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... participate in any legal proceedings against invention promoters or promotion firms. Complaints submitted to... promotion firm, explain the basis for the complaint, and include the signature of the complainant....

  12. Novelty and Promotional Items

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small novelty or promotional products, primarily used for outreach and educational purposes, must effectively convey a message, and their purchase will only be allowed if the item will contribute to the accomplishment of the Agency's mission.

  13. Promoting "Global" Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards global issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about global issues. Offers illustrative…

  14. Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor beta promotes cell proliferation and invasion by modulating the AKT pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yang; Yi, Jiang; Lizhi, Lv; Qiucheng, Cai

    2014-11-01

    Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) beta, (RhoGDI2), has been identified as a proto-oncogene that is upregulated in human cancers, but the role of RhoGDI2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the RhoGDI2 expression level in HCC tissues and the function of RhoGDI2 in HCC cell growth and metastasis. We examined the RhoGDI2 mRNA expression level in 64 sets of HCC tissue and their adjacent nontumor tissue counterparts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In vitro proliferation and invasion assays were conducted to determine the effect of RhoGDI2 on the ability of HCC cells to proliferate and invade, respectively. Western blot analysis was conducted to examine expression levels of RhoGDI2p-AKT, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in HCC cells. RhoGDI2 mRNA was significantly overexpressed in the HCC specimens compared with the nonneoplastic liver specimens, and the RhoGDI2 mRNA and protein levels were higher in the HCC cell lines, especially the highly metastatic cell lines 97L and 97H. To further investigate the role that RhoGDI2 plays in HCC, we overexpressed RhoGDI2 using a lentivirus-mediated overexpression technique in two HCC cell lines (Huh7 and 7721) that endogenously express a low level of RhoGDI2. Stable cells overexpressing RhoGDI2 demonstrated a significant increase in cell proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, our additional findings indicated that RhoGDI2-mediated cellular invasion requires the PI3K/Akt signaling-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our findings suggest that RhoGDI2 plays an important role in HCC growth and invasion and should be considered a novel HCC therapeutic target candidate.

  15. Myc inhibits JNK-mediated cell death in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiuhong; Feng, Yu; Chen, Xinhong; Li, Wenzhe; Xue, Lei

    2017-04-01

    The proto-oncogene Myc is well known for its roles in promoting cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. However, in this study, we found from a genetic screen that Myc inhibits, rather than promotes, cell death triggered by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in Drosophila. Firstly, expression of Drosophila Myc (dMyc) suppresses, whereas loss of dMyc enhances, ectopically activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Secondly, dMyc impedes physiologically activated JNK pathway-mediated cell death. Thirdly, loss of dMyc triggers JNK pathway activation and JNK-dependent cell death. Finally, the mammalian cMyc gene, when expressed in Drosophila, impedes activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Thus, besides its well-studied apoptosis promoting function, Myc also antagonizes JNK-mediated cell death in Drosophila, and this function is likely conserved from fly to human.

  16. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  17. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  18. Health Promotion Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…

  19. Does Paid Promotion Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Chris

    1980-01-01

    A study to determine the cost effectiveness of newspaper display advertising for cooperative extension programs showed such publicity to be more effective in large metropolitan areas. Though not a technique for increasing enrollment, this method provided long-range benefits in the overall promotion of extension educational services. (SK)

  20. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  1. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  2. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  3. 50 Practical Promotion Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeyski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)

  4. Hepatic Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs: High Promoter Conservation and Dynamic, Sex-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation by Growth Hormone.

    PubMed

    Melia, Tisha; Hao, Pengying; Yilmaz, Feyza; Waxman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key chromatin regulators, yet few studies have characterized lincRNAs in a single tissue under diverse conditions. Here, we analyzed 45 mouse liver RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data sets collected under diverse conditions to systematically characterize 4,961 liver lincRNAs, 59% of them novel, with regard to gene structures, species conservation, chromatin accessibility, transcription factor binding, and epigenetic states. To investigate the potential for functionality, we focused on the responses of the liver lincRNAs to growth hormone stimulation, which imparts clinically relevant sex differences to hepatic metabolism and liver disease susceptibility. Sex-biased expression characterized 247 liver lincRNAs, with many being nuclear RNA enriched and regulated by growth hormone. The sex-biased lincRNA genes are enriched for nearby and correspondingly sex-biased accessible chromatin regions, as well as sex-biased binding sites for growth hormone-regulated transcriptional activators (STAT5, hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 [HNF6], FOXA1, and FOXA2) and transcriptional repressors (CUX2 and BCL6). Repression of female-specific lincRNAs in male liver, but not that of male-specific lincRNAs in female liver, was associated with enrichment of H3K27me3-associated inactive states and poised (bivalent) enhancer states. Strikingly, we found that liver-specific lincRNA gene promoters are more highly species conserved and have a significantly higher frequency of proximal binding by liver transcription factors than liver-specific protein-coding gene promoters. Orthologs for many liver lincRNAs were identified in one or more supraprimates, including two rat lincRNAs showing the same growth hormone-regulated, sex-biased expression as their mouse counterparts. This integrative analysis of liver lincRNA chromatin states, transcription factor occupancy, and growth hormone regulation provides novel insights into the

  5. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences.

  6. Democracy Promotion in Oman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    succession process . The “Ruling Family Council” will meet to designate a successor within 3 days of Qaboos’s death. If it fails to select someone, it will...the Gulf is to increase democracy promotion programs designed to encourage timely and peaceful transitions to more representative forms of govern...stronger efforts toward reform supported by the United States could foster a more peaceful political transformation. This process should begin with the

  7. Publishing and academic promotion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    2009-09-01

    Clearly, academic endeavour has to be the single most important criterion for appointment to an academic position and for subsequent promotion. It is rare for excellence either in teaching or clinical practice to offset a poor publication record. However, the pressure to publish and gain related grant income can lead to problems in the normal academic pursuits of a department or institution. These and other related issues will be explored in this editorial.

  8. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  9. The dynamics of mobile promoters: Enhanced stability in promoter regions.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mahnaz; Wahl, Lindi M

    2016-10-21

    Mobile promoters are emerging as a new class of mobile genetic elements, first identified by examining prokaryote genome sequences, and more recently confirmed by experimental observations in bacteria. Recent datasets have identified over 40,000 putative mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryote genomes, however only one-third of these are in regions of the genome directly upstream from coding sequences, that is, in promoter regions. The presence of many promoter sequences in non-promoter regions is unexplained. Here we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamics of mobile promoters, extending previous work to capture the dynamics both within and outside promoter regions. From this general model, we apply rigorous model selection techniques to identify which parameters are statistically justified in describing the available mobile promoter data, and find best-fit values of these parameters. Our results suggest that high rates of horizontal gene transfer maintain the population of mobile promoters in promoter regions, and that once established at these sites, mobile promoters are rarely lost, but are commonly copied to other genomic regions. In contrast, mobile promoter copies in non-promoter regions are more numerous and more volatile, experiencing substantially higher rates of duplication, loss and diversification.

  10. Human Promoters Are Intrinsically Directional

    PubMed Central

    Duttke, Sascha H.C.; Lacadie, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Glass, Christopher K.; Corcoran, David L.; Benner, Christopher; Heinz, Sven; Kadonaga, James T.; Ohler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Divergent transcription, in which reverse-oriented transcripts occur upstream of eukaryotic promoters in regions devoid of annotated genes, has been suggested to be a general property of active promoters. Here we show that the human basal RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and core promoter are inherently unidirectional, and that reverse-oriented transcripts originate from their own cognate reverse-directed core promoters. In vitro transcription analysis and mapping of nascent transcripts in cells revealed that sequences at reverse start sites are similar to those of their forward counterparts. The use of DNase I accessibility to define proximal promoter borders revealed that up to half of promoters are unidirectional and that unidirectional promoters are depleted at their upstream edges of reverse core promoter sequences and their associated chromatin features. Divergent transcription is thus not an inherent property of the transcription process, but rather the consequence of the presence of both forward- and reverse-directed core promoters. PMID:25639469

  11. PPARγ inhibits ovarian cancer cells proliferation through upregulation of miR-125b

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shuang; Wang, Jidong; Ma, Ying; Yao, Zhenwei; Pan, Hongjuan

    2015-06-26

    miR-125b has essential roles in coordinating tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis and chemotherapy recurrence. In ovarian cancer miR-125b has been shown to be downregulated and acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting proto-oncogene BCL3. PPARγ, a multiple functional transcription factor, has been reported to have anti-tumor effects through inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation and apoptosis by targeting the tumor related genes. However, it is unclear whether miR-125b is regulated by PPARγ in ovarian cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that the miR-125b downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Ligands-activated PPARγ suppressed proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and this PPARγ-induced growth inhibition is mediated by the upregulation of miR-125b. PPARγ promoted the expression of miR-125b by directly binding to the responsive element in miR-125b gene promoter region. Thus, our results suggest that PPARγ can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer by upregulating miR-125b which inhibition of proto-oncogene BCL3. These findings will extend our understanding of the function of PPARγ in tumorigenesis and miR-125b may be a therapeutic intervention of ovarian cancer. - Highlights: • miR-125b is down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cells. • PPARγ upregulates miR-125b and downregulates its target gene BCL3 expression. • Silence of miR-125b attenuates PPARγ-mediated growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells. • PPARγ promotes the transcription of miR-125b via binding to PPARE in miR-125b gene promoter region.

  12. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  13. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-09

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  14. Students Promoted Despite Test Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Dara V.

    2012-01-01

    "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) dictates students in Grades 3, 5, and 8 pass state tests to be promoted. Accordingly, most state education codes require students to pass reading and math exams for promotion. The majority of those who fail, however, appear to be promoted anyway. This article addresses core questions concerning the paradigm…

  15. TWEAK Promotes Peritoneal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belen; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Bellon, Teresa; del Peso, Gloria; Jimenez-Heffernan, Jose; Santamaria, Beatriz; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Selgas, Rafael; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. An improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. There is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 during peritoneal injury. Fn14 expression and soluble TWEAK levels were measured in human PD peritoneal effluent cells or fluids with or without peritonitis. Fn14 expression was also analyzed in peritoneal biopsies from PD patients. Actions of intraperitoneal TWEAK were studied in mice in vivo. sTWEAK levels were increased in peritoneal effluent in PD peritonitis. Effluent sTWEAK levels correlated with the number of peritoneal macrophages (r = 0.491, p = 0.002). Potential TWEAK targets that express the receptor Fn14 include mesothelial cells and macrophages, as demonstrated by flow cytometry of peritoneal effluents and by analysis of peritoneal biopsies. Peritoneal biopsy Fn14 correlated with mesothelial injury, fibrosis and inflammation, suggesting a potential deleterious effect of TWEAK/Fn14. In this regard, intraperitoneal TWEAK administration to mice promoted peritoneal inflammation characterized by increased peritoneal effluent MCP-1, Fn14 and Gr1+ macrophages, increased mesothelial Fn14, MCP-1 and CCL21 expression and submesothelial tissue macrophage recruitment. Taken together these data suggest that the TWEAK/Fn14 system may promote inflammation and tissue injury during peritonitis and PD. PMID:24599047

  16. Leptin Promotes Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Johnathan E.; Cook, Nicholas J.; Rovin, Richard A.; Winn, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The hormone leptin has a variety of functions. Originally known for its role in satiety and weight loss, leptin more recently has been shown to augment tumor growth in a variety of cancers. Within gliomas, there is a correlation between tumor grade and tumor expression of leptin and its receptor. This suggests that autocrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment may promote the growth of high-grade gliomas. Leptin does this through stimulation of cellular pathways that are also advantageous for tumor growth and recurrence: antiapoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration. Conversely, a loss of leptin expression attenuates tumor growth. In animal models of colon cancer and melanoma, a decline in the expression and secretion of leptin resulted in a reduction of tumor growth. In these models, positive mental stimulation through environmental enrichment decreased leptin secretion and improved tumor outcome. This review explores the link between leptin and glioblastoma. PMID:22263109

  17. Love promotes health.

    PubMed

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2005-06-01

    Love has consequences for health and well-being. Engaging in joyful activities such as love may activate areas in the brain responsible for emotion, attention, motivation and memory (i.e., limbic structures), and it may further serve to control the autonomic nervous system, i.e., stress reduction. This specific CNS activity pattern appears to exert protective effects, even on the brain itself. Moreover, anxiolytic effects of pleasurable experiences may occur by promotion of an inhibitory tone in specific areas of the brain. Thus, love and pleasure clearly are capable of stimulating health, well-being and (re)productivity: This wonderful biological instrument makes procreation and maintenance of organisms and their species a deeply rewarding and pleasurable experience, thus ensuring survival, health, and perpetuation.

