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Sample records for proton heavy particles

  1. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  2. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  3. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  4. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. PMID:24074929

  5. Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-01-14

    Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles are performed using a data sample of 19.1 fb-1 from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of \\( \\sqrt{s}=8 \\) TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess is observed above the estimated background and limits are placed on the mass of long-lived particles in various supersymmetric models. Long-lived tau sleptons in models with gauge-mediated symmetry breaking are excluded up to masses between 440 and 385 GeV for tan β between 10 and 50, with a 290 GeV limit in the case where only direct tau slepton production is considered. In the context of simplified LeptoSUSY models, where sleptons are stable and have a mass of 300 GeV, squark and gluino masses are excluded up to a mass of 1500 and 1360 GeV, respectively. Directly produced charginos, in simplified models where they are nearly degenerate to the lightest neutralino, are excluded up to a mass of 620 GeV. As a result, R-hadrons, composites containing a gluino, bottom squark or top squark, are excluded up to a mass of 1270, 845 and 900 GeV, respectively, using the full detector; and up to a mass of 1260, 835 and 870 GeV using an approach disregarding information from the muon spectrometer.

  6. Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2015-01-14

    Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles are performed using a data sample of 19.1 fb-1 from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of \\( \\sqrt{s}=8 \\) TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess is observed above the estimated background and limits are placed on the mass of long-lived particles in various supersymmetric models. Long-lived tau sleptons in models with gauge-mediated symmetry breaking are excluded up to masses between 440 and 385 GeV for tan β between 10 and 50, with a 290 GeV limit in the case where only direct tau slepton production ismore » considered. In the context of simplified LeptoSUSY models, where sleptons are stable and have a mass of 300 GeV, squark and gluino masses are excluded up to a mass of 1500 and 1360 GeV, respectively. Directly produced charginos, in simplified models where they are nearly degenerate to the lightest neutralino, are excluded up to a mass of 620 GeV. As a result, R-hadrons, composites containing a gluino, bottom squark or top squark, are excluded up to a mass of 1270, 845 and 900 GeV, respectively, using the full detector; and up to a mass of 1260, 835 and 870 GeV using an approach disregarding information from the muon spectrometer.« less

  7. RBE and genetic susceptibility of mouse and rat spermatogonial stem cells to protons, heavy charged particles and 1.5 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglenov, A.; Fedorenko, B.; Kaltenboeck, B.

    The main purpose of the present study is to provide data on RBE and genetic susceptibility in the mouse and the rat when exposed to protons, HZE particles and neutrons. Genetic damage from exposure to 50 MeV and 9 GeV protons, 4 GeV/nucleon helium ions, 4 GeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1.5 MeV neutrons was studied in adult (CBA × C57Bl/6J) F1 mice. Damage from 9 GeV protons and 4 GeV helium ions was studied in adult Wistar rats. The incidence of reciprocal translocations (RT) induced in the spermatogonial stem cells of each species was recorded. RBE values were derived by comparing linear regression coefficients from dose-responses within the same dose-range for each of the radiation types tested and 60Co γ-rays or by means of a direct nonparametric method. RT yields measured after mouse and rat spermatogonial irradiation with protons, heavy charged particles and neutrons fit the linear model of the dose-response relationship. Relative to 60Co γ-rays, RBE values are as follows for mouse spermatogonia: 0.9 for 50 MeV protons; 1.3 for 9 GeV protons; 0.7 for 4 GeV helium ions; and 1.3 for 4 GeV carbon ions. For rat spermatogonia, values were: 1.7 for 9 GeV protons and 1.3 for helium ions. Compared to mice irradiated using the same experimental design, rats were more susceptible to high-LET radiations, with susceptibility assessed by genetic damage to their spermatogonial stem cells. The RBE of 1.5 MeV neutron is about 6.6.

  8. Heavy particle production at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Haber, H.E.; Gunion, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Predictions for the production of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles, and other colored systems at high energy due to intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wavefunction are given. We also suggest the possibility of using asymmetric collision energies (e.g., via intersecting rings at the SSC) in order to facilitate the study of forward and diffractive particle production processes. 9 references.

  9. Evidence for the Heavy Baryon Resonance State Lambda b*0 Observed with the CDF II Detector, and Studies of New Particle Tracking Technologies Using the LANSCE Proton Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palni, Prabhakar

    To discover and probe the properties of new particles, we need to collide highly energetic particles. The Tevatron at Fermilab has collided protons and anti-protons at very high energies. These collisions produce short lived and stable particles, some known and some previously unknown. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions and discover new elementary particles. To study the interaction between high energy charged particles and the detector materials often requires development of new instruments. Thus this dissertation involves a measurement at a contemporary experiment and development of technologies for related future experiments that will build on the contemporary one. Using data from proton-antiproton collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96TeV recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron, evidence for the excited resonance state Lambda_b. *0 is presented in its Lambda_b. 0 pi. + pi. - decay,followed by the Lambda_b. 0 -> Lambda_c. + pi. - and Lambda_c. + -> p K. - pi. +decays. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.6 fb. -1 collected by an online event selection process basedon charged particle tracks displaced from the proton-antiproton interaction point. The significance of the observed signal is 3.5sigma The mass of the observed state is found to be 5919.22 +/- 0.76 MeV/c 2 in agreement with similar findings in proton-proton collision experiments. To predict the radiation damage to the components of new particle tracking detectors, prototype devices are irradiated at test beam facilities that reproduce the radiation conditions expected. The profile of the test beam and the fluence applied per unit time must be known. We have developed a technique to monitor in real time the beam profile and fluence using an array of pin semiconductor diodes whose forward voltage is linear with fluence over the fluence regime relevant to, for example, silicon tracking detectors in the LHC upgrade era

  10. Proton Distribution in Heavy Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Johnson, M. H; Teller, E.

    1953-11-13

    It is reasoned that, from considerations connected with beta-decay stability and Coulomb repulsion forces, a neutron excess is developed on the surface of heavy nuclei. Several consequences of this qualitative analysis in nucleon interactions are briefly noted. (K.S.)

  11. Proton and heavy ion therapy.

    PubMed

    Larsson, B

    1975-01-01

    Penetrating ion beams are considered interesting supplements to the types of radiation, mostly electrons and gamma rays, that have dominated in radiation research and radiotherapy during the last decades. Biomedical experimentations and clinical studies ar larger ion accelerators (100-1000 MeV/amu) are therefore undertaken in order to exploit their possible clinical use in cancer therapy. It is concluded that an accelerator that permits effective use of protons (ca. 200 MeV) and deutrons (ca. 50 MeV, for neutron therapy) located in a central hospital would represent a convenient tool for clinical investigations at a larger scale. PMID:1201773

  12. [Proton therapy and particle accelerators].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Since the high energy accelerator plan was changed from a 40 GeV direct machine to a 12GeV cascade one, a 500 MeV rapid cycling booster synchrotron was installed between the injector linac and the 12 GeV main ring at KEK, National Lab. for High Energy Physics. The booster beams were used not only for injection to the main ring but also for medical use. Their energy was reduced to 250 MeV by a graphite block for clinical trial of cancer therapy. In 1970's, pi(-) or heavy ions were supposed to be promising. Although advantage of protons with Bragg Peak was pointed out earlier, they seemed effective only for eye melanoma at that time. In early 1980's, it was shown that they were effective for deep-seated tumor by Tsukuba University with KEK beams. The first dedicated facility was built at Loma Linda University Medical Center. Its synchrotron was made by Fermi National Accelerator Lab. Since a non-resonant accelerating rf cavity was installed, operation of the synchrotron became much easier. Later, innovation of the cyclotron was achieved. Its weight was reduced from 1,000 ton to 200 ton. Some of the cyclotrons are equipped with superconducting coils.

  13. Relationship between linear energy transfer and behavioral toxicity in rats following exposure to protons and heavy particles. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Kandasamy, S.B.

    1991-12-31

    Rats were exposed to protons (155 MeV) or to helium (165 MeV/amu), neon (522 MeV/amu) or argon (670 MeV/amu) particles to evaluate the behavioral toxicity of these types of radiations. Behavioral toxicity was assessed using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Exposure to all types of radiation produced dose-dependent increases in the intensity of the acquired taste aversion. However, the intensity of the aversions, measured as the dose that produced a 50% decrease in the intake of the sucrose-conditioned stimulus, did not show significant variation as a function of the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between LET and behavioral toxicity.

  14. A Medical Application of Nuclear Physics: Particle Radiotherapy with Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Jonathan B.

    2006-10-01

    Since the discovery of radiation, applications have been made to medicine. The advent of higher energy particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century enabled modern tele-therapy using relatively high energy x-rays and particles. Today mega-voltage (MV) x-rays are the most common modality of delivering high doses of potentially life saving radiation to a wide variety of disease, mostly malignant cancers. However, the maximum radiation dose that can be delivered is always limited by the effects to critical surrounding biologic structures. In many cases, due to their physical properties, ``heavy'' particle radiotherapy with protons and light ions may provide an advantage in this respect over MV x-rays allowing either a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the volume or, for the same dose, reducing the concomitant damage to critical structures. This motivation, together with recent advances in particle therapy systems that are making the technology more readily available, is serving to grow the field of particle therapy. In particular, treatment with fast protons is becoming more widespread with over 20 facilities operating worldwide and more under construction. This presentation will provide an introduction to heavy particle therapy and additional details specifically on proton therapy.

  15. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  16. Promise and Pitfalls of Heavy-Particle Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mitin, Timur; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam therapy, the most common form of heavy-particle radiation therapy, is not a new invention, but it has gained considerable public attention because of the high cost of installing and operating the rapidly increasing number of treatment centers. This article reviews the physical properties of proton beam therapy and focuses on the up-to-date clinical evidence comparing proton beam therapy with the more standard and widely available radiation therapy treatment alternatives. In a cost-conscious era of health care, the hypothetical benefits of proton beam therapy will have to be supported by demonstrable clinical gains. Proton beam therapy represents, through its scale and its cost, a battleground for the policy debate around managing expensive technology in modern medicine. PMID:25113772

  17. Evidence for the Heavy Baryon Resonance State $\\Lambda_{b}^{\\ast0}$ Observed with the CDF II Detector, and Studies of New Particle Tracking Technologies Using the LANSCE Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Palni, Prabhakar

    2014-05-01

    To discover and probe the properties of new particles, we need to collide highly energetic particles. The Tevatron at Fermilab has collided protons and anti-protons at very high energies. These collisions produce short lived and stable particles, some known and some previously unknown. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions and discover new elementary particles. To study the interaction between high energy charged particles and the detector materials often requires development of new instruments. Thus this dissertation involves a measurement at a contemporary experiment and development of technologies for related future experiments that will build on the contemporary one.

  18. Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons. [on cells of mammals, bacteria and viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, N. I.; Vorozhtsova, S. V.; Krasavin, Y. A.; Mashinskaya, T. Y.; Savchenko, N. Y.; Fedorov, B. S.; Khlaponina, V. F.; Shelegedin, V. N.; Gut, L.; Sabo, L.

    1974-01-01

    Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons are studied on cells of mammals, bacteria, viruses and DNA of bacteria. Results show that the dose effect dependence bears an exponential character; the reduction of RBE as LET of particle increases reflects the different character of microdistribution of absorbed energy in biological objects with different levels of biological organization.

  19. Simulations of heavy ion heating by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves driven by proton temperature anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, M.

    1985-01-01

    Heating of heavy ions by the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which are driven by proton temperature anisotropies, is studied by means of hybrid particle simulations. Initially, relaxation of the temperature anisotropies in the proton distribution and isotropic heating of the heavy ions are observed (phase I), followed by substantial perpendicular heating of the heavy ions (phase II). The heavy ions are distinctly gyrophase modulated by the EMIC waves. The isotropic heating in phase I is due to magnetic trapping by the excited proton cyclotron waves. The perpendicular heating in phase II is attributed to cyclotron resonance with the EMIC waves, which becomes possible by means of the preceding heating in phase I. Saturation of the EMIC instability is instead attributed to magnetic trapping of the majority ions: protons. When the proton anisotropy is very large, frequency shift (decrease) of the proton cyclotron waves to less than 1/2 Ohm(p) is observed. The present mechanism is not only relevant to He(+) heating in the dayside equator of the magnetosphere, but it also predicts hot He2(+) ions behind the earth's bow shock.

  20. Comparison of the SPE Model with Proton and Heavy Ion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Badhwar, Gautam

    1999-01-01

    Proton data from the GOES 6 and 7 satellites and heavy ion data from the IMP-8 satellite have been compared to the expected results of Nymmik's new model for solar particle event fluences. This model calculates the energy spectra of Ions for protons through nickel for solar particle events, based upon the observed proton integral fluence above 30 MeV. Based upon 27 observed proton events of solar cycle 22, and three large historical events, with integral fluences above 30 MeV of greater than 106 particles/cm2, a reasonable agreement with model predictions is seen for more than half of the events. However, several events show a marked departure from the model predictions, leading to the conclusion that there may exist more than a single class of event, or that it may be necessary to include additional parameters within the model, such as solar disk position of the source flare, or height of disturbance in the solar corona. Data for heavy Ions, (oxygen and iron), were limited to a total of six solar particle events, of which only two occurred in solar cycle 22. The agreement between data and the model predictions appeared to be quite good, however this agreement was sensitively dependent upon the value taken for the proton fluence above 30 MeV.

  1. On compositional variations of heavy ions during solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Intensity-time profiles of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions (C, O, Fe) in the MeV/nucleon energy range have been analyzed for one solar particle event following the solar flare on September 23, 1978. The data have been obtained with the wide angle double dE/dx-E sensor of the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland experiment onboard ISEE-3. Time variations in the iron to helium ratio of up to 2 orders of magnitude and a significant variation of the O/He ratio during this event have been found, whereas the C/O-ratio at the same energy/nucleon appears to be time independent. The influence of a rigidity dependent mean free path in interplanetary space and of rigidity dependent coronal propagation on heavy ion ratios during solar particle events was investigated.

  2. Accelerators for heavy-charged-particle radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Coutrakon, George B

    2007-08-01

    This paper focuses on current and future designs of medical hadron accelerators for treating cancers and other diseases. Presently, five vendors and several national laboratories have produced heavy-particle medical accelerators for accelerating nuclei from hydrogen (protons) up through carbon and oxygen. Particle energies are varied to control the beam penetration depth in the patient. As of the end of 2006, four hospitals and one clinic in the United States offer proton treatments; there are five more such facilities in Japan. In most cases, these facilities use accelerators designed explicitly for cancer treatments. The accelerator types are a combination of synchrotrons, cyclotrons, and linear accelerators; some carry advanced features such as respiration gating, intensity modulation, and rapid energy changes, which contribute to better dose conformity on the tumor when using heavy charged particles. Recent interest in carbon nuclei for cancer treatment has led some vendors to offer carbon-ion and proton capability in their accelerator systems, so that either ion can be used. These features are now being incorporated for medical accelerators in new facilities.

  3. Physical Modelling of Proton and Heavy Ion Radiation using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, M.; Bezak, E.

    2012-10-01

    Protons and heavy ion particles are considered to be ideal particles for use in external beam radiotherapy due to superior properties of the dose distribution that results when these particles are incident externally and due to their relative biological effectiveness. While significant research has been performed into the properties and physical dose characteristics of heavy ions, the nuclear reactions (direct and fragmentation) undergone by He4, C12 and Ne20 nuclei used in radiotherapy in materials other than water is still largely unexplored. In the current project, input code was developed for the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant 4 version 9.3 to simulate the transport of several mono-energetic heavy ions through water. The relative dose contributions from secondary particles and nuclear fragments originating from the primary particles were investigated for each ion in both water and dense bone (ICRU) media. The results indicated that the relative contribution to the total physical dose from nuclear fragments increased with both increasing particle mass and with increasing medium density. In the case of 150 MeV protons, secondary particles were shown to contribute less than 0.5% of the peak dose and as high as 25% when using 10570 MeV neon ions in bone. When water was substituted for a bone medium, the contributions from fragments increased by more than 6% for C12 and Ne20.

  4. Heavy ion linac as a high current proton beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Winfried; Adonin, Aleksey; Appel, Sabrina; Gerhard, Peter; Heilmann, Manuel; Heymach, Frank; Hollinger, Ralph; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Vormann, Hartmut; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2015-05-01

    A significant part of the experimental program at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is dedicated to pbar physics requiring a high number of cooled pbars per hour. The primary proton beam has to be provided by a 70 MeV proton linac followed by two synchrotrons. The new FAIR proton linac will deliver a pulsed proton beam of up to 35 mA of 36 μ s duration at a repetition rate of 4 Hz (maximum). The GSI heavy ion linac (UNILAC) is able to deliver world record uranium beam intensities for injection into the synchrotrons, but it is not suitable for FAIR relevant proton beam operation. In an advanced machine investigation program it could be shown that the UNILAC is able to provide for sufficient high intensities of CH3 beam, cracked (and stripped) in a supersonic nitrogen gas jet into protons and carbon ions. This advanced operational approach will result in up to 3 mA of proton intensity at a maximum beam energy of 20 MeV, 1 0 0 μ s pulse duration and a repetition rate of up to 2.7 Hz delivered to the synchrotron SIS18. Recent linac beam measurements will be presented, showing that the UNILAC is able to serve as a proton FAIR injector for the first time, while the performance is limited to 25% of the FAIR requirements.

  5. Study of heavy flavored particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nemati, Bijan

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  6. Tunable proton stopping power of deuterium-tritium by mixing heavy ion dopants for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, D. B.; Hu, L. X.; Wang, W. Q.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Zhang, G. B.; Ouyang, J. M.; Shao, F. Q.; Zhuo, H. B.

    2016-03-01

    The theoretical model of charged-particle stopping power for the Coulomb logarithm lnΛb ≥ 2 plasma [Phys. Rev. Lett., 20, 3059 (1993)] is extended to investigate the transport of the energetic protons in a compressed deuterium-tritium (DT) pellet mixed with heavy ion dopants. It shows that an increase of mixed-ion charge state and density ratio results in the substantial enhancement of the proton stopping power, which leads to a shorter penetration distance and an earlier appearance of the Bragg peak with a higher magnitude. The effect of hot-spot mix on the proton-driven fast ignition model is discussed. It is found that ignition time required for a small mixed hot-spot can be significantly reduced with slightly increased beam energy. Nevertheless, the ignition cannot maintain for a long time due to increasing alpha-particle penetration distance and energy loss from mechanical work and thermal conduction at high temperatures.

  7. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  8. Diffractive Higgs Production from Intrinsic Heavy Flavors in the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Kopeliovich, Boris; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques

    2006-03-31

    We propose a novel mechanism for exclusive diffractive Higgs production pp {yields} pHp in which the Higgs boson carries a significant fraction of the projectile proton momentum. This mechanism will provide a clear experimental signal for Higgs production due to the small background in this kinematic region. The key assumption underlying our analysis is the presence of intrinsic heavy flavor components of the proton bound state, whose existence at high light-cone momentum fraction x has growing experimental and theoretical support. We also discuss the implications of this picture for exclusive diffractive quarkonium and other channels.

  9. Residual radiation damage in the mouse foot after exposure to heavy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    Mice receiving a first treatment with graded doses of various heavy charged particles (protons and heavy ions) to one of their hind legs were re-exposed to a fixed dose of x rays eight months later to study the memory of residual damage from the first treatment. No significant memory of the first radiation exposure was observed for acute skin reaction. However, there is an indication of memory for foot deformity. The results do not seem to indicate any significant differences in memory after exposure to 60Co gamma rays compared with protons or heavy ions, if biological effectiveness of the doses is taken into consideration.

  10. Shielding of manned space vehicles against protons and alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.; Santoro, R. T.; Barish, J.; Claiborne, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    The available information on the shielding of manned space vehicles against protons and alpha particles is summarized. The emphasis is placed on shielding against Van Allen belt protons and against solar-flare protons and alpha particles, but information on shielding against galactic cosmic rays is also presented. The approximation methods for use by nonexperts in the space shielding field are those that are standard in the space shielding literature.

  11. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space.

  12. Jovian Proton and Heavy Ion Models for Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Evans, R. W.; Jun, I.; Kim, W.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will review the results of the latest modeling at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the high energy proton and ion environments at Jupiter. The existing models of the proton and ion environments at Jupiter have been revised and extended from the original 12 jovian radii out to 50 jovian radii using the latest Galileo data. In addition to the physical significance of these particle populations, the new models will be important in the evaluation and design of solar arrays at Jupiter as they can affect the radiation damage to the solar array cells and cover glass. The new models represent an important update to the tools currently being used to study the effects of the jovian environment on spacecraft. These models (part of the GIRE family of electron and proton models) are currently used worldwide to describe that jovian environment and are the main tools used by NASA to determine the effects of this environment on spacecraft systems and instruments. The update to be presented is the first significant revision (extending the proton and ion models from 12 Rj to 50 Rj) to the GIRE proton environment since 1983 and fills an important gap in our understanding.

  13. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  14. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-12-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8 < η < 4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 { GeV/c^2}.

  15. (Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules)

    SciTech Connect

    de la Mora, J.F.

    1990-01-08

    By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m{sub p} some 3.6 {times} 10{sup 5} times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100{angstrom}), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5{radical}(m/m{sub p}) times the nozzle diameter d{sub n}. But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs.

  16. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  17. New measurements of W-values for protons and alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Giesen, U; Beck, J

    2014-10-01

    The increasing importance of ion beams in cancer therapy and the lack of experimental data for W-values for protons and heavy ions in air require new measurements. A new experimental set-up was developed at PTB and consistent measurements of W-values in argon, nitrogen and air for protons and alpha particles with energies from 0.7 to 3.5 MeV u(-1) at PTB, and for carbon ions between 3.6 and 7.0 MeV u(-1) at GSI were carried out. This publication concentrates on the measurements with protons and alpha particles at PTB. The experimental methods and the determination of corrections for recombination effects, beam-induced background radiation and additional effects are presented.

  18. Sputtering of Lunar Regolith Simulant by Protons and Multicharged Heavy Ions at Solar Wind Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Fred W; Harris, Peter R; Taylor, C. N.; Meyer III, Harry M; Barghouty, N.; Adams Jr., J.

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results on sputtering of a lunar regolith simulant at room temperature by singly and multiply charged solar wind ions using quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry approaches. Sputtering of the lunar regolith by solar-wind heavy ions may be an important particle source that contributes to the composition of the lunar exosphere, and is a possible mechanism for lunar surface ageing and compositional modification. The measurements were performed in order to assess the relative sputtering efficiency of protons, which are the dominant constituent of the solar wind, and less abundant heavier multicharged solar wind constituents, which have higher physical sputtering yields than same-velocity protons, and whose sputtering yields may be further enhanced due to potential sputtering. Two different target preparation approaches using JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant are described and compared using SEM and XPS surface analysis.

  19. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  20. Multiple-scattering model for inclusive proton production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism is developed for evaluating the momentum distribution for proton production in nuclear abrasion during heavy ion collisions using the Glauber multiple-scattering series. Several models for the one-body density matrix of nuclei are considered for performing numerical calculations. Calculations for the momentum distribution of protons in abrasion are compared with experimental data for inclusive proton production.

  1. [Investigation of Carbonaceous Airborne Particles by Scanning Proton Microprobe].

    PubMed

    Bao, Liang-man; Liu, Jiang-feng; Lei, Qian-tao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Gui-lin; Li, Yan

    2016-01-15

    Carbonaceous particles are an important component of the atmospheric aerosol particles and important for global climate change, air quality and human health. The PM₁₀ single particles from two environmental monitor locations and seven pollution emission sources were analyzed using scanning proton microprobe (SPM) techniques. The concentration of carbon in individual particles was quantitatively determined by proton non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS). The results of this investigation showed that carbonaceous particles were dominant in the pollution sources of coal and oil combustions, diesel busexhaust and automobile exhaust, while inorganic particles were dominant in the sources of steel industry, cement dust and soil dust. Carbonaceous matter was enriched in particles from the city center, while mineral matter was the main component of airborne particles in the industrial area. Elemental mapping of single aerosol particles yielded important information on the chemical reactions of aerosol particles. The micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) maps of S, Ca and Fe of individual carbonaceous particles showed that sulfuration reaction occurred between SO₂and mineral particles, which increased the sulfur content of particles. PMID:27078933

  2. What Can We Learn From Proton Recoils about Heavy-Ion SEE Sensitivity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that protons cause single-event effects (SEE) in most devices through production of light-ion recoils has led to attempts to bound heavy-ion SEE susceptibility through use of proton data. Although this may be a viable strategy for some devices and technologies, the data must be analyzed carefully and conservatively to avoid over-optimistic estimates of SEE performance. We examine the constraints that proton test data can impose on heavy-ion SEE susceptibility.

  3. Modeling Proton Dissociation and Transfer Using Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2015-09-01

    We suggest a coarse-grained model for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations of solutions with dissociated protons. The model uses standard short-range soft repulsion and smeared charge electrostatic potentials between the beads, representing solution components. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable bonds with proton receptor base beads, such as water or deprotonated acid anions. The proton-base bonds are described by Morse potentials. When the proton establishes the Morse bonds with two bases, they form an intermediate complex, and the proton is able to "hop" between the bases artificially mimicking the Grotthuss diffusion mechanism. By adjusting the Morse potential parameters, one can regulate the potential barrier associated with intermediate complex formation and breakup and control the hopping frequency. This makes the proposed model applicable to simulations of proton mobility and reaction equilibria between protonated and deprotonated acid forms in aqueous solutions. The proposed model provides quantitative agreement with experiments for the proton self-diffusion coefficient and hopping frequency, as well as for the degree of dissociation of benzenesulfonic acid. PMID:26575931

  4. Heavy-quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Lansberg, Jean-Philippe

    2010-03-01

    We update the study of the total {psi} and {Upsilon} production cross section in proton-proton collisions at RHIC energies using the QCD-based color-singlet model, including next-to-leading order partonic matrix elements. We also include charm-quark initiated processes which appear at leading order in {alpha}{sub s}, so far overlooked in such studies. Contrary to earlier claims, we show that the color-singlet yield is consistent with measurements over a broad range of J/{psi} rapidities. We find that intrinsic plus sealike charm-initiated processes contribute more than 20% of the direct J/{psi} yield. The key signature for such processes is the observation of a charm-quark jet opposite in azimuthal angle {phi} to the detected J/{psi}. Our results have impact on the proper interpretation of heavy-quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions and its use as a probe for the quark-gluon plasma.

  5. Behavioral effects of heavy ions and protons and potential countermeasure agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, M.; Gatley, J.; Bruneus, M.; Koslosky, S.; Billups, A.

    Space travel beyond the Earth's protective magnetic field (for example, to Mars) will involve exposure of astronauts to irradiation by high-energy nuclei such as 56 Fe, which are a component of galactic cosmic rays. These particles have high linear energy transfer (LET) and are expected to irreversibly damage cells they traverse. Exposure to HZE radiation may therefore cause progressive deterioration of brain function, adding to other inescapable damage involved in normal aging. We propose a study of the hypothesis that long-term behavioral alterations are induced after exposure of the brain to 1 GeV/n iron and silicon particles with fluences of 1 to 8 particles/cell targets. Previous studies support this notion but are not definitive, especially with regard to long-term effects. Our principal goal is to examine the neurological effects of high-LET radiation on C57BL/6 mice using a series of behavioral tests to unveil the temporal expression of altered behaviors in the radiation response, as well as the means, which can modulate these responses. The studies planned in this project are designed to: 1) Characterize the behavioral consequences after exposure to low-fluences of heavy ions and protons on C57BL/6 mice. The main behavioral endpoints to be used in these studies are locomotor activity to evaluate the integrity of striatal dopaminergic pathways, and spatial reference memory to probe hippocampal cholinergic pathways. 2) Characterize the neurochemical and structural changes induced by heavy ions and protons. 3) To develop countermeasures to protect neural cell populations exposed to low fluences of heavy ions and protons. The project will test methods to protect injured neural cells based on their molecular and cellular mechanisms that may regulate neural cell survival in the central nervous system. Among the methods that will be studied is the direct administration of neuroprotective molecules as well as the modulation of apoptotic pathways by pharmacological

  6. Residual radiation damage in the mouse foot after exposure to heavy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    Mice receiving a first treatment with graded doses of various heavy charged particles to one of their hind legs were re-exposed to a fixed dose of x rays eight months later to study the memory of residual damage from the first treatment. No significant memory of the first radiation exposure was observed for acute skin reaction. However, there is an indication of memory for foot deformity. The results do not seem to indicate any significant differences in memory after exposure to /sup 60/Co gamma rays compared with protons or heavy ions, if biological effectiveness of the doses is taken into consideration.

  7. Heavy Flavour Decay Muon Production at Forward Rapidity in Proton Proton Collisions at s = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.; Awes, Terry C; Ganoti, P.; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The production of muons from heavy flavor decays is measured at forward rapidity in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV collected with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The analysis is carried out on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity L{sub int} = 16.5 nb{sup -1}. The transverse momentum and rapidity differential production cross sections of muons from heavy flavour decays are measured in the rapidity range 2.5 < y < 4, over the transverse momentum range 2 < p{sub t} < 12 GeV/c. The results are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD calculations.

  8. Search for new particles in two-jet final states in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

    PubMed

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    2010-10-15

    A search for new heavy particles manifested as resonances in two-jet final states is presented. The data were produced in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions by the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 315  nb⁻¹ collected by the ATLAS detector. No resonances were observed. Upper limits were set on the product of cross section and signal acceptance for excited-quark (q*) production as a function of q* mass. These exclude at the 95% C.L. the q* mass interval 0.30

  9. Search for New Particles in Two-Jet Final States in 7 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, S. R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G. P.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J. R. A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Braccini, S.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N. D.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E. J.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Caprio, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervetto, M.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. 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V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spogli, L.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Stefanidis, E.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stiller, W.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stodulski, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X. H.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Szeless, B.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Taboada Gameiro, S.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y. D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzamarioudaki, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vovenko, A. S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wellisch, H. P.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Woehrling, E.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    A search for new heavy particles manifested as resonances in two-jet final states is presented. The data were produced in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions by the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 315nb-1 collected by the ATLAS detector. No resonances were observed. Upper limits were set on the product of cross section and signal acceptance for excited-quark (q*) production as a function of q* mass. These exclude at the 95% C.L. the q* mass interval 0.30

  10. Heavy-Particle Deposition in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yingcheng

    A set of experiments of heavy-particle deposition on the ground in a wind-tunnel simulated atmospheric boundary layer has been conducted. Different particle fall velocities and different wind speeds were used. In order to analyze inertial, continuity, and crossing-trajectories effects of heavy particles, a new random-walk model has been developed in which vertical velocity variance is a function of height. For calibration of the numerical model, a set of tracer-gas concentration measurements was also carried out. The analysis of experimental results reveals that, in the atmospheric surface layer, for most of the practical situations, the crossing-trajectories and the inertia of heavy particles have a very limited effect on heavy-particle dispersion and deposition. However, the continuity effect greatly affects the lateral dispersion and deposition of heavy particles. The continuity effect is strongly height dependent. Influences of different factors on heavy-particle deposition are discussed. This includes the fall-velocity distribution of heavy particles, the integral-time scales of turbulent flow, longitudinal turbulent velocity components, release height, etc. Comparisons between the theoretical prediction and the calculated results from both the model used in this study and the model of Legg and Raupach (1982) support the author's approach in which vertical velocity variance is taken to be height dependent. For practical purposes, the new random-walk model has greatly improved the accuracy of predicting longitudinal deposition of heavy particles compared to that of the traditional Gaussian model. Experiments with more release heights and larger differences of particle fall velocity are suggested in order to further confirm the findings of this dissertation.

  11. Heavy-particle deposition in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yingcheng

    A set of experiments of heavy-particle deposition on the ground in a wind-tunnel simulated atmospheric boundary layer was conducted. Different particle fall velocities and different wind speeds were used. In order to analyze inertial, continuity, and crossing-trajectories effects of heavy particles, a new random-walk model was developed in which vertical velocity variance is a function of height. For calibration of the numerical model, a set of tracer-gas concentration measurements was also carried out. The analysis of experimental results reveals that, in the atmospheric surface layer, for most of the practical situations, the crossing-trajectories and the inertia of heavy particles have a very limited effect on heavy-particle dispersion and deposition. However, the continuity effect greatly affects the lateral dispersion and deposition of heavy particles. The continuity effect is strongly height dependent. Influences of different factors on heavy-particle deposition are discussed. This includes the fall-velocity distribution of heavy particles, the integral-time scales of turbulent flow, longitudinal turbulent velocity components, release height, etc. Comparisons between the theoretical prediction and the calculated results from both the model used in this study and the model of Legg and Raupach (1982) support the author's approach in which vertical velocity variance is taken to be height dependent. For practical purposes, the new random-walk model has greatly improved the accuracy of predicting longitudinal deposition of heavy particles compared to that of the traditional Gaussian model. Experiments with more release heights and larger differences of particle fall velocity are suggested in order to further confirm the findings.

  12. Particle Simulations of a Linear Dielectric Wall Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Blackfield, D T; Nelson, S D

    2007-06-12

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact induction accelerator structure that incorporates the accelerating mechanism, pulse forming structure, and switch structure into an integrated module. The DWA consists of stacked stripline Blumlein assemblies, which can provide accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/meter. Blumleins are switched sequentially according to a prescribed acceleration schedule to maintain synchronism with the proton bunch as it accelerates. A finite difference time domain code (FDTD) is used to determine the applied acceleration field to the proton bunch. Particle simulations are used to model the injector as well as the accelerator stack to determine the proton bunch energy distribution, both longitudinal and transverse dynamic focusing, and emittance growth associated with various DWA configurations.

  13. Protons and alpha particles in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Passot, Thierry; Sulem, Pierre-Louis; Matteini, Lorenzo; Landi, Simone

    2014-05-01

    We investigate energetic consequences of ion kinetic instabilitities in the solar wind connected with beam and core protons and alpha particles drifting with respect to each other. We compare theoretical predictions, simulations and observation results. For theoretical prediction we assume drifting bi-Maxwellian ion populations and we calculate theoretical quasilinear heating rates (Hellinger et al., 2013b). The nonlinear evolution of beam-core protons, and alpha particles in the expanding solar wind we investigate using hybrid expanding box system (Hellinger and Travnicek, 2013). The expansion leads to many different kinetic instabilities. In the simulation the beam protons and alpha particles are decelerated with respect to the core protons and all the populations are cooled in the parallel direction and heated in the perpendicular one in agreement with theoretical expectations. On the macroscopic level the kinetic instabilities cause large departures of the system evolution from the double adiabatic prediction and lead to a perpendicular heating and parallel cooling rates. The simulated heating rates are comparable to the heating rates estimated from the Helios observations (Hellinger et al., 2013a); furthermore, the differential velocity between core and beam protons observed by Ulysses exhibits apparent bounds which are compatible with the theoretical constaints imposed by the linear theory for the magnetosonic instability driven by beam-core differential velocity (Matteini et al., 2013). References Hellinger, P., P. M. Travnicek, S. Stverak, L. Matteini, and M. Velli (2013a), Proton thermal energetics in the solar wind: Helios reloaded, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1351-1365, doi:10.1002/jgra.50107. Hellinger, P., T. Passot, P.-L. Sulem, and P. M. Travnicek (2013b), Quasi-linear heating and acceleration in bi-Maxwellian plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 20, 122306. Hellinger, P., and P. M. Travnicek (2013), Protons and alpha particles in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid

  14. Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust aerosol particle and ion measurements.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Schuck, Tanja J; Pirjola, Liisa; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kulmala, Markku; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    Heavy duty EURO 4 diesel engine exhaust particle and ion size distributions were measured atthetailpipe using dynamometer testing. Measurements of particle volatility and electrical charge were undertaken to clarify diesel exhaust nucleation mode characteristics with different exhaust after-treatment systems. Nucleation mode particle volatility and charging probability were dependent on exhaust after-treatment particles were volatile and uncharged when the engine was equipped with diesel particulate filter and partly volatile and partly charged in exhaust without any after-treatment or with an oxidation catalyst only. The absence of charged particles in the nucleation mode of diesel particulate filtered exhaust excludes the ion mediated process as a nucleation particle formation mechanism.

  15. Breather-like protonic tunneling in a discrete hydrogen bonded chain with heavy-ionic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, L.; Parasuraman, E.; Venkatesh, M.; Mohamadou, A.; Gopi, D.

    2013-03-01

    We consider the tunneling motion of protons within a hydrogen bonded (HB) chain. Each proton is subjected to a coulomb interaction from the nearest heavy ions, as well as from the two neighboring protons. We investigate the nonlinear proton dynamics of a HB chain in the semiclassical limit using the coherent state method combined with the Holstein-Primakoff bosonic representation. The protonic transport mechanism has arisen due to the neighboring proton-proton interaction and coherent tunneling of protons along hydrogen bonds and/or around heavy atoms. We construct the exact periodic solutions in terms of elliptic functions by invoking a discrete Jacobian elliptic function method. We present a detailed analysis of the effect of the interaction strength of neighboring protons in the process of bioenergy localization in the form of coherent localized breather modes in a discrete HB chain. A linear stability analysis is performed and the eigenvalues are strictly lying in the imaginary axis, confirming the stable nature of the obtained solutions.

