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Sample records for proton drip line

  1. Spectroscopic studies near the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, K.S. ); Moltz, D.M.; Nitschke, J.M.; Wilmarth, P.A. ); Robertson, J.D. )

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated nuclei close to the proton drip line by using heavy-ion fusion reactions to produce extremely neutron-deficient nuclides. Their nuclear decay properties were studied by using on-line isotope separators at Oak Ridge (UNISOR) and Berkeley (OASIS), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory velocity filter, and a fast helium-gas-jet transport system at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. Many isotopes, isomers, and {beta}-delayed-proton and {alpha}-particle emitters were discovered. This contribution summarizes three topics that are part of our overall program: decay rates of even-even {alpha}-particle emitters, mass excesses of {sup 181}Pb, {sup 182}Pb, and {sup 183}Pb, and {beta}-delayed proton emitters near N = 82. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  2. First Penning Trap Mass Measurements beyond the Proton Drip Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rauth, C.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mukherjee, M.; Rahaman, S.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Chaudhuri, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Di, Z.; Plass, W. R.; Eliseev, S.; Vorobjev, G.; Habs, D.

    2008-01-11

    The masses of six neutron-deficient rare holmium and thulium isotopes close to the proton drip line were determined with the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer. For the first time the masses of the proton-unbound isotopes {sup 144,145}Ho and {sup 147,148}Tm were directly measured. The proton separation energies were derived from the measured mass values and compared to predictions from mass formulas. The new values of the proton separation energies are used to determine the location of the proton drip line for holmium and thulium more accurately.

  3. {beta}-delayed proton decays near the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.-W.; Li, Z.-K.; Xie, Y.-X.; Pan, Q.-Y.; Huang, W.-X.; Wang, X.-D.; Yu, Y.; Xing, Y.-B.; Shu, N.-C.; Chen, Y.-S.; Xu, F.-R.; Wang, K.

    2005-05-01

    We briefly reviewed and summarized the experimental study on {beta}-delayed proton decays published by our group over the last 8 years, namely the experimental observation of {beta}-delayed proton decays of nine new nuclides in the rare-earth region near the proton drip line and five nuclides in the mass 90 region with N{approx}Z by utilizing the p-{gamma} coincidence technique in combination with a He-jet tape transport system. In addition, important technical details of the experiments were provided. The experimental results were compared to the theoretical predictions of some nuclear models, resulting in the following conclusions. (1) The experimental half-lives for {sup 85}Mo, {sup 92}Rh, as well as the predicted 'waiting point' nuclei {sup 89}Ru and {sup 93}Pd were 5-10 times longer than the macroscopic-microscopic model predictions of Moeller et al. [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 66,131(1997)]. These data considerably influenced the predictions of the mass abundances of the nuclides produced in the rp process. (2) The experimental assignments of spin and parity for the drip-line nuclei {sup 142}Ho and {sup 128}Pm could not be well predicted by any of the nuclear models. Nevertheless, the configuration-constrained nuclear potential-energy surfaces calculated by means of a Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky method could reproduce the assignments. (3) The ALICE code overestimated by one or two orders of magnitude the production-reaction cross sections of the nine studied rare-earth nuclei, while the HIVAP code overestimated them by approximately one order of magnitude.

  4. Magnetic Moment of Proton Drip-Line Nucleus (9)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Tanigaki, M.; Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Mihara, M.; Onishi, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the proton drip-line nucleus C-9(I(sup (pi)) = 3/2, T(sub 1/2) = 126 ms) has been measured for the first time, using the beta-NMR detection technique with polarized radioactive beams. The measure value for the magnetic moment is 1mu(C-9)! = 1.3914 +/- 0.0005 (mu)N. The deduced spin expectation value of 1.44 is unusually larger than any other ones of even-odd nuclei.

  5. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of proton drip-line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seweryniak, Dariusz

    1998-10-01

    Spectroscopy of nuclei far from the line of stability extends our knowledge of nuclear systems characterized by extreme values of nuclear isospin. The collapse and appearance of magic numbers, the onset of new regions of deformation, new decay modes are predicted for nuclei with exotic isospin composition. Despite continuous progress, the neutron drip-line has not been reached experimentally, but for the light elements. However, modern experimental techniques have made studies of nuclei at the limits of proton stability possible. For example, thanks to recent proton-decay studies, the proton drip-line was almost completely delineated for elements between Z=51 and Z=83(P.J. Woods and C. Davids, Ann. Rev. Nucl. and Part. Sci. 47), 541 (1997). Large arrays of Ge detectors combined with ancillary detectors facilitating reaction channel selection have provided a vast amount of in-beam spectroscopic data across the nuclidic chart. The Recoil-Decay Tagging (RDT) method(R.S. Simon et al., Z. Phys. A325) 197 (1986) and E.S. Paul, P.J. Woods et al., Phys. Rev. C51, 78 (1995), which takes advantage of the high selectivity of alpha- and proton-decay studies, has been particularly successful. GAMMASPHERE coupled with the Fragment Mass Analyzer at the Argonne National Laboratory represents the state-of-the-art system for RDT experiments. Since its commissioning in the beginning of 1998, excited states in many nuclei situated at or even beyond the proton drip-line (ranging from the ^100Sn region through actinide nuclides) were observed. Among others, transitions feeding the ground-state and the isomeric state in the deformed proton emitter ^141Ho(C.N. Davids et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80), 1849 (1998) were selected(P.J. Woods et al., private communication). The cross section for populating the isomer is about 50 nb and it represents the weakest channel ever observed in an in-beam experiment. During this talk the Recoil Decay Tagging Method will be introduced and the results

  6. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.

    2011-11-01

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  7. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Collaboration: RITU-Gamma Gollaboration

    2011-11-30

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  8. {beta}-delayed proton decays in the rare-earth region near drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.-W.; Li, Z.-K.; Xie, Y.-X.; Huang, W.-X.; Wang, X.-D.; Yu, Y.; Xu, F.-R.; Pan, Q.-Y.; Shu, N.-C.; Chen, Y.-S.; Wang, K.

    2006-11-02

    The history of experimental study on {beta}-delayed proton decays in the rare-earth region was simply reviewed. The physical results of the {beta}-delayed proton decays obtained at IMP, Lanzhou over the last 10 years were summarized, mainly including the first observation of 9 new {beta}-delayed proton precursors along the odd-Z proton drip line and the new data for 2 waiting-point nuclei in the rp-process. The results were compared and discussed with different nuclear model calculations. Finally, the perspective in near future was briefly introduced.

  9. Spectroscopy at the two-proton drip line: Excited states in 158W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joss, D. T.; Page, R. D.; Herzán, A.; Donosa, L.; Uusitalo, J.; Carroll, R. J.; Darby, I. G.; Andgren, K.; Cederwall, B.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hadinia, B.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Leino, M.; Leppanen, A.-P.; Nyman, M.; O'Donnell, D.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Seweryniak, D.; Simpson, J.; Sorri, J.

    2017-09-01

    Excited states have been identified in the heaviest known even-Z N = 84 isotone 158W, which lies in a region of one-proton emitters and the two-proton drip line. The observation of γ-ray transitions feeding the ground state establishes the excitation energy of the yrast 6+ state confirming the spin-gap nature of the α-decaying 8+ isomer. The 8+ isomer is also expected to be unbound to two-proton emission but no evidence for this decay mode was observed. An upper limit for the two-proton decay branch has been deduced as b2p ≤ 0.17% at the 90% confidence level. The possibility of observing two-proton emission from multiparticle isomers in nearby nuclides is considered.

  10. Proton Drip Line Nuclei from Z = 31 TO Z = 49 IN the Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2001-11-01

    The structure of proton drip line nuclei in the 60 < A < 100 mass range is studied with the Relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (RHB) model. For the elements which determine the astrophysical rapid proton capture process path, the RHB model predicts the location of the proton drip-line, the ground-state quadrupole deformations and one-proton separation energies at and beyond the drip-line. The results of the present theoretical investigation are compared with available experimental data. For possible odd-Z ground state proton emitters, the calculated deformed single-particle orbitals occupied by the odd valence proton and the corresponding spectroscopic factors are compared with predictions of the macroscopic-microscopic mass model.

  11. Limits of the energy-spin phase space beyond the proton drip line : entry distributions fo Pt and Au isobars.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Abu Saleem, K.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Danchev, M.; Davids, C. N.; Hartley, D. J.; Heinz, A.; Lister, C. J.; Ma, W. C.; Poli, G. L.; Ressler, J. J.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Rutgers univ.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Tennessee; Univ. of Maryland; Washington Univ.

    2003-01-09

    Entry distributions in angular momentum and excitation energy have been measured for several very proton-rich isotopes of Pt and Au. This is the first systematic study of the energy-spin phase space for nuclei near and beyond the proton drip line. Comparisons are made between the distributions associated with proton-unbound Au nuclei and more stable Pt isobars. In {sup 173}Au the first evidence is seen for the limits of excitation energy and angular momentum which a nucleus beyond the proton drip line can sustain.

  12. Magnetic moment of proton drip-line nucleus {sup 9}C

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Tanigaki, M.; Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Mihara, M.; Onishi, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, M.

    1994-10-01

    The magnetic moment of the proton drip-line nucleus {sup 9}C(I{sup {pi}}=3/2{sup -}, T{sub {1/2}}=126 ms) has been measured for the first time, using the {beta}-NMR detection technique with polarized radioactive beams. The measured value for the magnetic moment is {vert_bar} {mu}({sup 9}C) {vert_bar} = 1.3914{+-}0.0005 {mu}{sub N}. The deduced spin expectation value<{sigma}> of 1.44 is unusually larger than an other ones of even-odd nuclei.

  13. New Isotopes and Proton Emitters-Crossing the Drip Line in the Vicinity of ^{100}Sn.

    PubMed

    Čeliković, I; Lewitowicz, M; Gernhäuser, R; Krücken, R; Nishimura, S; Sakurai, H; Ahn, D S; Baba, H; Blank, B; Blazhev, A; Boutachkov, P; Browne, F; de France, G; Doornenbal, P; Faestermann, T; Fang, Y; Fukuda, N; Giovinazzo, J; Goel, N; Górska, M; Ilieva, S; Inabe, N; Isobe, T; Jungclaus, A; Kameda, D; Kim, Y-K; Kwon, Y K; Kojouharov, I; Kubo, T; Kurz, N; Lorusso, G; Lubos, D; Moschner, K; Murai, D; Nishizuka, I; Park, J; Patel, Z; Rajabali, M; Rice, S; Schaffner, H; Shimizu, Y; Sinclair, L; Söderström, P-A; Steiger, K; Sumikama, T; Suzuki, H; Takeda, H; Wang, Z; Watanabe, H; Wu, J; Xu, Z

    2016-04-22

    Several new isotopes, ^{96}In, ^{94}Cd, ^{92}Ag, and ^{90}Pd, have been identified at the RIKEN Nishina Center. The study of proton drip-line nuclei in the vicinity of ^{100}Sn led to the discovery of new proton emitters ^{93}Ag and ^{89}Rh with half-lives in the submicrosecond range. The systematics of the half-lives of odd-Z nuclei with T_{z}=-1/2 toward ^{99}Sn shows a stabilizing effect of the Z=50 shell closure. Production cross sections for nuclei in the vicinity of ^{100}Sn measured at different energies and target thicknesses were compared to the cross sections calculated by epax taking into account contributions of secondary reactions in the primary target.

  14. Gamow-Teller {beta}{sup +} decay of deformed nuclei near the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Frisk, F.; Hamamoto, I.; Zhang, X.Z. |

    1995-11-01

    Using a quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) based on deformed Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with Skyrme interactions, the distribution of the Gamow-Teller (GT) {beta}{sup +} decay strength is estimated for the HF local minima of even-even deformed nuclei near the proton drip line in the region of 28{lt}{ital Z}{lt}66. The distribution often depends sensitively on the nuclear shape (namely, oblate or prolate). In the region of {ital Z}{lt}50 the possibility of observing {beta}-delayed proton emission depends sensitively on the excess of {ital Z} over {ital Z}={ital N}. In the region of {ital Z}{gt}50 almost the entire estimated GT strength is found to lie below the ground states of the even-even mother nuclei, and the observation of the total GT strength by {beta}-delayed charged-particle(s) emission will be of essential importance.

  15. First observation of an isomeric state in proton drip-line nucleus 26P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, D.; Fukuda, M.; Sakai, T.; Tanaka, M.; Abe, K.; Chiba, J.; Fukuda, S.; Furuki, H.; Homma, A.; Hotaka, H.; Ichihashi, N.; Inaba, N.; Iwamoto, K.; Izumikawa, T.; Kamisho, Y.; Kanbe, K.; Kikukawa, N.; Kitagawa, A.; Kouno, J.; Nagashima, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishizuka, I.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Miyazawa, S.; Morita, Y.; Ono, J.; Ohtsubo, T.; Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Sera, D.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, T.; Takechi, M.; Tashiro, K.; Wakabayashi, M.; Watanabe, D.; Yaguchi, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaki, S.; Yasumoto, S.; Yoshinaga, K.; Zhu, Y.

    2014-03-01

    An isomeric state in the proton drip-line nucleus 26P has been observed by the γ-ray spectroscopy. The γ-ray energy and the half-life are 164.4 ± 0.1 keV and 120 ± 9 ns, respectively. For the isomeric transition of the mirror nucleus 26Na, the γ-ray energy of 82.40 ± 0.04 keV and the half-life of 4.35 ± 0.16 μs are also revised. Comparing the experimental reduced transition probabilities of 26Na and 26P with theoretical ones calculated by the shell model with the USDA interaction, the spin-parity (Jπ) of the isomeric state in 26P is most likely to be 1+.

  16. Systematics of isomeric configurations in N=77 odd-Z isotones near the proton drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, M. N.; Bingham, C. R.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Batchelder, J. C.; Królas, W.; Danchev, M.; Fong, D.; Ginter, T. N.; Gross, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Hagino, K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hartley, D. J.; Karny, M.; Li, K.; Mazzocchi, C.; Piechaczek, A.; Ramayya, A. V.; Rykaczewski, K.; Shapira, D.; Stolz, A.; Winger, J. A.; Yu, C.-H.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2006-02-01

    The systematics of the πh11/2⊗νh11/2 and πh11/2⊗νs1/2 isomeric configurations was studied for the odd-Z N=77 isotones near the proton drip line. The isomeric decays in 140Eu, 142Tb, 144Ho, and 146Tm were measured by means of x-ray, γ-ray, and charged particle spectroscopy at the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (ORNL). The spin and parity of Iπ=8+ and 5- were deduced for the isomers in 140Eu and 142Tb. New decay schemes were established, and the half-lives of the 8+ isomers were measured to be 302(4) ns for 140m2Eu and 25(1) μs for 142m2Tb. No evidence for the expected 1+ ground-state was found in the 144Ho decay data. The proton-emission from 146Tm was restudied. Five proton transitions were assigned to two proton-emitting states. The half-lives of 198(3) ms and 68(3) ms and the spin and parity values of Iπ=10+ and 5- were established for 146mTm and 146gsTm, respectively. For the first time for an odd-odd nucleus, the interpretation of the observed decay properties and structure of the proton-emitting states was made by accounting for deformation and proton and neutron coupling to the core excitations. A complex wave-function structure was obtained, with dominating components of πh11/2⊗νh11/2 for the 10+ isomer and πh11/2⊗νs1/2 for the 5- ground state.

  17. Experimental study on {beta}-delayed proton decays in the rare-earth region near drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.-W.; Li, Z.-K.; Xie, Y.-X.

    2007-11-30

    The history of experimental study on {beta}-delayed proton decays in the rare-earth region was simply reviewed. The physical results of the {beta}-delayed proton decays obtained at IMP, Lanzhou over the last 10 years were summarized, mainly including the first observation of 9 new {beta}-delayed proton precursors along the odd-Z proton drip line and the new data for 2 waiting-point nuclei in the rp-process. The results were compared and discussed with different nuclear model calculations. Finally, the perspective in near future was briefly introduced.

  18. Systematics of isomeric configurations in N=77 odd-Z isotones near the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawy, M.N.; Danchev, M.; Hartley, D.J.; Mazzocchi, C.; Bingham, C.R.; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Gross, C.J.; Shapira, D.; Yu, C.-H.; Batchelder, J.C.; Krolas, W.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Ginter, T.N.; Stolz, A.; Hagino, K.; Karny, M.

    2006-02-15

    The systematics of the {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}s{sub 1/2} isomeric configurations was studied for the odd-Z N=77 isotones near the proton drip line. The isomeric decays in {sup 140}Eu, {sup 142}Tb, {sup 144}Ho, and {sup 146}Tm were measured by means of x-ray, {gamma}-ray, and charged particle spectroscopy at the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (ORNL). The spin and parity of I{sup {pi}}=8{sup +} and 5{sup -} were deduced for the isomers in {sup 140}Eu and {sup 142}Tb. New decay schemes were established, and the half-lives of the 8{sup +} isomers were measured to be 302(4) ns for {sup 140m2}Eu and 25(1) {mu}s for {sup 142m2}Tb. No evidence for the expected 1{sup +} ground-state was found in the {sup 144}Ho decay data. The proton-emission from {sup 146}Tm was restudied. Five proton transitions were assigned to two proton-emitting states. The half-lives of 198(3) ms and 68(3) ms and the spin and parity values of I{sup {pi}}=10{sup +} and 5{sup -} were established for {sup 146m}Tm and {sup 146gs}Tm, respectively. For the first time for an odd-odd nucleus, the interpretation of the observed decay properties and structure of the proton-emitting states was made by accounting for deformation and proton and neutron coupling to the core excitations. A complex wave-function structure was obtained, with dominating components of {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}h{sub 11/2} for the 10{sup +} isomer and {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}s{sub 1/2} for the 5{sup -} ground state.

  19. Isomer Studies for Nuclei near the Proton Drip Line in the Mass 130-160 Region

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R.; Khan, S.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Rigby, S. V.; Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P.; Rahkila, P.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A. P.; Nyman, M.; Uusitalo, J.; Grahn, T.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.

    2007-11-30

    This report details the status of an experimental research programme which has studied isomeric states in the mass 130-160 region of the nuclear chart. Several new isomers have been established and characterised near the proton drip line using a recoil isomer tagging technique at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The latest experiments have been performed with a modified setup where the standard GREAT focal-plane double-sided silicon-strip detector was changed to a dual multi-wire proportional-counter arrangement. This new setup has improved capability for short-lived isomer studies where high focal-plane rates can be tolerated. The results of key recent experiments for nuclei situated above ({sup 153}Yb,{sup 152}Tm) and below ({sup 136}Pm,{sup 142}Tb) the N = 82 shell gap were presented along with an interpretation for the isomers. Finally, the future prospects of the technique, using an isomer-tagged differential-plunger setup, were discussed. This technique will be capable of establishing the deformation of the states above the isomers and will aid in the process of assigning underlying single-particle configurations to the isomeric states.

  20. Nucleon Density Distribution of the Proton Drip-Line Nucleus 12N Studied via Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Mitsunori; Morita, Yusuke; Nishimura, Daiki; Takechi, Maya; Iwamoto, Kodai; Wakabayashi, Masaru; Kamisho, Yasuto; Ohno, Junichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Kanbe, Ryosuke; Yamaoka, Shintaro; Mihara, Mototsugu; Matsuta, Kensaku; Yoshinaga, Kenta; Zhu, Ifan; Khono, Junpei; Yamaki, Sayaka; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Shinji; Nagashima, Masayuki; Abe, Kohsuke; Tashiro, Keisuke; Honma, Akira; Ohtsubo, Takashi; Izumikawa, Takuji; Sato, Shinji; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Kitagawa, Atsushi

    Reaction cross sections for the proton drip-line nucleus 12N on Be, C, and Al targets have been measured at intermediate energies from 60A to 200A MeV. The results are compared with the systematics for stable nuclei and also with the experimental reaction cross section data for 12C to show 5-20% enhancement of the present 12N data. The nucleon density distribution of 12N has been extracted through the χ2-fitting procedure, which is consistent with a single particle nature of the loosely-bound valence proton in the p orbital though the error of the density is still large. The large one-proton removal cross sections observed at the same time also supports the long proton tail in the density distribution.

  1. {gamma}-ray Spectroscopy of Proton Drip-Line Nuclei in the A{approx}130 Region using SPIRAL beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stezowski, O.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Rosse, B.; Schmitt, Ch.; De France, G.; Bhattachasyya, S.; Mukherjee, G.

    2008-11-11

    A fusion-evaporation experiment has been performed with a SPIRAL {sup 76}Kr radioactive beam in order to study the deformation of rare-earth nuclei near the proton drip-line. The experimental setup consisted in the EXOGAM {gamma}-array, coupled to the light-charged particles (LCP) DIAMANT detector and to the VAMOS heavy-ion spectrometer. The difficulties inherent to such measurements are enlightened. The coupling between EXOGAM and DIAMANT has been used to decrease the huge background caused by the radioactivity of the beam. It further permits assigning new {gamma}-ray transitions to specific residual nuclei. A {gamma}-ray belonging to the {sup 130}Pm level scheme has thus been observed for the first time.

  2. Investigations of proton-neutron correlations close to the drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Delion, D. S.; Wyss, R.; Liotta, R. J.; Cederwall, Bo; Johnson, A.; Sandzelius, M.

    2010-08-15

    Proton-neutron correlations in nuclei above the Z=50 shell closure are investigated with the aim of understanding the behavior of the 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} states in Te and Xe isotopes, which remain at a rather constant energy as one approaches the shell closure at N=50. Our calculations reveal that standard quasiparticle random phase approximation calculations, involving a quadrupole-quadrupole (QQ) interaction with constant strengths, cannot explain this feature. It is found that to reproduce the experimental data within this model one has to include a variable proton-neutron interaction. It turns out that an increased proton-neutron QQ interaction increases the collectivity (i.e., B(E2) values) when approaching the N=50 region, whereas an increased proton-neutron pairing interaction decreases the collectivity. We thus conclude that the ratio between the B(E2) value and 2{sup +} energy is a ''fingerprint'' of proton-neutron collectivity and it should be determined in future experiments concerning light Te isotopes. Based on this criterion, we conclude that the available experimental data indicate an enhanced proton-neutron pairing interaction by approaching doubly magic Z=N=20 and Z=N=28 regions.

  3. The structure and shape of exotic nuclei beyond the proton drip-line

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, L. S.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.

    2008-11-11

    Proton emission from deformed nuclei with triaxial symmetry is discussed within the non-adiabatic quasi-particle approach. As an example, we consider decay from {sup 161}Re, where we were able to reproduce the experimental half-life with a noticeable {gamma} deformation.

  4. β-delayed emission of protons at the proton drip-line: the cases of 43Cr and 51Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audirac, L.; Adimi, N.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B.; Borcea, C.; Canchel, G.; Demonchy, C. E.; Companis, I.; Delalee, F.; Demonchy, C. E.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grévy, S.; Hay, L.; Huikari, J.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Leblanc, S.; Matea, I.; Pedroza, J.-L.; Perrot, L.; Pibernat, J.; Serani, L.; Stodel, C.; Strivatava, P.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2011-11-01

    Studies of β-delayed emission of protons for 43Cr and 51Ni were performed with a Time Projection Chamber. This detection setup allows to reconstruct in the three-dimensional space the tracks of the protons emitted. For the first time, β-delayed emission of two protons is directly observed for 43Cr and 51Ni. The question about correlations between protons can be accessed. Finally, we show that 43Cr can emit up to three delayed protons.

  5. Experimental Studies Of An Exotic Decay Mode At The Proton Drip-Line: The Two-Proton Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audirac, L.; Adimi, N.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B.; Brown, B. A.; Borcea, C.; Canchel, G.; Companis, I.; Delalee, F.; Demonchy, C. E.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grévy, S.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Hay, L.; Huikari, J.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Leblanc, S.; Matea, I.; Pedroza, J.-L.; Perrot, L.; Pibernat, J.; Serani, L.; Stodel, C.; Strivastava, P.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2011-10-01

    Two-proton radioactivity is an exotic decay mode for very proton-rich nuclei. It was observed experimentally for the first time in 2002 for the nucleus 45Fe but the two protons could not be directly detected. So a new detector has been developed, a Time Projection Chamber, to individually observe the two protons emitted. It was used successfully during two experiments for the study of 45Fe and 54Zn. Energy correlations have been studied and the relative angle between the two protons is calculated.

  6. Spectroscopy of F26 to Probe Proton-Neutron Forces Close to the Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepailleur, A.; Sorlin, O.; Caceres, L.; Bastin, B.; Borcea, C.; Borcea, R.; Brown, B. A.; Gaudefroy, L.; Grévy, S.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hagen, G.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Jansen, G. R.; Llidoo, O.; Negoita, F.; de Oliveira, F.; Porquet, M.-G.; Rotaru, F.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Sohler, D.; Stanoiu, M.; Thomas, J. C.

    2013-02-01

    A long-lived Jπ=41+ isomer, T1/2=2.2(1)ms, has been discovered at 643.4(1) keV in the weakly bound F926 nucleus. It was populated at Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds in the fragmentation of a S36 beam. It decays by an internal transition to the Jπ=11+ ground state [82(14)%], by β decay to Ne26, or β-delayed neutron emission to Ne25. From the β-decay studies of the Jπ=11+ and Jπ=41+ states, new excited states have been discovered in Ne25,26. Gathering the measured binding energies of the Jπ=11+-41+ multiplet in F926, we find that the proton-neutron π0d5/2ν0d3/2 effective force used in shell-model calculations should be reduced to properly account for the weak binding of F926. Microscopic coupled cluster theory calculations using interactions derived from chiral effective field theory are in very good agreement with the energy of the low-lying 11+, 21+, 41+ states in F26. Including three-body forces and coupling to the continuum effects improve the agreement between experiment and theory as compared to the use of two-body forces only.

  7. Neutron Drip-Line Topography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, E. Minaya; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, C.; George, S.; Kellerbauer, A.; Boehm, Ch.; Neidherr, D.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.; Herlert, A.; Kowalska, M.; Pearson, J. M.

    2009-08-26

    The development of microscopic mass models is a crucial ingredient for the understanding of how most of the elements of our world were fabricated. Confidence in drip-line predictions of such models requires their comparison with new mass data for nuclides far from stability. We combine theory and experiment using results that are state of the art: the latest mass measurements from the Penning-trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE are used to confront the predictions of the latest Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) microscopic mass models. In addition, we compare the new data to predictions of other types of mass models and the extrapolative behavior of the various models is analyzed to highlight topographical trends along the shores of the nuclear chart.

  8. Unbound States of the Drip-Line Nucleus 24O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapoux, V.; Boissinot, S.; Pollacco, E. C.; Flavigny, F.; Louchart, C.; Nalpas, L.; Obertelli, A.; Otsu, H.; Baba, H.; Chen, R. J.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kameda, D.; Matsushita, M.; Motobayashi, T.; Onishi, T.; Nikolskii, E. Y.; Nishimura, M.; Sakurai, H.; Takechi, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Togano, Y.; Yoneda, K.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Matta, A.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Franchoo, S.; Hammache, F.; Rosier, Ph.; Rindel, E.; Gangnant, P.; Houarner, Ch.; Libin, J. F.; Saillant, F.

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of the new N = 16 shell gap at the neutron drip-line can be deduced from the neutron excitations of 24O. An experiment was carried out to investigate the unbound excited states of 24O using the proton elastic and inelastic proton scattering. It was performed in the BigRIPS line and combines the unique intensities of the RIBF 24O beam with the state-of-the-art particle detector array MUST2. The method is explained.

  9. Observation of narrow states in nuclei beyond the proton drip line: {sup 15}F and {sup 16}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Mukha, I.; Timofeyuk, N. K.; Suemmerer, K.; Chatillon, A.; Geissel, H.; Hofmann, J.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Roeckl, E.; Weick, H.; Acosta, L.; Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Martel, I.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Espino, J. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.

    2009-06-15

    Two high-lying states in {sup 15}F and {sup 16}Ne, unbound with respect to one-proton (1p) and two-proton (2p) emissions, have been observed in the fragmentation of {sup 17}Ne at intermediate energies. They undergo mainly sequential emissions of protons via intermediate states in {sup 14}O and {sup 15}F and have decay energies of 7.8(2) and 7.6(2) MeV, respectively. The widths of the newly observed states in {sup 15}F and {sup 16}Ne are much smaller than the Wigner limits for single-particle configurations, of 0.4(4) and 0.8({sub +8}{sup -4}) MeV, respectively. In addition, narrow widths of 0.2(2) MeV are derived for two other high-lying states in {sup 15}F with Q{sub p} of 4.9 and 6.4 MeV, which match features of the recently predicted narrow odd-parity {sup 15}F states with two valence protons in the sd shell. All energies and widths have been obtained by analyzing angular correlations of the decay products, p-p-{sup 14}O and p-p-{sup 13}N, whose trajectories have been measured by a tracking technique with silicon microstrip detectors.

  10. Collective properties of drip-line nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hamamoto, I.; Sagawa, H.

    1996-12-31

    Performing the spherical Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with Skyrme interactions and, then, using RPA solved in the coordinate space with the Green`s function method, the authors have studied the effect of the unique shell structure as well as the very low particle threshold on collective modes in drip line nuclei. In this method a proper strength function in the continuum is obtained, though the spreading width of collective modes is not included. They have examined also one-particle resonant states in the obtained HF potential. Unperturbed particle-hole (p-h) response functions are carefully studied, which contain all basic information on the exotic behaviour of the RPA strength function in drip line nuclei.

  11. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  12. Special features of single-particle proton spectra of nickel, zinc, and germanium isotopes in the vicinity of the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalova, O. V. Ermakova, T. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.

    2015-10-15

    The single-particle proton spectra of the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 50,52}Ni, {sup 56,58,60,62}Zn, and {sup 60,62,64}Ge were calculated on the basis of the dispersive optical model whose parameters were extrapolated from the region of stable isotopes. The resulting parameter values lead to agreement between the total number of protons in bound states and the charge number Z of the respective nucleus. The results of the calculations are indicative of a weakly magic character of the {sup 58}Zn nucleus, which has a traditional magic number of N = 28 and a nearly magic number of Z = 30, and the {sup 64}Ge nucleus, for which N = Z = 32.

  13. Thermonuclear runaways investigated using drip line beta decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrede, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    In close binary star systems, mass transfer onto the surface of a white dwarf or neutron star can lead to spectacular periodic emissions including classical novae and x-ray bursts. Accurate nuclear reaction rates are needed to model energy generation and nucleosynthesis in these thermonuclear runaways enabling meaningful comparisons to observations. An experimental program has been established at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory to constrain the most influential nuclear physics uncertainties using the beta decays of nuclides adjacent to the proton drip line. In particular, the beta decays of 20Mg, 26P, and 31Cl have been used to investigate the 15O(α,γ)19Ne, 25Al(p,γ)26Si, and 30P(p,γ)31S reaction rates, respectively. These studies relate to the shapes of x-ray burst light curves, the production of the radionuclide 26Al in the Milky Way, and the identification of presolar nova grains in meteoritic material.

  14. Decay studies of nuclei near the proton drip line: /sup 35/Ca, /sup 31/Ar, /sup 69/Br, /sup 65/As

    SciTech Connect

    Reiff, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    Studies of new beta-delayed two-proton emitters and a search for ground state proton radioactivity in medium mass nuclei were performed using various experimental techniques in conjunction with several detection systems. A helium-jet transport system and three-element silicon telescopes were used to discover the existence and detect the decay of the first T/sub Z/ = /minus/5/2 nuclide, /sup 35/Ca. Two-proton emission from the T = 5/2 isobaric analog state in /sup 35/K at an excitation energy of 9.053 /plus minus/ 0.045 MeV, fed by the superallowed beta decay of /sup 35/Ca, resulted in transitions to both the ground state and first excited state of /sup 33/Cl. The corresponding two-proton sum energies were 4.089 /plus minus/ 0.030 MeV and 3.287 /plus minus/ 0.030 MeV. Measurements of the individual proton energies indicated the prevalence of a sequential decay mechanism. Using the isobaric multiplet mass equation, the mass excess of /sup 35/Ca was calculated to be 4.453 /plus minus/ 0.060 MeV. In order to study whose half-lives were too short for the helium-jet system, an in-beam recoil catcher wheel was constructed. The wheel speed can be varied to study nuclides whose half-lives range from 100 /mu/s to /approximately/250 ms. The first new decay observed with the wheel system and traditional /Delta/E-E telescopes was the beta-delayed two-proton emission from /sup 31/Ar. The two-proton sum energy of /approximately/7.5 MeV corresponds to a transition from the isobaric analog state in /sup 31/Cl to the ground state of /sup 29/P. The search for proton radioactivity required the development of low energy, particle identification detector telescopes. These telescopes, comprised of a gas /Delta/E and silicon E, were used in conjunction with the in-beam recoil catcher wheel to search for ground state proton emission from /sup 69/Br and /sup 65/As. 90 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Spectroscopy of 28Na : Shell evolution toward the drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepailleur, A.; Wimmer, K.; Mutschler, A.; Sorlin, O.; Thomas, J. C.; Bader, V.; Bancroft, C.; Barofsky, D.; Bastin, B.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Bildstein, V.; Borcea, C.; Borcea, R.; Brown, B. A.; Caceres, L.; Gade, A.; Gaudefroy, L.; Grévy, S.; Grinyer, G. F.; Iwasaki, H.; Khan, E.; Kröll, T.; Langer, C.; Lemasson, A.; Llidoo, O.; Lloyd, J.; Lunderberg, E.; Negoita, F.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Perdikakis, G.; Recchia, F.; Redpath, T.; Roger, T.; Rotaru, F.; Saenz, S.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Smalley, D.; Sohler, D.; Stanoiu, M.; Stroberg, S. R.; Vandebrouck, M.; Weisshaar, D.; Westerberg, A.

    2015-11-01

    Excited states have been studied in 28Na using the β -decay of implanted 28Ne ions at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds/LISE as well as the in-beam γ -ray spectroscopy at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory/S800 facility. New states of positive (Jπ=3+,4+ ) and negative (Jπ=1--5- ) parity are proposed. The former arise from the coupling between 0 d5 /2 protons and 0 d3 /2 neutrons, while the latter are attributable to couplings of 0 d5 /2 protons with 1 p3 /2 or 0 f7 /2 neutrons. While the relative energies between the Jπ=1+-4+ states are well reproduced with the USDA interaction in the N =17 isotones, a progressive shift in the ground-state binding energy (by about 500 keV) is observed between 26F and 30Al . This points to a possible change in the proton-neutron 0 d5 /2 -0 d3 /2 effective interaction when moving from stability to the drip line. The presence of Jπ=1--4- negative-parity states around 1.5 MeV as well as of a candidate for a Jπ=5- state around 2.5 MeV give further support to the collapse of the N =20 gap and to the inversion between the neutron 0 f7 /2 and 1 p3 /2 levels below Z =12 . These features are discussed in the framework of shell-model and energy-density-functional calculations, leading to predicted negative-parity states in the low-energy spectra of the 26F and 25O nuclei.

  16. Molecule-like structure with covalent neutrons of F isotopes toward the neutron drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, M.; Furutachi, N.

    2011-04-15

    The {alpha}-cluster structure of F isotopes has been studied based on antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. By using the constraint on the principal quantum number, various neutron configurations are investigated. It is found that a proton excitation into an sd shell does not necessarily induce {alpha} clustering in {sup 21}F and {sup 23}F. However, once one or two neutrons are excited into the pf shell together with a proton excitation, the core nuclei have {alpha} clustering. The calculation is extended toward the neutron drip line. The neutron-rich F isotopes also have {alpha} clustering in the excited states and their excitation energy greatly decreases toward the neutron drip line. The relation between the reduction of their excitation energies and the breaking of the neutron magic number N=20 is suggested.

  17. Halo nuclei, stepping stones across the drip-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, H.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of intense secondary beams in conjunction with modern efficient detection setups allows for the production and detailed study of the most extreme nuclear systems, in terms of asymmetry of proton and neutron number, in the continuum. Nuclei close to the drip-lines, exhibiting exotic properties themselves, can be used as a basis in order to populate these even more exotic nuclear systems, e.g. in transfer and knockout reactions. The latter challenge nuclear structure theory by being open quantum systems far from the valley of beta stability as well as reaction aiming at a description of their production mechanisms. Experiments provide data on momentum distributions, while relative energy spectra, and spin alignment during the reaction can be extracted and lead to the observation of energy and angular correlations as well as to dependent quantities such as, e.g., the profile function denoting a momentum width as a function of relative energy. They are determined from reaction products and gamma radiation emerging from the reaction zone. The link to intrinsic properties of these unbound systems has to be explored by gathering precise knowledge of the properties of the seed nuclei and compare them to structures observed in the continuum. In this paper, examples of the above-mentioned methods are presented. The current knowledge about light systems such as 5,7H, 7-10He, 10-13Li and the most neutron-rich oxygen systems is reviewed.

  18. Finite-temperature pairing re-entrance in the drip-line nucleus 48Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, Mohamed; Li, Jia Jie; Margueron, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory using Skyrme interactions and relativistic Hartree-Fock effective Lagrangians predicts 48Ni as being a possible candidate for the finite-temperature pairing re-entrance phenomenon. For this proton-drip-line nucleus, proton resonant states are expected to contribute substantially to pairing correlations and the two predicted critical temperatures are Tc 1˜0.08 -0.2 MeV and Tc 2˜0.7 -0.9 MeV. It is also shown that pairing re-entrance modifies the proton single-particle energies around the Fermi level, as well as occupation numbers and quasiparticle levels. The understanding of pairing re-entrance in 48Ni presently challenges our understanding of exotic matter under extreme conditions.

  19. The nuclear shell model toward the drip lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, A.; Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Sieja, K.

    2012-10-01

    We describe the 'islands of inversion' that occur when approaching the neutron drip line around the magic numbers N=20, N=28 and N=40 in the framework of the interacting shell model in very large valence spaces. We explain these configuration inversions (and the associated shape transitions) as the result of the competition between the spherical mean field (monopole) that favors magicity and the correlations (multipole) that favor deformed intruder states. We also show that the N=20 and N=28 islands are in reality a single one, which for the magnesium isotopes is limited by N=18 and N=32.

  20. Nucleus ^{26}O: A Barely Unbound System beyond the Drip Line.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, R; Minakata, R; Ogoshi, S; Orr, N A; Achouri, N L; Aumann, T; Baba, H; Delaunay, F; Doornenbal, P; Fukuda, N; Gibelin, J; Hwang, J W; Inabe, N; Isobe, T; Kameda, D; Kanno, D; Kim, S; Kobayashi, N; Kobayashi, T; Kubo, T; Leblond, S; Lee, J; Marqués, F M; Motobayashi, T; Murai, D; Murakami, T; Muto, K; Nakashima, T; Nakatsuka, N; Navin, A; Nishi, S; Otsu, H; Sato, H; Satou, Y; Shimizu, Y; Suzuki, H; Takahashi, K; Takeda, H; Takeuchi, S; Togano, Y; Tuff, A G; Vandebrouck, M; Yoneda, K

    2016-03-11

    The unbound nucleus ^{26}O has been investigated using invariant-mass spectroscopy following one-proton removal reaction from a ^{27}F beam at 201  MeV/nucleon. The decay products, ^{24}O and two neutrons, were detected in coincidence using the newly commissioned SAMURAI spectrometer at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The ^{26}O ground-state resonance was found to lie only 18±3(stat)±4(syst)  keV above threshold. In addition, a higher lying level, which is most likely the first 2^{+} state, was observed for the first time at 1.28_{-0.08}^{+0.11}  MeV above threshold. Comparison with theoretical predictions suggests that three-nucleon forces, pf-shell intruder configurations, and the continuum are key elements to understanding the structure of the most neutron-rich oxygen isotopes beyond the drip line.

  1. Nucleus 26O: A Barely Unbound System beyond the Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Tanaka, R.; Minakata, R.; Ogoshi, S.; Orr, N. A.; Achouri, N. L.; Aumann, T.; Baba, H.; Delaunay, F.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Gibelin, J.; Hwang, J. W.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Kameda, D.; Kanno, D.; Kim, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Leblond, S.; Lee, J.; Marqués, F. M.; Motobayashi, T.; Murai, D.; Murakami, T.; Muto, K.; Nakashima, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Navin, A.; Nishi, S.; Otsu, H.; Sato, H.; Satou, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takeda, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Togano, Y.; Tuff, A. G.; Vandebrouck, M.; Yoneda, K.

    2016-03-01

    The unbound nucleus 26O has been investigated using invariant-mass spectroscopy following one-proton removal reaction from a 27F beam at 201 MeV /nucleon . The decay products, 2424 and two neutrons, were detected in coincidence using the newly commissioned SAMURAI spectrometer at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The 26O ground-state resonance was found to lie only 18 ±3 (stat )±4 (syst ) keV above threshold. In addition, a higher lying level, which is most likely the first 2+ state, was observed for the first time at 1.28-0.08+0.11 MeV above threshold. Comparison with theoretical predictions suggests that three-nucleon forces, p f -shell intruder configurations, and the continuum are key elements to understanding the structure of the most neutron-rich oxygen isotopes beyond the drip line.

  2. Dispersive optical potential for nuclei with N and Z values changing toward the nucleon drip lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalova, O. V. Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.

    2015-01-15

    A method for constructing dispersive optical potentials is proposed for calculating single-particle energies in isotopic chains of spherical and nearly spherical nuclei up to nucleon drip lines. The potential of this method is demonstrated by calculating the neutron and proton single-particle energies in calcium, nickel, and zirconium isotopes. The results agree well with experimental data available for stable isotopes. Predictive calculations of single-particle spectra are performed for isotopes lying far from the beta-stability valley. A comparison of the results with the energies of nucleon separation from nuclei of mass number A and A+1 revealed features of the single-particle spectrum that are characteristic of nuclei containing classical and nonclassical magic numbers of nucleons.

  3. Nuclear mean field on and near the drip lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa

    1996-01-01

    We discuss two subjects related to the structure of nuclei near the drip lines. The first is the vanishing of N = 20 magic structure in Z ≪ N = 20 nuclei. Large-scale state-of-the-art shell-model calculations with 2sld and lower 2plf shells are shown to present a unified description of N = 20 isotones with Z = 10-20, covering both stable and unstable nuclei. The calculations demonstrate that, although the N = 20 closed-shell structure remains for Z ≥ 14, the N = 20 closed-shell structure vanishes naturally towards nuclei with Z ≤ 12, giving rise to various anomalous features including those in 32Mg and 31Na. It is suggested that, in these nuclei, the deformed mean field overcomes the shell gap created by the spherical mean potential. Furthermore, the almost perfect agreement with a recent experiment is presented for the B(E2; 0 1+ → 2 1+) value of 32Mg. The second part is devoted to the mean field for loosely bound neutrons. The variational shell model (VSM) is explained with an application to the anomalous ground state of 11Be. The VSM has been proposed recently to describe the structure of neutron-rich unstable nuclei. Contrary to the failure of spherical Hartree-Fock, the anomalous {1}/{2}+ ground state and its neutron halo are reproduced with Skyrme SIII interaction. This state is bound due to dynamical coupling between the core and the loosely bound neutron which oscillates between 2 s{1}/{2} and l d{5}/{2} orbits. The direct neutron capture is discussed briefly in its relation to the neutron halo.

  4. Neutron drip line and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kei; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-15

    We investigate how the neutron drip line is related to the density dependence of the symmetry energy by using a macroscopic nuclear model that allows us to calculate nuclear masses in a way that is dependent on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The neutron drip line obtained from these masses is shown to appreciably shift to a neutron-rich side in a nuclear chart as the density derivative of the symmetry energy increases. Such a shift is clearly seen for light nuclei, a feature coming mainly from the surface property of neutron-rich nuclei.

  5. Optimizing fumigation efficiency by doubling drip line number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern California strawberries are planted in raised-beds covered by polyethylene (PE) film and typically are irrigated with two drip lines placed near the bed surface. To control soil-borne pests, fumigants are commonly applied through the drip lines prior to transplanting strawberries, but effic...

  6. Nuclear structures near and beyond the neutron drip line studied by breakup reactions at SAMURAI at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    Some of the first results from kinematically complete measurements of breakup reactions on neutron-rich boron to oxygen isotopes, along and beyond the neutron drip line, are presented and discussed. These experiments were performed at the recently-commissioned large-acceptance multi-purpose spectrometer SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyser for MUlti-particles from Radio-Isotope Beam) at the new-generation RI beam facility, RIBF, at RIKEN. The experiments aimed at probing the two-neutron Borromean halo nuclei, 19B and 22C, and at exploring the heavy oxygen isotopes, 25,26O, which are beyond the neutron drip line. The study of 19B and 22C has been made primarily by the Coulomb breakup, which is sensitive to the halo states and associated two-neutron correlations. 22C has drawn much attention due to the possibility that it has the largest halo known. In addition, 22C may also exhibit features consistent with the new magic number N=16, as was recently suggested by our inclusive measurement of the momentum distribution of 20C following breakup on a C target. 25O and 26O have drawn much attention since these unbound nuclei may have keys to understand why the neutron drip line ends anomalously closer to the stability for oxygen isotopes. 25O and 26O have been produced by the proton removal reactions on 26F,27Ne, and 27F,28Ne, respectively, at 220-250 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary data are shown and discussed. Finally, some perspectives on future projects using the SAMURAI facility are presented.

  7. Drip Line Flushing with Chlorine May Not Be Effective in Reducing Bacterial Loads in Irrigation Water Distribution Systems.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Mary Theresa; Marine, Sasha C; Everts, Kathryne L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-06-01

    Irrigation water distribution systems are used to supply water to produce crops, but the system may also provide a protected environment for the growth of human pathogens present in irrigation water. In this study, the effects of drip tape installation depth and sanitization on the microbial quality of irrigation groundwater were evaluated. Drip tape lines were installed on the soil surface or 5 or 10 cm below the soil surface. Water samples were collected from the irrigation source and the end of each drip line every 2 weeks over an 11-week period, and the levels of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and enterococci were quantified. Half of the lines installed at each depth were flushed with sodium hypochlorite for 1 h during week 6 to achieve a residual of 10 ppm at the end of the line. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.01) effect of drip tape installation depth and sanitizer application on the recovery of E. coli, with increased levels measured at the 5-cm depth and in nonsanitized lines, although the levels were at the limit of detection, potentially confounding the results. There was no significant effect of drip tape depth on total coliforms, aerobic mesophiles, or enterococci. In contrast, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in the recovery of total coliforms was recorded from the ends of lines that received chlorine. This may be indicative of shedding of cells owing to degradation of biofilms that formed on the inner walls of the lines. These findings emphasize the need to better understand conditions that may lead to corrosion and increases in bacterial loads inside drip lines during flushing. Recommendations to growers should suggest collecting groundwater samples for testing at the end of drip lines rather than at the source. Guidelines on flushing drip lines with chlorine may need to include water pH monitoring, a parameter that influences the corrosive properties of chlorine.

  8. Establishment of HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3) with stable DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Lin; HUANG, Xu-He; ZHOU, Ping-Ping; YU, Guo-Long; YAN, Jin; QIN, Bing; YAN, Xin-Ge; DIAO, Li-Mei; LIN, Peng; KUANG, Yi-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are indispensable co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into host cells. In our previous study, we identified that dopamine receptor-interacting protein 78 (DRiP78) and Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) are the CXCR4 and CCR5 homo- or hetero-dimer-interacting proteins. DRiP78 and NHERF1 are able to influence the co-receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking. Over-expression of NHERF1 affects the ligands or HIV-1 gp120-induced CCR5 internalization and HIV-1 production. It is reasonable to speculate that DRiP78 and NHERF1, as well as the signaling pathways involved in viral replication, would probably affect HIV-1 replication through regulating the co-receptors. In this present study, we designed two short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the DRiP78 and NHERF1, respectively, and constructed the pLenti6/BLOCK-iT-DEST lentiviral plasmids expressing DRiP78 or NHERF1 shRNA. The packaged lentiviruses were used to transduce the widely-applied HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3). Then, cells with stable knockdown were established through selecting transduced cells with Blasticidin. This study, for the first time, reported the establishment of the GHOST(3) with DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown, which is the first stable cell line with HIV-1 co-receptor-interacting molecular defects. PMID:26018859

  9. Production of drip-line nuclei at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Atsumi

    2014-09-01

    Production cross-sections and secondary-beam yields of very neutron rich nuclei near neutron drip-line at 200--250 MeV/u have been investigated at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF). RIBF is the next generation RI beam facility, which can produce a variety of exotic nuclei with high intensity. The measurement of production yields of 19B, 22C, which are located on the neutron drip-line, and neighboring isotopes was made on the occasion of the Coulomb and nuclear breakup experiments of these halo nuclei at SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyzer for MUlti-particle from RAdioIsotope beams) facility at RIBF. We used 345 MeV/u 48Ca beam as primary beam, which impinged on 30 mm-thick Be target, to obtain secondary beams by projectile fragmentation. The projectile fragments were then separated through Superconducting RI beam separator BigRIPS, and were identified by measuring time of flight (TOF), energy loss (ΔE), and magnetic rigidity (Bρ) by the standard detectors at 2nd stage of BigRIPS. We thus obtained production cross-sections and yields of carbon and boron isotopes. The production cross-sections and yields extracted were compared with the simulation code LISE using EPAX. We discuss these results and comparisons in this poster presentation.

  10. Pygmy dipole mode in deformed neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the microscopic structure of the low-lying isovector-dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich Mg36,38,40 close to the drip line by means of the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation employing the Skyrme and the local pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying bump structure above the neutron emission-threshold energy develops when the drip line is approached, and that the isovector dipole strength at Ex<10 MeV exhausts about 6.0% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn dipole sum rule in Mg40. We obtained the collective dipole modes at around 8-10 MeV in Mg isotopes, that consist of many two-quasiparticle excitations of the neutron. The transition density clearly shows an oscillation of the neutron skin against the isoscalar core. We found significant coupling effects between the dipole and octupole excitation modes due to the nuclear deformation. It is also found that the responses for the compressional dipole and isoscalar octupole excitations are much enhanced in the lower energy region.

  11. Evolution of pre-collective nuclei: Structural signatures near the drip lines

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.; Zamfir, N.V. ||

    1994-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the phenomenology of single-magic and near-magic nuclei has universal characteristics analogous to those of collective nuclei and that, moreover, this phenomenology attaches smoothly to that describing collective nuclei. This has led to a number of new signatures of structure as well as to a new, tripartite, classification of nuclear structure that embraces the gamut of structures from magic, through pre-collective, to fully collective and rotational nuclei. Aside from the natural appeal of simple global correlations of collective observables, these results have particular significance for soon-to-be accessible exotic nuclei near the drip lines since they rely on only the simplest-to-obtain data, in particular, the energies of just the first two excited states, E(4{sub 1}{sup +}) and E(2{sub 1}{sup +}), of even-even nuclei, and the B(E2:2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}) value. Indeed, without the need for more extensive level schemes, these basic data alone can reveal information about the goodness of seniority, about the validity of pair-addition mode relationships of adjacent even-even nuclei, about underlying shell structure (validity of magic numbers) and even about the shell model potential itself (e.g., the strengths of the l{center_dot} and l{sup 2} terms).

  12. Irrigating drip by drip

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.

    1991-03-01

    This article describes the use of subterranean drip systems for the irrigation of crops in the San Joaquin Valley of California. This area is in its fourth year of drought. In the past, underground drains carried excess irrigation water away from plant roots to avoid drowning them in selenium, boron, nitrate fertilizer and other pollutants. Later these ponds where outflow emerged accumulated high levels of selenium which led to deaths and deformities of waterfowl. Subsurface drip irrigation is said to reduce overirrigation and thus prevents pollution of the underground water supply; it conserves water by reducing the amount of water lost by evaporation; and it reduces the incidence of mold damage to crops that are bothered by soggy soils.

  13. Effects of pairing correlation on the low-lying quasiparticle resonance in neutron drip-line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effects of pairing correlation on quasiparticle resonance. We analyze in detail how the width of the low-lying (Ex≲ 1 MeV) quasiparticle resonance is governed by the pairing correlation in the neutron drip-line nuclei. We consider the {}^{46}Si + n system to discuss the low-lying p-wave quasiparticle resonance. Solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation in coordinate space with the scattering boundary condition, we calculate the phase shift, the elastic cross section, the resonance width, and the resonance energy. We find that the pairing correlation has the effect of reducing the width of the quasiparticle resonance that originates from a particle-like orbit in weakly bound nuclei.

  14. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  15. Spectroscopy on the proton drip-line: Probing the structure dependence of isospin nonconserving interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Kaneko, K.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sarriguren, P.; Auranen, K.; Bentley, M. A.; Davies, P. J.; Görgen, A.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hay, A.; Henry, T. W.; HerzáÅ, A.; Jakobsson, U.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; McPeake, C.; Milne, S.; Nichols, A. J.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sahin, E.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Siciliano, M.; Sinclair, L.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Wadsworth, R.; Zielińska, M.