  18. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics.

  19. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics. PMID:27905505

  20. Microgravity decreases c-fos induction and serum response element activity.

    PubMed

    de Groot, R P; Rijken, P J; den Hertog, J; Boonstra, J; Verkleij, A J; de Laat, S W; Kruijer, W

    1990-09-01

    Several studies have shown that altered gravity conditions influence mammalian cell growth and differentiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, however, remain relatively obscure. In this paper we show that microgravity reached in a sounding rocket strongly decreases epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun, which are both implicated in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. Decreased activity of the serum response element (SRE), present in the c-fos promoter-enhancer region, is probably responsible for the decrease in EGF-induced c-fos expression. In addition, we show that gravity alterations differentially modulate distinctive signal transduction pathways, indicating that gravity-dependent modulations of mammalian cell proliferation are unlikely to be caused by a nonspecific stress response of the cell.

  1. c-Fos Repression by Piwi Regulates Drosophila Ovarian Germline Formation and Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonathon D.; Qu, Chunxu; Yang, Xiaoyang; Fan, Yiping; Tang, Chunlao; Peng, Jamy C.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Piwi functions within the germline stem cells (GSCs) and the somatic niche to regulate GSC self-renewal and differentiation. How Piwi influences GSCs is largely unknown. We uncovered a genetic interaction between Piwi and c-Fos in the somatic niche that influences GSCs. c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that influences many cell and developmental processes. In wild-type ovarian cells, c-Fos is post-transcriptionally repressed by Piwi, which destabilized the c-Fos mRNA by promoting the processing of its 3′ untranslated region (UTR) into Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The c-Fos 3′ UTR was sufficient to trigger Piwi-dependent destabilization of a GFP reporter. Piwi represses c-Fos in the somatic niche to regulate GSC maintenance and differentiation and in the somatic follicle cells to affect somatic cell disorganization, tissue dysmorphogenesis, oocyte maturation arrest, and infertility. PMID:27622269

  2. Detection and characterization of the fibroblast growth factor-related oncoprotein INT-2.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, M; Deed, R; Acland, P; Moore, R; Whyte, A; Peters, G; Dickson, C

    1989-01-01

    Products of the fibroblast growth factor-related proto-oncogene int-2 have been detected by using a monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antisera raised against synthetic peptides predicted from the DNA sequence. COS-1 monkey cells transfected with int-2 DNA linked to the simian virus 40 early promoter contained at least four int-2-specific proteins, presumably representing modified forms of the expected 27-kilodalton primary translation product. The level of expression was increased approximately six- to eightfold by mutation of sequences around the presumed initiation codon, negating their capacity to encode a short oligopeptide in the +1 reading frame. Both tunicamycin inhibition and in vitro translation experiments indicated that some of the modifications correspond to asparagine-linked glycosylation, for which the sequence predicts a single site. In line with the similarities between INT-2 and other fibroblast growth factors, the in vitro translation products functioned as weak mitogens for mammary epithelial cells. Images PMID:2557543

  3. Hotspots of MLV integration in the hematopoietic tumor genome

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruyama, T; Hiratsuka, T; Yamada, N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research has been performed regarding the integration sites of murine leukemia retrovirus (MLV) for the identification of proto-oncogenes. To date, the overlap of mutations within specific oligonucleotides across different tumor genomes has been regarded as a rare event; however, a recent study of MLV integration into the oncogene Zfp521 suggested the existence of a hotspot oligonucleotide for MLV integration. In the current review, we discuss the hotspots of MLV integration into several genes: c-Myc, Stat5a and N-myc, as well as ZFP521, as examined in tumor genomes. From this, MLV integration convergence within specific oligonucleotides is not necessarily a rare event. This short review aims to promote re-consideration of MLV integration within the tumor genome, which involves both well-known and potentially newly identified and novel mechanisms and specifications. PMID:27721401

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal stabilization of parallel G-quadruplex DNA [d(T2G4T)]4 upon binding to protoberberine alkaloid coralyne.

    PubMed

    Padmapriya, Kumar; Barthwal, Ritu

    2016-10-15

    Stabilization of G-quadruplex DNA structures in human telomeric and proto-oncogenic promoter regions upon ligand binding has evolved as a viable anti-cancer strategy. We have studied interaction of coralyne, a human telomerase inhibiting protoberberine alkaloid, with parallel stranded tetrameric G-quadruplex DNA [d(T2G4T)]4 using Circular Dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Appearance of induced CD band and the Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments confirm the formation of well defined coralyne-DNA complex. (1)H and (31)P NMR studies reveal that coralyne specifically recognizes T2pG3 and G6pT7 steps in DNA. Guanine imino protons indicate that coralyne binding induces thermal stabilization of the G-quadruplex DNA by >20°C. The observed specific changes and thermal stabilization of DNA upon binding may be attributed to inhibition of telomerase by coralyne.

  5. Therapeutic Approaches Targeting MYC-Driven Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Richard J.; Pearson, Richard B.; Hannan, Ross D.; Furic, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The transcript encoding the proto-oncogene MYC is commonly overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC). MYC protein abundance is also increased in the majority of cases of advanced and metastatic castrate-resistant PC (mCRPC). Accordingly, the MYC-directed transcriptional program directly contributes to PC by upregulating the expression of a number of pro-tumorigenic factors involved in cell growth and proliferation. A key cellular process downstream of MYC activity is the regulation of ribosome biogenesis which sustains tumor growth. MYC activity also cooperates with the dysregulation of the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway to promote PC cell survival. Recent advances in the understanding of these interactions through the use of animal models have provided significant insight into the therapeutic efficacy of targeting MYC activity by interfering with its transcriptional program, and indirectly by targeting downstream cellular events linked to MYC transformation potential. PMID:28212321

  6. G Protein-Coupled Receptors in cancer: biochemical interactions and drug design.

    PubMed

    Audigier, Yves; Picault, François-Xavier; Chaves-Almagro, Carline; Masri, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) share the same topology made of seven-transmembrane segments and represent the largest family of membrane receptors. Initially associated with signal transduction in differentiated cells, GPCRs and heterotrimeric G proteins were shown to behave as proto-oncogenes whose overexpression or activating mutations confer transforming properties. The first part of this review focuses on the link between biochemical interactions of a GPCR with other receptors, such as dimerization or multiprotein complexes, and their oncogenic properties. Alteration of these interactions or deregulation of transduction cascades can promote uncontrolled cell proliferation or cell transformation that leads to tumorigenicity and malignancy. The second part concerns the design of drugs specifically targeting these complex interactions and their promise in cancer therapy.

  7. Pleiotrophin and peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Jianghai, Chen; Juan, Liu; Hao, Kang

    2009-10-01

    The proto-oncogene pleiotrophin, discovered in 1989, was considered as a multifunctional growth factor, which played an important role in tumor occurrence, development, and central nervous system. The latest research showed that pleiotrophin signal pathway probably participated in neural repair after peripheral nerve injury, especially in the following critical points, such as the protection of spinal cord neuron, the promotion of the speed of neuron axon regeneration, the guidance of neuron axon regeneration, skeleton muscle reinnervation, and so on. It potentially plays a key role in the guidance of neural axon regeneration in peripheral nervous system and muscle reinnervation. With the deepening of related researches, pleiotrophin gene would become a controllable target for improving the repairing effect of peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction.

  8. MYC and metabolism on the path to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Annie L.; Walton, Zandra E.; Altman, Brian J.; Stine, Zachary E.; Dang, Chi V.

    2015-01-01

    The MYC proto-oncogene is frequently deregulated in human cancers, activating genetic programs that orchestrate biological processes to promote growth and proliferation. Altered metabolism characterized by heightened nutrients uptake, enhanced glycolysis and glutaminolysis and elevated fatty acid and nucleotide synthesis is the hallmark of MYC-driven cancer. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Myc-dependent metabolic reprogramming is critical for tumorigenesis, which could be attenuated by targeting specific metabolic pathways using small drug-like molecules. Understanding the complexity of MYC-mediated metabolic re-wiring in cancers as well as how MYC cooperates with other metabolic drivers such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) will provide translational opportunities for cancer therapy. PMID:26277543

  9. Upregulation of Far Upstream Element-Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) Promotes Tumor Proliferation and Tumorigenesis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Junyao; Bao, Xu; Ma, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Ni, Dong; Wang, Hanfeng; Zhang, Fan; Du, Qingshan; Fan, Yang; Chen, Jianwen; Wu, Shengpan; Li, Xintao; Gao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective The far upstream element (FUSE)-binding protein 1 (FUBP1) is a transactivator of human c-myc proto-oncogene transcription, with important roles in carcinogenesis. However, the expression pattern and potential biological function of FUBP1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is yet to be established. Methods FUBP1 expression was detected in ccRCC tissues and cell lines by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The correlations of FUBP1 mRNA expression levels with clinicopathological factors were evaluated. The biological function of FUBP1 during tumor cell proliferation was studied by MTS, colony formation, and soft-agar colony formation. The effects of FUBP1 on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to identify the potential mechanism of FUBP1 regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Results The levels of FUBP1 mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in human ccRCC tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. High levels of FUBP1 mRNA expression were associated with higher tumor stage and tumor size. FUBP1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the expression levels of c-myc and p21 mRNA were correlated with that of FUBP1 mRNA. Conclusions FUBP1 acts as a potential oncogene in ccRCC and may be considered as a novel biomarker or an attractive treatment target of ccRCC. PMID:28076379

  10. FOXM1 regulates expression of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase and promotes proliferation, invasion and tumorgenesis of human triple negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamurcu, Zuhal; Ashour, Ahmed; Kahraman, Nermin; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an emerging molecular target for cancer therapy, contributes to cancer proliferation, cell survival, tumorigenesis, and invasion, disease progression and drug resistance. Although eEF2K is highly up-regulated in various cancers, the mechanism of gene regulation has not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) proto-oncogenic transcription factor in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and the regulation of eEF2K. We found that FOXM1 is highly upregulated in TNBC and its knockdown by RNA interference (siRNA) significantly inhibited eEF2K expression and suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion and induced apoptotic cell death, recapitulating the effects of eEF2K inhibition. Knockdown of FOXM1 inhibited regulators of cell cycle, migration/invasion and survival, including cyclin D1, Src and MAPK-ERK signaling pathways, respectively. We also demonstrated that FOXM1 (1B and 1C isoforms) directly binds to and transcriptionally regulates eEF2K gene expression by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase gene reporter assays. Furthermore, in vivo inhibition of FOXM1 by liposomal siRNA-nanoparticles suppressed growth of MDA-MB-231 TNBC tumor xenografts in orthotopic models. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence about the transcriptional regulation of eEF2K in TNBC and the role of FOXM1 in mediating breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration/invasion, progression and tumorgenesis and highlighting the potential of FOXM1/eEF2K axis as a molecular target in breast and other cancers. PMID:26918606

  11. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in combination with insulin-like growth factor 1 and basic fibroblast growth factor promote in vitro culture of goat spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bahadorani, M; Hosseini, S M; Abedi, P; Abbasi, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are increasingly considered as important regulators of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). This study investigated the effects of various growth factors (GDNF, IGF1, bFGF, EGF and GFRalpha-1) on purification and colonization of undifferentiated goat SSCs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Irrespective of the culture condition used, the first signs of developing colonies were observed from day 4 of culture onwards. The number of colonies developed in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF culture condition was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). In contrast, the size of colonies developed in GDNF + EGF + LIF culture condition was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). Immunocytochemical stationing for specific biomarkers of somatic cells (vimentin, alpha-inhibin and α-SMA) and spermatogonial cells (PLZF, THY 1, VASA, alpha-1 integrin, bet-1 integrin and DBA) revealed that both cell types existed in developing colonies, irrespective of the culture condition used. Even though, the relative abundance of VASA, FGFR3, OCT4, PLZF, BCL6B and THY1 transcription factors in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF treatment group was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, goat SSCs developed in the latter culture condition could colonize within the seminiferous tubules of the germ-cell depleted recipient mice following xenotransplantation. Obtained results demonstrated that combination of GDNF with IGF1 and bFGF promote in vitro culture of goat SSCs while precludes uncontrolled proliferation of somatic cells.