  16. Behavior of Heavy Particles in Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghoon; Lee, Changhoon

    2010-11-01

    The motion of heavy particles in turbulent channel flow was investigated by using direct numerical simulation. We assumed that Stokes drag, Saffman lift and Magnus lift act on the motion of heavy spherical particles in turbulence. In this study, Stokes number is defined as the particle response time normalized by the wall units. The range of the Stokes number is 0.1˜50 and the diameter of a particle is 0.06˜0.3 in wall unit. Collision of particles with the wall is modelled by an elastic collision. Relevant velocity and acceleration statistics of heavy particles for the given range of Stokes number were investigated to interpret the particle accumulation near the wall. Particle accumulation at the wall is maximized when the Stokes number is around 15. And we found that Saffman lift force has a great effect on particle acceleration in the wall-normal direction near the wall. Detailed statistics including probability density function and autocorrelation of particle velocity and acceleration will be presented in the meeting.

  17. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  18. [Galactic heavy charged particles damaging effect on biological structures].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Krasavin, E A; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2013-03-01

    A concept of the radiation risk of the manned interplanetary flights is proposed and substantiated. Heavy charged particles that are a component of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have a high damaging effect on the biological structures as great amount of energy is deposited in heavy particle tracks. The high biological effectiveness of heavy ions is observed in their action on cell genetic structures and the whole organism, including the brain structures. The hippocampus is the part of the central nervous system that is the most sensitive to radiation--first of all, to heavy charged particles. Irradiation of animals with accelerated iron ions at doses corresponding to the real fluxes of GCR heavy nuclei, to which Mars mission crews can be exposed, leads to marked behavioral function disorders in the post-irradiation period. To evaluate the radiation risk for the interplanetary flight crews, the concept of successful mission accomplishment is introduced. In these conditions, the central nervous system structures can be the critical target of GCR heavy nuclei. Their damage can modify the higher integrative functions of the brain and cause disorders in the crew members' operator performances.

  19. [Galactic heavy charged particles damaging effect on biological structures].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Krasavin, E A; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2013-03-01

    A concept of the radiation risk of the manned interplanetary flights is proposed and substantiated. Heavy charged particles that are a component of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have a high damaging effect on the biological structures as great amount of energy is deposited in heavy particle tracks. The high biological effectiveness of heavy ions is observed in their action on cell genetic structures and the whole organism, including the brain structures. The hippocampus is the part of the central nervous system that is the most sensitive to radiation--first of all, to heavy charged particles. Irradiation of animals with accelerated iron ions at doses corresponding to the real fluxes of GCR heavy nuclei, to which Mars mission crews can be exposed, leads to marked behavioral function disorders in the post-irradiation period. To evaluate the radiation risk for the interplanetary flight crews, the concept of successful mission accomplishment is introduced. In these conditions, the central nervous system structures can be the critical target of GCR heavy nuclei. Their damage can modify the higher integrative functions of the brain and cause disorders in the crew members' operator performances. PMID:23789432

  20. Heavy crude oils/particle stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Iva; Sjöblom, Johan; Øye, Gisle; Simon, Sébastien; Grimes, Brian A; Paso, Kristofer

    2011-12-12

    Fluid characterization is a key technology for success in process design for crude oil mixtures in the future offshore. In the present article modern methods have been developed and optimized for crude oil applications. The focus is on destabilization processes in w/o emulsions, such as creaming/sedimentation and flocculation/coalescence. In our work, the separation technology was based on improvement of current devices to promote coalescence of the emulsified systems. Stabilizing properties based on particles was given special attention. A variety of particles like silica nanoparticles (AEROSIL®), asphalthenes, wax (paraffin) were used. The behavior of these particles and corresponding emulsion systems was determined by use of modern analytical equipment, such as SARA fractionation, NIR, electro-coalescers (determine critical electric field), Langmuir technique, pedant drop technique, TG-QCM, AFM.

  1. Heavy crude oils/particle stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Iva; Sjöblom, Johan; Øye, Gisle; Simon, Sébastien; Grimes, Brian A; Paso, Kristofer

    2011-12-12

    Fluid characterization is a key technology for success in process design for crude oil mixtures in the future offshore. In the present article modern methods have been developed and optimized for crude oil applications. The focus is on destabilization processes in w/o emulsions, such as creaming/sedimentation and flocculation/coalescence. In our work, the separation technology was based on improvement of current devices to promote coalescence of the emulsified systems. Stabilizing properties based on particles was given special attention. A variety of particles like silica nanoparticles (AEROSIL®), asphalthenes, wax (paraffin) were used. The behavior of these particles and corresponding emulsion systems was determined by use of modern analytical equipment, such as SARA fractionation, NIR, electro-coalescers (determine critical electric field), Langmuir technique, pedant drop technique, TG-QCM, AFM. PMID:22047991

  2. On the analytic proton structure function with heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Zeng, J.; Li, Q.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, D.; Xiang, W.

    2015-12-01

    The analytic proton structure function including quark mass is derived in the framework of color glass condensate. To get the massive proton structure function we keep the quark mass in photon wave function in the derivation process although the calculation is much more complicated than the massless case. It shows that the quark mass plays a key role in the description of the experimental data of proton structure function, and the cross-section of γ^{ast}p scattering will be divergent without quark mass regulation. To have the right threshold behavior and a smooth transition in the limit Q2→ 0, the quark mass has to include in the cross-section.

  3. Heavy-particle collisions in the plasma edge

    SciTech Connect

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Hunter, H.T.; Barnett, C.F.

    1987-07-01

    Available cross-section data for heavy-particle collision processes which play important roles in the edge plasma of magnetically-confined fusion devices are surveyed and reviewed. The species considered include H, H/sub 2/, He, C, O, Fe, and their ions. The most important heavy-particle collision processes occurring in the edge plasma are charge-exchange reactions. Excitation and dissociation processes are also considered. Emphasis is given to relative collision velocities corresponding to plasma ion temperatures in the 1 to 200 eV range. Evaluated or recommended data are presented where possible along with their estimated uncertainties, and gaps in the data base are indicated.

  4. Analysis of Small x Behaviour of Longitudinal and Heavy Favour Structure Functions of Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Nomita; Das, Mrinal Kumar; Sarma, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The behaviour of structure functions F L , with respect to Bjorken variable x are studied using Taylor series expansion method at small x. At small values of x, all these quantities are dominated by the gluon content of the proton. Here, we use the input distribution of gluon from Donnachie-Landshoff (DL) model to determine the longitudinal and heavy flavour structure function of proton. We compare our results with the recent HERA data and results of DL and Colour Dipole models which shows good agreement with data and fit. We use our results of heavy flavour structure function to analyze the behaviour of DIS cross section ratio R h ( x, Q 2) and reduced cross section in heavy quark lepto-production at small values of x. We have also studied the behaviour of the heavy quark content of the F L structure functions with respect to x.

  5. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  6. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals. PMID:25603034

  7. Accumulation of heavy particles around a helical vortex filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IJzermans, Rutger H. A.; Hagmeijer, Rob; van Langen, Pieter J.

    2007-10-01

    The motion of small heavy particles near a helical vortex filament in incompressible flow is investigated. Both the configurations of a helical vortex filament in free space and a helical vortex filament in a concentric pipe are considered, and the corresponding helically symmetric velocity fields are expressed in terms of a stream function. Particle motion is assumed to be driven by Stokes drag, and the flow fields are assumed to be independent from the motion of particles. Numerical results show that heavy particles may be attracted to helical trajectories. The stability of these attraction trajectories is demonstrated by linear stability analysis. In addition, the correlation between the attraction trajectories and the streamline topologies is investigated.

  8. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  9. The heavy particle hazard, what physical data are needed?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Wilkinson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    The physical data required to evaluate the radiation hazard from heavy galactic cosmic rays to astronauts on extended missions are discussed. The spectral characteristics, nuclear interaction parameters, and track structure of particles are emphasized. The data on the lower energy portion of the differential spectrum of the iron group and nuclear fragmentation in tissue and aluminum are tested, and results are shown.

  10. Clustered DNA damage induced by heavy ion particles.

    PubMed

    Terato, Hiroaki; Ide, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    Clustered DNA damage (locally multiply damaged site) is thought to be a critical lesion caused by ionizing radiation, and high LET radiation such as heavy ion particles is believed to produce high yields of such damage. Since heavy ion particles are major components of ionizing radiation in a space environment, it is important to clarify the chemical nature and biological consequences of clustered DNA damage and its relationship to the health effects of exposure to high LET particles in humans. The concept of clustered DNA damage emerged around 1980, but only recently has become the subject of experimental studies. In this article, we review methods used to detect clustered DNA damage, and the current status of our understanding of the chemical nature and repair of clustered DNA damage. PMID:15858387

  11. Preferential concentration of heavy particles in compressible isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Liu, Han; Ma, Zongqiang; Xiao, Zuoli

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of particle-laden compressible isotropic turbulence with Taylor Reynolds number Reλ ˜ 100 are conducted by using a high-order turbulence solver, which is based on high-order compact finite difference method in the whole flow domain and localized artificial diffusivities for discontinuities. For simplicity, only one-way coupling (i.e., the influence of fluid on particles) between the carrier flow and particles is considered. The focus is on the study of the preferential concentration of heavy particles in dissipative scale of turbulence and the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, the effect of Stokes number (St) on the particle distribution in flow of Mach 1.01 (referred to as high-Mach-number case in this study) is investigated as a necessary supplementation for the previous studies in incompressible and weakly compressible flows. It turns out that heavy particles with Stokes number close to unity exhibit the strongest preferential concentration, which is in agreement with the observation in incompressible flow. All types of heavy particles have a tendency to accumulate in high-density regions of the background flow. While all kinds of particles dominantly collect in low-vorticity regions, intermediate and large particles (St = 1 and St = 5) are also found to collect in high-vorticity regions behind the randomly formed shocklets. Secondly, the impact of turbulent Mach number (Mt) (or the compressibility) of the carrier flow on the spatial distribution of the particles with St = 1 is discussed using the simulated compressible flows with Mt being 0.22, 0.68, and 1.01, respectively. In low-Mach-number flow, particles tend to concentrate in regions of low vorticity due to the centrifuge effect of vortices and particle concentration decreases monotonically with the increasing vorticity magnitude. As Mach number increases, the degree of particle clustering is slightly weakened in low-vorticity regions but is enhanced in high-vorticity regions, which

  12. Symmetries in heavy nuclei and the proton-neutron interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) nuclear structure model can be expressed in terms of the U(6) group, and thereby leads to three dynamical symmetries (or group chains) corresponding to different nuclear coupling schemes and geometrical shapes. The status of the empirical evidence for these three symmetries is reviewed, along with brief comments on the possible existence of supersymmetries in nuclei. The relationships between these symmetries, the nuclear phase transitional regions linking them, and the residual proton-neutron interaction are discussed in terms of a particularly simple scheme for parameterizing the effects of that interaction. 34 refs., 15 figs.

  13. A deterministic electron, photon, proton and heavy ion transport suite for the study of the Jovian moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2011-02-01

    A Langley research center (LaRC) developed deterministic suite of radiation transport codes describing the propagation of electron, photon, proton and heavy ion in condensed media is used to simulate the exposure from the spectral distribution of the aforementioned particles in the Jovian radiation environment. Based on the measurements by the Galileo probe (1995-2003) heavy ion counter (HIC), the choice of trapped heavy ions is limited to carbon, oxygen and sulfur (COS). The deterministic particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron photon algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light heavy ion algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means to the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, photon, proton and heavy ion exposure assessment in a complex space structure. In this paper, the reference radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron and proton spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) Galileo interim radiation electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter system mission (EJSM), the JPL provided Europa mission fluence spectrum, is used to produce the corresponding depth dose curve in silicon behind a default aluminum shield of 100 mils (˜0.7 g/cm2). The transport suite can also accept a geometry describing ray traced thickness file from a computer aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point within the interior of the vehicle. In that regard, using a low fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe generated by the authors, the transport suite was verified versus Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for orbits JOI-J35 of the Galileo probe

  14. Exposure to heavy charged particles affects thermoregulation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Harris, A.H.; Rabin, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Rats exposed to 0.1-5 Gy of heavy particles ({sup 56}Fe, {sup 40}Ar, {sup 20}Ne or {sup 4}He) showed dose-dependent changes in body temperature. Lower doses of all particles produced hyperthermia, and higher doses of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 56}Fe produced hypothermia. Of the four HZE particles, {sup 56}Fe particles were the most potent and {sup 4}He particles were the least potent in producing changes in thermoregulation. The {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar particles produced an intermediate level of change in body temperature. Significantly greater hyperthermia was produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 40}Ar and {sup 56}Fe particles than by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays. Pretreating rats with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the hyperthermia produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles, indicating that prostaglandins mediate {sup 56}Fe-particle-induced hyperthermia. The hypothermia produced by exposure to 5 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles is mediated by histamine and can be attenuated by treatment with the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Effects of exposure to 56Fe particles or protons on fixed-ratio operant responding in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Buhler, Lynn L.; Joseph, James A.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Jenkins, Daniel G.

    2002-01-01

    On long-duration trips outside of the magnetosphere, astronauts will be exposed to protons and to heavy particles which can affect their performance of required tasks. It is essential to determine the range of behaviors that might be affected by exposure to these types of radiation in order to understand the nature of behavioral deficits and to develop effective countermeasures. The present experiment examined the ability of rats to make an operant response following exposure to protons (250 MeV, 4 Gy) or 56Fe particles (1 GeV/n, 1 or 2 Gy). Following irradiation, rats were trained to press a lever in order to obtain food reinforcement. They were then placed on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule from FR-1 (each lever press rewarded with a food pellet) through FR-35 (35 lever presses required for 1 food pellet). Rats exposed to 4 Gy of protons or 1 Gy of 56Fe particles responded similarly to controls, increasing their rate of responding as the ratio increased. However, rats exposed to 2 Gy of 56Fe particles failed to increase their rate of responding at ratios greater than FR-20, indicating that rats exposed to 2 Gy of 56Fe particles cannot respond appropriately to increasing work requirements.

  16. Proton Polarimetry at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Morozov, B.; Rescia, S.; Sivertz, M.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Lee, S.K.; Li, X.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-09-07

    The RHIC polarized proton collider employs polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow rings that utilize the analyzing power in p-Carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference region to measure the absolute beam polarization. These are calibrated by the polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that measures the absolute beam polarization in pp elastic scattering in the CNI region. This paper describes the status and performance of these polarimeters in the FY09 run which included both a 250 GeV/c and 100 GeV/c physics data taking periods. We will describe some of the difficulties encountered and the efforts underway to improve the performance in better energy resolution, rate handling capability, and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  17. The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-03-01

    As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population—thus becoming the "heavy charged particle of choice" for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results

  18. The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-03-10

    As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population - thus becoming the 'heavy charged particle of choice' for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results

  19. Calculation of dose contributions of electron and charged heavy particles inside phantoms irradiated by monoenergetic neutron.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Miyahara, Nobuyuki

    2008-09-01

    The radiation-transport code PHITS with an event generator mode has been applied to analyze energy depositions of electrons and charged heavy particles in two spherical phantoms and a voxel-based mouse phantom upon neutron irradiation. The calculations using the spherical phantoms quantitatively clarified the type and energy of charged particles which are released through interactions of neutrons with the phantom elements and contribute to the radiation dose. The relative contribution of electrons increased with an increase in the size of the phantom and with a decrease in the energy of the incident neutrons. Calculations with the voxel-based mouse phantom for 2.0-MeV neutron irradiation revealed that the doses to different locations inside the body are uniform, and that the energy is mainly deposited by recoil protons. The present study has demonstrated that analysis using PHITS can yield dose distributions that are accurate enough for RBE evaluation. PMID:18580044

  20. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  1. A Deterministic Electron, Photon, Proton and Heavy Ion Radiation Transport Suite for the Study of the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    A deterministic suite of radiation transport codes, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), which describe the transport of electrons, photons, protons, and heavy ions in condensed media is used to simulate exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons, protons and carbon-oxygen-sulfur (C-O-S) trapped heavy ions in the Jovian radiation environment. The particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron and photon deterministic transport algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light particle and heavy ion deterministic transport algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means for the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, proton and heavy ion radiation exposure assessments in complex space structures. In this paper, the radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), the 105 days at Europa mission fluence energy spectra provided by JPL is used to produce the corresponding dose-depth curve in silicon behind an aluminum shield of 100 mils ( 0.7 g/sq cm). The transport suite can also accept ray-traced thickness files from a computer-aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point. In that regard, using a low-fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe, the transport suite was verified by comparing with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for orbits JOI--J35 of the Galileo extended mission (1996-2001). For the upcoming EJSM mission with a potential launch date of 2020, the transport suite is used to compute

  2. Decaying versus stationary turbulence in particle-laden isotropic turbulence: Heavy particle statistics modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsamie, Abouelmagd H.; Lee, Changhoon

    2013-03-01

    The current paper examines the heavy particle statistics modification by two-way interaction in particle-laden isotropic turbulence in an attempt to interpret their statistics modification using the information of modulated turbulence. Moreover, we clarify the distinctions of this modification between decaying and stationary turbulence as an extension of our previous work [A. H. Abdelsamie and C. Lee, "Decaying versus stationary turbulence in particle-laden isotropic turbulence: Turbulence modulation mechanism," Phys. Fluids 24, 015106 (2012), 10.1063/1.3678332]. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) was carried out using 1283 grid points at a Taylor micro-scale Reynolds number of Rλ ˜ 70. The effect of O(10^6) solid particles with a different Stokes number (St) was implemented as a point-force approximation in the Navier-Stokes equation. Various statistics associated with particle dispersion are investigated, and the auto-correlations models which was provided by Jung et al. ["Behavior of heavy particles in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E 77, 016307 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.016307] are extended in the current paper. DNS results reveal that the two-way coupling interaction enhances the fluid and heavy particle auto-correlation functions and the alignment between their velocity vectors for all Stokes numbers in decaying and stationary turbulence, but for different reasons. The modification mechanisms of particle dispersion statistics in stationary turbulence are different from those in decaying turbulence depending on the Stokes number, particularly for St <1.

  3. High efficiency of collisional Penrose process requires heavy particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Kota; Harada, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2016-02-01

    The center-of-mass energy of two particles can become arbitrarily large if they collide near the event horizon of an extremal Kerr black hole, which is called the Bañados-Silk-West effect. We consider such a high-energy collision of two particles which started from infinity and follow geodesics in the equatorial plane and investigate the energy extraction from such a high-energy particle collision and the production of particles in the equatorial plane. We analytically show that, on the one hand, if the produced particles are as massive as the colliding particles, the energy-extraction efficiency is bounded by 2.19 approximately. On the other hand, if a very massive particle is produced as a result of the high-energy collision, which has negative energy and necessarily falls into the black hole, the upper limit of the energy-extraction efficiency is increased to (2 +√{3 })2≃13.9 . Thus, higher efficiency of the energy extraction, which is typically as large as 10, provides strong evidence for the production of a heavy particle.

  4. Search for heavy long-lived charged R-hadrons with the ATLAS detector in 3.2 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{ s} = 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. 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M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-09-01

    A search for heavy long-lived charged R-hadrons is reported using a data sample corresponding to 3.2 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The search is based on observables related to large ionisation losses and slow propagation velocities, which are signatures of heavy charged particles travelling significantly slower than the speed of light. No significant deviations from the expected background are observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are provided on the production cross section of long-lived R-hadrons in the mass range from 600 GeV to 2000 GeV and gluino, bottom and top squark masses are excluded up to 1580 GeV, 805 GeV and 890 GeV, respectively.

  5. Evaluating Constraints on Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility Imposed by Proton SEE Testing and Other Mixed Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, R. L.; Lauenstein, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop metrics for assessing the effectiveness of proton SEE data for bounding heavy-ion SEE susceptibility. The metrics range from simple geometric criteria requiring no knowledge of the test articles to bounds of SEE rates.

  6. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Jose, U.; Yang, V. V.; Barker, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles are evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density. The relative biological effectiveness in relation to linear energy transfer for various particles is considered. Results indicated that low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of Fe 56 or Ar 40 particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; onset and density of the opacification are dose related and cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial linear energy transfer dependence. The severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of Co 60 gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of C12 doses over 24 weeks.

  7. Origins of PM10 determined by the micro-proton induced X-ray emission spectra of single aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Yue, Weisheng; Li, Xiaolin; Wan, Tianmin; Liu, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Guilin; Li, Yan

    2006-06-01

    The micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectrum of a single aerosol particle (SAP) was considered as its fingerprint for tracing its origin. A proton microprobe was used to extract fingerprints of SAPs. Environmental monitoring samples of PM(10) were collected from a heavy industrial area of Shanghai and were analyzed by proton microprobe for finding their pollution sources. In order to find the sources of SAPs collected from environmental monitoring sites, a fingerprint database of SAPs collected from various pollution sources was established. The origins of samples collected through environmental monitoring were identified by comparison of the micro-PIXE spectra of SAPs with those of SAPs in the fingerprint database using a pattern recognition technique. The results of this study show that most of the measured PM(10) is derived from metallurgic industry, soil dust, coal combustion, automobile exhaust, and motorcycle exhaust. The study also shows that the proton microprobe is an ideal tool for the analysis of SAPs. The unidentified particles of PM(10) are classified into seven classes by hierarchical cluster analysis based on the element peak intensity in the spectra. PMID:16808872

  8. Origins of PM10 determined by the micro-proton induced X-ray emission spectra of single aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, W.S.; Li, X.L.; Wan, T.M.; Liu, J.F.; Zhang, G.L.; Li, Y.

    2006-06-15

    The micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectrum of a single aerosol particle (SAP) was considered as its fingerprint for tracing its origin. A proton microprobe was used to extract fingerprints of SAPs. Environmental monitoring samples of PM10 were collected from a heavy industrial area of Shanghai and were analyzed by proton microprobe for finding their pollution sources. In order to find the sources of SAPs collected from environmental monitoring sites, a fingerprint database of SAPS collected from various pollution Sources was established. The origins of samples collected through environmental monitoring were identified by comparison of the micro-PIXE spectra of SAPs with those of SAPs in the fingerprint database using a pattern recognition technique. The results of this study show that most of the measured PM10 is derived from metallurgic industry, soil dust, coal combustion, automobile exhaust, and motorcycle exhaust. The study also shows that the proton microprobe is an ideal tool for the analysis of SAPs. The unidentified particles of PM10 are classified into seven classes by hierarchical cluster analysis based on the element peak intensity in the spectra.

  9. Dark matter interpretations of ATLAS searches for the electroweak production of supersymmetric particles in √{s}=8 TeV proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. 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R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. 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A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Pacheco Rodriguez, L.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganini, M.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palazzo, S.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V. R.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauch, D. M.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reed, R. G.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reiss, A.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosien, N.-A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz de Austri, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, K.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shirabe, S.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shope, D. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trotta, R.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-09-01

    A selection of searches by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC for the electroweak production of SUSY particles are used to study their impact on the constraints on dark matter candidates. The searches use 20 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{s}=8 TeV. A likelihood-driven scan of a five-dimensional effective model focusing on the gaugino-higgsino and Higgs sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric Standard Model is performed. This scan uses data from direct dark matter detection experiments, the relic dark matter density and precision flavour physics results. Further constraints from the ATLAS Higgs mass measurement and SUSY searches at LEP are also applied. A subset of models selected from this scan are used to assess the impact of the selected ATLAS searches in this five-dimensional parameter space. These ATLAS searches substantially impact those models for which the mass m({tilde{χ}}_1^0) of the lightest neutralino is less than 65 GeV, excluding 86% of such models. The searches have limited impact on models with larger m({tilde{χ}}_1^0) due to either heavy electroweakinos or compressed mass spectra where the mass splittings between the produced particles and the lightest supersymmetric particle is small. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Early and late mammalian responses to heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview summarizes murine results on acute lethality responses, inactivation of marrow CFU-S and intestinal microcolonies, testes weight loss, life span shortening, and posterior lens opacification in mice irradiated with heavy charged particles. RBE-LET relationships for these mammalian responses are compared with results from in vitro studies. The trend is that the maximum RBE for in vivo responses tends to be lower and occurs at a lower LET than for inactivation of V79 and T-1 cells in culture. Based on inactivation cross sections, the response of CFU-S in vivo conforms to expectations from earlier studies with prokaryotic systems and mammalian cells in culture. Effects of heavy ions are compared with fission spectrum neutrons, and the results are consistent with the interpretation that RBEs are lower than for fission neutrons at about the same LET, probably due to differences in track structure.

  11. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  12. Accelerated heavy particles and the lens. 1. Cataracogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, G.R.; Worgul, B.V.; Medvedovsky, C.; Zaider, M.; Rossi, H.H.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of varying doses of accelerated (570 MeV/amu) argon ions on the rat lens is described with detailed observations on the sequence of development of the cataracts, the time-dose relationship, and the analysis of their cataractogenic potential. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy particles for cataract production, compared to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (X-rays), has been established. These data indicate that, as with neutrons, the RBE increases with decreasing dose and that at a dose of 0.05 Gy an RBE of about 40 was observed.

  13. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, E.H.; Jose, J.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron (/sup 56/Fe) or argon (/sup 40/Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of /sup 12/C doses over 24 weeks.

  14. Ionization of Atoms by Slow Heavy Particles, Including Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B M; Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F

    2016-01-15

    Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9σ annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusplike behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, enhancing the differential cross section by up to 1000 times.

  15. Ionization of Atoms by Slow Heavy Particles, Including Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, B. M.; Flambaum, V. V.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2016-01-01

    Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9 σ annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusplike behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, enhancing the differential cross section by up to 1000 times.

  16. The Impact of Intrinsic Heavy Quark Distributions in the Proton on New Physics Searches at the High Intensity Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.

    2012-02-16

    The possibility of an intense proton facility, at 'Project X' or elsewhere, will provide many new opportunities for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. A Project X can serve a yet broader role in the search for new physics, and in this note we highlight the manner in which thus-enabled studies of the flavor structure of the proton, particularly of its intrinsic heavy quark content, facilitate other direct and indirect searches for new physics. Intrinsic heavy quarks in both light and heavy hadrons play a key role in searches for physics BSM with hadrons - and their study at the Intensity Frontier may prove crucial to establishing its existence.

  17. Registration of new stable heavy charged particles in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhutov, Yu. N.

    2001-08-01

    A telescope of two coaxial scintillation detectors (an upper ∅63x0.35 mm 2 thin CsI crystal and a lower thick ∅150x100 mm 2 NaI crystal) positioned vertically on the Earth surface has recorded 23 events within T=106 hours. All the events (except for three background events) are within two standard deviations from a curve calculated for singl?-charged non-relativistic particles with mass ME = (175±25) GeV/c 2 that traverse the telescope from a vertical. On assumption that the particles recorded are not relativistic, from the geometrical size of the telescope it follows that their lifetime is τE>1.5·10 -9 s. Their intensity in cosmic rays on the Earth surface JE = (1.8±0.4)10 -6 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 (at EE≤6 GeV, PE≤50 GeV/c). This particles recorded conform completely to our phenomenological predictions, to our earlier experimental results obtained when searching for particles like those, and to the predictions of the «mirror» model that offers theoretical support to the existence of the hypothetical stable heavy hadrons (Erzions). INTRODUCTION. The hypothesis about new penetrating stable heavy hadrons [1,2] was proposed to explain the anomalous slope of cosmic muon energy spectra [3,4,5]. Many of the characteristics of the hypothesized hadrons (mass, charge, lifetime, intensity, nuclear interaction mode, interaction and absorption paths) were predicted phenomenologically to harmonize the very copious anomalous and ordinary experimental cosmic ray data and to make them consistent. There are many different experiments in cosmic rays, which indicate on existence of stable heavy particles [6-15], but there are no any simple and correct proofs until now. Later, we made attempts to find them experimentally [16-21] and to construct a model that would offer a theoretical support to their long lifetime (τ>10 -5 s), given their very high mass (M>30 GeV/c 2 ). The pioneer attempts were made using the super symmetrical model [22], but the use of the «mirror» model

  18. HERA-B results on heavy flavour production in 920 GeV proton nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolanoski, Hermann; HERA-B Collaboration

    2005-06-01

    In this report, recent results from the HERA-B experiment on heavy flavour production in proton-nucleus interactions using a 920 GeV proton beam are presented. The topics include the production of the charmonium states J/ψ, ψ' and χc, of the D-meson states D0, D±, D*, the open beauty production cross section (b\\skew{-4}\\barb production) and the Υ production cross section. The nuclear dependence for the differential cross sections of charmonium production is discussed. The results are mainly preliminary. The report closes with a summary of the HERA-B search for pentaquark states with strangeness, which yielded quite stringent upper limits for the production of such states in hadronic environments.

  19. Pulsars as cosmic ray particle accelerators: Proton orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thielheim, K. O.

    1985-01-01

    Proton orbits are calculated in the electromagnetic vacuum field of a magnetic point dipole rotating with its angular velocity omega perpendicular to its dipole moment mu by numerical integration of the Lorentz-Dirac equation. Trajectories are shown and discussed for various initial conditions. A critical surface is shown separating initial positions of protons which finally hit the pulsar in the polar region from those which finally recede to infinity.

  20. Biosorption of protons and heavy metals onto olive pomace: modelling of competition effects.

    PubMed

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Mainelli, Sara; De Angelis, Simona; Toro, Luigi

    2005-04-01

    Heavy metal biosorption onto solid wastes from olive oil production plants, olive pomace, has been investigated. Acid-base properties of the active sites of olive pomace were determined by potentiometric titrations and represented by a continuous model accounting for two main kinds of active sites. Competition among protons and heavy metals in solution was considered by performing biosorption tests at different equilibrium pH with single (Cu and Cd) and binary metal systems (Cu-Cd). Both Langmuir extensions and non-ideal competitive adsorption models (NICA models) can be used to represent experimental data of Cu and Cd biosorption in single metal systems at different equilibrium pH. Nevertheless only NICA models, accounting for site heterogeneity and non-ideal adsorption of the different species simultaneously present in solution, can adequately simulate the competition among Cu and Cd in binary metal systems by using the parameters fitted to single system data. PMID:15878037

  1. Downstream energetic proton and alpha particles during quasi-parallel interplanetary shock events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the energetic particle populations in the downstream region of three quasi-parallel interplanetary shock events, which was explored using the ISEE 3 Ultra Low Energy Charge Analyzer sensor, which unambiguously identifies protons and alpha particles using the electrostatic deflection versus residual energy technique. The downstream particles were found to exhibit anisotropies due largely to convection in the solar wind. The spectral indices of the proton and the alpha-particle distribution functions were found to be remarkably constant during the downstream period, being generally insensitive to changes in particle flux levels, magnetic field direction, and solar wind densities. In two of the three events, the proton and the alpha spectra were the same throughout the entire downstream period, supporting the prediction of diffusive shock acceleration theory.

  2. The Mini-SPT (Space Particle Telescope) for dual use: Precision flux measurement of low energy proton electron and heavy ion with tracking capability and A compact, low-cost realtime local radiation hazard/alarm detector to be used on board a satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpat, Behcet; Ergin, Tulun; Kalemci, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    The Mini-SPT project is the first, and most important, step towards the ambitious goal of creating a low-cost, compact, radiation hardened and high performance space particle telescope that can be mounted, in the near future, as standard particle detector on any satellite. Mini-SPT will be capable of providing high quality physics data on local space environment. In particular high precision flux measurement and tracking of low energy protons and electrons on different orbits with same instrumentation is of paramount importance for studies as geomagnetically trapped fluxes and space weather dynamics, dark matter search, low energy proton anisotropy and its effects on ICs as well as the solar protons studies. In addition, it will provide real-time "differentiable warnings" about the local space radiation hazard to other electronics systems on board the hosting satellite, including different criticality levels and alarm signals to activate mitigation techniques whenever this is strictly necessary to protect them from temporary/permanent failures. A real-time warning system will help satellite subsystems to save significant amount of power and memory with respect to other conventional techniques where the "mitigation" solutions are required to be active during entire mission life. The Mini-SPT will combine the use of technologies developed in cutting-edge high energy physics experiments (including technology from CMS experiments at CERN) and the development of new charged particle detecting systems for their use for the first time in space. The Mini-SPT essential objective is, by using for the first time in space SIPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers) technology for TOF and energy measurements, the production of high quality data with a good time, position and energy resolutions. The mini-SPT will consists of three main sub-units: a- A tracking and dE/dX measuring sub-detector which will be based on silicon pixel detectors (SPD) coupled to the rad-hard chip ROC-DIG (Read

  3. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  4. Heavy-Element Abundances in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Ng, C. K.

    2004-01-01

    We survey the relative abundances of elements with 1 < or equal to Z < or equal to 82 in solar energetic particle (SEP) events observed at 2-10 MeV/amu during nearly 9 years aboard the Wind spacecraft, with special emphasis on enhanced abundances of elements with Z > or equal to 34. Abundances of Fe/O again show a bimodal distribution with distinct contributions from impulsive and gradual SEP events as seen in earlier solar cycles. Periods with greatly enhanced abundances of (50 < or equal to Z < or equal to 56)/O, like those with enhanced (3)He/(4)He, fall prominently in the Fe-rich population of the impulsive SEP events. In a sample of the 39 largest impulsive events, 25 have measurable enhancements in (50 < or equal to z < or equal to 56)/O and (76 < or equal to Z < or equal to 82)/O, relative to coronal values, ranging from approx. 100 to 10,000. By contrast, in a sample of 45 large gradual events the corresponding enhancements vary from approx. 0.2 to 20. However, the magnitude of the heavy-element enhancements in impulsive events is less striking than their strong correlation with the Fe spectral index and flare size, with the largest enhancements occurring in flares with the steepest Fe spectra, the smallest Fe fluence, and the lowest X-ray intensity, as reported here for the first time. Thus it seems that small events with low energy input can produce only steep spectra of the dominant species but accelerate rare heavy elements with great efficiency, probably by selective absorption of resonant waves in the flare plasma. With increased energy input, enhancements diminish, as heavy ions are depleted, and spectra of the dominant species harden.

  5. Two-particle interferometry for noncentral heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, U.A.

    1998-01-01

    In noncentral heavy-ion collisions, identical two-particle Hanbury-Brown{endash}Twiss (HBT) correlations C({bold K},{bold q}) depend on the azimuthal direction of the pair momentum {bold K}. We investigate the consequences for a harmonic analysis of the corresponding HBT radius parameters R{sub ij}{sup 2}. Our discussion includes both, a model-independent analysis of these parameters in the Gaussian approximation, and the study of a class of hydrodynamical models which mimic essential geometrical and dynamical properties of peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Also, we discuss the additional geometrical and dynamical information contained in the harmonic coefficients of R{sub ij}{sup 2}. The leading contribution of their first and second harmonics are found to satisfy simple constraints. This allows for a minimal, azimuthally sensitive parametrization of all first and second harmonic coefficients in terms of only two additional fit parameters. We determine to what extent these parameters can be extracted from experimental data despite finite multiplicity fluctuations and the resulting uncertainty in the reconstruction of the reaction plane. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production.

  7. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20886

  8. Decay of super-heavy particles: user guide of the SHdecay program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbot, C.

    2004-02-01

    I give here a detailed user guide for the C++ program SHdecay, which has been developed for computing the final spectra of stable particles (protons, photons, LSPs, electrons, neutrinos of the three species and their antiparticles) arising from the decay of a super-heavy X particle. It allows to compute in great detail the complete decay cascade for any given decay mode into particles of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In particular, it takes into account all interactions of the MSSM during the perturbative cascade (including not only QCD, but also the electroweak and 3rd generation Yukawa interactions), and includes a detailed treatment of the SUSY decay cascade (for a given set of parameters) and of the non-perturbative hadronization process. All these features allow us to ensure energy conservation over the whole cascade up to a numerical accuracy of a few per mille. Yet, this program also allows to restrict the computation to QCD or SUSY-QCD frameworks. I detail the input and output files, describe the role of each part of the program, and include some advice for using it best. Program summaryTitle of program: SHdecay Catalogue identifier:ADSL Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSL Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer and operating system: Program tested on PC running Linux KDE and Suse 8.1 Programming language used: C with STL C++ library and using the standard gnu g++ compiler No. lines in distributed program: 14 955 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 624 487 Distribution format: tar gzip file Keywords: Super-heavy particles, fragmentation functions, DGLAP equations, supersymmetry, MSSM, UHECR Nature of physical problem: Obtaining the energy spectra of the final stable decay products (protons, photons, electrons, the three species of neutrinos and the LSPs) of a decaying super-heavy X particle, within the framework of the Minimal

  9. Simultaneous Measurements of Electrons, Protons and Alpha particles by the Electron Proton Helium Instrument aboard SOHO and Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasa, Christoph; Gomez-Herrero, Raul; Heber, Bernd; Klassen, Andreas; Müller-Mellin, Reinhold

    The flight spare instrument of the Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN) aboard SOHO was mounted on the X-Ray observatory Chandra. Both instruments measure electrons in the energy range of 150 keV to above 10 MeV, protons and alpha-particles from 4 MeV/nucleon to above 51 MeV/nucleon in different energy channels. While SOHO is located at the Lagrangian L1-point, Chandra is on an elliptical orbit around the Earth crossing the radiation belts with an orbit period of 64 hours. Simultaneous measurements outside of the Earth's magnetosphere are available for both instruments from the launch of Chandra in 1999 to the end of 2008. This period covers half a solar cycle from maximum to the recent solar minimum period. In this presentation different particle components, like Jovian electrons, solar energetic particles and particles coming from interplanetary shock waves will be investigated. We combine SOHO and Chandra observations outside the radiation belts to compare the particle distribution at L1 and at the Earth.