    2014-11-01

    The recoil-β tagging technique was used to identify transitions associated with the decay of the 2+ and, tentatively, the 4+ excited states in 74Sr. Combining these results with published data for the A =74 isobars, triplet energy differences (TEDs) have been extracted, the heaviest case for which these values have been evaluated. State-of-the-art shell-model calculations using the JUN45 interaction and incorporating a J =0 isospin nonconserving (INC) interaction with an isotensor strength of 100 keV can reproduce the trend in the TED data, with particularly good agreement for the 2+ state. This agreement for the TED data taken together with the fact that agreement has also been shown between shell-model calculations with the same strength of INC interaction in the f7 /2 shell and recently for A =66 strongly suggests that such an interaction exists throughout the nuclear chart and cannot have a strong dependence on details of nuclear structure such as which nuclear orbitals are occupied. It also supports the hypothesis that only a J =0 component of the INC interaction need be included to explain the observed TEDs.

  16. Optimization of Proton CT Detector System and Image Reconstruction Algorithm for On-Line Proton Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Young; Song, Hankyeol; Park, Chan Woo; Chung, Yong Hyun; Kim, Jin Sung; Park, Justin C

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to optimize a proton computed tomography system (pCT) for proton range verification and to confirm the pCT image reconstruction algorithm based on projection images generated with optimized parameters. For this purpose, we developed a new pCT scanner using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT) 4.9.6 simulation toolkit. GEANT4 simulations were performed to optimize the geometric parameters representing the detector thickness and the distance between the detectors for pCT. The system consisted of four silicon strip detectors for particle tracking and a calorimeter to measure the residual energies of the individual protons. The optimized pCT system design was then adjusted to ensure that the solution to a CS-based convex optimization problem would converge to yield the desired pCT images after a reasonable number of iterative corrections. In particular, we used a total variation-based formulation that has been useful in exploiting prior knowledge about the minimal variations of proton attenuation characteristics in the human body. Examinations performed using our CS algorithm showed that high-quality pCT images could be reconstructed using sets of 72 projections within 20 iterations and without any streaks or noise, which can be caused by under-sampling and proton starvation. Moreover, the images yielded by this CS algorithm were found to be of higher quality than those obtained using other reconstruction algorithms. The optimized pCT scanner system demonstrated the potential to perform high-quality pCT during on-line image-guided proton therapy, without increasing the imaging dose, by applying our CS based proton CT reconstruction algorithm. Further, we make our optimized detector system and CS-based proton CT reconstruction algorithm potentially useful in on-line proton therapy.

  17. Optimization of Proton CT Detector System and Image Reconstruction Algorithm for On-Line Proton Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Young; Song, Hankyeol; Park, Chan Woo; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to optimize a proton computed tomography system (pCT) for proton range verification and to confirm the pCT image reconstruction algorithm based on projection images generated with optimized parameters. For this purpose, we developed a new pCT scanner using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT) 4.9.6 simulation toolkit. GEANT4 simulations were performed to optimize the geometric parameters representing the detector thickness and the distance between the detectors for pCT. The system consisted of four silicon strip detectors for particle tracking and a calorimeter to measure the residual energies of the individual protons. The optimized pCT system design was then adjusted to ensure that the solution to a CS-based convex optimization problem would converge to yield the desired pCT images after a reasonable number of iterative corrections. In particular, we used a total variation-based formulation that has been useful in exploiting prior knowledge about the minimal variations of proton attenuation characteristics in the human body. Examinations performed using our CS algorithm showed that high-quality pCT images could be reconstructed using sets of 72 projections within 20 iterations and without any streaks or noise, which can be caused by under-sampling and proton starvation. Moreover, the images yielded by this CS algorithm were found to be of higher quality than those obtained using other reconstruction algorithms. The optimized pCT scanner system demonstrated the potential to perform high-quality pCT during on-line image-guided proton therapy, without increasing the imaging dose, by applying our CS based proton CT reconstruction algorithm. Further, we make our optimized detector system and CS-based proton CT reconstruction algorithm potentially useful in on-line proton therapy. PMID:27243822

  18. Distribution patterns of entomopathogenic nematodes applied through drip irrigation systems.

    PubMed

    Wennemann, L; Cone, W W; Wright, L C; Perez, J; Conant, M M

    2003-04-01

    The distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes applied by drip irrigation was evaluated by injecting small volumes of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) All strain, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) SN strain, Steinernema glaseri Steiner, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP 88 strain Poinar suspensions into drip irrigation lines. Additionally, Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar, & Raulston, and S. carpocapsae were injected in a 10-liter volume of water with an injection pump. Overall, the nematodes were evenly distributed along the drip lines. The total number of nematodes recovered from drip emitters was variable ranging from 42 to 92%. However, drip irrigation lines have potential to deliver entomopathogenic nematodes efficiently into pest habitats.

  19. 7 CFR 2902.60 - Turbine drip oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine drip oils. 2902.60 Section 2902.60... Items § 2902.60 Turbine drip oils. (a) Definition. Products that are lubricants for use in drip lubrication systems for water well line shaft bearings, water turbine bearings for irrigation pumps, and other...

  20. Surface drip irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For many years, surface drip irrigation has been used to irrigation high value vegetable crops. In recent years, surface drip of row crops has been increasing throughout the United States. Surface drip irrigation can precisely deliver water and nutrients to the crop root zone. This article provides ...

  1. Two-neutron "halo" from the low-energy limit of neutron-neutron interaction: Applications to drip-line nuclei 22C and 24O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu; Yuan, Cenxi; Alahari, Navin

    2016-02-01

    The formation of two-neutron "halo", a low-density far-extended surface of weakly-bound two neutrons, is described using the neutron-neutron (nn) interaction fixed at the low-energy nn scattering limit. This method is tested for loosely-bound two neutrons in 24O, where a good agreement with experimental data is found. It is applied to halo neutrons in 22C in two ways: with the 20C core being closed or correlated (due to excitations from the closed core). This nn interaction is shown to be strong enough to produce a two-neutron halo in both cases, locating 22C on the drip line, while 21C remains unbound. A unique relation between the two neutron separation energy, S2n, and the radius of neutron halo is presented. New predictions for S2n and the radius of neutron halo are given for 22C. The appearance of Efimov states is also discussed.

  2. THEORY OF PROTON EMITTERS

    SciTech Connect

    P. TALOU

    2000-08-01

    Modern theoretical methods used to interpret recent experimental data on ground-state proton emission near the proton drip line are reviewed. Most of them are stationary and are aimed to compute proton decay widths {Gamma}{sub p} only. Comparison is made between these approaches before being compared to experimental data. Our time-dependent approach based on the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for initial quasi-stationary single-proton states is then introduced. It is shown that much deeper insights into the physics of this clean multidimensional quantum tunneling effect can be accessed, and that in addition to {Gamma}{sub p}, other physical quantities could be tested experimentally, offering new stringent tests on nuclear physics models away from the valley of {beta}-stability. Finally, the necessity of using the TDSE approach in more complex, dynamical, problems is demonstrated.

  3. A telescope proton recoil spectrometer for fast neutron beam-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Nocente, M.; Ansell, S.; Frost, C. D.; Gorini, G.

    2015-07-01

    Fast neutron measurements were performed on the VESUVIO beam-line at the ISIS spallation source using a new telescope proton recoil spectrometer. Neutrons interact on a plastic target. Proton production is mainly due to elastic scattering on hydrogen nuclei and secondly due to interaction with carbon nuclei. Recoil protons are measured by a proton spectrometer, which uses in coincidence a 2.54 cm thick YAP scintillator and a 500μm thick silicon detector, measuring the full proton recoil energy and the partial deposited energy in transmission, respectively. Recoil proton spectroscopy measurements (up to Ep = 60MeV) have been interpreted by using Monte Carlo simulations of the beam-line. This instrument is of particular interest for the characterization of the ChipIr beam-line at ISIS, which was designed to feature an atmospheric-like neutron spectrum for the irradiation of micro-electronics.

  4. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  5. Dose-volume delivery guided proton therapy using beam on-line PET system

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, Teiji; Ogino, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2006-11-15

    Proton therapy is one form of radiotherapy in which the irradiation can be concentrated on a tumor using a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair annihilation gamma rays from positron emitter nuclei generated by the target nuclear fragment reaction of irradiated proton nuclei and nuclei in the irradiation target using a positron emission tomography (PET) apparatus, and dose-volume delivery guided proton therapy (DGPT) can thereby be achieved using PET images. In the proton treatment room, a beam ON-LINE PET system (BOLPs) was constructed so that a PET apparatus of the planar-type with a high spatial resolution of about 2 mm was mounted with the field of view covering the isocenter of the beam irradiation system. The position and intensity of activity were measured using the BOLPs immediately after the proton irradiation of a gelatinous water target containing {sup 16}O nuclei at different proton irradiation energy levels. The change of the activity-distribution range against the change of the physical range was observed within 2 mm. The experiments of proton irradiation to a rabbit and the imaging of the activity were performed. In addition, the proton beam energy used to irradiate the rabbit was changed. When the beam condition was changed, the difference between the two images acquired from the measurement of the BOLPs was confirmed to clearly identify the proton-irradiated volume.

  6. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ognibene, Theodore Joseph

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of 31Cl, 27P and 28P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas ΔE-gas ΔE-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in 31Cl and 27P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of 31Cl were shown to be from the decay of 25Si. In 27P, two proton groups at 459 ± 14 keV and 610 ± 11 keV, with intensities of 7 ± 3% and 92 ± 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the β-decay of 28P, at 1,444 ± 12 keV with a 1.7 ± 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, 17Ne and 33Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 ± 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of 17Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from 17Ne and 33Ar were resolved.

  7. Primary proton beam line at the J-PARC hadron experimental facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agari, Keizo; Hirose, Erina; Ieiri, Masaharu; Iio, Masami; Katoh, Yoji; Kiyomichi, Akio; Minakawa, Michifumi; Muto, Ryotaro; Naruki, Megumi; Noumi, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawada, Shin'ya; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Takasaki, Minoru; Tanaka, Kazuhiro H.; Toyoda, Akihisa; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Yamanoi, Yutaka

    2012-10-01

    A brief description of the primary beam line at the hadron experimental facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is presented. The facility has been constructed in Tokai, Japan, and the first beam was successfully introduced into the experimental hall in January 2009. The facility utilizes a high-intensity proton beam with an energy of 50 GeV and a power of 750 kW and provides various secondary beams such as pions, kaons, and antiprotons for nuclear and particle physics experiments. We have developed beam-line components with sufficient radiation hardness and heat resistance to handle the high-power proton beam.

  8. Line-narrowing in proton-detected nitrogen-14 NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavadini, Simone; Vitzthum, Veronika; Ulzega, Simone; Abraham, Anuji; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In solids spinning at the magic angle, the indirect detection of single-quantum (SQ) and double-quantum (DQ) 14N spectra ( I = 1) via spy nuclei S = 1/2 such as protons can be achieved in the manner of heteronuclear single- or multiple-quantum correlation (HSQC or HMQC) spectroscopy. The HMQC method relies on the excitation of two-spin coherences of the type T11IT11S and T21IT11S at the beginning of the evolution interval t1. The spectra obtained by Fourier transformation from t1 to ω1 may be broadened by the homogenous decay of the transverse terms of the spy nuclei S. This broadening is mostly due to homonuclear dipolar S- S' interactions between the proton spy nuclei. In this work we have investigated the possibility of inserting rotor-synchronized symmetry-based C or R sequences and decoupling schemes such as Phase-Modulated Lee-Goldburg (PMLG) sequences in the evolution period. These schemes reduce the homonuclear proton-proton interactions and lead to an enhancement of the resolution of both SQ and DQ proton-detected 14N HMQC spectra. In addition, we have investigated the combination of HSQC with symmetry-based sequences and PMLG and shown that the highest resolution in the 14N dimension is achieved by using HSQC in combination with symmetry-based sequences of the R-type. We show improvements in resolution in samples of L-alanine and the tripeptide ala-ala-gly (AAG). In particular, for L-alanine the width of the 14N SQ peak is reduced from 2 to 1.2 kHz, in agreement with simulations. We report accurate measurements of quadrupolar coupling constants and asymmetry parameters for amide 14N in AAG peptide bonds.

  9. Line-narrowing in proton-detected nitrogen-14 NMR.

    PubMed

    Cavadini, Simone; Vitzthum, Veronika; Ulzega, Simone; Abraham, Anuji; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In solids spinning at the magic angle, the indirect detection of single-quantum (SQ) and double-quantum (DQ) (14)N spectra (I=1) via spy nuclei S=1/2 such as protons can be achieved in the manner of heteronuclear single- or multiple-quantum correlation (HSQC or HMQC) spectroscopy. The HMQC method relies on the excitation of two-spin coherences of the type T(11)(I)T(11)(S) and T(21)(I)T(11)(S) at the beginning of the evolution interval t(1). The spectra obtained by Fourier transformation from t(1) to omega(1) may be broadened by the homogenous decay of the transverse terms of the spy nuclei S. This broadening is mostly due to homonuclear dipolar S-S' interactions between the proton spy nuclei. In this work we have investigated the possibility of inserting rotor-synchronized symmetry-based C or R sequences and decoupling schemes such as Phase-Modulated Lee-Goldburg (PMLG) sequences in the evolution period. These schemes reduce the homonuclear proton-proton interactions and lead to an enhancement of the resolution of both SQ and DQ proton-detected (14)N HMQC spectra. In addition, we have investigated the combination of HSQC with symmetry-based sequences and PMLG and shown that the highest resolution in the (14)N dimension is achieved by using HSQC in combination with symmetry-based sequences of the R-type. We show improvements in resolution in samples of l-alanine and the tripeptide ala-ala-gly (AAG). In particular, for l-alanine the width of the (14)N SQ peak is reduced from 2 to 1.2 kHz, in agreement with simulations. We report accurate measurements of quadrupolar coupling constants and asymmetry parameters for amide (14)N in AAG peptide bonds.

  10. Static and dynamic aspect of covariant density functional theory in proton rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ring, P.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.

    2007-11-30

    Proton rich nuclei are investigated in the framework of Covariant Density Functional Theory (CDFT). The Relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (RHB) model is used to study the proton drip line in the region of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The dynamical behavior of nuclei with a large proton excess is studied within the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (RQRPA). Low lying El-strength is observed and it is shown that it corresponds to an oscillation of the proton skin against the isospin saturated neutron-proton core. This mode is in full analogy to the neutron pygmy resonances found in many nuclei with neutron excess.

  11. Status of the proton and electron transfer lines for the AWAKE Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. S.; Bauche, J.; Biskup, B.; Bracco, C.; Doebert, S.; Goddard, B.; Gschwendtner, E.; Jensen, L. K.; Jones, O. R.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Velotti, F. M.; Vorozhtsov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN is planned to study proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration with an externally injected electron beam. Therefore two transfer lines are being designed in order to provide the proton beam from the SPS and the electron beam from an RF gun to the plasma cell. The commissioning of the proton line will take place in 2016 for the first phase of the experiment, which is focused on the self-modulation of a 12 cm long proton bunch in the plasma. The electron line will be added for the second phase of AWAKE in 2017, when the wakefield will be probed with an electron beam of 10-20 MeV/c. The challenge for these transfer lines lies in the parallel operation of the proton, electron and laser beam used to ionize the plasma and seed the self-modulation. These beams, of different characteristics, need to be synchronized and positioned for optimized injection conditions into the wakefield. This task requires great flexibility in the transfer line optics. The status of these designs will be presented in this paper.

  12. Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R.A.; Cron, J.

    2000-03-29

    This design analysis has shown that, on a conceptual level, the emplacement of drip shields is feasible with current technology and equipment. A plan for drip shield emplacement was presented using a Drip Shield Transporter, a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry, a locomotive, and a Drip Shield Gantry Carrier. The use of a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry as an emplacement concept results in a system that is simple, reliable, and interfaces with the numerous other exising repository systems. Using the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System design as a basis for the drip shield emplacement concept proved to simplify the system by using existing equipment, such as the gantry carrier, locomotive, Electrical and Control systems, and many other systems, structures, and components. Restricted working envelopes for the Drip Shield Emplacement System require further consideration and must be addressed to show that the emplacement operations can be performed as the repository design evolves. Section 6.1 describes how the Drip Shield Emplacement System may use existing equipment. Depending on the length of time between the conclusion of waste emplacement and the commencement of drip shield emplacement, this equipment could include the locomotives, the gantry carrier, and the electrical, control, and rail systems. If the exisiting equipment is selected for use in the Drip Shield Emplacement System, then the length of time after the final stages of waste emplacement and start of drip shield emplacement may pose a concern for the life cycle of the system (e.g., reliability, maintainability, availability, etc.). Further investigation should be performed to consider the use of existing equipment for drip shield emplacement operations. Further investigation will also be needed regarding the interfaces and heat transfer and thermal effects aspects. The conceptual design also requires further design development. Although the findings of this analysis are accurate for the assumptions made

  13. Drip irrigation research update at NPRL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drip irrigation research has been conducted since 1998 at NPRL. Systems include deep subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI), surface drip irrigation (SDI), and shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI). Results have shown that SDI and S3DI are more economical to install than SSDI. SDI systems have more r...

  14. Global Simulation of Proton Precipitation Due to Field Line Curvature During Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, M. L.; Raeder, J.; Donovan, E.; Ge, Y. S.; Kepko, L.

    2012-01-01

    The low latitude boundary of the proton aurora (known as the Isotropy Boundary or IB) marks an important boundary between empty and full downgoing loss cones. There is significant evidence that the IB maps to a region in the magnetosphere where the ion gyroradius becomes comparable to the local field line curvature. However, the location of the IB in the magnetosphere remains in question. In this paper, we show simulated proton precipitation derived from the Field Line Curvature (FLC) model of proton scattering and a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation during two substorms. The simulated proton precipitation drifts equatorward during the growth phase, intensifies at onset and reproduces the azimuthal splitting published in previous studies. In the simulation, the pre-onset IB maps to 7-8 RE for the substorms presented and the azimuthal splitting is caused by the development of the substorm current wedge. The simulation also demonstrates that the central plasma sheet temperature can significantly influence when and where the azimuthal splitting takes place.

  15. Design summary of the magnet support structures for the proton storage ring injection line upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J.D.; Ledford, J.E.; Smith, B.G.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the technical engineering and design issues associated with the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) Injection Line upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The main focus is on the engineering design calculations of several magnet support structures. The general procedure based upon a set number of design criteria is outlined, followed by a case-by-case summary of the engineering design analyses, reutilization or fabrication callouts and design safety factors.

  16. Introducing an on-line adaptive procedure for prostate image guided intensity modulate proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Westerly, D C; Mackie, T R

    2011-08-07

    With on-line image guidance (IG), prostate shifts relative to the bony anatomy can be corrected by realigning the patient with respect to the treatment fields. In image guided intensity modulated proton therapy (IG-IMPT), because the proton range is more sensitive to the material it travels through, the realignment may introduce large dose variations. This effect is studied in this work and an on-line adaptive procedure is proposed to restore the planned dose to the target. A 2D anthropomorphic phantom was constructed from a real prostate patient's CT image. Two-field laterally opposing spot 3D-modulation and 24-field full arc distal edge tracking (DET) plans were generated with a prescription of 70 Gy to the planning target volume. For the simulated delivery, we considered two types of procedures: the non-adaptive procedure and the on-line adaptive procedure. In the non-adaptive procedure, only patient realignment to match the prostate location in the planning CT was performed. In the on-line adaptive procedure, on top of the patient realignment, the kinetic energy for each individual proton pencil beam was re-determined from the on-line CT image acquired after the realignment and subsequently used for delivery. Dose distributions were re-calculated for individual fractions for different plans and different delivery procedures. The results show, without adaptive, that both the 3D-modulation and the DET plans experienced delivered dose degradation by having large cold or hot spots in the prostate. The DET plan had worse dose degradation than the 3D-modulation plan. The adaptive procedure effectively restored the planned dose distribution in the DET plan, with delivered prostate D(98%), D(50%) and D(2%) values less than 1% from the prescription. In the 3D-modulation plan, in certain cases the adaptive procedure was not effective to reduce the delivered dose degradation and yield similar results as the non-adaptive procedure. In conclusion, based on this 2D phantom

  17. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer, A.; Demirköz, B.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between 10 μA and 1.2 mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam flux. The DBL is designed to provide fluxes between 107 p /cm2 / s and 109 p /cm2 / s for performing irradiation tests in an area of 15.4 cm × 21.5 cm. The facility will be the first irradiation facility of its kind in Turkey.

  18. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: on-line trace gas analysis at the ppb level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, A.; Jordan, A.; Holzinger, R.; Prazeller, P.; Vogel, W.; Lindinger, W.

    1995-11-01

    A system for trace gas analysis using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H3O+ ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of analysis of breath taken from smokers and non-smokers as well as from patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, and of air in buildings as well as of ambient air taken at a road crossing demonstrate the wide range of applicability of this method. An enhanced level of acetonitrile in the breath is a most suitable indicator that a person is a smoker. Enhanced levels of propanol strongly indicate that a person has a severe liver deficiency.

  19. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  20. Direct mass measurements of proton-rich isotopes of Ge, As, Se, and Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, G. F.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Audi, G.; Mittig, W.; Chartier, M.; Orr, N. A.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Angelique, J. C.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cunsolo, A.; Donzaud, C.; Foti, A.; Gillibert, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lukyanov, S.; MacCormick, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ostrowski, A. N.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stephan, C.; Suomijarvi, T.; Tassan-Got, L.; Vieira, D. J.; Villari, A. C.; Wouters, J. M.

    2002-04-01

    The masses of neutron-deficient nuclei close to the proton drip line are an important input for the rapid proton-capture process modeling above 56Ni. The measurement of the masses of proton-rich nuclei with 32<=Z<=35 has been made using a direct time-of-flight technique. The masses of the nuclides 66As,68Se, and 71Br are reported for the first time, with mass excesses of -51 500(680), -53 620(1000), and -57 060(570) keV being found. The masses agree well in most cases with the Audi-Wapstra systematics.

  1. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpki, G.; Psoroulas, S.; Bula, C.; Rechsteiner, U.; Eichin, M.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A.; Meer, D.

    2017-08-01

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±36~mGy (±2% of 2~Gy biologically). In safety level 2—an additional, partly redundant validation step—we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility of switching between modes during the

  2. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  3. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  4. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source.

    PubMed

    Neri, L; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Torrisi, G; Cheymol, B; Ponton, A; Galatà, A; Patti, G; Gozzo, A; Lega, L; Ciavola, G

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  5. Observation of the β-delayed γ-proton decay of (56)Zn and its impact on the Gamow-Teller strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Orrigo, S E A; Rubio, B; Fujita, Y; Blank, B; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Fujita, H; Ganioğlu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C

    2014-06-06

    We report the observation of a very exotic decay mode at the proton drip line, the β-delayed γ-proton decay, clearly seen in the β decay of the T_{z}=-2 nucleus ^{56}Zn. Three γ-proton sequences have been observed after the β decay. Here this decay mode, already observed in the sd shell, is seen for the first time in the fp shell. Both γ and proton decays have been taken into account in the estimation of the Fermi and Gamow-Teller strengths. Evidence for fragmentation of the Fermi strength due to strong isospin mixing is found.

  6. Advances in Tagging Methods for Lifetimes of Isomeric- and Proton-Unbound States

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.

    2008-11-11

    This paper summarises the programme of Recoil-isomer tagging that has been performed over the last ten years at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The nuclei studied lie in the mass 130-140 region of the Segre chart very close to the proton drip line. The evolution of the isomer character is seen to change from K-isomers, at N = 74, to shape-isomers in the gamma soft N = 77 nuclei to seniority-isomers around N = 82. The influence of the proton drip line on the N = 74 isomers and possible critical-point symmetries in the N = 77 nuclei are discussed and the latest results presented. Developments of the isomer-tagging technique, using large beam currents with a dual Multi-Wire Proportional Counter setup, and an Isomer-tagged Differential-Plunger setup are discussed along with a future programme of work at Jyvaeskylae.

  7. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  8. Evaporative cooling of speleothem drip water

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C. E.; Markowska, M.; Jex, C. N.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.; Acworth, R. I.; Baker, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the first use of concurrent high-precision temperature and drip rate monitoring to explore what controls the temperature of speleothem forming drip water. Two contrasting sites, one with fast transient and one with slow constant dripping, in a temperate semi-arid location (Wellington, NSW, Australia), exhibit drip water temperatures which deviate significantly from the cave air temperature. We confirm the hypothesis that evaporative cooling is the dominant, but so far unattributed, control causing significant disequilibrium between drip water and host rock/air temperatures. The amount of cooling is dependent on the drip rate, relative humidity and ventilation. Our results have implications for the interpretation of temperature-sensitive, speleothem climate proxies such as δ18O, cave microecology and the use of heat as a tracer in karst. Understanding the processes controlling the temperature of speleothem-forming cave drip waters is vital for assessing the reliability of such deposits as archives of climate change. PMID:24895139

  9. Evaporative cooling of speleothem drip water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C. E.; Markowska, M.; Jex, C. N.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.; Acworth, R. I.; Baker, A.

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the first use of concurrent high-precision temperature and drip rate monitoring to explore what controls the temperature of speleothem forming drip water. Two contrasting sites, one with fast transient and one with slow constant dripping, in a temperate semi-arid location (Wellington, NSW, Australia), exhibit drip water temperatures which deviate significantly from the cave air temperature. We confirm the hypothesis that evaporative cooling is the dominant, but so far unattributed, control causing significant disequilibrium between drip water and host rock/air temperatures. The amount of cooling is dependent on the drip rate, relative humidity and ventilation. Our results have implications for the interpretation of temperature-sensitive, speleothem climate proxies such as δ18O, cave microecology and the use of heat as a tracer in karst. Understanding the processes controlling the temperature of speleothem-forming cave drip waters is vital for assessing the reliability of such deposits as archives of climate change.

  10. Nuclear Structure Near the Drip Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-08-10

    Experiments with beams of unstable nuclei will make it possible to look closely into many aspects of the nuclear many-body problem. Theoretically, exotic nuclei represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita.

  11. Preliminary study of a new gamma imager for on-line proton range monitoring during proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennati, P.; Dasu, A.; Colarieti-Tosti, M.; Lönn, G.; Larsson, D.; Fabbri, A.; Galasso, M.; Cinti, M. N.; Pellegrini, R.; Pani, R.

    2017-05-01

    We designed and tested new concept imaging devices, based on a thin scintillating crystal, aimed at the online monitoring of the range of protons in tissue during proton radiotherapy. The proposed crystal can guarantee better spatial resolution and lower sensitivity with respect to a thicker one, at the cost of a coarser energy resolution. Two different samples of thin crystals were coupled to a position sensitive photo multiplier tube read out by 64 independent channels electronics. The detector was equipped with a knife-edge Lead collimator that defined a reasonable field of view of about 10 cm in the target. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the design of the experimental setup and assess the accuracy of the results. Experimental measurements were carried out at the Skandion Clinic, the recently opened proton beam facility in Uppsala, Sweden. PMMA and water phantoms studies were performed with a first prototype based on a round 6.0 mm thick Cry019 crystal and with a second detector based on a thinner 5 × 5 cm2, 2.0 mm thick LFS crystal. Phantoms were irradiated with mono-energetic proton beams whose energy was in the range between 110 and 160 MeV. According with the simulations and the experimental data, the detector based on LFS crystal seems able to identify the peak of prompt-gamma radiation and its results are in fair agreement with the expected shift of the proton range as a function of energy. The count rate remains one of the most critical limitations of our system, which was able to cope with only about 20% of the clinical dose rate. Nevertheless, we are confident that our study might provide the basis for developing a new full-functional system.

  12. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  13. Preface for DRIP X proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landesman (Chairman), Jean-Pierre; Montgomery (Co-Chairman), Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    This issue of the “European Physical Journal Applied Physics” contains the papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on Defects: Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP X), held in Batz-sur-Mer, France, from 29th September to 2nd October, 2003. The conference gathered 150 scientists from academic institutions and industry of 20 countries from around the world, showing the pertinence of the biennial series of DRIP conferences. A much appreciated aspect of DRIP X was the variety of the different backgrounds of the participants, leading to much fruitful exchange and stimulating discussion. Following the spirit of previous DRIP conferences, the main concern of DRIP X was the methodology and the physics of measurement procedures, together with specific developments in instrumentation, and their relationship with the structural, optical and electrical properties of semiconductor defects. The topics covered related to the different methods and techniques used for the recognition and imaging of defects in semiconductor materials (Si, III-V's including nitrides, SiC, IV-IV's, II-VI's, organic compounds, ...) and in semiconductor devices ranging from defects in the raw materials at the wafer level, through process-induced defects and defects that appear during operation (burn-in, aging tests, ...). One of the highlights of the social events of DRIP X was the awards ceremony as part of the celebrations for the Tenth meeting of DRIP. The founders of the DRIP series, Professor Jean-Pierre Fillard and Professor Tomoya Ogawa were both invited to be permanent members of the International Steering Committee and awarded with appropriately engraved trophies to mark the occasion. With help form Tomoya Ogawa, Jean-Pierre Fillard organized the first DRIP conference in 1985 in La Grande Motte, France. The amusing and thought provoking slide presentation by Jean-Pierre Fillard went a great way to remind us of the history of this conference series and to

  14. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole; Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Held, Kathryn D.; Willers, Henning

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and {sup 137}Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to {sup 60}Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation.

  15. Design study of the ESS-Bilbao 50 MeV proton beam line for radiobiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Parajon, M.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Abad, E.

    2015-02-01

    The ESS-Bilbao proton accelerator facility has been designed fulfilling the European Spallation Source (ESS) specifications to serve as the Spanish contribution to the ESS construction. Furthermore, several applications of the ESS-Bilbao proton beam are being considered in order to contribute to the knowledge in the field of radiobiology, materials and aerospace components. Understanding of the interaction of radiation with biological systems is of vital importance as it affects important applications such as cancer treatment with ion beam therapy among others. ESS-Bilbao plans to house a facility exclusively dedicated to radiobiological experiments with protons up to 50 MeV. Beam line design, optimisation and initial calculations of flux densities and absorbed doses were undertaken using the Monte Carlo simulation package FLUKA. A proton beam with a flux density of about 106 protons/cm2 s reaches the water sample with a flat lateral distribution of the dose. The absorbed dose at the pristine Bragg peak calculated with FLUKA is 2.4 ± 0.1 Gy in 1 min of irradiation time. This value agrees with the clinically meaningful dose rates, i.e. around 2 Gy/min, used in hadrontherapy. Optimisation and validation studies in the ESS-Bilbao line for radiobiological experiments are detailed in this article.

  16. Landscape of two-proton radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E; Pfützner, M; Birge, N; Brown, M; Nazarewicz, W; Perhac, A

    2013-05-31

    Ground-state two-proton (2p) radioactivity is a decay mode found in isotopes of elements with even atomic numbers located beyond the two-proton drip line. So far, this exotic process has been experimentally observed in a few light- and medium-mass nuclides with Z≤30. In this study, using state-of-the-art nuclear density functional theory, we globally analyze 2p radioactivity and for the first time identify 2p-decay candidates in elements heavier than strontium. We predict a few cases where the competition between 2p emission and α decay may be observed. In nuclei above lead, the α-decay mode is found to be dominating and no measurable candidates for the 2p radioactivity are expected.

  17. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-07

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ∼50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A (22)Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  18. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ˜50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A 22Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  19. The conceptual design of a new transfer line from booster to recycler for the Fermilab Proton plan phase 2 campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Xiao, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Upon the termination of the Fermilab Collider program, the current Recycler anti-proton storage ring (RR) will be converted to a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron. This is scheduled to increase the beam power for the 120 GeV Neutrino program to upwards of 700KW. A transport line that can provide direct injection from the Booster to the Recycler while preserving direct injection from the Booster into the Main Injector and the 8 GeV Booster Neutrino program will be discussed, and its concept design will be presented.

  20. Proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-clarithromycin versus proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-metronidazole as first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of the first-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, with those of a regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Data of patients, who were administered the first-line H. pylori eradication regimen at Tokyo Medical Center between 2008 and 2011, were reviewed. All patients had H. pylori gastritis without peptic ulcer disease. The 7-day triple regimen composed of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin was administered to 55 patients, and that composed of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was administered to 55 patients. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 74.5 and 80.4%, respectively, for the regimen of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, whereas the corresponding rates were 96.4 and 100%, respectively, for the regimen of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. In conclusion, first-line H. pylori eradication therapy composed of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was significantly more effective than that composed of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, without differences in tolerability.

  1. Deformable motion reconstruction for scanned proton beam therapy using on-line x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Knopf, A.; Tanner, C.; Boye, D.; Lomax, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Organ motion is a major problem for any dynamic radiotherapy delivery technique, and is particularly so for spot scanned proton therapy. On the other hand, the use of narrow, magnetically deflected proton pencil beams is potentially an ideal delivery technique for tracking tumour motion on-line. At PSI, our new Gantry is equipped with a Beams Eye View (BEV) imaging system which will be able to acquire 2D x-ray images in fluoroscopy mode during treatment delivery. However, besides precisely tracking motion from BEVs, it is also essential to obtain information on the 3D motion vector throughout the whole region of interest, and any sparsely acquired surrogate motion is generally not sufficient to describe the deformable behaviour of the whole volume in three dimensions. In this study, we propose a method by which 3D deformable motions can be estimated from surrogate motions obtained using this monoscopic imaging system. The method assumes that example motions over a number of breathing cycles can be acquired before treatment for each patient using 4DMRI. In this study, for each of 11 different subjects, 100 continuous breathing cycles have been extracted from extended 4DMRI studies in the liver and then subject specific motion models have been built using principle component analysis (PCA). To simulate treatment conditions, a different set of 30 continuous breathing cycles from the same subjects have then been used to generate a set of simulated 4DCT data sets (so-called 4DCT(MRI) data sets), from which time-resolved digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were calculated using the BEV geometry for three treatment fields respectively. From these DRRs, surrogate motions from fiducial markers or the diaphragm have been used as a predictor to estimate 3D motions in the liver region for each subject. The prediction results have been directly compared to the ‘ground truth’ motions extracted from the same 30 breath cycles of the originating 4DMRI data set. Averaged

  2. Upper edge of the neutron star inner crust: The drip point and its vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Saperstein, E. E.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2007-08-15

    A semimicroscopic self-consistent quantum approach was developed recently to describe the inner crust structure of neutron stars within the Wigner-Seitz method and with the explicit inclusion of neutron and proton pairing correlations is used for finding the neutron drip point that separates the outer and inner crusts. The equilibrium configurations of the crust are examined in vicinity of the drip point and in the upper part of the inner crust, for the density region corresponding to average Fermi momenta k{sub F}=0.2 divide 0.5 fm{sup -1}.

  3. On-line measurements of proton beam current from a PET cyclotron using a thin aluminum foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghithan, S.; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, H.; Alves, F.; Crespo, P.

    2013-07-01

    The number of cyclotrons capable of accelerating protons to about 20 MeV is increasing throughout the world. Originally aiming at the production of positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclides, some of these facilities are equipped with several beam lines suitable for scientific research. Radiobiology, radiophysiology, and other dosimetric studies can be performed using these beam lines. In this work, we measured the Bragg peak of the protons from a PET cyclotron using a stacked target consisting of several aluminum foils interleaved with polyethylene sheets, readout by in-house made transimpedance electronics. The measured Bragg peak is consistent with simulations performed using the SRIM/TRIM simulation toolkit. Furthermore, we report on experimental results aiming at measuring proton beam currents down to 10 pA using a thin aluminum foil (20-μm-thick). The aluminum was chosen for this task because it is radiation hard, it has low density and low radiation activity, and finally because it is easily available at negligible cost. This method allows for calculating the dose delivered to a target during an irradiation with high efficiency, and with minimal proton energy loss and scattering.

  4. Effects of proton beam irradiation on mitochondrial biogenesis in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Geun; Jung, Sung Suk; Shon, Yun Hee

    2017-09-01

    Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis. Both the mtDNA/nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio and the mitochondria staining assays showed that proton beam irradiation increases mitochondrial biogenesis in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced aggressive HT-29 cells. Simultaneously, proton beam irradiation increases the gene expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors PGC-1α, NRF1, ERRα, and mtTFA, the dynamic regulators DRP1, OPA1, TIMM44, and TOM40, and the functional regulators CytC, ATP5B and CPT1-α. Furthermore, proton beam irradiation increases the phosphorylation of AMPK, an important molecule involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is an energy sensor and is regulated by the AMP/ATP ratio. Based on these findings, we suggest that proton beam irradiation inhibits metastatic potential by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and function in TPA-induced aggressive HT-29 cells.

  5. 7 CFR 3201.60 - Turbine drip oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine drip oils. 3201.60 Section 3201.60... Designated Items § 3201.60 Turbine drip oils. (a) Definition. Products that are lubricants for use in drip... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased turbine drip oils. By that...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.60 - Turbine drip oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine drip oils. 3201.60 Section 3201.60... Designated Items § 3201.60 Turbine drip oils. (a) Definition. Products that are lubricants for use in drip... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased turbine drip oils. By that...

  7. 7 CFR 3201.60 - Turbine drip oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine drip oils. 3201.60 Section 3201.60... Designated Items § 3201.60 Turbine drip oils. (a) Definition. Products that are lubricants for use in drip... with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased turbine drip oils. By that...

  8. Prospects for future proton studies at HRIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, C. R.; Batchelder, J. C.; Ginter, T. N.; Gross, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; McConnell, J. W.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K. S.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2000-05-01

    Great progress has been made in the last 20 years in the study of proton emission from unstable nuclei, but the prospects for additional strides in the next several years are bright. The present main limitations on the study of proton radioactivity are related to the inability to produce copious quantities of nuclides beyond the proton drip line, and the difficulty of measuring proton radioactivity of a mass-separated nucleus in the first few microseconds of its existence. At the Holifield Facility we will attack the second of these limitations by using new signal processing CAMAC modules DGF-4C. Digitizing of the preamplifier signals should enable the analysis of a proton decay occurring at times even less than 1 microsecond after an implant in a strip detector. In the same process, the threshold energy at which we can make measurements will be lowered. These two things will hopefully enable the measurement of lower-energy, but faster decays of isotopes in the 100Sn region and below. For the latter region, the proton decays crucial for a rp-process scenario are of particular interest (e.g. 69Br decay). Secondly, for very short-lived species, we plan to make measurements (without residue separation) at points much closer to the target, thus reducing the flight time between the target and detector. As more intense radioactive beams become available, eg. 56Ni, we will utilize these to produce more neutron-deficient nuclides by use of colder reactions than is possible with stable beams. In some cases where delayed proton emitters are present in the same isobaric chain, the use of the cold reactions with radioactive beams can provide purer samples of the isotope of interest, with a reduction in background from the delayed proton emitters in the same mass chain.

  9. ENHANCEMENT OF THE 6.4 keV LINE IN THE INNER GALACTIC RIDGE: PROTON-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE?

    SciTech Connect

    Nobukawa, K. K.; Nobukawa, M.; Tsuru, T. G.; Tanaka, T.; Koyama, K.; Uchiyama, H.; Torii, K.; Fukui, Y.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    A common idea for the origin of the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission, particularly that of the iron lines from neutral and highly ionized atoms, is a superposition of many cataclysmic variables and coronally active binaries. In this scenario, the flux should symmetrically distribute between the east and west on the plane with respect to Sagittarius A* because the stellar mass distribution determined by infrared observations is nearly symmetric. This symmetry is confirmed for the highly ionized iron line as well as the continuum emission. However, a clear excess of the neutral iron line in the near east of the Galactic center compared to the near-west side is found. The flux distribution of the excess emission well correlates with the molecular column density. The X-ray spectrum of the excess emission is described by a power-law continuum plus a 6.4 keV line with a large equivalent width of ∼1.3 keV, which is hardly explained by the low-energy electron bombardment scenario. The longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of the excess emission disfavors the X-ray irradiation, either by Sagittarius A* or by nearby X-ray binaries. Then, the low-energy proton bombardment is the most probable origin, although the high-energy density ∼80 eV cm{sup −3} in 0.1–1000 MeV is required and there is no conventional proton source in the vicinity.

  10. Enhancement of the 6.4 keV Line in the Inner Galactic Ridge: Proton-induced Fluorescence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, K. K.; Nobukawa, M.; Uchiyama, H.; Tsuru, T. G.; Torii, K.; Tanaka, T.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Fukui, Y.; Dogiel, V. A.; Koyama, K.

    2015-07-01

    A common idea for the origin of the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission, particularly that of the iron lines from neutral and highly ionized atoms, is a superposition of many cataclysmic variables and coronally active binaries. In this scenario, the flux should symmetrically distribute between the east and west on the plane with respect to Sagittarius A* because the stellar mass distribution determined by infrared observations is nearly symmetric. This symmetry is confirmed for the highly ionized iron line as well as the continuum emission. However, a clear excess of the neutral iron line in the near east of the Galactic center compared to the near-west side is found. The flux distribution of the excess emission well correlates with the molecular column density. The X-ray spectrum of the excess emission is described by a power-law continuum plus a 6.4 keV line with a large equivalent width of ˜1.3 keV, which is hardly explained by the low-energy electron bombardment scenario. The longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of the excess emission disfavors the X-ray irradiation, either by Sagittarius A* or by nearby X-ray binaries. Then, the low-energy proton bombardment is the most probable origin, although the high-energy density ˜80 eV cm-3 in 0.1-1000 MeV is required and there is no conventional proton source in the vicinity.

  11. Surfacing of domestic wastewater applied to soil through drip tubing and reduction in numbers of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Franti, J M; Weaver, R W; McInnes, K J

    2002-09-01

    Drip tubing is a technology that is increasing in use. The effectiveness of such systems in distributing the wastewater uniformly through the soil matrix, providing adequate removal of bacteria from wastewater, and keeping wastewater from reaching the soil surface has not been adequately evaluated. Experiments were conducted at two sites that had used drip tubing for approximately 3 years. This 3-year-old drip tubing and newly installed tubing were used in this investigation. A solution containing Brilliant Blue FCF dye and Escherichia coli, at an approximate concentration of 1 x 10(6) cells ml(-1), was applied to the sites through drip emitters. Reduction i n Escherichia coli populations reaching the soil surface was generally less than 10%. The route of travel for the solution reaching the soil surface was consistently along preferential flow paths and not uniformly through the soil matrix. Instances of water reaching the soil surface for drip tubing installed at 15 cm was nearly 50%. Increasing burial of the drip tubing from 15 to 30 cm nearly eliminated water surfacing. A 31 per emitter dose of water, immediately following drip line installation later increased instances of water reaching the soil surface for drip tubing buried at 30 cm. The volume of water applied per dose had little effect on the number of times water reached the soil surface. Inherent soil structural characteristics limited the drip tubing's ability to uniformly distribute water and adsorb bacteria. Drip tubing installation to 30 cm may be an important practice to reduce public health hazards from the likelihood of wastewater surfacing.

  12. SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET SYSTEM AT THE 50 GEV PROTON BEAM LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ET AL.

    2003-06-15

    A neutrino oscillation experiment using the J-PARC SO GeV 0.75 MW proton beam is planned as a successor to the K2K project currently being operated at KEK. A superconducting magnet system is required for the arc section of the primary proton beam line to be within the space available at the site. A system with 28 combined function magnets is proposed to simplify the system and optimize the cost. The required fields for the magnets are 2.6 T dipole and 19 T/m quadrupole. The magnets are also required to have a large aperture, 173.4 mm diameter, to accommodate the large beam emittance. The magnets will be protected by cold diodes and cooled by forced flow supercritical helium produced by a 4.5 K, 2 {approx} 2.5 kW refrigerator. This paper reports the system overview and the design status.

  13. Beam Loss Studies for the 2-MW LBNE Proton Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Childress, S.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Severe limits are put on allowable beam loss during extraction and transport of a 2.3 MW primary proton beam for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab. Detailed simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes have evaluated the impact of beam loss of 1.6 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 120 GeV, ranging from a single pulse full loss to sustained small fractional loss. It is shown that loss of a single beam pulse at 2.3 MW will result in a catastrophic event: beam pipe destruction, damaged magnets and very high levels of residual radiation inside and outside the tunnel. Acceptable beam loss limits have been determined and robust solutions developed to enable efficient proton beam operation under these constraints.

  14. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough.

  15. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough. PMID:26581078

  16. Impact of a real-time controlled wastewater subsurface drip disposal system on the selected chemical properties of a vertisol.

    PubMed

    Hea, Jiajie; Dougherty, Mark; Arriaga, Francisco J; AbdelGadir, Abdelaziz H

    2013-01-01

    The operation of onsite septic effluent disposal without considering seasonal moisture changes in drain field conditions can be a major cause of the failure of conventional septic systems. This study addressed this issue from a soil hydraulic perspective by using real-time drain field soil moisture levels to limit septic effluent disposal in a vertisol via subsurface drip irrigation. A prototype system was field-tested in a Houston clay soil and results describe the subsequent impact on selected soil chemical properties. After one year of hydraulic dosing with a synthetic wastewater, soil total carbon and nitrogen concentrations increased, but no increase in soil total phosphorus concentration was observed. Soil NO3-N leaching potential was noted, but soil NH4-N concentrations decreased, which could be ascribed to NH4-N nitrification, fixation within clay sheets and NH3 volatilization. Soil K+, Mg2+ and Na+ concentrations increased in soil layers above the drip lines, but decreased in soil layers below drip lines. Soil electrical conductivity accordingly increased in soil layers above drip lines, but the range was significantly lower than the threshold for soil salinity. Although the moisture-controlled effluent disposal strategy successfully avoided hydraulic dosing during unfavourable wet drain field conditions and prevented accumulation of soil salts in the soil profile beneath the drip lines, soil salts tended to accumulate in top soil layers. These adverse effects warrant system corrections before large-scale implementation of subsurface drip irrigation of effluent in similar vertisols.

  17. Bacterial application increased the flow rate of CaCO₃-clogged emitters of drip irrigation system.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Seckin; Sahin, Ustun; Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2012-05-15

    CaCO(3) is one of the most common emitter clogging factors among chemical precipitates in drip irrigation systems. Continuous acid application as a classical approach to prevent CaCO(3) clogging can be tricky, expensive and hazardous for soil. In order to develop an environmentally friendly method to address the problem, two bacterial strains, one renowned as a PGPR and the other having extensive CaCO(3) dissolving capacity, were used in treatments of artificially clogged drip irrigation emitters. Results showed the flow rates of clogged emitters significantly increased in drip lines which were treated with bacterial suspensions but no increase was observed in control drip lines which were treated with sterile nutrient broth. Furthermore, scanning electron and florescence microscopies were used to examine residual CaCO(3) precipitates. Thus, in consideration of its extensively studied PGPR characteristics, microbial treatment with Bacillus subtilis OSU-142 was shown to be promising for field applications as a novel and environmentally friendly treatment for clogged emitters of drip irrigation systems.

  18. A Monte Carlo study for the calculation of the average linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for a clinical proton beam line and a radiobiological carbon ion beam line.

    PubMed

    Romano, F; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Rosa, F Di; Mazzaglia, S E; Petrovic, I; Fira, A Ristic; Varisano, A

    2014-06-21

    Fluence, depth absorbed dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of proton and carbon ion beams have been investigated using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking). An open source application was developed with the aim to simulate two typical transport beam lines, one used for ocular therapy and cell irradiations with protons and the other for cell irradiations with carbon ions. This tool allows evaluation of the primary and total dose averaged LET and predict their spatial distribution in voxelized or sliced geometries. In order to reproduce the LET distributions in a realistic way, and also the secondary particles' contributions due to nuclear interactions were considered in the computations. Pristine and spread-out Bragg peaks were taken into account both for proton and carbon ion beams, with the maximum energy of 62 MeV/n. Depth dose distributions were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. Primary and total LET distributions were analysed in order to study the influence of contributions of secondary particles in regions at different depths. A non-negligible influence of high-LET components was found in the entrance channel for proton beams, determining the total dose averaged LET by the factor 3 higher than the primary one. A completely different situation was obtained for carbon ions. In this case, secondary particles mainly contributed in the tail that is after the peak. The results showed how the weight of light and heavy secondary ions can considerably influence the computation of LET depth distributions. This has an important role in the interpretation of results coming from radiobiological experiments and, therefore, in hadron treatment planning procedures.

  19. DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE 50 GEV PROTON BEAM LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ET AL.

    2003-06-15

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50GeV-750kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment and an R and D program has been launched at KEK. The magnet is designed to provide a combined function with a dipole field of 2.59 T and a quadrupole field of 18.7 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm. A single layer coil is proposed to reduce the fabrication cost and the coil arrangement in the 2-D cross-section results in left-right asymmetry. This paper reports the design study of the magnet.

  20. High resolution measurement of water drip rates in caves using an accoustic drip counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collister, C.; Mattey, D.

    2005-12-01

    Stable isotope records in speleothem provide one of the most promising means of reconstructing precipitation and temperature variations back into the past. The interpretation of speleothem oxygen isotope records in terms of a climate signal is not straightforward and much progress has been made through cave monitoring programs, where knowledge of the response of cave seepage rates to rain input on the surface provides vital information on aquifer processes. Continuous monitoring of drip rates at sites of active speleothem growth provides imortant constraints on processes that cause chemical and isotopic change in precipitation during its passage through the aquifer and into the cave environment. A widely used method of continuously monitoring drip rates employs tipping bucket devices which provide time integrated output dependent on the volume of the bucket and drip rate. Mechanical counting devices are sometimes unreliable in cave environments owing to condensation and carbonate precipitation interfering with the mechanism and unattended long term monitoring may be problematic. Accoustic drip counting is an attractive alternative method and we have designed an simple integrated acoustic drip counter/logger which counts the number of drips falling on the lid of the device over a user-defined time interval. This device provides a high resolution record of changing drip rates that is insensitive to spurious noise, deposition of calcite films, and can collect data for periods of 1-2 years without user intervention. The drip counter and logger is entirely solid state and fully self-contained in a rugged enclosure approximately 60mm x 60mm x 40mm. The lid of the box acts as a microphone which is tuned to record falling drops and exclude spurious signals. Low power electronics are used throughout, giving a battery life of approximately two years. The sensor will record drips falling from heights as low as 25 cm and drips at the rate of 5 per second can be resolved. Very

  1. Discrepancy in proton flux extrapolation along field lines in the middle Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the observed modulation of the electron and proton fluxes between 20 and 30 Jupiter radii on the basis of adiabatic theory and assumed symmetry with Jovigraphic longitude. Liouville's theorem is applied with the assumption that particles move conserving their magnetic moments. A magnetic model which matches the intensity and direction of the magnetic field along the Pioneer 10 trajectory is used for determining the positions of the equatorial crossings. Energetic electrons (1.3 MeV) compared in this way appear to be consistently described. Protons, on the other hand, show much weaker fluxes at the off-equatorial points than would be expected by this simple application of Liouville's theorem. Reasons for this discrepancy are offered.

  2. Studies Of Proton Emitting Nuclei At Legnaro National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soramel, F.; Guglielmetti, A.; Bonetti, R.; Gernetti, M.; Stroe, L.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.; Ivasçu, M.; Petrache, C. M.

    2003-09-01

    Since few years at the Legnaro National Laboratories we have recently started a program to study exotic decays at the proton drip-line with particular attention to proton radioactivity in the rare earth region. In fact pemitting nuclei with 54 < Z < 64 are expected to be quite deformed in their ground state and their study is an important input for the theoretical models that describe this kind of decay. Our studies have brought, as first result, the discovery of the decay by pemission of 117La where to p-decaying levels have been found. Our experimental program continued with the study of the decay of 126Pm. For this nucleus we can only conclude that our low statistics data show no evidence of p emission.

  3. Discrepancy in proton flux extrapolation along field lines in the middle Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Fluxes of energetic electrons and protons in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere were observed to be modulated with the 10 hour rotation period of the planet. This modulation was due to the concentration of particles at the magnetic equator: the non-alignment of Jupiter's spin and rotation axes caused Pioneer-10 to oscillate between +20 deg and -19 deg magnetic latitude and hence, between regions of stronger and weaker fluxes. The relationship between electron and proton fluxes observed off the magnetic equator was countered with measurements at the equatorial crossing radii of the same flux tubes by applying Liouville's theorem with the assumption that particles move conserving their magnetic moments. A magnetic model which matches the intensity and direction of the magnetic field along the Pioneer 10 trajectory was used for determining the positions of the equatorial crossings. Energetic electrons compared in this way appear to be consistently described. Protons, on the other hand, show much weaker fluxes at the off-equatorial points than would be predicted by this simple application of Liouville's theorem.

  4. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, TK

    2015-06-15

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizes with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect.

  5. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  6. Dripping dynamics at high Bond numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Rubio, Mariano; Taconet, Paloma; Sevilla, Alejandro

    2014-11-01

    When dispensing liquid from a vertically oriented injector under gravity, drops grow at the outlet until the surface tension forces can no longer balance their weight, and the pinch-off occurs. This dripping regime no longer exists above a critical flow rate, at which an abrupt transition to jetting takes place. These phenomena are governed by the liquid properties, the injector size and the injection flow rate, or non-dimensionally, by the Bond, Bo , Weber, We , and Kapitza, Γ, numbers. Detailed accounts of the rich dynamics of the dripping regime and the transition leading to jetting can be found in the literature (e.g. Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 93, 2004, and Phys. Fluids vol. 18, 2006), but only for two different values of Bo . Therefore, we present new experiments on the dripping dynamics and jetting transition for a wide range of both the liquid viscosity and the size of the injector, reaching values of Bo up to one order-of-magnitude larger than those present in the literature. Our results reveal the existence of new dynamics in the dripping regime not observed at small Bond numbers. In addition, we quantify the hysteresis present in the dripping-jetting transition, previously measured only for the inviscid case. Supported by Spanish MINECO under Project DPI 2011-28356-C03-02.