  12. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  13. Environmental Health Promotion: Bridging Traditional Environmental Health and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…

  14. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  18. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  19. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  20. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  1. Health-promoting schools: an opportunity for oral health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159

  2. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  3. ACTFL's Accent! on Promoting FL's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accent on ACTFL, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This insert in "Accent on ACTFL" is devoted to ways of promoting the study of foreign languages. The first section is a comic book, "The Continuing Story of Captain Fore Lang," created as an assignment by education students. The comic points out several benefits of language study. The second section is a language-specific promotion focusing on…

  4. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  5. Promoting Creativity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…

  6. The PTTG1-Binding Factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) regulates p53 activity in thyroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Read, Martin L.; Seed, Robert I.; Fong, Jim C.W.; Modasia, Bhavika; Ryan, Gavin A.; Watkins, Rachel J; Gagliano, Teresa; Smith, Vicki E.; Stratford, Anna L.; Kwan, Perkin K; Sharma, Neil; Dixon, Olivia M.; Watkinson, John C.; Boelaert, Kristien; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Turnell, Andrew S.; McCabe, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The PTTG1-Binding Factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) has an emerging repertoire of roles, especially in thyroid biology, and functions as a proto-oncogene. High PBF expression is independently associated with poor prognosis and lower disease-specific survival in human thyroid cancer. However, the precise role of PBF in thyroid tumorigenesis is unclear. Here, we present extensive evidence demonstrating that PBF is a novel regulator of p53, a tumor suppressor protein with a key role in maintaining genetic stability, which is infrequently mutated in differentiated thyroid cancer. By coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays, we show that PBF binds specifically to p53 in thyroid cells, and significantly represses transactivation of responsive promoters. Further, we identify that PBF decreases p53 stability by enhancing ubiquitination, which appears dependent on the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2. Impaired p53 function was evident in a transgenic mouse model with thyroid-specific PBF over-expression (PBF-Tg), which had significantly increased genetic instability as indicated by FISSR-PCR analysis. Consistent with this, ~40% of all DNA repair genes examined were repressed in PBF-Tg primary cultures, including genes with critical roles in maintaining genomic integrity such as Mgmt, Rad51 and Xrcc3. Our data also revealed that PBF induction resulted in upregulation of the E2 enzyme Rad6 in murine thyrocytes, and was associated with Rad6 expression in human thyroid tumors. Overall, this work provides novel insights into the role of the proto-oncogene PBF as a negative regulator of p53 function in thyroid tumorigenesis, where PBF is generally over-expressed and p53 mutations are rare compared to other tumor types. PMID:24506068

  7. Possible involvement of queuine in regulation of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    An increase in cell number is one of the most prominent characteristics of cancer cells. This may be caused by an increase in cell proliferation or decrease in cell death. Queuine is one of the modified base which is found at first anticodon position of specific tRNAs. It is ubiquitously present throughout the living system except mycoplasma and yeast. The tRNAs of Q-family are completely modified to Q-tRNAs in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNA is closely associated with cell proliferation and malignancy. Queuine participates at various cellular functions such as regulation of cell proliferation, cell signaling and alteration in the expression of growth associated proto-oncogenes. Like other proto-oncogenes bcl2 is known to involve in cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Queuine or Q-tRNA is suggested to inhibit cell proliferation but the mechanism of regulation of cell proliferation by queuine or Q-tRNA is not well understood. Therefore, in the present study regulation in cell proliferation by queuine in vivo and in vitro as well as the expression of cell death regulatory protein Bcl2 are investigated. For this DLAT cancerous mouse, U87 cell line and HepG2 cell line are treated with different concentrations of queuine and the effect of queuine on cell proliferation and apoptosis are studied. The results indicate that queuine down regulates cell proliferation and expression of Bcl2 protein, suggesting that queuine promotes cell death and participates in the regulation of cell proliferation.

  8. In vivo analysis of Pim-1 deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, P W; van der Lugt, N M; Clarke, A; Domen, J; Linders, K; McWhir, J; Berns, A; Hooper, M

    1993-01-01

    The Pim-1 proto-oncogene encodes a highly conserved serine/threonine phosphokinase which is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic organs and gonads in mammals. Overexpression of Pim-1 predisposes to lymphomagenesis in mice. To develop a further understanding of Pim-1 in molecular terms, as well as in terms of its potential role in hematopoietic development, we have generated mice deficient in Pim-1 function. Pim-1-deficient mice are ostensibly normal, healthy and fertile. Detailed comparative analyses of the hematopoietic systems of the mutant mice and their wild-type littermates showed that they are indistinguishable for most of the parameters studied. Our analyses revealed one unexpected phenotype that correlated with the level of Pim-1 expression: Pim-1 deficiency correlated with a erythrocyte microcytosis, whereas overexpression of Pim-1 in E mu-Pim-1-transgenic mice resulted in erythrocyte macrocytosis. In order to confirm that the observed decrease in erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume (MCV) was attributable to the Pim-1 deficiency, we developed mice transgenic for a Pim-1 gene construct with its own promoter and showed that this transgene could restore the low erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume observed in the Pim-1-deficient mice to near wild-type levels. These results might be relevant to the observed involvement of the Pim-1 gene in mouse erythroleukemogenesis. The surprising lack of a readily observed phenotype in the lymphoid compartment of the Pim-1-deficient mice, suggests a heretofore unrecognized degree of in vivo functional redundancy of this highly conserved proto-oncogene. Images PMID:8233823

  9. Information technology in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D

    2008-06-01

    eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.

  10. Health promotion: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.

  11. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  12. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  13. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  14. The Business of Radio Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan

    This speech suggests that public radio stations should examine and use the techniques employed by commercial stations to increase their listening audience--creative promotion based on community involvement and participation. Some examples are included. (SC)

  15. [Five paradoxes in health promotion].

    PubMed

    López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    2017-02-17

    The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice.

  16. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  17. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.111 Promotion. Promotion means the following activities: (a) Consumer Education,...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1206.17 Section 1206.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising,...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means...

  2. IgG-Immune Complexes Promote B Cell Memory by Inducing BAFF.

    PubMed

    Kang, SunAh; Keener, Amanda B; Jones, Shannon Z; Benschop, Robert J; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Rathmell, Jeffrey C; Clarke, Stephen H; Matsushima, Glenn K; Whitmire, Jason K; Vilen, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Memory B cell responses are vital for protection against infections but must also be regulated to prevent autoimmunity. Cognate T cell help, somatic hypermutation, and affinity maturation within germinal centers (GCs) are required for high-affinity memory B cell formation; however, the signals that commit GC B cells to the memory pool remain unclear. In this study, we identify a role for IgG-immune complexes (ICs), FcγRs, and BAFF during the formation of memory B cells in mice. We found that early secretion of IgG in response to immunization with a T-dependent Ag leads to IC-FcγR interactions that induce dendritic cells to secrete BAFF, which acts at or upstream of Bcl-6 in activated B cells. Loss of CD16, hematopoietic cell-derived BAFF, or blocking IC:FcγR regions in vivo diminished the expression of Bcl-6, the frequency of GC and memory B cells, and secondary Ab responses. BAFF also contributed to the maintenance and/or expansion of the follicular helper T cell population, although it was dispensable for their formation. Thus, early Ab responses contribute to the optimal formation of B cell memory through IgG-ICs and BAFF. Our work defines a new role for FcγRs in GC and memory B cell responses.

  3. Creating and Promoting a Natural History Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belben, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the value of developing and promoting a natural history library by school library media specialists. Topics include benefits to students; promoting outdoor education; recommended reading for high school students; using technology; and other aids to promote outdoor education. (LRW)

  4. DNA signals at isoform promoters

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional heterogeneity is extensive in the genome, and most genes express variable transcript isoforms. However, whether variable transcript isoforms of one gene are regulated by common promoter elements remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isoform promoters of one gene have separated DNA signals for transcription and translation initiation. We found that TATA box and nucleosome-disfavored DNA sequences are prevalent in distinct transcript isoform promoters of one gene. These DNA signals are conserved among species. Transcript isoform has a RNA-determined unstructured region around its start site. We found that these DNA/RNA features facilitate isoform transcription and translation. These results suggest a DNA-encoded mechanism by which transcript isoform is generated. PMID:27353836

  5. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  6. Promoter Hypermethylation in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prostate gland is the most common site of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in American men. It is well known that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation within the regulatory (promoter) regions of genes are associated with transcriptional silencing in cancer. Promoter hypermethylation of critical pathway genes could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. Methods This review discusses current information on methylated genes associated with prostate cancer development and progression. Results Over 30 genes have been investigated for promoter methylation in prostate cancer. These methylated genes are involved in critical pathways, such as DNA repair, metabolism, and invasion/metastasis. The role of hypermethylated genes in regulation of critical pathways in prostate cancer is reviewed. Conclusions These findings may provide new information of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Certain epigenetic alterations in prostate tumors are being translated into clinical practice for therapeutic use. PMID:20861812

  7. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 2: Health Promotion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…

  8. Promoting recovery from ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Antje; Minnerup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Over recent decades, experimental and clinical stroke studies have identified a number of neurorestorative treatments that stimulate neural plasticity and promote functional recovery. In contrast to the acute stroke treatments thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy, neurorestorative treatments are still effective when initiated days after stroke onset, which makes them applicable to virtually all stroke patients. In this article, selected physical, pharmacological and cell-based neurorestorative therapies are discussed, with special emphasis on interventions that have already been transferred from the laboratory to the clinical setting. We explain molecular and structural processes that promote neural plasticity, discuss potential limitations of neurorestorative treatments, and offer a speculative viewpoint on how neurorestorative treatments will evolve.