  10. Simulating the transport of heavy charged particles through trabecular spongiosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersh, Jacob A.

    As planning continues for manned missions far beyond Low Earth Orbit, a paramount concern remains the flight crew's exposure to galactic cosmic radiation. When humans exit the protective magnetic field of Earth, they become subject to bombardment by highly-reactive heavy charged (HZE) particles. A possible consequence of this two- to three-year-long mission is the onset of radiation-induced leukemia, a disorder with a latency period as short as two to three years. Because data on risk to humans from exposure to HZE particles is non-existent, studies of leukemia in animals are now underway to investigate the relative effectiveness of HZE exposures. Leukemogenesis can result from energy depositions occurring within marrow contained in the trabecular spongiosa. Trabecular spongiosa is found in flat bones and within the ends of long bones, and is characterized by an intricate matrix of interconnected bone tissue forming cavities that house marrow. The microscopic internal dimensions of spongiosa vary between species. As radiation traverses this region, interface-induced dose perturbations that occur at the interfaces between bone and marrow affect the patterns of energy deposition within the region. An aim of this project is to determine the extent by which tissue heterogeneity and microscopic dimensions have on patterns of energy deposition within the trabecular spongiosa. This leads to the development of PATHFIT, a computer code capable of generating simple quadric-based geometric models of trabecular spongiosa for both humans and mice based on actual experimentally-determined internal dimensions of trabecular spongiosa. Following the creation of spongiosa models, focus is placed on the development of HITSPAP, a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code system that combines capabilities of the MC code PENELOPE and MC code PARTRAC. This code is capable of simulating the transport of HZE particles through accurate models of trabecular spongiosa. The final and

  11. Pre-Equilibrium Effects in the Secondary Particle Spectra in the Reactions with Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotina, O. V.; Eremenko, D. O.; Parfenova, Yu. L.; Platonov, S. Yu.; Yuminov, O. A.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Gramegna, F.; Barlini, S.; Casini, G.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Wieland, O.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.

    Theoretical description of the experimentally obtained spectra for protons and α-particles and model calculations for the neutron spectra in the reactions with heavy ions has been presented. The hybrid model of non-equilibrium processes was used. Equilibrium evaporation process was analyzed in the framework of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions with Monte-Carlo simulation including certain dynamical and kinematical characteristics. This approach was included in PACE code, which permits to simulate Monte-Carlo de-excitation nuclear process. The Fermi-gas model and level-density phenomenological model for the variation of the nuclear level density parameters was used. In this approach data on 16O+116Sn reaction with Ebeam = 130, 250 MeV were analyzed. Double-differential light charged particle spectra for this reaction were measured using the GARFIELD apparatus in coincidence with evaporation residues. The experimental data were collected in four angular ranges from 29 to 41, 41 to 53, 53 to 67 and 67 to 82 degrees in the laboratory system. The results of the calculations are shown and discussed for these four angular ranges. The contributions from the evaporative and pre-equilibrium processes were analyzed in connection with different nucleus equilibration mechanisms.

  12. CNS-induced deficits of heavy particle irradiation in space: the aging connection.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J A; Shukitt-Hale, B; McEwen, J; Rabin, B M

    2000-01-01

    Our research over the last several years has suggested that young (3 mo) rats exposed to whole-body 56Fe irradiation show neuronal signal transduction alterations and accompanying motor behavioral changes that are similar to those seen in aged (22-24 mo) rats. Since it has been postulated that 1-2% of the composition of cosmic rays contain 56Fe particles of heavy particle irradiation, there may be significant CNS effects on astronauts on long-term space flights which could produce behavioral changes that could be expressed during the mission or at some time after the return. These, when combined with other effects such as weightlessness and exposure to proton irradiations may even supercede mutagenic effects. It is suggested that by determining mechanistic relationships that might exist between aging and irradiation it may be possible to determine the common factor(s) involved in both perturbations and develop procedures to offset their deleterious effects. For example, one method that has been effective is nutritional modification. PMID:11542857

  13. Implications of Saito's coronal density model on the polar solar wind flow and heavy ion abundances. [mathematical models of proton flux density and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of polar solar wind proton flux upper limits derived using a coronal density model, with Lyman alpha measurements of the length of the neutral H tail of comet Bennet at high latitudes, shows that either extended heating beyond 2 solar radii is necessary some of the time or that the model's polar densities are too low. Whichever possibility is the case, the fact that the solar wind particle flux does not appear to decrease with increasing latitude indicates that the heavy element content of the high latitude wind may be similar to that observed in the ecliptic. It was then shown that solar wind heavy ion observations at high latitudes allow a determination of the electron temperature at heights which bracket the nominal location of the coronal temperature maximum thus providing information concerning the magnitude and extent of mechanical dissipation in the intermediate corona.

  14. Flare vs. Shock Acceleration of >100 MeV Protons in Large Solar Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.

    2016-05-01

    Recently several studies have presented correlative evidence for a significant-to-dominant role for a flare-resident process in the acceleration of high-energy protons in large solar particle events. In one of these investigations, a high correlation between >100 MeV proton fluence and 35 GHz radio fluence is obtained by omitting large proton events associated with relatively weak flares; these outlying events are attributed to proton acceleration by shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We argue that the strong CMEs and associated shocks observed for proton events on the main sequence of the scatter plot are equally likely to accelerate high-energy protons. In addition, we examine ratios of 0.5 MeV electron to >100 MeV proton intensities in large SEP events, associated with both well-connected and poorly-connected solar eruptions, to show that scaled-up versions of the small flares associated with classical impulsive SEP events are not significant accelerators of >100 MeV protons.

  15. The Role of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy with Photons, Protons, and Heavy Ions for Treating Extracranial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Aaron Michael; Pompos, Arnold; Timmerman, Robert; Jiang, Steve; Story, Michael D.; Pistenmaa, David; Choy, Hak

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the ability to deliver large doses of ionizing radiation to a tumor has been limited by radiation-induced toxicity to normal surrounding tissues. This was the initial impetus for the development of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy, where large volumes of healthy tissue received radiation and were allowed the time to repair the radiation damage. However, advances in radiation delivery techniques and image guidance have allowed for more ablative doses of radiation to be delivered in a very accurate, conformal, and safe manner with shortened fractionation schemes. Hypofractionated regimens with photons have already transformed how certain tumor types are treated with radiation therapy. Additionally, hypofractionation is able to deliver a complete course of ablative radiation therapy over a shorter period of time compared to conventional fractionation regimens making treatment more convenient to the patient and potentially more cost-effective. Recently, there has been an increased interest in proton therapy because of the potential further improvement in dose distributions achievable due to their unique physical characteristics. Furthermore, with heavier ions the dose conformality is increased and, in addition, there is potentially a higher biological effectiveness compared to protons and photons. Due to the properties mentioned above, charged particle therapy has already become an attractive modality to further investigate the role of hypofractionation in the treatment of various tumors. This review will discuss the rationale and evolution of hypofractionated radiation therapy, the reported clinical success with initially photon and then charged particle modalities, and further potential implementation into treatment regimens going forward. PMID:26793619

  16. Solar-Wind Protons and Heavy Ions Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barghouty, N.; Meyer, Fred W; Harris, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Lunar surface materials are exposed to {approx}1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost continuous basis. As the lunar surface consists of mostly oxides, these materials suffer, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering due to the actions of the solar-wind ions. Sputtering is an important mechanism affecting the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere. While the contribution of kinetic sputtering to the changes in the composition of the surface layer of these oxides is well understood and modeled, the role and implications of potential sputtering remain unclear. As new potential-sputtering data from multi-charged ions impacting lunar regolith simulants are becoming available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MIRF, we examine the role and possible implications of potential sputtering of Lunar KREEP soil. Using a non-equilibrium model we demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  17. Propensity and risk assessment for solar particle events: Consideration of integral fluence at high proton energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew; Feiveson, Alan; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    For future space missions with longer duration, exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is the major concern during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. The propensity for SPE occurrence with large proton fluence was estimated as a function of time within a solar cycle from a non-homogeneous Poisson model using the historical database for measurements of protons with energy >30 MeV, Φ30 . The database includes a continuous data set for the past 5 solar cycles. The resultant SPE risk analysis for a specific mission period was made for blood forming organ (BFO) dose ranging from its 5th to 95th percentile. In addition to the total particle intensity of SPEs, the detailed energy spectra of protons, especially at high energy levels, were recognized as extremely important for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. Using all the recorded proton fluence of SPEs for energies >60 and >100 MeV, Φ60 and Φ100 , respectively, the expected numbers of SPEs abundant with high energy protons were estimated from the same non-homogeneous Poisson model and the representative cancer risk was analyzed. The dependencies of risk with different energy spectra, for e.g. between soft and hard SPEs, were evaluated. Finally, we describe approaches to improve radiation protection of astronauts and optimize mission planning for future space missions.

  18. Propensity and Risk Assessment for Solar Particle Events: Consideration of Integral Fluence at High Proton Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    For future space missions with longer duration, exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is the major concern during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. The expected SPE propensity for large proton fluence was estimated from a non-homogeneous Poisson model using the historical database for measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, Phi(sub 30). The database includes a continuous data set for the past 5 solar cycles. The resultant SPE risk analysis for a specific mission period was made including the 95% confidence level. In addition to total particle intensity of SPE, the detailed energy spectra of protons especially at high energy levels were recognized as extremely important parameter for the risk assessment, since there remains a significant cancer risks from those energetic particles for large events. Using all the recorded proton fluence of SPEs for energies >60 and >100 MeV, Phi(sub 60) and Phi(sub 100), respectively, the expected propensities of SPEs abundant with high energy protons were estimated from the same non-homogeneous Poisson model and the representative cancer risk was analyzed. The dependencies of risk with different energy spectra, for e.g. between soft and hard SPEs, were evaluated. Finally, we describe approaches to improve radiation protection of astronauts and optimize mission planning for future space missions.

  19. Water-soluble core/shell nanoparticles for proton therapy through particle-induced radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Maeng Jun; Kim, Kye-Ryung

    2015-02-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been used in biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), therapy, and drug delivery systems. Metallic nanoparticles as therapeutic tools have been demonstrated using radio-frequency magnetic fields or near-infrared light. Recently, therapeutic applications of metallic nanomaterials combined with proton beams have been reported. Particle-induced radiation from metallic nanoparticles, which can enhance the therapeutic effects of proton therapy, was released when the nanoparticles were bombarded by a high-energy proton beam. Core/shell nanoparticles, especially Au-coated magnetic nanoparticles, have drawn attention in biological applications due to their attractive characteristics. However, studies on the phase transfer of organic-ligand-based core/shell nanoparticles into water are limited. Herein, we demonstrated that hydrophobic core/shell structured nanomaterials could be successfully dispersed in water through chloroform/surfactant mixtures. The effects of the core/shell nanomaterials and the proton irradiation on Escherichia coli (E. coli) were also explored.

  20. Comparison of heavy metal effect on the proton pumps of plasma membrane and tonoplast in cucumber root cells.

    PubMed

    Kabała, Katarzyna; Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Burzyński, Marek; Kłobus, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 10 microM cadmium, copper and nickel on the activities of vacuolar membrane and plasma membrane (PM) ATP-dependent proton pumps was investigated in Cucumis sativus L. root cells. It was demonstrated that vacuolar H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) and PM H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) differed in sensitivity to heavy metals. Exposure of cucumber seedlings to Cd, Cu and Ni had no significant effect on the activity of the vacuolar proton pump and, in the case of Ni, also on the activity of the PM proton pump. In contrast, Cd and Cu ions diminished both ATP hydrolysis and proton transport in plasma membranes. Transcript levels of genes encoding PM enzyme as well as the subunit A of tonoplast enzyme in roots stressed with heavy metals were similar to the control. Cd, Cu and Ni were accumulated in cucumber roots with similar efficiency, but their relative distribution between the symplast and apoplast differed. To explain the mechanism of heavy metal action on the plasma membranes of cucumber roots, the MDA content, as a lipid peroxidation product, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. It was shown that exposure of plants to Cd, Cu and Ni did not enhance the lipid peroxidation in the PM fraction. However, all metals caused an increase in the saturation of PM fatty acids and a decrease in the length of the fatty acid chain. PMID:17658657

  1. Comparison of heavy metal effect on the proton pumps of plasma membrane and tonoplast in cucumber root cells.

    PubMed

    Kabała, Katarzyna; Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Burzyński, Marek; Kłobus, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 10 microM cadmium, copper and nickel on the activities of vacuolar membrane and plasma membrane (PM) ATP-dependent proton pumps was investigated in Cucumis sativus L. root cells. It was demonstrated that vacuolar H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) and PM H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) differed in sensitivity to heavy metals. Exposure of cucumber seedlings to Cd, Cu and Ni had no significant effect on the activity of the vacuolar proton pump and, in the case of Ni, also on the activity of the PM proton pump. In contrast, Cd and Cu ions diminished both ATP hydrolysis and proton transport in plasma membranes. Transcript levels of genes encoding PM enzyme as well as the subunit A of tonoplast enzyme in roots stressed with heavy metals were similar to the control. Cd, Cu and Ni were accumulated in cucumber roots with similar efficiency, but their relative distribution between the symplast and apoplast differed. To explain the mechanism of heavy metal action on the plasma membranes of cucumber roots, the MDA content, as a lipid peroxidation product, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. It was shown that exposure of plants to Cd, Cu and Ni did not enhance the lipid peroxidation in the PM fraction. However, all metals caused an increase in the saturation of PM fatty acids and a decrease in the length of the fatty acid chain.

  2. Experimental research of heavy ion and proton induced single event effects for a Bi-CMOS technology DC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anlin, He; Gang, Guo; Shuting, Shi; Dongjun, Shen; Jiancheng, Liu; Li, Cai; Hui, Fan

    2015-11-01

    This paper tested and analyzed heavy ion and proton induced single event effects (SEE) of a commercial DC/DC converter based on a 600 nm Bi-CMOS technology. Heavy ion induced single event transients (SET) testing has been carried out by using the Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy. Proton test has been carried out by using the Canadian TRIUMF proton accelerator. Both SET cross section versus linear energy transfer (LET) and proton energy has been measured. The main study conclusions are: (1) the DC/DC is both sensitive to heavy ion and proton radiations although at a pretty large feature size (600 nm), and threshold LET is about 0.06 MeV·mg/cm2 (2) heavy ion SET saturation cross section is about 5 magnitudes order larger than proton SET saturation cross section, which is consistent with the theory calculation result deduced by the RPP model and the proton nuclear reaction model; (3) on-orbit soft error rate (SER) prediction showed, on GEO orbit, proton induced SERs calculated by the heavy ion derived model are 4-5 times larger than those calculated by proton test data.

  3. Analysis of proton single-particle properties of zinc and germanium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalova, O. V. Ermakova, T. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.

    2014-12-15

    Experimental proton single-particle energies in the vicinity of the Fermi energy for stable zinc and germanium isotopes are analyzed on the basis the dispersive optical model. The values found for the parameters of the dispersive optical potential are corrected with the aim of matching the total number of protons that is calculated with the aid of the function of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for the occupation probability for single-particle orbits with the charge number Z of the nucleus. The parameters of the dispersive optical potential are extrapolated on the basis of physically motivated arguments to the region of unstable isotopes in which the number N ranges between 34 and 50, and single-particle spectra are predicted by means of calculations with these parameters.

  4. Analysis of proton single-particle properties of zinc and germanium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalova, O. V.; Ermakova, T. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental proton single-particle energies in the vicinity of the Fermi energy for stable zinc and germanium isotopes are analyzed on the basis the dispersive optical model. The values found for the parameters of the dispersive optical potential are corrected with the aim of matching the total number of protons that is calculated with the aid of the function of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for the occupation probability for single-particle orbits with the charge number Z of the nucleus. The parameters of the dispersive optical potential are extrapolated on the basis of physically motivated arguments to the region of unstable isotopes in which the number N ranges between 34 and 50, and single-particle spectra are predicted by means of calculations with these parameters.

  5. Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. II. Fricke dosimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Magee, J.L.

    1980-12-25

    A heavy-particle-track model suggested by considerations presented in a companion paper is used in a calculation of the differential (G') and integral (G) yields of the Fricke dosimeter system for six selected particles over a wide range of energies. The particles are H, He, C, Ne, Ar, and Fm; the energy range for the first two is 10/sup -3/-10/sup 3/ MeV/n, and for the last four is 10/sup -1/-10/sup 3/ MeV/n. The calculated G' and G values are compared with experimental values as far as possible, and the heavy-particle-track model situation is discussed.

  6. PIXE-induced XRF by high energy protons and alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglioni, M.; Manfredi, G.; Milazzo, M.; Silari, M.

    1993-04-01

    In the past three years a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study has been conducted on the production of intense sources of monochromatic X-rays in the range 1-75 keV by bombardment of pure element targets with protons and alpha particles of tens of MeV energy. The present paper describes a dual-chamber irradiation system which has been designed and built for PIXE-induced XRF. Preliminary experimental results of analyses obtained with 20 MeV protons and a Zn primary target are shown.

  7. Quasilinear theory and particle-in-cell simulation of proton cyclotron instability

    SciTech Connect

    Seough, Jungjoon E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu; Yoon, Peter H. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu; Hwang, Junga E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu

    2014-06-15

    The electromagnetic ion (proton) cyclotron instability is important for regulating the excessive development of perpendicular temperature anisotropy in the solar wind, for instance, when it is compressed in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosheath environment. A recent letter [Seough et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 071103 (2013)] successfully employed the quasilinear kinetic theory to explain the observed temperature anisotropy upper bound. The present paper rigorously examines the reliability of the quasilinear theory by making a direct comparison against results from the particle-in-cell simulation method. It is found that the quasilinear approach is indeed a valid first-cut theoretical tool in the study of proton cyclotron instability.

  8. Angular distribution of shower particles produced in the collisions of 30--400-GeV protons with emulsion nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.O.

    1985-02-01

    For 3987 accelerator-produced jets of 30--400-GeV protons in nuclear emulsion, 's are individually calculated for each jet, where eta(theta) is a kinematic parameter introduced by us in 1967 in order to approximate the rapidity eta = arctanh(..beta.. costheta). Then by taking further averages by dividing the samples into groupings of the laboratory-system (LS) energy E/sub p/ of the primary proton ( = m/sub p/cosheta/sub p/), the number N/sub h/ of heavy prongs with LS velocity ..beta..<0.7, and the number n/sub s/ of charged shower particles with LS velocity ..beta..> or approx. =0.7, the averages dlangleeta(theta)drangle are obtained. By use of the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling variable xi = n/sub s//, we find good fits of the form dlangleeta(theta)drangle-eta/sub p//2 = A'+B'/xi, where A' and B' do not have any dependence on eta/sub p/ (i.e., on E/sub p/). The significance of our findings is discussed.

  9. Proton Single-Particle States In The Heaviest Actinide Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Kondev, F.G.; Moore, E.F.; Chasman, R.R.; Carpenter, M.P.; Greene, J.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C.J.; Seweryniak, D.; Hoff, R.W.; Evans, J.E.; Lougheed, R.W.; Porter, C.E.; Felker, L.K.

    2005-04-05

    The level structure of 249Bk has been investigated by measuring the {gamma}-ray spectra following the {alpha} decay of a chemically and isotopically pure 253Es sample. Alpha-gamma coincidence measurement was performed using a Si detector for {alpha} particles and a 25% Ge detector for {gamma} rays. A gamma-gamma coincidence measurement was performed with the Gammasphere spectrometer. The Es sample was obtained by extracting the 253Es which grew in a 253Cf source material produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Additional information on the 249Bk levels was obtained from the study of {gamma} rays produced in the {beta}- decay of 249Cm. The 249Cm sample was produced by neutron irradiation of 248Cm. Using the results of the present study and the results of previous 248Cm({alpha},t) and 248Cm(3He,d) reaction spectra, the following single-particle states have been identified in 249Bk: 7/2+[633], 0.0 keV; 3/2-[521], 8.78 keV; 1/2+[400], 377.55 keV: 5/2+[642], 389.17 keV; 1/2-[530], 569.19 keV; 1/2-[521], 643.0 keV; 5/2-[523], 672.8 keV; 9/2+[624], 1075.1 keV. Four vibrational bands were identified at 767.9, 932.2, 1150.7 and 1223.0 keV with tentative assignments of {l_brace}7/2+[633]x1-{r_brace}9/2-, {l_brace}7/2+[633]x0-{r_brace}7/2-, {l_brace}7/2+[633]x1-{r_brace}5/2- and {l_brace}7/2+[633]x0+{r_brace}7/2+, respectively.

  10. Measurement of neutral strange particle production in the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2013-09-01

    Measurements are presented of the production of primary K(S)0 and Lambda particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV in the region transverse to the leading charged-particle jet in each event. The average multiplicity and average scalar transverse momentum sum of K(S)0 and Lambda particles measured at pseudorapidities abs(eta) < 2 rise with increasing charged-particle jet pt in the range 1-10 GeV and saturate in the region 10-50 GeV. The rise and saturation of the strange particle yields and transverse momentum sums in the underlying event are similar to those observed for inclusive charged particles, which confirms the impact-parameter picture of multiple parton interactions. The results are compared to recent tunes of the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator. The PYTHIA simulations underestimate the data by 15-30% for K(S)0 mesons and by about 50% for Lambda baryons, a deficit similar to that observed for the inclusive strange particle production in non-single-diffractive proton-proton collisions. The constant strange- to charged-particle activity ratios and the similar trends for mesons and baryons indicate that the multiparton-interaction dynamics is decoupled from parton hadronization, which occurs at a later stage.

  11. Muon capture by a proton in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fearing, H.W.; Lewis, R.; Mobed, N.; Scherer, S.

    1997-08-01

    The matrix element for muon capture by a proton is calculated to O(p{sup 3}) within heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory using the new O(p{sup 3}) Lagrangian of Ecker and Moj{hacek z}i{hacek s}. External nucleon fields are renormalized using the appropriate definition of the wave function renormalization factor Z{sub N}. Our expression for Z{sub N} differs somewhat from that found in the existing literature, but is the one which is consistent with the Lagrangian we use and the one which ensures, within our approach, the nonrenormalization of the vector coupling as required by the conserved vector current. Expressions for the standard muon capture form factors are derived and compared to experimental data and we determine three of the coefficients of the Ecker-Moj{hacek z}i{hacek s} Lagrangian, namely, b{sub 7}, b{sub 19}, and b{sub 23}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. INJECTOR PARTICLE SIMULATION AND BEAM TRANSPORT IN A COMPACT LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Blackfield, D T; Chen, Y J; Harris, J; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Poole, B

    2007-06-18

    A compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), with field gradient up to 100 MW/m is being developed to accelerate proton bunches for use in cancer therapy treatment. The injector must create a proton pulse up to several hundred picoseconds, which is then shaped and accelerated with energies up to 250 MeV. The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code LSP is used to model several aspects of this design. First, we use LSP to obtain the voltage waveform in the A-K gap that will produce a proton bunch with the requisite charge. We then model pulse compression and shaping in the section between the A-K gap and the DWA. We finally use LSP to model the beam transport through the DWA.

  13. Confocal fluorescent imaging of tracks from heavy charged particles utilising new Al2O3:C,Mg crystals.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, Mark S; Yoder, R Craig; Akselrod, Gleb M

    2006-01-01

    A completely optical, non-destructive imaging of tracks in a fluorescent crystal provides a new way to detect and to assess doses from heavy charged particles and neutrons. The technique combines confocal fluorescent microscopy with a new radiation-sensitive, luminescent material based on aluminium oxide single crystals doped with carbon, magnesium and having aggregate oxygen vacancy defects (Al2O3:C,Mg). Radiation-induced colour centres in the new material have an absorption band at 620 nm and produce fluorescence at 750 nm with a high quantum yield and a short, 75 +/- 5 ns, fluorescence lifetime. Three-dimensional spatial distribution of fluorescent intensity allows one to obtain depth-dose distributions and to discriminate between high- and low-linear energy transfer radiations. Images of single tracks produced by different types of radiation have been obtained. Irradiations with a calibrated 241Am alpha source showed high efficiency for track detection. Thermal neutrons were detected using a nuclear reaction with a 6LiF radiator and production of alpha particles and tritium ions. Fast neutrons were detected using recoil protons produced in a polyethylene radiator installed in front of the crystalline detector. Three-dimensional reconstruction of a recoil proton propagating through the crystal was demonstrated. PMID:16644943

  14. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  15. Processes of heavy quark pair (lepton pair) and two gluon (two photon) production in the high energy quark (electron) proton peripheral collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, Azad I.; Kuraev, Eduard A.

    2014-08-01

    We considered the three jet production processes in the region of the incident lepton, photon, quark or gluon fragmentation. The fourth jet is created by the recoil proton. The kinematics of jet production is discussed in jets production in the fragmentation region. The non-trivial relation between the momenta of the recoil proton and the polar angle of its emission was derived. Based on this formalism the differential cross sections of QCD processes gp→(ggg)p; qp→(qQbarQ)p; gp→(gQQbar)p were obtained, including the distribution on transverse momentum component of jets fragments. It was shown that the role of the contribution of “non-Abelian” nature may become dominant in a particular kinematics of the final particles. The kinematics, in which the initial particle changes the direction of movement to the opposite one, was considered in the case of heavy quark-antiquark pair production. Different distributions, including spectral, azimuthal and polar angle distribution on the fragments of jets can be arranged using our results. We present besides the behavior of the ratio of non-Abelian contribution to the cross section to the total contribution. We show that it dominates for large values of the transverse momenta of jets component (gluons or quarks). Some historical introduction to the cross-sections of peripheral processes, including 2γ creation mechanism production, including the result Brodsky-Kinoshita-Terazawa, is given.

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENTIAL FLOW OF ALPHA PARTICLES ON PROTON PRESSURE ANISOTROPY INSTABILITIES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, John J.; Gary, S. Peter

    2011-11-20

    In the solar wind, when the effects of proton-proton Coulomb collisions are negligible, alpha particles usually flow faster than the protons in such a way that the differential alpha-proton flow velocity V{sub d} = V{sub {alpha}} - V{sub p} is on the order of the Alfven speed, is directed away from the Sun, and is nearly aligned with the local mean magnetic field. When this differential flow is taken into account, solutions of the hot plasma dispersion relation show that for the parallel propagating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability driven by the proton temperature anisotropy T{sub perpendicularp} > T{sub ||p}, the maximum growth rate occurs in the + V{sub d} direction and for the parallel firehose instability driven by the opposite proton temperature anisotropy T{sub ||p} > T{sub perpendicularp}, the maximum growth rate occurs in the - V{sub d} direction. Thus, the EMIC instability preferentially generates left circularly polarized Alfven-ion-cyclotron waves propagating away from the Sun and the parallel firehose instability preferentially generates right circularly polarized magnetosonic-whistler waves propagating toward the Sun with the maximum growth rates occurring for frequencies on the order of the proton cyclotron frequency and wavenumbers on the order of the proton inertial length. Because of the Doppler shift caused by the motion of the solar wind, both types of waves are left circularly polarized in the spacecraft frame for observations taken when the local mean magnetic field is collinear with the solar wind flow velocity. Theoretical investigation of these instabilities also shows that regions of parameter space exist where the unstable waves are generated propagating unidirectionally such as, for the EMIC instability for example, when the temperature anisotropy is small |(T{sub perpendicular{sub p}}/T{sub ||{sub p}}) - 1| < 1. Taken together, the above properties can explain the origin of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves

  17. Electronic stopping power in liquid water for protons and α particles from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Kyle G.; Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke

    2016-07-01

    Atomistic calculations of the electronic stopping power in liquid water for protons and α particles from first principles are demonstrated without relying on linear response theory. The computational approach is based on nonequilibrium simulation of the electronic response using real-time time-dependent density functional theory. By quantifying the velocity dependence of the steady-state charge of the projectile proton and α particle from nonequilibrium electron densities, we examine the extent to which linear response theory is applicable. We further assess the influence of the exchange-correlation approximation in real-time time-dependent density functional theory on the stopping power with range-separated and regular hybrid functionals with exact exchange.

  18. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  19. Short DNA Fragments Are a Hallmark of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation and May Underlie Their Greater Therapeutic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Dalong; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Rodgers, James E.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Growing interest in proton and heavy ion therapy has reinvigorated research into the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of charged-particle radiation. To improve our understanding of the greater biological effectiveness of high-LET radiations, we have investigated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following exposure of plasmid DNA to low-LET Co-60 gamma photon and electron irradiation and to high-LET Beryllium and Argon ions with atomic force microscopy. The sizes of DNA fragments following radiation exposure were individually measured to construct fragment size distributions from which the DSB per DNA molecule and DSB spatial distributions were derived. We report that heavy charged particles induce a significantly larger proportion of short DNA fragments in irradiated DNA molecules, reflecting densely and clustered damage patterns of high-LET energy depositions. We attribute the enhanced short DNA fragmentation following high-LET radiations as an important determinant of the observed, enhanced biological effectiveness of high-LET irradiations. PMID:27376024

  20. Short DNA Fragments Are a Hallmark of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation and May Underlie Their Greater Therapeutic Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pang, Dalong; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Rodgers, James E; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Growing interest in proton and heavy ion therapy has reinvigorated research into the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of charged-particle radiation. To improve our understanding of the greater biological effectiveness of high-LET radiations, we have investigated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following exposure of plasmid DNA to low-LET Co-60 gamma photon and electron irradiation and to high-LET Beryllium and Argon ions with atomic force microscopy. The sizes of DNA fragments following radiation exposure were individually measured to construct fragment size distributions from which the DSB per DNA molecule and DSB spatial distributions were derived. We report that heavy charged particles induce a significantly larger proportion of short DNA fragments in irradiated DNA molecules, reflecting densely and clustered damage patterns of high-LET energy depositions. We attribute the enhanced short DNA fragmentation following high-LET radiations as an important determinant of the observed, enhanced biological effectiveness of high-LET irradiations. PMID:27376024

  1. Large Proton Anisotropies in the 18 August 2010 Solar Particle Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leske, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Christian, Eric R.; Cummings, A. C.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Rosenvinge, Tycho T Von

    2012-01-01

    The solar particle event observed at STEREO Ahead on 18 August 2010 displayeda rich variety of behavior in the particle anisotropies. Sectored rates measured by theLow Energy Telescope (LET) on STEREO showed very large bidirectional anisotropies in4 6 MeV protons for the first 17 hours of the event while inside a magnetic cloud, withintensities along the field direction several hundred to nearly 1000 times greater than thoseperpendicular to the field. At the trailing end of the cloud, the protons became isotropic andtheir spectrum hardened slightly, while the HeH abundance ratio plunged by a factor of approximatelyfour for about four hours. Associated with the arrival of a shock on 20 Augustwas a series of brief (10 minute duration) intensity increases (commonly called shockspikes) with relatively narrow angular distributions (45 FWHM), followed by an abruptdecrease in particle intensities at the shock itself and a reversal of the proton flow to a directiontoward the Sun and away from the receding shock. We discuss the STEREOLETobservations of this interesting event in the context of other observations reported in theliterature

  2. Effects of alpha-proton drift velocity on alpha particle firehose instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seough, Jungjoon; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    In situ measurements have shown that the less-abundant alpha particles are characterized by temperature anisotropy which could drive the anisotropy-driven kinetic instabilities in the solar wind. In the collisionless plasma, the differential alpha-proton flow velocity V d = V α - V p usually has a non-zero value of the order of the local Alfvén velocity. The presence of such differential flow may affect the properties of dispersion relations for anisotropy-driven instabilities. Based upon linear Vlasov dispersion theory in a homogeneous plasma, the present study investigates the effects of the alpha-proton drift velocity on the parallel and oblique firehose instabilities driven by an excessive parallel temperature anisotropy of alpha particles, where the parallel and oblique represent directions of fluctuation propagation relative to the background magnetic field. It is found that for oblique firehose mode as well as parallel mode, the dispersion properties are affected by the presence of the alpha-proton drift velocity, which in turn results in the increase of the maximum growth rates as Vd increases and consequently leads to the modification of the marginal stability conditions in the parameter space ( β ∥ α , T ⊥ α / T ∥ α ) . We discuss the relevance of our results to the measured temperature anisotropy of alpha particles in the solar wind context.

  3. Acceleration of low-energy protons and alpha particles at interplanetary shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The low-energy protons and alpha particles in the energy range 30 keV/charge to 150 keV/charge associated with three different interplanetary shock waves in the immediate preshock and postshock region are studied using data obtained by the ISEE 3. The spatial distributions in the preshock and postshock medium are presented, and the dependence of the phase space density at different energies on the distance from the shock and on the form of the distribution function of both species immediately at the shock is examined. It is found that in the preshock region the particles are flowing in the solar wind frame of reference away from the shock and in the postshock medium the distribution is more or less isotropic in this frame of reference. The distribution function in the postshock region can be represented by a power law in energy which has the same spectral exponent for both protons and alpha particles. It is concluded that the first-order Fermi acceleration process can consistently explain the data, although the spectra of diffuse bow shock associated particles are different from the spectra of the interplanetary shock-associated particles in the immediate vicinity of the shock. In addition, the mean free path of the low energy ions in the preshock medium is found to be considerably smaller than the mean free path determined by the turbulence of the background interplanetary medium.

  4. The heavy ion compositional signature in 3He-rich solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Reames, D. V.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the approx. 1 MeV/nucleon heavy ion abundances in 66 He3-rich solar particle events was performed using the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center instruments on the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The observations were carried out in interplanetary space over the period 1978 October through 1982 June. Earlier observations were confirmed which show an enrichment of heavy ions in HE3-rich events, relative to the average solar energetic particle composition in large particle events. For the survey near 1.5 MeV/nucleon the enrichments compared to large solar particle events are approximately He4:C:O:Ne:Mg:Si:Fe = 0.44:0.66:1.:3.4:3.5:4.1:9.6. Surprising new results emerging from the present broad survey are that the heavy ion enrichment pattern is the same within a factor of approx. 2 for almost all cases, and the degree of heavy ion enrichment is uncorrelated with the He3 enrichment. Overall, the features established appear to be best explained by an acceleration mechanism in which the He3 enrichment process is not responsible for the heavy ion enrichment, but rather the heavy ion enrichment is a measure of the ambient coronal composition at the sites where the He3-rich events occur.

  5. The heavy-ion compositional signature in He-3-rich solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Reames, D. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of the approx. 1 MeV/nucleon heavy ion abundances in 66 He-3-rich solar particle events was performed using the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center instruments on the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The observations were carried out in interplanetary space over the period 1978 October through 1982 June. Earlier observations were confirmed which show an enrichment of heavy ions in He-3-rich events, relative to the average solar energetic particle composition in large particle events. For the survey near 1.5 MeV/nucleon the enrichments compared to large solar particle events are approximately He4:C:O:Ne:Mg:Si:Fe = 0.44:0.66:1.:3.4:3.5:4.1:9.6. Surprising new results emerging from the present broad survey are that the heavy ion enrichment pattern is the same within a factor of approx. 2 for almost all cases, and the degree of heavy ion enrichment is uncorrelated with the He-3 enrichment. Overall, the features established appear to be best explained by an acceleration mechanism in which the He-3 enrichment process is not responsible for the heavy ion enrichment, but rather the heavy ion enrichment is a measure of the ambient coronal composition at the sites where the He-3-rich events occur.

  6. Mean motion and trajectories of heavy particles falling through a boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, J.E.; Arya, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    As particles fall through a turbulent boundary layer they experience a rather complex and unique time series of aerodynamic forces and, thus, each individual particle follows a rather complex and unique trajectory to the surface. For sufficiently large and heavy particles, the turbulence induced particle motion can be thought of as a small perturbation superimposed on the mean trajectory. By ignoring the turbulent contribution to particle motion it is possible to calculate the trajectory of a particle due to the mean flow alone. The mean trajectory provides an estimate of the ensemble-averaged path of a set of particles released from a given point in the atmosphere. The effect of turbulence on individual particle trajectories, the distribution of particle displacements from the mean trajectory, and their deposition patterns on the surface will be investigated in a separate study, using a random walk model.

  7. Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

  8. Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth. PMID:16038094

  9. Single-particle selection and alignment with heavy atom cluster-antibody conjugates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, G J; Kornberg, R D

    1998-08-01

    A method is proposed for selecting and aligning images of single biological particles to obtain high-resolution structural information by cryoelectron microscopy. The particles will be labeled with multiple heavy atom clusters to permit the precise determination of particle locations and relative orientations even when imaged close to focus with a low electron dose, conditions optimal for recording high-resolution detail. Heavy atom clusters should also allow selection of images free from many kinds of defects, including specimen movement and particle inhomogeneity. Heavy atom clusters may be introduced in a general way by the construction of "adaptor" molecules based on single-chain Fv antibody fragments, consisting of a constant framework region engineered for optimal cluster binding and a variable antigen binding region selected for a specific target. The success of the method depends on the mobility of the heavy atom cluster on the particle, on the precision to which clusters can be located in an image, and on the sufficiency of cluster projections alone to orient and select particles for averaging. The necessary computational algorithms were developed and implemented in simulations that address the feasibility of the method.