  7. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  8. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variations between adjacent drips in three caves at increasing elevation in a temperate coastal rainforest, Vancouver Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddows, Patricia A.; Mandić, Magda; Ford, Derek C.; Schwarcz, Henry P.

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of speleothem paleoenvironmental records requires understanding of spatial-temporal variations in vadose drip water chemistry and isotopic composition. This study reports on intra- and inter-cave differences in δD, δ18O and electrical conductivity, using 18 monthly water samples from three adjacent drips (<20 m apart) in each of three caves at increasing elevation (0, 550, and 740 m ASL) on very steep ground at the head of Tahsis Inlet fjord on the Pacific coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. All drips showed isotopic seasonal signals, despite varied patterns of drip hydrology. There was overlap in isotopic ranges (at 1 SD) between all three caves, in contrast with the expected δ18O depletion of -0.15 to -0.5‰/100 m of ascent observed in standard precipitation. The isotopic seasonality was approximated with sine curves, and compared to a GNIP data set from Victoria ∼300 km to the south. The δD and δ18O drip isotopes lagged the Victoria record by 155 ± 26 days and 165 ± 50 days respectively. The longest lag was at the slowest drip (sea level), while the shortest lag (87 days for δ18O, 550 m ASL) implies a short residence time, paradoxically from the drip with the highest mean electrical conductivity. Vadose residence time was less than one climatic year, reflecting a combination of negligible matrix porosity in the host rock and super-humid climatic conditions. Beneath the epikarst, drip hydrology was evidently by simple piston flow. Phase-shifted drip isotope records showed excellent agreement with sea level mean monthly air temperatures at the Tahsis meteorological station over the study period. The δD and δ18O drip amplitudes were damped on average 74% and 73% respectively compared to the Victoria data. The drips at 740 m ASL are tightly aligned to the global mean meteoric water line (GMWL) and 18O-depleted; the drips at 550 m ASL and at sea level plot along the GMWL, or between it and the Victoria LMWL, with the exception

  9. Irrigation strategies using subsurface drip irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is practiced on approximately 60,000 ha in the Texas High Plains region of the USA. Adoption of SDI continues to increase in the region. This has been attributed to record drought in Texas and the US Southwest in recent years, declining irrigation well yields, and ev...

  10. Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Using a Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Technique Without Match Line Changes for Field Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Haibo Ding, Xuanfeng; Kirk, Maura; Liu, Haoyang; Zhai, Huifang; Hill-Kayser, Christine E.; Lustig, Robert A.; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan; McDonough, James

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To propose and validate a craniospinal irradiation approach using a proton pencil beam scanning technique that overcomes the complexity of the planning associated with feathering match lines. Methods and Materials: Ten craniospinal irradiation patients had treatment planned with gradient dose optimization using the proton pencil beam scanning technique. The robustness of the plans was evaluated by shifting the isocenter of each treatment field by ±3 mm in the longitudinal direction and was compared with the original nonshifted plan with metrics of conformity number, homogeneity index, and maximal cord doses. An anthropomorphic phantom study using film measurements was carried out on a plan with 5-cm junction length. To mimic setup errors in the phantom study, fields were recalculated with isocenter shifts of 1, 3, 5, and 10 mm longitudinally, and compared with the original plans and measurements. Results: Uniform dose coverage to the entire target volumes was achieved using the gradient optimization approach with averaged junction lengths of 6.7 ± 0.5 cm. The average conformity number and homogeneity index equaled 0.78 ± 0.03 and 1.09 ± 0.01, respectively. Setup errors of 3 mm per field (6 mm in worst-case scenario) caused on average 4.6% lower conformity number 2.5% higher homogeneity index and maximal cord dose of 4216.1 ± 98.2 cGy. When the junction length was 5 cm or longer, setup errors of 6 mm resulted in up to 12% dosimetric deviation. Consistent results were reached between film measurements and planned dose profiles in the junction area. Conclusions: Longitudinal setup errors directly reduce the dosimetric accuracy of the proton craniospinal irradiation treatment with matched proton pencil beam scanning fields. The reported technique creates a slow dose gradient in the junction area, which makes the treatment more robust to longitudinal setup errors compared to conventional feathering methods.

  11. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in on-line game addiction.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F

    2014-11-01

    Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Structural MR and (1)H MRS data were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Voxels were sequentially placed in right frontal cortex and right medial temporal cortices. In the right frontal cortex, the levels of NAA in PGA were lower than those in healthy controls. In the medial temporal cortex, the levels of Cho in PGA participants were lower than those observed in healthy controls. The Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and perseverative responses in PGA were negatively correlated with the level of NAA in right frontal cortex. The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) scores in the PGA cohort were negatively correlated with Cho levels in the right temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MRS study of individuals with on-line game addiction. Although, the subjects with on-line game addiction in the current study were free from psychiatric co-morbidity, patients with on-line game addiction appear to share characteristics with ADHD and MDD in terms of neurochemical changes in frontal and temporal cortices.

  12. Induction of in situ DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis by 200 MeV protons and 10 MV X-rays in human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gerelchuluun, Ariungerel; Hong, Zhengshan; Sun, Lue; Suzuki, Kenshi; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Yasuoka, Kiyoshi; Sakae, Takeji; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the properties of clinical high-energy protons by comparing with clinical high-energy X-rays. Human tumor cell lines, ONS76 and MOLT4, were irradiated with 200 MeV protons or 10 MV X-rays. In situ DNA double-strand breaks (DDSB) induction was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). Apoptosis was measured by flow-cytometry after staining with Annexin V. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was obtained by clonogenic survival assay. DDSB induction was significantly higher for protons than X-rays with average ratios of 1.28 (ONS76) and 1.59 (MOLT4) at 30 min after irradiation. However the differences became insignificant at 6 h. Also, apoptosis induction in MOLT4 cells was significantly higher for protons than X-rays with an average ratio of 2.13 at 12 h. However, the difference became insignificant at 20 h. RBE values of protons to X-rays at 10% survival were 1.06 ± 0.04 and 1.02 ± 0.15 for ONS76 and MOLT4, respectively. Cell inactivation may differ according to different timings and/or endpoints. Proton beams demonstrated higher cell inactivation than X-rays in the early phases. These data may facilitate the understanding of the biological properties of clinical proton beams.

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in on-line game addiction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Structural MR and 1H MRS data were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Voxels were sequentially placed in right frontal cortex and right medial temporal cortices. In the right frontal cortex, the levels of NAA in PGA were lower than those in healthy controls. In the medial temporal cortex, the levels of Cho in PGA participants were lower than those observed in healthy controls. The Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and perseverative responses in PGA were negatively correlated with the level of NAA in right frontal cortex. The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) scores in the PGA cohort were negatively correlated with Cho levels in the right temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MRS study of individuals with on-line game addiction. Although, the subjects with on-line game addiction in the current study were free from psychiatric co-morbidity, patients with on-line game addiction appear to share characteristics with ADHD and MDD in terms of neurochemical changes in frontal and temporal cortices. PMID:25088284

  14. Stability of proton-rich nuclei in the upper {ital sd} shell and lower {ital pf} shell

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, B.J.

    1996-09-01

    The decay properties of proton-rich nuclei with {ital Z}=19{endash}30 are investigated using measured binding energies of the analog neutron-rich nuclei and Coulomb energy shifts deduced from a parametrization of measured Coulomb displacement energies. Predicted binding energies and separation energies are compared where possible with previous calculations; in most cases the calculations agree within the quoted uncertainties. The positions of the one-proton and diproton drip lines are determined from the calculated separation energies. It is suggested that good candidates for the observation of correlated two-proton emission are {sup 34}Ca, {sup 38,39}Ti, {sup 45}Fe, {sup 48}Ni, and {sup 54}Zn. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Monosized dripping mode of axisymmetric flow focusing.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Mazo, Francisco; Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2016-11-01

    We identify and analyze the perfectly regular dripping mode of flow focusing. This mode occurs within narrow intervals of injected flow rates and applied pressure drops and leads to homogeneous-size droplets with diameters similar to or smaller than that of the discharge orifice. The balance between the local acceleration of the fluid particle and the applied pressure drop yields the scaling law for the droplet diameter. This scaling law is validated experimentally with excellent accord.

  16. Hydrogen-induced cracking of drip shield

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S C

    1999-08-01

    A simple and conservative model has been developed to evaluate the effects of hydrogen-induced cracking on the drip shield. The basic premise of the model is that failure will occur once the hydrogen content exceeds a certain limit or critical value, HC. This model is very conservative because it assumes that, once the environmental and material conditions can support that particular corrosion process, failure will be effectively instantaneous. In the description of the HIC model presented in Section 6.1, extensive evidence has been provided to support a qualitative assessment of Ti-7 as an excellent choice of material for the drip shield with regard to degradation caused by hydrogen-induced cracking. LTCTF test data observed at LLNL, although unqualified, provides additional indication beyond a qualitative level that hydrogen concentration appears to be low in titanium materials. Quantitative evaluation based on the HIC model described in Section 6.1 indicates that the hydrogen concentration does not exceed the critical value. It is concluded that drip shield material (Ti-7) is able to sustain the effects of hydrogen-induced cracking.

  17. The Development and Clinical Use of a Beam ON-LINE PET System Mounted on a Rotating Gantry Port in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, Teiji; Miyatake, Aya; Ogino, Takashi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Saijo, Nagahiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To verify the usefulness of our developed beam ON-LINE positron emission tomography (PET) system mounted on a rotating gantry port (BOLPs-RGp) for dose-volume delivery-guided proton therapy (DGPT). Methods and Materials: In the proton treatment room at our facility, a BOLPs-RGp was constructed so that a planar PET apparatus could be mounted with its field of view covering the iso-center of the beam irradiation system. Activity measurements were performed in 48 patients with tumors of the head and neck, liver, lungs, prostate, and brain. The position and intensity of the activity were measured using the BOLPs-RGp during the 200 s immediately after the proton irradiation. Results: The daily measured activity images acquired by the BOLPs-RGp showed the proton irradiation volume in each patient. Changes in the proton-irradiated volume were indicated by differences between a reference activity image (taken at the first treatment) and the daily activity-images. In the case of head-and-neck treatment, the activity distribution changed in the areas where partial tumor reduction was observed. In the case of liver treatment, it was observed that the washout effect in necrotic tumor cells was slower than in non-necrotic tumor cells. Conclusions: The BOLPs-RGp was developed for the DGPT. The accuracy of proton treatment was evaluated by measuring changes of daily measured activity. Information about the positron-emitting nuclei generated during proton irradiation can be used as a basis for ensuring the high accuracy of irradiation in proton treatment.

  18. Effect of application variables on emissions and distribution of fumigants applied via subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Dungan, Robert S; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Mingxin; Lesch, Scott M; Yates, Scott R

    2004-11-01

    Soil fumigation is useful for controlling soil-borne pests and diseases in high-cash-value crops. Fumigants are highly volatile, and approaches to reduce atmospheric emissions are required to protect human and environmental health. Application of fumigants through drip irrigation has been proposed as a means to decrease fumigant emissions, improve fumigant distribution in soil, and minimize worker exposure. These experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the configuration of the drip system on the volatilization and distribution of the fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), propargyl bromide (PrBr), and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in bedded systems. Results indicated that changing the drip emitter spacing and using multiple drip lines in each bed had little effect on the emissions and distribution of any fumigant. Increasing the depth of application from 15 to 30 cm reduced volatilization of MITC by approximately 20 to >90%; emissions were reduced due to a decrease in the flux from the bed top, and deeper injection did not change the amount of fumigant volatilized from the bed side slope and furrow. Increasing the application depth resulted in a slight decrease in the rate of fumigant dissipation in soil, indicating the potential for some improvement in pest-control efficacy with deeper application.

  19. High levels of microbial contamination of vegetables irrigated with wastewater by the drip method.

    PubMed Central

    Sadovski, A Y; Fattal, B; Goldberg, D; Katzenelson, E; Shuval, H I

    1978-01-01

    The public health aspects of the use of wastewater in agriculture and the effects of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of vegetables were studied. The method used was to simulate enteric microorganisms' dissemination by contaminated irrigation water in the field. The vegetables were irrigated with an effluent inoculated with a high titer of traceable microorganisms: poliovirus vaccine and a drug-resistant Escherichia coli. The dissemination of the marker organisms in the field was followed, and the effects of certain manipulations of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of the crops by the effluent were examined. It was shown that drip irrigation under plastic sheet cover with the drip lines placed either on the soil surface or buried at a depth of 10 cm significantly reduced crop contamination from inoculated irrigation water even when massive doses of bacteria and viruses were used. The microbial contamination was found to persist in the irrigation pipes and in the soil for at least 8 and 18 days, respectively. The data indicate that the recovery of the marker organisms was affected by soil texture and environmental conditions. PMID:216306

  20. New insight into hydration and aging mechanisms of paper by the line shape analysis of proton NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, D.; Vasi, S.; Missori, M.; Corsaro, C.

    2016-05-01

    The action of water within biological systems is strictly linked either with their physical chemical properties and with their functions. Cellulose is one of the most studied biopolymers due to its biological importance and its wide use in manufactured products. Among them, paper is mainly constituted by an almost equimolar ratio of cellulose and water. Therefore the study of the behavior of water within pristine and aged paper samples can help to shed light on the degradation mechanisms that irremediably act over time and spoil paper. In this work we present Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments on modern paper samples made of pure cellulose not aged and artificially aged as well as on ancient paper samples made in 1413 in Perpignan (France). The line shape parameters of the proton NMR spectra were studied as a function of the hydration content. Results indicate that water in aged samples is progressively involved in the hydration of the byproducts of cellulose degradation. This enhances the degradation process itself through the progressive consumption of the cellulose amorphous regions.

  1. Design study on a medium-energy beam-transport line for the JHF proton linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Shinian; Kato, Takao

    2001-01-01

    The JHF/JAERI linac is an injector of a 3-GeV ring. It consists of an H - ion source, a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole linac, a 50-MeV drift-tube linac, a 200-MeV separated-type drift-tube linac and a 400-MeV ACS accelerator in its normal conducting section. As an intense beam linac with an average current of 0.2 mA (first stage) and higher in the second stage, the issue of decreasing beam losses is of prime importance. The MEBT between the RFQ and the DTL has been designed with a modified TRACE3-D code, aimed at perfect matching, clear chopping, a small emittance growth and sufficient space for beam measurements. The line consists of eight quadrupoles, two bunchers and two choppers with a total length of about 3 m. Multiparticle codes PARMILA and LINSAC were used to check the beam dynamics of the design. Mismatch due to errors in the elements of the MEBT or the input beam was also studied. A radio-frequency deflector (RFD) is adopted in the chopper. It is characterized by a high deflecting field and compactness. The RF-deflector cavity was designed using the MAFIA code and the electromagnetic field distribution, including fringe field, is applied in TRACE3-D simulation. It illustrates the effect of the beam tube in the cavity on large deflection. A deflection initiated by the RF-deflector is amplified more than twice by the following quadrupole. Owing to this merit, the required RF field of 1.6 MV/m is rather low to generate an adequate separation of 4.3 mm between chopped and unchopped beams at the beam stopper. By means of rapid changes in the RF amplitude and phase during the rise and fall time, the chopper has an equivalent rise and fall time of less than 3.1 ns. Beam losses during the transient time of the chopper are less than 0.08% at the exit of the 50-MeV DTL. An analysis of unstable particles in the coupled RF-deflectors shows no obvious difference from the case of an independent cavity.

  2. a New Plunger Device for Investigating the Effects of Deformation on Proton Emission Rates via Lifetime Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Smith, A. J.; McFarlane, A.; Twist, V.; Procter, M. G.; Alharshan, G. A.; Braunroth, T.; Dewald, A.; Ellinger, E.; Fransen, C.; Butler, P. A.; Scheck, M.; Joss, D. T.; Saygi, B.; McPeake, C. G.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Uusitalo, J.

    2013-06-01

    A new plunger device has been designed and built to measure the lifetimes of unbound states in exotic nuclei beyond the proton drip-line. The device is designed to work in both vacuum and dilute-gas environments made possible through the introduction of a lowvoltage piezoelectric motors. The differential plunger for unbound nuclear states, DPUNS, will be used in conjunction with the gas-filled separator RITU and the vacuum separator MARA at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, to measure the lifetimes of excited states with low population cross-sections. This is achieved by eliminating the need for a carbon foil to isolate the helium gas of RITU from the beam line thus reducing the background from beam-foil reactions. The plunger will be used to address many key facets of nuclear structure physics with particular emphasis on the effect of deformation on proton emission rates.

  3. Direct mass measurements of proton-rich nuclei in the region from tellurium to polonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, H.; Beckert, K.; Beha, T.; Bosch, F.; Eickhoff, H.; Franzke, B.; Fujita, Y.; Geissel, H.; Haussmann, M.; Irnich, H.; Jung, H. C.; Kerscher, Th.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kraus, G.; Löbner, K. E. G.; Münzenberg, G.; Nickel, F.; Nolden, F.; Novikov, Yu.; Radon, T.; Reich, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schlitt, B.; Schwab, W.; Schwinn, A.; Steck, M.; Sümmerer, K.

    1997-02-01

    In recent experiments using the FRS-ESR facilities at GSI we have measured the masses of 225 proton-rich nuclei in the range of 135≤A≤209. Applying the new technique of Schottky-Mass Spectrometry an accuracy of about 100 keV and a resolving power of 4 · 10 5 was achieved. Masses for cooled projectile fragments with half-lives larger than a few seconds were determined by their revolution frequencies in the ESR. Reliable predictions for the proton-drip line can be made for elements from bismuth to protactinium using the precisely measured Qα-values from literature and our new mass values for the isotopes at the ends of the corresponding α-chains.

  4. Proton-decaying, light nuclei accessed via the invariant-mass method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Two-nucleon decay is the most recently discovered nuclear decay mode. For proton-rich nuclei, the majority of multi-proton decays occur via sequential steps of one-proton emission. Direct two-proton (2p) decay was believed to occur only in even-Z nuclei beyond the proton drip line where one-proton decay is energy forbidden. This has been observed for the ground states of around a dozen nuclei including 6Be, the lightest case, and 54Zn, the heaviest case. Direct 2p decay has also recently been observed for isobaric analog states where all possible 1p intermediates are either isospin allowed and energy forbidden, or energy-allowed and isospin forbidden. For light proton emitters, the lifetimes are short enough that the invariant-mass technique is ideal for measuring the decay energy, intrinsic width and, for multi-proton decays, the momentum correlations between the fragments. I will describe recent measurements of proton emitters using the invariant-mass technique with the High Resolution Array (HiRA). I will present a new, high-statistics measurement on the sequential 2p decay of excited states in 17Ne. Measuring the momentum correlations between the decay fragments allow us to determine the 1p intermediate state through which the decay proceeds. I will present data on the isobaric-analog pair 8C and 8BIAS, which highlight the two known types of direct 2p decay. I will also present the first observation of 17Na, which is unbound with respect to three-proton emission. Finally I will present a new measurement on the width of the first-excited state of 9C and compare to recent theoretical calculations.

  5. One-proton knockout reaction of 20 N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, K.; Iwasaki, H.; Brown, B. A.; Gade, A.; Loelius, C.; Morse, C.; Stroberg, S. R.; Bazin, D.; Kobayashi, N.; Recchia, F.; Smalley, D.; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.; Lemasson, A.; Campbell, C. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Otsuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear structure away from stability can change drastically due to the re-ordering of shell-model orbitals. In particular, near the neutron drip line, the neutron 1s1 / 2 orbital and 0d5 / 2 orbitals may become degenerate or even inverted. In order to study the trend of these orbitals across the N = 13 isotones, a one-proton knockout reaction from 20N has been performed. The cross section is sensitive to states in 19C as well as the ground state in 20N. The experiment was performed at the NSCL with a beam of 20N at 70 MeV/nucleon. Gamma rays in coincidence with the 19C fragments were measured with GRETINA to determine exclusive cross sections, and the momentum of 19C recoils were recorded by the S800. Results will be compared to reaction calculations in the eikonal model.

  6. Effect of Fumigation on Rotylenchulus reniformis Population Density Through Subsurface Drip Irrigation Located Every Other Furrow.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T A; Porter, D O; Archer, D; Mullinix, B G

    2008-09-01

    Plots naturally infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis were sampled in the spring of 2006 and 2007 at depths of 15 and 30 cm in the bed, furrow over the drip tape, and "dry" furrow, and at approximately 40 to 45 cm depth in the bed and dry furrow. Then, 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) was injected into the subsurface drip irrigation at 46 kg a.i./ha, and 3 to 4 weeks later the plots were resampled and assayed for nematodes. The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. IvLRr before fumigation was higher in the soil over the drip lines than in the bed or dry furrow and was higher in the bed than the dry furrow. IvLRr was higher in the plots to be fumigated than the plots that were not to be fumigated for all depths and locations except at a 15 cm depth over the drip lines, where the values were similar. However, after fumigation, IvLRr was lower over the drip lines at a 30 cm depth in plots that were fumigated compared to samples in a similar location and depth that were not fumigated. There were no other location/depth combinations where the fumigation reduced IvLRr below that in the nonfumigated plots. Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R(2) = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R. reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R. reniformis/100 cm(3) soil). However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. Yield was not significantly improved by fumigation through the drip irrigation system in either year compared to plots treated only with aldicarb (0.84 kg a.i./ha), indicating that the level of control with fumigation did not kill enough R. reniformis to be successful.

  7. Effect of Fumigation on Rotylenchulus reniformis Population Density Through Subsurface Drip Irrigation Located Every Other Furrow

    PubMed Central

    Porter, D. O.; Archer, D.; Mullinix, B. G.

    2008-01-01

    Plots naturally infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis were sampled in the spring of 2006 and 2007 at depths of 15 and 30 cm in the bed, furrow over the drip tape, and “dry” furrow, and at approximately 40 to 45 cm depth in the bed and dry furrow. Then, 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) was injected into the subsurface drip irrigation at 46 kg a.i./ha, and 3 to 4 weeks later the plots were resampled and assayed for nematodes. The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. IvLRr before fumigation was higher in the soil over the drip lines than in the bed or dry furrow and was higher in the bed than the dry furrow. IvLRr was higher in the plots to be fumigated than the plots that were not to be fumigated for all depths and locations except at a 15 cm depth over the drip lines, where the values were similar. However, after fumigation, IvLRr was lower over the drip lines at a 30 cm depth in plots that were fumigated compared to samples in a similar location and depth that were not fumigated. There were no other location/depth combinations where the fumigation reduced IvLRr below that in the nonfumigated plots. Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R2 = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R. reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R. reniformis/100 cm3 soil). However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. Yield was not significantly improved by fumigation through the drip irrigation system in either year compared to plots treated only with aldicarb (0.84 kg a.i./ha), indicating that the level of control with fumigation did not kill enough R. reniformis to be successful. PMID:19440261

  8. Monitoring drip water isotope and element variability: A new device for automatic drip water collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gilbert, M.-J.; Kwiecien, O.; Seifert, R.; Fleitmann, D.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding cave drip water elemental and stable isotope composition (δD and δ18O) are vital for interpreting climate proxy records derived from stalagmites as palaeoclimate archives. Delineating the temporal changes in drip water chemistry to climatic and environmental fluctuations (such as rainfall amount, degassing, bioactivity etc.) is even more important if calibration is attempted between climatic parameters and stalagmite proxy records. Monitoring of remote study sites has often been limited by the ability to regularly and manually collect drip water samples over an extended period of time. One important complication to be considered for stable isotope analysis is that sampling vials must be closed air-tight, in order to avoid post-sampling evaporation of the sampled water. To overcome these limitations we developed an automated and programmable sampling device that can collect 12 ml of drip water at pre-defined time intervals. A total of 49 samples can be collected in a turret over a period of up to one year. The device is powered by widely available C-cell batteries and works in cave environments with positive air temperature. The autosampler has been installed and tested in Waldheim Cave, Switzerland, where we collected water at 24h intervals. We present preliminary data for the winter period December 2011 to March 2012.

  9. Effects of drip irrigation configuration and rate on yield and fruit quality of young highbush blueberry plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 4-year study was conducted to determine the effects of drip configuration and irrigation rate on yield and fruit quality in a new planting of highbush blueberry in British Columbia, Canada. Plants were grown in a silt loam soil on raised beds and were non-irrigated or irrigated using one line of d...

  10. Volatile organic compounds emitted after leaf wounding: On-line analysis by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Ray; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Jordan, Alfons; Lindinger, Werner

    1999-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from vegetation, including wound-induced VOCs, can have important effects on atmospheric chemistry. The analytical methods for measuring wound-induced VOCs, especially the hexenal family of VOCs (hexenals, hexenols, and hexenyl esters), are complicated by their chemical instability and the transient nature of their formation after leaf and stem wounding. Here we demonstrate that formation and emission of hexenal family compounds can be monitored on-line using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), avoiding the need for preconcentration or chromatography. These measurements allow direct analysis of the rapid emission of the parent compound, (Z)-3-hexenal, within 1-2 s of wounding of aspen leaves and then its disappearance and the appearance of its metabolites including (E)-2-hexenal, hexenols, and hexenyl acetates. Similar results were seen in wounded beech leaves and clover. The emission of hexenal family compounds was proportional to the extent of wounding, was not dependent on light, occurred in attached or detached leaves, and was greatly enhanced as detached leaves dried out. Emission of (Z)-3-hexenal from detached drying aspen leaves averaged 500 μg C g-1 (dry leaf weight). Leaf wound compounds were not emitted in a nitrogen atmosphere but were released within seconds of reintroduction of oxygen; this indicates that there are not large pools of hexenyl compounds in leaves. The PTR-MS method also allows the simultaneous detection of less abundant hexanal family VOCs including hexanal, hexanol, and hexyl acetate and VOCs formed in the light (isoprene) or during anoxia (acetaldehyde). PTR-MS may be a useful tool for the analysis of VOC emissions resulting from grazing, herbivory, and other physical damage to vegetation, from harvesting of crops, and from senescing leaves.

  11. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    SciTech Connect

    F. Hua

    2004-09-16

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847]).

  12. Subsurface drip irrigation: Status of the technology in 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) although a much smaller fraction of the microirrigated land area than surface drip irrigation, is growing at a much faster rate, and is the subject of considerable research and educational efforts in the United States. This paper will discuss the growth in SDI, high...

  13. A comparison of precision mobile drip irrigation, LESA and LEPA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precision mobile drip irrigation (PMDI) is a surface drip irrigation system fitted onto moving sprinkler systems that applies water through the driplines as they are dragged across the field. This application method can conserve water by limiting runoff, and reducing evaporative losses since the wat...

  14. Surface drip irrigation (SDI): Status of the technology in 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), although a much smaller fraction of the microirrigated land area than surface drip irrigation, is growing at a much faster rate and is the subject of considerable research and educational efforts in the United States. This paper will discuss the growth in SDI, highl...

  15. Biological treatment of clogged emitters in a drip irrigation system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ustün; Anapali, Omer; Dönmez, Mesude Figen; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2005-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate microbial organisms that can be used for preventing clogging in drip irrigation systems caused by biological factors. A total of 25 fungi isolate and 121 bacterial strains were isolated from water samples collected from drip irrigation systems in tomato greenhouses in the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey in the spring season of 2001. Biological clogging of emitters in a model drip irrigation system was experimentally caused by application of the microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) isolated in the study. Three antagonistic bacterial strains in the genus Bacillus spp (ERZ, OSU-142) and Burkholdria spp (OSU-7) were used for treatment of biological clogging of the emitters. The results showed that the antagonistic bacterial strains tested have the potential to be used as anti-clogging agents for treatment of emitters in drip irrigation system. This is the first study that demonstrated that antagonistic microorganisms can be utilized for treatment of clogging in drip irrigation systems.

  16. Peanut Response to Crop Rotation, Drip Tube Lateral Spacing, and Irrigation Rates with Deep Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term crop yield with various crop rotations irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI) is not known for US southeast. A SSDI system was installed in 1998 on a Tifton loamy sand (Fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults) with five crop rotations, two drip tube lateral spacings,...

  17. DripFume: A Visual Basic Program For Simulating Distribution And Atmospheric Volatilization Of Soil Fumigants Applied Through Drip Irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Windows-based graphical user interface program (DripFume) was developed in MS Visual Basic (VB) to utilize a two-dimensional multi-phase finite element pesticide transport model to simulate distribution and emission of volatile fumigant chemicals when applied through drip irrigation or shank injec...

  18. The pore-lining regions in cytochrome c oxidases: A computational analysis of caveolin, cholesterol and transmembrane helix contributions to proton movement.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Gupta, Raj K

    2014-11-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the terminal enzyme in the electron transfer chain. CcO catalyzes a four electron reduction of O2 to water at a catalytic site formed by high-spin heme (a3) and copper atoms (CuB). While it is recognized that proton movement is coupled to oxygen reduction, the proton channel(s) have not been well defined. Using computational methods developed to study protein topology, membrane channels and 3D packing arrangements within transmembrane (TM) helix arrays, we find that subunit-1 (COX-1), subunit-2 (COX-2) and subunit-3 (COX-3) contribute 139, 46 and 25 residues, respectively, to channel formation between the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space. Nine of 12 TM helices in COX-1, both helices in COX-2 and 5 of the 6 TM helices in COX-3 are pore-lining regions (possible channel formers). Heme a3 and the CuB sites (as well as the CuA center of COX-2) are located within the channel that includes TM-6, TM-7, TM-10 and TM-11 of COX-1 and are associated with multiple cholesterol and caveolin-binding (CB) motifs. Sequence analysis identifies five CB motifs within COX-1, two within COX-2 and four within COX-3; each caveolin containing a pore-lining helix C-terminal to a TM helix-turn-helix. Channel formation involves interaction between multiple pore-lining regions within protein subunits and/or dimers. PoreWalker analysis lends support to the D-channel model of proton translocation. Under physiological conditions, caveolins may introduce channel formers juxtaposed to those in COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3, which together with cholesterol may form channel(s) essential for proton translocation through the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  19. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The

  20. Upgrade to a programmable timing system for the KOMAC proton linac and multi-purpose beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2016-09-01

    The KOMAC facility consists of low-energy components, including a 50-keV ion source, a lowenergy beam transport (LEBT), a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20-MeV drift tube linac (DTL), as well as high-energy components, including seven DTL tanks for the 100-MeV proton beam. The KOMAC includes ten beam lines, five for 20-MeV beams and five for 100-MeV beams. The peak beam current and the maximum beam duty are 20 mA and 24% for the 20-MeV linac and 20 mA and 8% for the 100-MeV linac, respectively. Four high-voltage convertor modulators are used. Each modulator drives two or three klystrons. The peak output power is 5.8 MW, and the average power is 520 kW with a duty of 9%. The pulse width and repetition rate are 1.5 ms and 60 Hz, respectively. Each component of the pulsed operation mode has a timing trigger signal with precision synchronization. A timing system for beam extraction and for diagnostic components is required to provide precise pulse signals synchronized with a 300-MHz RF reference frequency. In addition, the timing parameters should be capable of real-time changes in accordance with the beam power. The KOMAC timing system has been upgraded to a programmable Micro Research Finland (MRF) event timing system that is synchronized with the RF, AC main frequency and with the global positioning system (GPS) 1-PPS signal. The event timing system consists of an event generator (EVG) and an event receiver (EVR). The event timing system is integrated with the KOMAC control system by using experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) software. For preliminary hardware and software testing, a long operation test with a synchronization of 300-MHz RF reference and 60-Hz AC has been completed successfully. In this paper, we will describe the software implementation, the testing, and the installation of the new timing system.

  1. Competition between α decay and proton radioactivity of neutron-deficient nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Cui, J. P.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhang, S.; Gu, J. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The α decay and proton radioactivity half-lives of some neutron-deficient nuclei are calculated using an effective liquid drop model (ELDM). It is found that the experimental half-lives of the two decay modes and the dominant decay mode can be well reproduced by the ELDM. Moreover, the predicted penetration probabilities (P ) of proton radioactivity by the ELDM are in agreement with those by a microscopic model (MM). This allows us to make predictions on the competition of the two decay modes for nuclei whose experimental data are not available, which are useful for future measurements. In addition, the comparison between the predicted reduced proton radioactivity half-lives by the ELDM and the ones by a standard formula suggests that one is unlikely to observe large angular momentum transfers for nuclei with a very large Coulomb parameter χ . Last, we find that in most isotope chains the proton radioactivity is the dominant decay mode for nuclei that are very close to the proton drip line. But with increasing neutron number N the main decay mode is changed into α decay. With the decay energies the decay mode anomaly of 184Bi is discussed.

  2. Structure and reactions of drip-line nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    Secondary radioactive beams produced at intermediate-energy heavy-ion accelerators have in a short time span added a new dimension to the research on nuclear species at the limits of particle stability, and new detection techniques have made it possible to study reactions caused by incident beams of as little as one particle per second. Imminent developments such as the M.S.U. Coupled-Cyclotron Facility are expected to extend the range and to permit the observation of many previously inaccessible species. For a perspective on the progress in this area one only needs to go about fifteen years back to a time when it had just become possible to study the radioactivity of rare nuclear species such as {sup 11}Li. In presenting early experiments with secondary beams produced in fragmentation James Symons said {open_quotes}... In the introduction to this paper we questioned the applicability of high-energy heavy-ion accelerators to this field. Our experience at the Bevalac leads us to believe that this question does indeed have a positive answer. If the physics interest justifies it, then high-energy heavy-ion beams can certainly be expected to play a role in the study of nuclei at the limits of stability.{close_quotes} At the time, very few, if any, realized how prophetic this remark was. In the present paper the interpretation of the longitudinal-momentum distributions from the nuclear fragmentation of single-nucleon halos is discussed. It is pointed out that these measurements, at least for the cases studied so far, directly reflect the halo wave function, and that there is no direct contribution from the reaction mechanism. This is an important difference from the radial momentum distributions, for which diffractive processes play an important role. The author discusses stripping reactions of {sup 11}Be and {sup 8}B on light nuclei yielding {sup 10}Be and {sup 7}Be.

  3. Continuum effects in neutron-drip-line oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossez, K.; Rotureau, J.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2017-08-01

    The binding-energy pattern along the neutron-rich oxygen chain, governed by an interplay between shell effects and many-body correlations impacted by strong couplings to one- and two-neutron continua, make these isotopes a unique testing ground for nuclear models. In this work, we investigate ground states and low-lying excited states of O-2823 using the complex-energy Gamow shell model and density matrix renormalization group method with a finite-range two-body interaction optimized to the bound states and resonances of O-2623, assuming a core of 22O. Our results suggest that the ground state of 28O has a threshold character, i.e., is very weakly bound or slightly unbound. We also predict narrow excited resonances in 25O and 27O. The inclusion of the large continuum space significantly impacts predicted binding energies of O-2826. This implies that the careful treatment of a neutron continuum is necessary prior to assessing the spectroscopic quality of effective interactions in this region.

  4. SU-E-T-794: Validation of the MCNPX Monte Carlo Model of the Ocular Beam Line at the Proton Therapy Center Houston

    SciTech Connect

    Titt, U; Suzuki, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The PTCH is preparing the ocular proton beam nozzle for clinical use. Currently commissioning measurements are being performed using films, diodes and ionization chambers. In parallel, a Monte Carlo model of the beam line was created for integration into the automated Monte Carlo treatment plan computation system, MC{sup 2}. This work aims to compare Monte Carlo predictions to measured proton doses in order to validate the Monte Carlo model. Methods: A complete model of the double scattering ocular beam line has been created and is capable of simulating proton beams with a comprehensive set of beam modifying devices, including eleven different range modulator wheels. Simulations of doses in water were scored and compare to ion chamber measurements of depth doses, lateral dose profiles extracted from half beam block exposures of films, and diode measurements of lateral penumbrae at various depths. Results: All comparison resulted in an average relative entrance dose difference of less than 3% and peak dose difference of less than 2%. All range differences were smaller than 0.2 mm. The differences in the lateral beam profiles were smaller than 0.2 mm, and the differences in the penumbrae were all smaller than 0.4%. Conclusion: All available data shows excellent agreement of simulations and measurements. More measurements will have to be performed in order to completely and systematically validate the model. Besides simulating and measuring PDDs and lateral profiles of all remaining range modulator wheels, the absolute dosimetry factors in terms of number of source protons per monitor unit have to be determined.

  5. 40 CFR 264.571 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment of the drip pad, reviewed and... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.571 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a) For each...

  6. 40 CFR 265.441 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment of the drip pad, reviewed and certified by a... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.441 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a)...

  7. Longevity of Shallow Subsurface Drip Irrigation Tubing Under Three Tillage Practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shallow Sub-Surface drip irrigation (S3DI) has drip tubing buried about 2-in below the soil surface. It is unknown how long drip tubing would be viable at this shallow soil depth using strip- or no-tillage systems. The objectives were to determine drip tube longevity, resultant crop yield, and parti...

  8. A remote drip infusion monitoring system employing Bluetooth.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Maki, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a remote drip infusion monitoring system for use in hospitals. The system consists of several infusion monitoring devices and a central monitor. The infusion monitoring device employing a Bluetooth module can detect the drip infusion rate and an empty infusion solution bag, and then these data are sent to the central monitor placed at the nurses' station via the Bluetooth. The central monitor receives the data from several infusion monitoring devices and then displays graphically them. Therefore, the developed system can monitor intensively the drip infusion situation of the several patients at the nurses' station.

  9. Nematicide Efficacy, Root Growth, and Fruit Yield in Drip-irrigated Pineapple Parasitized by Rotylenchulus reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, R. C.; Zhang, J.; Anders, M. M.; Bartholomew, D. P.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-year field trial near Kunia, Oahu, Hawaii, was conducted to evaluate four nematicide treatments for efficacy against Rotylenchulus reniformis in drip-irrigated pineapple (Ananas comosus L. (Merr.)). The treatments were (A) preplant fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) (336 liter/ ha) and postplant drip application of fenamiphos (3.4 kg/ha) with restricted irrigation, (B) preplant 1,3-D only, weekly irrigation, (C) 1,3-D fenamiphos, weekly irrigation, and (D) postplant fenamiphos only, weekly irrigation. Fenamiphos was applied at 3-month intervals for 1 year after planting in three treatments. Although nematode populations increased in all treatments 1 year after planting, no differences in fruit yield were detected among treatments in the first (plant crop) harvest 19 months after planting. In the second (ratoon) crop (33 months after planting) significant yield differences, larger fruit size, and greater root biomass were obtained in the dual nematicide treatments. Root biomass increased continuously throughout the crop cycle, was greatest near the drip line, and showed a shallow depth distribution (30-40 cm). Rotylenchulus reniformis populations and fenamiphos concentrations were negatively correlated in soil profiles taken 13 months after planting. In the absence of postplant fenamiphos applications, nematode numbers were positively correlated with root biomass. PMID:19283033

  10. Direct Observation of Two Proton Radioactivity Using Digital Photography

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pfutzner, M.; Dominik, Wojciech; Janas, Z.; Miernik, K.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, Henryk; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, Waldemar; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, Mustafa; Stolz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently the observation of a new type of spontaneous radioactive decay has been claimed in which two protons are simultaneously ejected by an atomic nucleus from the ground state1,2,3. Experimental data obtained for the extremely neutron-deficient nuclei 45Fe and 54Zn, were interpreted as the first evidence of such a decay mode which has been sought since 1960.4 However, the technique applied in those studies allowed only measurements of the decay time and the total energy released. Particles emitted in the decay were not identified and the conclusions had to be supported by theoretical arguments. Here we show for the first time, directly and unambiguously, that 45Fe indeed disintegrates by two-proton decay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the decay branch of this isotope leads to various particle emission channels including two-proton and three-proton emission. To achieve this result we have developed a new type of detector V the Optical Time Projection Chamber (OTPC) in which digital photography is applied to nuclear physics for the first time. The detector records images of tracks from charged particles, allowing for their unambiguous identification and the reconstruction of decay events in three dimensions. This new and simple technique provides a powerful method to identify exotic decay channels involving emission of charged particles. It is expected that further studies with the OTPC device will yield important information on nuclei located at and beyond the proton drip-line, thus providing new material for testing and improving models of very unstable atomic nuclei.

  11. 13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, A.

    1995-12-31

    Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

  13. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of the Drip Shield

    SciTech Connect

    F. Hua

    2004-09-07

    Hydrogen-induced cracking is characterized by the decreased ductility and fracture toughness of a material due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. Corrosion is the source of hydrogen generation. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, hydrogen-induced cracking may be a concern because the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this report is to analyze whether the drip shield will fail by hydrogen-induced cracking under repository conditions within 10,000 years after emplacement. Hydrogen-induced cracking is a scenario of premature failure of the drip shield. This report develops a realistic model to assess the form of hydrogen-induced cracking degradation of the drip shield under the hydrogen-induced cracking. The scope of this work covers the evaluation of hydrogen absorbed due to general corrosion and galvanic coupling to less noble metals (e.g., Stainless Steel Type 316 and carbon steels) under the repository conditions during the 10,000-year regulatory period after emplacement and whether the absorbed hydrogen content will exceed the critical hydrogen concentration value, above which the hydrogen-induced cracking is assumed to occur. This report also provides the basis for excluding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to hydrogen-induced cracking of the drip shield with particular emphasis on FEP 2.1.03.04.OB, hydride cracking of drip shields (DTN: M00407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). This report is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944]).

  14. Measuring the spectrum of mutation induced by nitrogen ions and protons in the human-hamster hybrid cell line A(L)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Ueno, A.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Astronauts can be exposed to charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and heavier ions, during space flights. Therefore, studying the biological effectiveness of these sparsely and densely ionizing radiations is important to understanding the potential health effects for astronauts. We evaluated the mutagenic effectiveness of sparsely ionizing 55 MeV protons and densely ionizing 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions using cells of two human-hamster cell lines, A(L) and A(L)C. We have previously characterized a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in the human-hamster hybrid cell lines A(L)C and A(L). CD59(-) mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen encoded by the CD59 gene located at 11p13. Deletion of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the A(L) hybrid, so that CD59 mutants that lose the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. In contrast, deletion of the 11p15.5 region is not lethal in the hybrid A(L)C, allowing for the detection of chromosome loss or other chromosomal mutations involving 11p15.5. The 55 MeV protons and 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions were each about 10 times more mutagenic per unit dose at the CD59 locus in A(L)C cells than in A(L) cells. In the case of nitrogen ions, the mutations observed in A(L)C cells were predominantly due to chromosome loss events or 11p deletions, often containing a breakpoint in the pericentromeric region. The increase in the CD59(-) mutant fraction for A(L)C cells exposed to protons was associated with either translocation of portions of 11q onto a hamster chromosome, or discontinuous or "skipping" mutations. We demonstrate here that A(L)C cells are a powerful tool that will aid in the understanding of the mutagenic effects of different types of ionizing radiation.

  15. Measuring the spectrum of mutation induced by nitrogen ions and protons in the human-hamster hybrid cell line A(L)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Ueno, A.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Astronauts can be exposed to charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and heavier ions, during space flights. Therefore, studying the biological effectiveness of these sparsely and densely ionizing radiations is important to understanding the potential health effects for astronauts. We evaluated the mutagenic effectiveness of sparsely ionizing 55 MeV protons and densely ionizing 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions using cells of two human-hamster cell lines, A(L) and A(L)C. We have previously characterized a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in the human-hamster hybrid cell lines A(L)C and A(L). CD59(-) mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen encoded by the CD59 gene located at 11p13. Deletion of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the A(L) hybrid, so that CD59 mutants that lose the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. In contrast, deletion of the 11p15.5 region is not lethal in the hybrid A(L)C, allowing for the detection of chromosome loss or other chromosomal mutations involving 11p15.5. The 55 MeV protons and 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions were each about 10 times more mutagenic per unit dose at the CD59 locus in A(L)C cells than in A(L) cells. In the case of nitrogen ions, the mutations observed in A(L)C cells were predominantly due to chromosome loss events or 11p deletions, often containing a breakpoint in the pericentromeric region. The increase in the CD59(-) mutant fraction for A(L)C cells exposed to protons was associated with either translocation of portions of 11q onto a hamster chromosome, or discontinuous or "skipping" mutations. We demonstrate here that A(L)C cells are a powerful tool that will aid in the understanding of the mutagenic effects of different types of ionizing radiation.

  16. Drip shield Structural Response to Rock Fall

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Ceylan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this calculation is to determine areas over the drip shield (DS) top plate and side-walls where the residual stress values exceed 50% of Ti-7 yield strength. These areas will also be referred to as the damaged areas throughout this document. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of the damaged areas based on a chosen set of stress components. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the DS. This calculation is associated with the DS design and was performed by the Waste Package and Components. AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The DS is classified as a safety category item. Therefore, this calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of DS considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for the DS design. The finite element (FE) calculation was performed by using the commercially available LS-DYNA Version (V)960 (Software Tracking Number [STN] 10300-960.1106-00, Ref. 7) FE code. The results of this calculation were evaluated using residual first principal stress. Subsequent analysis of areas determined by residual stresses have been reported in the results section of this document. The finite element mesh adequacy was determined based on the maximum stress intensity and maximum first principal stress. The current work processes and procedures for the control of the electronic management of data for this activity were conducted in accordance with AP-3.13Q, ''Design Control'' (Section 5.1.2).

  17. Capsule Areal-Density Asymmetries and Time Evolution Inferred from 14.7-MeV Proton Line Structure in OMEGA D^3He Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.

    2002-11-01

    The fusion of D^3He in spherical capsule implosions results in copious production of 14.7-MeV protons. As these protons pass through the plasma, they lose energy. Importantly, this energy loss reflects the areal density (ρL) of the plasma transited. Up to 11 proton spectrometers simultaneously view D^3He implosions from different directions. While the burn-averaged and spatially averaged ρL for each implosion is typically between 50 to 75 mg/cm^2 within a group of similar implosions, there are often significant differences between the individual spectra of a given shot, in both their average implied ρL ( ˜50% about the mean) and in the low-energy tail. Some of these low-mode (ℓ ˜ 1) individual-shot asymmetries are attributable to laser drive asymmetry. However, for small amounts of energy imbalance (<=5% rms), the measured asymmetries are found to be uncorrelated with UV-measured laser imbalance. This indicates that other sources of asymmetry, such as capsule asymmetries, may play a role. In addition to nonuniformities, time evolution is the other important component to line broadening and spectral shape. To most clearly elucidate this effect, implosions of 24-μm-thick CH capsules were conducted. In a 400-ps period between first shock coalescence and compression, the spatially averaged ρL changes from ˜ 8 to ˜ 70 mg/cm^2. An important issue is whether the shell asymmetries could have already been established at the time of first shock coalescence. Supported in part by the U.S. D.O.E. Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion (Grant DE-FG03-99DP00300; Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), LLNL (subcontract B313975). (Petrasso: Visiting Senior Scientist at LLE.)

  18. Solid-state proton NMR of paramagnetic metal complexes: DANTE spin echoes for selective excitation in inhomogeneously broadened lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, Diego; Perez Linde, A. J.; Bauer, Gerald; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2013-08-01

    The paramagnetic complex bis(oxazolinylphenyl)amine-Fe(III)Cl2 is investigated by means of solid-state proton NMR at 18.8 T (800 MHz) using magic-angle spinning at 65 kHz. Spin echoes that are excited and refocused by combs of rotor-synchronized pulses in the manner of 'Delays Alternating with Nutation for Tailored Excitation' (DANTE) allow one to characterize different chemical environments that severely overlap in conventional MAS spectra. Such sequences combine two apparently contradictory features: an overall bandwidth exceeding several MHz, and very selective irradiation of a few kHz within inhomogeneously broadened sidebands. The experimental hyperfine interactions correlate well with DFT calculations.

  19. Changes in 12-Year First-Line Eradication Rate of Helicobacter pylori Based on Triple Therapy with Proton Pump Inhibitor, Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Makoto; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Utsumi, Keiko; Kawamura, Naohiko; Kamiya, Tskeshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kasugai, Kunio; Joh, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A triple therapy based on a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC), and clarithromycin (CAM) is recommended as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication and is widely used in Japan. However, a decline in eradication rate associated with an increase in prevalence of CAM resistance is viewed as a problem. We investigated CAM resistance and eradication rates over time retrospectively in 750 patients who had undergone the triple therapy as first-line eradication therapy at Nagoya City University Hospital from 1995 to 2008, divided into four terms (Term 1: 1997–2000, Term 2: 2001–2003, Term 3: 2004–2006, Term 4: 2007–2008). Primary resistance to CAM rose significantly over time from 8.7% to 23.5%, 26.7% and 34.5% while the eradication rate decreased significantly from 90.6% to 80.2%, 76.0% and 74.8%. Based on the PPI type, significant declines in eradication rates were observed with omeprazole or lansoprazole, but not with rabeprazole. A decrease in the H. pylori eradication rate after triple therapy using a PPI + AMPC + CAM has been acknowledged, and an increase in CAM resistance is considered to be a factor. From now on, a first-line eradication regimen that results in a higher eradication rate ought to be investigated. PMID:20664731

  20. Improved Laboratory Values of the H{sub 2} Lyman and Werner Lines for Constraining Time Variation of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Salumbides, E. J.; Khramov, A.; Wolf, A. L.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.; Bailly, D.; Vervloet, M.

    2008-11-28

    Two distinct high-accuracy laboratory spectroscopic investigations of the H{sub 2} molecule are reported. Anchor lines in the EF{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} system are calibrated by two-photon deep-UV Doppler-free spectroscopy, while independent Fourier-transform spectroscopic measurements are performed that yield accurate spacings in the B{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}-EF{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} and I{sup 1}{pi}{sub g}-C{sup 1}{pi}{sub u} systems. From combination differences accurate transition wavelengths for the B-X Lyman and the C-X Werner lines can be determined with accuracies better than {approx}5x10{sup -9}, representing a major improvement over existing values. This metrology provides a practically exact database to extract a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio based on H{sub 2} lines in high-redshift objects. Moreover, it forms a rationale for equipping a future class of telescopes, carrying 30-40 m dishes, with novel spectrometers of higher resolving powers.

  1. The usefulness of intraoperative drip infusion cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Nagai, K; Matsumoto, S; Kanemaki, T; Ooshima, T; Mori, K; Funabiki, T

    1992-12-01

    Intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been considered to be a necessary examination because incidental injury to the common bile duct must be avoided. We performed 93 intraoperative drip infusion cholangiographies among 103 laparoscopic cholecystectomized patients as simple examinations by using iotroxic acid. The best drip infusion time was determined to be 20 min and good pictures were obtained from 10 to 60 min after the end of the drip. Nine patients with liver dysfunction and a poor radiograph had poor cholangiograms. Clear cholangiograms were obtained in 79 patients: four had a long remnant cystic duct and, in one case, a common bile duct stenosis was found by endoclip. The findings in these five cases helped us to correct failures during operation.