  9. Synthetic Core Promoters for Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic promoters are commonly used tools for circuit design or high level protein production. Promoter engineering efforts in yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris have mostly been focused on altering upstream regulatory sequences such as transcription factor binding sites. In higher eukaryotes synthetic core promoters, directly needed for transcription initiation by RNA Polymerase II, have been successfully designed. Here we report the first synthetic yeast core promoter for P. pastoris, based on natural yeast core promoters. Furthermore we used this synthetic core promoter sequence to engineer the core promoter of the natural AOX1 promoter, thereby creating a set of core promoters providing a range of different expression levels. As opposed to engineering strategies of the significantly longer entire promoter, such short core promoters can directly be added on a PCR primer facilitating library generation and are sufficient to obtain variable expression yields. PMID:24187969

  10. Health Promotion at the Ballpark.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Bonni C

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of a new summer collegiate baseball league franchise to a small central New York city was seen as an opportunity for health promotion. The initiative was set up to explore two overarching questions: (1) Are summer collegiate baseball events acceptable to local public health organizations as viable places for health promotion activities addressing local health issues? (2) Are summer collegiate baseball organizations amenable to health promotion activities built in to their fan and/or player experiences? Planning and implementation were guided by precede-proceed, social cognitive theory, social marketing, and diffusion of innovations constructs. Environmental changes were implemented to support healthy eating and nontobacco use by players and fans; four health awareness nights were implemented at home games corresponding to local public health priorities and included public service announcements, between inning quizzes, information dissemination at concession and team market locations, and special guests. Sales and fan feedback support mostly healthy concession offerings and a tobacco-free ballpark; postseason evaluations from team staff and public health partners support continuing the trials of this sports event as a venue for health promotion.

  11. Teachers Promoting Student Mathematical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary; Yankelewitz, Dina; Maher, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    During an informal, after-school, math program, a group of middle school students worked collaboratively on open-ended problems. The students co-constructed arguments, provided justifications for their solutions, and engaged in mathematical reasoning. This paper describes the specific teacher moves that promoted this phenomenon. The findings of…

  12. Women's Studies Online: Promoting Visibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Suzanne

    1986-01-01

    Three problems in online searching in women's studies are type of indexing, database quality, and adequacy of coverage. Results of a recent study show there is significant end-user satisfaction and the searches done are described in order to promote greater and more effective use of online retrieval in women's studies. (Author/EM)

  13. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  14. The Rhetoric of "Promoting Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Uses Chaim Perelman's theories of argumentation to examine a recent Institute of Medicine report, "Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research" (2000). Notes that it focuses on social, economic, behavioral, and political health as a means of assuring population health--and thereby expands the…

  15. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  16. Promoting Discussions in ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers who work with English as a Second Language (ESL) students, struggle with promoting discussion during guided reading. When ESL students are asked comprehension questions during group discussions and throughout the reading of a book, often teachers receive minimal feedback. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify…

  17. Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda

    2015-01-01

    Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…

  18. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  19. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  20. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  1. Promoting Multiculturalism in Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the teaching profession needs to recognize the natural connections between multicultural and developmental education. Presents eight steps developmental educators can take to promote pluralism, including (1) establishing a clear link between cultural pluralism and institutional and programmatic mission and goals; (2) striving for…

  2. Promoting science together with art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John

    2011-08-01

    The divide between science and art will forever be fuel for discussion, as two articles in the June issue of Physics World show. In the first, Leonardo Colletti (p16) calls for physicists to invite poets to conferences, while in the second (p19) Robert P Crease urges us to take insights from the study of culture when we try to promote science.

  3. Promoting Community Cohesion in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew B.; McDaid, Maggie; Potter, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Following serious disturbances in some northern cities in England in 2001, concerns about possible rising inter-communal tension have led to a statutory duty to promote community cohesion being placed on schools. Inspectors from the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) are required to make judgements in the leadership and management section…

  4. Ecological Foundations of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In this article, human ecology is defined; its historical and intellectual roots are traced through various disciplines to its applications in public health and health promotion today; its strengths and limitations are described; some potential contributions to systems theory are suggested; and some emerging ecological models of health promotion…

  5. Promoting Metacognition in Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol W.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…

  6. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Ben; Kamilova, Faina

    2009-01-01

    Several microbes promote plant growth, and many microbial products that stimulate plant growth have been marketed. In this review we restrict ourselves to bacteria that are derived from and exert this effect on the root. Such bacteria are generally designated as PGPR (plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria). The beneficial effects of these rhizobacteria on plant growth can be direct or indirect. This review begins with describing the conditions under which bacteria live in the rhizosphere. To exert their beneficial effects, bacteria usually must colonize the root surface efficiently. Therefore, bacterial traits required for root colonization are subsequently described. Finally, several mechanisms by which microbes can act beneficially on plant growth are described. Examples of direct plant growth promotion that are discussed include (a) biofertilization, (b) stimulation of root growth, (c) rhizoremediation, and (d) plant stress control. Mechanisms of biological control by which rhizobacteria can promote plant growth indirectly, i.e., by reducing the level of disease, include antibiosis, induction of systemic resistance, and competition for nutrients and niches.

  7. When Promoting Democracy Is Counterproductive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esfandiari, Haleh; Litwak, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    The United States has begun a $75-million program to promote democracy by supporting Iranian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). That program, coupled with loose talk about regime change from members of Congress, commentators close to the administration, and individuals within the administration, has fed a sense of vulnerability and paranoia…

  8. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion....

  1. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Temporary Mailing Promotion AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... with offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin...

  2. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often.... Promotion activities directed toward consummation of the employee's own sales are exempt....

  3. 76 FR 34871 - Mobile Barcode Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... 111 Mobile Barcode Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... ) 709.4 to add a temporary promotion for First-Class Mail cards, letters and flats, and Standard Mail... barcode promotion, and the new mailing standards to implement the promotion. To be eligible,...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.118 Promotion....

  5. 5 CFR 532.407 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 532.407 Section 532.407... Administration § 532.407 Promotion. (a) An employee who is promoted is entitled to be paid at the lowest.... (c) If the promotion is to a position in a different wage area, the agency shall determine...

  6. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1212.20 Section 1212.20 Agriculture..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.20 Promotion. “Promotion” means...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  15. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  16. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  17. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  18. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  19. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  20. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  1. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  2. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbihl, R.

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  3. [Empowerment and health promotion programming].

    PubMed

    Laverack, G

    2008-12-01

    Health promotion often presents a tension between "bottom up" and "top down" programming. "Bottom-up" is associated with community empowerment and begins on issues of concern to particular groups or individuals and regards an increase in overall control as an important element of the health outcome. "Top-down" is associated with disease prevention efforts and begins by seeking to involve beneficiaries on issues defined by health agencies. It regards improvements in health behaviours or bio-medical indicators as the important outcome and community empowerment is viewed simply as a means to the end of health behaviour change. The tension between these two approaches is not unresolvable, and this article presents a framework, the "parallel-track", intended to assist health promotion practitioners to systematically accommodate community empowerment goals within "top-down" health programming.

  4. Promoting the exotic pet practice.

    PubMed

    Harris, Don J

    2005-09-01

    The marketing and promotion of an exotic pet veterinary practice allows the use of strategies that are not necessarily available in other veterinary disciplines. The advantage that an exotics practice enjoys is that it is able to capitalize not only on the unique nature of the species being attended but also on the specialized features of the hospital itself that make it specifically appropriate in caring for exotic pets. Before marketing, however, comes the responsibility that the practice live up to the claims made in promotional materials. A practice cannot ethically be presented as an "exotics" practice if it is nothing more than a dog and cat facility that is willing to attend to exotic pets. It is the competence of the veterinary staff and the appropriateness of the facility that determines the suitability of the practice for exotics management.

  5. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  6. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  7. PARP promoter-mediated activation of a VSG expression site promoter in insect form Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Urményi, T P; Van der Ploeg, L H

    1995-03-25

    In trypanosomes the rRNA, PARP and VSG gene promoters mediate alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription of protein coding genes, presumably by RNA polymerase (pol) I. We compared the activity of PARP and VSG promoters integrated at one of the alleles of the largest subunit of pol II genes in insect form trypanosomes. Even though both promoters are roughly equally active in transient transformation assays in insect form trypanosomes, only the PARP promoter functioned effectively when integrated at the pol II largest subunit or other loci. Promoter activity in transient transformation assays is therefore not necessarily predictive of transcriptional activity once integrated into the trypanosome genome. The integrated fully active PARP promoter could upregulate in cis an otherwise poorly active integrated VSG promoter. The PARP promoter nucleotide sequence elements responsible for VSG promoter activation coincided with most of the important PARP promoter elements mapped previously by linker scanning mutagenesis, indicating that it is not a single unique promoter element that was responsible for VSG promoter activation. The data suggest that PARP promoter-mediated activation of the VSG promoter does not result from complementation of the VSG promoter with a single insect form-specific transcription factor whose binding site is missing from the VSG promoter and present in the PARP promoter. We favor a model in which chromatin structure at the locus is altered by the PARP promoter, allowing VSG promoter activation in insect form trypanosomes. We discuss the significance of these observations for the control of VSG promoters in insect form trypanosomes.

  8. Physical characteristics in eucaryotic promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Bensimhon, M; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C

    1983-01-01

    For a series of wild type and mutated eucaryotic gene prelude sequences (mainly "promoters" of SV40 early gene (Benoist and Chambon, Nature 290, 304 (1981); Moreau et al., Nuc. Acids Res. 9, 6047 (1982)) and of Herpes Simplex Virus TK gene (McKnight and Kingsbury, Science 217, 316 (1982)), in vivo promoter activity and local stability (denaturability) have been correlated. In agreement with the conclusions drawn in these papers, the correlation points to three major eucaryotic promoter elements and loci: (i) enzyme enabling by an enhancer sequence; SV40 and Moloney Sarcoma Virus enhancers have a striking stability homology; (ii) enzyme activation, occurring 50-70 b.p. upstream the cap site in a high stability domain; the enzyme apparently deactivates exponentially upon moving away to trap site; (iii) enzyme positioning at trap site, 30 +/- 5 b.p. upstream the cap site. The trap site contains the TATA box, or, when absent, other low stability domains downstream the activator. The number and occupancy of cap sites may depend on the stability and size of the trap site-cap site couple and its distance from the activator. PMID:6306592

  9. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  10. Programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert Sidney; Surette, Michael G; Elowitz, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    Promoters control the expression of genes in response to one or more transcription factors (TFs). The architecture of a promoter is the arrangement and type of binding sites within it. To understand natural genetic circuits and to design promoters for synthetic biology, it is essential to understand the relationship between promoter function and architecture. We constructed a combinatorial library of random promoter architectures. We characterized 288 promoters in Escherichia coli, each containing up to three inputs from four different TFs. The library design allowed for multiple −10 and −35 boxes, and we observed varied promoter strength over five decades. To further analyze the functional repertoire, we defined a representation of promoter function in terms of regulatory range, logic type, and symmetry. Using these results, we identified heuristic rules for programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters. PMID:18004278

  11. Promotion to professor: a career development resource.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary

    2010-10-01

    By the time a faculty member is being considered for promotion to full professor, he/she will be about 10 years out of residency training and will almost certainly have prior experience with the academic promotion process. The preparation for promotion to full professor should begin soon after the promotion to associate professor. This is a time to reassess opportunities, resources, skills, and career goals. The timing of the promotion to full professor is usually less rigid than the timeframe for promotion at lower ranks, but schools vary in this regard.