  10. Characterization of lacustrine iron sulfide particles with proton-induced X-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, W. ); Grime, G.W. ); Woof, C. )

    1992-12-01

    Black particles, collected by filtration (1.2-[mu] pore size) from the anoxic waters of a soft-water lake, were examined by a scanning proton microprobe which permitted quantitative elemental analysis by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). There was a uniform distribution of sulfur across the filter, but Fe, and to a lesser extent, Mn, was localized in [approximately]5-[mu]m diameter clusters. Elemental analysis with 1-[mu]m-diameter beams revealed that the Fe clusters were mainly comprised of iron oxides. Iron sulfide material not in the Fe clusters had stoichiometric proportions of Fe[sub 1.0]S[sub 0.60]P[sub 0.60]Ca[sub 0.24]K[sub 0.14]. Although a purely biogenic origin for P, Ca, and K cannot be ruled out, the composition is consistent with the particles originating as authigenic iron oxides which react with sulfide as they sink through the water column. The iron sulfide particles are richer in Cu (4,000 ppm) and Zn (6,000 ppm) than the iron oxides, suggesting that these elements are also concentrated as their insoluble sulfides. The coexistence of iron oxides and sulfides indicates that either the supply of sulfide is limiting or that some iron oxide particles are unreactive. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Searches for Light- and Heavy-flavor Three-jet Resonances in proton-proton Collisions with the CMS Detector at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A search for three-jet hadronic resonance production in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV center-of-mass energy has been conducted by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb-1. The search method is modelindependent. Events are selected that contain a large number of jets with high transverse momentum. An ensemble of jets is used to extract a new possible signal from copious QCD background. Event selection is optimized using a benchmark model where supersymmetric gluinos are pair-produced and each of the gluinos decays exclusively into three jets. Two scenarios of this decay are considered denoted by the RPV couplings λ'' 112 and λ'' 113 or λ'' 223. The first coupling allows for gluinos to decay into only light-flavor jets, while the latter two allow decays into one heavy-flavor and two light-flavor jets. No significant deviation is found between the selected events and the expected standard model multijet and t$\\bar{t}$ background. For gluinos decaying through 00 112, masses below 650 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level. The search including heavy-flavor jets in the final state with the couplings λ'' 113 or λ'' 223 is the first of its kind. Gluinos decaying into one heavy-flavor and two light-flavor jets are excluded for masses between 200 and 835 GeV.

  12. Distribution of the concentration of heavy metals associated with the sediment particles accumulated on road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zafra, C A; Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2011-07-01

    The heavy metal pollution caused by road run-off water constitutes a problem in urban areas. The metallic load associated with road sediment must be determined in order to study its impact in drainage systems and receiving waters, and to perfect the design of prevention systems. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on road surfaces in the city of Torrelavega (northern Spain) during a period of 65 days (132 samples). Two sample types were collected: vacuum-dried samples and those swept up following vacuuming. The sediment loading (g m(-2)), particle size distribution (63-2800 microm) and heavy metal concentrations were determined. The data showed that the concentration of heavy metals tends to increase with the reduction in the particle diameter (exponential tendency). The concentrations ofPb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Fe, Mn and Co in the size fraction <63 microm were 350, 630, 124, 57, 56, 38, 3231, 374 and 51 mg kg(-1), respectively (average traffic density: 3800 vehicles day(-1)). By increasing the residence time of the sediment, the concentration increases, whereas the ratio of the concentration between the different size fractions decreases. The concentration across the road diminishes when the distance between the roadway and the sampling siteincreases; when the distance increases, the ratio between size fractions for heavy metal concentrations increases. Finally, the main sources of heavy metals are the particles detached by braking (brake pads) and tyre wear (rubber), and are associated with particle sizes <125 microm.

  13. Light charged particles emitted in fission reactions induced by protons on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Paradela, C.; Ayyad, Y.; Casarejos, E.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-09-01

    Light charged particles emitted in proton-induced fission reactions on 208Pb have been measured at different kinetic energies: 370 A ,500 A , and 650 A MeV. The experiment was performed by the SOFIA Collaboration at the GSI facilities in Darmstadt (Germany). The inverse kinematics technique was combined with a setup especially designed to measure light charged particles in coincidence with fission fragments. This measurement allowed us, for the first time, to obtain correlations between the light charged particles emitted during the fission process and the charge distributions of the fission fragments. These correlations were compared with different model calculations to assess the ground-to-saddle dynamics. The results confirm that transient and dissipative effects are required for an accurate description of the fission observables.

  14. Beams of protons and alpha particles greater than approximately 30 keV/charge from the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two beamlike particle events (30 keV/charge to 160 keV/charge) upstream of the earth's bow shock have been investigated with the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland ultralow energy and charge analyzer on ISEE 1. These beams consist of protons as well as of alpha particles, and the spectra are generally steep and are decreasing with increasing energy. During one event the spectra of both protons and alpha particles have a maximum at approximately 65 keV/charge. During these events, the interplanetary magnetic field through the satellite position was almost tangent to the bow shock, and application of the theory of acceleration predicts acceleration of a solar wind particle up to 60 keV/nucleon in a single reflection. The observation of reflected protons as well as alpha particles has implications for the physical reflection process usually not discussed in acceleration theories.

  15. Heavy and Light Particles of Adeno-Associated Virus

    PubMed Central

    de la Maza, Luis M.; Carter, Barrie J.

    1980-01-01

    KB cells coinfected with adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV) yielded two kinds of infectious AAV particles that banded in CsCl at densities of 1.45 and 1.41 g/cm2, respectively. The 1.45 band was found to be composed of a heterogeneous group of viral particles that could be subfractionated by velocity sedimentation. The main component from this band had a smaller S value (109) than the main component from the 1.41 band (111S), although both had the same DNA/protein ratio and the same density in metrizamide gradients. Continuous-label experiments showed that early after infection, both components (1.45 and 1.41) were generated in the same amounts, but this was followed by a relative increase in the proportion of the 1.41 component over the 1.45 particles. Pulse-chase analysis failed to demonstrate a precursor-product relationship between these two bands. The slower-sedimenting components from the 1.45 band were unstable in CsCl and were present in a greater proportion early after infection. These particles contained DNA that was enriched for the terminal sequences of the AAV genomes and was accessible to digestion with micrococcal nuclease. Images PMID:6245263

  16. Single-cell/Single-particle Irradiation Using Heavy-ion Microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    Heavy charged particles transfer their energy to biological organisms through high-density ionization along the particle trajectories. The population of cells exposed to a very low dose of heavy-ion beams contains a few cells hit by a particle, while the majority of the cells receive no radiation damage. At somewhat higher doses, some of the cells receive two or more events according to the Poisson distribution of ion injections. This fluctuation of particle trajectories through individual cells makes interpretation of radiological effects of heavy ions difficult. Furthermore, there has recently been an increasing interest in ionizing radiation-induced “bystander effects”, that is, radiation effects transmitted from hit cells to neighboring un-hit cells. Therefore, we have established a single-cell/single-particle irradiation system using a heavy-ion microbeam apparatus at JAEA-Takasaki to study radiobiological processes in hit cells and bystander cells exposed to low dose and low dose-rate high-LET radiations, in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad-field exposures.

  17. Particle-number conservation in quasiparticle representation in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Hammache, Faiza; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the Sharp-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (SBCS) particle-number projection method, in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case, has been developed in the particle representation. However, this formalism is sometimes complicated and cumbersome. In this work, the formalism is developed in the quasiparticle representation. An expression of the projected ground state wave function is proposed. Expressions of the energy as well as the expectation values of the total particle-number operator and its square are deduced. It is shown that these expressions are formally similar to their homologues in the pairing between like-particles case. They are easier to handle than the ones obtained using the particle representation and are more adapted to numerical calculations. The method is then numerically tested within the schematic one-level model, which allows comparisons with exact results, as well as in the case of even-even nuclei within the Woods-Saxon model. In each case, it is shown that the particle-number fluctuations that are inherent to the BCS method are completely eliminated by the projection. In the framework of the one-level model, the values of the projected energy are clearly closer to the exact values than the BCS ones. In realistic cases, the relative discrepancies between projected and unprojected values of the energy are small. However, the absolute deviations may reach several MeV.

  18. Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. 2. Fricke dosimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Aloke; Magee, John L.

    1980-12-01

    A heavy-particle track model suggested by considerations presented in a companion paper is used in a calculation of the differential (G') and integral (G) yields of the Fricke dosimeter system for six selected particles over a wide range of energies. The particles are H, He, C, Ne, Ar, and Fm; the energy range for the first two is 10{sup -3} MeV/n to 10{sup 3} MeV/n, and for the last four is 10{sup -1} MeV/n to 10{sup 3} MeV/n. The calculated G' and G values are compared with experimental values as far as possible, and the heavy-particle track model situation is discussed.

  19. Investigation of rare particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.

    1991-01-01

    During FY91 we began our investigation of rare particle production in relativistic nuclear collisions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. We were funded for a period of one year to perform the initial experimental search, E858, to determine the level of antideuteron ({bar d}) production in Si+Au collisions at the AGS. We accomplished this goal with the discovery of two {bar d}'s in the June 1990 run. We describe in this paper experiment performed and the results obtained. We performed our rare particle search at the A-1 line of the AGS. We instrumented the line with a four time-of-flight (TOF) detectors, two high pressure gas Cerenkox (ck) detectors, and four drift tube (DT) tracking detectors. The TOF detectors achieved time resolution of better than 100ps leading to a mass resolution of <15 MeV at 1 GeV. The Ck detectors were used both to suppress the large {pi}{sup {minus}} signal and in {pi}/K separation at high rigidities. The DT system provided particle trajectories for all of the particles passing the trigger requirements. In this experiment we measured the {pi}{sup {minus}}, K-, and {bar p} momentum spectra at 0{sup o} for rigidities from 2 to 8 GV to a statistical accuracy of 1--3% at all settings. We found that the {bar p} yield as a function of target did not show any evidence for reabsorption within the interaction volume. We also found two {bar d}'s, the first observation of complex antinuclei produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The {bar d} yield is at least an order of magnitude smaller than prediced using a simple coalescence model based on the d/p ratio from E802 and the {bar p} spectrum measured in our experiment.

  20. Differential Velocity between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Steinberg, John T.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high-plasma beta feature in high-latitude, high-speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high-speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high-speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large-amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high-latitude, high-speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high-speed, high-latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

  1. Two-proton correlation measurements in 800 and 400 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanihata, I; Lemaire, M -C; Nagamiya, S; Schnetzer, S

    1980-03-01

    Energy and angular correlations of two protons emitted in collisions of C + C, C + Pb, Ne + NaF, Ar + KCl, at Elabbeam = 800MeV/A, and Ne + NaF at Elabbeam = 400MeV/A have been measured. A strong correlation due to p-p quasi-elastic scattering is observed except for C + Pb where nuclear shadowing is observed. A simple model is proposed to estimate the magnitude of the knock-out process in these heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Sputtering of Lunar Regolith by Solar Wind Protons and Heavy Ions, and General Aspects of Potential Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Meyer, F.

    2014-01-01

    New simulation results for the sputtering of lunar soil surface by solar-wind protons and heavy ions will be presented. Previous simulation results showed that the sputtering process has significant effects and plays an important role in changing the surface chemical composition, setting the erosion rate and the sputtering process timescale. In this new work and in light of recent data, we briefly present some theoretical models which have been developed to describe the sputtering process and compare their results with recent calculation to investigate and differentiate the roles and the contributions of potential (or electrodynamic) sputtering from the standard (or kinetic) sputtering.

  3. Responses of a direct ion storage dosimeter (DIS-1) to heavy charged particles.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, H

    2001-12-01

    The responses of a direct ion storage dosimeter (DIS-1) to energetic heavy charged particles were examined using (4)He, (12)C, (40)Ar and (56)Fe ion beams at the HIMAC at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The efficiency of the DIS-1 on the basis of absorbed dose was almost unity for the helium and carbon ions and was slightly decreased for the argon and iron ions. The linearity in the dose response and the angular independence for these heavy ions were fairly good. Although further studies are necessary, these results suggest that the DIS-1 would be a suitable passive dosimeter for measurements of absorbed dose in a field dominated by heavy charged particles such as the space environment. PMID:11741505

  4. Some perspectives on cataractogenesis from heavy charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Cox, A.B.; Lee, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two sets of observations on cataractogenesis in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) following localized exposure of optic and proximate tissues to heavy ions are reported. The experiments involved measurements of lenticular opacification in young (ca. 9 weeks old) rabbits caused by graded doses (0.5-5.0 Gy) of 460 MeV/u (incident energy) 56Fe ions and the effects of animal age (9 +/- 0.3 week, 1 +/- 0.5 year, and 4.5 +/- 1.3 year) on lenticular opacifications caused by 9 Gy of 400 MeV/u (incident energy) 20Ne ions. In substantiation of earlier results from NZW rabbits exposed to other low- and high-LET radiations, there was a dose-dependent onset of cataractogenesis following 56Fe-ion irradiation, with the highest doses causing the earliest appearance of cataracts. The level of stationary cataracts was also dependent on dose, and preliminary estimates of RBE yield values comparable to those found at similar doses (0.5-5.0 Gy) by others with populations of cultured cells. With increasing age at the time of exposure to 20Ne ions, the onset of lenticular opacification was delayed progressively and the level of stationary cataracts was reduced, but the onset and progression of late cataractogenesis was most rapid in the oldest group of animals. A discussion of the use of cataract measurements in risk assessment is included in this article.

  5. Energy loss of a heavy particle near 3D charged rotating hairy black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naji, Jalil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a charged rotating black hole in three dimensions with a scalar charge and discuss the energy loss of a heavy particle moving near the black-hole horizon. We also study quasi-normal modes and find the dispersion relations. We find that the effect of scalar charge and electric charge increases the energy loss.

  6. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  8. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

  9. Can Bose condensation of alpha particles be observed in heavy ion collisions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of alpha particles with a concomitant phase transition in heavy ion collisions. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the signature of the onset of this phenomenon are made.

  10. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on diet on object recognition memory in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On long duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learn...

  11. Interpretation of the I-Regime and transport associated with relevant heavy particle modes

    SciTech Connect

    Coppi, B.; Zhou, T.

    2012-01-15

    The excitation of a novel kind of heavy particle [B. Coppi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 377 (1966); B. Coppi and T. Zhou, MIT(LNS) Report HEP 09/04, 2009, Cambridge, MA [Phys. Lett. A 375, 2916 (2011)

  12. Proton-HZE-particle sequential dual-beam exposures increase anchorage-independent growth frequencies in primary human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangming; Bennett, Paula V; Cutter, Noelle C; Sutherland, Betsy M

    2006-09-01

    The radiation field in deep space contains high levels of high-energy protons and substantially lower levels of high-atomic-number, high-energy (HZE) particles. Calculations indicate that cellular nuclei of human space travelers will be hit during a 3-year Mars mission by approximately 400 protons and approximately 0.4 HZE particles. Thus most cells in astronauts will be hit by a proton(s) before being hit by an HZE particle. To investigate effects of dual ion irradiations on human cells, we irradiated primary human neonatal fibroblasts with protons (1 GeV/nucleon, 20 cGy) followed from 2.5 min to 48 h later by iron or titanium ions (1 GeV/nucleon, 20 cGy) and then measured clonogenic survival and frequency of anchorage-independent growth. This frequency depends on the interval between hydrogen- and iron-ion irradiation, with a critical window between 2.5 min and 1 h producing about three times more anchorage-independent colonies per survivor than expected from simple addition of the two ions separately. The hydrogen-titanium-ion dual-beam irradiation produced similar increases that persisted to approximately 6 h. At longer intervals, anchorage-independent growth frequencies were similar to those expected for additivity. However, irradiation of cells with either an iron or a titanium particle first followed by protons produced only additive levels. PMID:16953667

  13. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation.

  14. Heavy Charged Particle Radiobiology: Using Enhanced Biological Effectiveness and Improved Beam Focusing to Advance Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B.; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

  15. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

  16. Large-eddy simulation of heavy particle dispersion in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    SciTech Connect

    Salvetti, M.V.

    2015-03-10

    Capabilities and accuracy issues in Lagrangian tracking of heavy particles in velocity fields obtained from large-eddy simulations (LES) of wall-bounded turbulent flows are reviewed. In particular, it is shown that, if no subgrid scale (SGS) model is added to the particle motion equations, particle preferential concentration and near-wall accumulation are significantly underestimated. Results obtained with SGS modeling for the particle motion equations based on approximate deconvolution are briefly recalled. Then, the error purely due to filtering in particle tracking in LES flow fields is singled out and analyzed. The statistical properties of filtering errors are characterized in turbulent channel flow both from an Eulerian and a Lagrangian viewpoint. Implications for stochastic SGS modeling in particle motion equations are briefly outlined.

  17. Studies on heavy charged particle interaction, water equivalence and Monte Carlo simulation in some gel dosimeters, water, human tissues and water phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Some gel dosimeters, water, human tissues and water phantoms were investigated with respect to their radiological properties in the energy region 10 keV-10 MeV. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) for some heavy charged particles such as protons, He ions, B ions and C ions have been calculated for the first time for Fricke, MAGIC, MAGAT, PAGAT, PRESAGE, water, adipose tissue, muscle skeletal (ICRP), muscle striated (ICRU), plastic water, WT1 and RW3 using mass stopping powers from SRIM Monte Carlo software. The ranges and straggling were also calculated for the given materials. Two different set of mass stopping powers were used to calculate Zeff for comparison. The water equivalence of the given materials was also determined based on the results obtained. The Monte Carlo simulation of the charged particle transport was also done using SRIM code. The heavy ion distribution along with its parameters were shown for the given materials for different heavy ions. Also the energy loss and damage events in water when irradiated with 100 keV heavy ions were studied in detail.

  18. Trapped particle and solar proton radiation prediction for ISEE (IME): Mother-daughter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    The charged particle fluxes incident on spacecrafts in very eccentric orbits were investigated in support of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (International Magnetospheric Explorer) For this purpose, two flightpaths were considered having identical inclinations but different perigee altitudes (240 and 1364 kilometers, respectively). Apogee altitude was approximately the same for both cases (about 22 earth radii). For each of the two perigee altitudes investigated, two nominal trajectories were generated, having identical orbital configurations but with their major axes rotated by 180 deg in the plane of orbit, which resulted in placing the initial apogee into into opposite hemispheres. This was done in order to determine the corresponding variation in the vehicle-encountered particle intensities. Estimates of average energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission duration at selected integranlenergies ranging from E 10 to E 100 MeV. Results are summarized and discussed.

  19. Visualization of EMIC waves-particle interaction region through isolated proton auroras at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, K.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Connors, M.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated details of an isolated proton auroral aurora observed at Athabasca, Canada (MLAT: 62, L: 4.6) at 2100-2240 MLT on 5 September 2005, using a multi-data set obtained by simultaneous ground and satellite observations. The event clearly demonstrates that a localized enhancement of 30-80 keV ions, which was observed by the NOAA 17 satellite, precipitated into an isolated proton aurora equatorward of the auroral oval. The appearance interval of the isolated proton aurora was coincident with a burst of Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations in the frequency range of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave. The DMSP F13 satellite observed an ionospheric plasma trough, which is a signature of the footprint of the plasmapause, at the conjugate point of the isolated proton aurora in the southern hemisphere. These observations support the following scenario: EMIC waves are generated near the plasmapause in the inner magnetosphere and resonantly scatter energetic ring current ions into loss cone. The precipitating ions excite proton aurora in the ionosphere. The EMIC waves propagated into the ionosphere are detected on the ground as Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations. Based upon multi-event analysis of one-year auroral imaging and magnetic field data at Athabasca in September 2005 - September 2006, we found that the isolated auroras were always observed simultaneously with Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations in the frequency range of He+-band EMIC waves at the conjugate magnetic equator for all 13 events. The isolated auroras had narrow latitudinal widths (less than ~230 km) and limited longitudinal lengths (250-800 km) at an altitude of 120 km. The isolated auroras moved equatorward as associated Pc 1 frequencies increased, since the ion gyrofrequency becomes higher at smaller L values. These facts indicate that the isolated proton auroras are connected rigidly with the source region of EMIC waves by a magnetic flux tube and that the wave-particle interaction occurs in a very

  20. Heavy-ion isotopic anomalies in He-3 rich solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; Halmilton, D. C.

    1994-04-01

    We have measured the approximately 1 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion mass composition during a series of (3)He-rich solar particle events during 1992 July using the University of Maryland instrument on the SAMPEX spacecraft. In addition to enhancements of He-3/He-4 of approximately 103 to 104 larger than coronal values, these events also showed typical enhancements of heavy nuclei of up to a factor of approximately 10 compared with large solar particle events. Over the energy range of approximately 0.4 - 4.0 MeV/nucleon the spectra of both he isotopes as well as heavier ions C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca+Ar, and Fe were found to be power laws in enegy per nucleon with nearly identical spectral indices, indicating that both the He and heavier ions were accelerated by the same mechanism. We obtain upper limits of approximately 15 for possible enrichments of neutron-rich isotopes of C, N, O, and Fe compared to large solar particle events; however, we find Ne-22/Ne-20 = 0.29 +/- 0.10, an enhancement of a factor of 3-4 compared with large solar particle event abundances. We also find evidence of enrichments of approximately 2-3 for Mg-25/Mg-24 and Mg-26/Mg-24, although the uncertainties are large. Thus while at least one of the heavy elements shows isotopic enhancements of neutron-rich isotopes, the mechanisms that produce the extremely large He-3 enrichments apparently do not produce similarly dramatic isotopic anomalies in the heavy nuclei. These observations constrain possible acceleration models and may indicate that the particles are energized in solar coronal locations enhanced in heavy ions.

  1. Proton Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. PMID:25686476

  2. Response analysis of TLD-300 dosimeters in heavy-particle beams.

    PubMed

    Loncol, T; Hamal, M; Denis, J M; Vynckier, S; Wambersie, A; Scalliet, P

    1996-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as part of the quality control procedure for treatment verification in radiation therapy. Using thermoluminescence, such controls are planned in the p(65) + Be neutron and 85 MeV proton beams produced at the cyclotron at Louvain-La-Neuve and dedicated to therapy applications. A preliminary study of the peak 3 (150 degrees C) and peak 5 (250 degrees C) response of CaF2:Tm (TLD-300) to neutron and proton beams aimed to analyse the effect of different radiation qualities on the dosimetric behaviour of the detector irradiated in phantom. To broaden the range of investigation, the study was extended to an experimental 12C heavy ion beam (95 MeV/nucleon). The peak 3 and 5 sensitivities in the neutron beam, compared to 60Co, varied little with depth. A major change of peak 5 sensitivity was observed for samples positioned under five leaves of the multi-leaf collimator. While peak 3 sensitivity was constant with depth in the unmodulated proton beam, peak 5 sensitivity increased by 15%. Near the Bragg peak, peak 3 showed the highest decrease of sensitivity. In the modulated proton beam, the sensitivity values were not significantly smaller than those measured in the unmodulated beam far from the Bragg peak region. The ratio of the heights of peak 3 and peak 5 decreased by 70% from the 60Co reference radiation to the 12C heavy-ion beam. This parameter was strongly correlated with the change of radiation quality.

  3. LET Estimation of Heavy Ion Particles based on a Timepix-Based Si Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, S.; Pinsky, L.; Vilalta, R.; Jakubek, J.

    2012-12-01

    Linear Energy Transfer (LET) is a measure of the energy transferred into a material as an ionizing particle passes through it. This quantity is useful in estimating the biological effects of ionizing radiation as expressed in dosimetric endpoints such as Dose-equivalent. Pixel detectors with silicon sensors -like the Medipix2 Collaboration's Timepix-based devices- are ideal instruments to measure the total energy deposited by a transiting ionizing particle. In this paper we propose an approach for determining the amount of LET from track images obtained with a Timepix-based Si pixel detector. In particular, we have developed a method to calculate the angle of incidence for a heavy ion particle as it passes through a 300 μm thick Si sensor layer based on an analysis of the information in the cluster of pixel hits. Using that angle information, the path length traversed by the particle can be computed, which then facilitates estimating the degree of LET. Results from experiments with data taken at the HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator) facility in Chiba, Japan, and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven in USA, demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of our method to determine the angle of incidence and LET of heavy ion particles.

  4. Finite-temperature modification of heavy particle decay and dark matter annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneke, Martin; Dighera, Francesco; Hryczuk, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    We apply the operator product expansion (OPE) technique to the decay and annihilation of heavy particles in a thermal medium with temperature below the heavy particle mass, m χ. This allows us to explain two interesting observations made before: a) that the leading thermal correction to the decay width of a charged particle is the same multiplicative factor of the zero-temperature width for a two-body decay and muon decay, and b) that the leading thermal correction to fermionic dark matter annihilation arises only at order T 4/ m χ 4 . The OPE further considerably simplifies the computation and factorizes it into model-independent matrix elements in the thermal background, and short-distance coefficients to be computed in zero-temperature field theory.

  5. A comparison of total reaction cross section models used in particle and heavy ion transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, Lembit; Lantz, M.; Takechi, M.; Kohama, A.; Ferrari, A.; Cerutti, F.; Sato, T.

    To be able to calculate the nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections with precision is very important for studies of basic nuclear properties, e.g. nuclear structure. This is also of importance for particle and heavy ion transport calculations because, in all particle and heavy ion transport codes, the probability function that a projectile particle will collide within a certain distance x in the matter depends on the total reaction cross sections. Furthermore, the total reaction cross sections will also scale the calculated partial fragmentation cross sections. It is therefore crucial that accurate total reaction cross section models are used in the transport calculations. In this paper, different models for calculating nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections are compared and discussed.

  6. Development of Clinical Database System Specialized for Heavy Particle Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Masami; Ando, Yutaka; Yokooka, Yuki; Okuda, Yasuo; Seki, Masayoshi; Kimura, Masahiro; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a data archiving system for study of charged particle therapy. We required a data-relation mechanism between electronic medical record system (EMR) and database system, because it needs to ensure the information consistency. This paper presents the investigation results of these techniques. The standards in the medical informatics field that we focus on are Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and 2) Health Level-7 (HL7) to archive the data. As a main cooperation function, we adapt 2 integration profiles of IHE as follows, 1) Patient Administration Management (PAM) Profile of IHE-ITI domain for patient demographic information reconciliation, 2) Enterprise Schedule Integration(ESI) profile of IHE-Radiation Oncology domain for order management between EMR and treatment management system(TMS). We also use HL7 Ver2.5 messages for exchanging the follow-up data and result of laboratory test. In the future, by implementation of this system cooperation, we will be able to ensure interoperability in the event of the EMR update. PMID:26262235

  7. ß-delayed γ-proton decay in ⁵⁶Zn: Analysis of the charged-particle spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Orrigo, S. E.A.; Rubio, B.; Fujita, Y.; Blank, B.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Ascher, P.; Cáceres, L.; Cakirli, R. B.; Fujita, H.; Ganioğlu, E.; Gerbaux, M.; Kozer, H. C.; Kucuk, L.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Popescu, L.; Rogers, A. M.; Susoy, G.; Stodel, C.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    A study of the β decay of the proton-rich Tz = –2 nucleus ⁵⁶Zn has been reported in a recent publication. A rare and exotic decay mode, β-de-layed γ-proton decay, has been observed there for the first time in the fp shell. Here, we expand on some of the details of the data analysis, focusing on the charged particle spectrum.

  8. ß-delayed γ-proton decay in ⁵⁶Zn: Analysis of the charged-particle spectrum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Orrigo, S. E.A.; Rubio, B.; Fujita, Y.; Blank, B.; Gelletly, W.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Ascher, P.; Bilgier, B.; Cáceres, L.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A study of the β decay of the proton-rich Tz = –2 nucleus ⁵⁶Zn has been reported in a recent publication. A rare and exotic decay mode, β-de-layed γ-proton decay, has been observed there for the first time in the fp shell. Here, we expand on some of the details of the data analysis, focusing on the charged particle spectrum.

  9. [Research Progress in Analytical Technology for Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Particles].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-jie; Tu, Zhen-quan; Zhou, Li; Chi, Yong-jie; Luo, Qin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric particles have become the primary atmospheric pollutions, of which the heavy metals, owing to non-degradability and hysteresis, a serious threat to human life and natural environment, have become a hot research issue currently. The analytical methods of heavy metals in atmospheric particles are summarized in the present review, including atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, fluorescence spectrometry, glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry, microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and some proposals are tried to make for improving the shortcomings of these technologies: continuum source Atomic absorption spectrometry for simultaneously measuring multi-elements, atomic emission spectrometry for direct determination of particulates, high resolution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of solid samples, low scattering synchrotron fluorescence spectrum for determination of atmospheric particulate matter and k0 neutron activation analysis for determination of radioactive elements in the troposphere Analysis techniques of heavy metals in atmospheric particulate matter are promoted to develop toward being real-time, fast, low- detection-limit, direct-measurement and simple-operation due to the spatial and temporal distribution difference of the heavy metals in atmospheric particles and human requirement for improvement of ambient air quality as well as rapid development of modern instrument science and technology. PMID:26197596

  10. Centrality and energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in heavy ion collisions in the context of elementary reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B. B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Holzman, B.; Pak, R.; Remsberg, L. P.; Steinberg, P.; Sukhanov, A.; Betts, R. R.; Garcia, E.; Halliwell, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Kucewicz, W.; McLeod, D.

    2006-08-15

    The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of 'wounded nucleon' scaling (N{sub ch}{proportional_to}N{sub part}) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/pp data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e{sup +}e{sup -} and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies ({radical}(s)>20 GeV), and pp/pp data can be brought to agree approximately with the e{sup +}e{sup -} data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.

  11. Searching for squeezed particle-antiparticle correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Padula, Sandra S.; Socolowski, O. Jr.

    2010-09-15

    Squeezed correlations of particle-antiparticle pairs were predicted to exist if the hadron masses were modified in the hot and dense medium formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Although well-established theoretically, they have not yet been observed experimentally. We suggest here a clear method to search for such a signal by analyzing the squeezed correlation functions in terms of measurable quantities. We illustrate this suggestion for simulated {phi}{phi} pairs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies.

  12. Jet and underlying event properties as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.,

    2013-12-17

    Characteristics of multi-particle production in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, N[ch]. The produced particles are separated into two classes: those belonging to jets and those belonging to the underlying event. Charged particles are measured with pseudorapidity abs(eta) < 2.4 and transverse momentum pt > 0.25 GeV. Jets are reconstructed from charged-particles only and required to have pt > 5 GeV. The distributions of jet pt, average pt of charged particles belonging to the underlying event or to jets, jet rates, and jet shapes are presented as functions of N[ch] and compared to the predictions of the PYTHIA and HERWIG event generators. Predictions without multi-parton interactions fail completely to describe the N[ch]-dependence observed in the data. For increasing N[ch], PYTHIA systematically predicts higher jet rates and harder pt spectra than seen in the data, whereas HERWIG shows the opposite trends. At the highest multiplicity, the data-model agreement is worse for most observables, indicating the need for further tuning and/or new model ingredients.

  13. A velocity-dissipation stochastic trajectory model for dispersal of heavy particles inside canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duman, T.; Trakhtenbrot, A.; Poggi, D.; Cassiani, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    While the importance of dispersal of windborne heavy particles such as seeds or pollen inside canopies is rarely disputed, the details needed to describe turbulent fluctuations in such applications continue to draw significant research attention. Turbulence and heavy-particle dispersal within canopies are sensitive to interactions between meteorological conditions and canopy structure as well as on particle shape and mass. In many applications, dispersal of heavy particles is required over a broad range of time scales ranging from hours to several decades thereby frustrating any attempt to resolve all aspects of turbulence. In recent years, Lagrangian stochastic trajectory models have been favored for predicting seed dispersal and are viewed as an acceptable compromise between empirical models with their ad-hoc parameterizations and computationally intensive Large Eddy Simulations. Here, an important feature of turbulence, namely the intermittency in dissipation rate, is incorporated into such trajectory models. Adding this effect has been recently shown to alter scalar dispersion patterns, especially in the far field. This method is applied here to heavy particles, where the long distance dispersal is deemed significant for many applications. This modeling approach was first evaluated using controlled laboratory experiments, where uniform-sized spheres were released within a canopy comprised of uniform cylinders inside a flume (see figure). The extended model that includes intermittency effects, as well as inertial drag forces on the particles, was shown to provide superior fit with the measured dispersal kernel than simpler models that add a constant settling velocity for each particle and/or do not include intermittency. The extended model results captured short distance dispersal and the heavy tails. Next the extended model was evaluated against a field experiment, where plant seeds were manually released inside a hardwood forest canopy (see figure). This

  14. Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

    1973-01-01

    The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

  15. Acute hematological effects of solar particle event proton radiation in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, J K; Wan, X S; Wroe, A J; Rightnar, S; Cengel, K A; Diffenderfer, E S; Krigsfeld, G S; Gridley, D S; Kennedy, A R

    2013-07-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) is expected to occur in astronauts during large solar particle events (SPEs). One parameter associated with ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which can result from decreased numbers of circulating blood cells in those exposed to radiation. The peripheral blood cells are critical for an adequate immune response, and low blood cell counts can result in an increased susceptibility to infection. In this study, Yucatan minipigs were exposed to proton radiation within a range of skin dose levels expected for an SPE (estimated from previous SPEs). The proton-radiation exposure resulted in significant decreases in total white blood cell count (WBC) within 1 day of exposure, 60% below baseline control value or preirradiation values. At the lowest level of the blood cell counts, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were decreased up to 89.5%, 60.4%, 73.2% and 75.5%, respectively, from the preirradiation values. Monocytes and lymphocytes were decreased by an average of 70% (compared to preirradiation values) as early as 4 h after radiation exposure. Skin doses greater than 5 Gy resulted in decreased blood cell counts up to 90 days after exposure. The results reported here are similar to studies of ARS using the nonhuman primate model, supporting the use of the Yucatan minipig as an alternative. In addition, the high prevalence of hematologic abnormalities resulting from exposure to acute, whole-body SPE-like proton radiation warrants the development of appropriate countermeasures to prevent or treat ARS occurring in astronauts during space travel.

  16. Two-proton Decays from Light to Heavy Nuclei. Comparison of Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, M. V.; Grigorenko, L. V.

    2009-08-26

    Recently the complete three-body correlation pictures were, for the first time, experimentally reconstructed for the two-proton decays of the {sup 6}Be and {sup 45}Fe ground states. We are able to see qualitative similarities and differences between these decays. They demonstrate very good agreement with the predictions of a theoretical three-body cluster model.

  17. Variations of fine particle physiochemical properties during a heavy haze episode in the winter of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongya; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Daizhou; Wu, Zhijun; Guo, Song; Pian, Wei; Cheng, Wenjing; Hu, Min

    2016-11-15

    Chemical composition, morphology, size and mixture of fine particles were measured in a heavy haze and the post-haze air in Beijing in January 2012. With the occurrence of haze, the concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants including organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium grew gradually. The hourly averaged PM2.5 concentration increased from 118μgm(-3) to 402μgm(-3) within 12h. In contrast, it was less than 10μgm(-3) in the post-haze air. Occupying approximately 46% in mass, organics were the major component of PM1 in both the haze and post-haze air. Analysis of individual particles in the size range of 0.2-1.1μm revealed that secondary-like particles and soot particles were always the majority, and most soot particles had a core-shell structure. The number ratio of secondary-like particles to soot particles in accumulation mode in the haze air was about 2:1, and that in the post-haze air was 8:1. These results indicate both secondary particle formation and primary emission contributed substantially to the haze. The mode size of the haze particles was about 0.7μm, and the mode size of the post-haze particles was 0.4μm, indicating the remarkable growth of particles in haze. However, the ratios of the core size to shell size of core-shell structure soot particles in the haze were similar to those in the post-haze air, suggesting a quick aging of soot particles in either the haze air or the post-haze air. PMID:27470669

  18. Variations of fine particle physiochemical properties during a heavy haze episode in the winter of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongya; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Daizhou; Wu, Zhijun; Guo, Song; Pian, Wei; Cheng, Wenjing; Hu, Min

    2016-11-15

    Chemical composition, morphology, size and mixture of fine particles were measured in a heavy haze and the post-haze air in Beijing in January 2012. With the occurrence of haze, the concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants including organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium grew gradually. The hourly averaged PM2.5 concentration increased from 118μgm(-3) to 402μgm(-3) within 12h. In contrast, it was less than 10μgm(-3) in the post-haze air. Occupying approximately 46% in mass, organics were the major component of PM1 in both the haze and post-haze air. Analysis of individual particles in the size range of 0.2-1.1μm revealed that secondary-like particles and soot particles were always the majority, and most soot particles had a core-shell structure. The number ratio of secondary-like particles to soot particles in accumulation mode in the haze air was about 2:1, and that in the post-haze air was 8:1. These results indicate both secondary particle formation and primary emission contributed substantially to the haze. The mode size of the haze particles was about 0.7μm, and the mode size of the post-haze particles was 0.4μm, indicating the remarkable growth of particles in haze. However, the ratios of the core size to shell size of core-shell structure soot particles in the haze were similar to those in the post-haze air, suggesting a quick aging of soot particles in either the haze air or the post-haze air.