  2. Blood drop size in passive dripping from weapons.

    PubMed

    Kabaliuk, N; Jermy, M C; Morison, K; Stotesbury, T; Taylor, M C; Williams, E

    2013-05-10

    Passive dripping, the slow dripping of blood under gravity, is responsible for some bloodstains found at crime scenes, particularly drip trails left by a person moving through the scene. Previous work by other authors has established relationships, under ideal conditions, between the size of the stain, the number of spines and satellite stains, the roughness of the surface, the size of the blood droplet and the height from which it falls. To apply these relationships to infer the height of fall requires independent knowledge of the size of the droplet. This work aims to measure the size of droplets falling from objects representative of hand-held weapons. Pig blood was used, with density, surface tension and viscosity controlled to fall within the normal range for human blood. Distilled water was also tested as a reference. Drips were formed from stainless steel objects with different roughnesses including cylinders of diameter between 10 and 100 mm, and flat plates. Small radius objects including a knife and a wrench were also tested. High speed images of the falling drops were captured. The primary blood drop size ranged from 4.15±0.11 mm up to 6.15±0.15 mm (depending on the object), with the smaller values from sharper objects. The primary drop size correlated only weakly with surface roughness, over the roughness range studied. The number of accompanying droplets increased with the object size, but no significant correlation with surface texture was observed. Dripping of blood produced slightly smaller drops, with more accompanying droplets, than dripping water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  4. WE-EF-303-06: Feasibility of PET Image-Based On-Line Proton Beam-Range Verification with Simulated Uniform Phantom and Human Brain Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, K; Sun, X; Zhu, X; Grosshans, D; Clark, J; Shao, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of clinical on-line proton beam range verification with PET imaging Methods: We simulated a 179.2-MeV proton beam with 5-mm diameter irradiating a PMMA phantom of human brain size, which was then imaged by a brain PET with 300*300*100-mm{sup 3} FOV and different system sensitivities and spatial resolutions. We calculated the mean and standard deviation of positron activity range (AR) from reconstructed PET images, with respect to different data acquisition times (from 5 sec to 300 sec with 5-sec step). We also developed a technique, “Smoothed Maximum Value (SMV)”, to improve AR measurement under a given dose. Furthermore, we simulated a human brain irradiated by a 110-MeV proton beam of 50-mm diameter with 0.3-Gy dose at Bragg peak and imaged by the above PET system with 40% system sensitivity at the center of FOV and 1.7-mm spatial resolution. Results: MC Simulations on the PMMA phantom showed that, regardless of PET system sensitivities and spatial resolutions, the accuracy and precision of AR were proportional to the reciprocal of the square root of image count if image smoothing was not applied. With image smoothing or SMV method, the accuracy and precision could be substantially improved. For a cylindrical PMMA phantom (200 mm diameter and 290 mm long), the accuracy and precision of AR measurement could reach 1.0 and 1.7 mm, with 100-sec data acquired by the brain PET. The study with a human brain showed it was feasible to achieve sub-millimeter accuracy and precision of AR measurement with acquisition time within 60 sec. Conclusion: This study established the relationship between count statistics and the accuracy and precision of activity-range verification. It showed the feasibility of clinical on-line BR verification with high-performance PET systems and improved AR measurement techniques. Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas grant RP120326, NIH grant R21CA187717, The Cancer Center Support (Core) Grant CA

  5. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Development of a Human Brain PET for On-Line Proton Beam-Range Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yiping

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a prototype PET for verifying proton beam-range before each fractionated therapy that will enable on-line re-planning proton therapy. Methods: Latest “edge-less” silicon photomultiplier arrays and customized ASIC readout electronics were used to develop PET detectors with depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement capability. Each detector consists of one LYSO array with each end coupled to a SiPM array. Multiple detectors can be seamlessly tiled together to form a large detector panel. Detectors with 1.5×1.5 and 2.0×2.0 mm crystals at 20 or 30 mm lengths were studied. Readout of individual SiPM or signal multiplexing was used to transfer 3D interaction position-coded analog signals through flexible-print-circuit cables or PCB board to dedicated ASIC front-end electronics to output digital timing pulses that encode interaction information. These digital pulses can be transferred to, through standard LVDS cables, and decoded by a FPGA-based data acquisition of coincidence events and data transfer. The modular detector and scalable electronics/data acquisition will enable flexible PET system configuration for different imaging geometry. Results: Initial detector performance measurement shows excellent crystal identification even with 30 mm long crystals, ∼18% and 2.8 ns energy and timing resolutions, and around 2–3 mm DOI resolution. A small prototype PET scanner with one detector ring has been built and evaluated, validating the technology and design. A large size detector panel has been fabricated by scaling up from modular detectors. Different designs of resistor and capacitor based signal multiplexing boards were tested and selected based on optimal crystal identification and timing performance. Stackable readout electronics boards and FPGA-based data acquisition boards were developed and tested. A brain PET is under construction. Conclusion: Technology of large-size DOI detector based on SiPM array and advanced readout has been

  6. Effects of Timber Harvest on Fog Drip and Streamflow, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Mendocino County, California

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Keppeler

    2007-01-01

    Within the second-growth redwood forest of the Caspar Creek watershed, fog drip was measured in 1998 at 12 sites where heavy fog drip was expected. The following year, two one-ha plots were each instrumented with six randomly sited 1.35 m2 fog-drip collectors and one additional collector in a nearby clearcut. Fog-drip totals were highly variable...

  7. Study of ripple-trapped proton behaviour in LHD by two line-of-sight measurements of fast neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saida, T.; Sasao, M.; Isobe, M.; Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Watari, T.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Murakami, S.; Matsuoka, K.; LHD Experimental Group

    2004-04-01

    The behaviour of helical ripple-trapped particles in large helical device (LHD) have been investigated by two line-of-sights natural diamond detector measurements in plasma sustained with ICRF for two types of resonance configurations, i.e. on-axis and saddle-shaped resonances. The tail temperature increases linearly as the Stix-temperature increases and then saturation follows, indicating the effect of the finite confinement time of the energetic ions. In the linear region, the tail readily increases when the line-of-sight is focused on the larger resonance area. The confinement time of the energetic ions is obtained from the empirical relation based on the Stix theory. The configuration with a saddle-shaped resonance has a longer confinement time than the on-axis resonance. Analyses of experimental measurements are consistent with the theoretical calculations including collisional ripple-induced transport.

  8. Diagnostics of non-thermal processes in chromospheric flares. II. HOC and Call K line profiles for an atmosphere bombarded by 100 keV-1 MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henoux, J. C.; Fang, C.; Gan, W. Q.

    1993-07-01

    The effects on the Hα line profile of non-thermal excitation and ionization of hydrogen by a 100 KeV- 1 MeV proton beam have been investigated. Non-LTE Hα line profiles have been calculated for the temperature distributions of semi- empirical flares models F1 and F2 (Machado et al. 1980). For reasonable values of the beam energy flux and power index, the hydrogen lines are greatly strengthened. However, contrary to the case of an electron bombarded atmosphere, the line is not broadened, and no central reversal appears. These effects, alone or in conjunction with linear polarization measurements or Lyα red wing observations, can be used to diagnose proton beam bombardment.

  9. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  10. Progress on field study with precision mobile drip irrigation technologly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precision mobile drip irrigation (PMDI) is a technology that was developed in the 1970s that converts drop hoses on moving irrigation systems to dripline. Although this technology was developed more than 40 years ago, it was not widely implemented and few studies reported on its performance. Recentl...

  11. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  12. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...

  13. Deep subsurface drip irrigation for cotton in the southeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) yield with various irrigation rates and crop rotations irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI) is not known for the US Southeast. A SSDI system was installed in Southwest GA (1998) and maintained for 10 years. The soil was a Tifton loamy sand (Fine-lo...

  14. Effect of dripline flushing on subsurface drip irrigation systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The velocity of dripline flushing in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems affects system design, cost, management, performance, and longevity. A 30-day field study was conducted at Kansas State University to analyze the effect of four targeted flushing velocities (0.23, 0.30, 0.46, and 0.61 m/s)...

  15. Effects of dripline flushing on subsurface drip irrigation systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The velocity of dripline flushing in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems affects system design, cost, management, performance, and longevity. A 30-day field study was conducted at Kansas State University to analyze the effect of four targeted flushing velocities (0.23, 0.30, 0.46, and 0.61 m/s)...

  16. Drip Tectonics and The Uplift of Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Gun, E.

    2016-12-01

    The uplift of Central Anatolia over the last 8-10 m.y. is associated with a broad 1 km plateau, with higher elevations at the north (Pontides) and the south (Taurides) margins. A number of geophysical, petrological and geological evidence suggests that the Central Anatolian (Kırşehir) arc root was removed 10 Myrs ago. To investigate the role of potential arc root removal process in the style of drip tectonics, a series of numerical experiments are conducted. Model predictions are tested against a range of geological and geophysical observables from Central Anatolia. Numerical models demonstrate that an arc root removal event has a distinct spatial and temporal effect in the crust resulting in plateau uplift > 1 km. The vertical loading and crustal deformation change during drip evolution. Lithospheric rheology and plate convergence can significantly modify the magnitude and length scale of the uplift. This drip tectonics process is in good agreement with the geologic evidence for the broad plateau uplift of Central Anatolia, as well as seismic data showing thin or missing lithosphere and a remnant structure characteristic of a removal event. While this research focuses on the Late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of Central Anatolia, the outcome of this work may have general implications for the development of other orogenic areas where compelling documentation on drip tectonics has been interpreted (e.g., Central Andes, Tibet, Sierra Nevada, Colorado plateau, Mediterranean Alpides).

  17. Delivery of Chemical and Microbial Pesticides from Drip Irrigation Emitters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Applying pesticides uniformly to the target area with drip irrigation systems is essential for achieving effectiveness of efficient insect or disease control and the sustainability of a safe environment. The uniformity and recovery rate of water soluble and insoluble materials of chemical and micro...

  18. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  19. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  20. β -decay study of the Tz=-2 proton-rich nucleus 20Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. J.; Xu, X. X.; Fang, D. Q.; Lin, C. J.; Wang, J. S.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Yang, L.; Ma, N. R.; Wang, K.; Zang, H. L.; Wang, H. W.; Li, C.; Shi, C. Z.; Nie, M. W.; Li, X. F.; Li, H.; Ma, J. B.; Ma, P.; Jin, S. L.; Huang, M. R.; Bai, Z.; Wang, J. G.; Yang, F.; Jia, H. M.; Zhang, H. Q.; Liu, Z. H.; Bao, P. F.; Wang, D. X.; Yang, Y. Y.; Zhou, Y. J.; Ma, W. H.; Chen, J.; Ma, Y. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.

    2017-01-01

    The β decay of the drip-line nucleus 20Mg gives important information on key astrophysical resonances in 20Na, which are relevant to the onset of the rapid proton capture process. A detailed β -decay spectroscopic study of 20Mg was performed by a continuous-implantation method. A detection system was specially developed for charged-particle decay studies, giving improved spectroscopic information including the delayed proton energies, the half-life of 20Mg, the excitation energies, the branching ratios, and the logf t values for the states in 20Na populated in the β decay of 20Mg. A new proton branch was observed and the corresponding excited state in 20Na was proposed. The large isospin asymmetry for the mirror decays of 20Mg and 20O was also well reproduced. To resolve the long-standing problem about the astrophysically interesting 2645 keV resonance in 20Na convincingly, a higher-statistics measurement may still be needed.

  1. Controls on cave drip water temperature and implications for speleothem-based paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Andersen, Martin S.; Baker, Andy; Rutlidge, Helen; Markowska, Monika; Roshan, Hamid; Marjo, Christopher E.; Graham, Peter W.; Acworth, R. Ian

    2015-11-01

    While several studies explore cave climate and thermal regimes, little is known about the controls on cave drip water temperature. Yet water temperature significantly influences biogeochemical processes associated with cave drips. To identify the processes that control the cave drip water temperature, we measured the temperatures at multiple locations along a speleothem flow path and drip sources (stalactites) concurrently with the drip rates in Cathedral Cave, Wellington, Australia. We monitored long-term drip water temperature, drip rates, surface and cave climate and in-cave evaporation rates and conducted 3 infiltration experiments with different flow, temperature and isotopic conditions. Our results show that the drip water temperature is controlled by multiple superimposed heat transport mechanisms that act upon the infiltrating water in the epikarst, the water film after it enters the cave and before it becomes a drip. The two main heat sources/sinks for drip water are the cave air and the surrounding rock. The subsurface temperature is coupled to the surface temperature by conduction through the soil and rock mass, but the cave climate is also coupled to the surface climate by venting. On a regional scale, drip temperatures are mainly driven by the annual ground surface temperature signal but damped with depth and shifted in time compared to the surface. On a local scale, the drip water temperature can differ significantly from cave air and speleothem temperature due to the latent heat exchange of evaporation and localised water film convection. The main controls are ground surface temperature, subsurface depth, air density induced ventilation, distance from entry and drip rate. We present a conceptual model that explains drip water temperature signals and provide signal driven guidance on best type and location for speleothem sampling. We anticipate that our results will significantly improve the understanding of temperature-dependent paleoclimate signals

  2. Stable isotope study of precipitation and cave drip water in Florida (USA): implications for speleothem-based paleoclimate studies.

    PubMed

    Onac, Bogdan P; Pace-Graczyk, Kali; Atudirei, Viorel

    2008-06-01

    Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to examine how the isotopic signal of meteoric water is modified as it travels through soil and epikarst into two caves in Florida. Surface and cave water samples were collected every week from February 2006 until March 2007. The isotopic composition of precipitation at the investigated sites is highly variable and shows little seasonal control. The delta18O vs. delta2H plot shows a mixing line having a slope of 5.63, suggesting evaporation effects dominate the isotopic composition of most rainfall events of less than 8 cm/day, as indicated by their low d-excess values. The delta18O values of the drip water show little variability (<0.6 per thousand), which is loosely tied to local variations in the seasonal amount of precipitation. This is only seen during wintertime at the Florida Caverns site. The lag time of over two months and the lack of any relationship between rainfall amount and the increase in drip rate indicate a dominance of matrix flow relative to fracture/conduit flow at each site. The long residence time of the vadose seepage waters allows for an effective isotopic homogenisation of individual and seasonal rainfall events. We find no correlation between rainfall and drip water delta18O at any site. The isotopic composition of drip water in both caves consistently tends to resemble the amount-weighted monthly mean rainfall input. This implies that the delta18O of speleothems from these two caves in Florida cannot record seasonal cycle in rainfall delta18O, but are suitable for paleoclimate reconstructions at inter-annual time scales.dagger.

  3. A new differentially pumped plunger device to measure excited-state lifetimes in proton emitting nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Smith, A. J.; McFarlane, A.; Twist, V.; Alharshan, G. A.; Procter, M. G.; Braunroth, T.; Dewald, A.; Ellinger, E.; Fransen, C.; Butler, P. A.; Scheck, M.; Joss, D. T.; Saygi, B.; McPeake, C. G.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Uusitalo, J.

    2013-04-01

    A new plunger device has been designed and built to measure the lifetimes of unbound states in exotic nuclei beyond the proton drip-line. The device has been designed to work in both vacuum and dilute-gas environments made possible through the introduction of a low-voltage stepping motor. DPUNS will be used in conjunction with the gas-filled separator RITU and the vacuum separator MARA at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, to measure the lifetimes of excited states with low population cross-sections. This is achieved by eliminating the need for a carbon foil to isolate the helium gas of RITU from the beam line thus reducing the background from beam-foil reactions. The inclusion of a high-sampling rate data acquisition card increases further the sensitivity of the device. The plunger will be used to address many key facets of nuclear structure physics with particular emphasis on the effect of deformation on proton emission rates.

  4. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  5. Manifold learning approach for chaos in the dripping faucet.

    PubMed

    Suetani, Hiromichi; Soejima, Karin; Matsuoka, Rei; Parlitz, Ulrich; Hata, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    Dripping water from a faucet is a typical example exhibiting rich nonlinear phenomena. For such a system, the time stamps at which water drops separate from the faucet can be directly observed in real experiments, and the time series of intervals τn between drop separations becomes a subject of analysis. Even if the mass mn of a drop at the onset of the nth separation, which is difficult to observe experimentally, exhibits perfectly deterministic dynamics, it may be difficult to obtain the same information about the underlying dynamics from the time series τn. This is because the return plot τn-1 vs. τn may become a multivalued relation (i.e., it doesn't represent a function describing deterministic dynamics). In this paper, we propose a method to construct a nonlinear coordinate which provides a "surrogate" of the internal state mn from the time series of τn. Here, a key of the proposed approach is to use isomap, which is a well-known method of manifold learning. We first apply it to the time series of τn generated from the numerical simulation of a phenomenological mass-spring model for the dripping faucet system. It is shown that a clear one-dimensional map is obtained by the proposed approach, whose characteristic quantities such as the Lyapunov exponent, the topological entropy, and the time correlation function coincide with the original dripping faucet system. Furthermore, we also analyze data obtained from real dripping faucet experiments, which also provide promising results.

  6. Colitis amebiasis with symptom of occasional dripped anal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wandono, Hadi

    2007-01-01

    Colitis amebiasis is usually characterized by bloody and mucous diarrhea, abdominal pain and anal discomfort. However, there is unusual manifestation of colitis amebiasis, such as occasional dripped anal bleeding, which sometimes spouted. Therefore, we often do not suspect such symptoms for colitis amebiasis. Laboratory examination includes complete laboratory test, coagulation and hematologic test, ICT TBC and colonoscopy. The pathology anatomy examination reveals positive results of trophozoites. Treatment by using metronidazole tablet provides good result for this disease.

  7. Application of alternative fumigants through drip irrigation systems.

    PubMed

    Ajwa, H A; Trout, T; Mueller, J; Wilhelm, S; Nelson, S D; Soppe, R; Shatley, D

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Strawberry fields in California (9,500 ha annually) are pre-plant fumigated with methyl bromide and chloropicrin to prevent serious soil pest and disease problems. Although soil fumigation with methyl bromide has ensured stability of strawberry production, its use is being discontinued because of its effect on stratospheric ozone. The likely short-term alternatives such as 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and metham sodium, although not ozone depleters, are potentially hazardous to the environment and humans if applied improperly. Water-soluble formulations of alternative fumigants can be applied through drip irrigation systems established to irrigate crops. In comparison to conventional shank methods of injection, application of soluble formulations through drip irrigation systems would be economical and environmentally friendly, reduce worker exposure, and allow for simultaneous or sequential application of a combination of fumigants. This paper discusses techniques developed to apply alternative fumigants through drip irrigation systems, and reviews ongoing studies to determine optimum application rates, soil conditions, plastic mulches, and amount of irrigation water used to apply these alternative fumigants.

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis: triple therapy combining a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and metronidazole for Helicobacter pylori first-line treatment.

    PubMed

    Puig, Ignasi; Baylina, Mireia; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; López-Gongora, Sheila; Suarez, David; García-Iglesias, Pilar; Muñoz, Neus; Gisbert, Javier P; Dacoll, Cristina; Cohen, Henry; Calvet, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    Due to clarithromycin resistance, the current efficacy of Helicobacter pylori first-line triple therapies including clarithromycin is low. It seems reasonable to explore alternative clarithromycin-free therapies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of triple therapy including a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and metronidazole (PAM) as first-line H. pylori therapy by systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies evaluating PAM in adult patients were included. Meta-analyses comparing PAM with other treatments were performed. The primary endpoint was the ITT eradication rate for H. pylori first-line treatment. In addition, sensitivity analyses ascertained the effects of treatment schedule, dosage and duration on cure rates. Ninety-four studies (8061 patients) were included. Meta-analyses comparing PAM versus clarithromycin-including triple therapies showed a significant difference in favour of PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin (PAC) (70% versus 77.1%; OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88) and PPI, metronidazole and clarithromycin (PMC) therapy (66.4% versus 77.7%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.39-0.76). Sensitivity analyses showed a similar efficacy of PAM versus PAC when drugs were administered for 14 days (80% versus 84%; OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.44-1.12). There were not enough studies to perform further comparisons. Number of antibiotic doses (P = 0.012), length of treatment (P < 0.001) and use of high metronidazole doses (P = 0.021) were related to higher cure rates in the sensitivity analysis including observational studies. PAM was less efficacious than clarithromycin-including triple therapies. However, its efficacy was similar to that of PAC when drugs were administered for 14 days, although ITT cure rates did not reach 90%. Use of 14 day, thrice daily and high-metronidazole-dose PAM treatments markedly increased the cure rate. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  9. The Schwarzschild Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Haramein, Nassim

    2010-11-24

    We review our model of a proton that obeys the Schwarzschild condition. We find that only a very small percentage ({approx}10{sup -39}%) of the vacuum fluctuations available within a proton volume need be cohered and converted to mass-energy in order for the proton to meet the Schwarzschild condition. This proportion is equivalent to that between gravitation and the strong force where gravitation is thought to be {approx}10{sup -38} to 10{sup -40} weaker than the strong force. Gravitational attraction between two contiguous Schwarzschild protons can accommodate both nucleon and quark confinement. We calculate that two contiguous Schwarzschild protons would rotate at c and have a period of 10{sup -23} s and a frequency of 10{sup 22} Hz which is characteristic of the strong force interaction time and a close approximation of the gamma emission typically associated with nuclear decay. We include a scaling law and find that the Schwarzschild proton data point lies near the least squares trend line for organized matter. Using a semi-classical model, we find that a proton charge orbiting at a proton radius at c generates a good approximation to the measured anomalous magnetic moment.

  10. Comparison of cellular lethality in DNA repair-proficient or -deficient cell lines resulting from exposure to 70 MeV/n protons or 290 MeV/n carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Genet, Stefan C; Maeda, Junko; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Yurkon, Charles R; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Romero, Ashley M; Genik, Paula C; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2012-11-01

    Charged particle therapy utilizing protons or carbon ions has been rapidly intensifying over recent years. The present study was designed to jointly investigate these two charged particle treatment modalities with respect to modeled anatomical depth-dependent dose and linear energy transfer (LET) deliveries to cells with either normal or compromised DNA repair phenotypes. We compared cellular lethality in response to dose, LET and Bragg peak location for accelerated protons and carbon ions at 70 and 290 MeV/n, respectively. A novel experimental live cell irradiation OptiCell™ in vitro culture system using three different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a mammalian model was conducted. A wild-type DNA repair-competent CHO cell line (CHO 10B2) was compared to two other CHO cell lines (51D1 and xrs5), each genetically deficient with respect to one of the two major DNA repair pathways (homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining pathways, respectively) following genotoxic insults. We found that wild-type and homologous recombination-deficient (Rad51D) cellular lethality was dependent on both the dose and LET of the carbon ions, whereas it was only dependent on dose for protons. The non-homologous end joining deficient cell line (Ku80 mutant) showed nearly identical dose-response profiles for both carbon ions and protons. Our results show that the increasingly used modality of carbon ions as charged particle therapy is advantageous to protons in a radiotherapeutic context, primarily for tumor cells proficient in non-homologous end joining DNA repair where cellular lethality is dependent not only on the dose as in the case of more common photon therapeutic modalities, but more importantly on the carbon ion LETs. Genetic characterization of patient tumors would be key to individualize and optimize the selection of radiation modality, clinical outcome and treatment cost.

  11. A Computer Program for Drip Irrigation System Design for Small Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipova, Nina; Nicheva, Olga; Kazandjiev, Valentin; Chilikova-Lubomirova, Mila

    2012-12-01

    A computer programhas been developed for design of surface drip irrigation system. It could be applied for calculation of small scale fields with an area up to 10 ha. The program includes two main parts: crop water requirements and hydraulic calculations of the system. It has been developed in Graphical User Interface in MATLAB and gives opportunity for selecting some parameters from tables such as: agro- physical soil properties, characteristics of the corresponding crop, climatic data. It allows the user of the program to assume and set a definite value, for example the emitter discharge, plot parameters and etc. Eight cases of system layout according to the water source layout and the number of plots of the system operation are laid into hydraulic section of the program. It includes the design of lateral, manifold, main line and pump calculations. The program has been compiled to work in Windows.

  12. Seasonal variations of cave conditions and drip water stable isotopes from a monitoring study of Raccoon Mountain Caverns, Tennessee, and its implications in interpreting speleothem record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzclaw, C. L.; Gordon, R. D.; Feng, W.; Allard, J.

    2015-12-01

    A two-year monitoring study at Raccoon Mountain Caverns near Chattanooga, Tennessee was carried out in an attempt to establish quantitative relationships between climate signals and drip water stable isotopes for interpreting speleothem paleoclimate records from the cave. Eight field trips were made from Jan. 2014 to Jun. 2015, during which cave meteorological conditions (RH, temperature and cave air CO2 concentration) and drip rate were measured for 5 sites inside the cave. 63 cave drip and pool water samples were collected and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18O and δD values). Cave air temperature varied throughout the study period, the temporal variations ranged at different sites from 2 to 8.4 °C (the greatest variation was observed at sites that are closer to the entrance or surface). These are significantly less than outside temperatures range of 24 °C, but more than observed in other monitored caves. Elevated cave-air CO2 concentration (3200 ppm) and slow drip rate during the summer indicated slowed or stalled growth of calcite. The overall range of δ18O values were -7.1‰ to -4.5‰. A δD vs δ18O diagram yields a slope of 6.1, which falls within the normal range of 6-8 for local Meteoric Water Line. The value is slightly above Global Meteoric Water Line, indicating lack of evaporative effect. Throughout the study period, the δ18O values varied from 0.6 ‰ at some sites to 1.9‰ at others. The largest changes were likely due to the close proximity of collection sites to the surface precipitation. Spatially, for samples collected at each cave trip, different sites displayed variations of δ18O values from 0‰ to 1.7‰. The difference could be attributed to different type of drip sites with varying types of flow paths rainwater takes to the drip sites. The significant seasonal shift of drip water δ18O values and growth conditions indicate importance of consideration of seasonality in interpreting speleothem δ18O record

  13. Spectroscopy of proton-unbound nuclei by tracking their decay products in-flight: One- and two- proton decays of {sup 15}F, {sup 16}Ne, and {sup 19}Na

    SciTech Connect

    Mukha, I.; Suemmerer, K.; Chatillon, A.; Geissel, H.; Hofmann, J.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Roeckl, E.; Weick, H.; Acosta, L.; Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Martel, I.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Espino, J. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Egorova, I. A.; Fomichev, A.

    2010-11-15

    A powerful method of investigating proton-unbound nuclear states by tracking their decay products in flight is discussed in detail. To verify the method, four known levels in {sup 15}F, {sup 16}Ne, and {sup 19}Na were investigated by measuring the angular correlations between protons and the respective heavy-ion fragments stemming from the precursor decays in flight. The parent nuclei of interest were produced in nuclear reactions of one-neutron removal from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 20}Mg projectiles at energies of 410-450 A MeV. The trajectories of the respective decay products, {sup 14}O + p + p and {sup 18}Ne + p + p, were measured by applying a tracking technique with microstrip detectors. These data were used to reconstruct the angular correlations of the fragments, which provided information on energies and widths of the parent states. In addition for reproducing properties of known states, evidence for hitherto unknown excited states in {sup 15}F and {sup 16}Ne was found. This tracking technique has an advantage in studies of exotic nuclei beyond the proton drip line measuring the resonance energies and widths with a high precision although by using low-intensity beams and very thick targets.

  14. WAPDEG Analysis of Waste Package and Drip shield Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    K. Mon

    2004-09-29

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), an analysis of the degradation of the engineered barrier system (EBS) drip shields and waste packages at the Yucca Mountain repository is developed. The purpose of this activity is to provide the TSPA with inputs and methodologies used to evaluate waste package and drip shield degradation as a function of exposure time under exposure conditions anticipated in the repository. This analysis provides information useful to satisfy ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) requirements. Several features, events, and processes (FEPs) are also discussed (Section 6.2, Table 15). The previous revision of this report was prepared as a model report in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Due to changes in the role of this report since the site recommendation, it no longer contains model development. This revision is prepared as a scientific analysis in accordance with AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses'' and uses models previously validated in (1) ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]); (2) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169984]); and (3) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169845]). The integrated waste package degradation (IWPD) analysis presented in this report treats several implementation-related issues, such as defining the number and size of patches per waste package that undergo stress corrosion cracking; recasting the weld flaw analysis in a form as implemented in the Closure Weld Defects (CWD) software; and, general corrosion rate manipulations (e.g., change of scale in Section 6.3.4). The weld flaw portion of this report takes input from an engineering calculation (BSC 2004

  15. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Proton Therapy Alternative & Integrative Medicine Clinical Trials GBM AGILE TTFields – Optune™ Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side ... Proton Therapy Alternative & Integrative Medicine Clinical Trials GBM AGILE TTFields – Optune™ Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side ...

  16. On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds emitted from automobiles by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: Laboratory experiments and a field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Fujitani, Y.; Fushimi, A.; Sato, K.; Sekimoto, K.; Yamada, H.; Hori, S.; Shimono, A.; Hikida, T.

    2011-12-01

    On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds in automobile exhaust were carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a chassis dynamometer. Diesel vehicles with oxidation catalyst system (diesel vehicle A) and with diesel PM-NOx reduction system ((diesel vehicle B) and a gasoline vehicle were used as a test vehicle. In the case of the diesel vehicle A, the emissions of nitromethane, nitrophenol (NPh), C7-, C8-, C9-, and C10-nitrophenols, and dihydroxynitrobenzenes (DHNB) were observed in the diesel exhaust from the experiment under the constant driving at 60 km hr-1. Temporal variations of mixing ratios for nitromethane, NPh, and DHNB along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during a transient driving cycle. The time-resolved measurement revealed that the nitromethane emission was strongly correlated with the emissions of CO, benzene, and acetone, which are relatively quickly produced in acceleration processes and appeared as sharp peaks. On the other hand, the NPh emission was moderately correlated with the emissions of acetic acid and phenol, which peaks were broad. The emission of nitromethane was observed from the exhaust of the diesel vehicle B but the emission of other nitro organic compounds was not observed. This suggests that the emission of nitro organic compounds besides nitromethane may depend on the diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices. The emission of nitromethane was also observed from the exhaust of the gasoline vehicle with cold start. An in-situ measurement of nitro organic compounds and their related VOCs was carried out at the crossing of an urban city, Kawasaki. Nitromethane was observed at the crossing and we found that the concentration of nitrometane varied rapidly. During the measurement, the maximum of the concentration of nitrometane reached 5 ppbv. Not only nitrophenols but also nitroaromatics were sometimes detected in the field measurement.

  17. Hypermethylation of the human proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1) minimal transcriptional regulatory region in an antifolate-resistant HeLa cell line.

    PubMed

    Diop-Bove, Ndeye Khady; Wu, Julia; Zhao, Rongbao; Locker, Joseph; Goldman, I David

    2009-08-01

    This laboratory recently identified a novel proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) that mediates intestinal folate absorption and transport of folates into the central nervous system. The present study focuses on the definition of the minimum transcriptional regulatory region of this gene in HeLa cells and the mechanism(s) underlying the loss of PCFT expression in the methotrexate-resistant HeLa R1-11 cell line. The PCFT transcriptional regulatory controls were localized between -42 and +96 bases from the transcriptional start site using a luciferase-reporter gene system. The promoter is a G + C rich region of 139 nucleotides contained in a CpG island. HeLa R1-11 cells have no mutations in the PCFT open reading frame and its promoter; the transcription/translation machinery is intact because transient transfections in HeLa R1-11 and wild-type HeLa cells produced similar luciferase activities. Hypermethylation at CpG sites within the minimal transcriptional regulatory region was shown in HeLa R1-11 cells as compared with the parental PCFT-competent HeLa cells, using bisulfite conversion and sequence analysis. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in a substantial restoration of transport and PCFT mRNA expression and small but significant decreases in methylation in the promoter region. In vitro methylation of the transfected reporter plasmid inhibited luciferase gene expression. Cytogenetics/fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated a loss of half the PCFT gene copies in HeLa R1-11 as compared with PCFT-competent HeLa cells. Taken together, promoter silencing through methylation and gene copy loss accounted for the loss of PCFT activity in antifolate-resistant HeLa R1-11 cells.

  18. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  19. Challenges in proton radioactivity studies - new emitters in the rare earth region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzywacz, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Proton emitter studies offer a sensitive probe of the wave function composition for nuclei beyond the proton drip-line. In particular, the experiments on proton radioactivities in the rare earth region are allowing us to study the evolution of proton-emitting states as a function of changing deformation, from nearly spherical (e.g.^150Lu [1] or ^145Tm [2]) to strongly deformed (e.g. ^131Eu [3], ^135Tb [4] or ^141Ho [5]) shapes. The link between the measured observables (decay lifetimes and energies) and structure of the nuclei is provided by recently developed theories, which are able to model the proton tunneling process through the three dimensional potential barrier, see refs [6-8]. Very high detection efficiency and high sensitivity enable experiments at extremely low production cross sections, e.g. at the nanobarn level for the observation of ^135Tb in a (p6n) fusion-evaporation reaction channel [4]. Recent discoveries of proton radioactive nuclei will be reported. The experimental challenges will be illustrated with the example of the identification of new odd-odd emitter ^144Tm at the Recoil Mass Spectrometer [9] of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ^144Tm events were found in a weak ( 10 nb) p5n channel of the fusion reaction of ^58Ni beam at 340 MeV on a ^92Mo target. The observed decay energy of about 1.8 MeV and the half-life of the order of 1 μs suggest proton emission from the πh_11/2 orbital dominating the π-ν wave function. The detection of this very short proton emitter was made possible by use of a double-sided silicon strip detector connected to a fast data acquisition system [10] based on Digital Signal Processing. [1] P.G. Sellin et al., Phys. Rev. C47, 1933 (1993). [2] M. Karny et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 , 012502 (2003). [3] A.A. Sonzogni et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 , 1116 (1999). [4] P.J. Woods et al., Phys. Rev. C69 , 051302(R) (2004). [5] K. Rykaczewski, K. P. et al., in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Nuclear Structure ``Mapping the Triangle

  20. The PIREX proton irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Victoria, M.

    1995-10-01

    The proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) is a materials irradiation facility installed in a beam line of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Its main purpose is the testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor components. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously displacement damage and spallation products, amongst them helium and can therefore simulate any possible synergistic effects of damage and helium, that would be produced by the fusion neutrons.

  1. The effect of drip irrigation and drip fertigation on N2O and NO emissions, water saving and grain yields in a maize field in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Tian, Di; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mu, Yujing; Zhou, Yizhen; Zhang, Chenglong; Liu, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    N2O and NO emissions, the water usage and grain yields of a maize field in the North China Plain (NCP) under traditional flood irrigation, drip irrigation and drip fertigation were compared. With respect to the flood irrigation treatment, N2O emissions were reduced by 13.8% in the drip irrigation treatment and 7.7% in the drip fertigation treatment. NO emissions were reduced to 16.7% in the drip irrigation treatment but increased by 21.7% in the drip fertigation treatment. The molar ratios of NO/N2O within 2days after each fertilization event were evidently greater from the drip fertigation treatment than from the flood irrigation treatment, indicating that nitrification was more intensive in the drip fertigation treatment than in the treatment of flood irrigation. Compared with the flood irrigation treatment, evident increase of the maize yields in the drip irrigation treatment (28%) and the drip fertigation treatment (3.7%) were found. Although the drip fertigation treatment could evidently increase NO emission, the 40% water reduction in drip fertigation is of great importance for the sustainable development of agriculture in the NCP where water resources are extremely limited. To mitigate NO emissions from agricultural fields in the NCP with drip fertigation, the addition of a nitrification inhibitor combined with N or nitrate fertilizer was recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioenergy from Coastal bermudagrass receiving subsurface drip irrigation with advance-treated swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Keri B; Stone, Kenneth C; Hunt, Patrick G; Ro, Kyoung S; Vanotti, Matias B; Burns, Joseph C

    2009-07-01

    Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) may be a potentially important source of bio-based energy in the southern US due to its vast acreage. It is often produced as part of a waste management plan with varying nutrient composition and energy characteristics on fields irrigated with livestock wastewater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of subsurface drip irrigation with treated swine wastewater on both the quantity and quality of bermudagrass bioenergy. The treated wastewater was recycled from an advanced treatment system and used for irrigation of bermudagrass in two crop seasons. The experiment had nine water and drip line spacing treatments arrayed in a randomized complete block-design with four replicates. The bermudagrass was analyzed for calorific and mineral contents. Bermudagrass energy yields for 2004 and 2005 ranged from 127.4 to 251.4MJ ha(-1). Compared to irrigation with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, the least biomass energy density was associated with bermudagrass receiving treated swine wastewater. Yet, in 2004 the wastewater irrigated bermudagrass had greater hay yields leading to greater energy yield per ha. This decrease in energy density of wastewater irrigated bermudagrass was associated with increased concentrations of K, Ca, and Na. After thermal conversion, these compounds are known to remain in the ash portion thereby decreasing the energy density. Nonetheless, the loss of energy density using treated effluent via SDI may be offset by the positive influence of these three elements for their catalytic properties in downstream thermal conversion processes such as promoting a lesser char yield and greater combustible gas formation.

  3. 40 CFR 270.26 - Special part B information requirements for drip pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including the as-built drawings and specifications. This submission must address the following items as... collection system; (6) Control of run-on to the drip pad; (7) Control of run-off from the drip pad; (8) The interval at which drippage and other materials will be removed from the associated collection system and...

  4. Cotton response to crop row offset and orientation to subsurface drip irrigation laterals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent increase in the use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) for cotton production in the Texas High Plains has resulted in questions concerning drip lateral position and orientation relative to crop rows. Field experiments were conducted at Halfway, Texas to evaluate traditional SDI installat...

  5. Subsurface drip irrigation emitter spacing effects on soil water redistribution, corn yield, and water productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emitter spacings of 0.3 to 0.6 m are commonly used for subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of corn on the deep, silt loam soils of the United States Great Plains. Subsurface drip irrigation emitter spacings of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 m were examined for the resulting differences in soil water redistribut...

  6. Drip-and-ship thrombolytic treatment paradigm among acute ischemic stroke patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Hassan, Ameer E; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Suri, M Fareed K; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2012-07-01

    To provide a national assessment of thrombolytic administration using drip-and-ship treatment paradigm. Patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm among all acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolytic treatment were identified within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Thrombolytic utilization, patterns of referral, comparative in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges related to drip-and-ship paradigm were determined. All the in-hospital outcomes were analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using multivariate analysis. Of the 22 243 ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic treatment, 4474 patients (17%) were treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. Of these 4474 patients, 81% were referred to urban teaching hospitals for additional care, and 7% of them received follow-up endovascular treatment. States with a higher proportion of patients treated using the drip-and-ship paradigm had higher rates of overall thrombolytic utilization (5.4% versus 3.3%; P<0.001). The rate of home discharge/self-care was significantly higher in patients treated with drip-and-ship paradigm compared with those who received thrombolytics through primary emergency department arrival in the multivariate analysis (OR, 1.198; 95% CI, 1.019-1.409; P=0.0286). One of every 6 thrombolytic-treated patients in United States is treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. States with the highest proportion of drip-and-ship cases were also the states with the highest thrombolytic utilization.

  7. Peanut, Cotton, and Corn Yield and Partial Net Income with Two Surface Drip Lateral Spacings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surface drip irrigation laterals were spaced next to crop rows (0.91 m) and in alternate row middles (1.83 m) to document crop yield and partial net economic returns compared with non-irrigated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and corn (Zea mays). A drip irrigation system was ...

  8. Dripping to jetting transition for cross-flowing liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrandias, A.; Duval, H.; Casalinho, J.; Giorgi, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally study drops formed from a nozzle into an immiscible, cross-flowing phase. Depending on the operating conditions, drops are generated either in dripping or jetting mode. We investigate the impact of the continuous and dispersed phase velocities, dispersed phase viscosity, and interfacial tension on the drop generation mode and size. We find that a dripping to jetting transition (DJT) takes place at a critical inner Weber number, a function of the outer capillary and Ohnesorge numbers. Two jetting regimes occur depending on the phase velocity ratio. When the continuous phase velocity is significantly greater (respectively lower) than the dispersed phase velocity, jet narrowing (respectively widening) occurs. In jet widening, the critical inner Weber number depends little on the outer capillary number whereas in jet narrowing, it sharply decreases as the outer capillary number increases. We propose a comprehensive model to describe the DJT based on the attached drop equation of motion. The model satisfactorily predicts the DJT and the effect of the outer capillary number on the critical inner Weber number. It also well accounts for the drop diameter in jet narrowing.

  9. Drip Irrigation Aided Phytoremediation for Removal of TCE from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2003-04-24

    Groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and by-products resulting from discharges of this organic solvent during past disposal practices. This contaminated groundwater occurs primarily at depths of 9 meters to 15 meters below ground surface, well below the depths that are typically penetrated by plant roots. The process investigated in this study involved pumping water from the contaminated aquifer and discharging the water into overlying test plots two inches below the surface using drip irrigation. The field treatability study was conducted from 8/31/00 to 4/18/02 using six 0.08 hectare test plots, two each containing pines, cottonwoods, and no vegetation (controls). The primary objective was to determine the overall effectiveness of the process for TCE removal and to determine the principal biotic and abiotic pathways for its removal. Results demonstrated that the process provides a viable method to remove TCE-contaminated groundwater. The data clearly showed that the presence of trees reduced volatilization of TCE from the drip irrigation system to the atmosphere. Influent groundwater TCE concentrations averaging 89 mg/L were reduced to non-detectable levels (less than 5 mg/L) within the upper two feet of soil (rhizosphere).

  10. The soil-water flow system beneath a cotton field in arid north-west China, serviced by mulched drip irrigation using brackish water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianwen; Jin, Menggui; Huang, Jinou; Yuan, Jingjing

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was carried out in southern Xinjiang, China, to reveal soil-water flow pattern beneath a combined plastic-mulch (film) and drip-irrigation system using brackish water. The soil-water flow system (SWFS) was characterized from soil surface to the water table based on observed spatio-temporal distribution of total soil-water potential, water content and electric conductivity. Root suction provided a strong inner sink. The results indicated that SWFS determined the soil salinity and moisture distribution. Drip-irrigation events could leach excess salts from the root zone and provide soil conditions with a tolerable salinity level that supports the growth of cotton. High-salinity strips were formed along the wetting front and at the bare soil surface. Hydrogeology conditions, irrigation regime, climate, plant growth and use of mulch would affect potential sources and sinks, boundary conditions and the size of the SWFS. At depth 0-60 cm, the soil salinity at the end of the irrigation season was 1.9 times that at the beginning. Beneath the mulch cover, the soil-water content in the `wide rows' zone (55 cm between the two rows with no drip line) was higher than that in the `narrow rows' zone (15 cm between the two rows with a drip line) due to the strong root-water uptake. The downward water flow below the divergent curved surface of zero flux before irrigation, and the water-table fluctuation with irrigation events, indicated that excessive irrigation occurred.

  11. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  12. Plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, André Luiz Barros de O.; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Yukitaka Pessinati Ohashi, Augusto; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Aparecida Creste Dias de Souza, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supply should be taken into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to attain high yield and to increase longevity of plants. In this context it is necessary to investigate responses of different varieties to water supply. The aim of this work was to evaluate the plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil in the 1st cane ratoon cycle. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars in the 1st cane ratoon cycle, from January (after the harvest of cane plant cycle) to October (harvest the 1st cane ratoon cycle). The plant spacing was 1.5 m between rows. Each cultivar was planted in an area of 0.4 hectares. The irrigation was done by a subsuperficial drip system with one drip line in each plant row installed at 0.25 m deep. During the 1st cane ratoon cycle the parameters were analysed on the 33rd, 123rd, 185th and 277th day. The analysed parameters were: plant yield (m), leaf area index (LAI) and yield (tons per hectare). According to the results from the second sampling (123rd day) the varieties IACSP95-5000 and IACSP94-2101 showed higher plant height when compared to the other varieties. However, from the third sampling (185th day) on the IACSP95-5000 variety grew considerably taller than the other varieties. The varieties SP79-1011and IACSP94-2101 presented lower values of LAI throughout the crop cycle when compared to other varieties. But on the

  13. Coordinating management of water, salinity and trace elements for cotton under mulched drip irrigation with brackish water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Chen, W.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Rational irrigation with brackish water can increase crop production, but irrational use may cause soil salinization. In order to understand the relationships among water, salt, and nutrient (including trace elements) and find rational schemes to manage water, salinity and nutrient in cotton fields, field and pot experiments were conducted in an arid area of southern Xinjiang, northwest China. Field experiments were performed from 2008 to 2015, and involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterwards. The average cotton yield of seven years varied between 3,575 and 5,095 kg/ha, and the irrigation water productivity between 0.91 and 1.16 kg/m3. With the progress of brackish water irrigation, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Na showed strong aggregation in topsoil at the narrow row, whereas the contents of Ca and K decreased in the order of inter-mulch gap, the wide inter row, and the narrow row. The contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca and K in root soil reduced with cotton growth, whereas Na increased. Although mulched drip irrigation during the growing season resulted in an increase in salinity in the root zone, flood irrigation after harvesting leached the accumulated salts below background levels. Based on experiments a scheme for coordinating management of soil water, salt, and nutrient is proposed, that is, under the planting pattern of one mulch, two drip lines and four rows, the alternative irrigation plus a flood irrigation after harvesting or before seeding was the ideal scheme. Numerical simulations using solute transport model coupled with the root solute uptake based on the experiments and extended by another 20 years, suggest that the mulched drip irrigation using alternatively fresh and brackish water during the growing season and flood irrigation with fresh water after harvesting, is a sustainable irrigation practice that should not lead to soil salinization. Pot experiments with trace elements and different saline water showed

  14. Proton Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The transport of protons across membranes is an essential process for both bioenergetics of modern cells and the origins of cellular life. All living systems make use of proton gradients across cell walls to convert environmental energy into a high-energy chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from adenosine diphosphate. ATP, in turn, is used as a source of energy to drive many cellular reactions. The ubiquity of this process in biology suggests that even the earliest cellular systems were relying on proton gradient for harvesting environmental energy needed to support their survival and growth. In contemporary cells, proton transfer is assisted by large, complex proteins embedded in membranes. The issue addressed in this Study was: how the same process can be accomplished with the aid of similar but much simpler molecules that could have existed in the protobiological milieu? The model system used in the study contained a bilayer membrane made of phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) which is a good model of the biological membranes forming cellular boundaries. Both sides of the bilayer were surrounded by water which simulated the environment inside and outside the cell. Embedded in the membrane was a fragment of the Influenza-A M$_2$ protein and enough sodium counterions to maintain system neutrality. This protein has been shown to exhibit remarkably high rates of proton transport and, therefore, is an excellent model to study the formation of proton gradients across membranes. The Influenza M$_2$ protein is 97 amino acids in length, but a fragment 25 amino acids long. which contains a transmembrane domain of 19 amino acids flanked by three amino acids on each side. is sufficient to transport protons. Four identical protein fragments, each folded into a helix, aggregate to form small channels spanning the membrane. Protons are conducted through a narrow pore in the middle of the channel in response to applied voltage. This

  15. Cross sections for production of the 15.10 MeV and other astrophysically significant gamma-ray lines through excitation and spallation of sup 12 C and sup 16 O with protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, F. L.; Werntz, C. W.; Crannell, C. J.; Trombka, J. I.; Chang, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The ratio of the flux of 15.10-MeV gamma rays to the flux of 4.438-MeV gamma rays resulting from excitation of the corresponding states in C-12 as a sensitive measure of the spectrum of the exciting particles produced in solar flares and other cosmic sources. These gamma rays are produced predominantly by interactions with C-12 and O-16, both of which are relatively abundant in the solar photosphere. Gamma ray production cross sections for proton interactions have been reported previously for all important channels except for the production of 15.10-MeV gamma rays from O-16. The first reported measurement of the 15.10-MeV gamma ray production cross section from p + O-16 is presented here. The University of Maryland cyclotron was employed to produce 40-, 65-, and 86-MeV protons which interacted with CH2 and BeO targets. The resultant gamma ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector at 70, 90, 110, 125, and 140 degrees relative to the direction of the incident beam for each proton energy. Other gamma ray lines resulting from direct excitation and spallation reactions with C-12 and 0-16 were observed as well, and their gamma ray production cross sections described.

  16. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    PubMed

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Tran, Davis V; Winter V, Amos G

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  17. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  18. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Tran, Davis V.; Winter V, Amos G.

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters—which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field—have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world. PMID:28384355

  19. The Hydrodynamics of Urination: to drip or jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Jonathan; Yang, Patricia; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    The release of waste products is fundamental to all life. How are fluids released from the body quickly and efficiently? In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in animal mass. Using high-speed videography and flow-rate measurement at the Atlanta Zoo, we report discrete regimes for urination style. We observe dripping by small mammals such as rats and jetting by large mammals such as elephants. We discover urination duration is independent of animal size among animals that use jetting. We rationalize urination styles, along with the constant-time scaling, by consideration of the relative magnitudes of the driving forces, gravity and bladder pressure, and the corresponding viscous losses within the urethra. This study may give insight into why certain animals are more prone to diseases of the urinary tract, and how the urinary system evolved under the laws of fluid mechanics.

  20. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  1. Proton dynamics in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world today. Despite decades of research to identify novel therapeutic approaches, durable regressions of metastatic disease are still scanty and survival benefits often negligible. While the current strategy is mostly converging on target-therapies aimed at selectively affecting altered molecular pathways in tumor cells, evidences are in parallel pointing to cell metabolism as a potential Achilles' heel of cancer, to be disrupted for achieving therapeutic benefit. Critical differences in the metabolism of tumor versus normal cells, which include abnormal glycolysis, high lactic acid production, protons accumulation and reversed intra-extracellular pH gradients, make tumor site a hostile microenvironment where only cancer cells can proliferate and survive. Inhibiting these pathways by blocking proton pumps and transporters may deprive cancer cells of a key mechanism of detoxification and thus represent a novel strategy for a pleiotropic and multifaceted suppression of cancer cell growth. Research groups scattered all over the world have recently started to investigate various aspects of proton dynamics in cancer cells with quite encouraging preliminary results. The intent of unifying investigators involved in this research line led to the formation of the "International Society for Proton Dynamics in Cancer" (ISPDC) in January 2010. This is the manifesto of the newly formed society where both basic and clinical investigators are called to foster translational research and stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration for the development of more specific and less toxic therapeutic strategies based on proton dynamics in tumor cell biology. PMID:20550689

  2. On-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels by means of proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) medical applications, food control and environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindinger, W.; Hansel, A.; Jordan, A.

    1998-02-01

    A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) system has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of trace components with concentrations as low as a few pptv. The method is based on reactions of H3O+ ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Medical applications by means of breath analysis allow for monitoring of metabolic processes in the human body, and examples of food research are discussed on the basis of VOC emissions from fruit, coffee and meat. Environmental applications include investigations of VOC emissions from decaying biomatter which have been found to be an important source for tropospheric acetone, methanol and ethanol. On-line monitoring of the diurnal variations of VOCs in the troposphere yield data demonstrating the present sensitivity of PTR-MS to be in the range of a few pptv. Finally, PTR-MS has proven to be an ideal tool to measure Henry's law constants and their dependencies on temperature as well as on the salt content of water.

  3. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of the treatment. top of page What equipment is used? Proton beam therapy uses special machines, ... tumor cells. top of page Who operates the equipment? With backgrounds in mechanical, electrical, software, hardware and ...

  4. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the

  5. What determines the calcium concentration of speleothem-forming drip waters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andy; Flemons, Ingrid; Andersen, Martin S.; Coleborn, Katie; Treble, Pauline C.

    2016-08-01

    Cave drip water calcium ion concentration is a primary determinant of speleothem deposition and growth rate. The factors that determine drip water calcium ion concentrations are the soil and vadose zone CO2 concentrations, and the hydrogeochemical evolution of the water from soil to cave. Here, we use a systematic literature review of cave drip water calcium concentrations, combined with PHREEQC equilibrium modelling, to investigate the global relationship between calcium concentration and surface climate. Our results are discussed in the context of understanding the climatic and environmental controls on drip water calcium concentration, speleothem growth rates and proxies of past climate and environmental change. We use an empirical, global soil CO2 concentration-temperature relationship to derive PHREEQC modelled cave drip water calcium concentrations. The global mean modelled drip water calcium concentration is close to that observed, but it over-predicts at high and low temperatures, and significantly under-predicts at temperate conditions. We hypothesise that closed system hydrochemical evolution due to water saturation is an important control on carbonate dissolution at colder temperatures. Under warmer conditions, for example temperate climates with a dry and hot or warm summer, seasonally-limited water availability can lead to: < 100% soil cover; water-limitations on microbial and root respiration; wildfire; and prior calcite precipitation, all of which limit drip water calcium concentrations. In temperate climates with no dry season, higher CO2 concentrations than modelled from soil values are necessary to explain the observed drip water calcium values, which we propose is from an additional source of CO2 from microbial activity and root respiration in the vadose zone during open system hydrochemical evolution.

  6. Proton Therapy Verification with PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuping; Fakhri, Georges El

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy is very sensitive to uncertainties introduced during treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of proton induced positron emitter distributions is the only practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of proton therapy. This article reviews the current status of proton therapy verification with PET imaging. The different data detecting systems (in-beam, in-room and off-line PET), calculation methods for the prediction of proton induced PET activity distributions, and approaches for data evaluation are discussed. PMID:24312147

  7. Organic characterisation of cave drip water by LC-OCD and fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutlidge, Helen; Andersen, Martin S.; Baker, Andy; Chinu, Khorshed J.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Jex, Catherine N.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Markowska, Monika; Rau, Gabriel C.

    2015-10-01

    Cathedral Cave, Wellington, Australia, is a natural laboratory for studying water movement and geochemical processes in the unsaturated zone by using artificial irrigation to activate drip sites within the cave. Water sampled from two drip sites activated by irrigations carried out in summer 2014 was analysed for dissolved inorganic ions and fluorescent organic matter. The analysis allowed the development of a conceptual flow path model for each drip site. DOM analysis was further complemented by liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), applied for the first time to karst drip waters, allowing the characterisation of six organic matter fractions. The differences in organic matter fractions at each drip site are interpreted as a signature of the proposed flow paths. LC-OCD was also compared with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the fluorescence and good correlations were observed for high molecular weight organic matter. Strong positive correlations were also observed for high molecular weight matter and Cu and Ni. This is suggestive of colloidal transport of Cu and Ni by organic matter with high molecular weight, while small molecular weight colloids were not efficient transporters. LC-OCD uniquely provides information on non-fluorescent organic matter and can be used to further quantify drip water organic matter composition.

  8. [Simulation of soil water dynamics in triploid Populus tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Xi, Ben-Ye; Jia, Li-Ming; Wang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2011-01-01

    Based on the observed data of triploid Populus tomentosa root distribution, a one-dimensional root water uptake model was proposed. Taking the root water uptake into account, the soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation was simulated by using HYDRUS model, and the results were validated with field experiment. Besides, the HYDRUS model was used to study the effects of various irrigation technique parameters on soil wetting patterns. The RMAE for the simulated soil water content by the end of irrigation and approximately 24 h later was 7.8% and 6.0%, and the RMSE was 0.036 and 0.026 cm3 x cm(-3), respectively, illustrating that the HYDRUS model performed well in simulating the short-term soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under drip irrigation, and the root water uptake model was reasonable. Comparing with 2 and 4 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and continuous irrigation, both the 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and the pulsed irrigation with water applied intermittently in 30 min periods could increase the volume of wetted soil and reduce deep percolation. It was concluded that the combination of 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and pulsed irrigation should be the first choice when applying drip irrigation to triploid P. tomentosa root zone at the experiment site.