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Induced miR200c Down Modulates FAP-1, a Negative Regulator of Src Signaling and Promotes Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Ilias Basha, Haseeb; Sarma, Nayan J.; Lin, Yiing; Crippin, Jeffrey S.; Chapman, William C.; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced liver disease is the leading indication for liver transplantation (LTx). Reinfection and accelerated development of fibrosis is a universal phenomenon following LTx. The molecular events that lead to fibrosis following HCV infection still remains poorly defined. In this study, we determined microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression profiles in livers from chronic HCV patients and normals using microarrays. Using Genego software and pathway finder we performed an interactive analysis to identify target genes that are modulated by miRNAs. 22 miRNAs were up regulated (>2 fold) and 35 miRNAs were down regulated (>2fold) compared to controls. Liver from HCV patients demonstrated increased expression of 306 genes (>3 fold) and reduced expression of 133 genes (>3 fold). Combinatorial analysis of the networks modulated by the miRNAs identified regulation of the phospholipase C pathway (miR200c, miR20b, and miR31through cellular proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (cSrc)), response to growth factors and hormones (miR141, miR107 and miR200c through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases, and regulation of cellular proliferation (miR20b, miR10b, and miR141 through cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1 p21). Real time PCR (RT-PCR) validation of the miRNA in HCV infected livers demonstrated a 3.3 ±0.9 fold increase in miR200c. In vitro transfection of fibroblasts with miR200c resulted in a 2.2 fold reduction in expression of tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 13 or FAS associated phosphatase 1 (FAP-1) and 2.3 fold increase in expression of cSrc. miR200c transfection resulted in significant increases in expression of collagen and fibroblast growth factor (2.8 and 3.4 fold, p<0.05). Therefore, we propose that HCV induced increased expression of miR200c can down modulate the expression of FAP1, a critical regulator of Src and MAP kinase pathway that play

  13. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  14. Immune cell promotion of metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Takanori; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the major cause of death from cancer, and immunotherapy and chemotherapy have had limited success in reversing its progression. Data from mouse models suggest that the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells to tumours protects metastatic cancer cells from surveillance by killer cells, which nullifies the effects of immunotherapy and thus establishes metastasis. Furthermore, in most cases, tumour-infiltrating immune cells differentiate into cells that promote each step of the metastatic cascade and thus are novel targets for therapy. In this Review, we describe how tumour-infiltrating immune cells contribute to the metastatic cascade and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies to target these cells. PMID:25614318

  15. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  16. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  17. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  18. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  19. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  20. 7 CFR 1208.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... raspberries to the general public and the food industry for the purpose of improving the competitive...

  1. 7 CFR 1208.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... raspberries to the general public and the food industry for the purpose of improving the competitive...

  2. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  3. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  5. Promotion of social change: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Vivian; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; Becker-Klein, Rachel; Chan, May L; Duran, Valkiria; Roberts, Ann; Bardoliwalla, Nenshad

    2002-06-01

    This paper argues for the need to advance promotion efforts and proposes a conceptual framework for promotion of social change. A brief review is presented of traditional frameworks for the prevention of mental and social disorders and the promotion of wellness and social competencies, with attention to the ways in which promotion of social change extends and departs from these frameworks. In a framework for promoting social change, we advocate for promoting dynamic processes within systems, rather than outcomes within individuals. Systems are viewed as flexible and capable of facilitating multiple adaptive pathways for individuals and groups. Promoting social change also involves careful attention to critical analysis, values, language, and contextual processes. Examples are discussed throughout to illustrate how these principles have been used in the past and can be implemented in future efforts to promote social change.

  6. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  7. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17...

  9. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1215.16 Section 1215.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1221.23 Section 1221.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23...

  11. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1209.17 Section 1209.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  13. 12 CFR 4.64 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 4.64 Section 4.64 Banks and Banking...; Contracting for Goods and Services § 4.64 Promotion. (a) Scope. The OCC, under the direction of the Deputy Comptroller for Resource Management, engages in promotion and outreach activities designed to identify...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  20. Health Promotion: An Overview. Unit Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert

    Because health promotion is a relatively new concept in Europe, a study was undertaken to gather information on informal and organized health promoting behavior and programs in Europe. The study attempts, through a review of literature, interviews, and surveys, to clarify the meaning of health promotion in both theory and practice and to identify…

  1. 12 CFR 4.64 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Comptroller for Resource Management, engages in promotion and outreach activities designed to identify MWOBs... promotion events sponsored by other government agencies and attended by minorities, women and individuals... promotion events comprised of or attended by MWOBs and IDOBs to explain OCC contracting opportunities and...

  2. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  3. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  4. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  5. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional material. 33.8... DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source...

  6. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Promotional material. 33.8... DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source...

  7. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.550 Section 314.550... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.550 Promotional materials. For drug products being considered... the agency for consideration during the preapproval review period copies of all promotional...

  8. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more-responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies. PMID:26477898

  9. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  10. Identification of positive and negative regulatory elements involved in the retinoic acid/cAMP induction of Fgf-3 transcription in F9 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, A; Grinberg, D; Thurlow, J; Dickson, C

    1993-01-01

    The proto-oncogene Fgf-3 has been implicated as an important signalling molecule in vertebrate development. In the mouse, it is expressed for a limited time at a multitude of sites from embryonic day 7 to birth. Transcription of Fgf-3 initiates at three promoter regions resulting in the generation of various mRNAs which nevertheless all encode the same protein products. A 1.7kb DNA fragment which encompasses these regions was joined to the CAT reporter gene and shown to function as a promoter in embryonal carcinoma cells. In stable transfectants the promoter retains its retinoic acid inducibility, initiating transcription at the same cap-sites as the endogenous gene. In differentiated F9 cells, transient transfection of progressive and targeted deletion mutants of the promoter region has revealed at least two positive and three negative regulatory elements. With one exception, loss of these elements was shown to dramatically affect promoter activity in stable transfectants of F9 cells. However the promoter remained inducible by retinoic acid to differing degrees, apart from deletions encompassing PS-4A which essentially abolished promoter activity in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. The sequences of these potential regulatory regions were further defined using DNase-I footprinting, revealing some similarities to consensus binding sites for known transcription factors. Images PMID:8265348

  11. Synthetic promoter design for new microbial chassis

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, James; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    The judicious choice of promoter to drive gene expression remains one of the most important considerations for synthetic biology applications. Constitutive promoter sequences isolated from nature are often used in laboratory settings or small-scale commercial production streams, but unconventional microbial chassis for new synthetic biology applications require well-characterized, robust and orthogonal promoters. This review provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for synthetic promoter discovery and design, including molecular methodologies, such as saturation mutagenesis of flanking regions and mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, as well as the less familiar use of computational and statistical analyses for de novo promoter design. PMID:27284035

  12. Towards a relational health promotion.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard.

  13. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  14. Promoter usage and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2005-06-01

    Recent findings justify a renewed interest in alternative splicing (AS): the process is more a rule than an exception as it affects the expression of 60% of human genes; it explains how a vast mammalian proteomic complexity is achieved with a limited number of genes; and mutations in AS regulatory sequences are a widespread source of human disease. AS regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with their target sequences in the pre-mRNA but is coupled to transcription. A clearer picture is emerging of the mechanisms by which transcription affects AS through promoter identity and occupation. These mechanisms involve the recruitment of factors with dual functions in transcription and splicing (i.e. that contain both functional domains and hence link the two processes) and the control of RNA polymerase II elongation.

  15. Junking Science to Promote Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yach, Derek; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2001-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's claims that it has changed its practices, the toll of tobacco-related disease and death continues to grow worldwide, and the industry continues to use a vast array of strategies to promote its products and increase profits. This commentary discusses the ways the tobacco industry has created controversy about risk assessment and about the scientific evidence of the health hazards of secondhand smoke. The authors recommend that policymakers be more vigilant and that they demand transparency about affiliations and linkages between allegedly independent scientists and tobacco companies. They also urge policymakers to be prepared for new and continuing challenges posed by the tobacco industry, because, despite the industry's claims, there is little evidence of fundamental change in its objectives. PMID:11684592

  16. Vessel Noise Promotes Hull Fouling.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Wilkens, Serena; McDonald, Justin I; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Fouling of submerged vessel hulls due to the rapid settlement of algae and invertebrates is a longstanding and costly problem. It is widely thought that the presence of extensive vacant surfaces on vessel hulls is responsible for the rapid attachment and growth of biofouling. We investigated whether noise from vessels in port could also be involved in promoting the settlement and growth of common biofouling organisms on vessel hulls. Three important biofouling species exhibited significantly faster development and settlement and better survival when exposed to vessel noise compared with control species. The extent of these responses appeared to vary in relation to the intensity of the vessel noise and may help to explain differences in biofouling observed on vessel hulls.

  17. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  18. Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. Conclusion Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the

  19. Does sleep promote false memories?

    PubMed

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  20. Pmp27 promotes peroxisomal proliferation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Peroxisomes perform many essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The weight of evidence indicates that these organelles divide by budding from preexisting peroxisomes. This process is not understood at the molecular level. Peroxisomal proliferation can be induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by oleate. This growth substrate is metabolized by peroxisomal enzymes. We have identified a protein, Pmp27, that promotes peroxisomal proliferation. This protein, previously termed Pmp24, was purified from peroxisomal membranes, and the corresponding gene, PMP27, was isolated and sequenced. Pmp27 shares sequence similarity with the Pmp30 family in Candida boidinii. Pmp27 is a hydrophobic peroxisomal membrane protein but it can be extracted by high pH, suggesting that it does not fully span the bilayer. Its expression is regulated by oleate. The function of Pmp27 was probed by observing the phenotype of strains in which the protein was eliminated by gene disruption or overproduced by expression from a multicopy plasmid. The strain containing the disruption (3B) was able to grow on all carbon sources tested, including oleate, although growth on oleate, glycerol, and acetate was slower than wild type. Strain 3B contained peroxisomes with all of the enzymes of beta-oxidation. However, in addition to the presence of a few modestly sized peroxisomes seen in a typical thin section of a cell growing on oleate-containing medium, cells of strain 3B also contained one or two very large peroxisomes. In contrast, cells in a strain in which Pmp27 was overexpressed contained an increased number of normal-sized peroxisomes. We suggest that Pmp27 promotes peroxisomal proliferation by participating in peroxisomal elongation or fission. PMID:7721939

  1. Single promoters as regulatory network motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zopf, Christopher; Maheshri, Narendra

    2012-02-01

    At eukaryotic promoters, chromatin can influence the relationship between a gene's expression and transcription factor (TF) activity. This additional complexity might allow single promoters to exhibit dynamical behavior commonly attributed to regulatory motifs involving multiple genes. We investigate the role of promoter chromatin architecture in the kinetics of gene activation using a previously described set of promoter variants based on the phosphate-regulated PHO5 promoter in S. cerevisiae. Accurate quantitative measurement of transcription activation kinetics is facilitated by a controllable and observable TF input to a promoter of interest leading to an observable expression output in single cells. We find the particular architecture of these promoters can result in a significant delay in activation, filtering of noisy TF signals, and a memory of previous activation -- dynamical behaviors reminiscent of a feed-forward loop but only requiring a single promoter. We suggest this is a consequence of chromatin transactions at the promoter, likely passing through a long-lived ``primed'' state between its inactive and competent states. Finally, we show our experimental setup can be generalized as a ``gene oscilloscope'' to probe the kinetics of heterologous promoter architectures.

  2. Insights into the control of geminiviral promoters.

    PubMed

    Borah, B K; Zarreen, F; Baruah, G; Dasgupta, I

    2016-08-01

    Geminiviruses constitute one of the largest groups of plant viruses, having characteristic twinned geminate particles encapsidating small circular single-stranded DNA molecules. Geminiviral promoters are generally located within the intergenic region, although promoters have also been detected within the genes. Similarly, the geminivirus-associated betasatellite also harbours a promoter element for driving the expression of its only ORF. These regulatory elements of geminiviral and satellite origins have been subject of great interest to develop heterologous gene expression modules. Geminiviral promoter and regulatory elements show a complex regulation that is mediated by several host as well as viral proteins. Here, the structural and functional features of geminiviral and satellite promoters are discussed along with their regulation by plant and viral proteins. Although generalization in many cases is difficult and demands further studies, a pattern is seen to emerge on the regulation of the promoters.