  19. A Study of Particle Production in Proton Induced Collisions Using the MIPP Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Sonam

    2015-01-01

    The Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment is a fixed target hadron production experiment at Fermilab. MIPP is a high acceptance spectrometer which provides excellent charged particle identification using Time Projection Chamber (TPC), Time of Flight (ToF), multicell Cherenkov (Ckov), ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, and Calorimeter for neutrons. The MIPP experiment is designed to measure particle production in interactions of 120 GeV/c primary protons from the Main Injector and secondary beams of $\\pi^{\\pm}, \\rm{K}^{\\pm}$, p and $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ from 5 to 90 GeV/c on nuclear targets which include H, Be, C, Bi and U, and a dedicated run with the NuMI target. The goal of the experiment is to measure hadron production cross sections or yields using these beams and targets. These hadronic interaction data can have a direct impact on the detailed understanding of the neutrino fluxes of several accelerator-based neutrino experiments like MINOS, MINER$\

  20. Comparison of oil and fuel particle chemical signatures with particle emissions from heavy and light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Matthew T.; Shields, Laura G.; Sodeman, David A.; Toner, Stephen M.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    In order to establish effective vehicle emission control strategies, efforts are underway to perform studies which provide insight into the origin of the source of vehicle particle emissions. In this study, the mass spectral signatures of individual particles produced from atomized auto and diesel oil and fuel samples were obtained using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). The major particle types produced by these samples show distinct chemistry, falling into several major categories for each sample. Lubricating oils contain calcium and phosphate based additives and although the additives are present in low abundance (˜1-2% by mass), calcium and phosphate ions dominate the mass spectra for all new and used oil samples. Mass spectra from used oil contain more elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) marker ions when compared to new oils and exhibit a very high degree of similarity to heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) exhaust particles sampled by an ATOFMS. Fewer similarities exist between the used oil particles and light duty vehicle (LDV) emissions. Diesel and unleaded fuel mass spectra contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular ions, as well as intense PAH fragment ions 25(C 2H) -, 49(C 4H) -, and inorganic ions 23Na +, 39K +, 95(PO 4) -. Unleaded fuel produced spectra which contained Na + and K +; likewise, LDV particle emission spectra also contained Na + and K +. Comparing oil and fuel particle signatures with HDDV and LDV emissions enhances our ability to differentiate between these sources and understand the origin of specific marker ions from these major ambient particle sources.

  1. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  2. A particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Deutchman, P. A.; Townsend, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A differential cross section for pi-meson production in peripheral heavy-ion collisions is formulated within the context of a particle-hole model in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. This is the first attempt at a fully quantum-mechanical particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The particular reaction studied is an O-16 projectile colliding with a C-12 target at rest. In the projectile a linear combination of isobar-hole states is formed, with the possibility of a coherent isobar giant resonance. The target can be excited to its giant M1 resonance (J-pi = 1(+), T = 1) at 15.11 MeV, or to its isobar analog neighbors, B-12 at 13.4 MeV and N-12 at 17.5 MeV. The theory is compared to recent experimental results.

  3. Divergent modification of low-dose ⁵⁶Fe-particle and proton radiation on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Shtifman, Alexander; Pezone, Matthew J; Sasi, Sharath P; Agarwal, Akhil; Gee, Hannah; Song, Jin; Perepletchikov, Aleksandr; Yan, Xinhua; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether loss of skeletal muscle mass and function experienced by astronauts during space flight could be augmented by ionizing radiation (IR), such as low-dose high-charge and energy (HZE) particles or low-dose high-energy proton radiation. In the current study adult mice were irradiated whole-body with either a single dose of 15 cGy of 1 GeV/n ⁵⁶Fe-particle or with a 90 cGy proton of 1 GeV/n proton particles. Both ionizing radiation types caused alterations in the skeletal muscle cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) homeostasis. ⁵⁶Fe-particle irradiation also caused a reduction of depolarization-evoked Ca²⁺ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The increase in the [Ca²⁺]i was detected as early as 24 h after ⁵⁶Fe-particle irradiation, while effects of proton irradiation were only evident at 72 h. In both instances [Ca²⁺]i returned to baseline at day 7 after irradiation. All ⁵⁶Fe-particle irradiated samples revealed a significant number of centrally localized nuclei, a histologic manifestation of regenerating muscle, 7 days after irradiation. Neither unirradiated control or proton-irradiated samples exhibited such a phenotype. Protein analysis revealed significant increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2 and rpS6k on day 7 in ⁵⁶Fe-particle irradiated skeletal muscle, but not proton or unirradiated skeletal muscle, suggesting activation of pro-survival signaling. Our findings suggest that a single low-dose ⁵⁶Fe-particle or proton exposure is sufficient to affect Ca²⁺ homeostasis in skeletal muscle. However, only ⁵⁶Fe-particle irradiation led to the appearance of central nuclei and activation of pro-survival pathways, suggesting an ongoing muscle damage/recovery process. PMID:24131063

  4. Electron correlations in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons and α particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad

    2010-02-01

    Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare projectiles is investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The effect of the dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and/or asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. An illustrative computation is performed for single-electron capture from helium by protons and α particles at intermediate and high impact energies. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. The validity and utility of the proposed CB1-4B method is critically assessed in comparison with the existing experimental data for total cross sections, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  5. Beta-delayed multi-particle emission in proton rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, M. J. G.; Axelsson, L.; Äystö, J.; Bergmann, U. C.; Boutami, R.; Deendoven, P.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshøj, P.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Markenroth, K.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Prezado, Y.; Riisager, K.; Tengblad, O.; Rolander, K. Wilhelmsen

    2002-04-01

    In this contribution examples of the application of new technologies to disentangle the mechanism of beta-delayed multi-particle emission are given. In particular the mechanism of β-delayed two-proton emission from 31Ar is resolved and proved to be sequential, both for isospin allowed and isospin forbidden transitions. The analysis of the 9C decay has been focused in the study of the 12.2 MeV state in 9B. The decay of this state to pαα occurs sequentially, partial decay branches through the 8Be(0+,2+) and 5Li(3/2-,1/2-) intermediate states have been determined. A BGT value of 1.20(15) is deduced, compared with the BGT-value of the mirror transition, a asymmetry factor δ=3.7(12) is obtained, the largest ever observed. A preview of β3α data from 12N decay is discussed. .

  6. Observation of bow shock protons at the lunar orbit. M.S. Thesis; [particle trajectory analysis of solar protons in the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Protons with energies ranging from about 500 eV to 3,500 eV were observed by the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) on both the dusk and dawn sides of the magnetosphere. On each lunation these particles appeared as a rather continuous phenomenon for 3 to 5 days after crossing from the dawn-side magnetosheath into the solar wind and for about 2 days prior to entering the dusk-side magnetosheath. Data from the SIDE and from the Explorer 35 lunar orbiting magnetometer were analyzed and these data indicated that the transverse ion flows observed by the SIDE in the pre and post bow shock crossing regions of the lunar orbit are due to these deviated solar wind particles. A computer model based on drift trajectories for particles leaving the shock was developed and synthetic particle data produced by this model are in good agreement with the observed data.

  7. Primary cosmic ray spectra observed by RUNJOB --- spectra for heavy and all particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RUNJOB Collaboration

    1999-08-01

    The absolute fluxes of heavy cosmic ray primaries, CNO, Ne Mg Si groups and Fe comp onents are reported from RUssian Nipp on JOint Balloon (RUNJOB) experiment. Total exposure of RUNJOB turns out to b e 342.4 m2 hour at the average altitude of around 30 km in three campaigns in 1995, 1996 and 1997. Using the angular distribution of the fragments nuclei and secondary particles, and the darkness on X-ray films, the energy of the primary particle is estimated. The flux of Fe comp onent extends up to 5*1012 eV/nucleon. And summing up the observed sp ectra, we got the all particle sp ectrum up to 1015 eV/particle. Combining with OG.1.2.14 of this conference, this paer will be the full explanation of RUNJOB experiment.

  8. Quenching of the spin-dependent scattering of weakly interacting massive particles on heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, M. A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    1993-12-01

    We present calculations of the quenching of the spin-dependent elastic scattering cross section for dark matter WIMPs on heavy nuclei. The theory of finite Fermi systems was used to describe the behavior of the nuclear spin matrix elements in the nuclear medium. The results of the calculations for planned dark matter detector nuclei are not only always smaller than corresponding single particle estimations but in some cases also differ from the ones obtained by using measured nuclear magnetic moments.

  9. Late biological effects of heavy charged particles: Cataracts, vascular injury and life shortening in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Jose, J. G.; Barker, M. E.; Alpen, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Risks associated with extended habitation in a space environment, particularly hazards to space workers that might result from exposure to high energy heavy ion particles (HZE), were studied. Biological effects of HZE were investigated in mice to assess their potential adverse health hazards. The potential effects of HZE particles on the crystalline lens of the eye and the carcinogenic effects and blood vessel (vascular) damage from radiation were evaluated by a risk assessment. Animal experiments to evaluate dose response relationships for tumor induction/promotion and for vascular injury were introduced. Cataract productions and preliminary results on cacinogenic and vascular effects are presented for perspective.

  10. Search for heavy metastable particles decaying to quark pairs at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang, Shawn Andrew

    2011-03-01

    We report on the search for heavy metastable particles that decay into quark pairs with a macroscopic lifetime (cτ ~ 1 cm) using data taken with the CDF II detector at Fermilab. We use a data driven background approach, where they build probability density functions to model Standard Model secondary vertices from known processes in order to estimate the background contribution from the Standard Model. No statistically significant excess is observed above the background. Limits on the production cross section in a Hidden Valley benchmark phenomenology are set for various Higgs boson masses as well as metastable particle masses and lifetimes.

  11. Proton intensity spectra during the solar energetic particle events of May 17, 2012 and January 6, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, P.; Banjac, S.; Dresing, N.; Goméz-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Terasa, C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Ground-level enhancements (GLEs) are solar energetic particle events that show a significant intensity increase at energies that can be measured by neutron monitors. The most recent GLE-like events were recorded on May 17, 2012 and January 6, 2014. They were also measured by sophisticated instrumentation in space such as PAMELA and the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) onboard SOHO. Since neutron monitors are only sensitive to protons above 400 MeV with maximum sensitivity at 1 to 2 GeV, the spectra of such weak GLE-like events (January 6, 2014) can only be measured by space instrumentation. Aims: We show that the SOHO/EPHIN is capable of measuring the solar energetic particle proton event spectra between 100 MeV and above 800 MeV. Methods: We performed a GEANT Monte Carlo simulation to determine the energy response function of EPHIN. Based on this calculation, we derived the corresponding proton energy spectra. The method was successfully validated against previous PAMELA measurements. Results: We present event spectra from EPHIN for May 17, 2012 and January 6, 2014. During the event in May 2012, protons were accelerated to energies above 700 MeV, while we found no significant increase for protons above 600 MeV during the event on January 6, 2014.

  12. Simulation on the Charged Particle Response of the STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimaroli, Alex; Li, Xin

    2009-10-01

    The main task of the STAR experiment, located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is to study the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is believed to have been created a few microseconds after the ``Big Bang.'' Heavy quarks are ideal tools for studying the properties of QGP. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is the central part of the STAR future heavy flavor physics program and will enable STAR to directly measure heavy flavor mesons. The core of HFT is a pixel detector (PIXEL) using CMOS Active PIXEL Sensor. This poster will describe the development of a detailed simulation of the pixel detector response to charged particles and the corresponding fast simulation that dramatically enhances the simulation speed with little sacrifice in accuracy. The full simulation randomly generates ionized electrons along an incoming track and diffuses the electrons inside the pixel array until they are collected by the electronics or recombined inside a pixel. With the same result, the fast simulation, which quickens processing time from one hour to 5 seconds, generates a grid inside a single pixel and create a map of probability distribution functions for a single ionized electron generated from a grid point. We will also discuss the study of pixel detector position resolution using a simple clustering algorithm.

  13. Asphaltene and other heavy-organic particle deposition during transfer and production operations

    SciTech Connect

    Escobedo, J.; Mansoori, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The production and transportation of petroleum fluids could be severely affected by deposition of suspended particles (i.e. asphaltene, paraffin/wax, sand, and/or diamondoid) in the production wells and/or transfer pipelines. In many instances the amount of precipitation is rather large causing complete plugging of these conduits. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of suspended particles during flow conditions. In this paper we present an overview of the heavy organic deposition problem, its causes, effects and preventive techniques. We also present an analysis of the diffusional effects on the rate of solid particle deposition during turbulent flow conditions (crude oil production generally falls within this regime). We utilize the turbulent boundary layer theory and the concepts of mass transfer to explain the particle deposition rates on the walls of the flowing conduits. The developed model accounts for the Brownian and eddy diffusivities as well as for inertial effects and other forces acting acting upon the particles. The analysis presented in this paper shows that rates of particle deposition (asphaltene, paraffin/wax, sand, and/or diamondoid) on the walls of the flowing channel, due solely to diffusional effects, are negligible. It is also shown that deposition rates decrease with with increasing particle size. However, when the deposition process is momentum controlled (large particles) higher deposition rates are predicted. It is shown a decrease in deposition rates with increasing crude oil kinematic viscosity. An increase in deposition rates with increasing production rates is also observed.

  14. Numerical Approach of Interactions of Proton Beams and Dense Plasmas with Quantum-Hydrodynamic/Particle-in-Cell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Li, Lian; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2016-07-01

    A one dimensional quantum-hydrodynamic/particle-in-cell (QHD/PIC) model is used to study the interaction process of an intense proton beam (injection density of 1017 cm‑3) with a dense plasma (initial density of ~ 1021 cm‑3), with the PIC method for simulating the beam particle dynamics and the QHD model for considering the quantum effects including the quantum statistical and quantum diffraction effects. By means of the QHD theory, the wake electron density and wakefields are calculated, while the proton beam density is calculated by the PIC method and compared to hydrodynamic results to justify that the PIC method is a more suitable way to simulate the beam particle dynamics. The calculation results show that the incident continuous proton beam when propagating in the plasma generates electron perturbations as well as wakefields oscillations with negative valleys and positive peaks where the proton beams are repelled by the positive wakefields and accelerated by the negative wakefields. Moreover, the quantum correction obviously hinders the electron perturbations as well as the wakefields. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the quantum effects in the interaction of a proton beam with cold dense plasmas, such as in the metal films. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405067, 11105057, 11275007)

  15. Physical and biological studies with protons and HZE particles in a NASA supported research center in radiation health.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Borak, T H

    2001-01-01

    NASA has established and supports a specialized center for research and training (NSCORT) to specifically address the potential deleterious effects of HZE particles on human health. The NSCORT in radiation health is a joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Colorado State University (CSU). The overall scope of research encompasses a broad range of subjects from microdosimetric studies to cellular and tissue responses to initial damage produced by highly energetic protons and heavy charged particles of the type found in galactic cosmic rays (GCR) spectrum. The objectives of the microdosimetry studies are to determine the response of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) to cosmic rays using ground based accelerators. This includes evaluation of energy loss due to the escape of high-energy delta rays and increased energy deposition due to the enhanced delta ray production in the wall of the detector. In this report major results are presented for 56Fe at 1000, 740, 600 and 400 MeV/nucleon. An assessment of DNA repair and early development of related chromosomal changes is extremely important to our overall understanding of enhanced biological effectiveness of high LET particle radiation. Results are presented with respect to the fidelity of the rejoining of double strand breaks and the implications of misrejoining. The relationship between molecular and cytogenetic measurements is presented by studying damage processing in highly heterochromatic supernumerary (correction of sypernumerary) X chromosomes and the active X-chromosome. One of the important consequences of cell's inability to handle DNA damage can be evaluated through mutation studies. Part of our goal is the assessment of potential radioprotectors to reduce the mutation yield following HZE exposures, and some promising results are presented on one compound. A second goal is the integration of DNA repair and mutation studies. Results are presented on a direct

  16. Physical and biological studies with protons and HZE particles in a NASA supported research center in radiation health.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Borak, T H

    2001-01-01

    NASA has established and supports a specialized center for research and training (NSCORT) to specifically address the potential deleterious effects of HZE particles on human health. The NSCORT in radiation health is a joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Colorado State University (CSU). The overall scope of research encompasses a broad range of subjects from microdosimetric studies to cellular and tissue responses to initial damage produced by highly energetic protons and heavy charged particles of the type found in galactic cosmic rays (GCR) spectrum. The objectives of the microdosimetry studies are to determine the response of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) to cosmic rays using ground based accelerators. This includes evaluation of energy loss due to the escape of high-energy delta rays and increased energy deposition due to the enhanced delta ray production in the wall of the detector. In this report major results are presented for 56Fe at 1000, 740, 600 and 400 MeV/nucleon. An assessment of DNA repair and early development of related chromosomal changes is extremely important to our overall understanding of enhanced biological effectiveness of high LET particle radiation. Results are presented with respect to the fidelity of the rejoining of double strand breaks and the implications of misrejoining. The relationship between molecular and cytogenetic measurements is presented by studying damage processing in highly heterochromatic supernumerary (correction of sypernumerary) X chromosomes and the active X-chromosome. One of the important consequences of cell's inability to handle DNA damage can be evaluated through mutation studies. Part of our goal is the assessment of potential radioprotectors to reduce the mutation yield following HZE exposures, and some promising results are presented on one compound. A second goal is the integration of DNA repair and mutation studies. Results are presented on a direct

  17. Physical and biological studies with protons and HZE particles in a NASA supported research center in radiation health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Borak, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA has established and supports a specialized center for research and training (NSCORT) to specifically address the potential deleterious effects of HZE particles on human health. The NSCORT in radiation health is a joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Colorado State University (CSU). The overall scope of research encompasses a broad range of subjects from microdosimetric studies to cellular and tissue responses to initial damage produced by highly energetic protons and heavy charged particles of the type found in galactic cosmic rays (GCR) spectrum. The objectives of the microdosimetry studies are to determine the response of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) to cosmic rays using ground based accelerators. This includes evaluation of energy loss due to the escape of high-energy delta rays and increased energy deposition due to the enhanced delta ray production in the wall of the detector. In this report major results are presented for 56Fe at 1000, 740, 600 and 400 MeV/nucleon. An assessment of DNA repair and early development of related chromosomal changes is extremely important to our overall understanding of enhanced biological effectiveness of high LET particle radiation. Results are presented with respect to the fidelity of the rejoining of double strand breaks and the implications of misrejoining. The relationship between molecular and cytogenetic measurements is presented by studying damage processing in highly heterochromatic supernumerary (correction of sypernumerary) X chromosomes and the active X-chromosome. One of the important consequences of cell's inability to handle DNA damage can be evaluated through mutation studies. Part of our goal is the assessment of potential radioprotectors to reduce the mutation yield following HZE exposures, and some promising results are presented on one compound. A second goal is the integration of DNA repair and mutation studies. Results are presented on a direct

  18. Proton enhancement at large pT at the CERN large hadron collider without structure in associated-particle distribution.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Rudolph C; Yang, C B

    2006-07-28

    The production of pions and protons in the pT range between 10 and 20 GeV/c for Pb+Pb collisions at CERN LHC is studied in the recombination model. It is shown that the dominant mechanism for hadronization is the recombination of shower partons from neighboring jets when the jet density is high. Protons are more copiously produced than pions in that pT range because the coalescing partons can have lower momentum fractions, but no thermal partons are involved. The proton-to-pion ratio can be as high as 20. When such high pT hadrons are used as trigger particles, there will not be any associated particles that are not in the background.

  19. PET - A proton/electron telescope for studies of magnetospheric, solar, and galactic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Baker, Daniel N.; Von Rosenvinge, Tycho T.

    1993-01-01

    The Proton/Electron Telescope (PET) on SAMPEX is designed to provide measurements of energetic electrons and light nuclei from solar, galactic, and magnetospheric sources. PET is an all solid-state system that will measure the differential energy spectra of electrons from about 1 to about 30 MeV and H and He nuclei from about 20 to about 300 MeV/nuc, with isotope resolution of H and He extending from about 20 to about 80 MeV/nuc. As SAMPEX scans all local times and geomagnetic cutoffs over the course of its near-polar orbit, PET will characterize precipitating relativistic electron events during periods of declining solar activity, and it will examine whether the production rate of odd nitrogen and hydrogen molecules in the middle atmosphere by precipitating electrons is sufficient to affect O3 depletion. In addition, PET will complement studies of the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic heavy (Z greater than 2) nuclei on SAMPEX by providing measurements of H, He, and electrons. Finally, PET has limited capability to identify energetic positrons from potential natural and man-made sources.

  20. First Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC as Observed with the ALICE Detector: Measurement of the Charged Particle Pseudorapidity Density at s = 900 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, K.; Awes, Terry C; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Collaboration, The ALICE

    2010-01-01

    On 23rd November 2009, during the early commissioning of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two counter-rotating proton bunches were circulated for the first time concurrently in the machine, at the LHC injection energy of 450 GeV per beam. Although the proton intensity was very low, with only one pilot bunch per beam, and no systematic attempt was made to optimize the collision optics, all LHC experiments reported a number of collision candidates. In the ALICE experiment, the collision region was centred very well in both the longitudinal and transverse directions and 284 events were recorded in coincidence with the two passing proton bunches. The events were immediately reconstructed and analyzed both online and offline. We have used these events to measure the pseudorapidity density of charged primary particles in the central region. In the range |{eta}|<0.5, we obtain dN{sub ch}/d{eta} = 3.10 {+-} 0.13(stat.) {+-} 0.22(syst.) for all inelastic interactions, and dN{sub ch}/d{eta} = 3.51 {+-} 0.15(stat.) {+-} 0.25(syst.) for non-single diffractive interactions. These results are consistent with previous measurements in proton-antiproton interactions at the same centre-of-mass energy at the CERN Sp {bar p} S collider. They also illustrate the excellent functioning and rapid progress of the LHC accelerator, and of both the hardware and software of the ALICE experiment, in this early start-up phase.

  1. Quasi-particle interference of heavy fermions in resonant x-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Gyenis, András; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H.; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; He, Feizhou; Weschke, Eugen; Kavai, Mariam; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Thompson, Joe D.; Bauer, Eric D.; Fisk, Zachary; Damascelli, Andrea; Yazdani, Ali; Aynajian, Pegor

    2016-01-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and element selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound CeMIn5 (M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce-M4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f-electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique. PMID:27757422

  2. Effects of Exposure to Heavy Particles on a Behavior Mediated by the Dopaminergic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; McEwen, J.

    The effects of exposure to heavy particles on behaviors mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) are qualitatively different than the effects produced by exposure to other types of radiation. One behavior mediated by the CNS is the amphetamine-induced taste aversion, which is produced by pairing a novel tasting solution with injection of amphetamine. When the conditioning day is three days following irradiation, exposing rats to low doses of 56Fe particles (600 MeV/n or 1 GeV/n) eliminates the taste aversion produced by injection of amphetamine, which is dependent upon the integrity of the central dopaminergic system, but has no effect on the aversion produced by injection of lithium chloride which is mediated by the gastrointestinal system. In contrast to the effects obtained using heavy particles, exposing rats to 60Co gamma rays or to fission spectrum neutrons has no selective effect upon the acquisition of either amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced taste aversions. When the conditioning day occurs four months following exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, there is an enhancement of the amphetamine-induced taste aversion. The implications of these findings for approaches to risk assessment are considered

  3. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-18

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  4. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.; FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-18

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  5. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.; FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  6. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  7. Effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging on object recognition memory in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen

    Exposure to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the aged organism. As such, it has been proposed that exposure to heavy particles produces "accelerated aging". Because aging is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure and the effects of aging, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they age. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the age of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following exposure. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did

  8. Flight of a heavy particle nonlinearly coupled to a quantum bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Krüger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuation and dissipation are byproducts of coupling to the "environment." The Caldeira-Leggett model, a successful paradigm of quantum Brownian motion, views the environment as a collection of harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to the system. However, symmetry considerations may forbid a linear coupling, e.g., for a neutral particle in quantum electrodynamics. We argue that the absence of linear couplings can lead to a fundamentally different behavior. Specifically, we consider a heavy particle quadratically coupled to quantum fluctuations of the bath. In one dimension the particle undergoes anomalous diffusion, unfolding as a power-law distribution in space, reminiscent of Lévy flights. We suggest condensed matter analogs where similar effects may arise.

  9. Effect of grain size and heavy metals on As immobilization by marble particles.

    PubMed

    Simón, M; García, I; González, V; Romero, A; Martín, F

    2015-05-01

    The effect of grain size and the interaction of heavy metals on As sorption by marble waste with different particle sizes was investigated. Acidic solutions containing only arsenic and a mixture of arsenic, lead, zinc, and cadmium were put in contact with the marble waste. The amount of metal(loid)s that were immobilized was calculated using the difference between the concentration in the acidic solution and in the liquid phase of the suspensions. Approximately 420 μg As m(-2) was sorbed onto the marble grains, both nonspecifically and specifically, where ≥ 80 % of the total arsenic in the acidic solution remained soluble, which suggests that this amendment is not effective to immobilize arsenic. However, in mixed contamination, relatively stable Pb-Ca arsenates were formed on the surface of the marble particles, and the soluble arsenic was reduced by 95 %, which indicates that marble particles can effectively immobilize arsenic and lead when both appear together.

  10. Low-dose photons modify liver response to simulated solar particle event protons.

    PubMed

    Gridley, Daila S; Coutrakon, George B; Rizvi, Asma; Bayeta, Erben J M; Luo-Owen, Xian; Makinde, Adeola Y; Baqai, Farnaz; Koss, Peter; Slater, James M; Pecaut, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    The health consequences of exposure to low-dose radiation combined with a solar particle event during space travel remain unresolved. The goal of this study was to determine whether protracted radiation exposure alters gene expression and oxidative burst capacity in the liver, an organ vital in many biological processes. C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 2 Gy simulated solar particle event (SPE) protons over 36 h, both with and without pre-exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate photons ((57)Co, 0.049 Gy total at 0.024 cGy/h). Livers were excised immediately after irradiation (day 0) or on day 21 thereafter for analysis of 84 oxidative stress-related genes using RT-PCR; genes up or down-regulated by more than twofold were noted. On day 0, genes with increased expression were: photons, none; simulated SPE, Id1; photons + simulated SPE, Bax, Id1, Snrp70. Down-regulated genes at this same time were: photons, Igfbp1; simulated SPE, Arnt2, Igfbp1, Il6, Lct, Mybl2, Ptx3. By day 21, a much greater effect was noted than on day 0. Exposure to photons + simulated SPE up-regulated completely different genes than those up-regulated after either photons or the simulated SPE alone (photons, Cstb; simulated SPE, Dctn2, Khsrp, Man2b1, Snrp70; photons + simulated SPE, Casp1, Col1a1, Hspcb, Il6st, Rpl28, Spnb2). There were many down-regulated genes in all irradiated groups on day 21 (photons, 13; simulated SPE, 16; photons + simulated SPE, 16), with very little overlap among groups. Oxygen radical production by liver phagocytes was significantly enhanced by photons on day 21. The results demonstrate that whole-body irradiation with low-dose-rate photons, as well as time after exposure, had a great impact on liver response to a simulated solar particle event.

  11. Low-dose photons modify liver response to simulated solar particle event protons.

    PubMed

    Gridley, Daila S; Coutrakon, George B; Rizvi, Asma; Bayeta, Erben J M; Luo-Owen, Xian; Makinde, Adeola Y; Baqai, Farnaz; Koss, Peter; Slater, James M; Pecaut, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    The health consequences of exposure to low-dose radiation combined with a solar particle event during space travel remain unresolved. The goal of this study was to determine whether protracted radiation exposure alters gene expression and oxidative burst capacity in the liver, an organ vital in many biological processes. C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 2 Gy simulated solar particle event (SPE) protons over 36 h, both with and without pre-exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate photons ((57)Co, 0.049 Gy total at 0.024 cGy/h). Livers were excised immediately after irradiation (day 0) or on day 21 thereafter for analysis of 84 oxidative stress-related genes using RT-PCR; genes up or down-regulated by more than twofold were noted. On day 0, genes with increased expression were: photons, none; simulated SPE, Id1; photons + simulated SPE, Bax, Id1, Snrp70. Down-regulated genes at this same time were: photons, Igfbp1; simulated SPE, Arnt2, Igfbp1, Il6, Lct, Mybl2, Ptx3. By day 21, a much greater effect was noted than on day 0. Exposure to photons + simulated SPE up-regulated completely different genes than those up-regulated after either photons or the simulated SPE alone (photons, Cstb; simulated SPE, Dctn2, Khsrp, Man2b1, Snrp70; photons + simulated SPE, Casp1, Col1a1, Hspcb, Il6st, Rpl28, Spnb2). There were many down-regulated genes in all irradiated groups on day 21 (photons, 13; simulated SPE, 16; photons + simulated SPE, 16), with very little overlap among groups. Oxygen radical production by liver phagocytes was significantly enhanced by photons on day 21. The results demonstrate that whole-body irradiation with low-dose-rate photons, as well as time after exposure, had a great impact on liver response to a simulated solar particle event. PMID:18302490

  12. Effective particle energies for stopping power calculation in radiotherapy treatment planning with protons and helium, carbon, and oxygen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.

    2016-10-01

    The stopping power ratio (SPR) of body tissues relative to water depends on the particle energy. For simplicity, however, most analytical dose planning systems do not account for SPR variation with particle energy along the beam’s path, but rather assume a constant energy for SPR estimation. The range error due to this simplification could be indispensable depending on the particle species and the assumed energy. This error can be minimized by assuming a suitable energy referred to as an ‘effective energy’ in SPR estimation. To date, however, the effective energy has never been investigated for realistic patient geometries. We investigated the effective energies for proton, helium-, carbon-, and oxygen-ion radiotherapy using volumetric models of the reference male and female phantoms provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The range errors were estimated by comparing the particle ranges calculated when particle energy variations were and were not considered. The effective energies per nucleon for protons and helium, carbon, and oxygen ions were 70 MeV, 70 MeV, 131 MeV, and 156 MeV, respectively. Using the determined effective energies, the range errors were reduced to  ⩽0.3 mm for respective particle species. For SPR estimation of multiple particle species, an effective energy of 100 MeV is recommended, with which the range error is  ⩽0.5 mm for all particle species.

  13. Special features of single-particle proton spectra of nickel, zinc, and germanium isotopes in the vicinity of the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalova, O. V. Ermakova, T. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.

    2015-10-15

    The single-particle proton spectra of the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 50,52}Ni, {sup 56,58,60,62}Zn, and {sup 60,62,64}Ge were calculated on the basis of the dispersive optical model whose parameters were extrapolated from the region of stable isotopes. The resulting parameter values lead to agreement between the total number of protons in bound states and the charge number Z of the respective nucleus. The results of the calculations are indicative of a weakly magic character of the {sup 58}Zn nucleus, which has a traditional magic number of N = 28 and a nearly magic number of Z = 30, and the {sup 64}Ge nucleus, for which N = Z = 32.

  14. Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-10-29

    Pseudorapidity (η) distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are measured in the ranges |η|<2.2 and 5.3<|η|<6.4 covered by the CMS and TOTEM detectors, respectively. We found that the data correspond to an integrated luminosity of L=45 μb-1. These measurements are presented for three event categories. The most inclusive category is sensitive to 91–96 % of the total inelastic proton–proton cross section. The other two categories are disjoint subsets of the inclusive sample that are either enhanced or depleted in single diffractive dissociation events. Finally, the data are compared to models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. None of the models considered provide a consistent description of the measured distributions.

  15. Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-10-29

    Pseudorapidity (η) distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are measured in the ranges |η|<2.2 and 5.3<|η|<6.4 covered by the CMS and TOTEM detectors, respectively. We found that the data correspond to an integrated luminosity of L=45 μb-1. These measurements are presented for three event categories. The most inclusive category is sensitive to 91–96 % of the total inelastic proton–proton cross section. The other two categories are disjoint subsets of the inclusive sample that are either enhanced or depleted in single diffractive dissociation events. Finally, the data are compared to models usedmore » to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. None of the models considered provide a consistent description of the measured distributions.« less

  16. Beam energy dependence of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sumit; Nayak, Tapan K.; Datta, Kaustuv

    2016-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN probe matter at extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. Most of the global properties of the collisions can be extracted from the measurements of charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity (η ) distributions. We have shown that the available experimental data on beam energy and centrality dependence of η distributions in heavy-ion (Au +Au or Pb +Pb ) collisions from √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV are reasonably well described by the AMPT model, which is used for further exploration. The nature of the η distributions has been described by a double Gaussian function using a set of fit parameters, which exhibit a regular pattern as a function of beam energy. By extrapolating the parameters to a higher energy of √{sNN}=5.02 TeV, we have obtained the charged-particle multiplicity densities, η distributions, and energy densities for various centralities. Incidentally, these results match well with some of the recently published data by the ALICE Collaboration.

  17. Measurement of charm and beauty production at central rapidity versus charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-09-01

    Prompt D meson and non-prompt J/ ψ yields are studied as a function of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in inelastic proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √{s}=7 TeV. The results are reported as a ratio between yields in a given multiplicity interval normalised to the multiplicity-integrated ones (relative yields). They are shown as a function of the multiplicity of charged particles normalised to the average value for inelastic collisions (relative charged-particle multiplicity). D0, D+ and D*+ mesons are measured in five p T intervals from 1 GeV/ c to 20 GeV/ c and for | y| < 0.5 via their hadronic decays. The D-meson relative yield is found to increase with increasing charged-particle multiplicity. For events with multiplicity six times higher than the average multiplicity of inelastic collisions, a yield enhancement of a factor about 15 relative to the multiplicity-integrated yield in inelastic collisions is observed. The yield enhancement is independent of transverse momentum within the uncertainties of the measurement. The D0-meson relative yield is also measured as a function of the relative multiplicity at forward pseudo-rapidity. The non-prompt J/ ψ, i.e. the B hadron, contribution to the inclusive J/ ψ production is measured in the di-electron decay channel at central rapidity. It is evaluated for p T > 1.3 GeV/c and | y| < 0.9, and extrapolated to p T > 0. The fraction of non-prompt J/ ψ in the inclusive J/ ψ yields shows no dependence on the charged-particle multiplicity at central rapidity. Charm and beauty hadron relative yields exhibit a similar increase with increasing charged-particle multiplicity. The measurements are compared to PYTHIA 8, EPOS 3 and percolation calculations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. NOTE: On the clinical spatial resolution achievable with protons and heavier charged particle radiotherapy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The 'sub-millimetre precision' often claimed to be achievable in protons and light ion beam therapy is analysed using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT for a broad range of energies. Based on the range of possible values and uncertainties of the mean excitation energy of water and human tissues, as well as of the composition of organs and tissues, it is concluded that precision statements deserve careful reconsideration for treatment planning purposes. It is found that the range of I-values of water stated in ICRU reports 37, 49 and 73 (1984, 1993 and 2005) for the collision stopping power formulae, namely 67 eV, 75 eV and 80 eV, yields a spread of the depth of the Bragg peak of protons and heavier charged particles (carbon ions) of up to 5 or 6 mm, which is also found to be energy dependent due to other energy loss competing interaction mechanisms. The spread is similar in protons and in carbon ions having analogous practical range. Although accurate depth-dose distribution measurements in water can be used at the time of developing empirical dose calculation models, the energy dependence of the spread causes a substantial constraint. In the case of in vivo human tissues, where distribution measurements are not feasible, the problem poses a major limitation. In addition to the spread due to the currently accepted uncertainties of their I-values, a spread of the depth of the Bragg peak due to the varying compositions of soft tissues is also demonstrated, even for cases which could be considered practically identical in clinical practice. For these, the spreads found were similar to those of water or even larger, providing support to international recommendations advising that body-tissue compositions should not be given the standing of physical constants. The results show that it would be necessary to increase the margins of a clinical target volume, even in the case of a water phantom, due to an 'intrinsic basic physics uncertainty', adding to those margins usually

  19. Computation of Cosmic Ray Ionization and Dose at Mars: a Comparison of HZETRN and Planetocosmics for Proton and Alpha Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Norman, Ryan B.; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to evaluate the cosmic ray environment at Mars is of interest for future manned exploration. To support exploration, tools must be developed to accurately access the radiation environment in both free space and on planetary surfaces. The primary tool NASA uses to quantify radiation exposure behind shielding materials is the space radiation transport code, HZETRN. In order to build confidence in HZETRN, code benchmarking against Monte Carlo radiation transport codes is often used. This work compares the dose calculations at Mars by HZETRN and the Geant4 application Planetocosmics. The dose at ground and the energy deposited in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic ray protons and alpha particles has been calculated for the Curiosity landing conditions. In addition, this work has considered Solar Energetic Particle events, allowing for the comparison of varying input radiation environments. The results for protons and alpha particles show very good agreement between HZETRN and Planetocosmics.

  20. Proton release from water oxidation by photosystem II: similar stoichiometries are stabilized in thylakoids and PSII core particles by glycerol.