  9. Controls on water drop volume at speleothem drip sites: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collister, Christopher; Mattey, David

    2008-09-01

    SummaryThe growth of speleothem under cave drip sites is closely related to local climate events and provides an increasingly important means of deciphering past climate change. Since calcite precipitation rates depend on the water discharge at the drip site, the drip rate and mass of water drops detaching from stalactites are fundamental controls on speleothem growth and we have investigated factors that control the volume of water drops in this environment. The classical investigations on the volume of falling water drops are reviewed but there have been no measurements of the volume of drops detaching from curved surfaces equivalent to tips of stalactites. In this study we have used an acoustic drop counting method to measure the variation of the mass of water drops detaching from tubes (representing 'soda straw' stalactites) and artificial stalactites with spherical terminations (representing massive stalactites) as a function of tube radius or surface curvature and the drip rate. The experimental method corroborates classical measurements of drop mass detaching from tubes and, for massive stalactites, we derive a simple empirical relationship between drop mass and radius of curvature of a spherical surface, based on 100,000 drop counts from artificial stalactites with 19 different radii ranging from 3.6 mm to 500 mm. The results of this study allow discharge to be calculated from drip interval measurements and provide a quantitative basis for theoretical modelling of speleothem growth from drip sites.

  10. Influence of Flame Retardants on the Melt Dripping Behaviour of Thermoplastic Polymers.

    PubMed

    Matzen, Melissa; Kandola, Baljinder; Huth, Christian; Schartel, Bernhard

    2015-08-27

    Melt flow and dripping of the pyrolysing polymer melt can be both a benefit and a detriment during a fire. In several small-scale fire tests addressing the ignition of a defined specimen with a small ignition source, well-adjusted melt flow and dripping are usually beneficial to pass the test. The presence of flame retardants often changes the melt viscosity crucially. The influence of certain flame retardants on the dripping behaviour of four commercial polymers, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polypropylene modified with ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EP) and polyamide 6 (PA 6), is analysed based on an experimental monitoring of the mass loss due to melt dripping, drop size and drop temperature as a function of the furnace temperature applied to a rod-shaped specimen. Investigating the thermal transition (DSC), thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition, as well as the viscosity of the polymer and collected drops completes the investigation. Different mechanisms of the flame retardants are associated with their influence on the dripping behaviour in the UL 94 test. Reduction in decomposition temperature and changed viscosity play a major role. A flow limit in flame-retarded PBT, enhanced decomposition of flame-retarded PP and PP-EP and the promotion of dripping in PA 6 are the salient features discussed.

  11. Influence of Flame Retardants on the Melt Dripping Behaviour of Thermoplastic Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Matzen, Melissa; Kandola, Baljinder; Huth, Christian; Schartel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Melt flow and dripping of the pyrolysing polymer melt can be both a benefit and a detriment during a fire. In several small-scale fire tests addressing the ignition of a defined specimen with a small ignition source, well-adjusted melt flow and dripping are usually beneficial to pass the test. The presence of flame retardants often changes the melt viscosity crucially. The influence of certain flame retardants on the dripping behaviour of four commercial polymers, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polypropylene modified with ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EP) and polyamide 6 (PA 6), is analysed based on an experimental monitoring of the mass loss due to melt dripping, drop size and drop temperature as a function of the furnace temperature applied to a rod-shaped specimen. Investigating the thermal transition (DSC), thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition, as well as the viscosity of the polymer and collected drops completes the investigation. Different mechanisms of the flame retardants are associated with their influence on the dripping behaviour in the UL 94 test. Reduction in decomposition temperature and changed viscosity play a major role. A flow limit in flame-retarded PBT, enhanced decomposition of flame-retarded PP and PP-EP and the promotion of dripping in PA 6 are the salient features discussed. PMID:28793527

  12. Magnetic fields in proton solar flare of X17.2/4B class according to data of simultaneous measurements in a few spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozitsky, V.; Lozitska, N.

    2017-06-01

    Spectral-polarized magnetic field measurements in solar flare of 28 October 2003 of X17.2/4B class are compared in six FeI lines and in Hα line. Observations were carried out on Echelle spectrograph of horizontal solar telescope of Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Presented data relate to peak phase of flare and a place of photosphere outside sunspots where effective (average) magnetic field in FeI 6302.5 line was about 100 G and had S polarity. Measured splitting of emissive peaks in cores of strong FeI lines of 15th multiplet correspond to stronger fields, in range 550-700 G and S polarity too. Noticeablre splitting of emissive peaks (11-20 mÅ) were found also in Fe I 5434.527 line with effective Lande factor geff = -0.014. Value of this splitting and its sign indicate the existence of extremely strong fields of 25-50 kG of opposite (N) polarity which had negative Doppler velocities (lifting of plasma) on level of 1.7-2.2 km/sec. Magnetic field according to Hα line was 300 G and N polarity. Presented results indicate the essential inhomogeneity of magnetic field in flare volume which include the opposite polarities along the line of sight and wide range of effective magnetic fields.

  13. The Dripping Handrail Model: Transient Chaos in Accretion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Karl; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We define and study a simple dynamical model for accretion systems, the "dripping handrail" (DHR). The time evolution of this spatially extended system is a mixture of periodic and apparently random (but actually deterministic) behavior. The nature of this mixture depends on the values of its physical parameters - the accretion rate, diffusion coefficient, and density threshold. The aperiodic component is a special kind of deterministic chaos called transient chaos. The model can simultaneously exhibit both the quasiperiodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) that characterize the power spectra of fluctuations of several classes of accretion systems in astronomy. For this reason, our model may be relevant to many such astrophysical systems, including binary stars with accretion onto a compact object - white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole - as well as active galactic nuclei. We describe the systematics of the DHR's temporal behavior, by exploring its physical parameter space using several diagnostics: power spectra, wavelet "scalegrams," and Lyapunov exponents. In addition, we note that for large accretion rates the DHR has periodic modes; the effective pulse shapes for these modes - evaluated by folding the time series at the known period - bear a resemblance to the similarly- determined shapes for some x-ray pulsars. The pulsing observed in some of these systems may be such periodic-mode accretion, and not due to pure rotation as in the standard pulsar model.

  14. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    SciTech Connect

    F. Hua; K. Mon

    2003-06-24

    The recommended waste package (WP) design is described in BSC (2001a). The design includes a double-wall WP underneath a protective drip shield (DS) (BSC 2003a). The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation (DOX), general corrosion (GC) and localized corrosion (LC) of the DS plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. The DS design also includes structural supports fabricated from Ti Grade 24. Degradation of Ti Grade 24 is not considered in this report. The DS provides protection for the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. This Model Report (MR) serves as a feed to the Integrated Waste Package Degradation Model (IWPD) analyses, and was developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (BSC 2002a). The models contained in this report serve as a basis to determine whether or not the performance requirements for the DS can be met.

  15. Impact dynamics of porcine drip bloodstains on fabrics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elisabeth M P; Dodds, Margaret; Taylor, Michael C; Li, Jingyao; Michielsen, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    As a passive blood drop impacts a hard surface, it is observed to collapse and spread laterally, then retract and settle. During the spreading phase, the edge of the drop may rise forming a crown extending into spines and breaking up into secondary drops. When a similar drop falls onto a textile surface these same processes may occur, but the process of blood wicking into the fabric complicates stain formation. These processes are described within for passive drip stains collected under controlled conditions using anticoagulated porcine blood. Three stages of this impact process were identified and could be separated into distinct time zones: (1) spreading (time t≤2.5ms) and (2) retraction (2.5≤t≤12ms) on the surface with potential splashing at the periphery, and (3) wicking (30ms ≤t≤30min) of the blood into the fabric. Although wetting and wicking may also occur for t<30ms, the vast majority of wetting and wicking occur after this time and thus the short-time wicking can be ignored. In addition, the number of satellite stains correlates with the surface roughness with the number of satellites for jersey knit>plain-woven>cardboard. Conversely, the size of the satellite stains correlates with the amount of wicking in the fabric with the satellite stain size for plain-woven>jersey knit>cardboard.

  16. The Dripping Handrail Model: Transient Chaos in Accretion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Karl; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We define and study a simple dynamical model for accretion systems, the "dripping handrail" (DHR). The time evolution of this spatially extended system is a mixture of periodic and apparently random (but actually deterministic) behavior. The nature of this mixture depends on the values of its physical parameters - the accretion rate, diffusion coefficient, and density threshold. The aperiodic component is a special kind of deterministic chaos called transient chaos. The model can simultaneously exhibit both the quasiperiodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) that characterize the power spectra of fluctuations of several classes of accretion systems in astronomy. For this reason, our model may be relevant to many such astrophysical systems, including binary stars with accretion onto a compact object - white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole - as well as active galactic nuclei. We describe the systematics of the DHR's temporal behavior, by exploring its physical parameter space using several diagnostics: power spectra, wavelet "scalegrams," and Lyapunov exponents. In addition, we note that for large accretion rates the DHR has periodic modes; the effective pulse shapes for these modes - evaluated by folding the time series at the known period - bear a resemblance to the similarly- determined shapes for some x-ray pulsars. The pulsing observed in some of these systems may be such periodic-mode accretion, and not due to pure rotation as in the standard pulsar model.

  17. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  18. On-line measurements of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel vehicle exhaust by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fujitani, Yuji; Sekimoto, Kanako; Sato, Kei; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Shigeo; Kumazawa, Yasuko; Shimono, Akio; Hikida, Toshihide

    2013-07-01

    Nitro-organic compounds, some of which cause adverse health effects in humans, are emitted in diesel engine exhaust. Speciation and quantification of these nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust particles have been extensively conducted; however, investigations into the emissions of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust have not. In the present study, the properties of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust were investigated through time-resolved measurement with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer. Three diesel trucks were tested, each with a different type of exhaust-gas treatment system (i.e., aftertreatment). Among the nitro-organic compounds detected, the emission of nitromethane was commonly observed and found to be related to the emissions of carbon monoxide, benzene, and acetone. The emission of other nitro-organic compounds, such as nitrophenol, depended on the vehicle, possibly due to the type of aftertreatment installed.

  19. Translating DRiPs: progress in understanding viral and cellular sources of MHC class I peptide ligands

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Brian P.; Bennink, Jack R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been 15 years since we proposed the defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis to explain the rapid presentation of viral peptides by MHC class I molecules on the surface of infected cells. Here, we review the evidence for the contribution of DRiPs to antigen processing, pointing to the uncertainties regarding the physical nature of DRiPs, and emphasizing recent findings suggesting that peptide generation is a specialized process involving compartmentalized translation. PMID:21416150

  20. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Breast Esophagus Rectum Skull base sarcomas Pediatric brain tumors Head and neck - see the Head and Neck Cancer page Eye ... Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer ... related to Proton Therapy Videos related ...

  1. Proton geriatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Nakagawa, Norio

    1984-07-01

    An SO(10) model with particle spectrum and low energy gauge group identical to that of minimal SU (5) below MX but with a nonstandard charge assignment is shown to agree with the experimental best value of sin2θw(Mw) and the lower bound on the proton lifetime.

  2. Proton Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. PMID:25686476

  3. Unsaturated zone hydrology and cave drip discharge water response: Implications for speleothem paleoclimate record variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowska, Monika; Baker, Andy; Treble, Pauline C.; Andersen, Martin S.; Hankin, Stuart; Jex, Catherine N.; Tadros, Carol V.; Roach, Regina

    2015-10-01

    High-frequency, spatially-dense discharge monitoring was conducted over fifteen months to characterise unsaturated zone flow at Harrie Wood Cave (HWC), in the Snowy Mountains, Yarrangobilly (SE Australia). The cave was formed in the Late Silurian Yarrangobilly Limestone, a fractured rock associated with very low primary porosity due to past diagenesis. Over our monitoring period we simultaneously measured rainfall, soil moisture saturation and drip discharge rate at fourteen sites to characterise infiltration-discharge relationships. All drip discharge sites exhibited non-Gaussian distributions, indicating long periods where low discharge predominates, punctuated by short infrequent periods of high discharge. However, there was significant variability in discharge between sites and consequently no spatial correlation in the cave. We investigated the depth-discharge relationship at HWC and found a moderate relationship between depth and drip discharge lag (response) times to soil moisture content, but only weak relationships between depth and mean and maximum discharge. This highlights that the karst architecture plays an important role in controlling drip discharge dynamics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Agglomerative Hierarchal Clustering (AHC) were used to classify similar drip types, revealing five unique drip regimes. Two-phase flow and non-linear response to recharge behaviour were observed, suggesting secondary porosity is controlling unsaturated zone flow in mature limestone environments with low primary porosity. Using the data presented here, the first coupled conceptual and box hydrological flow model was developed. This study highlights the heterogeneous nature of hydrological flow in karst and the need to understand unsaturated zone hydrology at the individual drip discharge level, to inform speleothem studies for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction.

  4. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. C.; Xu, B.; Lyons, L. R.; Newell, P. T.; Creutzberg, F.

    1993-01-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorm intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (approximately four to six degrees) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipole-like field lines.

  5. Controls on oxygen isotope variability in precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Tan, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Cave monitoring is important to fully understand the climatic significance of stalagmite δ18O records. Most previous studies focus on one cave, or several caves in one area. A large regional-scale investigation on the isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is scarce. To investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation in the monsoon regions of China (MRC) and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites, a three-year-long (2011-2014) on-site rainfall and drip water monitoring program has been carried out with approximately monthly sampling at 37 drip sites in eight caves in the MRC. Neither rainfall amount nor air temperature are the predominant controls on the oxygen isotopic composition of monthly precipitation. The rain in the wet season (May to October), with relatively low δ18O values, is sourced from tropical air masses, whereas the rainfall in the dry season (November to April), with relatively high δ18O values, is mostly sourced from continental air masses. Additionally, the weighted summer rainwater δ18O values decrease from coastal southwest China to inland northeast China, which suggests that the moisture of monsoon rainfall in China originates mainly from Indian Ocean, and transports to the north along the southwest-northeast path. 28 of the 37 drip sites are constant drips with little discernable variation in drip water δ18O through the whole study period. For most of the constant drips, the mean value of each drip water δ18O is nearly identical to or slightly higher than the three-year weighted mean value of the corresponding local rainwater δ18O, indicating these drips may be mainly recharged by none-evaporated or slightly evaporated, well-mixed older water stored in the vadose zone. 7 of all the 37 drip sites are seasonal drips, for which, although the amplitude of drip water δ18O is narrower than that of rainfall, the monthly response of drip water δ18O to

  6. Proton clouds to measure long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Sinnige, Tessa; Daniëls, Mark; Baldus, Marc; Weingarth, Markus

    2014-03-26

    We show that selective labeling of proteins with protonated amino acids embedded in a perdeuterated matrix, dubbed 'proton clouds', provides general access to long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in proton-detected solid-state NMR, which is important to study protein tertiary structure. Proton-cloud labeling significantly improves spectral resolution by simultaneously reducing proton line width and spectral crowding despite a high local proton density in clouds. The approach is amenable to almost all canonical amino acids. Our method is demonstrated on ubiquitin and the β-barrel membrane protein BamA.

  7. Drip irrigation uptake in traditional irrigated fields: The edaphological impact.

    PubMed

    Puy, Arnald; García Avilés, José M; Balbo, Andrea L; Keller, Michèle; Riedesel, Svenja; Blum, Daniel; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2017-11-01

    Historical and traditional flood-irrigated (FI) schemes are progressively being upgraded by means of drip irrigation (DI) to tackle current water and demographic challenges. This modernization process is likely to foster several changes of environmental relevance at the system level. In this paper we assess the effects derived from DI uptake on soil health and structure in ancient FI systems through the case study of Ricote, SE Spain, first established in the 10-13th centuries CE. We approach the topic by means of physico-chemical analyses (pH, electrical conductivity, available P, carbon analyses, bulk density, soil water content and particle size distribution), Electrical Resistivity Measurements (ERT) and robust statistics. We reach a power of 1-ß = 77 aiming at detecting a large effect size (f ≥ 0.4). Results indicate that, compared to FI, DI soils present significantly higher water content, a higher proportion of coarse particles relative to fines due to clay translocation, and less dispersion in salt contents. The soils away from the emitters, which were formerly FI and comparatively account for larger extensions, appear significantly depleted in organic matter, available P and N. These results are not affected by departures from statistical model assumptions and suggest that DI uptake in formerly FI systems might have relevant implications in terms of soil degradation and emission of greenhouse gases. A proper assessment of the edaphological trade-offs derived from this modernization process is mandatory in order to tackle undesired environmental consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of non-vacuum packaging systems on drip loss from chilled beef.

    PubMed

    Payne, S R; Durham, C J; Scott, S M; Devine, C E

    1998-07-01

    This study investigated drip loss in chilled beef (hot-boned m. longissimus lumborum (LL)) under conventional packaging systems, in which a vacuum is applied, and non-vacuum packaging systems. The use of vacuum during the packaging process (vacuum packaging, CO(2) atmosphere packaging) was associated with increased drip. Drip was lower in heat-shrunk vacuum packaging than in non-shrunk vacuum packaging. A slow vacuum onset had no effect on drip formation, or may have increased it. The extent of pressure reduction (vacuum; range 0-1 atm) did not significantly affect drip formation, although the standard vacuum pressure (0 atm) tended to cause more drip loss than higher pressures. The three non-vacuum anaerobic packaging systems tested were: flushed with carbon dioxide without the pressure being reduced below atmospheric (Flush), or the same system with no CO(2) flush but a proprietary oxygen absorber added (Scavenger), or a combination of both (Flush/Scavenger). Storage was at -1.5 °C for up to 20 weeks. The Flush and Flush/Scavenger systems had considerably lower drip loss than the CAP standard system (6.4%, 6.5%, and 9.1% respectively); the Scavenger system had the lowest drip loss (5.2%). Drip losses generally increased with storage period, irrespective of packaging system. All non-vacuum packaging systems except the Flush system had very low oxygen levels (<0.l% v v ). The Flush system had considerably higher levels of oxygen (0.9%) with associated browning of meat samples. All packaging systems gave a hygienic shelf-life of at least 16 weeks. At 16 weeks, microbial numbers were highest (5 × 10(6)) in the Scavenger system. The meat from all packaging systems was acceptable to taste panels even after 16 weeks of storage at -1.5 °C. There were no significant differences between any of the packaging systems for any of the sensory attributes tested. The packaging systems with the best all round performance were the Flush/Scavenger and the Scavenger systems

  9. Mechanisms of Subsurface Drip Irrigation-Mediated Suppression of Lettuce Drop Caused by Sclerotinia minor.

    PubMed

    Bell, A A; Liu, L; Reidy, B; Davis, R M; Subbarao, K V

    1998-03-01

    ABSTRACT Subsurface drip irrigation and associated mandatory minimum tillage practices significantly reduced the incidence of lettuce drop (Sclerotinia minor) and the severity of corky root on lettuce compared with furrow irrigation and conventional tillage. Three possible mechanisms for the drip irrigation-mediated disease suppression were examined in this study: qualitative and quantitative differences in the soil microflora under furrow and subsurface drip irrigation; their antagonism and potential bio-control effects on S. minor; and the physical distribution of soil moisture and temperature relative to the two irrigation methods. To determine if the suppressive effects under subsurface drip irrigation were related to changes in soil microflora, soils were assayed for actinomycetes, bacteria, and fungi during the spring and fall seasons. The effects of the irrigation methods on microbial populations were nearly identical during both seasons. In the spring season, the total number of fungal colonies recovered on potato dextrose agar amended with rose Bengal generally was greater in soils under drip irrigation than under furrow irrigation, but no such differences were observed during the fall. Numbers of actinomycetes and bacteria were not significantly different between irrigation methods during either season. No interaction between sampling time and irrigation methods was observed for any of the microbial populations during both seasons. Thus, the significant effect of sampling time observed for actinomycete and bacterial populations during the spring was most likely not caused by the irrigation treatments. There were also no qualitative differences in the three groups of soil microflora between the irrigation treatments. Even though some fungal, actinomycete, and bacterial isolates suppressed mycelial growth of S. minor in in vitro assays, the isolates came from both subsurface drip- and furrow-irrigated soils. In in planta assays, selected isolates failed to

  10. Dripping or delamination? A range of mechanisms for removing the lower crust or lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, Adam P.; Moresi, Louis; Stern, Tim

    2017-08-01

    Under some conditions, dense parts of the lower crust or mantle lithosphere can become unstable, deform internally and sink into the less dense, underlying asthenosphere. Two end-member mechanisms for this process are delamination and dripping. Numerical calculations are used to compare the time taken for each instability to grow from initiation to the point of rapid descent through the asthenosphere. This growth period is an order of magnitude shorter for delamination than dripping. For delamination, the growth rate varies proportionally to the buoyancy and viscosity of the sinking material, as with dripping. It also depends on the relative thickness (L^' }_c) and viscosity (η ^' }_c) of the weak layer which decouples the sinking material from the upper crust, varying proportionally to L_c^' 2}/η ^' 2/3}_c. As instabilities commonly resemble a mix of dripping and delamination, the analysis of initial instability growth includes a range of mechanisms in-between. Dripping which begins with a large perturbation and low η ^' }_c reproduces many of the characteristic features of delamination, yet its growth timescale is still an order of magnitude slower. Previous diagnostic features of delamination may therefore be ambiguous and if rheology is to be inferred from observed timescales, it is important that delamination and this 'triggered dripping' are distinguished. Transitions from one mechanism or morphology to another, during the initial growth stage, are also examined. 3-D models demonstrate that when η ^' }_c is small, a dripping, planar sheet will only transition into 3-D drips if the initial triggering perturbation is less than a third of the dense material's thickness. This transition occurs more easily at large η ^' }_c, so rheological heterogeneity may be responsible for morphological transitions through time. We also calculate the rates at which delamination grows too slowly to outpace cooling of the upwelling asthenosphere, resulting in stalling and

  11. Spectrum of solar flare protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, I. M.; Balabin, Yu. V.; Podgorny, A. I.; Vashenyuk, E. V.

    2010-08-01

    Most of big solar flares are accompanied by relativistic protons. The prompt component of relativistic protons moves along the interplanetary magnetic field lines and arrives at the Earth's orbit when the flare favorably located in the western solar hemisphere. The neutron monitor measurements reveal an exponential law energy spectrum. Calculations of relativistic proton acceleration in the flare current sheet with magnetic and electric fields found from 3D MHD simulations also demonstrate an exponential law spectrum. A comparison of the measured and calculated spectra permits to estimate the rate of reconnection in the Bastille flare (14 July 2000) as ˜107cm/s. The delay component of relativistic protons exhibits a power law energy spectrum.

  12. Molten thermoplastic dripping behavior induced by flame spread over wire insulation under overload currents.

    PubMed

    He, Hao; Zhang, Qixing; Tu, Ran; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yongming

    2016-12-15

    The dripping behavior of the molten thermoplastic insulation of copper wire, induced by flame spread under overload currents, was investigated for a better understanding of energized electrical wire fires. Three types of sample wire, with the same polyethylene insulation thickness and different core diameters, were used in this study. First, overload current effects on the transient one-dimensional wire temperature profile were predicted using simplified theoretical analysis; the heating process and equilibrium temperature were obtained. Second, experiments on the melting characteristics were conducted in a laboratory environment, including drop formation and frequency, falling speed, and combustion on the steel base. Third, a relationship between molten mass loss and volume variation was proposed to evaluate the dripping time and frequency. A strong current was a prerequisite for the wire dripping behavior and the averaged dripping frequency was found to be proportional to the square of the current based on the theoretical and experimental results. Finally, the influence of dripping behavior on the flame propagation along the energized electrical wire was discussed. The flame width, bright flame height and flame spreading velocity presented different behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proton maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensley, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    New calculations are reported which confirm the ability of an a priori random, initial-phase proton beam to drive a simple, single-stage microwave cavity maser or transit-time oscillator (TTO) to saturation conversion efficiencies of about 11 percent. The required initial TE(011) mode field can be provided from beam ramp-up bandwidth of excitation to a low level from an external source. A saturation field of 45 tesla and output power of 0.2 TW are calculated using an electron insulation field of 10 tesla and a 3 MeV, 400 Ka/sq cm beam. Results are compared to those for an electron beam of the same energy and geometry, and it is shown that proton beams potentially can provide a three order of magnitude increase in overall microwave power production density over that obtainable from electron beam TTOs.

  14. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  15. Hydrogen Induced Cracking in Titanium Drip Shield of High-Level Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S C

    2001-05-30

    Both qualitative and quantitative assessments have been conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen induced cracking on the drip shield. The basic premise of the assessments is that failure will occur once the hydrogen content exceeds a certain limit or critical value, H{sub c}. Potential mechanisms for hydrogen absorption in the drip shield have been identified to be general passive corrosion and galvanic couple with steel components. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations indicated that hydrogen concentration in the drip shield will be below the critical value by a considerable margin. The choice of the mathematical models and associated parameters appears to be reasonable. Continued effort in data collection and development should provide validation and improved level of confidence of the proposed models.

  16. Comparison of lettuce diseases and yield under subsurface drip and furrow irrigation.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, K V; Hubbard, J C; Schulbach, K F

    1997-08-01

    ABSTRACT Subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were compared on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cvs. Salinas and Misty Day for yield and incidence and severity of three important diseases of lettuce in the Salinas Valley, CA. Experiments were conducted between 1993 and 1995 during the spring and fall seasons. The diseases examined included lettuce drop (Sclerotinia minor), downy mildew (Bremia lactucae), and corky root (Rhizomonas suberifaciens). Replicated plots of subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were arranged in a randomized complete-block design. All plants were inoculated with S. minor at the initiation of the experiment during the 1993 spring season. Plots were not inoculated for downy mildew and corky root during any season nor were the plots reinoculated with S. minor. During each season, all plots were sprinkler irrigated until thinning, and subsequently, the irrigation treatments were begun. The furrow plots were irrigated once per week, and the drip plots received water twice per week. The distribution of soil moisture at two soil depths (0 to 5 and 6 to 15 cm) at 5, 10, and 15 cm distance on either side of the bed center in two diagonal directions was significantly lower in drip-irrigated compared with furrow-irrigated plots. Plots were evaluated for lettuce drop incidence and downy mildew incidence and severity at weekly intervals until harvest. Corky root severity and yield components were determined at maturity. Lettuce drop incidence and corky root severity were significantly lower and yields were higher in plots under subsurface drip irrigation compared with furrow irrigation, regardless of the cultivar, except during the 1994 fall season. Incidence and severity of downy mildew were not significantly different between the two irrigation methods throughout the study. The differential microclimates created by the two irrigation treatments did not affect downy mildew infection, presumably because the mesoclimate is usually favorable in the Salinas

  17. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  18. Streamflow, Fog, and Fog-Drip in the California Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawaske, S. R.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    The onshore movement of marine fog from coastal waters is a common occurrence during summer months along much of the contiguous U.S. Pacific Coast. Because the fog-season tends to occur during the precipitation-free dry-season, any additional input of moisture or reduction in loss of moisture through evapotranspiration provided by marine layer can be an important factor in localized hydrologic systems. In an effort to quantify some of the effects of fog on the regional dry-season hydrology, a study site within the Santa Cruz Mountains of central California was established. The fog-laden coastside and predominately fog-free San Francisco Bay-side of the study area provided an excellent opportunity to assess the impacts of the presence and absence of fog on ecohydrological processes. Streamflow, fog-drip, soil moisture, and weather conditions were measured from May-September. Bayside streams were found to be almost all intermittent, with much higher rates of baseflow recession compared to the predominately perennial coastside streams. Fog-drip was essentially nonexistent on the bayside, while highly variable amounts were recorded on the coastside. Maximum rates and seasonal totals of drip were found within stands of mature conifers (Sequoia sempervirens and Pseudotsuga menziesii) along exposed, often windy ridgelines. Rates of up to 19 in (48 cm)/month of fog-drip were recorded. Consequently, frequent infiltration events to depths of at least 9 in (23 cm) were also documented. Over the course of the study soil moisture levels at high fog-drip locations either increased, or were roughly equivalent to initial spring conditions from the onset of data collection. Increases of flow in coastside streams, under otherwise receding conditions, were found to coincide with fog and fog-drip events. These results indicate that the presence of fog can significantly affect dry-season hydrologic conditions of some coastal locations.

  19. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  20. Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.

    2012-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key property for soil and water conservation, and a synthetic parameter to quantify the soil degradation. Aggregation is relevant in soils where vegetation cover is scarce (Cerdà, 1996). Most of the research carried out to determine the soil aggregate stability was done in forest soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011) and little is done on farms (Cerdà, 2000). The research have show the effect of vegetation cover on soil aggregate stability (Cerdà, 1998) but little is known when vegetation is scarce, rare or not found such it can be seeing in agriculture soils. Then, aggregation is the main factor to control the soil losses and to improve the water availability. Moreover, agriculture management can improve the soil aggregate characteristics and the first step in this direction should be to quantify the aggregate stability. There is no information about the aggregate stability of soils under citrus production, although the research did show that the soil losses in the farms with citrus plantations is very high (Cerdà et al., 2009), and that aggregation should play a key role as the soils are bare due to the widespread use of herbicides. From 2009 to 2011, samples were collected in summer and winter in a chemically managed farm in Montesa, Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Ten irrigated patches and ten non-irrigated patches were selected to compare the effect of the drip irrigation on the soil aggregate stability. The Ten Drop Impacts (TDI) and the Counting the number of drops (CND) tests were applied at 200 aggregates (10 samples x 10 aggregates x 2 sites) in winter and summer in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results show that the irrigated patches had TDI values that ranged from 43 to 56 % and that the non-irrigated reached values of 41 to 54 %. The CND samples ranged from 29 to 38 drops in the non-irrigated patches to 32 to 42 drop-impacts in the irrigated soil patches. No trends were found from winter to summer during the three years time period

  1. Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic

    2003-06-16

    The objective of this calculation is twofold. First, to determine whether or not separation of interlocking drip shield (DS) segments occurs during vibratory ground motion. Second, if DS separation does not occur, to estimate the area of the DS for which the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit. (The area of DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 [see Attachment I] where the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit will be, for brevity, referred to as ''the damaged area'' throughout this document; also, DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 will be referred to, for brevity, as ''DS plates'' henceforth.) The stress limit used throughout this document is defined as 50 percent of yield strength of the DS plate material, Titanium Grade 7 (Ti-7) (SB-265 R52400), at temperature of 150 C. A set of 15 calculations is performed at two different annual frequencies of occurrence (annual exceedance frequency): 10{sup -6} per year (1/yr) and 10{sup -7} 1/yr . (Note: Due to computational problems only five realizations at 10{sup -7} 1/yr are presented in this document.) Additionally, one calculation is performed at the annual frequency of occurrence of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} 1/yr. The scope of this document is limited to reporting whether or not the DS separation occurs. If the DS separation does not occur the scope is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of the damaged area. All these results are evaluated for the DS plates. This calculation is intended for use in support of the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application seismicity modeling. This calculation is associated with the DS design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' (Ref. 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The DS is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 5, p. 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 4). The information provided by

  2. Blood haematology, muscle pH and serum cortisol changes in pigs with different levels of drip loss.

    PubMed

    Koomkrong, Nunyarat; Boonkaewwan, Chaiwat; Laenoi, Watchara; Kayan, Autchara

    2017-06-26

    An experiment was conducted to study the blood haematology, muscle pH and serum cortisol changes in pigs with different levels of drip loss. Two groups (low and high) of 20 animals were selected from 100 pigs based on drip loss. All [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] pigs were slaughtered according to standard slaughtering procedures. At exsanguinations, blood samples were taken for the haematological parameters and serum cortisol analysis. The muscle samples were taken from longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate the muscle pH and drip loss. Haematological parameters of low drip loss group showed higher content of white blood cells and monocytes than high drip loss group (p<0.05). The low drip loss group was higher muscle pH at 45 min (p<0.05) and 24 h (p<0.001) post-mortem than the high drip loss group. However, there was no significant difference in serum cortisol levels (p>0.05). Drip loss is mainly affected by the muscle pH decline after slaughter and might be affected on white blood cells and monocytes.

  3. Sensing water from subsurface drip irrigation laterals: In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterization of soil water dynamics in the root zone under subsurface drip irrigated (SDI) is complicated by the three dimensional nature of water fluxes from drip emitters plus the fluxes, if any, of water from precipitation. In addition, soil water sensing systems may differ in their operating...

  4. Soil Water Content on Drip Irrigated Cotton: Comparison of Measured and Calculated Values Obtained with the Hydrus 2-D Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop irrigation with subsurface drip (SDI) is increasing in the semiarid Texas High Plains (THO). However, information on drip-tape positioning and irrigation strategies on the wetted soil area (WSA) is needed to optimize rainwater harvesting under well capacities of < 7 mm/d. Time and resources nec...

  5. Improving fumigation efficiency by increasing drip-tape number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drip fumigation is commonly used for controlling soilborne pests in raised-bed strawberry production systems in California. However, the high emission loss and poor pest control indicate that the current fumigation practice with two drip tapes and polyethylene film (PE) covering need to be improved....

  6. Design of Water-Drip Cooling Facilities for Heat Treatment of Mill Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Yu. V.; Maisuradze, M. V.; Anufriev, N. P.

    2013-07-01

    Water-drip cooling devices based on centrifugal jet atomizers are studied experimentally. Their main operating characteristics such as the irrigation density, the uniformity of the distribution of irrigation over the cooled surface, the dependence of the heat transfer factor on the surface temperature, etc. are determined. The effect of the design and production parameters of the quenching facilities on their operating characteristics and mode of cooling of large steel articles is considered for mill rollers as an example. The results of the tests are used to design cooling facilities and heat treatment processes for mill rollers with the use of water-drip quenching.

  7. Medication and volume delivery by gravity-driven micro-drip intravenous infusion: potential variations during "wide-open" flow.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Eric T; Kumar, Vikram; Zheng, Hui; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Gravity-driven micro-drip infusion sets allow control of medication dose delivery by adjusting drops per minute. When the roller clamp is fully open, flow in the drip chamber can be a continuous fluid column rather than discrete, countable, drops. We hypothesized that during this "wide-open" state, drug delivery becomes dependent on factors extrinsic to the micro-drip set and is therefore difficult to predict. We conducted laboratory experiments to characterize volume delivery under various clinically relevant conditions of wide-open flow in an in vitro laboratory model. A micro-drip infusion set, plugged into a bag of normal saline, was connected to a high-flow stopcock at the distal end. Vertically oriented IV catheters (gauges 14-22) were connected to the stopcock. The fluid meniscus height in the bag was fixed (60-120 cm) above the outflow point. The roller clamp on the infusion set was in fully open position for all experiments resulting in a continuous column of fluid in the drip chamber. Fluid volume delivered in 1 minute was measured 4 times with each condition. To model resistive effects of carrier flow, volumetric infusion pumps were used to deliver various flow rates of normal saline through a carrier IV set into which a micro-drip infusion was "piggybacked." We also compared delivery by micro-drip infusion sets from 3 manufacturers. The volume of fluid delivered by gravity-driven infusion under wide-open conditions (continuous fluid column in drip chamber) varied 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.84-2.96) depending on catheter size and fluid column height. Total model resistance of the micro-drip with stopcock and catheter varied with flow rate. Volume delivered by the piggybacked micro-drip decreased up to 29.7% ± 0.8% (mean ± SE) as the carrier flow increased from 0 to 1998 mL/min. Delivery characteristics of the micro-drip infusion sets from 3 different manufacturers were similar. Laboratory simulation of clinical situations with gravity

  8. Development of Proton Computed Tomography for Applications in Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirov, Vladimir; Schulte, Reinhard; Coutrakon, George; Erdelyi, Bela; Wong, Kent; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Penfold, Scott; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; McAllister, Scott; Schubert, Keith

    2009-03-01

    Determination of the Bragg peak position in proton therapy requires accurate knowledge of the electron density and ratio of effective atomic number and mass (Z/A) of the body tissues traversed. While the Z/A ratio is fairly constant for human tissues, the density of tissues varies significantly. One possibility to obtain accurate electron density information of tissues is to use protons of sufficient energy to penetrate the patient and measure their energy loss. From these transmission measurements, it is possible to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of electron densities using algebraic techniques. The interest in proton computed tomography (pCT) has considerably increased in recent years due to the more common use of proton accelerators for cancer treatment world-wide and a modern design concept based on current high-energy physics technology has been suggested. This contribution gives a status update on the pCT project carried out by the pCT Collaboration, a group of institutions sharing interest and expertise in the development of pCT. We will present updated imaging data obtained with a small pCT prototype developed in collaboration with the Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics and installed on the proton research beam line at Loma Linda University Medical Center. We will discuss hardware decisions regarding the next-generation pCT scanner, which will permit scanning of head-sized objects. Progress has also been made in the formulation of the most likely path of protons through an object and parallelizable iterative reconstruction algorithms that can be implemented on general-purpose commodity graphics processing units. Finally, we will present simulation studies for utilizing pCT technology for on-line proton dose verification and tumor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET).

  9. Systematic structure of the neutron drip-line {sup 22}C nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Atef; Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana; Tammam, M.

    2014-10-24

    In the present work we systematically discuss the nuclear structure of the the heaviest particle-bound carbon isotope, {sup 22}C. The ground state wave function of the carbon isotope is calculated using the {sup 20}C core plus two-valence neutron based on a phenomenological mean-field MF potential. We apply the deduced wave function to provide the nuclear matter density which is necessary in the calculations of the total reaction cross section. Calculations show that there is a reasonable good description of the experimental binding energy BE and root-mean square RMS radius. The exotic structure and configuration of the ground state carbon isotope is explained and a consistent explanation on the two-neutron halo (Borromean) nucleus is given.

  10. Bound and unbound nuclear systems at the drip lines: a one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschini, L.; Pérez-Bernal, F.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    We construct a one-dimensional toy model to describe the main features of Borromean nuclei at the continuum threshold. The model consists of a core and two valence neutrons, unbound in the mean potential, that are bound by a residual point contact density-dependent interaction. Different discretization procedures are used (harmonic oscillator and transformed harmonic oscillator bases, or use of large rigid wall box). Resulting energies and wave functions, as well as inelastic transition intensities, are compared within the different discretization techniques, as well as with the exact results in the case of one particle and with the results of the di-neutron cluster model in the two particles case. Despite its simplicity, this model includes the main physical features of the structure of Borromean nuclei in an intuitive and computationally affordable framework, and will be extended to direct reaction calculations.

  11. Proton scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    This note presents analytic estimates of the performance of proton beams in remote surveillance for nuclear materials. The analysis partitions the analysis into the eight steps used by a companion note: (1) Air scattering, (2) Neutron production in the ship and cargo, (3) Target detection probability, (4) Signal produced by target, (5) Attenuation of signal by ship and cargo, (6) Attenuation of signal by air, (7) Geometric dilution, and (8) Detector Efficiency. The above analyses indicate that the dominant air scattering and loss mechanisms for particle remote sensing are calculable with reliable and accepted tools. They make it clear that the conversion of proton beams into neutron sources rapidly goes to completion in all but thinnest targets, which means that proton interrogation is for all purposes executed by neutrons. Diffusion models and limiting approximations to them are simple and credible - apart from uncertainty over the cross sections to be used in them - and uncertainty over the structure of the vessels investigated. Multiplication is essentially unknown, in part because it depends on the details of the target and its shielding, which are unlikely to be known in advance. Attenuation of neutron fluxes on the way out are more complicated due to geometry, the spectrum of fission neutrons, and the details of their slowing down during egress. The attenuation by air is large but less uncertain. Detectors and technology are better known. The overall convolution of these effects lead to large but arguably tolerable levels of attenuation of input beams and output signals. That is particularly the case for small, mobile sensors, which can more than compensate for size with proximity to operate reliably while remaining below flux limits. Overall, the estimates used here appear to be of adequate accuracy for decisions. That assessment is strengthened by their agreement with companion calculations.

  12. Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Mogk, D. W.; McDaris, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope’s USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement about deep Earth processes and connections between Earth’s internal systems, the plate tectonic system, and the physiography of Earth’s surface. The integration of these lines of research presents unique opportunities and also challenges in geoscience education. How can we best teach about the architecture, composition, and processes of Earth where it is hidden from direct observation. How can we make deep Earth science relevant and meaningful to students across the geoscience curriculum? And how can we use the exciting new discoveries about Earth processes to attract new students into science? To explore the intersection of research and teaching about the deep Earth, a virtual workshop was convened in February 2010 for experts in deep Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The six-day workshop consisted of online plenary talks, large and small group discussions, asynchronous contributions using threaded listservs and web-based work spaces, as well as development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities. The workshop goals were to: 1) help participants stay current about data, tools, services, and research related to the deep earth, 2) address the "big science questions" related to deep earth (e.g. plumes, slabs, drips, post-perovskite, etc.) and explore exciting new scientific approaches, 3) to consider ways to effectively teach about "what can't be seen", at least not directly, and 4) develop and review classroom teaching activities for undergraduate education using these data, tools, services, and

  13. Integrated analysis for a carbon- and water-constrained future: an assessment of drip irrigation in a lettuce production system in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, T N; Mushtaq, S; Reardon-Smith, K

    2012-11-30

    The Australian Government is meeting the challenge of water scarcity and climate change through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to increase water use efficiency and productivity, and secure longer term water supplies. However, it is likely that on-farm infrastructure investment will alter energy consumption and therefore generate considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. In particular, the introduction of a price on carbon may influence the extent to which new irrigation technologies are adopted. This study evaluated trade-offs between water savings, GHG emissions and economic gain associated with the conversion of a sprinkler (hand shift) irrigation system to a drip (trickle) irrigation system for a lettuce production system in the Lockyer Valley, one of the major vegetable producing regions in Australia. Surprisingly, instead of trade-offs, this study found positive synergies - a win-win situation. The conversion of the old hand-shift sprinkler irrigation system to a drip irrigation system resulted in significant water savings of almost 2 ML/ha, as well as an overall reduction in GHG emissions. Economic modelling, at a carbon price of $ 30/t CO(2)e, indicated that there was a net benefit of adoption of the drip irrigation system of about $ 4620/ML/year. We suggest priority should be given, in the implementation of on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing older inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand shift and roll-line. The findings of the study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia.

  14. Simplified Equations to Estimate Flushline Diameter for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A formulation of the Hazen-Williams equation is typically used to determine the diameter of the common flushline that is often used at the distal end of subsurface drip irrigation systems to aid in joint flushing of a group of driplines. Although this method is accurate, its usage is not intuitive a...

  15. Experimental study on flowing burning behaviors of a pool fire with dripping of melted thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiyuan; Tu, Ran; Wang, Nan; Ma, Xin; Jiang, Xi

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this work is to quantitatively investigate the dripping-burning and flowing fire of thermoplastics. A new experimental setup is developed with a heating vessel and a T-trough. Hot thermoplastic liquids are generated in the vessel by electric heating. N2 gas is continuously injected into the vessel to avoid a sudden ignition of fuel in it. The detailed flowing burning behaviors of pool fire in the T-trough are analyzed through the measurements of the mass, heat flux and temperatures etc. The experimental results suggest that a continuous dripping of melted thermoplastic liquids in a nearly constant mass rate can be successfully made in the new setup. It also shows that the mass dripping rate of melted PS liquid is smaller than PP and PE since its large viscosity. In addition, the flame spread velocities of hot liquids of PS in the T-trough are also smaller than that of PP and PE because of its large viscosity. The mass burning rate of the PP and PE pool fire in T-trough are smaller than PS. Finally, considering the heating, melting, dripping and flowing burning behaviors of these polymers, it is suggested that the fire hazard of PE and PP are obviously higher than PS for their faster flowing burning.

  16. Helium Isotopes and Noble Gas Abundances of Cave Dripping Water in Three Caves in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. T.; Shen, C. C.; Tan, M.; Li, T.; Uemura, R.; Asami, R.

    2015-12-01

    Paleo-temperature recorded in nature archives is a critical parameter to understand climate change in the past. With advantages of unique inert chemical characteristics and sensitive solubilities with temperature, dissolved noble gases in speleothem inclusion water were recently proposed to retrieve terrestrial temperature history. In order to accurately apply this newly-developed speleothem noble gas temperature (NGT) as a reliable proxy, a fundamental issue about behaviors of noble gases in the karst should be first clarified. In this study, we measured noble gas contents in air and dripping water to evaluate any ratio deviation between noble gases. Cave dripping water samples was collected from three selected caves, Shihua Cave in northern China, Furong Cave in southwestern, and Gyukusen Cave in an island located in the western Pacific. For these caves are characterized by a thorough mixing and long-term storage of waters in a karst aquifer by the absence of seasonal oxygen isotope shifts. Ratios of dripping water noble gases are statistically insignificant from air data. Helium isotopic ratios in the dripping water samples match air value. The results indicate that elemental and isotopic signatures of noble gases from air can be frankly preserved in the epikarst and support the fidelity of NGT techniques.

  17. Age-related changes in responses of highbush blueberry plants to drip irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada to determine the effects of drip irrigation at moderate and heavy rates (5 and 10 L/plant) in a mature planting of highbush blueberry. Results were compared to those published previously from the first 4 years after planting. Whi...

  18. Reducing water inputs with subsurface drip irrigation may improve alfalfa nutritive value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop for western Kansas dairy producers. Concerns over decreasing groundwater supplies have prompted the need to develop more efficient methods of irrigation. We investigated the effects of a subsurface drip irrigation system at three lev...

  19. Applying insecticides through drip irrigation to reduce wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) feeding damage in sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Arrington, Amber E; Kennedy, George G; Abney, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    A 2 year field study was conducted at multiple locations to determine whether insecticides or an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, applied through drip irrigation in sweet potato reduced wireworm damage when compared with the non-treated check and/or insecticides applied conventionally. Wireworm damage was low in 2012, and there were no differences in the proportion of roots damaged or the severity of damage between treatments. In 2013, a preplant-incorporated (PPI) application of chlorpyrifos followed by either bifenthrin, imidacloprid, clothianidin, or oxamyl injected through drip irrigation significantly reduced the proportion of wireworm damage as well as the severity of wireworm damage when compared with the non-treated check. The incidence and severity of wireworm damage in these treatments did not differ significantly from those in the conventional management practice. The PPI application of chlorpyrifos followed by either cyantraniliprole or S. carpocapsae injected through drip irrigation was not significantly different from the non-treated check in the proportion of wireworm damage; however, both treatments reduced the severity of wireworm damage compared with the non-treated check. Applying insecticides through drip irrigation provides an alternative to conventionally applied insecticides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Double-cropped soybean and wheat with subsurface drip irrigation supplemented by treated swine wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wastewater from swine production facilities has been typically managed by treatment in anaerobic lagoons followed by land application. However, there have been considerable advances in superior treatment technologies. Wastewater from one of these technologies was effective for subsurface drip ir...

  1. Effect of subsurface drip irrigation system uniformity on cotton production in the Texas High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planned reductions in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system uniformity in the semi-arid environment of West Texas could reduce installation costs. A SDI system was installed and cotton production experiment conducted from 2001 to 2006 to evaluate irrigation system water distribution uniformities h...

  2. Shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) for small irregular-shaped fields in the southeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field tests were conducted using S3DI on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) rotations to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system. Drip tubing was installed in alternate row middles, strip tillage was used ...

  3. Yield and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) and furrow diking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) was installed yearly in conjunction with furrow diking to document yield and economic benefit of these techniques on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). This research was conducted for three years from 2005...

  4. Effect of nitrogen application timing on corn production using subsurface drip irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in row-crop agriculture is increasing due to potential increases in water and nutrient use efficiency. Research-based information is needed to manage nitrogen (N) applications through SDI systems in field corn (Zea mays L.) production. This study ...

  5. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  6. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids.

    PubMed

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J P; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-03-21

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state).

  7. 40 CFR 264.572 - Design and installation of new drip pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design and installation of new drip pads. 264.572 Section 264.572 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  8. Cotton, tomato, corn, and onion production with subsurface drip irrigation – a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The usage of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) has increased by 89% in the USA during the last ten years according to USDA NASS estimates and over 93% of the SDI land area is located in just ten states. Combining public entity and private industry perceptions of SDI in these ten states, the major cro...

  9. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; Figura, S.; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite). Low δ18Ocalcite values are thereby accompanied by low water yields and vice versa. Based on the paleoclimatic interpretation of the δ18Ocalcite records, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. High drip water supply caused by high precipitation rates supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleoclimate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated precipitation rates.

  10. Distribution of chemical and microbial pesticides delivered through drip irrigation systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scientific information is needed on distribution uniformity and mobility of environmental-friendly pest control agents through drip irrigation system and in the soil to help improve soil insect control efficiency. The uniformity and recovery rate of water soluble and insoluble materials of chemical ...

  11. Above ground drip application practices alter water productivity of Malbec grapevines under sustained deficit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of irrigation event frequency on water productivity, yield components, and berry maturity under two severities of sustained deficit irrigation was evaluated in field grown Malbec grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) over three growing seasons. Above ground drip was used to supply vines with ...

  12. Rapid and sensitive on-line monitoring 6 different kinds of volatile organic compounds in aqueous samples by spray inlet proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (SI-PTR-MS).

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue; Kang, Meng; Wang, Hongmei; Huang, Chaoqun; Shen, Chengyin; Chu, Yannan

    2017-06-01

    Rapid and sensitive monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in aqueous samples is very important to human health and environmental protection. In this study, an on-line spray inlet proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (SI-PTR-MS) method was developed for the rapid and sensitive monitoring of 6 different kinds of VOCs, namely acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone, aether, and methylbenzene, in aqueous samples. The response time, limit of detection (LOD), and repeatability of the SI-PTR-MS system were evaluated. The response of the SI-PTR-MS was quite rapid with response times of 31-88 s. The LODs for all these VOCs were below 10 μg/L. The LOD of methylbenzene was 0.9 μg/L, much lower than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water. The repeatability of this method was evaluated with 5 replicate determinations. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 0.8-3.1%, indicating good repeatability. To evaluate the matrix effects, the SI-PTR-MS system was employed for on-line monitoring of these 6 VOCs in different aqueous matrices, including lake water, tap water, and waste water. The relative recoveries were in the range of 94.6-106.0% for the lake water, 96.3-105.6% for the tap water, and 95.6-102.9% for the waste water. The results indicate that the SI-PTR-MS method has important application values in the rapid and sensitive monitoring of VOCs in these aqueous samples. In addition, the effect of salt concentration on the extracting efficiency was evaluated. The results showed that the LOD of the SI-PTR-MS could be further decreased by changing the salt concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proton-proton Scattering Above 3 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    A. Sibirtsev, J. Haidenbauer, H.-W. Hammer S. Krewald ,Ulf-G. Meissner

    2010-01-01

    A large set of data on proton-proton differential cross sections, analyzing powers and the double-polarization parameter A{sub NN} is analyzed employing the Regge formalism. We find that the data available at proton beam momenta from 3 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c exhibit features that are very well in line with the general characteristics of Regge phenomenology and can be described with a model that includes the {rho}, {omega}, f{sub 2}, and a{sub 2} trajectories and single-Pomeron exchange. Additional data, specifically for spin-dependent observables at forward angles, would be very helpful for testing and refining our Regge model.

  14. Surface effects of Rayleigh-Taylor instability: Feedback between drip dynamics and crustal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Currie, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    For many continental plates, significant vertical motion of Earth's surface has occurred within the plate interior which can not be clearly linked to plate tectonic processes. For example, several craton areas exhibit anomalous basins, e.g., the Williston basin, Illinois basin and Michigan basin in North America. In orogenic belts, there are examples of local areas (~100 km wide) where the surface has undergone subsidence and then uplift of >1 km, such as the Arizaro basin (central Andes) and Wallowa Mountains (northeast Oregon). Given the near-circular shape of the surface deflection, it has been suggested that they may be related to gravitational foundering of dense lower lithosphere, i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor instability (or 'RT drip'). In order to investigate the surface effects of an RT drip, we use two methods: (1) 2D thermal-mechanical numerical models to study links between drip dynamics and crustal deformation and (2) a theoretical analysis of the crustal deformation induced by stresses from the RT drip. The numerical models consist of a continental lithosphere overlying a sublithospheric mantle. A high-density material is placed in the mantle lithosphere or lower crust to initiate a drip event, and a stress-free boundary condition allows the development of surface topography during model evolution. A reasonable range of crustal viscosity and thickness is tested to study the RT drip in different tectonic settings, from a cold craton to a hot orogen with thick crust. Four types of surface deflection are observed: (1) subsidence; (2) subsidence followed by uplift; (3) uplift; and (4) little deflection. When the crust is relatively strong or thin, the surface has a negative elevation, forming a basin. For a weak or thick crust, the RT drip induces crustal flow, leading to crustal thickening that can uplift the surface; an extremely weak crust decouples the surface and RT drip and the surface is unperturbed. Our theoretical analysis considers the surface

  15. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  16. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleborn, Katie; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Baker, Andy; Navarre, Owen

    2016-11-01

    We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic) transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2-14 days) throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  17. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    K. Mon

    2004-10-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to drip shield and waste package modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Thirty-three FEPs associated with the waste package and drip shield performance have been identified (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). A screening decision, either ''included'' or ''excluded,'' has been assigned to each FEP, with the technical bases for screening decisions, as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs analyses in this report address issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the drip shield and waste package over the post closure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For included FEPs, this report summarizes the disposition of the FEP in TSPA-LA. For excluded FEPs, this report provides the technical bases for the screening arguments for exclusion from TSPA-LA. The analyses are for the TSPA-LA base-case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]), where a drip shield is placed over the waste package without backfill over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP includes one or more specific issues, collectively described by a FEP name and description. The FEP description encompasses a single feature, event, or process, or a few closely related or coupled processes, provided the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs were assigned to associated Project reports, so the screening decisions reside with the relevant subject-matter experts.