  3. Hypercholesterolemia promotes an osteoporotic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Kristine; Krieder, Jaclynn; Joiner, Danese; Freeman, Michael R; Goldstein, Steven A; Solomon, Keith R

    2012-09-01

    A role for hypercholesterolemia in the development of osteoporosis has been suggested in published reports. However, few studies contain direct evidence of a role for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in bone health. Using isocaloric high-fat/high-cholesterol and low-fat/no-cholesterol diets in a 4-month feeding study combined with micro computed tomography analysis, we demonstrated in two different mouse strains that mice with hypercholesterolemia lose cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs and vertebrae (bone mineral density was decreased on average by ≈90 mg/mL in the cortical vertebrae in one strain) and cortical bone in the calvariae (bone mineral density was decreased on average by ≈60 mg/mL in one strain). Mechanical testing of the femurs demonstrated that loss of bone in the mice with hypercholesterolemia caused changes in the mechanical properties of the bone including loss of failure load (failure load was decreased by ≈10 N in one strain) and energy to failure. Serologic and histomorphologic analyses suggested that hypercholesterolemia promotes osteoclastogenesis. These studies support a role for hypercholesterolemia in the development of osteoporosis and provide a model with which to test intervention strategies to reduce the effects of hypercholesterolemia on bone health.

  4. Promotional Guide for Navy Family Service Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    managers of FSCs with a guide to using effective marketing and to increase awareness of FSC products and services. Successful promotional strategies of...they are delivered. kiIl 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Family Service Center, marketing , promotional approach, delivery system, evaluation 28...customers, the authors have prepared a guide that explains how to use various marketing and promotional strategies to achieve that end. A Marketing Approach

  5. Profit Negotiations and Promotion of Contractor Efficiency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    AOA097 06 ARMY POCUREMNT RESARCH OFFICE FORT LEE VA F/B 5/I PROFIT NEGOTIATIONS AND PROMOTION OF CONTRACTOR EFFICIENCY.(U) MAR 81 R W NICK, 6 A...08 0.5 FINAL PROFIT NEGOTIATIONS MD PROMOTION OF CONTRACTOR EFFICIENCY MARCH 1981 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited APRO iU. ANIr...DRXMC-PRO 2 April 1981 SUBJECT: Army Procurement Research Office Report APRO 80-08, Profit Negotiations and Promotion of Contractor Efficiency SEE

  6. Promoter-Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0430 TITLE: Promoter -Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Pomper CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 – 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Promoter -Based...n/a 1. INTRODUCTION: This project leverages cancer-specific promoters for molecular- genetic endoradiotherapy and in the development of a universal

  7. Age-associated changes in basal c-fos transcription factor binding activity in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Tsou, H; Azhar, G; Lu, X G; Kovacs, S; Peacocke, M; Wei, J Y

    1996-12-15

    The early response proto-oncogene c-fos is expressed at very low levels in the mammalian heart at baseline. To further investigate the mechanism of altered c-fos expression with age, we studied in the basal state the binding of five transcription proteins to their cognate sites in the c-fos promoter/enhancer region, in adult and old F344 rats. Our results show a reduced binding of E2F and AP1 proteins to the c-fos promoter in aging hearts. The major calcium/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and SP1 binding was unchanged. The only increase seen with age was in the serum response element (SRE) binding proteins. SRE is the point of convergence of different signal transduction pathways (via MAP kinases and the Rho family of GTPases) at the c-fos promoter. Increased SRE binding may reflect a compensation for a decreased binding of other transcription proteins to the c-fos promoter, alteration in the phosphorylation status of SRF, or a change in the ternary complex factors Elk 1 or SAP 1. Other possibilities include defects in the signal transduction pathways with aging, which combine to produce an overall negative balance in the function of the c-fos promoter despite the increased SRE binding activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown decreased c-fos expression with age. This may be due partly to alterations in the basal levels of transcription factor binding.

  8. An engineered strong promoter for streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Juan; Xiang, Sihai; Feng, Xiaozhou; Yang, Keqian

    2013-07-01

    Well-characterized promoters are essential tools for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. In Streptomyces coelicolor, the native kasOp is a temporally expressed promoter strictly controlled by two regulators, ScbR and ScbR2. In this work, first, kasOp was engineered to remove a common binding site of ScbR and ScbR2 upstream of its core region, thus generating a stronger promoter, kasOp3. Second, another ScbR binding site internal to the kasOp3 core promoter region was abolished by random mutation and screening of the mutant library to obtain the strongest promoter, kasOp* (where the asterisk is used to distinguish the engineered promoter from the native promoter). The activities of kasOp* were compared with those of two known strong promoters, ermEp* and SF14p, in three Streptomyces species. kasOp* showed the highest activity at the transcription and protein levels in all three hosts. Furthermore, relative to ermEp* and SF14p, kasOp* was shown to confer the highest actinorhodin production level when used to drive the expression of actII-ORF4 in S. coelicolor. Therefore, kasOp* is a simple and well-defined strong promoter useful for gene overexpression in streptomycetes.

  9. An Engineered Strong Promoter for Streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Juan; Xiang, Sihai; Feng, Xiaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Well-characterized promoters are essential tools for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. In Streptomyces coelicolor, the native kasOp is a temporally expressed promoter strictly controlled by two regulators, ScbR and ScbR2. In this work, first, kasOp was engineered to remove a common binding site of ScbR and ScbR2 upstream of its core region, thus generating a stronger promoter, kasOp3. Second, another ScbR binding site internal to the kasOp3 core promoter region was abolished by random mutation and screening of the mutant library to obtain the strongest promoter, kasOp* (where the asterisk is used to distinguish the engineered promoter from the native promoter). The activities of kasOp* were compared with those of two known strong promoters, ermEp* and SF14p, in three Streptomyces species. kasOp* showed the highest activity at the transcription and protein levels in all three hosts. Furthermore, relative to ermEp* and SF14p, kasOp* was shown to confer the highest actinorhodin production level when used to drive the expression of actII-ORF4 in S. coelicolor. Therefore, kasOp* is a simple and well-defined strong promoter useful for gene overexpression in streptomycetes. PMID:23686264

  10. Career development resource: promotion to associate professor.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary; Hollands, Celeste

    2012-07-01

    This will most likely be the first time through the promotion and tenure process for the faculty member. The faculty member is responsible for meeting with the department chair and/or division chief on a regular basis to determine if she is on the right time line to successfully achieve promotion to associate professor. A physician will begin seriously preparing her portfolio for promotion to associate professor about 5 to 6 years out of training, at which time she will have some considerable experience running a practice and managing her time. However, the planning process for promotion should begin immediately upon starting the first academic position.

  11. WHO Health Promotion Glossary: new terms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don

    2006-12-01

    The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community.

  12. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), as authorized under the Commodity Promotion,...

  13. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  14. Marketing and Promotion of Library Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Julie

    As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library services. This paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources. It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising the profile of the library.

  15. Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence Network (PREVNet) involves Canadian researchers and national organizations working to promote healthy relationships and prevent bullying. In this paper, we provide the rationale for establishing PREVNet, a description of the work of the network, and an assessment of the success of PREVNet.…

  16. Linking Core Promoter Classes to Circadian Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, Pål O.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in transcription are generated by rhythmic abundances and DNA binding activities of transcription factors. Propagation of rhythms to transcriptional initiation involves the core promoter, its chromatin state, and the basal transcription machinery. Here, I characterize core promoters and chromatin states of genes transcribed in a circadian manner in mouse liver and in Drosophila. It is shown that the core promoter is a critical determinant of circadian mRNA expression in both species. A distinct core promoter class, strong circadian promoters (SCPs), is identified in mouse liver but not Drosophila. SCPs are defined by specific core promoter features, and are shown to drive circadian transcriptional activities with both high averages and high amplitudes. Data analysis and mathematical modeling further provided evidence for rhythmic regulation of both polymerase II recruitment and pause release at SCPs. The analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic view of core promoters and their link to circadian mRNA expression in mouse and Drosophila, and thus reveals a crucial role for the core promoter in regulated, dynamic transcription. PMID:27504829

  17. Cloning the human SUMO1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Nanos-Webb, Angela; Deyrieux, Adeline; Bian, Xue-lin; Rosas-Acosta, Germán; Wilson, Van G

    2010-03-01

    Regulation of the sumoylation system at the level of gene expression has not yet been explored. To begin to define transcriptional regulatory features, the promoter region for the SUMO1 gene was cloned from human genomic DNA and characterized. Initially, a 532 base pair fragment upstream of and including the predicted SUMO1 transcription start site (TSS) was cloned and shown to possess promoter activity. Subsequent deletion analysis showed that a smaller fragment containing 158 bp upstream of the TSS region exhibited basal promoter activity in both human and rodent cell lines. Within this basal promoter fragment, there were predicted binding sites for numerous transcription factors, including the nude mouse gene product, Whn (FoxN1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that Whn could bind to an ACGC motif adjacent to the TSR, and in transfection studies Whn stimulated a 3-fold increase in transcription from this cloned promoter in keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Mutation of the ACGC motif abrogated both Whn binding and transcriptional activation, indicating that the Whn effect is likely due to direct interaction with this promoter element. Consistent with these observations on the cloned promoter region, Whn also modestly stimulated transcription from the endogenous, genomic SUMO1 promoter in HaCaT cells, consistent with Whn potentially playing a regulatory role for SUMO1 transcription in keratinocytes.

  18. Promoting Transformative Learning through Reading Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggan, Chad; Cranton, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report on research into the role of fiction in promoting transformative learning in higher education settings. Participants were 131 undergraduate and graduate students from two universities in the United States. To determine the type of learning promoted by reading fiction, we performed qualitative analyses on participants'…

  19. Media Characteristics in Promoting Management Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dick

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of direct media employed for promoting marketing, service and sales management conferences and institutes was analyzed. Direct mail was the preferred media for program promotion for business clientele. Three enrollment tables illustrate the effectiveness of different media by program area and course type. (EM)

  20. Promoting people's health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, P

    1998-01-01

    Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education.

  1. How should vasectomy be promoted in Guatemala?

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Kincaid, D L

    1988-01-01

    In the article "Evaluation of a Communications Program to Increase Adoption of Vasectomy in Guatemala" by J.T. Bertrand et al (Stud Fam Plann 1987 Nov/Dec), the authors conclude that the use of a male promoter alone was 4 times more cost-effective in increasing the number of vasectomies than the use of radio alone because the costs of the radio program were 4 times higher. This conclusion is questionable for several reasons. 1) The district where the promoter was used alone was twice as large as the radio-only district. 2) In one of the promoter-only districts the same promoter worked throughout the program, but in the other, 3 different promoters had to be recruited and trained, due to high personnel turnover. 3) The initial costs of a radio program may be higher, but 1 program can be broadcast in all districts with little or no extra cost, whereas the costs of a promoter would have to be multiplied by the number of districts. 4) Although the promoter and the radio program produced approximately equal numbers of vasectomies, the radio messages reached over 70% of the people surveyed. Thus, on a national basis, radio broadcasts would be far more cost-effective than the use of salaried promoters in each district.

  2. The Literature on Social Promotion versus Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This general review of the relative merits of social promotion and retention examines research on the benefits of each, describes current strategies for resolving the policy dilemma involved, and considers issues raised by abolishing social promotion and establishing remedial programs. A summary of the history of the widespread adoption of the…

  3. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  4. Health-Promoting Behaviours in Conservatoire Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutz, Gunter; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on health-promoting behaviours in students from two conservatoires, the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM, Manchester, UK; n =199) and the Royal College of Music (RCM, London, UK; n = 74). The research questions concern (a) the levels and types of health-promoting behaviours among performance students and (b) the association…

  5. Effective Promotion in a Greater Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, J. Terence

    Community colleges offering or contemplating offering television-based courses will be successful in promotional efforts if the fundamental, philosophical purpose is built upon a need for expanding current educational services to a population thus far unaffected by on-campus programs. Efforts in promoting television courses should be made so that…

  6. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  7. [Concept of tumor promoters in hepatocarcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Frayssinet, C; Lafarge-Frayssinet, C

    1990-01-01

    Tumor promotion is defined as 1 step of carcinogenesis. Its intervention occurred when cell DNA was already damaged by a carcinogen and is the support of quiescent mutations. This leads to a complete malignant transformation of the cells by a non genotoxic mechanism. The presence of tumor promoters in our environment, although difficult to estimate, must be taken into account. This requires further research.