    PubMed

    Haumann, M; Hundelt, M; Jahns, P; Chroni, S; Bögershausen, O; Ghanotakis, D; Junge, W

    1997-06-30

    During the four-stepped catalytic cycle of water oxidation by photosystem II (PSII) molecular oxygen is released in only one of the four reaction steps whereas the release of four protons is distributed over all steps. In principle, the pattern of proton production could be taken as indicative of the partial reactions with bound water. In thylakoids the extent and rate of proton release varies as function of the redox transition and of the pH without concomitant variations of the redox pattern. The variation has allowed to discriminate between deprotonation events of peripheral amino acids (Bohr effects) as opposed to the chemical deprotonation of a particular redox cofactor, and of water. In contrast, in thylakoids grown under intermittent light, as well as in PSII core particles the pattern of proton release is flat and independent of the pH. This has been attributed to the lack in these materials of the chlorophyll a,b-binding (CAB) proteins. We now found that a thylakoid-like, oscillatory pattern of proton release was restored simply by the addition of glycerol which modifies the protein-protein interaction. Being a further proof for the electrostatic origin of the greater portion of proton release, this effect will serve as an important tool in further studies of water oxidation.

  1. The local skin dose conversion coefficients of electrons, protons and alpha particles calculated using the Geant4 code.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bintuan; Dang, Bingrong; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Li, Wenjian

    2013-10-01

    The skin tissue-equivalent slab reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 to calculate the localised skin dose conversion coefficients (LSDCCs) was adopted into the Monte Carlo transport code Geant4. The Geant4 code was then utilised for computation of LSDCCs due to a circular parallel beam of monoenergetic electrons, protons and alpha particles <10 MeV. The computed LSDCCs for both electrons and alpha particles are found to be in good agreement with the results using the MCNPX code of ICRP 116 data. The present work thus validates the LSDCC values for both electrons and alpha particles using the Geant4 code.

  2. RICH counter for heavy-ion particle identification using multi-anode photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Morita, Yusuke; Kanbe, Ryosuke; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu; Ohno, Junichi; Kamisho, Yasuto; Tanaka, Masaomi; Nishimura, Daiki; Yoshinaga, Kenta; Ohtsubo, Takashi; Takechi, Maya; Nagashima, Masayuki; Izumikawa, Takuji; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Sato, Shinji; Suzuki, Shinji; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Himac H093 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    In order to develop a new RICH counter (Ring Imaging CHerenkov counter) for heavy-ion particle identification, we have constructed a test system for measurement of a ring image of Cherenkov light using multi-anode photomultipliers that detect a photon incident position. For a test, a 58Ni(480 MeV/u) beam provided by the HIMAC heavy-ion synchrotron was used. As radiators, we have tested synthetic silica, polycarbonate, and BK7. We have selected a wavelength of Cherenkov light by using a band pass filter. As a result, the ring image of Cherenkov light was observed and the obtained resolution of velocity will be reported at the meeting.

  3. Two components in charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylinkin, A. A.; Chernyavskaya, N. S.; Rostovtsev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions are considered in terms of a recently introduced Two Component parameterization combining exponential ("soft") and power-law ("hard") functional forms. The charged hadron densities calculated separately for them are plotted versus number of participating nucleons, Npart. The obtained dependences are discussed and the possible link between the two component parameterization introduced by the authors and the two component model historically used for the case of heavy-ion collisions is established. Next, the variations of the parameters of the introduced approach with the center of mass energy and centrality are studied using the available data from RHIC and LHC experiments. The spectra shapes are found to show universal dependences on Npart for all investigated collision energies.

  4. Cytogenetic effects of heavy charged particles of galactic cosmic radiation in experiments aboard Cosmos-1129 biosatellite

    SciTech Connect

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maksimova, Y.N.

    1982-08-01

    An experiment was carried out on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds flown in a biocontainer equipped with plastic detectors to record heavy charged particles (HCP). The purpose of the experiment was to determine the yield of aberrant cells as a result of irradiation, and to identify this effect as a function of HCP topography in the seed. The cytogenetic examination of flight seedlings revealed a significant difference between the seeds which were hit with HCP and those that remained intact. This indicates a significant contribution of the heavy component of galactic cosmic radiation into the radiobiological effect. The relationship between the radiobiological effect and the HCP topography in the seed was established: zones of the root and stem meristem proved to be the most sensitive targets.

  5. Distribution, bioavailability, and leachability of heavy metals in soil particle size fractions of urban soils (northeastern China).

    PubMed

    Yutong, Zong; Qing, Xiao; Shenggao, Lu

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the distribution, mobility, and potential environmental risks of heavy metals in various particle size fractions of urban soils. Representative urban topsoils (ten) collected from Anshan, Liaoning (northeastern China), were separated into six particle size fractions and their heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) were determined. The bioaccessibility and leachability of heavy metals in particle size fractions were evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction, respectively. The results indicated that the contents of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the size fractions increased with the decrease of particle size. The clay fraction of <2 μm had the highest content of heavy metals, indicating that the clay fraction was polluted by heavy metals more seriously than the other size fractions in urban topsoils. Cr also concentrated in the coarse fraction of 2000-1000 μm, indicating a lithogenic contribution. However, the dominant size fraction responsible for heavy metal accumulation appeared to belong to particle fraction of 50-2 μm. The lowest distribution factors (DFs) of heavy metals were recorded in the 2000- to 1000-μm size fraction, while the highest in the clay fraction. The DFs of heavy metals in the clay fraction followed Zn (3.22) > Cu (2.84) > Pb (2.61) > Cr (2.19) > Cd (2.05). The enrichment factor suggested that the enrichment degree of heavy metal increased with the decrease of the particle size, especially for Cd and Zn. The TCLP- and EDTA-extractable concentrations of heavy metals in the clay fraction were relatively higher than those in coarse particles. Cd bioavailability was higher in the clay fraction than in other fractions or whole soils. In contrast, Cr exhibits similar bioaccessibilities in the six size fractions of soils. The results suggested that fine particles were the main sources of potentially toxic

  6. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsolat, F.; De Marzi, L.; Pouzoulet, F.; Mazal, A.

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm-1. These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis.

  7. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam.

    PubMed

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Pouzoulet, F; Mazal, A

    2016-01-21

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens' model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens' model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens' model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm(-1). These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis.

  8. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam.

    PubMed

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Pouzoulet, F; Mazal, A

    2016-01-21

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens' model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens' model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens' model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm(-1). These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. PMID:26732530

  9. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, N.B.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Alpen, E.L.

    1988-12-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. This study concerns the cell population and cell cycle kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain, and the effects of charged particle irradiations on this cell population. Quantitative high resolution autoradiography was used to study the kinetic parameters in this cell layer. This study should help in understanding the effects of these high-energy heavy ions on normal mammalian brain tissue. The response of the mammalian brain exposure to charged particle ionizing radiation may be extremely variable. It varies from minimal physiological changes to overt tissue necrosis depending on a number of factors such as: the administered dose, dose-rate, the volume of the irradiated tissue, and the biological end-point being examined.

  10. Electronic excitation of ground state atoms by collision with heavy gas particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1993-01-01

    Most of the important chemical reactions which occur in the very high temperature air produced around space vehicles as they enter the atmosphere were investigated both experimentally and theoretically, to some extent at least. One remaining reaction about which little is known, and which could be quite important at the extremely high temperatures that will be produced by the class of space vehicles now contemplated - such as the AOTV - is the excitation of bound electron states due to collisions between heavy gas particles. Rates of electronic excitation due to free electron collisions are known to be very rapid, but because these collisions quickly equilibrate the free and bound electron energy, the approach to full equilibrium with the heavy particle kinetic energy will depend primarily on the much slower process of bound electron excitation in heavy particle collisions and the subsequent rapid transfer to free electron energy. This may be the dominant mechanism leading to full equilibrium in the gas once the dissociation process has depleted the molecular states so the transfer between molecular vibrational energy and free electron energy is no longer available as a channel for equilibration of free electron and heavy particle kinetic energies. Two mechanisms seem probable in electronic excitation by heavy particle impact. One of these is the collision excitation and deexcitation of higher electronic states which are Rydberg like. A report, entitled 'Semi-Classical Theory of Electronic Excitation Rates', was submitted previously. This presented analytic expressions for the transition probabilities, assuming that the interaction potential is an exponential repulsion with a perturbation ripple due to the dipole-induced dipole effect in the case of neutral-neutral collisions, and to the ion-dipole interaction in the case of ion-neutral collisions. However the above may be, there is little doubt that excitation of ground state species by collision occurs at the

  11. The effects of heavy particle irradiation on exploration and response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadesus, G.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.

    Free radicals produced by exposure to heavy particles have been found to produce motor and behavioral toxicity effects in rats similar to those found during aging. The present research was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on the ability to detect novel arrangements in a given environment of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using a test of spatial memory previously demonstrated to be sensitive to aging, open-field activity and reaction to spatial and non-spatial changes were measured in a group that received a dose of 1.5 Gy (n=10) of 56Fe heavy particle radiation or in non- radiated controls. Animals irradiated with 1.5 Gy of56Fe particles exhibited some age-like effects in animals tested, even though they were for the most part, subtle. Animals took longer to enter, visited less and spent significantly less time in the middle and the center portions of the open-field independently of total frequency and duration of activity of both groups. Likewise, irradiated subjects reacted significantly more to novel objects placed in the open-field than did controls. However, irradiated subjects did not vary from controls in their exploration patterns when objects in the open-field were spatially rearranged. Thus, irradiation with a dose of 1.5 Gy of 56Fe high-energy particle radiation elicited age-like effects in general open-field exploratory behavior, but did not elicit age- like effects during the spatial and non-spatial rearrangement tasks. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

  12. The effects of heavy particle irradiation on exploration and response to environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadesus, G.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Free radicals produced by exposure to heavy particles have been found to produce motor and cognitive behavioral toxicity effects in rats similar to those found during aging. The present research was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on the ability of male Sprague-Dawley rats to detect novel arrangements in a given environment. Using a test of spatial memory previously demonstrated to be sensitive to aging, open field activity and reaction to spatial and non-spatial changes were measured in a group that received a dose of 1.5 Gy (n=10) of 56Fe heavy particle radiation or in non-radiated controls (n=10). Animals irradiated with 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles exhibited some age-like effects in rats tested, even though they were, for the most part, subtle. Animals took longer to enter, visited less and spent significantly less time in the middle and the center portions of the open field, independently of total frequency and duration of activity of both groups. Likewise, irradiated subjects spend significantly more time exploring novel objects placed in the open field than did controls. However, irradiated subjects did not vary from controls in their exploration patterns when objects in the open field were spatially rearranged. Thus, irradiation with a dose of 1.5 Gy of 56Fe high-energy particle radiation elicited age-like effects in general open field exploratory behavior, but did not elicit age-like effects during the spatial and non-spatial rearrangement tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Search for heavy Majorana neutrinos in e$$^{±}$$e$$^{±}$$+jets and e$$^{±}$$$$\\mu^{±}$$+jets events in proton-proton collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s}=8 $$ TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-04-27

    In this study, a search is performed for heavy Majorana neutrinos (N) decaying into a W boson and a lepton using the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A signature of two jets and either two same sign electrons or a same sign electron-muon pair is searched for using 19.7 inverse femtobarns of data collected during 2012 in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with the expected standard model (SM) background and, in the context of a Type-1 seesaw mechanism, upper limits are set on the cross section timesmore » branching fraction for production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the mass range between 40 and 500 GeV. The results are additionally interpreted as limits on the mixing between the heavy Majorana neutrinos and the SM neutrinos. In the mass range considered, the upper limits range between 0.00015 - 0.72 for |VeN|2 and 6.6x10-5 - 0.47 for |VeN V*μN|2 / ( |VeN|2 + |VμN|2), where VlN is the mixing element describing the mixing of the heavy neutrino with the SM neutrino of flavour l. These limits are the most restrictive direct limits for heavy Majorana neutrino masses above 200 GeV.« less

  14. Search for heavy Majorana neutrinos in e±e±+ jets and e± μ ±+ jets events in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; de Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Bagaturia, I.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Jain, Sa.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fantinel, S.; Fanzago, F.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Lee, H.; Oh, S. B.; Seo, S. H.; Yang, U.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Traczyk, P.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão da Cruz E Silva, C.; di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Markin, O.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskii, E.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; de La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro de Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras de Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; de Castro Manzano, P.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Benhabib, L.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; D'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; de Gruttola, M.; de Guio, F.; de Roeck, A.; di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. F.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; de Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; McLean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lewis, J.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; McBrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.

    2016-04-01

    A search is performed for heavy Majorana neutrinos (N) decaying into a W boson and a lepton using the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A signature of two jets and either two same sign electrons or a same sign electron-muon pair is searched for using 19.7 fb-1 of data collected during 2012 in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with the expected standard model (SM) background and, in the context of a Type-1 seesaw mechanism, upper limits are set on the cross section times branching fraction for production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the mass range between 40 and 500 GeV. The results are additionally interpreted as limits on the mixing between the heavy Majorana neutrinos and the SM neutrinos. In the mass range considered, the upper limits range between 0.00015-0.72 for |VeN|2 and 6.6 × 10-5-0.47 for | V eN V μN ∗ |2/(| V eN|2 + | V μN|2), where VℓN is the mixing element describing the mixing of the heavy neutrino with the SM neutrino of flavour ℓ. These limits are the most restrictive direct limits for heavy Majorana neutrino masses above 200 GeV. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  16. What's In a Proton?

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  17. Recent heavy-particle decay in a matter-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, K. A.; Seckel, D.; Vishniac, E.

    1985-01-01

    The cold matter scenario for galaxy formation solves the dark matter problem very nicely on small scales corresponding to galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It is, however, difficult to reconcile with a Universe with an Einstein-deSitter value of (UC OMEGA) = 1. Cold matter and (UC OMEGA) = 1 can be made compatible while retaining the feature that the Universe is matter dominated today. This is done by means of heavy (cold) particles whose decay subsequently leads to the unbinding of a large fraction of lighter clustered matter.

  18. Self-biased silicon detectors with a built-in field for measuring heavy charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Kim, C.; Ohkawa, S.; Husimi, K.; Shiraishi, F.; Osada, S.; Abe, T.; Sakai, T.

    1986-02-01

    Self-biased silicon detectors with a good carrier collection and a high speed response have been produced by using a wafer with high resistive epitaxial layer grown on a low resistive silicon substrate and also a wafer with the graded impurity distribution formed diffusion technique. The build-in field induced by a large difference of impurity concentration is expected to be effective for sweeping away the high density charge plasma to electrodes before recombination. Energy spectra of fission fragments from /sup 252/C/sub F/ are measured by using the detectors. The results show that the detector will be promising for measurement of heavy charged particles.

  19. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  20. Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu

    2015-04-01

    To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340 °C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

  1. The role of particle-size soil fractions in the adsorption of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandzhieva, Saglara; Minkina, Tatiana; Pinsky, David; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Kalinitchenko, Valeriy; Sushkova, Svetlana; Chaplygin, Viktor; Dikaev, Zaurbek; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin

    2014-05-01

    Ion-exchange adsorption phenomena are important in the immobilization of heavy metals (HMs) by soils. Numerous works are devoted to the study of this problem. However, the interaction features of different particle-size soil fractions and their role in the immobilization of HMs studied insufficiently. Therefore, the assessment of the effect of the particle-size distribution on the adsorption properties of soils is a vital task. The parameters of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ adsorption by chernozems of the south of Russia and their particle-size fractions were studied. In the particle-size fractions separated from the soils, the concentrations of Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2 decreased with the decreasing particle size. The parameters of the adsorption values of k (the constant of the affinity)and Cmax.(the maximum adsorption of the HMs) characterizing the adsorption of HMs by the southern chernozem and its particle-size fractions formed the following sequence: silt > clay > entire soil. The adsorption capacity of chernozems for Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ depending on the particle-size distribution decreased in the following sequence: clay loamy ordinary chernozem clay loamy southern chernozem> loamy southern chernozem> loamy sandy southern chernozem. According to the parameters of the adsorption by the different particle-size fractions, the heavy metal cations form a sequence analogous to that obtained for the entire soils: Cu2+ ≥ Pb2+ > Zn2+. The parameters of the heavy metal adsorption by similar particle-size fractions separated from different soils decreased in the following order: clay loamy chernozem> loamy chernozem> loamy sandy chernozem. The analysis of the changes in the parameters of the Cu2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ adsorption by the studied soils and their particle-size fractions showed that the extensive adsorption characteristic - the maximum adsorption (Cmax.) - is a less sensitive parameter characterizing the adsorption capacity of the soils than the intensive characteristic of

  2. Relativistic electron- and proton-impact ionization of highly stripped heavy ions determined from projectile-electron loss in H[sub 2] and He

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Gould, H.; Meyerhof, W.E.; Belkacem, A.; Huelskoetter, H.; Alonso, J.R.; Blumenfeld, L.; Dillard, E.; Guardala, N.; Krebs, G.F.; McMahan, M.A.; Rhoades-Brown, M.J.; Rude, B.S.; Schweppe, J.; Spooner, D.W.; Street, K.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H. Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, MS 71-259, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 Accelerator Development Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 Berkeley High School, Berkeley, California 94704 Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 )

    1993-03-01

    We show that electron- and proton-impact ionization cross sections for highly stripped heavy ions can be deduced from the projectile-electron-loss cross sections determined by collisions with a H[sub 2] and a He target. We measure electron loss for 100- and 380-MeV/u Au[sup 52+], and 405-MeV/u U[sup 86+] in H[sub 2] and He targets, and extract the electron- and proton-impact ionization cross sections. Our results are compared with calculations and with channeling experiments.

  3. Monitoring solar energetic particles with an armada of European spacecraft and the new automated SEPF (Solar Energetic Proton Fluxes) Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, I.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Balasis, G.; Georgoulis, M.; Nieminen, P.; Evans, H.; Daly, E.

    2012-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in interplanetary medium consist of electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier ions (up to Fe), with energies from dozens of keVs to a few GeVs. SEP events, or SEPEs, are particle flux enhancements from background level (< 1 pfu, particle flux unit = particle cm-2sr-1s-1) to several orders of magnitude in the MeV range, and lasting from several hours to a few days. Intense SEPEs can reach fluence values as high as 1010 protons cm-2 for E > 30 MeV. The main part of SEPEs results from the acceleration of particles either by solar flares and/or by interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs); these accelerated particles propagate through the heliosphere, traveling along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). SEPEs show significant variability from one event to another and are an important part of space weather, because they pose a serious health risk to humans in space and a serious radiation hazard for the spacecraft hardware which may lead to severe damages. As a consequence, engineering models, observations and theoretical investigations related to the high energy particle environment is a priority issue for both robotic and manned space missions. The European Space Agency operates the Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) on-board six spacecraft: Proba-1, INTEGRAL, Rosetta, Giove-B, Herschel and Planck, which measures high-energy protons and electrons with a fair angular and spectral resolution. The fact that several SREM units operate in different orbits provides a unique chance for comparative studies of the radiation environment based on multiple data gathered by identical detectors. Furthermore, the radiation environment monitoring by the SREM unit onboard Rosetta may reveal unknown characteristics of SEPEs properties given the fact that the majority of the available radiation data and models only refer to 1AU solar distances. The Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing of

  4. Effect of fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine nonvolatile particle emission.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Happonen, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Virtanen, Annele; Solla, Anu; Kytö, Matti; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust particle emissions were studied. Nonvolatile particle size distributions and gaseous emissions were measured at steady-state engine conditions while the fuel injection pressure was changed. An increase in the injection pressure resulted in an increase in the nonvolatile nucleation mode (core) emission at medium and at high loads. At low loads, the core was not detected. Simultaneously, a decrease in soot mode number concentration and size and an increase in the soot mode distribution width were detected at all loads. Interestingly, the emission of the core was independent of the soot mode concentration at load conditions below 50%. Depending on engine load conditions, growth of the geometric mean diameter of the core mode was also detected with increasing injection pressure. The core mode emission and also the size of the mode increased with increasing NOx emission while the soot mode size and emission decreased simultaneously.

  5. Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray experiment - Measurement of heavy solar wind particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinner, E.; Walker, R. M.; Borg, J.; Maurette, M.

    1974-01-01

    During the Apollo 17 mission a series of metal foils and nuclear track detectors were exposed both in the sun and in the shade on the surface of the moon. Here we give the analysis of the mica detectors which were used to measure the flux of solar wind particles of Fe-group and heavier elements. These particles register as shallow pits after etching in hydrofluoric acid. Calibration experiments were performed to determine the registration properties of different ions and to simulate the lunar environment. We obtain an Fe-group flux of 39,000 per sec per sq cm, which together with the H flux measured on IMP-7 gives an Fe/H ratio of 0.000041. For elements with Z exceeding 45 we can set only an upper limit on the abundance, ruling out an overabundance of extremely heavy elements relative to iron by a factor of 4.

  6. Study of direct single photons and correlated particles in proton-proton collisions at. sqrt. s = 62. 4 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Angelis, A. L.S.; Besch, H. J.; Blumenfeld, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of a study of large p/sub T/ phenomena in proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR, a search for direct single photon production has been performed. A statistical division of the data sample into the fraction consistent with single photon production and the fraction due to multiphoton decays of neutral hadrons is accomplished by measuring the average conversion probability for the sample in a one radiation length thick converter. The fraction of the sample attributable to direct single photon production is < ..gamma../all > = 0.074 +- 0.012 for 6 GeV/c < p/sub T/ < 10 GeV/C, and < ..gamma../all > = 0.26 +- 0.04 for p/sub T/ > 10 GeV/c, with an additional systematic uncertainty of +- 0.05 for both values. It is found that single photons are produced preferentially with no accompanying particles on the same side. The ratio of positive to negative particles on the away side is found to be 3.7 +- 1.2 at high x/sub E/ and p/sub T/ for the single photon events.

  7. Measurement of the underlying event activity using charged-particle jets in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-09-21

    A measurement of the underlying event (UE) activity in proton-proton collisions is performed using events with charged-particle jets produced in the central pseudorapidity region (|η jet| < 2) and with transverse momentum 1 ≤ pT jet < 100 GeV. The analysis uses a data sample collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The UE activity is measured as a function of pT jet in terms of the average multiplicity and scalar sum of transverse momenta (pT) of charged particles, with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV, in the azimuthal region transverse to the highest pT jet direction. By further dividing the transverse region into two regions of smaller and larger activity, various components of the UE activity are separated. As a result, the measurements are compared to previous results at 0.9 and 7 TeV, and to predictions of several Monte Carlo event generators, providing constraints on the modelling of the UE dynamics

  8. Search for neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-09-29

    A search for pair production of neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles (Θ0) is performed in processes where one Θ0 decays to a pair of b quark jets and the other to a Z boson plus a jet, with the Z boson decaying to a pair of electrons or muons. The search is performed with data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model predictions. The 95% confidence levelmore » upper limit on the product of the cross section and branching fraction is obtained as a function of the Θ0 mass. The 95% confidence level lower bounds on the Θ0 mass are found to be 623 and 426 GeV, for two different octo-triplet theoretical scenarios. These are the first direct experimental bounds on particles predicted by the octo-triplet model.« less

  9. Measurement of the underlying event activity using charged-particle jets in proton-proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 2.76 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-09-21

    A measurement of the underlying event (UE) activity in proton-proton collisions is performed using events with charged-particle jets produced in the central pseudorapidity region (|η jet| < 2) and with transverse momentum 1 ≤ pT jet < 100 GeV. The analysis uses a data sample collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The UE activity is measured as a function of pT jet in terms of the average multiplicity and scalar sum of transverse momenta (pT) of charged particles, with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV, in the azimuthal regionmore » transverse to the highest pT jet direction. By further dividing the transverse region into two regions of smaller and larger activity, various components of the UE activity are separated. As a result, the measurements are compared to previous results at 0.9 and 7 TeV, and to predictions of several Monte Carlo event generators, providing constraints on the modelling of the UE dynamics« less

  10. Search for neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-09-29

    A search for pair production of neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles0) is performed in processes where one Θ0 decays to a pair of b quark jets and the other to a Z boson plus a jet, with the Z boson decaying to a pair of electrons or muons. The search is performed with data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model predictions. The 95% confidence level upper limit on the product of the cross section and branching fraction is obtained as a function of the Θ0 mass. The 95% confidence level lower bounds on the Θ0 mass are found to be 623 and 426 GeV, for two different octo-triplet theoretical scenarios. These are the first direct experimental bounds on particles predicted by the octo-triplet model.

  11. Search for neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dobur, D.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randleconde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Ali, A.; Aly, R.; Aly, S.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Lotfy, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Masod, R.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Lomidze, D.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sudhakar, K.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Sgaravatto, M.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Gabusi, M.; Magnani, A.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Trapani, P. 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F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Mareskas-palcek, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Sen, S.; Snyder, C.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Mcginn, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Demortier, L.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2015-09-01

    A search for pair production of neutral color-octet weak-triplet scalar particles (Θ0) is performed in processes where one Θ0 decays to a pair of b quark jets and the other to a Z boson plus a jet, with the Z boson decaying to a pair of electrons or muons. The search is performed with data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at √{s}=8 TeV. The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model predictions. The 95% confidence level upper limit on the product of the cross section and branching fraction is obtained as a function of the Θ0 mass. The 95% confidence level lower bounds on the Θ0 mass are found to be 623 and 426 GeV, for two different octo-triplet theoretical scenarios. These are the first direct experimental bounds on particles predicted by the octo-triplet model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Gauge bosons and heavy quarks: Proceedings of Summer Institute on Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Z decays and tests of the standard model; future possibilities for LEP; studies of the interactions of electroweak gauge bosons; top quark topics; the next linear collider; electroweak processes in hadron colliders; theoretical topics in B-physics; experimental aspects of B-physics; B-factory storage ring design; rare kaon decays; CP violation in K{sup 0} decays at CERN; recent K{sup 0} decay results from Fermilab E-731; results from LEP on heavy quark physics; review of recent results on heavy flavor production; weak matrix elements and the determination of the weak mixing angles; recent results from CLEO I and a glance at CLEO II data; recent results from ARGUS; neutrino lepton physics with the CHARM 2 detector; recent results from the three TRISTAN experiments; baryon number violation at high energy in the standard model: fact or fiction New particle searches at LEP; review of QCD at LEP; electroweak interactions at LEP; recent results on W physics from the UA2 experiment at the CERN {rho}{bar {rho}} collider; B physics at CDF; and review of particle astrophysics.

  13. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible.

  14. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible. PMID:27548946

  15. Clustering and relative velocity of heavy particles under gravitational settling in isotropic turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guodong; He, Guo-Wei

    2015-11-01

    Clustering and intermittency in radial relative velocity (RRV) of heavy particles of same size settling in turbulent flows can be remarkably changed due to gravity. Clustering is monotonically reduced at Stokes number less than 1 under gravity due to the disability of the centrifugal mechanism, however it is non-monotonically enhanced at Stokes number greater than 1 due to the multiplicative amplification in the case that the proposed effective Kubo number is less than 1. Although gravity causes monotonical reduction in the rms of RRV of particles at a given Stokes number with decreasing Froude number, the variation tendency in the tails of standardized PDF of RRV versus Froude number is obviously different: the tails become narrower at a small Stokes number, while they become broader at a large Stokes number. The mechanism of this variation stems from the compromise between the following two competing factors. The mitigation of correlation of particle positions and the regions of high strain rate which are more intermittent reduces the intermittency in RRV at small Stokes numbers, while the significant reduction in the backward-in-time relative separations will make particle pairs see small-scale structures, leading to a higher intermittency in RRV at large Stokes numbers. NSAF of China (grant number U1230126); NSFC (grant numbers 11072247 and 11232011).

  16. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged argon, neon, and carbon particles

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, J.G.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1983-06-01

    The cataractogenic potential in mice of heavy charged particles from the Bevalac was examined in relation to dose, linear energy transfer (LET), and time following exposure. BALB/c x C57/bl/sub 6/(CB/sub 6/F/sub 1/) mice were exposed to graded single doses (0.05 to 0.9 Gy) of 570-MeV /sup 40/Ar, 425-MeV /sup 20/Ne, or 400-MeV /sup 12/C particles in the plateau portion of the Bragg curve. Lenses were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy over a 21-month period. The cataract severity was scored subjectively on a scale of 0 to 4 and compared to the opacities induced by 225-kVp X rays. Both the onset and density of the lens opacities were related to dose, and opacification progressed throughout the entire period of observation. In terms of degree of opacification and rates of onset and progression, the cataractogenic response to /sup 40/Ar particles was greater than to either /sup 20/Ne or /sup 12/C particles. Discrimination between the effects of /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C was possible only at the higher doses employed (0.6 and 0.9 Gy) and only at some observation times. Based on average cataract density at the several observation times, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of /sup 40/Ar particles is estimated to be 3 to 5 over a cataract score range of about 1.5 to 3.0 (0.15 to 0.9 Gy). The RBE for /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C particles is probably somewhat greater than 1.0. The consistency of replicate lens examinations and challenges of the subjective scoring system are discussed.

  17. Report of the Snowmass T4 working group on particle sources: Positron sources, anti-proton sources and secondary beams

    SciTech Connect

    N. Mokhov et al.

    2002-12-05

    This report documents the activities of the Snowmass 2001 T4 Particle Sources Working Group. T4 was charged with examining the most challenging aspects of positron sources for linear colliders and antiproton sources for proton-antiproton colliders, and the secondary beams of interest to the physics community that will be available from the next generation of high-energy particle accelerators. The leading issues, limiting technologies, and most important R and D efforts of positron production, antiproton production, and secondary beams are discussed in this paper. A listing of T4 Presentations is included.

  18. Proton tunnelling in the hydrogen bonds of the benzoic acid dimer: (18)O substitution and isotope effects of the heavy atom framework.

    PubMed

    Frantsuzov, I; Johnson, M R; Trommsdorff, H P; Horsewill, A J

    2014-07-17

    Field-cycling (1)H NMR relaxometry has been used to measure the rate of concerted double proton transfer in the hydrogen bonds of (16)O and (18)O isotopologues of benzoic acid dimers. The experiments have been conducted in the solid state at low temperature 13.3 ≤ T ≤ 80 K where the dynamics are dominated by incoherent proton tunnelling. The low temperature tunnelling rate in the (16)O isotopologue is observed to be approximately 15% faster than in the (18)O isotopologue. The difference is attributed to an isotope effect of the heavy atom framework of the benzoic acid dimer resulting from displacements of the oxygen atoms that accompany the proton transfer. Sources of systematic uncertainty have been minimized in the design of the experimental protocols and the experiments are critically appraised in formally assigning the measured differences to an effect of mass on the tunnelling dynamics.

  19. Characterization of the Particle Size Fraction associated with Heavy Metals in Suspended Sediments of the Yellow River

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qingzhen; Wang, Xiaojing; Jian, Huimin; Chen, Hongtao; Yu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the concentrations of particulate heavy metals and fluxes into the sea in the Yellow River were examined based on observational and measured data from January 2009 to December 2010. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate suspended sediments into five size fractions. Clay and very fine silt is the dominant fraction in most of the suspended sediments, accounting for >40% of the samples. Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe and Mn are slightly affected by anthropogenic activities, while Cd is moderate affected. The concentrations of heavy metals increased with decrease in particle size. For suspended sediments in the Yellow River, on average 78%–82% of the total heavy metal loading accumulated in the <16 μm fraction. About 43% and 53% of heavy metal in 2009 and 2010 respectively, were readily transported to the Bohai Sea with “truly suspended” particles, which have potentially harmful effects on marine organisms. PMID:26083999

  20. Nanocrystalline materials for the dosimetry of heavy charged particles: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan

    2011-01-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence or better known as thermoluminescence (TL) is a powerful technique extensively used for dosimetry of ionizing radiations. TL dosimeter (TLD) materials presently in use are inorganic crystalline materials. They are in the form of chips, single crystals or microcrystalline size powder. The most popular are LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, CaSO 4:Dy, CaF 2:Dy and Al 2O 3:C. However, these TLD materials are not capable of precisely detecting heavy charged particles (HCP) irradiations in their present forms. The saturation effect is the major problem, which occurs at relatively low fluences (doses). Moreover, there is a significant variation in the TL glow curves structure with increase in doses, which is undesirable for the use in dosimetry. However, with the use of very tiny particles such as nanoscale TLD materials, this problem is overcome to a major extent. The TL results of the recently reported nanomaterials have revealed very imperative characteristics such as high sensitivity and saturation at very high doses. Recent studies on different luminescent nanomaterials showed that they have a potential application in dosimetry of heavy charged particles using TL technique, where the conventional microcrystalline phosphors saturate. This paper is a review on the prepared TLD nanomaterials, studied for their TL response to HCP. These are CaSO 4:Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, K 2Ca 2(SO 4) 3:Eu and Ba 0.97Ca 0.03SO 4:Eu nanomaterials. The important results obtained in these nanomaterials and the possibility of using them as HCP dosimeters are discussed.

  1. Comparative risk analysis of dioxins in fish and fine particles from heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Leino, Olli; Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2008-02-01

    Dioxins and airborne fine particles are both environmental health problems that have been the subject of active public debate. Knowledge on fine particles has increased substantially during the last 10 years, and even the current, lowered levels in the Europe and in the United States appear to be a major public health problem. On the other hand, dioxins are ubiquitous persistent contaminants, some being carcinogens at high doses, and therefore of great concern. Our aim was to (a) quantitatively analyze the two pollutant health risks and (b) study the changes in risk in view of the current and forthcoming EU legislations on pollutants. We performed a comparative risk assessment for both pollutants in the Helsinki metropolitan area (Finland) and estimated the health effects with several scenarios. For primary fine particles: a comparison between the present emission situation for heavy-duty vehicles and the new fine particle emission standards set by the EU. For dioxins: an EU directive that regulates commercial fishing of Baltic salmon and herring that exceed the dioxin concentration limit set for fish meat, and a derogation (= exemption) from the directive for these two species. Both of these two decisions are very topical issues and this study estimates the expected changes in health effects due to these regulations. It was found that the estimated fine particle risk clearly outweighed the estimated dioxin risk. A substantial improvement to public health could be achieved by initiating reductions in emission standards; about 30 avoided premature deaths annually in the study area. In addition, the benefits of fish consumption due to omega-3 exposure were notably higher than the potential dioxin cancer risk. Both regulations were instigated as ways of promoting public health.

  2. Effects of age and exposure to heavy particles on a behavioral measure of anxiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carrihill-Knoll, K. L.; Carey, A.; Foster, B. C.

    On forthcoming exploratory class missions astronauts will be expected to function in novel and possibly dangerous environments This requirement may produce anticipatory fear or anxiety Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles such as those experienced on missions beyond the protection provided by the magnetic shield of the earth can affect the performance of the organism on a variety of tasks In addition research has shown that there is an interaction between age and exposure to heavy particles on a variety of behavioral tasks such that older organisms are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of irradiation Because there are changes in exploration-induced anxiety as a function of age it is possible that exposure to HZE particles will also affect a middle-aged astronaut s ability to respond appropriately in anxiety producing situations The present experiment utilized the elevated plus-maze to evaluate the effects of age and exposure to HZE particle radiation on anxiety Fischer-344 rats 2 7 12 and 16 months of age at the time of irradiation were exposed to 56 Fe particles 1 GeV n 0 25-2 00 Gy in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory Control rats at each age were not irradiated At the time of testing the rats were 3- 11- 13- and 20-months old respectively Anxiety was studied using an elevated plus-maze The maze is composed of four arms in the shape of a sign placed 90 cm above the floor Two of the arms are enclosed and two of the arms are open The amount of

  3. 3D quantification of brain microvessels exposed to heavy particle radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintermüller, C.; Coats, J. S.; Obenaus, A.; Nelson, G.; Krucker, T.; Stampanoni, M.

    2009-09-01

    Space radiation with high energy particles and cosmic rays presents a significant hazard to spaceflight crews. Recent reviews of the health risk to astronauts from ionizing radiation concluded to establish a level of risk which may indicate the possible performance decrements and decreased latency of late dysfunction syndromes (LDS) of the brain. A hierarchical imaging approach developed at ETH Zürich and PSI, which relies on synchrotron based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM), was used to visualize and analyze 3D vascular structures down to the capillary level in their precise anatomical context. Various morphological parameters, such as overall vessel volume, vessel thickness and spacing, are extracted to characterize the vascular structure within a region of interest. For a first quantification of the effect of high energy particles on the vasculature we scanned a set of 6 animals, all of same age. The animals were irradiated with 1 Gy, 2 Gy and 4 Gy of 600MeV 56Fe heavy particles simulating the space radiation environment. We found that with increasing dose the diameter of vessels and the overall vessel volume are decreased whereas the vessel spacing is increased. As these parameters reflect blood flow in three-dimensional space they can be used as indicators for the degree of vascular efficiency which can have an impact on the function and development of lung tissue or tumors.

  4. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF PEAK PROTON AND IRON ION FLUXES IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS: APPLICATION OF THE PATH CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Li, G.; Ao, X.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-09-20

    The radial dependence of particle peak fluxes in large solar energetic particle (SEP) events is important in determining the potential impact of space weather hazards on space missions. Using the Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere code, we model the acceleration and transport of protons and iron ions at evolving coronal mass ejection shocks propagating throughout the inner heliosphere from about 0.1 to 2.5 AU. An example shock with a compression ratio of 3.9 and a speed of 1000 km s{sup -1} close to the Sun is modeled using a two-dimensional MHD ZEUS code. The compression ratio and shock speed weakened to 2.3 and 630 km s{sup -1}, correspondingly, at 2 AU. Shocks with 15 Degree-Sign , 45 Degree-Sign , and 75 Degree-Sign angles between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal were studied. The shock angle was kept constant throughout the simulation. Both gradual and impulsive events are studied. Diffusive shock acceleration is assumed at the shock and we use a total diffusion coefficient that includes a parallel diffusion coefficient which takes into account the upstream wave amplification, and a perpendicular diffusion coefficient which is based on the NonLinear Guiding Center theory. The transport of particles escaping from the shock is modeled using a Monte Carlo approach. Time-intensity profiles for protons and iron ions are obtained. We analyzed the radial dependence of peak fluxes (J) for both protons and iron ions from 0.5 to 2 AU. We find that the functional dependence is softer than R {sup -3} and is about R {sup -2.9} to R {sup -1.8} in the energy range of 0.3-5 MeV nuc{sup -1}. Quasi-perpendicular shock showed a steeper radial dependence than a quasi-parallel shock. Mixed events show a softer radial dependence at energies above 500 keV nuc{sup -1} for iron ions and above 1 MeV for protons. The values of J(R) depend on seed particle composition, particle energy, shock obliquity, and the interplanetary turbulence level

  5. Effects of age and diet on the heavy particle-induced disruption of operant responding produced by a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2005-03-01

    On missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays which are composed of heavy particles (such as 56Fe) and protons. Exposure to these particles can affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of tasks, indicating that there is the possibility that the performance capabilities of astronauts may be affected. Previous research has shown that diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract can ameliorate the deficits produced by irradiation using a ground-based analog for exposure to cosmic rays. Rats were placed on diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract for 2 months prior to exposure to 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles. There were no effects on performance of any group of animals when tested on an ascending fixed-ratio operant task 6 months following exposure. When tested 12 months after exposure, the performance of the radiated animals given blueberry extract did not differ from the radiated animals fed the control diet. Both groups performed significantly poorer than the non-irradiated controls. There were no differences between the non-irradiated animals fed control diet and the radiated animals fed the strawberry diet and their performance was significantly better than of the radiated rats fed the blueberry or control diets. The results indicate that diets containing strawberry extract may provide a significant level of radiation protection on exploratory class missions.

  6. Effects of age and diet on the heavy particle-induced disruption of operant responding produced by a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2005-03-01

    On missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays which are composed of heavy particles (such as 56Fe) and protons. Exposure to these particles can affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of tasks, indicating that there is the possibility that the performance capabilities of astronauts may be affected. Previous research has shown that diets containing blueberry or strawberry extract can ameliorate the deficits produced by irradiation using a ground-based analog for exposure to cosmic rays. Rats were placed on diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract for 2 months prior to exposure to 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles. There were no effects on performance of any group of animals when tested on an ascending fixed-ratio operant task 6 months following exposure. When tested 12 months after exposure, the performance of the radiated animals given blueberry extract did not differ from the radiated animals fed the control diet. Both groups performed significantly poorer than the non-irradiated controls. There were no differences between the non-irradiated animals fed control diet and the radiated animals fed the strawberry diet and their performance was significantly better than of the radiated rats fed the blueberry or control diets. The results indicate that diets containing strawberry extract may provide a significant level of radiation protection on exploratory class missions. PMID:15725409

  7. Comparison of particle mass and solid particle number (SPN) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle under on-road driving conditions and a standard testing cycle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhongqing; Durbin, Thomas D; Xue, Jian; Johnson, Kent C; Li, Yang; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Kittelson, David B; Jung, Heejung S

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the differences between emissions from standard laboratory testing cycles and those from actual on-road driving conditions, especially for solid particle number (SPN) emissions now being regulated in Europe. This study compared particle mass and SPN emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle operating over the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and actual on-road driving conditions. Particle mass emissions were calculated using the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method and called MIPSD. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS and on-road tests were more than 6 times lower than the U.S. 2007 heavy-duty particulate matter (PM) mass standard. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS fell between those for the on-road uphill and downhill driving. SPN and MIPSD measurements were dominated by nucleation particles for the UDDS and uphill driving and by accumulation mode particles for cruise and downhill driving. The SPN emissions were ∼ 3 times lower than the Euro 6 heavy-duty SPN limit for the UDDS and downhill driving and ∼ 4-5 times higher than the Euro 6 SPN limit for the more aggressive uphill driving; however, it is likely that most of the "solid" particles measured under these conditions were associated with a combination release of stored sulfates and enhanced sulfate formation associated with high exhaust temperatures, leading to growth of volatile particles into the solid particle counting range above 23 nm. Except for these conditions, a linear relationship was found between SPN and accumulation mode MIPSD. The coefficient of variation (COV) of SPN emissions of particles >23 nm ranged from 8 to 26% for the UDDS and on-road tests.

  8. Primary and secondary particle contributions to the depth dose distribution in a phantom shielded from solar flare and Van Allen protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, R. T.; Claiborne, H. C.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Calculations have been made using the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC to estimate the absorbed dose and dose equivalent distributions in astronauts inside space vehicles bombarded by solar flare and Van Allen protons. A spherical shell shield of specific radius and thickness with a 30-cm-diam. tissue ball at the geometric center was used to simulate the spacecraft-astronaut configuration. The absorbed dose and the dose equivalent from primary protons, secondary protons, heavy nuclei, charged pions, muons, photons, and positrons and electrons are given as a function of depth in the tissue phantom. Results are given for solar flare protons with a characteristic rigidity of 100 MV and for Van Allen protons in a 240-nautical-mile circular orbit at 30 degree inclination angle incident on both 20-g/sq cm-thick aluminum and polyethylene spherical shell shields.

  9. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  10. Search for new particles decaying to diject in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, Sertac

    2011-03-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the dijet invariant mass spectrum and search for new particles decaying to dijets at CMS in 7 TeV pp collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.875 pb-1. The measured dijet mass distribution is compared to QCD prediction from PYTHIA . It is required the pseudorapidity separation of the two jets to satisfy |Dh| < 1.3 with each jet inside the region of |{eta}| < 2.5. The observed dijet mass spectrum is fitted by a smooth function to search for dijet resonances. Since there is no evidence for dijet resonances, the upper limits at 95% Confidence Level (C.L.) on the resonance cross section are set. These generic cross section limits are compared with theoretical predictions for the cross section for several models of new particles: string resonances, axigluons, colorons, excited quarks, E6 diquarks, Randall-Sundrum gravitons, W' and Z'. It is excluded at 95% C.L. string resonances in the mass range 0.50 < M(S) < 2.50 TeV, excited quarks in the mass range 0.50 < M(q*) < 1.58 TeV, axigluons and colorons in the mass ranges 0.50 < M(A) < 1.17 TeV and 1.47 < M(A) < 1.52 TeV, and E6 diquarks in the mass ranges 0.50 < M(D) < 0.58 TeV, 0.97 < M(D) < 1.08 TeV, and 1.45 < M(D) < 1.60 TeV. These exclusions extend previously published limits on all models.

  11. Sucrose as a dosimetric material for photon and heavy particle radiation: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakirova, Yordanka; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2015-05-01

    The application of high-energy radiation in many areas of human activity and its harmful effects on human health makes necessary knowledge of the radiation chemistry of various materials upon exposure to high-energy radiation. Among these materials, saccharides (particularly sucrose) maintain the greatest advantage for potential radiochemistry applications. Until now, radiation chemistry studies have been conducted primarily with γ-ray irradiation; however, in the past few years there has been increased interest in the fields of radiotherapy and radiochemistry on substances irradiated with heavy particles. To this end, this review discusses the possibilities of employing sucrose as a radiation-sensitive material for the determination of absorbed doses of high-energy radiation both for emergency situations and for dosimeters used in standard applications.

  12. Clinical results of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery for intracranial angiographically occult vascular malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1989-12-01

    Angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain have been recognized for many years to cause neurologic morbidity and mortality. They generally become symptomatic due to intracranial hemorrhage, focal mass effect, seizures or headaches. The true incidence of AOVMs is unknown, but autopsy studies suggest that they are more common than high-flow angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have developed stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery for the treatment of inoperable intracranial vascular malformations, using the helium ion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch Synchrocyclotron and Bevatron. This report describes the protocol for patient selection, radiosurgical treatment planning method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the method. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The rheological properties of heavy crude oil have a significant impact on the production, refining and transportation. In this paper, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the effects of the addition of light crude oil and emulsification on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil. The simulation results reflected that the addition of light crude oil reduced the viscosity effectively. The shear thinning behaviour of crude oil mixtures were becoming less distinct as the increase of the mass fraction of light crude oil. According to the statistics, the shear had an influence on the aggregation and spatial orientation of asphaltene molecules. In addition, the relationship between the viscosity and the oil mass fraction was investigated in the simulations of emulsion systems. The viscosity increased with the oil mass fraction slowly in oil-in-water emulsions. When the oil mass fraction was higher than 50%, the increase became much faster since systems had been converted into water-in-oil emulsions. The equilibrated morphologies of emulsion systems were shown to illustrate the phase inversion. The surfactant-like feature of asphaltenes was also studied in the simulations.

  14. Characterisation of a ΔE E particle telescope using the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Reinhard, Mark; Prokopovich, Dale; Ionescu, Mihail; Cohen, David D.; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Cornelius, Iwan M.; Wroe, Andrew; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Fazzi, A.; Pola, A.; Agosteo, S.

    2007-07-01

    Semiconductor planar processing technology has spurned the development of novel radiation detectors with applications in space, high energy physics, medical diagnostics, radiation protection and cancer therapy. The ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, which allows a wide range of ions to be focused into spot sizes of a few micrometers in diameter, has proven to be an essential tool for characterising these detectors using the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) imaging technique. The use of different ions and the wide range of available energies on the heavy ion microprobe, allows the testing of these devices with ionising particles associated with different values of linear energy transfer (LET). Quadruple coincidence measurements have been used to map the charge collection characteristics of a monolithic ΔE E telescope. This was done through simultaneous measurement of the spatial coordinates of the microbeam relative to the sample and the response of both detector elements. The resulting charge collection maps were used to better understand the functionality of the device as well as to ascertain ways in which future device designs could be modified to improve performance.

  15. Theoretical constraints on masses of heavy particles in Left-Right symmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabortty, J.; Gluza, J.; Jeliński, T.; Srivastava, T.

    2016-08-01

    Left-Right symmetric models with general gL ≠gR gauge couplings which include bidoublet and triplet scalar multiplets are studied. Possible scalar mass spectra are outlined by imposing Tree-Unitarity, and Vacuum Stability criteria and also using the bounds on neutral scalar masses MHFCNC which assure the absence of Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC). We are focusing on mass spectra relevant for the LHC analysis, i.e., the scalar masses are around TeV scale. As all non-standard heavy particle masses are related to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the right-handed triplet (vR), the combined effects of relevant Higgs potential parameters and MHFCNC regulate the lower limits of heavy gauge boson masses. The complete set of Renormalization Group Evolutions for all couplings are provided at the 1-loop level, including the mixing effects in the Yukawa sector. Most of the scalar couplings suffer from the Landau poles at the intermediate scale Q ∼106.5 GeV, which in general coincides with violation of the Tree-Unitarity bounds.

  16. Optimum selection of mechanism type for heavy manipulators based on particle swarm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Chen, Genliang; Wang, Hao; Lin, Zhongqin

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism type plays a decisive role in the mechanical performance of robotic manipulators. Feasible mechanism types can be obtained by applying appropriate type synthesis theory, but there is still a lack of effective and efficient methods for the optimum selection among different types of mechanism candidates. This paper presents a new strategy for the purpose of optimum mechanism type selection based on the modified particle swarm optimization method. The concept of sub-swarm is introduced to represent the different mechanisms generated by the type synthesis, and a competitive mechanism is employed between the sub-swarms to reassign their population size according to the relative performances of the mechanism candidates to implement the optimization. Combining with a modular modeling approach for fast calculation of the performance index of the potential candidates, the proposed method is applied to determine the optimum mechanism type among the potential candidates for the desired manipulator. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated through a case study on the optimum selection of mechanism type of a heavy manipulator where six feasible candidates are considered with force capability as the specific performance index. The optimization result shows that the fitness of the optimum mechanism type for the considered heavy manipulator can be up to 0.578 5. This research provides the instruction in optimum selection of mechanism types for robotic manipulators.

  17. Data Analysis of Tracks of Heavy Ion Particles in Timepix Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, S.; Vilalta, R.; Pinsky, L.; Kroupa, M.; Stoffle, N.; Idarraga, J.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we describe some of the computational challenges that need to be addressed when developing active Space Radiation Monitors and Dosimeters using the Timepix detectors developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration at CERN. Measurement of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET), the source and velocity of incident ionizing radiation, are of initial interest when developing such operational devices because they provide the capability to calculate the Dose-equivalent, and to characterize the radiation field for the design of radiation protective devices. In order to facilitate the LET measurement, we first propose a new method for calculating azimuth direction and polar angle of individual tracks of penetrating charged particles based on the pixel clusters they produce. We then describe an energy compensation method for heavy ion tracks suffering from saturation and plasma effects. Finally, we identify interactions within the detector that need to be excluded from the total effective Dose-Equivalent assessment. We make use of data taken at the HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center) facility in Chiba, Japan and NSRL (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, USA for evaluation purposes.

  18. Heavy ion and proton beams in high resolution imaging of a fungi spore specimen using STIM tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, P.; Breese, M. B. H.; Connell, S. H.; Doyle, B. P.; Drummond, M. L.; Machi, I. Z.; Maclear, R. D.; Schaaff, P.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Bench, G.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Antolak, A.; Morse, D.

    1997-07-01

    Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) tomography as a 3-D imaging technique has been shown to have a range of applications. The energy of the transmitted ion is detected with nearly 100% efficiency as a function of position in the transverse plane. The parameters relating to transmitted ion energy loss in the sample are imaged with statistics given by the energy loss process rather than Poisson counting statistics. This enables very fast collection of a set of relatively noise-free 2-D images. Each image is collected after a small rotation of the sample, and a complete 3-D representation of the sample may be tomographically reconstructed. The small beam currents necessary mean that the technique is non-destructive. One of the fields where these non-destructive 3-D density structure maps are particularly useful is in the analysis of biological tissue. The variation of energy loss with projectile atomic number may be exploited to tune the energy loss contrast to the size and density of the sample (heavy ion STIM). This work develops this point, and applies it to the imaging of the microscopic structure of a 90 μm diameter mycorrhiza fungi spore. This specimen has been imaged non-destructively in 3-D using both a 36 MeV 12C beam and a 2.2 MeV proton beam, both with a spatial resolution of about 1 μm. The gain in contrast in the carbon median energy loss maps was dramatic as expected. The corresponding improvement in the tomogram was found to be visible but less dramatic. The tomographic sections as well as the median energy loss maps of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi spore clearly show the internal structure. Wall morphology data has relevance to germination behaviour of the spores.

  19. Particle size distribution and characteristics of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments from Beijing Olympic Park.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Shi, Anbang; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2015-06-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, heavy metals in road-deposited sediments (RDSs) of parks are emitted into the terrestrial, atmospheric, and water environment, and have a severe impact on residents' and tourists' health. To identify the distribution and characteristic of heavy metals in RDS and to assess the road environmental quality in Chinese parks, samples were collected from Beijing Olympic Park in the present study. The results indicated that particles with small grain size (<150 μm) were the dominant fraction. The length of dry period was one of the main factors affecting the particle size distribution, as indicated by the variation of size fraction with the increase of dry days. The amount of heavy metal (i.e., Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) content was the largest in particles with small size (<150 μm) among all samples. Specifically, the percentage of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in these particles was 74.7%, 55.5%, 56.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Heavy metals adsorbed in sediments may mainly be contributed by road traffic emissions. The contamination levels of Pb and Cd were higher than Cu and Zn on the basis of the mean heavy metal contents. Specifically, the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) decreased in the order: Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn. This study analyzed the mobility of heavy metals in sediments using partial sequential extraction with the Tessier procedure. The results revealed that the apparent mobility and potential metal bioavailability of heavy metals in the sediments, based on the exchangeable and carbonate fractions, decreased in the order: Cd>Zn≈Pb>Cu.

  20. Search for long-lived particles that decay into final states containing two electrons or two muons in proton-proton collisions at s=8TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; et al

    2015-03-18

    A search is performed for long-lived particles that decay into final states that include a pair of electrons or a pair of muons. The experimental signature is a distinctive topology consisting of a pair of charged leptons originating from a displaced secondary vertex. Events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 (20.5)  fb⁻¹ in the electron (muon) channel were collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8  TeV. No significant excess is observed above standard model expectations. Upper limits on the product of the cross section and branching fraction of such a signal are presentedmore » as a function of the long-lived particle’s mean proper decay length. The limits are presented in an approximately model-independent way, allowing them to be applied to a wide class of models yielding the above topology. Over much of the investigated parameter space, the limits obtained are the most stringent to date. In the specific case of a model in which a Higgs boson in the mass range 125–1000  GeV/c² decays into a pair of long-lived neutral bosons in the mass range 20–350  GeV/c², each of which can then decay to dileptons, the upper limits obtained are typically in the range 0.2–10 fb for mean proper decay lengths of the long-lived particles in the range 0.01–100 cm. In the case of the lowest Higgs mass considered (125  GeV/c²), the limits are in the range 2–50 fb. These limits are sensitive to Higgs boson branching fractions as low as 10⁻⁴.« less

  1. NOTE: Detection limits for ferrimagnetic particle concentrations using magnetic resonance imaging based proton transverse relaxation rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoe, H.; Chua-anusorn, W.; St. Pierre, T. G.; Dobson, J.

    2003-03-01

    A clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to measure proton transverse relaxation rates (R2) in agar gels with varying concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in a field strength of 1.5 T. The nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions in the presence of either dextran or polyvinyl alcohol. The method of preparation resulted in loosely packed clusters (dextran) or branched chains (polyvinyl alcohol) of particles containing of the order of 600 and 400 particles, respectively. For both methods of particle preparation, concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron in agar gel less than 0.01 mg ml-1 had no measurable effect on the value of R2 for the gel. The results indicate that MRI-based R2 measurements using 1.5 T clinical scanners are not quite sensitive enough to detect the very low concentrations of nanoparticulate biogenic magnetite reported in human brain tissue.

  2. Dissipation Intermittency Increases Long-Distance Dispersal of Heavy Particles in the Canopy Sublayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duman, Tomer; Trakhtenbrot, Ana; Poggi, Davide; Cassiani, Massimo; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion of heavy particles such as seeds within canopies is evaluated using Lagrangian stochastic trajectory models, laboratory, and field experiments. Inclusion of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate intermittency is shown to increase long-distance dispersal (LDD) by contributing to the intermittent ejection of particles to regions of high mean velocity outside the canopy volume. Model evaluation against controlled flume experiments, featuring a dense rod canopy, detailed flow measurements, and imaged trajectories of spherical particles, demonstrates that superimposing a terminal velocity on the fluid velocity is insufficient to determine the particle dispersal kernel. Modifying the trajectory model by adding dissipation intermittency is found to be significant for dispersal predictions along with the addition of inertial and crossing trajectories' effects. Comparison with manual seed-release experiments in a forest using wind-dispersed seeds shows that the model captures most of the measured kernels when accepted uncertainties in plant area index and friction velocity are considered. Unlike the flume experiments, the model modifications for several wind-dispersed seeds have minor effects on short-distance dispersal. A large increase was predicted in LDD when including dissipation intermittency for the forest experiment. The main results suggest that fitting or calibrating models to the `main body' of measured kernels may not offer extrapolating foresight to LDD predictions. As inertial effects were found mostly negligible in the field conditions here, the extended trajectory model requires specifying only the seed's terminal velocity and a constant variance of the normalized dissipation rate. Therefore, the proposed modifications can be readily applied to classical trajectory models so as to improve LDD predictions.

  3. Scanning electron microscope and statistical analysis of suspended heavy metal particles in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, A. Aragón; Villaseñor, G. Torres; Fernández, M. Monroy; Luszczewski Kudra, A.; Leyva Ramos, R.

    Three hundred samples of urban aerosol were collected in high-volume samplers from five urban locations situated near an important metallurgical plant in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Whole samples were analyzed by atomic absorption (AA) for Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Fe and Cr. One hundred eighty of these samples were subjected to X-ray microanalysis (EDS) coupled with a scanning electron microscope to classify individual particles according to their chemical or mineralogical composition. The principal component analysis (PCA) obtained from the bulk sample analysis, and X-ray microanalysis from individual particles, confirmed chemical associations among elements directly and indirectly. PCA from bulk assays made the most effective use of X-ray microanalysis to characterize major particle types. Some chemical associations would be difficult to detect using microanalysis, alone, for example, in anthropogenic complex phases. In this work, the combined use of microanalysis and statistical methods permitted identification of associations among elements. We observed an association of Pb-As-Cd and Fe-Mn among the samples. In a second order, Pb-Fe, Pb-Mn, Fe-As, Fe-Cd, Cd-Mn and As-Mn showed a lower association. Only Ni and Cu appeared unassociated with any other element analyzed by AA. We characterized the mineral phases by size range, morphology and chemical composition using SEM-EDS to obtain a compositional approach of anthropogenic phases and peculiar morphology and size. A high percentage of heavy metal particles smaller than 2 μm were detected.

  4. Using high-energy proton fluence to improve risk prediction for consequences of solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-12-01

    The potential for exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is a major concern during interplanetary transfer and extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. Previously, we have used data from the last 5 solar cycles to estimate percentiles of dose to a typical blood-forming organ (BFO) for a hypothetical astronaut in a nominally shielded spacecraft during a 120-d lunar mission. As part of this process, we made use of complete energy spectra for 34 large historical SPEs to calculate what the BFO mGy-Eq dose would have been in the above lunar scenario for each SPE. From these calculated doses, we then developed a prediction model for BFO dose based solely on an assumed value of integrated fluence above 30 MeV ( Φ30) for an otherwise unspecified future SPE. In this study, we reasoned that since BFO dose is determined more by protons with higher energies than by those with lower energies, more accurate BFO dose prediction models could be developed using integrated fluence above 60 ( Φ60) and above 100 MeV ( Φ100) as predictors instead of Φ30. However to calculate the unconditional probability of a BFO dose exceeding a pre-specified limit ("BFO dose risk"), one must also take into account the distribution of the predictor ( Φ30,Φ60, or Φ100), as estimated from historical SPEs. But Φ60 and Φ100 have more variability, and less available historical information on which to estimate their distributions over many SPE occurrences, than does Φ30. Therefore, when estimating BFO dose risk there is a tradeoff between increased BFO dose prediction at a given energy threshold and decreased accuracy of models for describing the distribution of that threshold over future SPEs as the threshold increases. Even when taking the second of these two factors into account, we still arrived at the conclusion that overall prediction improves as the energy level threshold increases from 30 to 60 to 100 MeV. These results can be applied

  5. Systematic Azimuth Quadrupole and Minijet Trends from Two-Particle Correlations in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, David

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) produce a tremendous amount of data but new techniques are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the physics behind these collisions. We present measurements from the STAR detector of both pt-integral and pt-differential azimuth two-particle correlations on azimuth (phi) and pseudorapidity (eta) for unidentified hadrons in Au-Au collisions at a center of mass energy = 62 and 200 GeV. The azimuth correlations can be fit to extract a quadrupole component--related to conventional v2 measures--and a same-side peak. The azimuth quadrupole component is distinguished from eta-localized same-side correlations by taking advantage of the full 2D eta and phi dependence. Both pt-integral and pt-differential results are presented as functions of Au-Au centrality. We observe simple universal energy and centrality trends for the pt-integral quadrupole component. pt-differential results can be transformed to reveal quadrupole pt spectra that are nearly independent of centrality. A parametrization of the pt-differential quadrupole shows a simple pt dependence that can be factorized from the centrality and collision energy dependence above 0.75 GeV/c. Angular correlations contain jet-like structure with most-probable hadron momentum 1 GeV/c. For better comparison to RHIC data we analyze the energy scale dependence of fragmentation functions from e+-e - collisions on rapidity y. We find that replotting fragmentation functions on a normalized rapidity variable results in a compact form precisely represented by the beta distribution, its two parameters varying slowly and simply with parton energy scale Q. The resulting parameterization enables extrapolation of fragmentation functions to low Q in order to describe fragment distributions at low transverse momentum ptin heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We convert minimum-bias jet-like angular correlations to single-particle hadron yields and compare them with parton

  6. SU-E-T-519: Emission of Secondary Particles From a PMMA Phantom During Proton Irradiation: A Simulation Study with the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A; Chen, Y; Ahmad, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy exhibits several advantages over photon therapy due to depth-dose distributions from proton interactions within the target material. However, uncertainties associated with protons beam range in the patient limit the advantage of proton therapy applications. To quantify beam range, positron-emitting nuclei (PEN) and prompt gamma (PG) techniques have been developed. These techniques use de-excitation photons to describe the location of the beam in the patient. To develop a detector system for implementing the PG technique for range verification applications in proton therapy, we studied the yields, energy and angular distributions of the secondary particles emitted from a PMMA phantom. Methods: Proton pencil beams of various energies incident onto a PMMA phantom with dimensions of 5 x 5 x 50 cm3 were used for simulation with the Geant4 toolkit using the standard electromagnetic packages as well as the packages based on the binary-cascade nuclear model. The emitted secondary particles are analyzed . Results: For 160 MeV incident protons, the yields of secondary neutrons and photons per 100 incident protons were ~6 and ~15 respectively. Secondary photon energy spectrum showed several energy peaks in the range between 0 and 10 MeV. The energy peaks located between 4 and 6 MeV were attributed to originate from direct proton interactions with 12C (~ 4.4 MeV) and 16O (~ 6 MeV), respectively. Most of the escaping secondary neutrons were found to have energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Isotropic emissions were found for lower energy neutrons (<10 MeV) and photons for all energies, while higher energy neutrons were emitted predominantly in the forward direction. The yields of emitted photons and neutrons increased with the increase of incident proton energies. Conclusions: A detector system is currently being developed incorporating the yields, energy and angular distributions of secondary particles from proton interactions obtained from this study.

  7. Effect of proton-amplified waves on the evolution of solar energetic particle composition in gradual events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chee K.; Reames, Donald V.; Tylka, Allan J.

    We present a model of the coupled evolution of energetic ions and Alfvén waves, incorporating magnetic focusing, pitch-angle diffusion, wave amplification, and a traveling ion source. Ion transport through proton-amplified waves with non-Kolmogorov spectra produces the contrasting three-stage evolution of Fe/O and He/H ratios at several MeV/amu observed by Wind/EPACT in the 20 April 1998 gradual solar energetic particle event [Tylka et al., 1999].

  8. Central Exclusive Production in Proton-Proton Collisions with the STAR Experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryn, Włodek

    2016-07-01

    We shall describe the physics program with tagged forward protons, focusing on Central Exclusive Production in polarized proton-proton collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with the STAR detector at √s = 200 GeV. Preliminary results in CEP of two oppositely charged pions and kaons produced in the processes pp → ppπ+π- and pp → ppK+K- shall be presented. Those Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) processes, allow the final states to be dominated by gluonic exchanges. Silicon strip detectors placed in Roman Pots were used for measuring forward protons. The preliminary results are based on the measurement of the recoil system of charged particles in the STAR experiment's Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Ionization energy loss, dE/dx, of charged particles was used for particle identification (PID).

  9. Exclusive neutral strange particle production from double Pomeron exchange produced by proton-proton interactions at radical s = 62 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Skeens, J.

    1990-09-21

    Data are presented for the first time on exclusive Pomeron-Pomeron interactions which produce a neutral strange and neutral antistrange particle pair in a central system X. In this paper, the system, X, is identified as one of the following neutral combinations; K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0}, K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sup {plus minus}}{pi}{sup {minus plus}}, {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}, {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}*. These data were obtained in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 62 GeV at the CERN ISR. The triggering systems used to obtain these data are described, followed by a description of the data. The central system mass distributions are presented along with differential mass cross section estimates. A broad enhancement is seen in the K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0} system at a mass of 1.2 GeV, and is likely to have the quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 0{sup ++}. Total cross section estimates of 1.3 {plus minus} .64 {mu}b in the K{sub 2}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0} system, . 44 {plus minus} .14 {mu}b in the K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sup {plus minus}}{pi}{sup {minus plus}} system, .20 {plus minus} .14 {mu}b in the {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0} system, and .13 {plus minus} .06 {mu}b in the {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}* system are obtained.

  10. Effects of Solar Particle Event-Like Proton Radiation and/or Simulated Microgravity on Circulating Mouse Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts traveling in space missions outside of low Earth orbit will be exposed for longer times to a microgravity environment. In addition, the increased travel time involved in exploration class missions will result in an increased risk of exposure to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Both conditions could significantly affect the number of circulating blood cells. Therefore, it is critical to determine the combined effects of exposure to both microgravity and SPE radiation. The purpose of the present study was to assess these risks by evaluating the effects of SPE-like proton radiation and/or microgravity, as simulated with the hindlimb unloading (HU) system, on circulating blood cells using mouse as a model system. The results indicate that exposure to HU alone caused minimal or no significant changes in mouse circulating blood cell numbers. The exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation with or without HU treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of circulating lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets. The reduced numbers of circulating lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, resulting from the SPE-like proton radiation exposure, with or without HU treatment, in mice suggest that astronauts participating in exploration class missions may be at greater risk of developing infections and thrombotic diseases; thus, countermeasures may be necessary for these biological endpoints. PMID:25360441

  11. Effects of Solar Particle Event-Like Proton Radiation and/or Simulated Microgravity on Circulating Mouse Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-08-01

    Astronauts traveling in space missions outside of low Earth orbit will be exposed for longer times to a microgravity environment. In addition, the increased travel time involved in exploration class missions will result in an increased risk of exposure to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Both conditions could significantly affect the number of circulating blood cells. Therefore, it is critical to determine the combined effects of exposure to both microgravity and SPE radiation. The purpose of the present study was to assess these risks by evaluating the effects of SPE-like proton radiation and/or microgravity, as simulated with the hindlimb unloading (HU) system, on circulating blood cells using mouse as a model system. The results indicate that exposure to HU alone caused minimal or no significant changes in mouse circulating blood cell numbers. The exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation with or without HU treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of circulating lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets. The reduced numbers of circulating lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, resulting from the SPE-like proton radiation exposure, with or without HU treatment, in mice suggest that astronauts participating in exploration class missions may be at greater risk of developing infections and thrombotic diseases; thus, countermeasures may be necessary for these biological endpoints.

  12. Effects of Solar Particle Event-Like Proton Radiation and/or Simulated Microgravity on Circulating Mouse Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Lin, Liyong; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-08-01

    Astronauts traveling in space missions outside of low Earth orbit will be exposed for longer times to a microgravity environment. In addition, the increased travel time involved in exploration class missions will result in an increased risk of exposure to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Both conditions could significantly affect the number of circulating blood cells. Therefore, it is critical to determine the combined effects of exposure to both microgravity and SPE radiation. The purpose of the present study was to assess these risks by evaluating the effects of SPE-like proton radiation and/or microgravity, as simulated with the hindlimb unloading (HU) system, on circulating blood cells using mouse as a model system. The results indicate that exposure to HU alone caused minimal or no significant changes in mouse circulating blood cell numbers. The exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation with or without HU treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of circulating lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets. The reduced numbers of circulating lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, resulting from the SPE-like proton radiation exposure, with or without HU treatment, in mice suggest that astronauts participating in exploration class missions may be at greater risk of developing infections and thrombotic diseases; thus, countermeasures may be necessary for these biological endpoints. PMID:25360441

  13. The use of Monte Carlo methods in heavy charged particle radiation therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganetti, Harald

    2007-03-01

    This presentation will demonstrate the importance of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in proton therapy. MC applications will be shown which aim at 1. Modeling of the beam delivery system. MC can be used for quality assurance verification in order to understand the sensitivity of beam characteristics and how these influence the dose delivered. 2. Patient treatment dose verification. The capability of reading CT information has to be implemented into the MC code. Simulating the ionization chamber reading in the treatment head allows the dose to be specified for treatment plan verification. 3. 4D dose calculation. The patient geometry may be time dependent due to respiratory or cardiac motion. To consider this, patient specific 4D CT data can be used in combination with MC simulations. 4. Simulating positron emission. Positron emitters are produced via nuclear interactions along the beam path penetration and can be detected after treatment. Comparison between measured and MC simulated PET images can provide feedback on the intended dose in the patient. 5. Studies on radiation induced cancer risk. MC calculations based on computational anthropomorphic phantoms allow the estimation of organ dose and particle energy distributions everywhere in the patient.

  14. Highly efficient charged particle veto detector CUP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacz, M.; Nyberg, J.; Bednarczyk, P.; Dworski, J.; Górska, M.; Iwanicki, J.; Kapusta, M.; Kownacki, J.; Kulczycka, E.; Lagergren, K.; Moszyński, M.; Pieńkowski, L.; Stolarz, A.; Wolski, D.; Ziębliński, M.

    2005-09-01

    A novel, highly efficient, plastic scintillator detector has been constructed. The primary application of the detector is to act as a veto device in heavy-ion-induced fusion-evaporation reactions, in which the structure of proton-rich nuclides is investigated by γ-ray spectroscopy methods. The detector rejects events in which light charged particles, like protons and α particles, are emitted in the evaporation process, facilitating selection of reaction channels associated with emission of only neutrons. The detector was used in a EUROBALL experiment, with achieved efficiencies of 80% and 63% for protons and α particles, respectively. The design of the detector, its performance and limitations are discussed.

  15. Understanding the relationship between heavy metals in road-deposited sediments and washoff particles in urban stormwater using simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2013-02-15

    Understanding the relationship between heavy metals in road-deposited sediments (RDS) and washoff particles is essential to controlling urban runoff pollution. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated along the urban-suburban-rural gradient around Beijing, China. RDS washoff and its associated metal contaminants in different particle size fractions were evaluated using simulated rainfall. The results showed that the washoff percentage of RDS decreased along the urban-rural gradient. The Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Pb contents in washoff particles were 28.1%, 20.0%, 19.7%, 11.6%, and 11.4% higher than those in RDS, respectively. Additionally, different metals showed increases in different chemical fractions. RDS particles <105 μm accounted for 40% of the total mass in RDS, but 50%, 70% and 75% of the total metal content in RDS, washoff particle mass and washoff particle metal content, respectively. Rainfall intensity and duration affected the amount of metals in washoff, but did not lead to an increase in the percentage of metals with different chemical fractions in washoff particles. The findings presented herein will facilitate development of strategies for control of urban diffuse pollution from RDS.

  16. The longitudinal dependence of heavy-ion composition in the 2013 April 11 solar energetic particle event

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2014-09-20

    On 2013 April 11 active region 11719 was centered just west of the central meridian; at 06:55 UT, it erupted with an M6.5 X-ray flare and a moderately fast (∼800 km s{sup –1}) coronal mass ejection. This solar activity resulted in the acceleration of energetic ions to produce a solar energetic particle (SEP) event that was subsequently observed in energetic protons by both ACE and the two STEREO spacecraft. Heavy ions at energies ≥10 MeV nucleon{sup –1} were well measured by SEP sensors on ACE and STEREO-B, allowing the longitudinal dependence of the event composition to be studied. Both spacecraft observed significant enhancements in the Fe/O ratio at 12-33 MeV nucleon{sup –1}, with the STEREO-B abundance ratio (Fe/O = 0.69) being similar to that of the large, Fe-rich SEP events observed in solar cycle 23. The footpoint of the magnetic field line connected to the ACE spacecraft was longitudinally farther from the flare site (77° versus 58°), and the measured Fe/O ratio at ACE was 0.48, 44% lower than at STEREO-B but still enhanced by more than a factor of 3.5 over average SEP abundances. Only upper limits were obtained for the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He abundance ratio at both spacecraft. Low upper limits of 0.07% and 1% were obtained from the ACE sensors at 0.5-2 and 6.5-11.3 MeV nucleon{sup –1}, respectively, whereas the STEREO-B sensor provided an upper limit of 4%. These characteristics of high, but longitudinally variable, Fe/O ratios and low {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are not expected from either the direct flare contribution scenario or the remnant flare suprathermal material theory put forth to explain the Fe-rich SEP events of cycle 23.

  17. Development of the radial dose distribution function relevant to the treatment planning system for heavy particle cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a study of the radial dose due to the irradiation of a heavy ion, through simulations using a selection of types of atomic and molecular (AM) data. In order to widely spread our radial dose simulation results, a simple radial dose distribution function is proposed. This required a comparison of our results with the available conventional radial dose distributions. It is also shown that the treatment planning system for heavy particle cancer therapy is expected to become one of the most important applications of AM data to biological and medical science.

  18. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20.

  19. A novel Al 2O 3 fluorescent nuclear track detector for heavy charged particles and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, G. M.; Akselrod, M. S.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.

    2006-06-01

    A novel Al2O3 fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD), recently developed by Landauer, Inc., has demonstrated sensitivity and functionality superior to that of existing nuclear track detectors. The FNTD is based on single crystals of aluminum oxide doped with carbon and magnesium, and having aggregate oxygen vacancy defects (Al2O3:C,Mg). Radiation-induced color centers in the new material have an absorption band at 620 nm and produce fluorescence at 750 nm with a high quantum yield and a short, 75 ± 5 ns, fluorescence lifetime. Non-destructive readout of the detector is performed using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Scanning of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity along the track of a heavy charged particle (HCP) permits reconstruction of particle trajectories through the crystal and the LET can be determined as a function of distance along the trajectory based on the fluorescence intensity. Major advantages of Al2O3:C,Mg FNTD over conventionally processed CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector include superior spatial resolution, a wider range of LET sensitivity, no need for post-irradiation chemical processing of the detector and the capability to anneal and reuse the detector. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the material possesses a low-LET threshold of <1 keV/μm, does not saturate at LET in water as high as 1800 keV/μm, and is capable of irradiation to fluences in excess of 106 cm-2 without saturation (track overlap).

  20. Influence of dynamical parameters on pre-scission particles and fission probability in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Naderi, D.

    2011-02-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics based on one- and three-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate the fission probability and the pre-scission particle multiplicity. Evaporation of pre-scission light particles along Langevin fission trajectories from the ground state of the compound nucleus to its scission and fission probability have been calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. To examine this approach we used F19+Ta181 and O16+Au197 systems. Our results show that the fission probability and pre-scission particle multiplicity in three dimensions is different from the one-dimensional Langevin approach. The theoretical results of pre-scission neutron, proton, and α-particle multiplicities and the fission probability for given systems based on this model are compared with available experimental data. The obtained results using three-dimensional calculations are in better agreement with experimental data.

  1. Dietary supplements reduce the cataractogenic potential of proton and HZE-particle radiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Davis, James G; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Kennedy, Ann R

    2010-03-01

    Abstract The present study was undertaken to investigate the ability of dietary supplements to reduce the formation and severity of cataracts in mice irradiated with high-energy protons or iron ions, which are important components of the radiation encountered by astronauts during space travel. The mice were exposed to proton or iron-ion radiation and fed with a control diet or diets supplemented with the soybean-derived protease inhibitor, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), in the form of BBI Concentrate (BBIC) or an antioxidant formulation [containing l-selenomethionine (SeM), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, co-enzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E succinate] both before and after the radiation exposure. At approximately 2 years after the radiation exposure, the animals were killed humanely and lenses were harvested and characterized using an established classification system that assigns discrete scores based on the severity of the lens opacifications. The results showed that exposure to 1 GeV/nucleon proton (3 Gy) or iron-ion (50 cGy) radiation significantly increased the cataract prevalence and severity in CBA/J mice to levels above the baseline levels of age-induced cataract formation in this mouse strain. Treatment with BBIC or the antioxidant formulation significantly reduced the prevalence and severity of the lens opacifications in the mice exposed to iron-ion radiation. Treatment with BBIC or the antioxidant formulation also decreased the severity of the lens opacifications in the mice exposed to proton radiation; however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. These results indicate that BBIC and the antioxidant formulation evaluated in this study could be useful for protecting astronauts against space radiation-induced cataracts during or after long-term manned space missions.

  2. Proton therapy for prostate cancer: why and what orthopaedic surgeons need to know about it.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, J Ollie; Lee, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Most orthopaedic surgeons are unfamiliar with proton therapy or the difference between proton radiation and photon (X-ray) radiation. After they perform a total hip replacement or metallic hip implant, their patient cannot have proton therapy for prostate cancer because the protons must pass exclusively through the hips and are blocked by metal. Proton therapy is a sophisticated and expensive technology with growing demand and limited supply. In proton therapy, heavy protons are accelerated to almost the speed of light in a synchrotron (particle accelerator) down a magnetic beam the length of a football field to radiate cancers. Proton therapy is a remarkably safe and effective treatment for prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men, although treatment superiority has yet to be proved in randomized studies. There are currently only 10 proton centers in the United States. PMID:25988689

  3. Studying Proton-Proton Collisions Using Pythia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, Adi

    2004-10-01

    At Brookhaven National Lab, the RHIC experiments are currently investigating, on a subatomic level, what happens when heavy ions collide at high speeds. This is done in order to create such high temperatures and densities that quarks are no longer bound to one another. This state of matter is called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Evidence for the existence of the QGP may be the quenching of hadron jets, which occurs when the fast quarks or gluons lose so much energy in the hot, dense medium that they cannot survive. Then the jets of particles that these particles usually result in cannot be made. By studying the particle yield at high transverse momentum (Pt), one can probe what is happening to the jets created during collisions. Using Pythia, a standard model event generator based on the Lund String Model, we study jets of particles created when elementary protons collide. Then we know what should happen to jets at high transverse momentum transfer, when no QGP is present. Comparing the pt spectrum of jet partners generated by Pythia to RHIC results for proton-proton collisions shows that the two do in fact agree. This not only insures that the analysis of RHIC data is correct, but it also establishes a basis for comparison for Au-Au collisions. Comparing d+Au collision data to the Pythia Pt spectrum of jets with leading baryon and meson triggers, we found good agreement. Thus the jet production does not change drastically in nature in the presence of a cold nuclear medium.

  4. Response of mouse epidermal cells to single doses of heavy-particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leith, J. T.; Schilling, W. A.; Welch, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    The survival of mouse epidermal cells to heavy-particles has been studied In Vivo by the Withers clone technique. Experiments with accelerated helium, lithium and carbon ions were performed. The survival curve for the helium ion irradiations used a modified Bragg curve method with a maximum tissue penetration of 465 microns, and indicated that the dose needed to reduce the original cell number to 1 surviving cell/square centimeters was 1525 rads with a D sub o of 95 rads. The LET at the basal cell layer was 28.6 keV per micron. Preliminary experiments with lithium and carbon used treatment doses of 1250 rads with LET's at the surface of the skin of 56 and 193 keV per micron respectively. Penetration depths in skin were 350 and 530 microns for the carbon and lithium ions whose Bragg curves were unmodified. Results indicate a maximum RBE for skin of about 2 using the skin cloning technique. An attempt has been made to relate the epidermal cell survival curve to mortality of the whole animal for helium ions.

  5. Fluctuations in charged particle multiplicities in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Basu, Sumit; Choudhury, Subikash; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2016-08-01

    Multiplicity distributions of charged particles and their event-by-event fluctuations have been compiled for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the available experimental data at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and also by the use of an event generator. Multiplicity fluctuations are sensitive to QCD phase transition and to the presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In addition, multiplicity fluctuations provide baselines for other event-by-event measurements. Multiplicity fluctuation expressed in terms of the scaled variance of the multiplicity distribution is an intensive quantity, but is sensitive to the volume fluctuation of the system. The importance of the choice of narrow centrality bins and the corrections of the centrality bin-width effect for controlling volume fluctuations have been discussed. It is observed that the mean and width of the multiplicity distributions monotonically increase as functions of increasing centrality at all collision energies, whereas the multiplicity fluctuations show minimal variations with centrality. The beam-energy dependence shows that the multiplicity fluctuations have a slow rise at lower collision energies and remain constant at higher energies.

  6. Particle Production in Strong Electromagnetic Fields in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    I reviewmore » the origin and properties of electromagnetic fields produced in heavy-ion collisions. The field strength immediately after a collision is proportional to the collision energy and reaches ~ m π 2 at RHIC and ~ 10 m π 2 at LHC. I demonstrate by explicit analytical calculation that after dropping by about one-two orders of magnitude during the first fm/c of plasma expansion, it freezes out and lasts for as long as quark-gluon plasma lives as a consequence of finite electrical conductivity of the plasma. Magnetic field breaks spherical symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, and therefore all kinetic coefficients are anisotropic. I examine viscosity of QGP and show that magnetic field induces azimuthal anisotropy on plasma flow even in spherically symmetric geometry. Very strong electromagnetic field has an important impact on particle production. I discuss the problem of energy loss and polarization of fast fermions due to synchrotron radiation, consider photon decay induced by magnetic field, elucidate J / ψ dissociation via Lorentz ionization mechanism, and examine electromagnetic radiation by plasma. I conclude that all processes in QGP are affected by strong electromagnetic field and call for experimental investigation.« less

  7. Comparison of heavy particle with X-irradiation on the hamster lung.

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, K. H.; Leith, J. T.; Powers-Risius, P.; Havens, V.; Lyman, J. T.; Howard, J.; Tobias, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Important new modalities for cancer therapy are being developed, and one of the most promising is heavy charged particle irradiation. We are currently assessing the effects of 375-MeV/nucleon neon irradiation in the plateau region of ionization compared to 230KVp X-rays on the whole thorax of hamsters. Single dose levels for neon irradiation ranged from 150-1000 rad. Dose levels for X-irradiation ranged from 225-1500 rad. The animals were followed for 1 year after irradiation, and the most useful results emerged, using morphometric methods. One year after irradiation, pulmonary parenchyma and nonparenchyma appear morphometrically unchanged. However, the volume density of pulmonary septums, septal cells, all tissue, connective tissue, and alveolar Type II cells was increased while the volume densities of alveoli, empty alveolar space, and capillary lumens were diminished. Most of these changes were dose dependent not clearly demonstrable until a year after irradiation. The relative biologic effect of neon compared to X-irradiation using this techniques is 1.6-1.8. PMID:453334

  8. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  9. On the idea of low-energy nuclear reactions in metallic lattices by producing neutrons from protons capturing "heavy" electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennfors, Einar

    2013-02-01

    The present article is a critical comment on Widom and Larsens speculations concerning low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) based on spontaneous collective motion of protons in a room temperature metallic hydride lattice producing oscillating electric fields that renormalize the electron self-energy, adding significantly to the effective electron mass and enabling production of low-energy neutrons. The frequency and mean proton displacement estimated on the basis of neutron scattering from protons in palladium and applied to the Widom and Larsens model of the proton oscillations yield an electron mass enhancement less than one percent, far below the threshold for the proposed neutron production and even farther below the mass enhancement obtained by Widom and Larsen assuming a high charge density. Neutrons are not stopped by the Coulomb barrier, but the energy required for the neutron production is not low.

  10. Cataract induction by protons and HZE particles is suppressed by dietary supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Ann; Davis, James

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the ability of dietary supplements to reduce the formation and severity of cataracts in mice irradiated with protons or iron ions, which are important components of the radiation encountered by astronauts during spaceflight. The mice were exposed to proton or iron ion radiation and fed with control diet or diets supplemented with an antioxidant formulation or with Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC) both before and after the radiation exposure. The antioxidant formulation contained L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine, ascorbic acid, co-enzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E succinate. This mixture is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro. BBIC is a soybean extract with high levels of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor, an 8-KD soybean-derived protease inhibitor with anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and radioprotection properties. At approximately two years after the radiation exposure, the animals were killed and lenses were harvested post-mortem and characterized using an established classifi- cation system that assigns discrete scores based on the severity of the lens opacifications. The results showed that exposure to 1-GeV/n proton (300 cGy) or iron ion (50 cGy) radiation significantly increased the cataract prevalence and severity in CBA/J mice to levels above the baseline levels of age-induced cataract formation in this mouse strain. Treatment with BBIC or the antioxidant formulation significantly reduced the prevalence and severity of the lens opaci- fications in the mice exposed to iron ion radiation. Treatment with BBIC or the antioxidant formulation also decreased the severity of the lens opacifications in the mice exposed to proton radiation; however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. These results indicate that BBIC and the antioxidant

  11. CsI-Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. A.; Dillmann, I.; Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Gao, B.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, S. A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Maier, L.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Sanjari, M. S.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Weick, H.

    2016-11-01

    A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the ΔE / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for ΔE and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.

  12. Solar Particle Induced Upsets in the TDRS-1 Attitude Control System RAM During the October 1989 Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croley, D. R.; Garrett, H. B.; Murphy, G. B.; Garrard,T. L.

    1995-01-01

    The three large solar particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of solar protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude control system (ACS) control processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the solar particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU's calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the solar particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU's by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU'S. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU's was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU'S, very dose to the 243 observed SEU'S. These calculations uniquely demonstrate the roles that solar heavy ions and protons played in the production of SEU

  13. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation.

    PubMed

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z

    2009-06-15

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential. PMID:19013716

  14. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation.

    PubMed

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z

    2009-06-15

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  15. Multi-Spacecraft Analysis of Energetic Heavy Ions and Interplanetary Shock Properties in Energetic Storm Particle Events at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, R. W.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Li, G.; Mason, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic storm particle (ESP) events are believed to occur as a result of diffusive shock acceleration at coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven interplanetary (IP) shocks. In situ observations of ESPs provide an excellent tool to study the physics of shock acceleration and the mechanisms that energize particles in events where the IP shock is remote (e.g. solar energetic particles - SEPs - that are accelerated in the solar corona). In this study, we use 1 AU observations during solar cycle 24 from ACE, STEREO-A, and STEREO-B during several ESP events observed at two or more spacecraft to examine the relationship between IP shocks and their associated energetic particles. Specifically, we examine the connection between variations in the properties of ~0.1 - 5 MeV/nucleon heavy ions (e.g. peak intensities, energy spectra, abundances) and IP shock parameters (e.g. shock obliquity, compression ratio, Mach number) that are observed at different points along the same CME-driven shock front. These results will be compared with theoretical predictions for heavy ion energy spectra and abundances in ESP events and could provide important additional constraints for particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere.

  16. Measurement of black carbon and particle number emission factors from individual heavy-duty trucks.

    PubMed

    Ban-Weiss, George A; Lunden, Melissa M; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Harley, Robert A

    2009-03-01

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks driving through a 1-km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO2 concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for approximately 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg(-1) and maximum values of approximately 10 g kg(-1). Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10(15) and 4 x 10(16) # kg(-1). There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1sigma) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from +/- 43% for n=10 to +/- 8% for n=300, illustrating the importance of vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. When n=10, sample means are more likely to be biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in the future, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet will become more of a challenge. PMID:19350913

  17. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  18. The mutable nature of particle-core excitations with spin in the one-valence-proton nucleus 133Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchi, G.; Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; Colò, G.; Bortignon, P. F.; Bottoni, S.; Bracco, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Blanc, A.; de France, G.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Régis, J.-M.; Simpson, G.; Soldner, T.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Fraile, L. M.; Lozeva, R.; Belvito, B.; Benzoni, G.; Bruce, A.; Carroll, R.; Cieplicka-Oryǹczak, N.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Didierjean, F.; Jolie, J.; Korten, W.; Kröll, T.; Lalkovski, S.; Mach, H.; Mărginean, N.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Nannini, A.; Napoli, D.; Olaizola, B.; Paziy, V.; Podolyák, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Saed-Samii, N.; Szpak, B.; Vedia, V.

    2016-09-01

    The γ-ray decay of excited states of the one-valence-proton nucleus 133Sb has been studied using cold-neutron induced fission of 235U and 241Pu targets, during the EXILL campaign at the ILL reactor in Grenoble. By using a highly efficient HPGe array, coincidences between γ-rays prompt with the fission event and those delayed up to several tens of microseconds were investigated, allowing to observe, for the first time, high-spin excited states above the 16.6 μs isomer. Lifetimes analysis, performed by fast-timing techniques with LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, revealed a difference of almost two orders of magnitude in B(M1) strength for transitions between positive-parity medium-spin yrast states. The data are interpreted by a newly developed microscopic model which takes into account couplings between core excitations (both collective and non-collective) of the doubly magic nucleus 132Sn and the valence proton, using the Skyrme effective interaction in a consistent way. The results point to a fast change in the nature of particle-core excitations with increasing spin.

  19. Neutron and light-charged-particle productions in proton-induced reactions on 208Pb at 62.9 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, A.; Marie, N.; Auduc, S.; Blideanu, V.; Delbar, Th.; Eudes, P.; Foucher, Y.; Haddad, F.; Kirchner, T.; Le Brun, Ch.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, F. R.; Lecolley, J. F.; Ledoux, X.; Lefèbvres, F.; Lefort, T.; Louvel, M.; Ninane, A.; Patin, Y.; Pras, Ph.; Rivière, G.; Varignon, C.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrons and light charged particles produced in 62.9MeV proton-induced reactions on 208Pb were measured during a single experiment performed at the CYCLONE facility in Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Two independent experimental set-ups were used to extract double differential cross-sections for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He and alpha-particles. Charged particles were detected using a set of Si- Si- CsI telescopes from 25° to 155°, by step of 10 degrees. Neutrons were measured using shielded DeMoN counters, liquid NE213 scintillators, at 24°, 35°, 55°, 80° and 120°. These data allowed the determination of angle differential, energy differential and total production cross-sections. A comparison with theoretical calculations (MCNPX, FLUKA and TALYS) has been performed. It shows that the neutron and proton production rates are well predicted by MCNPX, using the INCL4 option. All the other codes underestimate the neutron production whereas they overestimate the proton one. For composite particles, which represent 17% of the charged particle total reaction cross-section, neither the shape nor the amplitude of the cross-sections are correctly predicted by the models.

  20. Shielding of relativistic protons.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, A; Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Manti, L; Pugliese, M; Scampoli, P; Mancusi, D; Sihver, L; Rusek, A

    2007-06-01

    Protons are the most abundant element in the galactic cosmic radiation, and the energy spectrum peaks around 1 GeV. Shielding of relativistic protons is therefore a key problem in the radiation protection strategy of crewmembers involved in long-term missions in deep space. Hydrogen ions were accelerated up to 1 GeV at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York. The proton beam was also shielded with thick (about 20 g/cm2) blocks of lucite (PMMA) or aluminium (Al). We found that the dose rate was increased 40-60% by the shielding and decreased as a function of the distance along the axis. Simulations using the General-Purpose Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) show that the dose increase is mostly caused by secondary protons emitted by the target. The modified radiation field after the shield has been characterized for its biological effectiveness by measuring chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed just behind the shield block, or to the direct beam, in the dose range 0.5-3 Gy. Notwithstanding the increased dose per incident proton, the fraction of aberrant cells at the same dose in the sample position was not significantly modified by the shield. The PHITS code simulations show that, albeit secondary protons are slower than incident nuclei, the LET spectrum is still contained in the low-LET range (<10 keV/microm), which explains the approximately unitary value measured for the relative biological effectiveness. PMID:17256178

  1. Phenomenological study of exclusive binary light particle production from antiproton-proton annihilation at FAIR/PANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Exclusive binary annihilation reactions induced by antiprotons of momentum from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c can be extensively investigated at FAIR/PANDA [1]. We are especially interested in the channel of charged pion pairs. Whereas this very probable channel constitutes the major background for other processes of interest in the PANDA experiment, it carries unique physical information on the quark content of proton, allowing to test different models (quark counting rules, statistical models,..). To study the binary reactions of light meson formation, we are developing an effective Lagrangian model based on Feynman diagrams which takes into account the virtuality of the exchanged particles. Regge factors [2] and form factors are introduced with parameters which may be adjusted on the existing data. We present preliminary results of our formalism for different reactions of light meson production leading to reliable predictions of cross sections, energy and angular dependencies in the PANDA kinematical range.

  2. Electronic stopping for protons and α particles from first-principles electron dynamics: The case of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, Dillon C.; Kanai, Yosuke

    2016-09-01

    We present the first-principles determination of electronic stopping power for protons and α particles in a semiconductor material of great technological interest: silicon carbide. The calculations are based on nonequilibrium simulations of the electronic response to swift ions using real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT). We compare the results from this first-principles approach to those of the widely used linear response formalism and determine the ion velocity regime within which linear response treatments are appropriate. We also use the nonequilibrium electron densities in our simulations to quantitatively address the longstanding question of the velocity-dependent effective charge state of projectile ions in a material, due to its importance in linear response theory. We further examine the validity of the recently proposed centroid path approximation for reducing the computational cost of acquiring stopping power curves from RT-TDDFT simulations.

  3. Search for long-lived, weakly interacting particles that decay to displaced hadronic jets in proton-proton collisions at √{s }=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Nooij, L.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. 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E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Ruderman, J. T.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saimpert, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. 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C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full data set recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{s }=8 TeV . The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of the Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley Z' and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in Z' and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.

  4. Particle therapy using carbon ions or protons as a definitive therapy for patients with primary sacral chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Demizu, Y; Jin, D; Hashimoto, N; Takagi, M; Terashima, K; Fujii, O; Niwa, Y; Akagi, T; Daimon, T; Hishikawa, Y; Abe, M; Murakami, M; Sasaki, R; Fuwa, N

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of particle therapy using carbon ions or protons for primary sacral chordomas. Methods: We evaluated 23 patients with primary sacral chordoma treated with carbon ion therapy (CIT) or proton therapy (PT) between July 2005 and June 2011 at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Hyogo, Japan. The median patient age was 72 years. 14 patients were treated with 70.4 Gy equivalents (GyE) in 16 fractions and 9 were treated with 70.4 GyE in 32 fractions. CIT was used for 16 patients, and PT was used for 7 patients. Results: The median follow-up period was 38 months. At 3 years, local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for all patients were 94%, 83% and 68%, respectively. The log-rank test revealed that male sex was significantly related to better PFS ( p = 0.029). No other factors, including dose fractionation and ion type, were significant for LC, OS or PFS. In nine patients, ≥Grade 3 acute dermatitis was observed, and ≥Grade 3 late toxicities were observed in nine patients. The 32-fraction protocol reduced severe toxicities in both the acute and late phases compared with the 16-fraction protocol. Conclusion: Particle therapy for patients with sacral chordoma showed favourable LC and OS. Severe toxicities were successfully reduced by modifying the dose fractionation and treatment planning in the later treatment era. Thus, this therapeutic modality should be considered useful and safe. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study including both CIT and PT for sacral chordomas. PMID:24288399

  5. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C.; Vis, R.D.; Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.; Bowen, D.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  6. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C. ); Vis, R.D. ); Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L. ); Jones, K.W. ); Bowen, D.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  7. Inelastic Interactions of Proton with Emulsion Nuclei without Shower Particle Creation

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelsalam, A.; El-Nagdy, M. S.; Rashed, N.; Badawy, B. M.

    2007-02-14

    This paper presents exhaustively the general characteristics of the inelastic interactions of P, 4He and 7Li with emulsion nuclei distinguished without relativistic hadrons (ns = 0) in Lab. system. The dependence of these interactions on the projectile and target sizes is presented. It is found that, the probability of the events having (ns = 0) is dependent on projectile size and incident energy. The average no. of grey particles and black particles as well as the ratio / are displayed for different target size. The multiplicity distribution of different target fragments for the events having (ns = 0), ns {>=} 0 and those of complete destruction (Nh {>=} 28) are presented.

  8. Protons, Photons, and the Prostate – Is There Emerging Evidence in the Ongoing Discussion on Particle Therapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Kilian C.; Habl, Gregor; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Proton therapy is actively and repeatedly discussed within the framework of particle therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer (PC). The argument in favor of treating the prostate with protons is partly financial: given that small volumes are treated, treatment times are low, resulting in a hypothetical high patient throughput. However, such considerations should not form the basis of medical decision-making. There are also physical and biological arguments which further support the use of particle therapy for PC. The only relevant randomized data currently available is the study by Zietman and colleagues, comparing a high to a low proton boost, resulting in a significant increase in PSA-free survival in the experimental (high dose) arm (1). With modern photon treatments and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), equally high doses can be applied with photons and, thus, a randomized trial comparing high-end photons to protons is warranted. For high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles, such as carbon ions, the increase in relative biological effectiveness could potentially convert into an improvement in outcome. Additionally, through the physical differences of protons and carbon ions, the steeper dose gradient with carbon ions and the lack of beam broadening in the carbon beam lead to a superior dose distribution supporting the idea of hypofractionation. Biological and clinical data are emerging, however, has practice-changing evidence already arrived? PMID:26858936

  9. Proton Intensity Spectra during the May 17th, 2012 and January 6th, 2014 Solar Energetic Particle Events - Measurement Capabilities of the Electron Proton Helium Telescope on Board SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, P.; Banjac, S.; Dresing, N.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Terasa, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Level Enhancements are solar energetic particle events that show a significant intensity increase at energies that can be measured by ground based instrumentation, i.e. neutron monitors. In the recent history 71 GLEs have been recorded. The last one was the May 17, 2012 event that has not only been measured by more than one neutron monitor but also by sophisticated instrumentation in space like PAMELA and the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) aboard SOHO. The January 6, 2014 solar energetic particle (SEP) event led to an intensity increase of about 3 percent at both South Pole neutron monitors and was considered by Thakur et al. (2014) to be a GLE. Since only one pair of neutron monitors show an unambiguous increase the energy spectra for this event can only be determined by spacecraft like e.g. PAMELA or SOHO/EPHIN. We show that the Electron Proton Helium INstrument at Langragian point L1 is capable to measure the proton energy spectra of solar energetic particle events at energies between 150 MeV and above 700 MeV. A GEANT Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to determine the energy response function of EPHIN for electrons, protons and heavier ions. As a result of this calculation we developed a method using energy loss information of particles measured in the detector stack that allow to derive the proton energy spectra in the range from about 150 MeV to more than 700 MeV. In order to validate our method we compared our results to the one obtained by PAMELA that was published by Bazilevskaya et al. (2013) for the May 2012 event. Furthermore, the January 6, 2014 event spectrum in the given energy range is presented and discussed in comparison to the May 2012 event.

  10. Asymmetries between strange and antistrange particle production inpion-proton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, T.D.; Vogt, R.

    2002-01-29

    Recent measurements of the asymmetries between Feynman x-distributions of strange and antistrange hadrons in {pi}{sup -}A interactions show a strong effect as a function of x{sub F}. We calculate strange hadron production in the context of the intrinsic model and make predictions for particle/antiparticle asymmetries in these interactions.

  11. Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Pirjola, Liisa; Matilainen, Pekka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-02-01

    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

  12. Photon and dilepton production at the Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research and beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider using coarse-grained microscopic transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Stephan; van Hees, Hendrik; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present calculations of dilepton and photon spectra for the energy range Elab=2 A to35 A GeV which will be available for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research (FAIR). The same energy regime will also be covered by phase II of the beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC-BES). Coarse-grained dynamics from microscopic transport calculations of the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is used to determine temperature and chemical potentials, which allows for the use of dilepton and photon-emission rates from equilibrium quantum-field-theory calculations. The results indicate that nonequilibrium effects, the presence of baryonic matter, and the creation of a deconfined phase might show up in specific manners in the measurable dilepton invariant-mass spectra and in the photon transverse-momentum spectra. However, as the many influences are difficult to disentangle, we argue that the challenge for future measurements of electromagnetic probes will be to provide a high precision with uncertainties much lower than in previous experiments. Furthermore, a systematic study of the whole energy range covered by CBM at FAIR and RHIC-BES is necessary to discriminate between different effects, which influence the spectra, and to identify possible signatures of a phase transition.

  13. The Influence of Nonthermal Particles and Radiation on the Charge State of Heavy Ions in Solar Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavykh, Yu. Yu.; Ostryakov, V. M.; Möbius, E.; Popecki, M. A.

    2004-09-01

    The influence of various types of nonthermal electron and proton distributions and photoionization on the charge state of energetic heavy elements moving in a plasma is investigated. The mean charges of Mg, Si, and Fe are calculated for a bi-Maxwellian distribution of the background electrons and for electron and neutral beams with power-law energy distributions. An anomalously high density of the nonthermal component is required to obtain substantial deviations of the equilibrium mean charges of these elements (a few charge units) from the case when they interact with a purely Maxwellian plasma. In this context, the mean charges for O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe ions are also calculated for a model with charge-consistent acceleration. The results indicate that photoionization does not significantly influence the charge state of solar cosmic rays if the parameters of the plasma are those characteristic of impulsive solar events.

  14. Heavy Particle Mode as the Signature of the I-Regime*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Coppi, B.

    2010-11-01

    Key features [1] of the I-Regime investigated by the Alcator C-Mod can be explained by the excitation of a new heavy particle (e.g. impurity) mode [2] at the plasma edge. This mode involves both density and magnetic fluctuations. The impurity is treated as collisional. Considering a plane geometry, the dispersion relation has a unstable root for ηi≡(dTi/dr) ni/(Tidni/dr)>2/3 and dnI/dr>0. The marginal stability point is reached for a maximum d nI/dr such that Î**=φIA=φ, where Î**≡c kyTI(dnI/dr)/(Ze B nI) and φIA≡(5/3) k^2 TI/mI. The instability condition is Î**<φIA. Re,/Î**>0 indicates that the mode phase velocity(vph)is in the electron diamagnetic direction, a feature consistent[3]with the observation that the plasma spontaneous rotation is in the ion diamagnetic direction. This predicted direction of vph has been confirmed by the experiments. The impurity flux evaluated from the quasi-linear theory is =ni/(Z Ti) ˜-ni(dTi/dr)/(Z Tik^2 vth iλi) [1-2/(3ηi)] .<|vEx|^2>>0 for ηi>2/3, where λi is the effective main ion mean free path. This shows that both the main ion thermal energy and the impurity are transported outwards. These features are consistent with a mode with frequency ˜200,Hz observed in the I- Regime and with the fact that impurities are confined at the edge in this regime. *Sponsored by the DOE. [1] E. Marmar, B. Lipschultz, A. Dominguez, et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 54 (2009) 97 [2] B. Coppi, H. Furth, M. Rosenbluth and R. Sagdeev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17 (1966) 377-379 [3] B. Coppi, Nucl. Fusion 42 (2002) 1-4

  15. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  16. Potential approaches to the spectroscopic characterization of high performance polymers exposed to energetic protons and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suleman, Naushadalli K.

    1991-01-01

    A potential limitation to human activity on the lunar surface or in deep space is the exposure of the crew to unacceptably high levels of penetrating space radiations. The radiations of most concerns for such missions are high-energy protons emitted during solar flares, and galactic cosmic rays which are high-energy ions ranging from protons to iron. The development of materials for effective shielding from energetic space radiations will clearly require a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced damage in bulk materials. This can be accomplished in part by the detailed spectroscopic characterization of bulk materials that were exposed to simulated space radiations. An experimental data base thus created can then be used in conjunction with existing radiation transport codes in the design and fabrication of effective radiation shielding materials. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy was proven very useful in elucidating radiation effects in polymers (high performance polymers are often an important components of structural composites).

  17. Intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Kooy, H M; Grassberger, C

    2015-07-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed "pencil beams" of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak-the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range-combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose "painting" within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the highest level of

  18. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  19. An experimental study of momentum and heavy particle transport in a trellised agricultural canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although considerable research has been done on turbulent particle dispersion, little of that work has focused on dispersal patterns near the source or in trellised plant canopies. To study the dispersion characteristics of particles in such canopies, a series of particle release events was performe...

  20. Oscillations of a Particle Attached to a Heavy Spring: An Application of the Stieltjes Integral.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Describes, using "nonorthogonal" displacement functions, the normal-mode motions of a massive particle and a spring of non-negligible mass to whose end the particle is attached. The results lead to the complete solution for the general motion of the spring-plus-particle system. Shows that the presence/absence of gravity is irrelevant to the…

  1. The streaming of 1.3 - 2.3 MeV cosmic-ray protons during periods between prompt solar particle events. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. E.

    1977-01-01

    The anisotropy of 1.3 to 2.3 MeV protons in interplanetary space was measured using the Caltech electron/isotope spectrometer aboard IMP-7 for 317 6 hour periods from 72/273 to 74/2. Periods dominated by prompt solar particle events are not included. The convective and diffusive anisotropies were determined from the observed anisotropy using concurrent solar wind speed measurements and observed energy spectra. The diffusive flow of particles was found to be typically toward the sun, indicating a positive radial gradient in the particle density. This anisotropy was inconsistent with previously proposed sources of low energy proton increases seen at 1 AU which involve continual solar acceleration. The typical properties of this new component of low-energy cosmic rays were determined for this period which is near solar minimum.

  2. Acute Hematological Effects in Mice Exposed to the Expected Doses, Dose-rates, and Energies of Solar Particle Event-like Proton Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Cengel, Keith A.; Wan, X. Steven; Rusek, Adam; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has funded several projects that have provided evidence for the radiation risk in space. One radiation concern arises from solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is composed of energetic electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier particles. SPEs are unpredictable and the accompanying SPE radiation can place astronauts at risk of blood cell death, contributing to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. The doses, dose rates, and energies of the proton radiation expected to occur during a SPE have been simulated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, delivering total body doses to mice. Hematological values were evaluated at acute time points, up to 24 hrs. post-radiation exposure. PMID:25202654

  3. Computation of cosmic ray ionization and dose at Mars. I: A comparison of HZETRN and Planetocosmics for proton and alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Norman, Ryan B.; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to evaluate the cosmic ray environment at Mars is of interest for future manned exploration. To support exploration, tools must be developed to accurately access the radiation environment in both free space and on planetary surfaces. The primary tool NASA uses to quantify radiation exposure behind shielding materials is the space radiation transport code, HZETRN. In order to build confidence in HZETRN, code benchmarking against Monte Carlo radiation transport codes is often used. This work compares the dose calculations at Mars by HZETRN and the Geant4 application Planetocosmics. The dose at ground and the energy deposited in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic ray protons and alpha particles has been calculated for the Curiosity landing conditions. In addition, this work has considered Solar Energetic Particle events, allowing for the comparison of varying input radiation environments. The results for protons and alpha particles show very good agreement between HZETRN and Planetocosmics.

  4. Source Regions of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Variability in Heavy-Ion Elemental Composition in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Dietrich, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are those in which ions are accelerated to their observed energies by interactions with a shock driven by a fast coronal mass-ejection (CME). Previous studies have shown that much of the observed event-to-event variability can be understood in terms of shock speed and evolution in the shock-normal angle. But an equally important factor, particularly for the elemental composition, is the origin of the suprathermal seed particles upon which the shock acts. To tackle this issue, we (1) use observed solar-wind speed, magnetograms, and the PFSS model to map the Sun-L1 interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line back to its source region on the Sun at the time of the SEP observations; and (2) then look for correlation between SEP composition (as measured by Wind and ACE at approx. 2-30 MeV/nucleon) and characteristics of the identified IMF-source regions. The study is based on 24 SEP events, identified as a statistically-significant increase in approx. 20 MeV protons and occurring in 1998 and 2003-2006, when the rate of newly-emergent solar magnetic flux and CMEs was lower than in solar-maximum years and the field-line tracing is therefore more likely to be successful. We find that the gradual SEP Fe/O is correlated with the field strength at the IMF-source, with the largest enhancements occurring when the footpoint field is strong, due to the nearby presence of an active region. In these cases, other elemental ratios show a strong charge-to-mass (q/M) ordering, at least on average, similar to that found in impulsive events. These results lead us to suggest that magnetic reconnection in footpoint regions near active regions bias the heavy-ion composition of suprathermal seed ions by processes qualitatively similar to those that produce larger heavy-ion enhancements in impulsive SEP events. To address potential technical concerns about our analysis, we also discuss efforts to exclude impulsive SEP events from our event sample.

  5. SOURCE REGIONS OF THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD AND VARIABILITY IN HEAVY-ION ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION IN GRADUAL SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Wang, Yi-Ming; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Dietrich, William F.

    2013-10-20

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are those in which ions are accelerated to their observed energies by interactions with a shock driven by a fast coronal mass ejection (CME). Previous studies have shown that much of the observed event-to-event variability can be understood in terms of shock speed and evolution in the shock-normal angle. However, an equally important factor, particularly for the elemental composition, is the origin of the suprathermal seed particles upon which the shock acts. To tackle this issue, we (1) use observed solar-wind speed, magnetograms, and the potential-field source-surface model to map the Sun-L1 interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line back to its source region on the Sun at the time of the SEP observations and (2) then look for a correlation between SEP composition (as measured by Wind and Advanced Composition Explorer at ∼2-30 MeV nucleon{sup –1}) and characteristics of the identified IMF source regions. The study is based on 24 SEP events, identified as a statistically significant increase in ∼20 MeV protons and occurring in 1998 and 2003-2006, when the rate of newly emergent solar magnetic flux and CMEs was lower than in solar-maximum years, and the field-line tracing is therefore more likely to be successful. We find that the gradual SEP Fe/O is correlated with the field strength at the IMF source, with the largest enhancements occurring when the footpoint field is strong due to the nearby presence of an active region (AR). In these cases, other elemental ratios show a strong charge-to-mass (q/M) ordering (at least on average), similar to that found in impulsive events. Such results lead us to suggest that magnetic reconnection in footpoint regions near ARs bias the heavy-ion composition of suprathermal seed ions by processes qualitatively similar to those that produce larger heavy-ion enhancements in impulsive SEP events. To address potential technical concerns about our analysis, we also discuss efforts to

  6. Numerical studies of petawatt laser-driven proton generation from two-species targets using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domański, J.; Badziak, J.; Jabloński, S.

    2016-04-01

    Laser-driven generation of high-energy ion beams has recently attracted considerable interest due to a variety of potential applications including proton radiography, ICF fast ignition, nuclear physics or hadron therapy. The ion beam parameters depend on both laser pulse and target parameters, and in order to produce the ion beam of properties required for a particular