  18. [Seasonal Variations and Controlling Factors of the Element Contents in Drip Waters Collected from the Baojinggong Cave in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-yi; Chen, Lin; Chen, Qiong; Liu, Shu-hua; Yang, Liang; Tong, Xiao-ning; He, Hai-bo; Mi, Xiao-jian; Deng, Xiao-min; Peng, Xiao-tao; Li, Han-jie; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Hou-yun

    2016-05-15

    Geochemical dynamics of cave water were monitored to unveil its seasonal variation and controlling factors from December 2011 to May 2013 in Baojinggong cave, north of Guangdong Province. Concentrations of elements such as Ba, Sr, Ca and Mg of three drips in the cave were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) All these elements of three drips displayed significant seasonal variations, but the trends of seasonal variation of different elements or different drips were not the same, which reflected that each element in different drips might be controlled by different effects; (2) The low element contents of Drip1 and Drip2 during the heavy rainfall month showed that heavy rainfall could dilute the concentrations of elements; (3) Mg/Ca had a positive relationship with Sr/Ca ratio in three drips, and was higher in dry season and lower in rainy season. It implied that the two proxies might be mainly controlled by precipitation, karst water source, leaching effect and prior calcite precipitation (PCP), and reflected the climate change.

  19. Intra- and Inter-annual Fluorescence Intensity Variations in Drip Water, Heshang Cave, Central China: Implications for Speleothem Palaeoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Hu, C.; Li, X.; Ruan, J.; Hartland, A.

    2015-12-01

    Cave drip water acts as a signal carrier for the soil-rock-air system leading to the capture of climatic and environmental information in stalagmites. This paper seeks to develop an understanding of the environmental and climatic factors which control fluorescence variations in dripwater from in Heshang Cave, Central China. This information is essential to unravelling the significance of organic fluorescence in stalagmites and its utility in quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions. On the seasonal time scale, drip water fluorescence is largely controlled by the decomposition and translocation of dissolved organic matter in the soil, related to climate factors like temperature and precipitation. On the inter-annual time scale, longer duration monitoring data in scarce, yet this is needed to fully comprehend the influence of climate in stalagmite fluorescence time series. This study presents nine consecutive years of monthly drip water fluorescence intensity and drip rate data from two perennial drip sites in Heshang Cave. Drip water fluorescence was generally characterized by intensities in spring/summer and low intensities in autumn/winter. In dry hydrologic years, little seasonality in fluorescence signals was observed, but the opposite was observed in wet years. On the inter-annual time scale, the annual mean intensities of drip water fluorescence positively correlated with local annual rainfall with a 1-year lag (R2HS4=0.94; R2HS6=0.74). This indicates that rainfall is the main control on total drip water fluorescence (integrating across a hydrologic year), despite significant degrees of intra-annual fluorescence variation being observed between wet and dry years. These findings are of direct relevance for paleoclimate reconstruction using fluorescence intensities in stalagmites from the Asian monsoon region. Key words: fluorescence; dissolved organic matter; drip water rates; seasonality; precipitation

  20. Prolonged shelf life and reduced drip loss of chicken filets by the use of carbon dioxide emitters and modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Holck, Askild L; Pettersen, Marit K; Moen, Marie H; Sørheim, Oddvin

    2014-07-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging containing CO2 is widely used for extending the shelf life of chicken meat. Active packaging by adding CO2 emitter sachets to packages of meat is an alternative to traditional modified atmosphere packaging. The purpose of the study was to investigate the shelf life of chicken filets under different CO2 concentrations at 4°C storage. The inhibition of microbial growth was proportional to the CO2 concentration. Storage in 100% CO2 both with and without a CO2 emitter sachet gave a microbiological shelf-life extension of 7 days compared with 60% CO2. Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium sp., and Lactococcus sp. were the dominating species at the end of the storage period. During storage in pure CO2, the carbon dioxide dissolved in the meat and caused the collapse of the packages. The resulting squeeze of the meat lead to a severe increase in drip loss. The drip loss was reduced profoundly by using the CO2 emitting sachet in the packages. The addition of CO2 emitters can easily be implemented at industrial packaging lines without reduction in production efficiency.

  1. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Van Goethem, M.-J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images. This causes systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4%, but can become even 10% in bone regions [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. This may lead to no dose in parts of the tumor and too high dose in healthy tissues [1]. A direct measurement of proton stopping powers with high-energy protons will allow reducing these uncertainties and will improve the quality of the treatment. Several studies have shown that a sufficiently accurate radiograph can be obtained by tracking individual protons traversing a phantom (patient) [4,6,10]. Our studies benefit from the gas-filled time projection chambers based on GridPix technology [2], developed at Nikhef, capable of tracking a single proton. A BaF2 crystal measuring the residual energy of protons was used. Proton radiographs of phantom consisting of different tissue-like materials were measured with a 30×30 mm2 150 MeV proton beam. Measurements were simulated with the Geant4 toolkit.First experimental and simulated energy radiographs are in very good agreement [3]. In this paper we focus on simulation studies of the proton scattering angle as it affects the position resolution of the proton energy loss radiograph. By selecting protons with a small scattering angle, the image quality can be improved significantly.

  2. Simulation study of proton transport in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Philip; Allahyarov, Elshad

    2008-03-01

    Coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations were used to study the morphological changes induced in a Nafion-like ionomer by the imposition of a strong electric field. We observe that proton transport through this polymer electrolyte membrane is accompanied by morphological changes that include the formation of structures aligned along the direction of the applied field. The polar head groups of the ionomer side chains assemble into clusters, which then form rod-like formations, and these cylindrical structures then assemble into a hexagonally ordered array aligned with the direction of current flow. For dry ionomers, at current densities in excess of 1 A/cm^2 these rod-like clusters undergo an inner micro-phase separation, in which distinct wire-like lines of sulfonate head groups are accompanied by similar wire-like alignments of bound protons. The clusters appear to be of two types. If there are two, four, or five lines of sulfonates then there is an equal number of lines of protons, but if there are three lines of sulfonates then they are accompanied by four lines of protons. Occasionally these lines of sulfonates and protons form a helical structure. Upon removal of the electric field, the hexagonal array of rod-like structures remains, but the microphase separation disappears below the threshold current of 1 A/cm^2.

  3. Impact of fog-drip versus fog immersion on leaf-level function of Bishop pines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Still, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Fog-water is known to be an important water source to plants in coastal, Mediterranean climates because it augments plant available water several months after the last winter rain, when conditions are otherwise warm and dry. While fog-drip to the soil surface is the most obvious contribution of fog to the water budget of an ecosystem, recent studies provide convincing evidence that foliar absorption of fog water is also possible. The focus of our research was to assess the relative importance of fog-drip and fog immersion on the photosynthetic capacity and gas exchange rates of a coastal pine species, Bishop pine (Pinus muricata, D.Don), a drought sensitive species restricted to the fogbelt of coastal California and offshore islands. We conducted a greenhouse study where we manipulated fog water inputs to potted Bishop pine saplings during a three-week dry-down period. Fifteen saplings were randomly assigned one of three treatments: 1) fog-drip and fog-immersion, 2) fog immersion alone, and 3) no fog water inputs. We artificially generated nighttime fog events using an ultrasonic device, which produces fog droplets. Given that the canopy architecture varied between saplings, we standardized the amount of fog-drip plants received by preventing direct fog drip from the canopy, and instead added the average amount of fog water that would have fallen from each canopy. To detect changes in soil moisture, we installed volumetric soil moisture probes in each pot at 2 and 10 cm depth. The plant response variables measured were photosynthetic capacity and maximum gas exchange rates of sapling trees. Our results show that plants which received both fog-drip and fog immersion sustained higher gas exchange rates and photosynthetic capacity through the dry-down period compared to trees in other treatment groups. Trees that received only fog immersion had lower rates of gas exchange and lower photosynthetic capacity relative to trees that received both fog-drip and fog immersion

  4. Proton decay theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay. (WHK)

  5. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  6. Delamination and Drip-like Secondary Convection under the Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Humphreys, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    A series of papers suggest that small-scale lithospheric downwellings are occurring or have occurred beneath different parts of the western U.S. since ~16 Ma, notably beneath the southern Sierra Nevada (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, Zandt et al., 2004), the Wallowa Mountains of eastern Oregon (Mid-Miocene, Hales et al., 2005), the west-central Colorado Plateau (ongoing, Levander et al., 2011), and along the eastern flank of the Rio Grande Rift (ongoing, Gao et al., 2003, van Wijk et al., 2010). These delamination/drip events are geographically widespread and relatively recent, occur in different tectonic and geologic environments, and are attributed to different types of thermo-chemical instabilities. All are associated with contemporaneous surface uplift. In this presentation we review the evidence for these drips, and discuss the causative processes which include a combination of rheological weakening of existing orogenic lithosphere due to dehydration of subducting oceanic lithosphere (e.g. Humphreys et al., 2003), edge convection at lithospheric thickness gradients that can give rise to thermo-chemical instabilities, and the general upper mantle flow driven by subduction. We suggest that drip-like phenomena have been and are an integral part of western U.S. orogenesis, at least in the collapse stage, accounting for a large part of vertical motions. We hypothesize that localized downwellings have occurred throughout the west since about the initiation of Basin and Range extension. We speculate that potentially much of the lithosphere along the Wasatch front, under the northern Sierra Nevada, under the Colorado Plateau, and under parts of the Rocky Mountains will destabilize and drip off into the mantle. As this occurs the remaining lithosphere is weakened and can be deformed. The destabilized lithosphere is replaced by asthenosphere forming new thermal and chemical boundary layers. The asthenospheric flow is driven both by the downwellings and by orogeny

  7. Delamination and Drip-like Secondary Convection under the Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Humphreys, E.

    2012-12-01

    A series of papers suggest that small-scale lithospheric downwellings are occurring or have occurred beneath different parts of the western U.S. since ~16 Ma, notably beneath the southern Sierra Nevada (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, Zandt et al., 2004), the Wallowa Mountains of eastern Oregon (Mid-Miocene, Hales et al., 2005), the west-central Colorado Plateau (ongoing, Levander et al., 2011), and along the eastern flank of the Rio Grande Rift (ongoing, Gao et al. ,2003, van Wijk et al., 2010). These delamination/drip events are geographically widespread and relatively recent, occur in different tectonic and geologic environments, and are attributed to different types of thermo-chemical instabilities. In this presentation we review the evidence for these drips, and discuss the causative processes which include a combination of rheological weakening of existing orogenic lithosphere due to dehydration of subducting oceanic lithosphere (e.g. Humphreys et al., 2003), edge convection at lithospheric thickness gradients that can give rise to thermo-chemical instabilities, and the general upper mantle flow driven by subduction. We suggest that drip-like phenomena have been and are an integral part of western U.S. orogenesis, at least in the collapse stage, accounting for a large part of vertical motions. We hypothesize that localized downwellings have occurred throughout the west since about the initiation of Basin and Range extension. We speculate that potentially much of the lithosphere along the Wasatch front, under the northern Sierra Nevada, under the Colorado Plateau, and under parts of the Rocky Mountains will destabilize and drip off into the mantle. As this occurs the remaining lithosphere is weakened and can be deformed. The destabilized lithosphere is replaced by asthenosphere forming new thermal and chemical boundary layers. The asthenospheric flow is driven both by the downwellings and by orogeny-wide upper mantle circulation associated with subduction. More

  8. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  9. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  10. Functional expression of a proton-coupled organic cation (H+/OC) antiporter in human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, a human blood–brain barrier model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the molecular basis and transport function of the human blood–brain barrier (BBB) is important for not only understanding human cerebral physiology, but also development of new central nervous system (CNS)-acting drugs. However, few studies have been done using human brain capillary endothelial cells, because human brain materials are difficult to obtain. The purpose of this study is to clarify the functional expression of a proton-coupled organic cation (H+/OC) antiporter in human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, which has been recently developed as an in vitro human BBB model. Methods Diphenhydramine, [3H]pyrilamine and oxycodone were used as cationic drugs that proved to be H+/OC antiporter substrates. The in vitro uptake experiments by hCMEC/D3 cells were carried out under several conditions. Results Diphenhydramine and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with Km values of 59 μM and 19 μM, respectively. Each inhibited uptake of the other in a competitive manner, suggesting that a common mechanism is involved in their transport. The diphenhydramine uptake was significantly inhibited by amantadine and quinidine, but not tetraethylammonium and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (substrates for well-known organic cation transporters). The uptake was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors, but was insensitive to extracellular sodium and membrane potential. Further, the uptake was increased by extracellular alkalization and intracellular acidification. These transport properties are completely consistent with those of previously characterized H+/OC antiporter in rat BBB. Conclusions The present results suggest that H+/OC antiporter is functionally expressed in hCMEC/D3 cells. PMID:23351963

  11. The transfer of seasonal isotopic variability between precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Baker, Andy; Tan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    This study presents new stable isotope data for precipitation (δ18Op) and drip water (δ18Od) from eight cave sites in the monsoon regions of China (MRC), with monthly to bi-monthly sampling intervals from May-2011 to April-2014, to investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on δ18Op and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites. The monthly δ18Op values show negative correlation with surface air temperature at all the cave sites except Shihua Cave, which is opposite to that expected from the temperature effect. In addition, although the monthly δ18Op values are negatively correlated with precipitation at all the cave sites, only three sites are significant at the 95% level. These indicate that, due to the various vapor sources, a large portion of variability in δ18Op in the MRC cannot be explained simply by either temperature or precipitation alone. All the thirty-four drip sites are classified into three types based on the δ18Od variability. About 82% of them are static drips with little discernable variation in δ18Od through the whole study period, but the drip rates of these drips are not necessary constant. Their discharge modes are site-specific and the oxygen isotopic composition of the stalagmites growing from them may record the average of multi-year climatic signals, which are modulated by the seasonality of recharge and potential effects of evaporation, and in some cases infiltration from large rainfall events. About 12% of the thirty-four drip sites are seasonal drips, although the amplitude of δ18Od is narrower than that of δ18Op, the monthly response of δ18Od to coeval precipitation is not completely damped, and some of them follow the seasonal trend of δ18Op very well. These drips may be mainly recharged by present-day precipitation, mixing with some stored water. Thus, the stalagmites growing under them may record portions of the seasonal climatic signals embedded in δ18Op. About 6% of the thirty-four drip sites

  12. Ten-Day Quadruple Therapy Comprising Proton Pump Inhibitor, Bismuth, Tetracycline, and Levofloxacin is More Effective than Standard Levofloxacin Triple Therapy in the Second-Line Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ping-I; Tsai, Feng-Woei; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Peng, Nan-Jing; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Hu, Huang-Ming; Wang, Yao-Kuang; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chen, Angela; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2017-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-amoxicillin-fluoroquinolone triple therapy is recommended as a second-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Maastricht V/Florence Consensus Report. However, the eradication rate of this standard salvage treatment is suboptimal. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of esomeprazole-bismuth-tetracycline-levofloxacin therapy (TL quadruple therapy) and esomeprazole-amoxicillin-levofloxacin triple therapy (AL triple therapy) in rescue treatment for H. pylori infection. Consecutive H. pylori-infected subjects after failure of first-line therapies were randomly allocated to receive either TL quadruple therapy (esomeprazole 40 mg b.d., bismuth 120 mg q.d.s., tetracycline 500 mg q.d.s., and levofloxacin 500 mg o.d.) or AL triple therapy (esomeprazole 40 mg b.d., amoxicillin 500 mg q.d.s., and levofloxacin 500 mg o.d.) for 10 days. H. pylori status was assessed 6 weeks after the end of treatment. The study was stopped after an interim analysis. Of 50 patients in the TL quadruple therapy, 49 (98.0%) had successful eradication of H. pylori infection. Cure of H. pylori infection was achieved in 36 of 52 patients (69.2%) receiving AL triple therapy. Intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated that TL quadruple therapy achieved a markedly higher eradication rate than AL triple therapy (difference: 28.8%; 95% confidence interval: 15.7% to 41.9%; P<0.001). Per-protocol analysis yielded a similar result (97.8% vs. 68.6%; P<0.001). The two treatment groups exhibited comparable frequencies of overall adverse events (22.0% vs. 11.5%) and drug compliance (90.0% vs. 98.1%). The subgroup analysis showed that TL quadruple therapy was superior to AL triple therapy in patients with failure of either standard triple therapy (100% vs. 75.0%; P=0.010) or non-bismuth quadruple therapy (95.0% vs. 52.6%; P=0.003). Ten-day PPI-bismuth-tetracycline-levofloxacin quadruple therapy is a good option for rescue treatment of H

  13. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  14. [The new possibilities for the treatment of chronic cough associated with postnasal drip].

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, A Yu; Miroshnichenko, N A; Mityuk, A M; Ryabinin, V A; Gorban, A G

    Cough is considered to be one of the leading clinical symptoms associated with the pathological changes in the respiratory system. Notwithstanding a great variety of therapeutic pharmaceutical products possessed of the antitussive action, physicians tend the give preference to the preparations producing the combined effect. The present article reports the results of the clinical study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the application of rengalin exhibiting the combined antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and broncholytic action in the patients presenting with the postnasal drip syndrome. The comparison of the therapeutic effects of rengalin with those of other therapeutic modalities frequently employed for the management of postnasal drip give evidence of the high efficiency of this product for the optimization of the treatment of this condition and the associated chronic cough.

  15. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Norris, David J.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-03-01

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state).Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and

  16. D-Area Drip Irrigation-Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2003-01-14

    Groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and by-products resulting from discharges of this organic solvent during past operations. Several potential clean-up strategies are being or have been investigated, including a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process that is the focus of the treatability study described in this report. The contaminated groundwater in D-Area occurs primarily at depths of 30 to 50 feet below ground surface, well below the depths that are typically penetrated by plant roots. The system investigated in this study involved pumping water from the contaminated aquifer and discharging the water into overlying test plots below the surface using drip irrigation. The test plots contained pines, cottonwoods, or no vegetation (controls). The primary objective was to determine the overall effectiveness of the process for TCE removal and to elucidate the biotic and abiotic pathways for its removal.

  17. Subsurface drip irrigation with micro-encapsulated trifluralin. Trifluralin residues in soils and cultivations.

    PubMed

    Spera, G; Rosati, S; Rossi, E; Scicchitano, S

    2006-01-01

    In full field and greenhouse agriculture, the subsurface water distribution with underground driplines--subsurface drip irrigation--is advantageous to obtain a better production and a simplification of cultivation practices. This technique can have a major applicative interest on condition that the roots' intrusion inside the driplines irrigators is eliminated or reduced. To reach this goal, a study has been made on vegetable greenhouse cultivations, and on subsurface drip irrigation with underground driplines protected against roots' intrusion with a product containing micro-encapsulated polyethylene Trifuralin (trifluralin). Underground pipes with driplines (without trifluralin) have constituted the confrontation thesis. The trifluralin residues have been determined through GC-ECD, according to different cultivation phases for two entire production cycles: with 30% of leaf covering, at the moment of flowering and maturation, during production and at the harvest ending, on soil, leaves and maturation, during the production and, at the harvest ending, on fruits.

  18. [Estimation model for water requirement of greenhouse tomato under drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Liang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Cong-Cong; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the modified Penman-Monteith equation, and through the analysis of the relationships between crop coefficient and cumulative temperature, a new model for estimating the water requirement of greenhouse tomato under drip irrigation was built. The model was validated with the measured data of plant transpiration and soil evaporation in May 2-13 (flowering-fruit-developing stage) and June 9-20 (fruit-maturing stage) , 2009. This model was suitable for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) in greenhouse. The crop coefficient of greenhouse tomato was correlated as a quadratic function of cumulative temperature. The mean relative error between measured and estimated values was less than 10%, being able to estimate the water requirement of greenhouse tomato under drip irrigation.

  19. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano-Sahel.

    PubMed

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-02-02

    Meeting the food needs of Africa's growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies.

  20. Study of capillary experiments and hydrologic factors under subsurface drip irrigation with fractal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Cao, L.

    2012-11-01

    Soil spatial variability is one of the primary environmental factors that influences the hydraulic factors and technical indicators of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), whose emitters are buried in the soil. This paper aimed at evaluating these effects of soil spatial variability on hydrologic factors under SDI. And some SDI emitter and capillary experiments were designed to obtain test data and distribution of pressure and emitter discharge. First, The results of labyrinth non-turbulent mosaic drip emitter test and fractal theory were used to research the fractal and quantitative relationship between single emitter hydrologic factors and soil physical parameters; and then, the capillary experiments and the relationship among hydrologic factors of capillary were used to analyze the fractal and quantitative relationship between hydrologic factors of capillary and soil physical parameters, which explained the inner relationship between spatial variability of soil and hydrologic factors of filed pipeline network under SDI, and provide theory support for the plan, design, management and production of SDI.

  1. Volume reduction of contaminated metal waste. [Sorting, size reduction, drip melting, induction melting

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G L; Heestand, R L

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual waste treatment plan comprises sorting the metal scrap into alloy types, size reduction of the scrap to fit in the melting equipment, further alloy segregation by sequentially raising the temperature of mixed scrap lots and allowing the low-melting alloys to drip-melt out, induction melting of the high-melting alloys, and casting all alloy type into ingots. Laboratory melts of various metals were made to compare the observed partitioning of uranium to the slag with thermodynamic calculations. An engineering-scale demonstration was also conducted in which typical metal scrap contaminated with UO/sub 2/ was processed by mechanical size reduction, drip melting, and induction melting. Results show decontamination was successful. 5 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  2. Theoretical Basis and Application for Measuring Pork Loin Drip Loss Using Microwave Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mason, Alex; Abdullah, Badr; Muradov, Magomed; Korostynska, Olga; Al-Shamma'a, Ahmed; Bjarnadottir, Stefania Gudrun; Lunde, Kathrine; Alvseike, Ole

    2016-02-02

    During cutting and processing of meat, the loss of water is critical in determining both product quality and value. From the point of slaughter until packaging, water is lost due to the hanging, movement, handling, and cutting of the carcass, with every 1% of lost water having the potential to cost a large meat processing plant somewhere in the region of €50,000 per day. Currently the options for monitoring the loss of water from meat, or determining its drip loss, are limited to destructive tests which take 24-72 h to complete. This paper presents results from work which has led to the development of a novel microwave cavity sensor capable of providing an indication of drip loss within 6 min, while demonstrating good correlation with the well-known EZ-Driploss method (R² = 0.896).

  3. Theoretical Basis and Application for Measuring Pork Loin Drip Loss Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Alex; Abdullah, Badr; Muradov, Magomed; Korostynska, Olga; Al-Shamma’a, Ahmed; Bjarnadottir, Stefania Gudrun; Lunde, Kathrine; Alvseike, Ole

    2016-01-01

    During cutting and processing of meat, the loss of water is critical in determining both product quality and value. From the point of slaughter until packaging, water is lost due to the hanging, movement, handling, and cutting of the carcass, with every 1% of lost water having the potential to cost a large meat processing plant somewhere in the region of €50,000 per day. Currently the options for monitoring the loss of water from meat, or determining its drip loss, are limited to destructive tests which take 24–72 h to complete. This paper presents results from work which has led to the development of a novel microwave cavity sensor capable of providing an indication of drip loss within 6 min, while demonstrating good correlation with the well-known EZ-Driploss method (R2 = 0.896). PMID:26848661

  4. Effects of alternate drip irrigation and superabsorbent polymers on growth and water use of young coffee tree.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaogang; Li, Fusheng; Yang, Qiliang; Wang, Xinle

    2016-07-01

    To obtain optimal irrigation management for young coffee tree, the effects of alternate drip irrigation (ADI) and superabsorbent polymers on physiology, growth, dry mass accumulation and water use on one-year old Coffea arabica L. tree were investigated. This experiment had three drip irrigation methods, i.e., conventional drip irrigation (CDI), alternate drip irrigation (ADI) and fixed drip irrigation (FDI), and two levels of superabsorbent polymers, i.e., no superabsorbent polymers (NSAP) and added superabsorbent polymers (SAP). Compared to CDI, ADI saved irrigation water by 32.1% and increased water use efficiency (WUE) by 29.9%. SAP increased root-shoot ratio, total dry mass and WUE by 20.3, 24.9 and 33.0%, respectively, when compared to NSAP. Compared to CDI with NSAP treatment, ADI with SAP treatment increased total dry mass by 13.8% and saved irrigation water by 34.4%, thus increased WUE by 73.4%, and it increased root activity, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves by 162.4, 38.0 and 8.5%, but reduced the contents of proline and malondialdehyde in leaves by 7.2 and 9.7%, respectively. Thus, alternate drip irrigation with superabsorbent polymers increased the growth and WUE of young Coffea arabica L. tree and was optimal irrigation management for young coffee tree.

  5. Geochemical signal in drip waters and carbonates from three year monitoring of Drac Cave in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacho, Isabel; Cisneros, Mercé; Torner, Judit; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Bladé, Ileana; Fornos, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In order to establish the potential connection between climatic conditions over Mallorca and the chemistry of speleothem growths, a still ongoing monitoring exercise is in development in Drac Cave in Mallorca (Spain) starting from April 2013. This location in the Western Mediterranean was selected to represent Mediterranean semi-arid climatic conditions within a wider monitoring plan covering a transect across the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, from the Catabric realm, across the Pyrenees and Iberian ranges until the Mediterranean, within the framework of the OPERA research project. Drip waters have been recovered at weakly resolution and carbonate precipitates represent seasonal periods. This monitoring is complemented with drip water and carbonate collection at seasonal scale in another cave close to Drac Cave. This second cave was selected in order to represent comparable climatic conditions but far of any human land-intervention since the Drac cave is partially located under an urban developed area, although drip water and carbonate collection is performed in a location bellow autochthonous forest. First results show that drip flow has a rather constant rate along the year even though the large contrast on rain availability. In contrast, chemical signal of the drip waters shows a rapid response (few days) to changes in rain patterns but of relatively small magnitude. Isotopes in the carbonate precipitates present a seasonal signal and trend that reflect changes in the drip water composition. This data set, although preliminary, will be discussed in the context of the changing meteorological conditions of the last three years.

  6. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Carleton R; Breit, George N; Healy, Richard W; Zupancic, John W; Hammack, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300–480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  7. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  8. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; Figura, S.; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite). Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  9. Drip, Ship, and On-Demand Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Man-Seok; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Joon-Tae; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kang, Seung-Ho; Kim, B. Chae; Lee, Seung-Han; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Sung; Lee, Eun-Bin; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The “drip and ship” approach can facilitate an early initiation of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at community hospitals. New endovascular treatment modalities, such as stent retrieval, have further improved the rate of safe and successful recanalization. We assessed the clinical outcomes of on-demand endovascular therapy in patients with AIS who were transported to a comprehensive stroke center under the “drip and ship” paradigm. Methods This retrospective study evaluated prospectively registered patients with acute large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation who underwent endovascular recanalization after IVT at our regional comprehensive stroke center between January 2011 and April 2014. Clinical outcomes and neuroradiological findings were compared between patients who received IVT at the center (direct visit, DV) and at a community hospital (drip and ship, DS). Results Baseline characteristics such as age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and risk factors for stroke were similar, and most patients underwent endovascular therapy with a Solitaire stent (81.9% vs. 89.3% for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.55). The average initial NIHSS score was 12.15±4.1 (12.06 vs. 12.39 for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.719). The proportions of long-term favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 90 days) and successful recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score ≥2b) were not significantly different (P = 0.828 and 0.158, respectively). The mortality rates and occurrences of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were not significantly different (P = 0.999 and 0.267, respectively). Conclusions The “drip and ship” approach with subsequent endovascular therapy is a feasible treatment concept for patients with acute large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation that could help improve clinical outcomes in patients with AIS. PMID:26938774

  10. A Respiratory Airway-Inspired Low-Pressure, Self-Regulating Valve for Drip Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Winter, Amos G.; GEAR Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant barriers to achieving large-scale dissemination of drip irrigation is the cost of the pump and power system. An effective means of reducing power consumption is by reducing pumping pressure. The principle source of pressure drop in a drip system is the high flow resistance in the self-regulating flow resistors installed at the outlets of the pips, which evenly distribute water over a field. Traditional architectures require a minimum pressure of ~1 bar to maintain a constant flow rate; our aim is to reduce this pressure by 90% and correspondingly lower pumping power to facilitate the creation of low-cost, off-grid drip irrigation systems. This study presents a new Starling resistor architecture that enables the adjustment of flow rate with a fixed minimum pressure demand of ~0.1 bar. A Starling resistor is a flexible tube subjected to a transmural pressure, which collapses the tube to restrict flow. Our design uses a single pressure source to drive flow through the flexible tube and apply a transmural pressure. Flow into the flexible tube is restricted with a needle valve, to increase the transmural pressure. Using this device, a series of experiments were conducted with different flexible tube diameters, lengths and wall thickness. We found that the resistance of the needle valve changes flow rate but not the minimum transmural pressure required to collapse the tube. A lumped-parameter model was developed to capture the relationships between valve openings, pressure, and flow rates.

  11. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    PubMed

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  12. Efficacy of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping at endotracheal tube cuff for prevention of postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Nimmaanrat, Sasikaan; Chokkijchai, Kedsirin; Chanchayanon, Thavat

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a frequent consequence following ETT intubation, which may negatively affect the postoperative course and patient satisfaction. Benzydamine hydrochloride is a topically-applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The authors evaluated the analgesic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping on the ETT cuff on POST. Eighty-six patients participated in this randomized controlled trial. They were assigned into either the benzydamine hydrochloride or the control group. The whole ETT cuff was dripped either with 3 ml (4.5 mg) of benzydamine hydrochloride or nothing five minutes prior to anesthesia induction. The incidence and severity of POST at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperatively were assessed. The potential adverse effects of benzydamine hydrochloride (throat numbness throat burning sensation, dry mouth, and thirst) were also evaluated. Twenty-five patients (58.14%) in each group had POST (p-value = 1). The severity of POST (calculated from affected patients) in both groups at different time points was not significantly different. Patients in the benzydamine hydrochloride group did not have a higher incidence of adverse effects. We found that dripping benzydamine hydrochloride on the ETT cuff neither reduced the incidence of POST nor increased the incidence of adverse effects in comparison with no intervention.

  13. Outcome of the 'Drip-and-Ship' Paradigm among Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of a Statewide Study.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Suri, M Fareed K; Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 'drip-and-ship' paradigm denotes a treatment regimen in patients in whom intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is initiated at the emergency department (ED) of a community hospital, followed by transfer within 24 h to a comprehensive stroke center. Although the drip-and-ship paradigm has the potential to increase the number of patients who receive IV rt-PA, comparative outcomes have not been assessed at a population-based level. METHODS: Statewide estimates of thrombolysis, associated in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges were obtained from 2008-2009 Minnesota Hospital Association data for all patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Patients who were assigned the drip-and-ship code [International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) V45.88] were classified under the drip-and-ship paradigm. Patients who underwent thrombolysis (ICD-9-CM code 99.10) without drip-and-ship code were classified as primary ED arrival. Patient outcomes were analyzed after stratification into patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or drip-and-ship paradigm. RESULTS: Of the 21,024 admissions, 602 (2.86%) received IV rt-PA either through primary ED arrival (n = 473) or the drip-and-ship paradigm (n = 129). IV rt-PA was administered in 30 hospitals, of which 13 hospitals used the drip-and-ship paradigm; the number of patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm varied from 1 to 40 between the 13 hospitals. The rates of secondary intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage were higher in patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival compared with those treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm (8.5 vs. 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.038). The in-hospital mortality rate was similar among ischemic stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or the drip-and-ship paradigm (5.9 vs. 7.0%, respectively). The mean hospital charges were USD

  14. Identification and characterisation of a functional aquaporin water channel (Anomala cuprea DRIP) in a coleopteran insect.

    PubMed

    Nagae, Tomone; Miyake, Seiji; Kosaki, Shiho; Azuma, Masaaki

    2013-07-15

    Water transport across the plasma membrane depends on the presence of the water channel aquaporin (AQP), which mediates the bulk movement of water through osmotic and pressure gradients. In terrestrial insects, which are solid and/or plant feeders, the entrance and exit of water is primarily executed along the alimentary tract, where the hindgut, particularly the rectum, is the major site of water conservation. A cDNA encoding the homologue of the water-specific Drosophila AQP [Drosophila integral protein (DRIP)] was identified through the RT-PCR of RNA isolated from the rectum of the cupreous chafer larvae, Anomala cuprea, a humus and plant root feeder. This gene (Anocu AQP1) has a predicted molecular mass of 26.471 kDa, similar to the DRIP clade of insect AQPs characterised from caterpillars, flies and several liquid-feeding insects. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, Anocu AQP1 showed the hallmarks of aquaporin-mediated water transport but no glycerol or urea permeability, and the reversible inhibition of elevated water transport through 1 mmol l(-1) HgCl2. This is the first experimental demonstration of the presence of a water-specific AQP, namely DRIP, in the Coleoptera. The genome of the model beetle Tribolium castaneum contains six putative AQP sequences, one of which (Trica-1a, XP_972862) showed the highest similarity to Anocu AQP1 (~60% amino acid identity). Anocu AQP1 is predominantly expressed in the rectum. Using a specific antibody raised against DRIP in the silkworm Bombyx mori (AQP-Bom1), Anocu AQP1 was localised to the apical plasma membrane of rectal epithelial cells, and lacking in the midgut and gastric caecal epithelia. Based on the BeetleBase prediction, there are three putative AQPs (Trica-3a, 3b, 3c: XP_970728, 970912, 970791) that are homologous to B. mori aquaglyceroporin [AQP-Bom2 (GLP)]. The immunocytochemical studies using the specific anti-peptide antibody against AQP-Bom2 revealed the presence of the GLP homologue at the apical

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of drip waters: Influence on mineralogy of recent cave carbonate precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Richter, Detlev K.; Riechelmann, Dana FC; Terente, Mihai; Constantin, Silviu; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Speleothems are one of the most intensively explored archives of palaeoclimate variability in continental settings. Considerable advances with respect to climatic and cave forcing of drip characteristics and related speleothem proxy data have been made during the last decades. The parameters, however, that control speleothem mineralogy and its changes with time and space are still poorly understood. In order to shed light on processes influencing speleothem mineralogy, precipitation experiments of recent carbonate crystals on watch glasses and glass plates were performed in seven selected caves. These include three caves in Germany as well as Morocco and one cave in Romania, which are situated in both limestone and dolostone. Drip water sites of these caves were analysed for their fluid Mg/Ca molar ratio, pH, degree of saturation for calcite and aragonite and drip rates. Corresponding precipitates were analysed with respect to their mineralogy using a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The following results are found: High fluid Mg/Ca ratios are observed only for caves situated in dolostone, hence the hostrock lithology indirectly controls the carbonate mineralogy of speleothems. The precipitation of aragonite in place of calcite occurred only in dolostone caves and is bound to very specific conditions, which are: high fluid Mg/Ca ratios (≥ 0.5), high fluid pH (> 8.2) and low fluid saturation indices for calcite (< 0.8). These specific conditions are induced by slow drip rates of < 0.2 ml/min (often under more arid conditions), causing the precipitation of calcite / aragonite prior to reaching the stalagmite top. Due to this, fluid chemistry is altered, which in turn leads to changes in carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry on the stalagmite top. Interestingly, all of the above mentioned factors must act in a concerted manner. If this is not the case, calcite is the dominant phase. The threshold, where only aragonite precipitates is at fluid Mg

  16. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  17. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  18. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  19. What's In a Proton?

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  20. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  1. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  2. [Effects of lower limit of subsurface drip irrigation on tomato growth and its yield in plastic tunnel].

    PubMed

    Zhuge, Yuping; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Xudong; Feng, Yongjun; Li, Jun; Huang, Yi; Mingda, Liu

    2004-05-01

    A subsurface drip irrigation experiment was conducted in a plastic tunnel to study the effects of different lower limits of subsurface drip irrigation on tomato growth and its yield. The lower limits of subsurface drip irrigation were expressed by soil water suctions detected by tensiometers placed in 30 cm soil layer. The designed values of soil water suction in this experiment were 10, 16, 25, 40 and 63 kPa, respectively. The results showed that the height and biomass of tomato plant decreased significantly with increasing lower limits of subsurface drip irrigation. Parabolic regression curves were suitable to simulate the relationships of stem diameter of tomato plant, yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) with lower limits of subsurface drip irrigation. The relationship between the ratio of stem diameter to plant height of tomato and lower limit could be simulated by three-dimensional multinomial regression curve. The growth of tomato root and shoot and their ratio R/S) varied under different lowerlimits of subsurface drip irrigation. The tomato plant grew well, RI/S was favorable, and the yield and WUE were higher when soil water suction was in the range of 25- 33 kPa. When this range was served as the criteria for subsurface drip irrigation, the soil water content at the beginning of irrigation should be lower, and the irrigation frequency should be fewer than that of conventional irrigation. This range of soil water suction was in favor of improving the WUE and decreasing labor cost for tomato cultivation in plastic tunnel.

  3. Drip Magmatism: Intra-Plate Volcanism and Its Importance to the Early Earth and Other Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    In the present neither Mars nor Venus has Earth-like plate tectonics, though both are likely still volcanically active. Volcanism on Mars and Venus most resembles intra-plate volcanism on Earth, where magmatism occurs through intact lithospheric plates, away from plate boundaries. On Earth intra-plate magmatism has long been proposed to be the result of lithospheric thinning through delamination or ductile dripping. Exactly how these processes create volcanism, however, has remained obscure; particularly in the case of ductile dripping, which does not produce significant topography in the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Though its fall may not trigger significant asthenospheric upwelling, the sinking drip itself will heat conductively as it enters the asthenosphere, and may itself melt, depending upon its solidus temperature and the temperature of the asthenosphere. We refer to this as "drip magmatism," following the hypothesis of Elkins-Tanton (2007). This model produces testable predictions for the resulting magmatic compositions. Drip magmatism was tested by Ducea (2013) for the Altiplano Plateau in the central Andes, by Holbig and Grove (2008) for magmas from Tibet, by Elkins-Tanton (2014) for the Sierra Nevada, and by Furman et al. (2014) for the central African rift; geochemistry in all these localities confirm drip magmatism. Drip magmatism provides a quantifiable mechanism for slow but regular recycling of volatiles into a planetary atmosphere. Further, it could be driven primarily by carbon, or halogens, or other incompatible and volatile elements, in addition to water. Thus, volcanism on one-plate planets, or during a putative "hot" or "slow" tectonics phase on the early Earth, may provide sufficient volatile recycling for habitability.

  4. Interstellar protonated molecular species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Arunan, Elangannan

    2017-08-01

    Majority of the known interstellar cations are protonated species believed to be the natural precursors for their corresponding neutral analogues formed via the dissociative recombination process. The protonation of a neutral species can occur in more than one position on the molecular structure thus resulting in more than one proton binding energy value and different protonated species for the same neutral species. In the present work, ab initio quantum calculations are employed to calculate accurate proton binding energies for over 100 neutral interstellar molecules of which majority of the neutral molecules are protonated in more than one position. From the results, protonated species resulting from a high proton binding energy prefers to remain protonated rather than transferring a proton and returning to its neutral form as compared to its analogue that gives rise to a lower proton binding energy (PBE) from the same neutral species. For two protonated species resulting from the same neutral molecule, the one that results in a higher PBE is more stable as compared to its counterpart that is responsible for the lower PBE for the same neutral species. Here, the most stable species are highlighted for all the systems considered.

  5. Design of a proton microbeam of the PEFP

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kye Ryung; Kim, Yong Hwan; Chang, Ji Ho; Kim, Kui Young

    2008-02-15

    The PEFP has been developing a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator and user facilities for 20 and 100 MeV proton beams. At one end of the five 20 MeV proton beam lines, a proton microbeam construction was considered for an application in the fields of material, biological, and medical sciences. To develop the proton microbeam, realization of a few MeV proton beam with a few tens of microamperes in diameter of a beam spot was essentially required. In this report, the basic descriptions of the proton microbeam which is composed of an energy degrader, slits, magnetic lens, a target chamber, and detectors are presented including a consideration of unfavorable aspects concerning some specific characteristics of a linear accelerator, such as pulse mode operation and fixed energy. Some calculation results from a Monte Carlo simulation by using the SRIM2006 and the TURTLE codes are also included.

  6. Design of a proton microbeam of the PEFPa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kye Ryung; Kim, Yong Hwan; Chang, Ji Ho; Kim, Kui Young

    2008-02-01

    The PEFP has been developing a 100MeV proton linear accelerator and user facilities for 20 and 100MeV proton beams. At one end of the five 20MeV proton beam lines, a proton microbeam construction was considered for an application in the fields of material, biological, and medical sciences. To develop the proton microbeam, realization of a few MeV proton beam with a few tens of microamperes in diameter of a beam spot was essentially required. In this report, the basic descriptions of the proton microbeam which is composed of an energy degrader, slits, magnetic lens, a target chamber, and detectors are presented including a consideration of unfavorable aspects concerning some specific characteristics of a linear accelerator, such as pulse mode operation and fixed energy. Some calculation results from a Monte Carlo simulation by using the SRIM2006 and the TURTLE codes are also included.

  7. Proton spin: A topological invariant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. C.

    2016-11-01

    Proton spin problem is given a new perspective with the proposition that spin is a topological invariant represented by a de Rham 3-period. The idea is developed generalizing Finkelstein-Rubinstein theory for Skyrmions/kinks to topological defects, and using non-Abelian de Rham theorems. Two kinds of de Rham theorems are discussed applicable to matrix-valued differential forms, and traces. Physical and mathematical interpretations of de Rham periods are presented. It is suggested that Wilson lines and loop operators probe the local properties of the topology, and spin as a topological invariant in pDIS measurements could appear with any value from 0 to ℏ 2, i.e. proton spin decomposition has no meaning in this approach.

  8. From rain to cave drip water: Hydraulic response time and water transfer time at Bunker Cave (NW Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Spötl, Christoph; Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Richter, Detlev K.; Mangini, Augusto; Frank, Norbert; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Speleothem based palaeoclimate studies considerably increased during the last two decades. Processes in the soil and karst zone influence the proxies applied on the speleothem climate archive. Thus, caves are monitored for a wide range of environmental parameters. These monitoring programmes mostly focus on seasonal variations but less so on the multi-annual time scale. The present study analyses long-term trends from a seven year-long monitoring of Bunker Cave, NW Germany, in order to assess the hydraulic response time and transfer time of meteoric water from the surface to the cave. Therefore, drip rates of all sites were measured manually with a stopwatch and rain, soil as well as drip waters were collected in a monthly to bimonthly resolution. Subsequently, the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of the waters were analysed. Furthermore, the coefficient of permeability was calculated from granulometric analyses performed on soil samples collected above Bunker Cave. The annual mean drip rates of all drip sites except one display the same long-term trend. In the case of Bunker Cave, correlations of the annual mean drip rate of each site with annual precipitation and infiltration demonstrate that the annual infiltration and thus, the annual precipitation control the interannual drip-rate variability. Therefore, the hydraulic response time does not show a temporal offset. The annual mean oxygen isotopic compositions of all drip waters except one display the same long-term trend, whilst the annual mean hydrogen isotope ratios of all drip sites display the same trend. In combination with the results of the coefficient of permeability, correlations of soil and drip water annual mean oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition with atmospheric temperature reveal water transfer times for soil water of 3 to 6 months for 40 cm soil-depth and ca. 1 year for 70 cm soil-depth. Finally, the water reaches the cave after three years transfer time. As a consequence, a

  9. Comparison of Spring and Cave Drip Water in Westcave Preserve, Central Texas May Reveal Epikarst CO2 Degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P.; Banner, J. L.; Casteel, R. C.; Breecker, D.

    2013-12-01

    The cave at Westcave Preserve, in central Texas, is a unique location to study karst processes due to its low, nearly atmospheric cave-air CO2 levels and seasonally variable temperature. The source of water that drips into the cave, however, has not been constrained, limiting interpretation of climate proxies in the cave. It is possible that a nearby spring and the cave drip-waters share a common source. Alternatively, the drip-waters could represent precipitation that has infiltrated the host rock. These hypotheses should be tested using Sr isotope ratios and/or other tracers. If they do share a common source, analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration , δ13CDIC, and cation concentrations of the two waters could provide insight into epikarst processes such as CO2 degassing and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) that are otherwise difficult to constrain. Westcave Preserve includes outcrops of the Hensell Sand, the Cow Creek Limestone, and the Hammett Shale, with a small cave at the contact between the Cow Creek and Hammett formations. The overlying Hensell Sand contains water that emerges at the surface as a spring near the cave. Water also drips directly into the cave, forming speleothems. Previous research has established that although δ18O values of rainfall in the area vary seasonally, between -10.5 and 1.1‰ with a weighted mean of -6.5‰ (VSMOW), the drip-water varies only between -4.7 and -4.3‰ with a weighted mean of -4.5‰ (Feng et al., in review). This suggests a large well-mixed reservoir above the cave. The soils above the cave have high CO2 of up to 17,500 ppmv, but because the cave is shallow with multiple large openings, cave CO2 levels are near-atmospheric (Casteel and Banner, in review). This creates a steep CO2 gradient between the soil and the cave air. The spring water DIC is nearly in carbon-isotope equilibrium with the soil CO2, suggesting that soil respiration, here controlled by C3 plants, is the primary source of CO2

  10. A New Proton Dose Algorithm for Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chungchi (Chris).

    This algorithm recursively propagates the proton distribution in energy, angle and space at one level in an absorbing medium to another, at slightly greater depth, until all the protons are stopped. The angular transition density describing the proton trajectory is based on Moliere's multiple scattering theory and Vavilov's theory of energy loss along the proton's path increment. These multiple scattering and energy loss distributions are sampled using equal probability spacing to optimize computational speed while maintaining calculational accuracy. Nuclear interactions are accounted for by using a simple exponential expression to describe the loss of protons along a given path increment and the fraction of the original energy retained by the proton is deposited locally. Two levels of testing for the algorithm are provided: (1) Absolute dose comparisons with PTRAN Monte Carlo simulations in homogeneous water media. (2) Modeling of a fixed beam line including the scattering system and range modulator and comparisons with measured data in a homogeneous water phantom. The dose accuracy of this algorithm is shown to be within +/-5% throughout the range of a 200-MeV proton when compared to measurements except in the shoulder region of the lateral profile at the Bragg peak where a dose difference as large as 11% can be found. The numerical algorithm has an adequate spatial accuracy of 3 mm. Measured data as input is not required.

  11. Water saving in chufa cultivation using flat raised beds and drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, N.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Maroto, J. V.; Pascual, B.

    2012-04-01

    Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), also known as tiger nut, is a typical crop in the Region of Valencia (Spain). Its tubers are used to produce a beverage called horchata. Chufa has been cultivated traditionally in ridges and furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of water used is acceptable, there are no limitations on supply, and water is not expensive; therefore, large amounts of water are used. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is based on the precautionary principle, considering preventive action for measures to be taken; thus, water use is an issue to improve. Moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. In this two year study (2007-2008), we analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) are affected by two cultivation factors: planting strategy and irrigation system. Three planting strategies were analysed: ridges (R) and flat raised beds, with two (B2) and three (B3) plant rows along them, while two irrigation systems were compared, furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI). Within the beds, the effect of the position of the plant row was considered, differing among plants grown in the north (n), central (c), and south (s) rows. Distances between ridge and bed axes were 60, 80 and 120 cm for R, B2 and B3, respectively. Irrigation was based on the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC), which was continuously monitored with capacitance sensors (ECH2O EC-5 in FI and multidepth capacitance sensors C-Probe in DI). Each irrigation session started when the VSWC in R dropped to 60% and 80% of field capacity in FI and DI, respectively. Each DI session lasted 60 min in 2007; while in 2008 the installation was automated, stopping each session when the sum of the VSWC at 10, 20, and 30 cm soil depth reached its corresponding field capacity value. With both irrigation systems, beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. Plants from

  12. Improvement Plans of Fermilab's Proton Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The flagship of Fermilab's long term research program is the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), located Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, which will study neutrino oscillations with a baseline of 1300 km. The neutrinos will be produced in the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a proposed new beam line from Fermilab's Main Injector. The physics goals of the DUNE require a proton beam with a power of some 2.4 MW at 120 GeV, which is roughly four times the current maximum power. Here I discuss current performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex, our plans for construction of the SRF proton linac as key part of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), outline the main challenges toward multi-MW beam power operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex and the staged plan to achieve the required performance over the next 15 years.

  13. Operation of the TRIUMF Proton Therapy Facility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, E. W.; Evans, B.; Mouat, M.; Duzenli, C.; Ma, R.; Pickles, T.; Paton, K.

    1997-05-01

    The Proton Therapy Facility at TRIUMF is now in routine operation treating ocular tumours using 70 MeV protons extracted from the 500 MeV H^- cyclotron. This paper describes the proton beam line, treatment control, and dosimetry systems which are designed to provide accurate therapeutic dose delivery. The reproducibility of the shape and range of the unmodulated Bragg peak for various operating conditions of the cyclotron is discussed, along with the technique for producing a uniform modulated or spread-out Bragg peak. The patient positioning chair, which has six motorized degrees of freedom, the patient mask and bite-block, and the X-ray verification system ensure sub-millimeter positioning accuracy. Patient treatments are scheduled one week per month with the treatment dose of 50 proton-Gy delivered in four daily fractions.

  14. Integrative Analysis of Metabolomic, Proteomic and Genomic Data to Reveal Functional Pathways and Candidate Genes for Drip Loss in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Welzenbach, Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Heidt, Hanna; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tholen, Ernst; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate multi omics data to characterize underlying functional pathways and candidate genes for drip loss in pigs. The consideration of different omics levels allows elucidating the black box of phenotype expression. Metabolite and protein profiling was applied in Musculus longissimus dorsi samples of 97 Duroc × Pietrain pigs. In total, 126 and 35 annotated metabolites and proteins were quantified, respectively. In addition, all animals were genotyped with the porcine 60 k Illumina beadchip. An enrichment analysis resulted in 10 pathways, amongst others, sphingolipid metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, with significant influence on drip loss. Drip loss and 22 metabolic components were analyzed as intermediate phenotypes within a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We detected significantly associated genetic markers and candidate genes for drip loss and for most of the metabolic components. On chromosome 18, a region with promising candidate genes was identified based on SNPs associated with drip loss, the protein “phosphoglycerate mutase 2” and the metabolite glycine. We hypothesize that association studies based on intermediate phenotypes are able to provide comprehensive insights in the genetic variation of genes directly involved in the metabolism of performance traits. In this way, the analyses contribute to identify reliable candidate genes. PMID:27589727

  15. Scoping analyses of geochemical sealing of early cracks in a waste container and associated drip shield, Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2005-06-01

    Early after final emplacement of the nuclear waste containers at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada, high-level-waste repository, tiny cracks (less than 200 microm wide, 1 to 2 cm deep, and a few centimeters long at most) could appear in the containers and in the drip shield protecting them. Modeling calculations were performed to understand how fast those cracks could be sealed. Under dripping conditions, they are expected to be bridged with water. If cracks are located in the drip shield, any further dripping on the waste containers located underneath will be limited. If cracks are located in a container, potentially harmful radionuclides could only travel by diffusion. In addition, water-bridged cracks will be sealed through at least two processes: precipitation of calcite with minor silica following evaporative concentration of the water residing in the cracks and continuous corrosion of the crack walls. The sealing rate is calculated as the intersection of the time of emergence of the cracks, the water dripping rate, and the decreasing evaporation rate. The evaporative driving force declines as short-lived radioactive elements, having given up much of the heat affecting the repository, are progressively depleted from the waste. Depending on the crack initiation time and environmental conditions, crack sealing varies from a few tens of years to a few thousand years. Because environmental conditions in the vicinity of the cracks and at the crack scale have not been produced, a parametric method scaling drift scale conditions is used.

  16. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  17. Compact measurement station for low energy proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, H.; Ozbey, A.; Oz, S.; Yasatekin, B.; Turemen, G.; Ogur, S.; Sunar, E.; Aydin, Y. O.; Dimov, V. A.; Unel, G.; Alacakir, A.

    2017-02-01

    A compact, remote controlled, cost efficient diagnostic station has been developed to measure the charge, the profile and the emittance for low energy proton beams. It has been installed and tested in the proton beam line of the Project Prometheus at SANAEM of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority.

  18. An experimental ensemble used for the study of proton-proton scattering at SIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besset, D.; Do, Q. H.; Favier, B.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Rapin, D.; Werren, D. W.; Daum, M.; Mango, S.; Steiner, E.; Vecsey, G.; Weddigen, Ch.

    1981-06-01

    An experimental program on proton-proton scattering is presently running at SIN. This article gives technical details of the instruments and equipment employed. It reviews, in particular, the SIN polarized proton beam, the large scale equipment, the LH 2 and the polarized targets, the detectors, the electronics, the on-line computer and the different basic layouts. Possibly this material could be split into separated articles. However, we find it more valuable to present here a complete picture which reflects the "state of the art".

  19. Effects of drip irrigation on migration and distribution of heavy metals in soil profile.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Dong, Yunshe; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Jing; Xue, Yuan; Guo, Shufang

    2016-02-01

    Drip irrigation systems have been widely applied in semiarid and arid regions of China. However, little is known about the migration of heavy metals in cultivated soil under drip irrigation. Therefore, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil were determined. The mean contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in surface soil subjected to irrigation with low and high amounts of water (W1 and W2) were 0.11, 117.50, 37.51, 13.53, 78.10, and 38.41 mg/kg and 0.20, 94.45, 29.71, 22.48, 63.00, and 36.62 mg/kg, respectively. Metal concentrations in deep soil varied slightly between W1 and W2. Among different distances from the dropper, the metal levels in surface soil varied widely, while they varied slightly in deep soil. The Igeo (geo-accumulation index) values indicated that the soil was usually contaminated by Cr, Cu, and Cd. Under W1, Cd and Cu usually accumulated in surface soil near the dropper, while the other metals leached into subsurface soil. Moreover, the metals generally accumulated in soil away from the dropper. However, significant leaching of metals to the subsurface and deep soil was observed near the dropper under W2. Away from the dropper, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb usually accumulated in surface and deep soil. This suggested that heavy metals generally migrated to the soil away from the dropper when subjected to lower amounts of irrigation, while metals usually moved to surface soil and deep soil under high irrigation amounts. These findings indicate that drip irrigation greatly affected the distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil, with irrigation with lower amounts of irrigation water significantly affecting the horizontal migration of heavy metals and higher amounts influencing the vertical movement of heavy metals.

  20. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  1. Rice performance and water use efficiency under plastic mulching with drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Yang, Ru; Chen, Lin; Jia, Biao; Cui, Jing; Fan, Hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Li

    2013-01-01

    Plastic mulching with drip irrigation is a new water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its productivity and water-saving capacity. This study aimed to assess the production potential, performance, and water use efficiency (WUE) of rice under plastic mulching with drip irrigation. Field experiments were conducted over 2 years with two rice cultivars under different cultivation systems: conventional flooding (CF), non-flooded irrigation incorporating plastic mulching with furrow irrigation (FIM), non-mulching with furrow irrigation (FIN), and plastic mulching with drip irrigation (DI). Compared with the CF treatment, grain yields were reduced by 31.76-52.19% under the DI treatment, by 57.16-61.02% under the FIM treatment, by 74.40-75.73% under the FIN treatment, which were mainly from source limitation, especially a low dry matter accumulation during post-anthesis, in non-flooded irrigation. WUE was the highest in the DI treatment, being 1.52-2.12 times higher than with the CF treatment, 1.35-1.89 times higher than with the FIM treatment, and 2.37-3.78 times higher than with the FIN treatment. The yield contribution from tillers (YCFTs) was 50.65-62.47% for the CF treatment and 12.07-20.62% for the non-flooded irrigation treatments. These low YCFTs values were attributed to the poor performance in tiller panicles rather than the total tiller number. Under non-flooded irrigation, root length was significantly reduced with more roots distributed in deep soil layers compared with the CF treatment; the DI treatment had more roots in the topsoil layer than the FIM and FIN treatments. The experiment demonstrates that the DI treatment has greater water saving capacity and lower yield and economic benefit gaps than the FIM and FIN treatments compared with the CF treatment, and would therefore be a better water-saving technology in areas of water scarcity.

  2. Effect of surface tarp on emissions and distribution of drip-applied fumigants.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R; Dungan, Robert S; Lesch, Scott M; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Mingxin

    2004-08-15

    Soil fumigants are used to control a wide variety of soil-borne pests in high-cash-value crops. Application of soil fumigants through drip irrigation systems is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve the uniformity of fumigant application. Little information is available on the emissions and soil distribution of fumigants following subsurface drip application, or the effect of plastic tarp on fumigant emissions in these systems. In these experiments, the fumigant compounds 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), Vapam (a methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) precursor), and propargyl bromide (PrBr) were applied to soil beds via drip irrigation at 15 cm depth. Beds were tarped with either standard 1-mil high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or a virtually impermeable film (VIF), leaving the furrows bare. Cumulative emissions of 1,3-D, MITC, and PrBr in these tarped bedded systems was very low, amounting to <10% of the applied mass. These experiments were conducted in the winter months, with average air temperatures of 12-15 degrees C. Cumulative emissions of MITC and 1,3-D from a sandy loam field soil were decreased by > or =80% by tarping the bed with VIF rather than HDPE. A large fraction of the 1,3-D and PrBr flux was from the untarped furrows in VIF-tarped plots, indicating that inhibiting volatilization from the furrow will be important in further reducing emissions in these systems. Monitoring the fumigant distribution in soil indicated that tarping the bed with VIF resulted in a more effective containment of fumigant vapors compared to use of a HDPE tarp.

  3. Evaluation of wetting area and water distribution on different soils in subsurface drip irrigation emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; Sohrabi, T.; Mirzaei, F.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.

    2012-04-01

    Growing pressure on the world's available water resources has led to an increase in the efficiency and productivity of water-use of irrigation systems in arid and semi-arid regions with water scarcity. In this context, sub-surface drip irrigation, where emitters discharge water underneath the soil surface, might help by saving water since soil evaporation, surface runoff, and deep percolation are greatly reduced or eliminated. In this paper, the wetting area and water distribution on light, medium and heavy texture homogeneous soils in subsurface drip irrigation emitters were evaluated. Experimental tests were carried out in a plexiglass lysimeter container with transparent walls. Emitters were buried at 15, 30 and 45 cm depths and discharge rates of 2 and 4 L/h were applied. Observations of wetting bulbs dimensions showed that water moved more laterally than downwards for higher emitter discharges. However, small emitter discharges enhanced water to move downwards. Likewise, higher emitter discharges also favored water to move upwards toward the soil surface. Water redistribution was affected by emitter depth. For the same emitter discharge, the deepest depth showed less water redistributed in the down vertical and horizontal directions but the contrary was observed for shallow depths. This could be explained considering the dry soil area above the emitter that is larger in the deepest emitters. Observations on wetting bulb dimensions and water distributions could aim at the selection of proper design variables (emitter depth), and/or operation variables (inlet head and irrigation time) in the studied soils under different scenarios of cropping patterns. Key Words: subsurface drip irrigation, wetting bulb, soil water distribution, water redistribution, optimum management

  4. Cloud shading and fog drip influence the metabolism of a coastal pine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Mariah S; Park Williams, A; Ambrose, Anthony R; Boot, Claudia M; Bradley, Eliza S; Dawson, Todd E; Schaeffer, Sean M; Schimel, Joshua P; Still, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    Assessing the ecological importance of clouds has substantial implications for our basic understanding of ecosystems and for predicting how they will respond to a changing climate. This study was conducted in a coastal Bishop pine forest ecosystem that experiences regular cycles of stratus cloud cover and inundation in summer. Our objective was to understand how these clouds impact ecosystem metabolism by contrasting two sites along a gradient of summer stratus cover. The site that was under cloud cover ~15% more of the summer daytime hours had lower air temperatures and evaporation rates, higher soil moisture content, and received more frequent fog drip inputs than the site with less cloud cover. These cloud-driven differences in environmental conditions translated into large differences in plant and microbial activity. Pine trees at the site with greater cloud cover exhibited less water stress in summer, larger basal area growth, and greater rates of sap velocity. The difference in basal area growth between the two sites was largely due to summer growth. Microbial metabolism was highly responsive to fog drip, illustrated by an observed ~3-fold increase in microbial biomass C with increasing summer fog drip. In addition, the site with more cloud cover had greater total soil respiration and a larger fractional contribution from heterotrophic sources. We conclude that clouds are important to the ecological functioning of these coastal forests, providing summer shading and cooling that relieve pine and microbial drought stress as well as regular moisture inputs that elevate plant and microbial metabolism. These findings are important for understanding how these and other seasonally dry coastal ecosystems will respond to predicted changes in stratus cover, rainfall, and temperature.

  5. Effects of drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; He, Y.; Zhou, J.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of different irrigation system for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields, field experiments at key irrigation experiment station of water resources management division in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China were set up consist of different irrigation ratio (5250, 4500, 3750, 3000m3/hm2), different irrigation times (24, 12 and 8 times) and different rotation irrigation modes. The results show that: with the larger irrigation ratio, the cotton growth and yields was also better, and the significant influence on cotton growth and yields for irrigation ratio is between 3750-4500 m3/hm2. When the irrigation ratio is smaller (3000m3/hm2), cotton growth and yields for irrigation times of 8 times are higher, When the irrigation ratio is bigger (4500m3/hm2), cotton growth for irrigation times of 12 times are better and its cotton yields are higher correspondingly. According to the growth of cotton, yields and water productivity, the suitable irrigation system of cotton is the irrigation ratio of 4500-3750 m3/ hm2 and the irrigation times of 18 times for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water. For different rotation drip irrigation experiments with saline water and fresh water, the cotton yields and irrigation water productivity is higher under the disposal of SF (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with saline water irrigation and then 6 times with fresh water irrigation) compared to FS (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with fresh water and then 6 times with saline water) and SSFA (rotation irrigation with twice saline water and once fresh water) compared to SFA (alternative irrigation with saline water and fresh water). Compared to the different alternate irrigation experiments, the cotton yields and water productivity for pure saline water irrigation is higher. In addition, the trend is the larger the irrigation ratio and the higher the yields. It maybe dues to the low

  6. Secondary salinization and evapotranspiration under mulched drip irrigation condition in Tarim River basin of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Heping

    2013-04-01

    The secondary salinization induced by irrigation has been presented as a crucial threat to agriculture all over the world, especially in semi-arid and arid regions. Mulched drip irrigation (MDI), as a new micro-irrigation approach incorporating surface drip irrigation method and film mulching technique, has been widely applied in water scarce regions including Tarim River basin of northwestern China. However, salts are likely to build up in the surface soil due to the deficient leaching water in such an irrigation condition. To explore this new kind of secondary salinization issue, the oasis eco-hydrology experimental research station were established in 2008 in a cotton field of Xinjiang, northwestern China. More than 40,000 soil samples were collected to monitor soil moisture and salinity condition within the 1.5 meter depth. The patterns of soil salinity distribution under MDI along the horizontal direction as well as vertical direction have been explored. The results did show that secondary salinization tends to occur in the experimental field under mulched drip irrigation, and winter flush could leach most soil salt in the root zone into groundwater and keep salt balance to mitigate the soil salinization. Meanwhile, soil salt always migrates with the soil water flux such as irrigation and groundwater recharge. Therefore the understanding of water balance is of great importance for estimating soil salinity accumulation, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is the key process, especially in the semi-arid and arid area. In our study, in order to quantify the relation between salinity balance and water balance, ET were derived from a range of measurement systems including eddy covariance, soil water budget (gravimetric methods, Hydra probe, TDT probe and groundwater table sensor, et al.), sap flow and portable photosynthetic system during cotton growing period. Our study is unique in its focus on ET scale issue ranging from leaf and plant scale to field. The up

  7. [Analgesia in labor with continuous--drip venous perfusion of ketamine].

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, P L; Ciucci, N

    1981-04-01

    A personal opinion on the way analgesia should be piloted in labour is expressed and reference is made to personal results with continuous venous drip perfusion of ketamin with a SIC P77 infusional pump in 110 cases. The data from the series are described and particular attention is given to the behaviour of the drug with respect to uterine dynamics and the incidence of instrumental intervention. Stress is laid on the considerable benefits offered by the method, including reduction of the labour period and good maternal and foetal tolerance.

  8. Assessment on the coupling effects of drip irrigation and organic fertilization based on entropy weight coefficient model

    PubMed Central

    He, Bizhu; Chen, Iouzen

    2017-01-01

    Water and fertilizer are two important factors influencing crop growth, development and yield formation. To investigate their combined effects on the soil-plant system, and to find out the optimal water and organic fertilizer coupling strategy for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L), an experiment was carried out from May to October in 2016 in the south of China. The experiment consisted of three drip irrigation quotas (150, 180, 210 m3/ha) and three organic fertilizer application amounts (2,800, 3,600, 4,400 kg/ha). A water-fertilizer treatment (abbreviated as CK) that is in line with local practice was used for comparison. The tomato marketable yield, sugar/acid ratio (SAR) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), as well as the soil salinity and available nutrient concentrations were measured. The results showed that the marketable yield was highly significantly (p < 0.01) affected by irrigation or fertilization. The SAR of tomato were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation or/and fertilization. The fertilization had an highly significant (p < 0.01) effect on the concentrations of soil nutrients (N, P, K), while the coupling effect of irrigation and fertilization was not pronounced. According to the multi-index analysis and the computed result by the entropy weight coefficient model, a 180 m3/ha irrigation quota in combination with 4,400 kg/ha organic fertilizer application amount was the optimal water-fertilizer coupling strategy which owned the most satisfactory comprehensive benefits. The marketable yield, SAR and IWUE under this optimal strategy were 122.4 t/ha, 9.2, 32.4 kg/m3, respectively, and by 28.0%, 29.6% and 28.1% higher compared to that under CK.

  9. The proton driver design study

    SciTech Connect

    Editors: W. Chou, C.M. Ankenbrandt and E.I. Malamud

    2001-03-08

    In a 1997 summer study, a team led by Steve Holmes formulated a development plan for the Fermilab proton source and described the results in TM-2021. Subsequently, at the end of 1998, a task group was formed to prepare a detailed design of a high intensity facility called the Proton Driver to replace the Fermilab Booster. In the past two years the design effort has attracted more than fifty participants, mostly from the Beams Division. Physicists and engineers from the Technical Division and FESS as well as other institutions, including the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Stanford University, University of Hawaii, CERN in Switzerland, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England and the IHEP in Russia also contributed heavily. The results of that effort are summarized in this document describing the design of a 16 GeV synchrotron, two new beam transport lines (a 400 MeV injection line and a 12/16 GeV extraction line), and related improvements to the present negative ion source and the 400 MeV Linac. A construction cost estimate is presented in Appendix A.

  10. [Effects of controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on apple seedling morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Ge, Zhen-Yang

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) on the morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, three irrigation modes, i.e., fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (FDI, fixed watering on one side of the seedling root zone), controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI, alternate watering on both sides of the seedling root zone), and conventional drip irrigation (CDI, watering cling to the seedling base), and three irrigation quotas, i. e., each irrigation amount of FDI and ADI was 10, 20 and 30 mm, and that of CDI was 20, 30 and 40 mm, respectively, were designed. In treatment ADI, the soil moisture content on the both sides of the root zone appeared a repeated alternation of dry and wet process; while in treatment CDI, the soil moisture content had less difference. At the same irrigation quotas, the soil moisture content at the watering sides had no significant difference under the three drip irrigation modes. At irrigation quota 30 mm, the root-shoot ratio, healthy index of seedlings, and root hydraulic conductivity in treatment ADI increased by 31.6% and 47.1%, 34.2% and 53.6%, and 9.0% and 11.0%, respectively, as compared with those in treatments CDI and FDI. The root dry mass and leaf area had a positive linear correlation with root hydraulic conductivity. It was suggested that controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation had obvious compensatory effects on the root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, improved the soil water use by the roots, benefited the equilibrated dry matter allocation in seedling organs, and markedly enhanced the root-shoot ratio and healthy index of the seedlings.

  11. RNA-seq analysis reveals new candidate genes for drip loss in a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Weng, Qiannan; Li, Pinghua; Wei, Wei; Li, Qifa; Chen, Jie; Huang, Ruihua; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-04-01

    Drip loss, one of the most important meat quality traits, is characterized by low heritability. To date, the genetic factors affecting the drip loss trait have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify critical candidate genes affecting drip loss. First, we generated a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire commercial pig population and obtained phenotypic values for the drip loss trait. Furthermore, we constructed two RNA libraries from pooled samples of longissimus dorsi muscles with the highest (H group) and lowest (L group) drip loss and identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these extreme phenotypes using RNA-seq technology. In total, 25 883 genes were detected in the H and L group libraries, and none was specifically expressed in only one library. Comparative analysis of gene expression levels found that 150 genes were differentially expressed, of which 127 were upregulated and 23 were downregulated in the H group relative to the L group. In addition, 68 drip loss quantitative trait loci (QTL) overlapping with 63 DEGs were identified, and these QTL were distributed mainly on chromosomes 1, 2, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the triadin (TRDN) gene, which is involved in muscle contraction and fat deposition, and the myostatin (MSTN) gene, which has a role in muscle growth, were localized to more than two drip loss QTL, suggesting that both are critical candidate genes responsible for drip loss. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. The second generation Singapore high resolution proton beam writing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, J. A. van; Malar, P.; Baysic de Vera, Armin

    2012-02-15

    A new proton beam focusing facility, designed for proton beam writing (PBW) applications has been tested. PBW allows for proximity free structuring of high aspect ratio, high-density 3D nanostructures. The new facility is designed around OM52 compact quadrupole lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations. Performance tests show that proton beams can be focused down to 19.0 x 29.9 nm{sup 2} and single line scans show a beam width of 12.6 nm. The ultimate goal of sub 10 nm structuring with MeV protons will be discussed.

  13. Proton Remains Puzzling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haiyan; Liu, Tianbo; Peng, Chao; Ye, Zhihong; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2015-01-01

    Nucleons are building blocks of visible matter, and are responsible for more than 99% of the visible mass in the universe despite the fact that the discovery of the Higgs boson is almost irrelevant to the origin of the proton mass. While major progress has been made in the last two decades in understanding the proton spin puzzle discovered in the late 1980s by the European Muon Collaboration, a new proton puzzle emerged in the last several years concerning the proton charge radius, which is the charge weighted size of the proton. In this paper we will review the latest situation concerning the proton charge radius, mass and spin, and discuss upcoming new experiments addressing these puzzles, as well as implications for new physics.

  14. Hydrologic and geochemical dynamics of vadose zone recharge in a mantled karst aquifer: Results of monitoring drip waters in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Alexander, E. Calvin; Jameson, Roy A.; Alexander, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Caves provide direct access to flows through the vadose zone that recharge karst aquifers. Although many recent studies have documented the highly dynamic processes associated with vadose zone flows in karst settings, few have been conducted in mantled karst settings, such as that of southeastern Minnesota. Here we present some results of a long-term program of cave drip monitoring conducted within Mystery Cave, Minnesota. In this study, two perennial ceiling drip sites were monitored between 1997 and 2001. The sites were located about 90 m (300 ft) apart along the same cave passage approximately 18 m (60 ft) below the surface; 7 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft) of loess and 12 m (40 ft) of flat-lying carbonate bedrock strata overlie the cave. Records of drip rate, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were obtained at 15 minute intervals, and supplemented with periodic sampling for major ion chemistry and water stable isotopes. Patterns in flow and geochemistry emerged at each of the two drip sites that were repeated year after year. Although one site responded relatively quickly (within 2-7 hours) to surface recharge events while the other responded more slowly (within 2-5 days), thresholds of antecedent moisture needed to be overcome in order to produce a discharge response at both sites. The greatest amount of flow was observed at both sites during the spring snowmelt period. Rainfall events less than 10 mm (0.4 in) during the summer months generally did not produce a drip discharge response, yet rapid drip responses were observed following intense storm events after periods of prolonged rainfall. The chemical data from both sites indicate that reservoirs of vadose zone water with distinct chemical signatures mixed during recharge events, and drip chemistry returned to a baseline composition during low flow periods. A reservoir with elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations impacts the slow-response drip site with each recharge event, but does not similarly

  15. Dripping handrails and the quasi-periodic oscillations of the AM Herculis objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Young, Karl; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James N.; Wolff, Michael T.; Wood, Kent S.

    1994-01-01

    AM Her objects exhibit periodic, quasi-periodic, and aperiodic variability on timescales ranging from seconds to years. Here, we investigate a process for the production of aperiodic and quasi-periodic accretion rate fluctuations. We consider the nonlinear dynamical model known as the dripping handrail (DHR). The DHR, basically a model for certain types of spatially extended systems and loosely based on water condensing on and dripping off a handrail, has recently been used as a model for the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Here, we show that (1) the DHR is a robust QPO generation process in that it leads to QPO production under a wide range of conditions and assumptions; (2) the phenomenology of the DHR is consistent with the observed aperiodic and quasi-periodic varibility of the AM Her QPO source VV Pup over timescales ranging from 16 ms to 20 s; and (3) a single DHR model can produce both broadband QPOs and features with quality Q greater than 20 as observed in several AM Her QPO sources.

  16. Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Oriental Lilies with Drip and Foliar-applied Nematicides.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, B B; Giraud, D; Radewald, J D; Anderson, C A; Darso, J

    1993-12-01

    Pratylenchus penetrans is a pest for producers of oriental lilies in northern California. Concern over groundwater contamination from 1,2-dichloropropane following shank injections of 1,3-dichloropropene-l,2-dichloropropane mixture and granular applications of aldicarb prompted testing for alternative methods of controlling P. penetrans. In field trials, nematicides applied by drip irrigation (ethoprop, fenamiphos, oxamyl, sodium tetrathiocarbonate, water extracts of marigold and vetch, and 1,3-D plus emulsifier) were tested with and without foliar applications of oxamyl. Nematode populations were reduced (P = 0.05) relative to controls in soil or roots on one or more sampling dates by all drip-applied nematicides except the plant extracts. On some sampling dates, additional reductions (P = 0.05) occurred as a result of three foliar applications of oxamyl. Foliar-applied oxamyl alone also reduced (P = 0.05) nematodes in soil or roots. Lily bulb weight was not affected (P = 0.05) by chemical treatments.

  17. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  18. Sustainable domestic effluent reuse via Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI): alfalfa as a perennial model crop.

    PubMed

    Kazumba, Shija; Gillerman, Leonid; DeMalach, Yoel; Oron, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Scarcity of fresh high-quality water has heightened the importance of wastewater reuse primarily in dry regions together with improving its efficient use by implementing the Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI) method. Sustainable effluent reuse combines soil and plant aspects, along with the maintainability of the application system. In this study, field experiments were conducted for two years on the commercial farm of Revivim and Mashabay-Sade farm (RMF) southeast of the City of Beer-Sheva, Israel. The purpose was to examine the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a perennial model crop to secondary domestic effluent application by means of a SDI system as compared with conventional overhead sprinkler irrigation. Emitters were installed at different depths and spacing. Similar amounts of effluent were applied to all plots during the experimental period. The results indicated that in all SDI treatments, the alfalfa yields were 11% to 25% higher than the ones obtained under sprinkler irrigated plots, besides the one in which the drip laterals were 200 cm apart. The average Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was better in all SDI treatments in comparison with the sprinkler irrigated plots. An economic assessment reveals the dependence of the net profit on the emitters' installation geometry, combined with the return for alfalfa in the market.

  19. Biofilm structure and its influence on clogging in drip irrigation emitters distributing reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dazhuang; Bai, Zhihui; Mike, Rowan; Gu, Likun; Ren, Shumei; Yang, Peiling

    2009-01-01

    Using reclaimed wastewater for crop irrigation is a practical alternative to discharge wastewater treatment plant effluents into surface waters. However, biofouling has been identified as a major contributor to emitter clogging in drip irrigation systems distributing reclaimed wastewater. Little is known about the biofilm structure and its influence on clogging in the drip emitter flow path. This study was first to investigate the microbial characteristics of mature biofilms present in the emitters and the effect of flow path structures on the biofilm microbial communities. The analysis of biofilm matrix structure using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that particles in the matrix of the biofilm coupled extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and formed sediment in the emitter flow path. Analysis of biofilm mass including protein, polysaccharide, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) showed that emitter flow path style influenced biofilm community structure and diversity. The correlations of biofilm biomass and discharge reduction after 360 h irrigation were computed and suggest that PFLAs provide the best correlation coefficient. Comparatively, the emitter with the unsymmetrical dentate structure and shorter flow path (Emitter C) had the best anti-clogging capability. By optimizing the dentate structure, the internal flow pattern within the flow path could be enhanced as an important method to control the biofilm within emitter flow path. This study established electron microscope techniques and biochemical microbial analysis methods that may provide a framework for future emitter biofilm studies.

  20. A Novel Pressure Compensating Valve for Low-Cost Drip Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Wiens, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Nearly one billion people are currently living as subsistence farmers in the developing world. Irrigation could drastically increase quality of life for these individuals by enabling them to grow more and higher value crops. However, current irrigation technologies are too costly for this economic sector, particularly in off-grid applications. The cost of an off-grid irrigation system is primarily driven by the power required to pump the water at a relatively high pressure (>1 bar). We propose a novel pressure compensating drip emitter design which allows these systems to operate at 1/10 the pressure of current products, making them economically viable in developing markets. Our proposed solution is inspired by the resonating nozzle of a deflating balloon. We use a reduced order model to understand the physical principles which drive the cyclic collapse of the balloon nozzle. This knowledge is applied to propose a pressure compensating drip emitter consisting of a simple compliant tube in series with a rigid conical diffuser. A scaling analysis is performed to determine the ideal geometry of the system and the model is applied to demonstrate that the proposed design is capable of pressure compensation in the required operation range. Preliminary experiments are presented.

  1. [Clinical study of astromicin administered by intravenous drip infusion against chronic complicated urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Takanashi, K; Nagakubo, I; Kiyosaki, H; Naide, Y

    1987-07-01

    Astromicin (ASTM) was administered by intravenous drip infusion (i.v.d.) to 22 patients with chronic complicated urinary tract infections and the clinical efficacy and safety of this drug were evaluated. The overall clinical efficacy rate obtained was 71.4% (excellent 6; moderate 9) of 21 evaluable cases by the UTI committee's criteria. Concerning the response on clinical isolates, the drug was highly effective especially against strains of Escherichia coli, indole positive Proteus and Serratia marcescens. It was not effective, however, against 2 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As for adverse reactions, there was one case which complained of headache on the 3rd day after starting treatment. In this case the drug administration was discontinued at the 5th day. The symptom disappeared within 24 hours without any treatment. No any other adverse reactions were noted. With regard to clinical test values for peripheral blood, liver and renal functions, no abnormality was observed in any of the cases treated with the drug. In conclusion, ASTM was found to be a highly effective and safe drug when administered by intravenous drip infusion in the treatment of chronic complicated urinary tract infections.

  2. Performance of wastewater subsurface drip emitters at low and normal pressure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaojing; Lesikar, Bruce J; Kenimer, Ann L; Arnold, Michael A; Persyn, Russell A

    2008-02-01

    Subsurface drip distribution is an important on-site wastewater treatment technique widely used with various soil types and restricted site conditions. This study evaluated the performance of five subsurface wastewater drip products under eight pressures, ranging from 0 to 310 kPa. Results showed that Netafim Bioline pressure-compensating emitters (Netafim Irrigation Inc., Fresno, California) had an application uniformity coefficient of 95% and a coefficient of variance (C(v)) of 4.9%. The average uniformity coefficient of Geoflow Wasteflow products (Geoflow USA, Charlotte, North Carolina) was 94.4%, with a C(v) value of 6.8%. Flowrate and pressure relationships were developed by analyzing low and normal operational pressure ranges, and R-square values ranged from 1.000 to 0.301. Geoflow pressure-compensating products were non-pressure-compensating emitters under low pressure. Netafim pressure-compensating emitters were partially pressure-compensating under low pressures. In normal operational pressure ranges, both Geoflow and Netafim products were fully pressure-compensating. Netafim pressure-compensating products were characterized as pressure-compensating over the full range of operational pressures.

  3. Fate of nitrogen for subsurface drip dispersal of effluent from small wastewater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggs, R. A.; Hills, D. J.; Tchobanoglous, G.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-09-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation systems apply effluent from onsite wastewater systems in a more uniform manner at a lower rate than has been possible with other effluent dispersal methods. The effluent is dispersed in a biologically active part of the soil profile for optimal treatment and where the water and nutrients can be utilized by landscape plants. Container tests were performed to determine the fate of water and nitrogen compounds applied to packed loamy sand, sandy loam, and silt loam soils. Nitrogen removal rates measured in the container tests ranged from 63 to 95% despite relatively low levels of available carbon. A Hydrus 2D vadose zone model with nitrification and denitrification rate coefficients calculated as a function of soil moisture content fit the container test results reasonably well. Model results were sensitive to the denitrification rate moisture content function. Two-phase transport parameters were needed to model the preferential flow conditions in the finer soils. Applying the model to generic soil types, the greatest nitrogen losses (30 to 70%) were predicted for medium to fine texture soils and soils with restrictive layers or capillary breaks. The slow transport with subsurface drip irrigation enhanced total nitrogen losses and plant nitrogen uptake opportunity.

  4. Fate of nitrogen for subsurface drip dispersal of effluent from small wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Beggs, R A; Hills, D J; Tchobanoglous, G; Hopmans, J W

    2011-09-25

    Subsurface drip irrigation systems apply effluent from onsite wastewater systems in a more uniform manner at a lower rate than has been possible with other effluent dispersal methods. The effluent is dispersed in a biologically active part of the soil profile for optimal treatment and where the water and nutrients can be utilized by landscape plants. Container tests were performed to determine the fate of water and nitrogen compounds applied to packed loamy sand, sandy loam, and silt loam soils. Nitrogen removal rates measured in the container tests ranged from 63 to 95% despite relatively low levels of available carbon. A Hydrus 2D vadose zone model with nitrification and denitrification rate coefficients calculated as a function of soil moisture content fit the container test results reasonably well. Model results were sensitive to the denitrification rate moisture content function. Two-phase transport parameters were needed to model the preferential flow conditions in the finer soils. Applying the model to generic soil types, the greatest nitrogen losses (30 to 70%) were predicted for medium to fine texture soils and soils with restrictive layers or capillary breaks. The slow transport with subsurface drip irrigation enhanced total nitrogen losses and plant nitrogen uptake opportunity.

  5. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  6. Genome-wide profiling of yeast DNA:RNA hybrid prone sites with DRIP-chip.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yujia A; Aristizabal, Maria J; Lu, Phoebe Y T; Luo, Zongli; Hamza, Akil; Kobor, Michael S; Stirling, Peter C; Hieter, Philip

    2014-04-01

    DNA:RNA hybrid formation is emerging as a significant cause of genome instability in biological systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe the genome-wide distribution of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA:RNA immunoprecipitation (DRIP) followed by hybridization on tiling microarray. These profiles show that DNA:RNA hybrids preferentially accumulated at rDNA, Ty1 and Ty2 transposons, telomeric repeat regions and a subset of open reading frames (ORFs). The latter are generally highly transcribed and have high GC content. Interestingly, significant DNA:RNA hybrid enrichment was also detected at genes associated with antisense transcripts. The expression of antisense-associated genes was also significantly altered upon overexpression of RNase H, which degrades the RNA in hybrids. Finally, we uncover mutant-specific differences in the DRIP profiles of a Sen1 helicase mutant, RNase H deletion mutant and Hpr1 THO complex mutant compared to wild type, suggesting different roles for these proteins in DNA:RNA hybrid biology. Our profiles of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci provide a resource for understanding the properties of hybrid-forming regions in vivo, extend our knowledge of hybrid-mitigating enzymes, and contribute to models of antisense-mediated gene regulation. A summary of this paper was presented at the 26th International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology, August 2013.

  7. Boosting multi-feature visual texture classiffiers for the authentication of Jackson Pollock's drip paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ayyoub, Mahmoud; Irfan, Mohammad T.; Stork, David G.

    2011-03-01

    Early attempts at authentication Jackson Pollock's drip paintings based on computer image analysis were restricted to a single "fractal" or "multi-fractal" visual feature, and achieved classification nearly indistinguishable from chance. Irfan and Stork pointed out that such Pollock authentication is an instance of visual texture recognition, a large discipline that universally relies on multiple visual features, and showed that modest, but statistically significant improvement in recognition accuracy can be achieved through the use of multiple features. Our work here extends such multi-feature classification by training on more image data and images of higher resolution of both genuine Pollocks and fakes. We exploit methods for feature extraction, feature selection and classiffier techniques commonly used in pattern recognition research including Support Vector Machines (SVM), decision trees (DT), and AdaBoost. We extract features from the fractality, multifractality, pink noise patterns, topological genus, and curvature properties of the images of candidate paintings, and address learning issues that have arisen due to the small number of examples. In our experiments, we found that the unmodified classiffiers like Support Vector Machines or Decision Tree alone give low accuracies (60%), but that statistical boosting through AdaBoost leads to accuracies of nearly 75%. Thus, although our set of observations is very small, we conclude that boosting methods can improve the accuracy of multi-feature classiffication of Pollock's drip paintings.

  8. Dripping handrails and the quasi-periodic oscillations of the AM Herculis objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Young, Karl; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James N.; Wolff, Michael T.; Wood, Kent S.

    1994-01-01

    AM Her objects exhibit periodic, quasi-periodic, and aperiodic variability on timescales ranging from seconds to years. Here, we investigate a process for the production of aperiodic and quasi-periodic accretion rate fluctuations. We consider the nonlinear dynamical model known as the dripping handrail (DHR). The DHR, basically a model for certain types of spatially extended systems and loosely based on water condensing on and dripping off a handrail, has recently been used as a model for the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Here, we show that (1) the DHR is a robust QPO generation process in that it leads to QPO production under a wide range of conditions and assumptions; (2) the phenomenology of the DHR is consistent with the observed aperiodic and quasi-periodic varibility of the AM Her QPO source VV Pup over timescales ranging from 16 ms to 20 s; and (3) a single DHR model can produce both broadband QPOs and features with quality Q greater than 20 as observed in several AM Her QPO sources.

  9. Synthetic roving: A numerical technique to estimate fog water dripping below the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regalado, C. M.; Ritter, A.

    2010-07-01

    Oppositely to the fixed arrangement of gauges, the ‘roving’ technique consists on the regular random relocation of gauges among different positions below the canopy. By doing so the area over which water dripping below the canopy is integrated increases. Also extreme throughfall values are average out. Thus variability of measurements and bias due to sampling of a particular canopy fraction are reduced. These issues may be particularly relevant when dealing with fog water dripping because of the low amounts of water that have to be measured. Consequently the roving technique may be considered a more accurate and precise method to measure horizontal precipitation. However such superiority claims of the roving versus the fixed technique are restricted to particular field experiments, which cannot take into account all possible spatial combinations of gauges. By synthetic roving we refer to a numerical algorithm whereby a representative number of computer-generated random iterations, reproduce possible combinations of moving gauges via Monte Carlo simulations. This permitted us to investigate suitable statistics of both the fixed and synthetic roving arrangements, such as mean dispersion or bounds of the coefficient of variability. The method is illustrated via a case study from throughfall measurements carried out with a set of 22 fixed gauges, placed below a subtropical cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Spain) during an eight-month period.

  10. Sorption of pathogens during sub-surface drip irrigation with wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Laillach; Gillerman Gillerman, Leonid; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Oron, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity continues to be one of the major threats to human survival in many regions worldwide, such as Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the State of California in the US. Due to a mixture of factors such as population growth, reduction in water resources availability and higher demand for high quality waters in these regions these countries face water shortage issues that stem from overuse, extensive extraction of groundwater, and frequent drought events. In addition, there are increases in environmental and health awareness that have led to intensive efforts in the treatment and reuse of nonconventional water sources, mainly wastewater and greywater. One approach to water shortages issues is to use wastewater as means to close the gap between supply and demand. However, the need to treat wastewater and to disinfect it forces additional economic burden on the users, primarily for agricultural irrigation. A possible solution might be to use the soil as a sorbent for the contained pathogens. Under sub-surface drip irrigation, not allowing the wastewater to reach the soil surface, the pathogens will remain in the soil. It was as well shown in field experiments that the opening size of roots will not allow pathogens to penetrate into the plants. Additional advantages such as water saving, protection of the pipe systems and others are also important. Field experiments in commercial fields just emphasize the main advantages of sub-surface drip irrigation.

  11. Hydroxide and Proton Migration in Aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Morten Ø.; Röthlisberger, Ursula; Rovira, Carme

    2005-01-01

    Hypothetical hydroxide and proton migration along the linear water chain in Aquaporin GlpF from Escherichia coli are studied by ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the protein stabilizes a bipolar single file of water. The single file features a contiguous set of water-water hydrogen bonds in which polarization of the water molecules vary with position along the channel axis. Deprotonation of the water chain promotes the reorientation of water molecules while the hydroxide ion rapidly migrates by sequentially accepting protons from the neighboring water molecules. The hydroxide ion is not attracted by a conserved, channel-lining arginine residue, but is immobilized at two centrally located, conserved Asparagine-Proline-Alanine motifs where fourfold coordination stabilizes the ion. Hydroxide transition from the channel vestibules into the channel lumen is strongly influenced by electrostatic coupling to two conserved oppositely aligned macrodipoles. This suggests that the macrodipole's negative poles play a role in preventing hydroxide ions from entering into the channel's inner vestibules. Water protonation within the lumen facilitates water reorientation and subsequent proton expelling occurs. In the periplasmic half-channel, expelling occurs via the Grotthuss mechanism. Protonation within the cytoplasmic half-channel implies wire-breakage at the Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. The proton is here diffusively rejected as (H5O2)+. PMID:15951380

  12. Proton Decay Searches with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be comprised of a beam line and near detector complex at Fermilab, Illinois as well as a massive far detector located 1300 km away at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota. To achieve its rich physics program, DUNE plans to construct a 40kt fiducial volume Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) far detector almost a mile underground. The size, location, and technology of the proposed far detector make it an attractive tool to search for proton decay, which has yet to be observed. Observation of such a rare event requires high sensitivity to the signal and high background rejection rate. A particular background of interest arises from cosmic muons interacting with rock surrounding the detector and producing a variety of particles which can enter the detector and leave signatures similar to that of proton decay. In order to keep this background to a reasonable level without sacrificing signal acceptance efficiency, precise tracking, made possible by the LArTPC technology, is required. Precise 3D localization of proton decay events relies on the detector's ability to identify the prompt emission of scintillation light from proton decay events as the t0-defining signal. Therefore, low background rate and high detection efficiency of this light are the crucial to the search. This work examines these characteristics in a detailed Monte Carlo simulation using DUNE`s far detector reference design and demonstrates a high signal efficiency while keeping the expected number of cosmogenic background events sufficiently low.

  13. Proton beam characterization in the experimental room of the Trento Proton Therapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasino, F.; Rovituso, M.; Fabiano, S.; Piffer, S.; Manea, C.; Lorentini, S.; Lanzone, S.; Wang, Z.; Pasini, M.; Burger, W. J.; La Tessa, C.; Scifoni, E.; Schwarz, M.; Durante, M.

    2017-10-01

    As proton therapy is becoming an established treatment methodology for cancer patients, the number of proton centres is gradually growing worldwide. The economical effort for building these facilities is motivated by the clinical aspects, but might be also supported by the potential relevance for the research community. Experiments with high-energy protons are needed not only for medical physics applications, but represent also an essential part of activities dedicated to detector development, space research, radiation hardness tests, as well as of fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics. Here we present the characterization of the beam line installed in the experimental room of the Trento Proton Therapy Centre (Italy). Measurements of beam spot size and envelope, range verification and proton flux were performed in the energy range between 70 and 228 MeV. Methods for reducing the proton flux from typical treatments values of 106-109 particles/s down to 101-105 particles/s were also investigated. These data confirm that a proton beam produced in a clinical centre build by a commercial company can be exploited for a broad spectrum of experimental activities. The results presented here will be used as a reference for future experiments.

  14. 3 Surface water accumulation and subsequent drip loss for processed broiler carcasses subjected to a postchill water dip or spray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To estimate the potential residual carryover of antimicrobials, surface water accumulation and loss was measured for postchill carcasses either dipped or sprayed with water and allowed to drip for up to 5 min. In trials 1 and 2, 10 male broilers were slaughtered, and either soft or hard scalded, and...

  15. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2010-08-01

    Using laboratory soil chambers a nonscaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were applied at 5 cm depth with an excess of water (simulated drip irrigation). Application was made under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) covering the soil bed (the furrow was left uncovered). Soil gas distribution of the fumigants, together with emissions into the headspace above the bed, sidewall and furrow were determined over time. Total emissions from the HDPE treatment were cis 1,3-D 28%, trans 1,3-D 24%, and CP 8%. Due to its lower permeability, the values for VIF were 13%, 7%, and 1.5%, respectively. With HDPE, the majority (86-93%) of the emissions occurred from the bed, while for VIF the majority (92-99%) of the emissions was from the furrow. Compared to a range of literature values for shank injection, the use of drip application appears to offer a benefit in reducing 1,3-D and CP emissions. However, the most meaningful comparison is with our previous data for simulated shank injection where the same soil was covered (completely) with the same plastic films (1). In this comparison, only 1,3-D emissions under HDPE were lower with drip application; 1,3-D emissions under VIF and CP emissions under both films were greater with the drip application.

  16. Canopy Reflectance-Based Nitrogen Management Strategies for Subsurface Drip Irrigated Cotton in the Texas High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen fertilizer management in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) can be very efficient when N is injected with the irrigation water (fertigated) on a daily basis. However, the daily rates and total amounts of N fertigation are uncertain. Normalized diffe...

  17. Can subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) be a competitive irrigation system in the Great Plains region for commodity crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as with all microirrigation systems is typically only used on crops with greater value. In the U.S. Great Plains region, the typical irrigated crops are the cereal and oil seed crops and cotton. These crops have less economic revenue than typical microirrigated cro...

  18. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using laboratory soil chambers a non-scaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, a drip application of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) was performed at 5...

  19. Radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and divinylbenzene onto polyethylene terephthalate fabrics for improving anti-dripping performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Guoliang; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Shi, Meiwu; Zhai, Maolin

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of anti-dripping polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric was successfully prepared by simultaneous gamma radiation-induced grafting polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) onto the surface of PET fabrics. The grafting yield (GY) and anti-dripping effect were optimized by changing the total absorbed dose, dose rate, concentration and the feed ratio of GMA and DVB. The grafting yield increased with the increase of absorbed dose and GMA monomer concentration, and decreased with the dose rate. It is confirmed that PET fabrics had been modified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The tensile strength and elongation at break of modified PET fabrics were improved compared with original PET fabrics. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of modified PET fabrics with the GY of 23-25% was 21.5, which was similar to that of unmodified PET fabrics. However, the anti-dripping performance of PET fabrics was improved remarkably after radiation modification due to the crosslinking of the sidechains grafted on the PET surface. This anti-dripping fabric may be promising for fire protective clothing.

  20. Deep drip application and low permeability tarp on fumigant behavior in raised-bed systems for strawberry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High fumigant emission loss and insufficient pest control are often found in the raised-bed covered by polyethylene (PE) with shallow drip fumigation depth, which brings great challenges to strawberry growers. These dilemmas may be solved by tarping the beds with low permeability tarp such as totall...

  1. [Clinical experience with ampicillin-cloxacillin (Viccillin S 'Meiji') by intravenous drip infusion in gynecological infections (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Takabatake, H; Nishino, R; Shiina, M; Sato, Y; Ohno, T

    1979-09-01

    Ampicillin-cloxacillin (Viccillin S 'Meiji') by intravenous drip infusion was used in gynecological infections, with the following satisfactory results. 1) The drug was markedly effective in 2 out of 6 cases, effective in 4, being the efficacy rate 100%. 2) No abnormal laboratory findings and side effects were observed in our study.

  2. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics.

  3. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics. PMID:27905505

  4. Using ground based geophysics to evaluate hydrogeologic effects of subsurface drip irrigation systems used to manage produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, J.I.; Lipinski, B.A.; Veloski, G.A.

    2008-04-01

    The U.S Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has been evaluating various geophysical methods for site characterization regarding environmental issues associated with fossil fuels including produced water management. A relatively new method of managing produced water from coal bed natural gas production is through subsurface drip irrigation. This system involves disposing the produced water near the bottom of the root zone in agricultural fields, which would provide a beneficial use of this resource. The focus of this paper is to present results from a pre-injection geophysical survey for site assessment and background data. A pre-construction survey of approximately 1.2 km2 was completed in June 2007 using a Geophex GEM-2 broadband sensor over six fields along the Powder River floodplain. Quality assurance measures included drift checks, duplicate line surveys, and repeat field surveys using the Geometrics OhmMapper instrument. Subsequent surveys will be completed once the system is installed and operational. Geophysical inversion models were completed to provide a detailed cross-section of the subsurface geoelectrical structure along each line. Preliminary interpretations reveal that the subsurface conductivity distribution correlates to geomorphologic features.

  5. Rice Performance and Water Use Efficiency under Plastic Mulching with Drip Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Yang, Ru; Chen, Lin; Jia, Biao; Cui, Jing; Fan, Hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Li

    2013-01-01

    Plastic mulching with drip irrigation is a new water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its productivity and water-saving capacity. This study aimed to assess the production potential, performance, and water use efficiency (WUE) of rice under plastic mulching with drip irrigation. Field experiments were conducted over 2 years with two rice cultivars under different cultivation systems: conventional flooding (CF), non-flooded irrigation incorporating plastic mulching with furrow irrigation (FIM), non-mulching with furrow irrigation (FIN), and plastic mulching with drip irrigation (DI). Compared with the CF treatment, grain yields were reduced by 31.76–52.19% under the DI treatment, by 57.16–61.02% under the FIM treatment, by 74.40–75.73% under the FIN treatment, which were mainly from source limitation, especially a low dry matter accumulation during post-anthesis, in non-flooded irrigation. WUE was the highest in the DI treatment, being 1.52–2.12 times higher than with the CF treatment, 1.35–1.89 times higher than with the FIM treatment, and 2.37–3.78 times higher than with the FIN treatment. The yield contribution from tillers (YCFTs) was 50.65–62.47% for the CF treatment and 12.07–20.62% for the non-flooded irrigation treatments. These low YCFTs values were attributed to the poor performance in tiller panicles rather than the total tiller number. Under non-flooded irrigation, root length was significantly reduced with more roots distributed in deep soil layers compared with the CF treatment; the DI treatment had more roots in the topsoil layer than the FIM and FIN treatments. The experiment demonstrates that the DI treatment has greater water saving capacity and lower yield and economic benefit gaps than the FIM and FIN treatments compared with the CF treatment, and would therefore be a better water-saving technology in areas of water scarcity. PMID:24340087

  6. Reconstruction for proton computed tomography by tracing proton trajectories: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianfang; Liang, Zhengrong; Singanallur, Jayalakshmi V; Satogata, Todd J; Williams, David C; Schulte, Reinhard W

    2006-03-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) has been explored in the past decades because of its unique imaging characteristics, low radiation dose, and its possible use for treatment planning and on-line target localization in proton therapy. However, reconstruction of pCT images is challenging because the proton path within the object to be imaged is statistically affected by multiple Coulomb scattering. In this paper, we employ GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional pCT reconstruction of an elliptical phantom to investigate the possible use of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) with three different path-estimation methods for pCT reconstruction. The first method assumes a straight-line path (SLP) connecting the proton entry and exit positions, the second method adapts the most-likely path (MLP) theoretically determined for a uniform medium, and the third method employs a cubic spline path (CSP). The ART reconstructions showed progressive improvement of spatial resolution when going from the SLP [2 line pairs (lp) cm(-1)] to the curved CSP and MLP path estimates (5 lp cm(-1)). The MLP-based ART algorithm had the fastest convergence and smallest residual error of all three estimates. This work demonstrates the advantage of tracking curved proton paths in conjunction with the ART algorithm and curved path estimates.

  7. Reconstruction for proton computed tomography by tracing proton trajectories: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Li Tianfang; Liang Zhengrong; Singanallur, Jayalakshmi V.; Satogata, Todd J.; Williams, David C.; Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2006-03-15

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) has been explored in the past decades because of its unique imaging characteristics, low radiation dose, and its possible use for treatment planning and on-line target localization in proton therapy. However, reconstruction of pCT images is challenging because the proton path within the object to be imaged is statistically affected by multiple Coulomb scattering. In this paper, we employ GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional pCT reconstruction of an elliptical phantom to investigate the possible use of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) with three different path-estimation methods for pCT reconstruction. The first method assumes a straight-line path (SLP) connecting the proton entry and exit positions, the second method adapts the most-likely path (MLP) theoretically determined for a uniform medium, and the third method employs a cubic spline path (CSP). The ART reconstructions showed progressive improvement of spatial resolution when going from the SLP [2 line pairs (lp) cm{sup -1}] to the curved CSP and MLP path estimates (5 lp cm{sup -1}). The MLP-based ART algorithm had the fastest convergence and smallest residual error of all three estimates. This work demonstrates the advantage of tracking curved proton paths in conjunction with the ART algorithm and curved path estimates.

  8. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  9. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave LiDAR and drip count data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2015-09-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, South-West Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012-2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip-rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focused areas of recharge and can help to better estimate

  10. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Diego; Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Vallejo, Antonio

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH4(+) and NO3(-)) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N2O, CO2 and CH4) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N2O, NO, CH4 and CO2 were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P<0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P<0.005) but increased CO2 emissions by 21% (P<0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N2O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO3(-)-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation.

  11. Characteristics of the Drip-and-Ship Paradigm for Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Man-Seok; Lee, Ji Sung; Park, Tai Hwan; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Kyung Bok; Kim, Jae Guk; Lee, Soo Joo; Lee, Jun; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Joon-Tae; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Oh, Mi Sun; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Chul; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Nah, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Dong-Eog; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Song, Sook-Keun; Choi, Jay Chol

    2016-11-01

    Data on the drip-and-ship paradigm in Korea are limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the use of the drip-and-ship paradigm and the time delays and outcomes associated with the paradigm in Korea. We used data from the Clinical Research Center for Stroke-5 registry between January 2011 and March 2014. Among patients treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), the use of the drip-and-ship paradigm was evaluated, and time delays and functional outcomes at 3 months were compared between patients treated with the paradigm and those treated directly at visits. Among 1843 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 244 patients (13.2%) were treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm. Subsequent endovascular recanalization therapy was used in 509 patients (27.6%). The median time from symptom onset to groin puncture was greater in patients treated with the paradigm than in those treated directly at visits (305 versus 200 minutes, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, the risks of unfavorable functional outcomes and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were higher inpatients treated with the paradigm than in those directly treated at visits (odds ratio [OR] 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-3.08; P < .001 and OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02-3.12; P = .041, respectively). In Korea, the drip-and-ship paradigm was used in less than 15% of all patients treated with tPA. The use of the paradigm might cause an increase in the onset-to-groin puncture time. Additionally, clinical outcomes might be worse in patients treated with the paradigm than in those treated directly at visits. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the use of 3H-3He dating to determine the subsurface transit time of cave drip waters.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Tobias; Wieser, Martin; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    2010-09-01

    (3)H-(3)He measurements constitute a well-established method for the determination of the residence time of young groundwater. However, this method has rarely been applied to karstified aquifers and in particular to drip water in caves, despite the importance of the information which may be obtained. Besides the determination of transfer times of climate signals from the atmosphere through the epikarst to speleothems as climate archives, (3)H-(3)He together with Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe data may also help to give new insights into the local hydrogeology, e.g. the possible existence of a perched aquifer above a cave. In order to check the applicability of (3)H-(3)He dating to cave drips, we collected drip water samples from three adjacent caves in northwestern Germany during several campaigns. The noble gas data were evaluated by inverse modelling to obtain recharge temperature and excess air, supporting the calculation of the tritiogenic (3)He and hence the (3)H-(3)He age. Although atmospheric noble gases were often found to be close to equilibrium with the cave atmosphere, several drip water samples yielded an elevated (3)He/(4)He ratio, providing evidence for the accumulation of (3)He from the decay of (3)H. No significant contribution of radiogenic (4)He was found, corresponding to the low residence times mostly in the range of one to three years. Despite complications during sampling, conditions of a perched aquifer could be confirmed by replicate samples at one drip site. Here, the excess air indicator ΔNe was about 10 %, comparable to typical values found in aquifers in mid-latitudes. The mean (3)H-(3)He age of 2.1 years at this site presumably refers to the residence time in the perched aquifer and is lower than the entire transit time of 3.4 years estimated from the tritium data.

  13. Rain, Hail, and Drip frames of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Tehani

    2017-01-01

    Various families of coordinate systems associated with observers moving inwardly along radial geodesics in the Schwarzschild geometry have been constructed by generalizing the Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. Such observers have categorized as being in the rain frame, a hail frame, or a drip frame, by Taylor and Wheeler. This framework naturally progresses into a search for counterparts of these coordinate systems for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) geometry. Consideration of local measurements made by a fiducial observer suggests that the conserved Killing quantity which best fits the designation of ``energy'' in the SdS geometry differs from the one which is typically denoted as such. This leads to Painleve-Gullstrand-style coordinate systems for the SdS geometry that differ from the naïve extrapolations of the Schwarzschild or de Sitter geometries.

  14. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Corpus, Erika; Silva-Herzog, Daniel; Aragon-Piña, Antonio; Cohenca, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections. PMID:25371913

  15. Safe household water treatment and storage using ceramic drip filters: a randomised controlled trial in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Clasen, T; Brown, J; Suntura, O; Collin, S

    2004-01-01

    A randomised controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ceramic drip filters to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water in a low-income community in rural Bolivia. In four rounds of water sampling over five months, 100% of the samples were free of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) compared to an arithmetic mean TTC count of 1517, 406, 167 and 245 among control households which continued to use their customary sources of drinking water. The filter systems produced water that consistently met WHO drinking-water standards despite levels of turbidity that presented a challenge to other low-cost POU treatment methods. The filter systems also demonstrated an ability to maintain the high quality of the treated water against subsequent re-contamination in the home.

  16. The design of liquid drip speed monitoring device system based on MCU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shiyong; Li, Zhao; Li, Biqing

    2017-08-01

    This page proposed an intelligent transfusion control and monitoring system which designed by using AT89S52 micro controller as the core, using the keyboard and photoelectric sensor as the input module, digital tube and motor as the output module. The keyboard is independent and photoelectric sensor can offer reliable detection for liquid drop speed and the transfusion bottle page. When the liquid amount is less than the warning value, the system sounded the alarm, you can remove the alert by hand movement. With the advantages of speed controllable and input pulse power can be maintained of the motor, the system can control the bottle through the upper and lower slow-moving liquid drip to control the speed of intelligent purpose.

  17. Pressure, Surface Tension, and Dripping of Self-Trapped Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Novoa, David; Michinel, Humberto; Tommasini, Daniele

    2009-07-10

    We show that a laser beam which propagates through an optical medium with Kerr (focusing) and higher order (defocusing) nonlinearities displays pressure and surface-tension properties yielding capillarity and dripping effects totally analogous to usual liquid droplets. The system is reinterpreted in terms of a thermodynamic grand potential, allowing for the computation of the pressure and surface tension beyond the usual hydrodynamical approach based on Madelung transformation and the analogy with the Euler equation. We then show both analytically and numerically that the stationary soliton states of such a light system satisfy the Young-Laplace equation and that the dynamical evolution through a capillary is described by the same law that governs the growth of droplets in an ordinary liquid system.

  18. Dripping and jetting in microfluidic multiphase flows applied to particle and fiber synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, J K; Tsai, S S H; Wan, J; Stone, H A

    2013-01-01

    Dripping and jetting regimes in microfluidic multiphase flows have been investigated extensively, and this review summarizes the main observations and physical understandings in this field to date for three common device geometries: coaxial, flow-focusing and T-junction. The format of the presentation allows for simple and direct comparison of the different conditions for drop and jet formation, as well as the relative ease and utility of forming either drops or jets among the three geometries. The emphasis is on the use of drops and jets as templates for microparticle and microfiber syntheses, and a description is given of the more common methods of solidification and strategies for achieving complex multicomponent microparticles and microfibers. PMID:23626378

  19. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqiao; Tian, Dali; Huang, Yuyou; Li, Ling; Mao, Juan; Tian, Juan; Ding, Jinsong

    2016-11-01

    Shenfu Injection (SFI) is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc) and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline) were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2-8 mL/kg.

  20. Prevalence of potentially thermophilic microorganisms in biofilms from greenhouse-enclosed drip irrigation systems.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Olga; Ferrera, Isabel; Garrido, Laura; del Mar Gómez-Ramos, Maria; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez; Mas, Jordi

    2014-03-01

    Drip irrigation systems using reclaimed water often present clogging events of biological origin. Microbial communities in biofilms from microirrigation systems of an experimental greenhouse in Almería, SE Spain, which used two different qualities of water (treated wastewater and reclaimed water), were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene bands. The most remarkable feature of all biofilms was that regardless of water origin, sequences belonging to Firmicutes were prevalent (53.5 % of total mean band intensity) and that almost all sequences recovered had some similarity (between 80.2 and 97 %) to thermophilic microorganisms. Mainly, sequences were closely related to potentially spore-forming organisms, suggesting that microbial communities able to grow at high temperatures were selected from the microbiota present in the incoming water. These pioneer results may contribute to improve management strategies to minimize the problems associated to biofouling in irrigation systems.

  1. Low salinity hydrocarbon water disposal through deep subsurface drip irrigation: leaching of native selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Engle, Mark A.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Zupancic, John W.; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface drip irrigation system is being used in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin that treats high sodium, low salinity, coal bed methane (CBM) produced water with sulfuric acid and injects it into cropped fields at a depth of 0.92 m. Dissolution of native gypsum releases calcium that combats soil degradation that would otherwise result from high sodium water. Native selenium is leached from soil by application of the CBM water and traces native salt mobilization to groundwater. Resulting selenium concentrations in groundwater at this alluvial site were generally low (0.5–23 μg/L) compared to Wyoming’s agricultural use suitability standard (20 μg/L).

  2. Sterile water gastric drip in extremely low birthweight premature infants: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Olney, Clayton J; Huseby, Valerie; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Morris, Brenda H

    2005-07-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that sterile water gavage drip (SWGD) used in the fluid management of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants will decrease the incidence of hypernatremia. Secondary hypotheses included decreased hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Sixty ELBW infants were randomized before 36 hours of age to receive SWGD (up to 30 mL/kg/d) and intravenous fluid or conventional intravenous fluid management. SWGD was well tolerated in 89% of the infants. No difference was seen in the incidence of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia, or hyperbilirubinemia. A significant reduction in the incidence of treated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was noted in the study group (36% versus 69%; relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.90; p = 0.02). SWGD may provide an alternative means of safely administering free water to the ELBW infant. The observed reduction in treated PDA requires further investigation.

  3. Flow-field dynamics during droplet formation by dripping in hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Funfschilling, D; Debas, H; Li, H-Z; Mason, T G

    2009-07-01

    Using microscopic particle image velocimetry, we examine the flow field around an oil droplet as it is formed by hydrodynamic focusing in an aqueous solution using a pressure-driven cross-channel microfluidic device. By detecting the temporal dependence of the instantaneous flow fields of the continuous phase in the dripping regime, we show that shear is not the primary mechanism that initiates droplet formation in our low flow rate and moderate capillary number experimental conditions. Instead, the advancing finger of oil partially and temporarily plugs the outlet channel, creating a pressure difference that builds up and is released when water from the side channels pushes the tip of the finger into the outlet channel, thereby facilitating the birth of the droplet by interfacial pinch-off that is primarily initiated by an extensional flow.

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of drip waters: Influence on mineralogy and crystal morphology of recent cave carbonate precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Schreuer, Jürgen; Richter, Detlev K.; Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Terente, Mihai; Constantin, Silviu; Mangini, Augusto; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Speleothems are one of the most intensively explored continental archives for palaeoclimate variability. The parameters, however, that control speleothem petrography and its changes with time and space, specifically calcite crystal morphology and carbonate mineralogy, are still poorly understood. In order to shed light on processes and their products, precipitation experiments of recent carbonate crystals on watch glasses and glass plates were performed in seven selected caves. Drip water sites were analysed for their fluid Mg/Ca molar ratio, pH, degree of saturation for calcite and aragonite and drip rates. Corresponding precipitates were analysed with respect to their mineralogy, calcite crystal morphology and Mg/Ca molar ratio of calcite. The following results are found: High fluid Mg/Ca ratios are found only for caves situated in dolostone, thus the hostrock lithology indirectly controls the carbonate mineralogy and calcite crystal morphology of speleothems. The precipitation of aragonite in place of calcite occurred only in dolostone caves and is bound to very specific conditions. These are: high fluid Mg/Ca ratios (⩾0.5), high fluid pH (>8.2) and low fluid saturation indices for calcite (<0.8). These specific conditions are induced by slow drip rates of <0.2 ml/min as often under more arid conditions, causing the precipitation of calcite/aragonite prior to reaching the stalagmite top. Due to this, fluid chemistry is altered, which in turn leads to changes in carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry on the stalagmite top. Calcite growth is inhibited at high fluid Mg/Ca ratios and hence, aragonite precipitation is kinetically stabilised. An increase of the drip water Mg/Ca ratio leads to an increased incorporation of Mg2+ into the calcite crystal lattice and thus, to a change in calcite crystal morphology. Four distinctive changes occur with increasing Mg2+ incorporation: (i) development of new forms (steeper rhombohedra and base pinacoid) at the edges and

  5. Salt distribution under mulched drip irrigation in a cotton field of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Yao, X.; Zhong, R.; Hu, H.

    2012-12-01

    A 3-year experiment was conducted in Xinjiang, northwestern China, to investigate the specific pattern of salt distribution and accumulation associated with mulched drip irrigation in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. The experimental site was divided into three fields according to their distinct features of soil particle size distribution, and three replicators were designed in every field. Above 30,000 soil samples were collected throughout the experimental years, and this large number of soil samples help to answer the strong heterogeneity of soil salinity at the field scale and get the continuous salinity data under the destructive salinity measurement method. The results indicate that the soil salt migrates with water flux and accumulates at the periphery of the wetted soil mass, and the ration of the EC value in inter-film zone to wide-row zone at the end of growth period are 2.34, 1.78 and 1.24 for the three fields, respectively, which implies soil salt would transport to and accumulate in the inter film zone (IFM) more easily for sandy soil than clay soil along the horizontal direction. The field experiment shows the soil salt tends to build up at the interface of soil texture (where the soil texture changes rapidly from sandy at the upper layer to clay at the lower) , which means that layered pattern of soil particle size distribution dominates the vertical distribution pattern of soil salinity. The dimensionless index representing the specific salt distribution pattern associated with mulched drip irrigation was also introduced and modified, and the study shows that the index can well delineate the salt qualitative distribution along the vertical direction.

  6. [Effects of soil moisture regime on greenhouse tomato yield and its formation under drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Duan, Ai-Wang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Liang, Yuan-Yuan

    2009-11-01

    Field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture regime at different growth stages on the fruit size, fruit number, percentage of malformed fruit, and yield formation of greenhouse tomato under drip irrigation, and the relationships between tomato yield and irrigation amount. Moderate soil water deficit (50%-55% of field capacity) at tomato's seedling stage increased the fruit number but reduced the fruit size, decreased the percentage of malformed fruit, and made the fruit maturation mainly concentrated in later picking period. Severe water deficit (less than 65% of field capacity) at flowering and fruit-developing stages promoted fruit maturation, but decreased fruit number and increased the formation of small and malformed fruits. The soil moisture content higher than 80% or lower than 65% of filed capacity at fruit maturation stage less affected fruit maturation but decreased fruit yield, and lower than 65% of filed capacity also decreased the fruit number and increased the percentage of malformed fruit. No significant effects of irrigation amount on fruit maturation were observed. The correlations of tomato yield and its water use efficiency with irrigation amount could be well described by quadratic function. The fruit number and total yield were higher while the percentage of malformed fruit was lower when the soil moisture content was controlled at 60%-65% of field capacity at seedling stage, 70%-75% of field capacity at flowering stage, and 70%-75% of field capacity at fruit-developing stage, which could be used as the optimal soil moisture indices for the greenhouse tomato production under drip irrigation.

  7. Can growth-days predict the crop coefficient of cotton under mulched drip irrigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengju; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Dai, Chao

    2015-04-01

    Mulched drip irrigation (MDI) has now become popular in arid and semi-arid areas like Tarim River basin located in northwest of China. It has the advantages of saving water as well as increasing crop yield. As an important cash crop, cotton is widely planted in Tarim basin that usually adopts MDI. Irrigation management requires prediction of evapotranspiration (ET). It is usually calculated by FAO-56 method, in which the crop coefficient (Kc) is a necessary parameter needed to determined a prior. Theoretically the crop characteristics like LAI can serve as a direct indicator to determine Kc. Practically two other indicators of growing-degree-day (GDD) and growth-day (GD) are also used to determine Kc. In this study a 3-year experiment was conducted to quantify the weekly ETc and develop a crop coefficient (Kc) model for mulched drip-irrigated cotton based on eddy covariance observation. Two polynomial models were developed to predict the Kc as a function of growth days (r2=0.95) and growing degree-day (GDD) (r2=0.96) in the growth stage after seeding. A logarithmic function (r2=0.87) was used to describe the Kc variability with LAI increase. The results showed that both the three models fitted well with the Kc and the LAI values could fit the Kc well before the end growth stage. The LAI can better simulate Kc with daily step, but with weekly step the accuracy of LAI is lower than the other two variables. Our results showed that the growth-day is a reliable indicator to predict the cotton Kc under MDI, which provide a basis for transpiration modeling in cotton fields.

  8. Drip 'n Ship Versus Mothership for Endovascular Treatment: Modeling the Best Transportation Options for Optimal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Milne, Matthew S W; Holodinsky, Jessalyn K; Hill, Michael D; Nygren, Anders; Qiu, Chao; Goyal, Mayank; Kamal, Noreen

    2017-03-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the best way for patients outside of endovascular-capable or Comprehensive Stroke Centers (CSC) to access endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The role of the nonendovascular-capable Primary Stroke Centers (PSC) that can offer thrombolysis with alteplase but not endovascular treatment is unclear. A key question is whether average benefit is greater with early thrombolysis at the closest PSC before transportation to the CSC (Drip 'n Ship) or with PSC bypass and direct transport to the CSC (Mothership). Ideal transportation options were mapped based on the location of their endovascular-capable CSCs and nonendovascular-capable PSCs. Probability models for endovascular treatment were developed from the ESCAPE trial's (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) decay curves and for alteplase treatment were extracted from the Get With The Guidelines decay curve. The time on-scene, needle-to-door-out time at the PSC, door-to-needle time at the CSC, and door-to-reperfusion time were assumed constant at 25, 20, 30, and 115 minutes, respectively. Emergency medical services transportation times were calculated using Google's Distance Matrix Application Programming Interface interfaced with MATLAB's Mapping Toolbox to create map visualizations. Maps were generated for multiple onset-to-first medical response times and door-to-needle times at the PSCs of 30, 60, and 90. These figures demonstrate the transportation option that yields the better modeled outcome in specific regions. The probability of good outcome is shown. Drip 'n Ship demonstrates that a PSC that is in close proximity to a CSC remains significant only when the PSC is able to achieve a door-to-needle time of ≤30 minutes when the CSC is also efficient. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Effect of three drip irrigation management strategies on chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) crop.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, José Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2017-04-01

    Chufa, also known as tigernut, is a typical crop in Valencia, Spain, where it is cultivated in ridges with furrow irrigation. It uses large volumes of water, so different studies have been undertaken in order to maximize the irrigation water use efficiency, getting important water savings. Particularly, different refill points, based on the volumetric soil water content, were analyzed in drip irrigation. It was stated that starting each irrigation event when the volumetric soil water content dropped to 85% of field capacity leaded to the best results in terms of yield and irrigation water use efficiency. However, these results may be improved by defining the best strategy in the irrigation stop, which is the aim of the herein presented research. This investigation, conducted in 2015 and 2016, comprises the productive response of the chufa crop with drip irrigation, calculating the yield and the irrigation water use efficiency. The volumetric soil water content was monitored using multi-depth capacitance probes, with sensors at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m below the top of the ridge. Each irrigation event started when the volumetric soil water content at 0.10 m dropped to 85% of field capacity. Three irrigation strategies were considered, T1: each event being stopped when the average of the volumetric soil water content values at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m reached the corresponding field capacity value. T2: each event being stopped when the volumetric soil water content values at 0.20 m reached the corresponding field capacity value. T3 each irrigation event lasted 30 min (7.33 mm). The T2 strategy leaded to the largest yield and to the lowest irrigation water use efficiency, since it used the largest volume of irrigation water applied. The average tuber weight, size and shape showed no differences between the strategies.

  10. Proton therapy in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunemoto, H.; Morita, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Furukawa, S.; Kawachi, K.; Kanai, T.; Ohara, H.; Kitagawa, T.; Inada, T.

    1985-01-01

    There are two facilities for clinical trials with protons in Japan: the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, and the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), University of Tsukuba. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, patient treatment with the 70 MeV proton beam began in November 1979, and 29 patients were treated through December 1984. Of 11 patients who received protons only, 9 have had local control of the tumor. Two of the 9 patients, suffering from recurrent tumor after radical photon beam irradiation, developed complications after proton treatment. In the patients treated with photons or neutrons followed by proton boost, tumors were controlled in 12 of 18 patients (66.6%), and no complications were observed in this series. Malignant melanoma could not be controlled with the proton beam. A spot-beam-scanning system for protons has been effectively used in the clinical trials to minimize the dose to the normal tissues and to concentrate the dose in the target volume. At the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center, University of Tsukuba, treatment with a vertical 250 MeV proton beam was begun in April 1983, and 22 patients were treated through February 1984. Local control of the tumor was observed in 14 of 22 patients (63.6%), whereas there was no local control in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. There have been no severe complications in patients treated at PARMS. The results suggest that local control of tumors will be better with proton beams than with photon beams, whereas additional modalities are required to manage radioresistant tumors.

  11. Measurements of the line resolved M-shell X-ray production cross sections for 79Au, 82Pb and 83Bi by 100 keV/u proton, C, N, O ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehla; Kumar, Ajay; Bagdia, C.; Kumar, Anil; Misra, D.; Puri, Sanjiv; Tribedi, L. C.

    2017-05-01

    The cross sections for production of the Mk (k = ξ, αβ, γ, m1) X-rays of 79Au, 82Pb and 83Bi induced by the 100 keV/u proton, C4+, N5+ and O6+ ions have been measured in the present work. The experimental cross sections have been compared with the earlier reported values and those calculated using the ionization cross sections based on the ECPSSR model, the X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fock model, the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields based on the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model. In addition, the present measured proton induced X-ray production cross sections have also been compared with those calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model based ionization cross sections. The intensity ratios among the Mk X-rays have been deduced and compared with the theoretical values. The present measured Mk (k = ξ, αβ, γ, m1) X-ray production cross sections are found to be very high as compared to the theoretical values. The total M X-ray production cross sections for the targets under investigation exhibited Zp2 dependence; Zp denotes the projectile atomic number.

  12. Transfer of a polarized proton beam from AGS to RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Roser, T.; Syphers, M.; Luccio, A.; Underwood, D.

    1997-07-01

    As part of the RHIC project, the RHIC machine will also be able to accelerate polarized proton beam bunches. The bunches will be extracted from the AGS machine, with kinetic energy T = 25 GeV, and transferred into RHIC via the AtR transfer line. When the RHIC machine accelerates polarized protons, it will operate with two full snakes, which define the stable spin direction of a polarized proton beam circulating in each ring, along the vertical. Therefore a polarized proton beam should be injected into the RHIC machine with the stable spin direction along the vertical in order to match that of the RHIC machine. The layout of the dipole magnets of the AtR line creates a dependence, on the injection energy, of the stable spin direction of a polarized proton beam injected into the RHIC machine. In this paper, the study of the stable spin direction (at the RHIC injection point) of a polarized proton beam as a function of the injection energy is presented. A modification of the AtR transfer line, which eliminates this energy dependence (within the range of proton injection energies) of the stable spin direction is also presented.

  13. The Proton launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, A.; Parfitt, J.

    1985-08-01

    The capabilities, design features and missions for the Soviet Proton booster are described. The Proton, outfitted with six strap-on boosters, launched the Vega 1 and 2 Venus/Halley dual mission spacecraft. RD-253 engines burn N2O4 and UDMH fuels, possibly through a preburner before the combustion chamber. A vacuum thrust of 450,000 lb is projected for the engine. Analyses are presented to set the launch weight at 1,600,000 lb, implying that the vehicle is based on an ICBM design. It is suggested that the Proton has sufficiently high noise and vibration levels to prohibit it from being man-rated.

  14. Are protons nonidentical fermions?

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We briefly review the progress of our investigation on the electric (charge) radius of the proton. In order to explain the recently measured proton radius, which is significantly smaller than the standard CODATA value, we assume that the real protons radii are not identical, they are randomly distributed in a certain range. To obtain the measured radius we average the radii and fit both the mean radius and the range. By using an averaged dipole form factor we obtain the charge radius r{sub E} = 0.8333 fm, in accordance with the recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen.

  15. Upgrade of the Proton West secondary beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, L.

    1989-10-10

    As originally designed and operated, protons entering PW6 were steered by a series of EPB dipoles into a single interaction length beryllium target, some 43 feet from the enclosure wall. Ensuing secondary beams, either p{sup +}/{pi}{sup +} or p{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}, were collected by a string of quadrupoles following the target, steered westward, away from the Proton Center line, through PW6 and PW7, and ultimately focussed on experiment production targets located within the large PW8 hall. Around the Spring of 1988 it was decided to upgrade the existing Proton West secondary beamline to allow for transport of a primary proton beam, anticipated to be either 800 or 900 GeV/c, through PW8. This upgrade project, which is now nearing completion, was largely motivated by the then recent approval of E-771, a hadronic beauty production experiment located in PW8. E-771 represents the third in a series of experiments for the large-acceptance dimuon spectrometer presently located at the end of the Proton West beamline. This Technical Memo is a summary of the upgrade --- an explanation of the underlying strategy and a documentation of the final locations of the secondary beamline elements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  17. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, E. J.

    2016-03-01

    The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.

  18. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  19. Lorentz contracted proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedoya Fierro, D.; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2015-09-01

    The proton charge and magnetization density distributions can be related to the well known Sachs electromagnetic form factors G E, M ( q 2) through Fourier transforms, only in the Breit frame. The Breit frame however moves with relativistic velocities in the Lab and a Lorentz boost must be applied before extracting the static properties of the proton from the corresponding densities. Apart from this, the Fourier transform relating the densities and form factors is inherently a non-relativistic expression. We show that the relativistic corrections to it can be obtained by extending the standard Breit equation to higher orders in its 1 /c 2 expansion. We find that the inclusion of the above corrections reduces the size of the proton as determined from electron proton scattering data by about 4%.

  20. Uncertainty estimates for proton-proton fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Bijaya

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the proton-proton fusion cross section using chiral effective field theory (χEFT) and perform a rigorous analysis of the associated uncertainties. The statistical errors in the low-energy constants, which are fitted too scattering and bound-state observables in the pion-nucleon, nucleon-nucleon, and few-nucleon sectors, are propagated to the calculated cross section. We also investigate the sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the high-momentum cutoff of the χEFT. We extract a value for the zero-energy S-factor using a polynomial extrapolant and analyze the errors associated with this procedure. Our result is compared to that of another χEFT calculation in which the wave functions were represented in a truncated Hilbert space with discrete basis states. Supported by the NSF under Grant Nos. PHY-1516077 and PHY- 1555030.

  1. Proton irradiation on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Ken

    1993-01-01

    A computer code is developed by utilizing a radiation transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center to study the proton radiation effects on materials which have potential application in NASA's future space missions. The code covers the proton energy from 0.01 Mev to 100 Gev and is sufficient for energetic protons encountered in both low earth and geosynchronous orbits. With some modification, the code can be extended for particles heavier than proton as the radiation source. The code is capable of calculating the range, stopping power, exit energy, energy deposition coefficients, dose, and cumulative dose along the path of the proton in a target material. The target material can be any combination of the elements with atomic number ranging from 1 to 92, or any compound with known chemical composition. The generated cross section for a material is stored and is reused in future to save computer time. This information can be utilized to calculate the proton dose a material would receive in an orbit when the radiation environment is known. It can also be used to determine, in the laboratory, the parameters such as beam current of proton and irradiation time to attain the desired dosage for accelerated ground testing of any material. It is hoped that the present work be extended to include polymeric and composite materials which are prime candidates for use as coating, electronic components, and structure building. It is also desirable to determine, for ground testing these materials, the laboratory parameters in order to simulate the dose they would receive in space environments. A sample print-out for water subject to 1.5 Mev proton is included as a reference.

  2. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  3. Proton irradiation on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. Ken

    1993-12-01

    A computer code is developed by utilizing a radiation transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center to study the proton radiation effects on materials which have potential application in NASA's future space missions. The code covers the proton energy from 0.01 Mev to 100 Gev and is sufficient for energetic protons encountered in both low earth and geosynchronous orbits. With some modification, the code can be extended for particles heavier than proton as the radiation source. The code is capable of calculating the range, stopping power, exit energy, energy deposition coefficients, dose, and cumulative dose along the path of the proton in a target material. The target material can be any combination of the elements with atomic number ranging from 1 to 92, or any compound with known chemical composition. The generated cross section for a material is stored and is reused in future to save computer time. This information can be utilized to calculate the proton dose a material would receive in an orbit when the radiation environment is known. It can also be used to determine, in the laboratory, the parameters such as beam current of proton and irradiation time to attain the desired dosage for accelerated ground testing of any material. It is hoped that the present work be extended to include polymeric and composite materials which are prime candidates for use as coating, electronic components, and structure building. It is also desirable to determine, for ground testing these materials, the laboratory parameters in order to simulate the dose they would receive in space environments. A sample print-out for water subject to 1.5 Mev proton is included as a reference.

  4. 200 MeV Proton Radiography Studies with a Hand Phantom Using a Prototype Proton CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Plautz, Tia; Bashkirov, V.; Feng, V.; Hurley, F.; Johnson, R.P.; Leary, C.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Rykalin, V.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Schubert, K.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, B.; Steinberg, D.; Witt, M.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Proton radiography has applications in patient alignment and verification procedures for proton beam radiation therapy. In this paper, we report an experiment which used 200 MeV protons to generate proton energy-loss and scattering radiographs of a hand phantom. The experiment used the first-generation proton CT scanner prototype, which was installed on the research beam line of the clinical proton synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). It was found that while both radiographs displayed anatomical details of the hand phantom, the energy-loss radiograph had a noticeably higher resolution. Nonetheless, scattering radiography may yield more contrast between soft and bone tissue than energy-loss radiography, however, this requires further study. This study contributes to the optimization of the performance of the next-generation of clinical proton CT scanners. Furthermore, it demonstrates the potential of proton imaging (proton radiography and CT), which is now within reach of becoming available as a new, potentially low-dose medical imaging modality. PMID:24710156

  5. Proton transport by halorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Varo, G.; Brown, L.S.; Needleman, R.

    1996-05-28

    In halorhodopsin from Natronobacterium pharaonis, a light-driven chloride pump, the chloride binding site also binds azide. When azide is bound at this location the retinal Schiff base transiently deprotonates after photoexcitation with light >530 nm, like in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. As in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin, pyranine detects the release of protons to the bulk. The subsequent reprotonation of the Schiff base is also dependent on azide, but with different kinetics that suggest a shuttling of protons from the surface as described earlier for halorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarium. The azide-dependent, bacteriorhodopsin-like photocycle results in active electrogenic proton transport in the cytoplasmic to extracellular direction, detected in cell envelope vesicle suspensions both with a potential-sensitive electrode and by measuring light-dependent pH change. We conclude that in halorhodopsin an azide bound to the extracellular side of the Schiff base, and another azide shuttling between the Schiff base and the cytoplasmic surface, fulfill the functions of Asp-85 and Asp-96, respectively, in bacteriorhodopsin. Thus, although halorhodopsin is normally a chloride ion pump, it evidently contains all structural requirements, except an internal proton acceptor and a donor, of a proton pump. This observation complements our earlier finding that when a chloride binding site was created in bacteriorhodopsin through replacement of Asp-85 with a threonine, that protein became a chloride ion pump. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  6. PROTON MICROSCOPY AT FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F. E.; Mariam, F. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-12-28

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR(PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  7. Validation and application of a two-dimensional model to simulate soil salt transport under mulched drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo

    2017-04-01

    Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where

  8. Joint inversion of multi-configuration electromagnetic induction measurements to estimate soil wetting patterns during surface drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoon, Khan Z.; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; McCabe, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, development of precise information on the soil wetting pattern is important to optimize drip irrigation system design for sustainable agricultural water management. Usually mathematical models are commonly used to describe infiltration from a point source to design and manage drip irrigation systems. The extent to which water migrates laterally and vertically away from the drip emitter depends on many factors, including dripper discharge rate, the frequency of water application, duration of drip emission, the soil hydraulic characteristics, initial conditions, evaporation, root water uptake and root distribution patterns. However, several simplified assumptions in the mathematical models affect their utility to provide useful design information. In this respect, non-invasive geophysical methods, i.e., low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems are becoming powerful tools to map spatial and temporal soil moisture patterns due to fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil water content and salinity. In this research, a new electromagnetic system, the CMD mini-Explorer, is used for soil characterization to measure the wetting patterns of drip irrigation systems using joint inversion of multi-configuration EMI measurements. Six transects of EMI measurements were carried out in a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water using a drip irrigation system. EMI reference data (ground-truths) were calculated using vertical soil electrical conductivity recorded in different trenches along one of the measurement transects. Reference data is used for calibration to minimize the instrumental shifts which often occur in EMI data. Global and local optimization algorithms are used sequentially, to minimize the misfit between the measured and modeled apparent electrical conductivity (δa) to reconstruct the vertical electrical conductivity profile. The electromagnetic forward model based on full solution of Maxwell

  9. [Effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the leaf photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Tao, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-feng

    2013-02-01

    Taking different genotype cotton varieties as test materials, a soil column culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Under the management mode W4N2, i.e., pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering in combining with basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) , actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Psi PSII), and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) at full-flowering stage all decreased significantly, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was inhibited, as compared with those under common drip irrigation. From full-flowering stage to boll-opening stage, the chlorophyll content, gs, Pn, Psi PSII, and qp increased with increasing water and nitrogen supply, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was enhanced by compensation, which benefited the translocation and distribution of photosynthates to seed cotton. Under the fertilization mode of basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the seed cotton yield of Xinluzaol3 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + common drip irrigation (W3), but that of Xinluzao43 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering (W4). It was concluded that under the condition of pre-sowing irrigation, to appropriately decrease the water and nitrogen supply before full-flowering stage and increase the water and nitrogen supply at middle and late growth stages could extend the active photosynthesis duration and promote the photosynthates allocation to reproductive organ, which would fully exploit the yield-increasing potential of cotton with under

  10. Experiments and evaluation of chaotic behavior of dripping waterin fracture models

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Jil T.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2001-06-01

    Laboratory experiments of water seepage in smooth and rough-walled, inclined fracture models were performed and the monitoring data analyzed for evidence of chaos. One fracture model consisted of smooth, parallel glass plates separated by 0.36 mm. The second model was made with textured glass plates. The fracture model was inclined 60{sup o} from the horizontal. Water was delivered to the fracture model through a capillary tube in contact with the top fracture edge at constant flow rates. Three types of capillary tubes were used: (1) a stainless steel blunt needle of 0.18 mm ID for flow rates of 0.25 to 4 mL/hr, (2) a nylon tube of 0.8 mm ID for flow rates of 0.25 to 10 mL/hr, and (3) a glass tube of 0.75 mm ID for flow rates of 0.5 to 20 mL/hr. Liquid pressure was monitored upstream of the capillary tube. Visual observations showed that water seeped through the fracture models in discrete channels that underwent cycles of snapping and reforming. Observations also showed that liquid segments, or drips, detached at different points along the water channel. The measured liquid pressure responded to the growth and detachment of drips. Separate experiments were carried out to measure pressure time-trends for dripping into open air to compare these data with those obtained in fracture models. Analysis of the pressure time-trends included determination of the time lag from the minimum of the average mutual information function, the local and global embedding dimensions, Lyapunov exponents and the Lyapunov dimension, the Hurst exponent and the entropy as a function of the embedding dimension for each data set. Most of the water pressure data contain oscillations exhibiting chaotic behavior, with local embedding dimensions ranging from 3 to 10, and global embedding dimensions one to two units higher. The higher dimensionality of some of the data sets indicates either the presence of high-dimensional chaos or a significant random component. It was determined that the flow

  11. Determination of methyl isothiocyanate in air downwind of fields treated with metam-sodium by subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N; LeNoir, James S; Krieger, Robert I

    2008-08-27

    Air concentrations of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) were determined near two fields treated with metam-sodium (MS) by subsurface drip irrigation. The two study fields showed measurable airborne MITC residues during application of MS and for periods up to 48 h postapplication. Using a Gaussian plume dispersion model, flux values were estimated for all of the sampling periods. On the basis of the flux estimates, the amount of MITC that volatilized within the 48 h period was about 1.4% of the applied material. Compared to other studies, MITC residues in air measured during application by subsurface drip irrigation were up to four orders-of-magnitude lower than those previously published for applications involving delivery through surface irrigation water. Our measured concentrations of MITC in field air were at levels below current regulatory guidance and thresholds for adverse human health effects.

  12. [Effects of alternate partial root-zone subsurface drip irrigation on potato yield and water use efficiency].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhong-Dong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Fan, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Chao; Zhu, Dong-Hai; Li, Ping; Qiao, Dong-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of alternate partial root-zone subsurface drip irrigation (APRSDI) on the physiological responses, yield, and water use efficiency of potato. Compared with conventional drip irrigation (CDI), APRSDI had less negative effects on the potato leaf photosynthesis rate (P(n)), but decreased the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance significantly. The slightly higher P(n) under CDI was at the expense of consuming more water. No significant difference was observed in the potato yield under APRSDI and CDI, but APRSDI saved the irrigation amount by 25.8% and increased the irrigation water use efficiency and total water use efficiency by 27.5% and 15.3%, respectively, suggesting that APRSDI would be a feasible water-saving irrigation technique for the planting of potato.

  13. Simulation of prompt gamma-ray emission during proton radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Joost M; Shih, Helen A; Seco, Joao

    2012-09-07

    The measurement of prompt gamma rays emitted from proton-induced nuclear reactions has been proposed as a method to verify in vivo the range of a clinical proton radiotherapy beam. A good understanding of the prompt gamma-ray emission during proton therapy is key to develop a clinically feasible technique, as it can facilitate accurate simulations and uncertainty analysis of gamma detector designs. Also, the gamma production cross-sections may be incorporated as prior knowledge in the reconstruction of the proton range from the measurements. In this work, we performed simulations of proton-induced nuclear reactions with the main elements of human tissue, carbon-12, oxygen-16 and nitrogen-14, using the nuclear reaction models of the GEANT4 and MCNP6 Monte Carlo codes and the dedicated nuclear reaction codes TALYS and EMPIRE. For each code, we made an effort to optimize the input parameters and model selection. The results of the models were compared to available experimental data of discrete gamma line cross-sections. Overall, the dedicated nuclear reaction codes reproduced the experimental data more consistently, while the Monte Carlo codes showed larger discrepancies for a number of gamma lines. The model differences lead to a variation of the total gamma production near the end of the proton range by a factor of about 2. These results indicate a need for additional theoretical and experimental study of proton-induced gamma emission in human tissue.

  14. Passive Drip Stain Formation Dynamics of Blood onto Hard Surfaces and Comparison with Simple Fluids for Blood Substitute Development and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Stotesbury, Theresa; Taylor, Michael C; Jermy, Mark C

    2017-01-01

    The spreading dynamics of blood dripping onto hard surfaces is compared to two spreading models. Samples of human blood, porcine blood, and Millipore(®) water were dripped onto cardboard, foamcore, and glass surfaces in low velocity passive drip simulations. Final stain diameter, the total number of spines and scallops, and angle of impact were measured and analyzed. Spreading is best predicted by applying the concept of effective viscosity to the Scheller and Bousfield (R(2)  = 0.91) and Roisman (R(2)  = 0.89) spreading models. In the tested conditions, blood spreads with Newtonian tendencies; however, has quantifiable differences in stain appearance to Newtonian fluids like water. This is encouraging for the development of water-based fluids as synthetic blood substitutes (SBSs). The work presents an assessment platform to quantify and score the performance of simple water-based fluids using final stain diameter (6 points) and number of spines and scallops (6 points) at six dripping heights between 20 and 120 cm. The angle of impact of a stain alone is not a sensitive measure of SBS performance, but stain formation scores the SBS's performance with another 1 point. Together these features generate a quantitative relative ranking system, of a maximum possible 13 points, that can be used to support the use of a particular fluid for the creation of a drip stain. The performance of twenty simple fluids in the simulated dripping assessment test is described. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Greenhouse and field-based studies on the distribution of dimethoate in cotton and its effect on Tetranychus urticae by drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    He, Jiangtao; Zhou, Lijuan; Yao, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Hanhong; Huang, Jiguang

    2017-08-18

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amounts of dimethoate compared with cotton roots and stems, with higher amounts in young leaves compared with old leaves and cotyledon having the lowest amounts among leaves. Field results showed the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae by drip irrigation varied by volume of dripping water, soil pH and dimethoate dosage. Dimethoate applied at 3.00 kg ha(-1) with 200 m(3)  ha(-1) water at weak acidic soil pH (5.70-6.70) through drip irrigation can obtain satisfactory control efficacy (81.49%, 7 days) to T. urticae, without negatively impacting on its natural enemy Neoseiulus cucumeris. The residue of dimethoate in all cotton seed samples were not detectable. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying dimethoate by drip irrigation for control of T. urticae on cotton. This knowledge could aid in the applicability of dimethoate by drip irrigation for field management of T. urticae populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. [Regulation effect of water and nitrogen on cotton biomass and yield under different drip irrigation patterns].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-ling; Zhang, Fu-cang

    2010-11-01

    Three levels (low, medium, and high) of irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate were installed in a field experiment to study the regulation effect of water and nitrogen on the cotton biomass and yield under different drip irrigation patterns. Under the irrigation patterns 1 lateral 4 rows, 2 laterals 4 rows, and 2 laterals 6 rows, when the irrigation amount increased from low (90, 140, and 140 mm) to medium level (150, 200, and 200 mm), the aboveground dry biomass was increased by 9.2%, 37.9%, and 23.5%, and the seed yield was increased by 19.1%, 14.1%, and 16.0%, respectively. When the irrigation amount increased from medium to high level (210, 260, and 260 mm), the aboveground dry biomass was increased by 15.8%, 19.1%, and 16.7%, and the seed yield was increased by 7.7%, 11.2%, and 9.5%, respectively. When the nitrogen application rate changed from low (67.6 kg x hm(-2)) to medium level (95.2 kg x hm(-2)) the aboveground dry biomass under irrigation pattern 2 laterals 4 rows was increased by 14.3%, the seed yield under irrigation pattern 1 lateral 4 rows was increased by 22. 2% , while these two parameters under other irrigation patterns had no significant change. When the nitrogen application rate changed from medium to high level (122.8 kg x hm(-2)), the seed yield under the irrigation patterns 1 lateral 4 rows, 2 laterals 4 rows, and 2 laterals 6 rows was increased by 7.4%, 13.9%, and 9.9%, respectively, but the aboveground dry biomass had no significant change. Comparing with that under the irrigation patterns 1 lateral 4 rows and 2 laterals 6 rows, the regulation effect of water and nitrogen on the aboveground dry biomass and seed yield under irrigation pattern 2 laterals 4 rows was more apparent. As for the same water and nitrogen treatments, the aboveground dry biomass and seed yield were higher under the irrigation pattern 2 laterals 4 rows, suggesting that this drip irrigation pattern was most appropriate to the water- and nitrogen management of

  17. Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while

  18. Technical Basis Document No. 6: Waste Package and Drip Shield Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Pasupathi, V; Nair, P; Gordon, G; McCright, D; Gdowski, G; Carroll, S; Steinborn, T; Summers, T; Wong, F; Rebak, R; Lian, T; Ilevbare, G; Lee, J; Hua, F; Payer, J

    2003-08-01

    The waste package and drip shield will experience a wide range of interactive environmental conditions and degradation modes that will determine the overall performance of the waste package and repository. The operable modes of degradation are determined by the temperature regime of operation (region), and are summarized here. Dry-Out Region (T {ge} 120 C; 50 to 400 Years): During the pre-closure period, the waste package will be kept dry by ventilation air. During the thermal pulse, heat generated by radioactive decay will eventually increase the temperature of the waste package, drip shield and drift wall to a level above the boiling point, where the probability of seepage into drifts will become insignificant. Further heating will push the waste package surface temperature above the deliquescence point of expected salt mixtures, thereby preventing the formation of deliquescence brines from dust deposits and humid air. Phase and time-temperature-transformation diagrams predicted for Alloy 22, and validated with experimental data, indicates no significant phase instabilities (LRO and TCP precipitation) at temperatures below 300 C for 10,000 years. Neither will dry oxidation at these elevated temperatures limit waste package life. After the peak temperature is reached, the waste package will begin to cool, eventually reaching a point where deliquescence brine formation may occur. However, corrosion testing of Alloy 22 underneath such films has shown no evidence of life-limiting localized corrosion. Transition Region (120 C {ge} T {ge} 100 C; 400 to 1,000 Years): During continued cooling, the temperature of the drift wall will drop to a level close to the boiling point of the seepage brine, thus permitting the onset of seepage. Corrosion in a concentrated, possibly aggressive, liquid-phase brine, evolved through evaporative concentration, is possible while in this region. However, based upon chemical divide theory, most ({ge} 99%) of the seepage water entering the

  19. The safety of thiamethoxam to pollinating bumble bees (Bombus terrestris L.) when applied to tomato plants through drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, A L; Cánovas, M; Senn, R; Correia, R

    2005-01-01

    Thiamethoxam, mainly sold under the trademark of Actara, is a neonicotinoid widely used in covered vegetables for the control of aphids and whiteflies. In these crops, and particularly in covered tomatoes, bumble-bees are used for cross-pollination as an alternative to labour intensive manual techniques. In this study, made on tomatoes grown in separated greenhouse plots in Murcia, Southern Spain, thiamethoxam was applied through drip irrigation at a rate of 200 g ai/ha, and as a split application of the same rate, to evaluate the effects on pollinating bumble bees compared to a foliar application of a toxic standard. The results showed that the toxic foliar standard had a clear effect on the pollination of tomato flowers, declining to zero pollination two weeks after application, whereas both the single and split drip irrigation applications of Actara had no effect on pollination when compared to the control plots. The count of dead adults and larvae did not show any differences between the treatments, whereas the measurement of sugar water consumption was shown to correlate well with pollination. The consumption of sugar water declined in the toxic standard plots by 69% with respect to the control, whilst the decline in lower dose drip irrigation application was only 3%. In regard to hive weight, and number of adults and brood after destructive sampling; there were no statistical differences between the treatments but a negative effect of the foliar treatment was observed. Based on these results we can conclude that a split application of Actara applied in drip irrigation to the soil/substrate has no effect on the bumble-bees used in tomatoes for pollination.

  20. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A; Pasciak, A; Wagner, L

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle. These results will help determine an appropriate set of SMPB to be used for measuring the DRIP.

  1. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  2. Proton charge extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Jesse R.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how corrections to S -state energy levels En S in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to En S are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order rp/aB times the size of the leading order term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the current discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of rp/aB that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to , rather than , as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to n =7 .

  3. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Schroeder, K.T.; Zupancic, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (∼3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (∼24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  4. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (˜3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na-Mg-SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (˜24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  5. The Fire Distinguisher: a Baseline Study of Semi-Arid Karst Drip Waters in Wildman's Cave at Wombeyan, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the impact of fire on karst systems in a semi-arid environment. There is limited knowledge of hydrological and geochemical changes that result from a fire over a karst system. Soil science literature has shown that fire can change surface properties and from this it has been hypothesized that these impacts will be mirrored in an underlying cave (see Figure). This project is the first phase of a pre/post-fire study of organic matter, drip rates, trace metal composition, and stable isotope composition changes in a semi-arid cave system. This project aims establishes the baseline hydrogeochemical processes at Wildman's cave, at Wombeyan in NSW, Australia. The Wildman's cave site has not been studied previously, so this study adds to expanding literature on cave systems. This pre-fire monitoring provides a new dataset for semiarid karst processes. We report the first 8 months of an ongoing dataset, obtained through collection of dripwater samples, with drip loggers indicating drip rates over the same period. Dripwaters were analysed for pH and EC, cation/anion content, organic matter content and stable isotope composition. Following the successful completion of this baseline study, post fire data will be obtained via a controlled burn. This will expand on current knowledge of the use of speleothems as accurate records of past climates and fire history.

  6. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-10-04

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (~3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO{sub 4} salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  7. Paintable Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells with Engineered Perovskite/Carbon Interface Using Carbon Nanotubes Dripping Method.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaehoon; Lee, Kisu; Yun, Juyoung; Yu, Haejun; Lee, Jungsup; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-08-07

    Paintable carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are of particular interest due to their material and fabrication process costs, as well as their moisture stability. However, printing the carbon paste on the perovskite layer limits the quality of the interface between the perovskite layer and carbon electrode. Herein, an attempt to enhance the performance of the paintable carbon-based PSCs is made using a modified solvent dripping method that involves dripping of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which is dispersed in chlorobenzene solution. This method allows CNTs to penetrate into both the perovskite film and carbon electrode, facilitating fast hole transport between the two layers. Furthermore, this method is results in increased open circuit voltage (Voc ) and fill factor (FF), providing better contact at the perovskite/carbon interfaces. The best devices made with CNT dripping show 13.57% power conversion efficiency and hysteresis-free performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Relevance of canopy drip for the accumulation of nitrogen in moss used as biomonitors for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michaela; Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Leblond, Sébastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Mohr, Karsten; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Thöni, Lotti; Beudert, Burkhard; Dieffenbach-Fries, Helga; Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2015-12-15

    High atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) impacts functions and structures of N limited ecosystems. Due to filtering and related canopy drip effects forests are particularly exposed to N deposition. Up to now, this was proved by many studies using technical deposition samplers but there are only some few studies analysing the canopy drip effect on the accumulation of N in moss and related small scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Therefore, we investigated N deposition and related accumulation of N in forests and in (neighbouring) open fields by use of moss sampled across seven European countries. Sampling and chemical analyses were conducted according to the experimental protocol of the European Moss Survey. The ratios between the measured N content in moss sampled inside and outside of forests were computed and used to calculate estimates for non-sampled sites. Potentially influencing environmental factors were integrated in order to detect their relationships to the N content in moss. The overall average N content measured in moss was 20.0mgg(-1) inside and 11.9mgg(-1) outside of forests with highest N values in Germany inside of forests. Explaining more than 70% of the variance, the multivariate analyses confirmed that the sampling site category (site with/without canopy drip) showed the strongest correlation with the N content in moss. Spatial variances due to enhanced dry deposition in vegetation stands should be considered in future monitoring and modelling of atmospheric N deposition.

  9. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps.

    PubMed

    Buch-Pedersen, M J; Pedersen, B P; Veierskov, B; Nissen, P; Palmgren, M G

    2009-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK(a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires.

  10. Ground-State Proton Transfer Kinetics in Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer plays an important role in the optical properties of green fluorescent protein (GFP). While much is known about excited-state proton transfer reactions (ESPT) in GFP occurring on ultrafast time scales, comparatively little is understood about the factors governing the rates and pathways of ground-state proton transfer. We have utilized a specific isotopic labeling strategy in combination with one-dimensional 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to install and monitor a 13C directly adjacent to the GFP chromophore ionization site. The chemical shift of this probe is highly sensitive to the protonation state of the chromophore, and the resulting spectra reflect the thermodynamics and kinetics of the proton transfer in the NMR line shapes. This information is complemented by time-resolved NMR, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and steady-state absorbance and fluorescence measurements to provide a picture of chromophore ionization reactions spanning a wide time domain. Our findings indicate that proton transfer in GFP is described well by a two-site model in which the chromophore is energetically coupled to a secondary site, likely the terminal proton acceptor of ESPT, Glu222. Additionally, experiments on a selection of GFP circular permutants suggest an important role played by the structural dynamics of the seventh β-strand in gating proton transfer from bulk solution to the buried chromophore. PMID:25184668

  11. The physics of proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-21

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  12. The physics of proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy. PMID:25803097

  13. Infiltration from a surface point source and drip irrigation: 1. The midpoint soil water pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revol, P.; Vauclin, M.; Vachaud, G.; Clothier, B. E.

    1997-08-01

    Bresler [1978] proposed a procedure for drip irrigation design which is focused on the midpoint soil water pressure hc. We present a practical field test of this approach in order to evaluate the validity of the underlying assumptions. The simulated hc values were obtained from Raats' [1971] steady state theory for 32 points in the field where the hydraulic conductivity parameters Ks and αwere measured. The hc values were measured at the same locations during microirrigation of a maize crop. Measured hc's appear to be lower than the simulated ones, especially late in the season. The measured spatial variability in hc appeared to be higher than the simulated ones. This could well have been caused by root uptake activity, which is not considered in the analysis, as well as by the large but typical drippers spacing of d = 1.00 m. Thus the tensiometers could have been beyond the practical limit of wetting. Consequences for design and management are important. For design, even if a high hc value is chosen, there is no real guarantee that the wetting would be effective at the midpoint. For irrigation management, tensiometer placement too far from the dripper would lead to overirrigation, so for a large dripper spacing d, the midpoint placement is not judicious.

  14. [Microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber under different subsurface drip irrigation scheduling].

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; He, Hong-Jun; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zi-Kun

    2014-08-01

    The effects of subsurface drip irrigation scheduling on microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber in solar greenhouse were studied in this paper. The results showed that the soil microbial biomass C and N, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and values of AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation water amount. The values of microbial C and N, basal respiration and metabolic quotient in I2 treatments were significantly higher than those in I1 treatments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The numbers of bacteria, actinomyces and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase, catalase and polyhenoloxidase were significantly higher in the 0.8E(p) treatment than in the other treatments. The numbers of bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the activities of urease, phosphatase and sucrase in I2 treatments were significantly higher than in I1 treatment, the actinomyces number and activities of catalase and polyhenoloxidase had no significant difference between I1 and I2 treatments, however, the fungi number in I2 treatments were significantly lower than in I2 treaments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber were strengthened in the I20.8E(p) treatment, meanwhile, the soil microflora was improved and the soil enzymes activities were enhanced, therefore, the cucumber growth was promoted as well.

  15. Water flow and multicomponent solute transport in drip-irrigated lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raij, Iael; Šimûnek, Jiří; Ben-Gal, Alon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2016-08-01

    Controlled experiments and modeling are crucial components in the evaluation of the fate of water and solutes in environmental and agricultural research. Lysimeters are commonly used to determine water and solute balances and assist in making sustainable decisions with respect to soil reclamation, fertilization, or irrigation with low-quality water. While models are cost-effective tools for estimating and preventing environmental damage by agricultural activities, their value is highly dependent on the accuracy of their parameterization, often determined by calibration. The main objective of this study was to use measured major ion concentrations collected from drip-irrigated lysimeters to calibrate the variably saturated water flow model HYDRUS (2D/3D) coupled with the reactive transport model UNSATCHEM. Irrigation alternated between desalinated and brackish waters. Lysimeter drainage and soil solution samples were collected for chemical analysis and used to calibrate the model. A second objective was to demonstrate the potential use of the calibrated model to evaluate lower boundary design options of lysimeters with respect to leaching fractions determined using drainage water fluxes, chloride concentrations, and overall salinity of drainage water, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) in the profile. The model showed that, in the long term, leaching fractions calculated with electrical conductivity values would be affected by the lower boundary condition pressure head, while those calculated with chloride concentrations and water fluxes would not be affected. In addition, clear dissimilarities in ESP profiles were found between lysimeters with different lower boundary conditions, suggesting a potential influence on hydraulic conductivities and flow patterns.

  16. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling under drip irrigation for maize crop in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; El-Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Taha, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area.

  17. Evaluation of Hydrus-2D model for solute distribution in subsurface drip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Claudinei; Bizari, Douglas; Grecco, Katarina

    2015-04-01

    The competition for water use between agriculture, industry and population has become intense over the years, requiring a rational use of this resource for food production. The subsurface drip irrigation can help producers with the optimization of operating parameters such as frequency and duration of irrigation, flow, spacing and depth of the dripper installation. This information can be obtained by numerical simulations using mathematical models, thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the HYDRUS-2D model from experimental data to predict the size of the wet bulbs generated by emitters of different application rates (1.0 and 1.6 L h-1). The results showed that horizontal displacement (bulb diameter) remained the largest in all the bulbs, observed both in experimental trials and estimated by the model and the correlation between them was high, above 0.90 to below 16% error. We conclude that the HYDRUS-2D model can be used to estimate the dimensions of the wet bulb getting new information on the sizing of the irrigation system.

  18. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    PubMed

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

  19. Field salinity profile development under drip irrigation with high-sulfate water

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, I.

    1988-03-01

    This field study investigated the buildup of soil salinity and distribution of salts as influenced by gypsum-saturated water applied through a drip-irrigation system and leaching that occurs by winter rains. Amounts of water applied were 50 and 60 L/plant per week in the first and second irrigation seasons, respectively. The soil was a Pellic Vertisol that contained no gypsum. Although highly soluble salts accumulated during the irrigation season, particularly in the soil surface at a lateral distance of 20 to 40 cm from the emitter, they decreased to their initial values after leaching by winter rains. Precipitation of Ca with SO/sub 4/ as gypsum during the irrigation season was greater than dissolution of gypsum and leaching of these ions deeper in the soil by the 390 mm of winter rains. This resulted in a soil profile saturated with gypsum with a uniform EC/sub e/ of 3 dS m/sup /minus/1/ and Ca and SO/sub 4/ concentration levels of about 30 mol /plus minus/ m/sup -3/ throughout the soil profile in the 0- to 120-cm depth. An increase in soil EC/sub e/ occurred throughout the wetting front, which must be considered the lowest starting salinity for the beginning of each irrigation season. The increase in sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was not at a level to adversely affect the infiltration capacity of the soil.

  20. Water use efficiency of different sugarcane genotypes irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. L. B. O.; Pires, R. C. M.; Ribeiro, R. V.; Machado, E. C.; Rolim, G. S.; Magalhães Filho, J. R.; Marchiori, P. E. R.

    2012-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supplying should be take into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The aim of this work was to evaluate water consumption and the water use efficiency of two sug