  8. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to consumers coupons which are redeemable at a retail...

  9. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70 Section 200.70 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member...

  10. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act...

  11. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  12. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  13. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  14. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  15. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  16. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  17. Composing a Tumor Specific Bacterial Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Deyneko, Igor V.; Kasnitz, Nadine; Leschner, Sara; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Systemically applied Salmonella enterica spp. have been shown to invade and colonize neoplastic tissues where it retards the growth of many tumors. This offers the possibility to use the bacteria as a vehicle for the tumor specific delivery of therapeutic molecules. Specificity of such delivery is solely depending on promoter sequences that control the production of a target molecule. We have established the functional structure of bacterial promoters that are transcriptionally active exclusively in tumor tissues after systemic application. We observed that the specific transcriptional activation is accomplished by a combination of a weak basal promoter and a strong FNR binding site. This represents a minimal set of control elements required for such activation. In natural promoters, additional DNA remodeling elements are found that alter the level of transcription quantitatively. Inefficiency of the basal promoter ensures the absence of transcription outside tumors. As a proof of concept, we compiled an artificial promoter sequence from individual motifs representing FNR and basal promoter and showed specific activation in a tumor microenvironment. Our results open possibilities for the generation of promoters with an adjusted level of expression of target proteins in particular for applications in bacterial tumor therapy. PMID:27171245

  18. [Promoting "well-treatment" in medical imaging].

    PubMed

    Renouf, Nicole; Llop, Marc

    2012-12-01

    A project to promote "well-treatment" has been initiated in the medical imaging department of a Parisian hospital. With the aim of promoting the well-being of the patient and developing shared values of empathy and respect, the members of this medico-technical team have undertaken to build a culture of "well-treatment" which respects the patient's dignity and rights.

  19. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  20. Promoting Tech Schools within Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a number of promotional events and practices that the author's school engages in. The author hopes that his school's experiences will serve as an inspiration and useful model for other "Tech Directions" readers. There are many methods for successfully promoting one's tech program. Two key strategies are: (1) Connect in…

  1. Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

  2. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  3. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  4. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  5. 77 FR 56552 - Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...] [Pages 56552-56554] [FR Doc No: 2012-22507] POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Holiday Mobile Shopping... Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion (``Promotion''), which will take place between November 7, 2012 and.../ Cyber Monday holiday shopping timeframe. In this final rule, the Postal Service provides a...

  6. Transcription Factor Binding Site Positioning in Yeast: Proximal Promoter Motifs Characterize TATA-Less Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Ionas; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The availability of sequence specificities for a substantial fraction of yeast's transcription factors and comparative genomic algorithms for binding site prediction has made it possible to comprehensively annotate transcription factor binding sites genome-wide. Here we use such a genome-wide annotation for comprehensively studying promoter architecture in yeast, focusing on the distribution of transcription factor binding sites relative to transcription start sites, and the architecture of TATA and TATA-less promoters. For most transcription factors, binding sites are positioned further upstream and vary over a wider range in TATA promoters than in TATA-less promoters. In contrast, a group of ‘proximal promoter motifs’ (GAT1/GLN3/DAL80, FKH1/2, PBF1/2, RPN4, NDT80, and ROX1) occur preferentially in TATA-less promoters and show a strong preference for binding close to the transcription start site in these promoters. We provide evidence that suggests that pre-initiation complexes are recruited at TATA sites in TATA promoters and at the sites of the other proximal promoter motifs in TATA-less promoters. TATA-less promoters can generally be classified by the proximal promoter motif they contain, with different classes of TATA-less promoters showing different patterns of transcription factor binding site positioning and nucleosome coverage. These observations suggest that different modes of regulation of transcription initiation may be operating in the different promoter classes. In addition we show that, across all promoter classes, there is a close match between nucleosome free regions and regions of highest transcription factor binding site density. This close agreement between transcription factor binding site density and nucleosome depletion suggests a direct and general competition between transcription factors and nucleosomes for binding to promoters. PMID:21931670

  7. Transcription factor binding site positioning in yeast: proximal promoter motifs characterize TATA-less promoters.

    PubMed

    Erb, Ionas; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The availability of sequence specificities for a substantial fraction of yeast's transcription factors and comparative genomic algorithms for binding site prediction has made it possible to comprehensively annotate transcription factor binding sites genome-wide. Here we use such a genome-wide annotation for comprehensively studying promoter architecture in yeast, focusing on the distribution of transcription factor binding sites relative to transcription start sites, and the architecture of TATA and TATA-less promoters. For most transcription factors, binding sites are positioned further upstream and vary over a wider range in TATA promoters than in TATA-less promoters. In contrast, a group of 6 'proximal promoter motifs' (GAT1/GLN3/DAL80, FKH1/2, PBF1/2, RPN4, NDT80, and ROX1) occur preferentially in TATA-less promoters and show a strong preference for binding close to the transcription start site in these promoters. We provide evidence that suggests that pre-initiation complexes are recruited at TATA sites in TATA promoters and at the sites of the other proximal promoter motifs in TATA-less promoters. TATA-less promoters can generally be classified by the proximal promoter motif they contain, with different classes of TATA-less promoters showing different patterns of transcription factor binding site positioning and nucleosome coverage. These observations suggest that different modes of regulation of transcription initiation may be operating in the different promoter classes. In addition we show that, across all promoter classes, there is a close match between nucleosome free regions and regions of highest transcription factor binding site density. This close agreement between transcription factor binding site density and nucleosome depletion suggests a direct and general competition between transcription factors and nucleosomes for binding to promoters.

  8. The Dual Lives of Bidirectional Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Wakano, Clay; Byun, Jung S.; Di, Li-Jun; Gardner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome led to many insights into gene organization and structure. One interesting observation was the high frequency of bidirectional promoters characterized by two protein encoding genes whose promoters are arranged in a divergent or “head-to-head” configuration with less than 2000 base pairs of intervening sequence. Computational estimates published by various groups indicate that nearly 10% of the coding gene promoters are arranged in such a manner and the extent of this bias is a unique feature of mammalian genomes. Moreover, as a class, head-to-head promoters appear to be enriched in specific categories of gene function. Here we review the structure, composition, genomic properties and functional classifications of genes controlled by bidirectional promoters and explore the biological implication of these features. PMID:22366276

  9. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    PubMed

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015.

  10. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.

  11. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  12. Screening of candidate G-quadruplex ligands for the human c-KIT promotorial region and their effects in multiple in-vitro models

    PubMed Central

    Zorzan, Eleonora; Ros, Silvia Da; Musetti, Caterina; Shahidian, Lara Zorro; Ramos Coelho, Nuno Filipe; Bonsembiante, Federico; Létard, Sébastien; Gelain, Maria Elena; Palumbo, Manlio; Dubreuil, Patrice; Giantin, Mery; Sissi, Claudia; Dacasto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization of G-quadruplex (G4) structures in promoters is a novel promising strategy to regulate gene expression at transcriptional and translational levels. c-KIT proto-oncogene encodes for a tyrosine kinase receptor. It is involved in several physiological processes, but it is also dysregulated in many diseases, including cancer. Two G-rich sequences able to fold into G4, have been identified in c-KIT proximal promoter, thus representing suitable targets for anticancer intervention. Herein, we screened an “in house” library of compounds for the recognition of these G4 elements and we identified three promising ligands. Their G4-binding properties were analyzed and related to their antiproliferative, transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects in MCF7 and HGC27 cell lines. Besides c-KIT, the transcriptional analysis covered a panel of oncogenes known to possess G4 in their promoters. From these studies, an anthraquinone derivative (AQ1) was found to efficiently downregulate c-KIT mRNA and protein in both cell lines. The targeted activity of AQ1 was confirmed using c-KIT–dependent cell lines that present either c-KIT mutations or promoter engineered (i.e., α155, HMC1.2 and ROSA cells). Present results indicate AQ1 as a promising compound for the target therapy of c-KIT-dependent tumors, worth of further and in depth molecular investigations. PMID:26942875

  13. Health promotion in Canada: 1986 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Riley, Barbara L

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion in Canada between 1986 and 2006 is characterized by three major eras: Health Promotion in the Limelight, 1986-1992, Health Promotion Behind the Scenes, 1993-2003, and Health Promotion Restaged, 2003-2006. These eras are illustrated using the Canadian Heart Health Initiative as an example. The first era, backed by strong federal government leadership and support, was a progressive time of developing concepts, collaborations and infrastructure for health promotion across the country. Despite significant progress, by the end of this era, health promotion was neither sufficiently developed nor funded to make it a cornerstone of the health system. In addition, the emphasis was heavily biased towards changing individual behaviour. In the second era, health promotion continued to develop in pockets across the country and debates within the field intensified. However, these events went largely unnoticed and massive overall cuts at federal and provincial levels of government made acute care a much higher priority than health promotion. The third era, mostly shaped by fears linked to public health threats, saw a restaging of health promotion through efforts to strengthen public health infrastructure. Nevertheless, at the end of this era, the necessary intersectoral partnerships (such as in health, housing, education, food, income) remained scarce, and little progress was made to decrease health inequalities. The Canadian Heart Health Initiative was implemented over the same time period as the three eras. Its legacy includes collegial relationships across various levels of government and with non-government organizations, a culture that values pan-Canadian initiatives, and support for integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. It remains to be seen how quickly it will be possible to advance the vision of health promotion conceived during the Limelight Era in Canada.

  14. Synthetic promoter libraries for Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Rytter, Jakob Vang; Helmark, Søren; Chen, Jun; Lezyk, Mateusz Jakub; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-03-01

    The ability to modulate gene expression is an important genetic tool in systems biology and biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate that a previously published easy and fast PCR-based method for modulating gene expression in lactic acid bacteria is also applicable to Corynebacterium glutamicum. We constructed constitutive promoter libraries based on various combinations of a previously reported C. glutamicum -10 consensus sequence (gngnTA(c/t)aaTgg) and the Escherichia coli -35 consensus, either with or without an AT-rich region upstream. A promoter library based on consensus sequences frequently found in low-GC Gram-positive microorganisms was also included. The strongest promoters were found in the library with a -35 region and a C. glutamicum -10 consensus, and this library also represents the largest activity span. Using the alternative -10 consensus TATAAT, which can be found in many other prokaryotes, resulted in a weaker but still useful promoter library. The upstream AT-rich region did not appear to affect promoter strength in C. glutamicum. In addition to the constitutive promoters, a synthetic inducible promoter library, based on the E. coli lac-promoter, was constructed by randomizing the 17-bp spacer between -35 and -10 consensus sequences and the sequences surrounding these. The inducible promoter library was shown to result in β-galactosidase activities ranging from 284 to 1,665 Miller units when induced by IPTG, and the induction fold ranged from 7-59. We find that the synthetic promoter library (SPL) technology is convenient for modulating gene expression in C. glutamicum and should have many future applications, within basic research as well as for optimizing industrial production organisms.

  15. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  16. Data describing the effect of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms on promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Tei, Shoin; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2016-06-01

    This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), -906 T/C, -809 G/A, -616G/C, and -521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits.

  17. Overview of tumor promotion in animals

    PubMed Central

    Slaga, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Our present understanding of two-stage carcinogenesis encompasses almost four decades of research. Evidence for chemical promotion or cocarcinogenesis was first provided by Berenblum, who reported that a regimen of croton oil (weak or noncarcinogenic) applied alternately with small doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mouse skin induced a larger number of tumors than BP alone. Subsequently, Moltram found that a single subcarcinogenic dose of BP followed by multiple applications of croton oil could induce a large number of skin tumors. These investigations as well as a number of others, such as Boutwell, Van Duuren and Hecker, were responsible in defining many important aspects of the initiation and promotion of two-stage carcinogenesis. The initiation stage in mouse skin requires only a single application of either a direct-acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen and is essentially an irreversible step which as data suggests probably involves a somatic cell mutation. The promotion stage in mouse skin can be accomplished by a wide variety of weak or noncarcinogenic agents and is initially reversible later becoming irreversible. Current information suggests that skin tumor promoters are not mutagenic but bring about a number of important epigenetic changes, such as epidermal hyperplasia, and an increase in polyamines, prostaglandins and dark basal keratinocytes as well as other embryonic conditions. Recently, tumor promotion in mouse skin was shown to consist of at least two stages, in which each stage can be accomplished by either a known promoter or a weak or nonpromoting agent. Some of the important characteristics of the first stage of promotion are: (1) only one application of a first-stage promoter, such as phorbol ester tumor promoters, calcium ionophore A23187, hydrogen peroxide and wounding is needed; (2) the action is partially irreversible; (3) an increase in dark basal keratinocytes and prostaglandins is important; and (4) such an increase can be inhibited by

  18. New health promotion movement: a critical examination.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A; Minkler, M

    1994-01-01

    In the last decade, a revolution has been occurring in the field of health promotion. Guided to a large extent by position papers disseminated by the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Health Promotion Office, and furthered by the Ottawa Charter, the Epp Report in Canada, the Healthy Cities project, as well as by other efforts, this new health promotion movement has introduced new ideas, new language, and new concepts about what constitutes health and how health promotion efforts should be configured to achieve health. Punctuated by the terms like empowerment and community participation, this movement has generated a whole new discourse about the theory and practice of health promotion. This paper explores the multiple meanings that surround these terms, and the implications for practice, by addressing questions like: What does health mean in this new context? What is empowerment? What does participation look like? Has the tyranny of the professional been replaced by the tyranny of the community? Has anything changed about the practice of health promotion other than the language? Finally, it is argued that an acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of these concepts may facilitate their translation from rhetoric into health promotion practice.

  19. Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Pátek, Miroslav; Holátko, Jiří; Busche, Tobias; Kalinowski, Jörn; Nešvera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transcription initiation is the key step in gene expression in bacteria, and it is therefore studied for both theoretical and practical reasons. Promoters, the traffic lights of transcription initiation, are used as construction elements in biotechnological efforts to coordinate ‘green waves’ in the metabolic pathways leading to the desired metabolites. Detailed analyses of Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters have already provided large amounts of data on their structures, regulatory mechanisms and practical capabilities in metabolic engineering. In this minireview the main aspects of promoter studies, the methods developed for their analysis and their practical use in C. glutamicum are discussed. These include definitions of the consensus sequences of the distinct promoter classes, promoter localization and characterization, activity measurements, the functions of transcriptional regulators and examples of practical uses of constitutive, inducible and modified promoters in biotechnology. The implications of the introduction of novel techniques, such as in vitro transcription and RNA sequencing, to C. glutamicum promoter studies are outlined. PMID:23305350

  20. Vector promoters used in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Zhu, Chengqian; Lin, Jie; Li, Jingkang; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-09-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the metabolic engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, our knowledge of the actual expression level of promoters used in K. pneumoniae is limited. In this study, the expression levels of three promoters were compared systematically by using the lacZ reporter gene with different carbon sources in K. pneumoniae. The results showed that, although promoters PT5 and Ptac designed for Escherichia coli were functional, PT5 appeared more efficient and the induction/repression ratio of Ptac was decreased extremely in K. pneumoniae. The basal level of Ptac for lacZ expression reached 396.5 U/mg, which was 9.5-fold higher compared with PT5 in LB medium, indicating Ptac can be used as an efficient "constitutive" promoter as well as an efficient induced promoter in K. pneumoniae. In different carbon sources medium, a newly constructed endogenous constitutive Pbud proved to be a stable and weak promoter. On the basis of our data, a set of Pbud and Ptac promoters could meet the broad range (about 1,000 orders of magnitude) of gene expression needed for engineered K. pneumoniae in glycerol-based medium.

  1. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses.

  2. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    PubMed

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming.

  3. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  4. NCDs, health promotion and public health.

    PubMed

    McQueen, David V

    2013-12-01

    Though not necessarily using the same terminology historically, people concerned with the public's health have long been addressing the social context of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the actions of promoting health. This commentary places the current interest in NCDs within that history and discusses the challenges that continue to face institutions in dealing with NCDs. It makes a particular plea for the role of health promotion as the area of public health that takes actions to address the global burden of NCDs. Without a health promotion focus, we will just continue to describe the NCD burden rather than reduce it.

  5. Characterization of human TCR Vbeta gene promoter. Role of the dodecamer motif in promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Deng, X; Sun, G R; Zheng, Q; Li, Y

    1998-09-11

    During T-lymphocyte development, the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) gene expression is controlled by its promoter and enhancer elements and regulated in tissue- and development stage-specific manner. To uncover the promoter function and to define positive and negative regulatory elements in TCR gene promoters, the promoter activities from 13 human TCR Vbeta genes were determined by the transient transfection system and luciferase reporter assay. Although most of the TCR Vbeta gene promoters that we tested are inactive by themselves, some promoters were found to be constitutively strong. Among them, Vbeta6.7 is the strongest. 5'-Deletion and fragmentation experiments have narrowed the full promoter activity of Vbeta6.7 to a fragment of 147 base pairs immediately 5' to the transcription initiation site. A decanucleotide motif with the consensus sequence AGTGAYRTCA has been found to be conserved in most TCR Vbeta gene promoters. There are three such decamer motifs in the promoter region of Vbeta6.7, and the contribution of each such motif to the promoter activity has been examined. Further site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that: 1) when two Ts in the decamer were mutated, the promoter activity was totally abolished; 2) when two additional nucleotides 3' to the end of decamer were mutated, the promoter activity was decreased to two-thirds of the full level; and 3) when the element with the sequence AGTGATGTCACT was inserted into other promoters, the original weak promoters become very strong. Taken together, our data suggest that the positive regulatory element in Vbeta6.7 should be considered a dodecamer rather than a decamer and that it confers strong basal transcriptional activity on TCR Vbeta genes.

  6. Correction of murine SCID-X1 by lentiviral gene therapy using a codon-optimized IL2RG gene and minimal pretransplant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Huston, Marshall W; van Til, Niek P; Visser, Trudi P; Arshad, Shazia; Brugman, Martijn H; Cattoglio, Claudia; Nowrouzi, Ali; Li, Yuedan; Schambach, Axel; Schmidt, Manfred; Baum, Christopher; von Kalle, Christof; Mavilio, Fulvio; Zhang, Fang; Blundell, Mike P; Thrasher, Adrian J; Verstegen, Monique M A; Wagemaker, Gerard

    2011-10-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the potential of ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy to treat X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) using γ-retroviral vectors, leading to immune system functionality in the majority of treated patients without pretransplant conditioning. The success was tempered by insertional oncogenesis in a proportion of the patients. To reduce the genotoxicity risk, a self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector (LV) with improved expression of a codon optimized human interleukin-2 receptor γ gene (IL2RG) cDNA (coγc), regulated by its 1.1 kb promoter region (γcPr), was compared in efficacy to the viral spleen focus forming virus (SF) and the cellular phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoters. Pretransplant conditioning of Il2rg(-/-) mice resulted in long-term reconstitution of T and B lymphocytes, normalized natural antibody titers, humoral immune responses, ConA/IL-2 stimulated spleen cell proliferation, and polyclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements with a clear integration preference of the SF vector for proto-oncogenes, contrary to the PGK and γcPr vectors. We conclude that SIN lentiviral gene therapy using coγc driven by the γcPr or PGK promoter corrects the SCID phenotype, potentially with an improved safety profile, and that low-dose conditioning proved essential for immune competence, allowing for a reduced threshold of cell numbers required.

  7. Intestine-specific homeobox (ISX) upregulates E2F1 expression and related oncogenic activities in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chee-Yin; Hsi, Edward; Kuo, Hsing-Tao; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Hsu, Shih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Intestine-specific homeobox (ISX), a newly identified proto-oncogene, is involved in cell proliferation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanisms linking gene expression and tumor formation remain unclear. In this study, we found that ISX transcriptionally activated E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and associated oncogenic activity by directly binding to the E2 site of its promoter. Forced expression of ISX increased the expression of and phosphorylated the serine residue at position 332 of E2F1, which may be translocated into the nucleus to form the E2F1–DP-1 complex, suggesting that the promotion of oncogenic activities of the ISX–E2F1 axis plays a critical role in hepatoma cells. Coexpression of ISX and E2F1 significantly promoted p53 and RB-mediated cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis, and repressed apoptosis and autophagy. In contrast, short hairpin RNAi-mediated attenuation of ISX and E2F1 decreased cell proliferation and malignant transformation, respectively, in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The mRNA expression of E2F1 and ISX in 238 paired specimens from human HCC patients, and the adjacent, normal tissues exhibited a tumor-specific expression pattern which was highly correlated with disease pathogenesis, patient survival time, progression stage, and poor prognosis. Therefore, our results indicate that E2F1 is an important downstream gene of ISX in hepatoma progression. PMID:27175585

  8. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  9. Responsible Assertive Behavior Promotes Effective Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1983-01-01

    Assertive behavior promotes the development of mutually satisfying relationships, with none of the disadvantages of passive or aggressive behavior. Because of the interpersonal and organizational benefits, managers should encourage assertive behavior throughout their organizations. (SK)

  10. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being... publication within 120 days following marketing approval. After 120 days following marketing approval,...

  11. Health promotion: challenges revealed in successful practices

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640

  12. Promoting Community Health Resources: Preferred Communication Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...

  13. What Promotes Racial and Ethnic Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews selected research on efforts to promote racial and ethnic tolerance through the adoption of certain school and classroom practices and improved preservice and inservice teacher-training activities. (PKP)

  14. A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.

  15. The Causes and Costs of Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Lu Ann W.; McGrath, Loraine G.

    1983-01-01

    Minimizing the stress that nurses experience after a promotion requires an understanding of the factors associated with moving up the managerial ladder. Knowing these factors, nursing administrators can plan their programs to support their managers in transition. (SSH)

  16. Promoting consumer empowerment through entrepreneurship: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    In order to promote life control, this proposal suggests strategies to help people who use community mental health services to access small loans or "microcredit" for entrepreneurship in self-help groups.

  17. The health promotion internship: a sponsor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Smoczyk, C M

    1987-01-01

    Health promotion internships are an essential link between the university classroom and the corporate or public service environment. A well structured internship experience will provide the future health promotion professional with an opportunity to transfer learned theory into practical application within a controlled and supervised environment. The success of the internship experience is contingent upon the mutual effort of the student, academic institution, and sponsoring organization working together to develop a model that will reflect the goals and objectives of each group with primary long-term benefit accruing to the future health promotion professional. The purpose of this article is to explore the components of a successful health promotion internship model developed from the perspective of a sponsoring organization.

  18. Promoting Business Education through Student Organization Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelverton, Sandra

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the promotion of business education through the activities of student organizations. Describes specific programs, projects, and leadership development activities and their effectiveness in publicizing business education programs. (JOW)

  19. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  20. Perceived effectiveness of messages promoting hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance.