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Sample records for proton pump-driven cutaneous

  1. A peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Ye, Xiongying; Wu, Kang; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a membrane peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls for lab-on-a-chip applications. The fabrication process is based on standard soft lithography technology and bonding of a PDMS layer with a PMMA substrate. A linear flow rate range ∼490 μL/min was obtained by simply varying the rotation speed of a DC motor, and a maximum back pressure of 592 Pa was achieved at a rotation speed of 43 rpm. The flow rate of the pump can also be adjusted by using steel balls with different diameters or changing the number of balls. Nevertheless, the micro pump can also work in high speed mode. A high back pressure up to 10 kPa was achieved at 500 rpm using a high speed DC motor, and an utmost flow rate up to 5 mL/min was reached.

  2. A closed-loop pump-driven wire-guided flow jet for ultrafast spectroscopy of liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picchiotti, Alessandra; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    2015-09-01

    We describe the design and provide the results of the full characterization of a closed-loop pump-driven wire-guided flow jet system. The jet has excellent optical quality with a wide range of liquids spanning from alcohol to water based solutions, including phosphate buffers used for biological samples. The thickness of the jet film varies depending on the flow rate between 90 μm and 370 μm. The liquid film is very stable, and its thickness varies only by 0.76% under optimal conditions. Measured transmitted signal reveals a long term optical stability (hours) with a RMS of 0.8%, less than the overall noise of the spectroscopy setup used in our experiments. The closed loop nature of the overall jet design has been optimized for the study of precious biological samples, in limited volumes, to remove window contributions from spectroscopic observables. This feature is particularly important for femtosecond studies in the UV range.

  3. Cutaneous zygomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous zygomycosis is a fungal infection caused by zygomycetes that affects the skin. It occurs in uncontrolled diabetic patients and immunosuppressed individuals. It has 2 clinical forms: primary cutaneous zygomycosis and secondary cutaneous zygomycosis. The first is characterized by necrotic lesions and the fungus is usually inoculated by trauma. If diagnosed early, it generally has a good prognosis. Secondary zygomycosis is usually a complication and extension of the rhinocerebral variety that starts as a palpebral fistula and progresses to a necrotic lesion with a poor prognosis. The diagnosis is made by identification of the fungus by direct KOH examination, culture, and biopsy. Treatment for the primary disease is surgical debridement plus amphotericin B. The secondary type is treated with amphotericin B and/or posaconazole.

  4. Cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N J; King, C M

    1998-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. Skin sarcoidosis occurs in about 25% of patients with systemic disease and may also arise in isolation. A wide range of clinical presentations of cutaneous sarcoidosis is recognised. The diagnosis rests on the presence of non-caseating granulomas on skin biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous skin disease. The treatment and overall prognosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis is primarily dependent on the degree of systemic involvement. In patients with aggressive disease limited to the skin immunosuppressive therapy may be indicated.

  5. Cutaneous Horn

    MedlinePlus

    ... fair-skinned individuals with a history of significant sun exposure. Signs and Symptoms A cutaneous horn most often ... radiation therapy. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Skin Conditions MedlinePlus: Sun Exposure References Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp.1715. ...

  6. Cutaneous Myiasis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Michal; Lachish, Tamar; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Myiasis is defined as the infestation of live vertebrates, either humans or animals, with dipterous larvae. Many organs can be infested by these larvae with cutaneous myiasis being the most common form. Cutaneous myiasis can be divided into three categories: localized furuncular myiasis, migratory myiaisis and wound myiasis, which occurs when fly larvae infest the open wounds of the host. Human myiasis has worldwide distribution, with more species and a heavier burden in tropical and subtropical countries. In recent years with increased travel to the tropics, myiasis has become common in returning travelers from these regions, Furuncular myiasis, mainly Dermatobia homonis becomes the most common form seen among them. Treatment is based on full extraction of the larva and no antibiotic treatment is needed. Understanding the mode of transmission of each type of myiasis may help to prevent the infestation. PMID:27443558

  7. Cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N. J.; King, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. Skin sarcoidosis occurs in about 25% of patients with systemic disease and may also arise in isolation. A wide range of clinical presentations of cutaneous sarcoidosis is recognised. The diagnosis rests on the presence of non-caseating granulomas on skin biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous skin disease. The treatment and overall prognosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis is primarily dependent on the degree of systemic involvement. In patients with aggressive disease limited to the skin immunosuppressive therapy may be indicated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10197194

  8. Cutaneous ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Nordlund, James J

    2009-01-01

    Parasites inhabit many places in the world. Some of these can inhabit the human skin or body. Many of these have been eradicated in the developed countries but persist in some tropical environments that are fun places to visit. Visitors can bring such parasites home with them such as scabies, cutaneous larva migrans, tungiasis and myiasis. Their clinical manifestations and treatment are presented for physicians evaluating and treating travelers from exotic places. PMID:19889135

  9. Cutaneous angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, J F; Mira, C

    1996-08-01

    Extrarenal angiomyolipomas are rare lesions. An angiomyolipoma located on the right ear lobe in a 49-year-old man is reported. Pathologic examination showed a well-circumscribed subcutaneous nodule, 2 cm in diameter. The components of the tumor were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Reactivity for HMB-45 was negative. A review of the twelve published cases, including the present, reveals that the patients age ranged from 33 to 77 years (mean 53.6), the male/female ratio was 11.1. The tumors were solitary, asymptomatic, noninvasive, located most commonly in acral skin or on the ear. The clinical impression is that of a cyst, a lipoma or a vascular tumor. Signs of tuberous sclerosis were absent in all cases. In contrast to the renal form, the cutaneous angiomyolipoma is a tumor differing in sex predominance, clinical associations, circumscription, solitariness, and HMB-45 immunoreactivity. Distinction from other mesenchymal lesions depends on recognition of traditional histologic criteria.

  10. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  11. [Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma].

    PubMed

    Dhouib Sellami, Rym; Sassi, Samia; Mrad, Karima; Abess, Imen; Driss, Maha; Ben Romdhane, Khaled

    2007-04-01

    Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma (PCP) is a rare cutaneous B cell lymphoma. We report a case of PCP in a 64 year old woman presenting with a nodular lesion of the left cheek. Histologically, the lesion was composed predominately of variably maturated plasma cells with monotypic expression of lambda chain. Extracutaneous localizations of the disease had been excluded. The prognosis of PCP is better than that of the metastatic cutaneous lesion of myeloma. The main prognosis factors are the size tumor and clinical presentation (solitary, versus multiple lesions). Solitary lesions of the PCP are treated by surgical excision and sometimes local radiotherapy. PMID:17909472

  12. Cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Anandi, V; Kurien, T; Jacob, M; Koshi, G

    1994-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis from Nagaland and a case of cutaneous sporotrichosis from Kerala who had acquired infection from Assam are reported. The diagnosis in both cases were established by isolating Sporothrix schenckii from multiple cutaneous lesions. The dimorphic nature of fungus was established in vitro by demonstrating the mycelial phase at 25-30 degrees C and yeast phase at 37 degrees C and pathogenicity to white mice. Both the patients were successfully treated with oral administration of potassium iodide for 3 months. PMID:8088907

  13. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children.

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Gomathy; Ramesh, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that accounts for 1% to 2% of cases. Childhood skin tuberculosis represents 18% to 82% of all cutaneous tuberculosis cases. Scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris are the two most common clinical forms in children. An increase in the number of tuberculids, especially lichen scrofulosorum, has been observed in the last several years. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children can be severe and have a protracted course. Multiplicity of lesions and multifocal disseminated involvement in scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris is common. Scrofuloderma progressing to gummatous lesions (scrofulous gumma) is mostly described in children. Morbidities and deformities are more severe in children.

  14. [Penile sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, A; Boudaya, S; Bouzid, L; Frigui, F; Meziou, T J; Akrout, F; Turki, H; Zahaf, A

    2005-12-01

    The localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of L. major at the penis level is rare, we report here a new observation. Mr K. R aged of 41, without known pathological background presented for 20 days a nodular lesion of the anterior face of the neck, 2 juxtaposed ulcerated nodular lesions of the left wrist. He presented also subcutaneous nodules ranged linearly and extended to the root of the penis. Theses lesions were covered by an erythematous or ulcerated skin. The smear made from the genital lesions of the penis confirmed the diagnosis of a cutaneous leishmaniasis. The evolution was favourable after a 21 days treatment by doxycyclin after an interval of one week. Our observation was specific by the localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis and by the clinical form. This shows that in our region cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterised by different clinical symptoms. PMID:16425718

  15. Cutaneous histiocytosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Roper, S S; Spraker, M K

    1985-11-01

    Cutaneous histiocytosis may take two principal forms. It is either a benign proliferative process or a relentless, progressive process with a poor prognosis. In histiocytic medullary reticulosis, histiocytes demonstrate nuclear atypia and the outcome is uniformly fatal. Benign cephalic histiocytosis X causes lesions similar to those of histiocytosis X, but Langerhans' cells are absent. In congenital self-healing histiocytosis X, the Letterer-Siwe-like cutaneous infiltrate contains Langerhans' cells, but the lesions heal spontaneously without treatment. The nodular cutaneous lesions of juvenile xanthogranuloma appear in infancy and resolve without treatment; however, the higher percentage (10%) of associated ocular lesions may lead to glaucoma and blindness. In histiocytosis X, the cutaneous lesions show a marked proliferation of Langerhans' cells, with prognosis dependent on the patient's age and the extent of organ dysfunction. Patients who survive the acute form of the disease may develop diabetes insipidus, growth retardation, pulmonary fibrosis, and biliary cirrhosis. A subtle immunologic defect has been identified in patients with histiocytosis X, yet the pathogenesis of the disease is still speculative. Familial disease occurring in early infancy should be differentiated from complete or partial immunodeficiency syndromes. Guidelines for evaluating patients with cutaneous histiocytosis are reviewed.

  16. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  17. Cutaneous signs of piety.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2014-07-01

    It is important for dermatologists to be aware of cutaneous changes related to religious practices to help in their recognition and management. The anatomic location of cutaneous lesions associated with friction from praying varies based on religious practice. Allergic contact dermatitis from products and substances commonly used in worshipping also vary by religion. Some religious practices may render individuals prone to infections that manifest on the skin. Tattoos of godly figures also may adorn the body. Religious practices also have been implicated in cases of urticaria, köbnerization, and leukoderma. This article reviews the clinical presentation of some of the most common cutaneous changes that occur in individuals who practice the following religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Sikhism. PMID:25101349

  18. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nucleus is surrounded by electrons. In proton therapy, beams of fast-moving protons are used to destroy ... atoms to release proton, neutron, and helium ion beams. In this highly specialized form of radiosurgery , proton ...

  19. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Guan; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2014-11-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare human infection due to ubiquitous soil born gram-positive, filametous aerobic bacteria. First signs are frequently cutaneous either as part of systemic infection disseminated to the skin, or as primary cutaneous inoculation. An 88 years old man presented with a 3-day history of red papules and pustules with pain on his forehead. The combination of the unusual clinical presentation, laboratory examinations, and a favorable response to co-trimoxazole therapy were consistent with a diagnosis of primary cuteneous nocardiosis. Early recognition and treatment of the disease will improve the cure rate. PMID:25518763

  20. The cutaneous porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg-Brand, Danja; Katugampola, Ruwani; Anstey, Alexander V; Badminton, Michael N

    2014-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of mainly inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis where accumulation of porphyrins and/or porphyrin precursors gives rise to 2 types of clinical presentation: cutaneous photosensitivity and/or acute neurovisceral attacks. The cutaneous porphyrias present with either bullous skin fragility or nonbullous acute photosensitivity. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, complications, and current approach to porphyria management. Although focusing mainly on their dermatological aspects, the article also covers the management of acute porphyria, which by virtue of its association with variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria, may become the responsibility of the clinical dermatologist.

  1. Cutaneous histiocytosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mays, M B; Bergeron, J A

    1986-02-15

    Multifocal cutaneous histiocytic lesions were recognized in 9 dogs. Clinically, the dogs had multiple erythematous plaques or nodules in the skin (1 to 5 cm diameter). Histologically, the lesions were comprised of dermal or pannicular infiltrates of large histiocytic cells, with varying numbers of other inflammatory cells intermixed. By electron microscopy, the cells resembled those of canine cutaneous histiocytoma. The lesions seemed to wax and wane and appeared in new sites, regardless of treatment. The dogs ranged in age from 2 to 13 years; 7 dogs were under 6 years of age. Both sexes and various breeds were represented. An infectious agent could not be identified.

  2. The cutaneous porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg-Brand, Danja; Katugampola, Ruwani; Anstey, Alexander V; Badminton, Michael N

    2014-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of mainly inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis where accumulation of porphyrins and/or porphyrin precursors gives rise to 2 types of clinical presentation: cutaneous photosensitivity and/or acute neurovisceral attacks. The cutaneous porphyrias present with either bullous skin fragility or nonbullous acute photosensitivity. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, complications, and current approach to porphyria management. Although focusing mainly on their dermatological aspects, the article also covers the management of acute porphyria, which by virtue of its association with variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria, may become the responsibility of the clinical dermatologist. PMID:24891059

  3. [Cutaneous myxoma (focal dermal mucinosis)].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kuhlwein, A; Jänner, M; Schäfer, R

    1988-09-01

    Two cases of cutaneous myxoma are presented. In case 1 the cutaneous myxoma was localized on the left thumb and clinically resembled a pyogenic granuloma. In case 2 it was found at the left nipple. The benign cutaneous tumor may herald a cardiac myxoma and other conditions. Thus, a cutaneous myxoma should be accepted as an indication for thorough investigation of the whole body at regular intervals. As there are neither clinically nor histologically adequate criteria for differentiation, cutaneous myxoma and focal dermal mucinosis can be considered as variants of a single entity.

  4. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  5. "Malignant Cutaneous Ulcer".

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Kotwal, Sumedha

    2016-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an aggressive malignancy and the rich vascular supply enables it to metastasize early via haematogenous route. Skin lesions are a late manifestation of the disease. Clinicians should be aware of cutaneous presentation of RCC while evaluating a case of unknown primary with skin lesions. PMID:27651705

  6. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  7. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yub; Yun, Sook Jung

    2016-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  8. Update on cutaneous tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; do Nascimento, Leninha Valério; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

  9. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians.

  10. Primary cutaneous PEComa.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Anna; Conrad, David M; Tatlidil, Cuneyt; Jollimore, Jason; Walsh, Noreen; Covert, Alan; Pasternak, Sylvia

    2010-05-01

    A 48-year-old woman attended a physician because of a solitary cutaneous nodule on the left lower leg. Microscopic examination of the excisional specimen revealed a dermal tumor composed of nests of epithelioid cells exhibiting clear cytoplasm. They had centrally located vesicular nuclei with distinct nucleoli. A rich network of capillaries was present throughout. The tumor showed an infiltrative border. There was no epidermal involvement. Periodic acid-Shif (PAS) and PAS-Diastase stains demonstrated glycogen deposition within the cytoplasm of the clear cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that the tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 and microftalmia associated transcription factor (MITF). Focal desmin positivity was also seen. The tumor cells were negative for S-100 protein, alfa smooth muscle actin, HHF-35, and various cytokeratins. The case is one of a primary cutaneous pecoma. Pecomas are rare, recently described mesenchymal tumors composed of perivascular epithelioid cells. They constitute a spectrum of lesions in different organs including angiomyolipoma of the kidney and liver, sugar tumor of the lung, lymphangiomatosis, and lymphangiomyoma. Primary cutaneous PEComas are exceptionally rare and have only recently been recognized. To date, these are approximately 22 cases in the English literature. Follow-up data is limited but they appear to behave in a benign fashion. We report an additional case with the goal of alerting dermatopathologists to this distinctive unusual neoplasm.

  11. [Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms].

    PubMed

    Timonen, Kaisa; Nuutinen, Pauliina; Raili, Kauppinen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms Cutaneous symptoms of porphyrias are initiated from a phototoxic reaction caused by sunlight and circulating porphyrins in the vascular walls of the skin. This leads in fragility, blistering and scarring of the skin on light-exposed areas. There are approximately 200 patients having hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms in Finland. Cutaneous symptoms of variegate porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda are indistinguishable, but an effective treatment is available only for the latter. Differential diagnosis is important due to acute episodes occurring in variegate porphyria.

  12. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer. PMID:27178684

  13. [Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].

    PubMed

    Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G

    1989-01-01

    The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.

  14. Pure cutaneous histiocytosis X.

    PubMed

    Magaña-García, M

    1986-03-01

    A 38-month-old boy presented with nodules in the skin of the genital region present for 2 1/2 years. These later spread to the skin of the trunk, head, and extremities. A complete clinical workup could not reveal involvement in any other organ sites and biopsy of one of the cutaneous lesions was diagnosed as histiocytosis X. Because the child was in generally good condition, no treatment was given. Follow-up revealed that the disease had remained limited to the skin, where 15% of the lesions disappeared spontaneously.

  15. [Cutaneous histiocytosis X].

    PubMed

    Metz, J; Metz, G; Lechner, W

    1980-09-01

    Histiocytosis X comprises three clinical entities whose common substrate is a localized or systemic proliferation of atypical histiocytes. On the basis of the age of manifestation, acuity of the clinical course and organ involvement Abt-Letterer-Siwe's disease, Hand-Schüller-Christian's disease and eosinophilic granuloma can be differentiated from each other, although transitional varieties of these syndromes are possible. Not infrequently oligosymptomatic forms are misinterpreted, especially when the skin is the only involved organ. In the following case report cutaneous histiocytosis X will be discussed in terms of its clinical expression. Electron-microscopy has proved to be the best methods to make the diagnosis of such atypical cases.

  16. Cutaneous bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Asharaf, Mohammed; Letha, S

    2002-11-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is characterized by unique vascular lesions caused by infection with a small Gram staining bacillus of the genus Bartonella. It usually occurs in immunocompromised persons but can also occur in immunocompetent persons. We report a case of cutaneous bacillary angiomatosis in a 5-year-old immunocompetent child. He had infected lesions on the lips, after an injury, which was followed by lesions over the knees, buttocks, near the ankles and the elbows. Diagnosis was proved on histology. The lesions cleared after administration of erythromycin for 3 months. It is well to be aware of this condition in the context of increasing prevalence of AIDS.

  17. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  18. Cutaneous protothecosis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pâmela Craveiro Gomes; Silva, Sabrina Beirão da Costa e; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lupi, Omar; Martins, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca. The lesions usually occur on exposed areas, related with trauma, in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical presentation is a vesicobullous and ulcerative lesion with pustules and scabs, simulating bacterial, fungal or herpetic infections or eczema. The diagnosis is determined by agent identification through histopathology, culture and the carbohydrates assimilation test. The finding of morula-like spherules is characteristic of Prototheca sp. Its rarity and non-specific clinical aspect may difficult the disease diagnosis. We report a case of a diabetic patient, in chronic use of systemic corticosteroids, that developed a skin lesion after trauma to the right leg. PMID:24346914

  19. Cutaneous vasculitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Crowson, A Neil; Mihm, Martin C; Magro, Cynthia M

    2003-03-01

    As the skin is commonly involved in systemic vasculitic disorders as well as those hypersensitivity states whose expression is largely skin-confined, cutaneous vasculitic lesions offer a window to diagnosis and a ready source of accessible tissue for biopsy. In this review, we discuss the pathologic manifestations of chronic vasculitic syndromes such as granuloma faciale and erythema elevatum diutinum; IgA-associated vasculitis including Henoch-Schonlein purpura; vasculitis seen in the setting of cryoglobulinemia and hypergammaglobulinemia of Waldenstrom, hereditary deficiencies of complement, and IgA deficiency; those leukocytoclastic vasculitides resulting from hypersensitivity reactions to drug, chemical and foodstuff ingestion; and those vasculitides seen in patients with systemic diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective tissue disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, Behcet's disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, and allergic granulomatosis of Churg and Strauss.

  20. Cutaneous hypersensitivity to gluten.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Antonella; Narcisi, Alessandra; De Marco, Gabriella; Persechino, Severino

    2012-01-01

    We enrolled 14 female patients (aged 12-60 years) affected by celiac disease (confirmed by duodenal biopsy), presenting dermatologic eczematous lesions involving their face, neck, and overall arms, after application of gluten-containing emollient cream, bath, or face powder, or after contact with foods containing wheat and durum wheat. Five patients resulted positive to patch-by-patch with wheat and durum wheat (mild to moderate positivity) with erythema and vesicles, in correspondence of their sites of application. Utilizing gluten-free cream and bath, and wearing gloves before hand contact with food-containing wheat, in their common life, these patients showed an improvement of their cutaneous lesions and no relapses of dermatitis for a 6-month follow-up period.

  1. Cutaneous oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Polefka, Thomas G; Meyer, Thomas A; Agin, Patricia P; Bianchini, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    The earliest known microfossil records suggest that microorganisms existed on the earth approximately 3.8 billion years ago. Not only did sunlight drive this evolutionary process, but it also allowed photosynthetic organisms to elaborate oxygen and fundamentally change the earth's atmosphere and subsequent evolution. Paradoxically, however, an atmosphere of 20% oxygen offers aerobic organisms both benefits and some key challenges, particularly, to the external integument. This mini-review summarizes almost 40 years of research and provides a "60 000-foot" perspective on cutaneous oxidative stress. Topics reviewed include the following: What are free radicals and reactive oxygen species? Where do they come from? What is their chemistry? What are their roles and/or impact on the skin? What antioxidant defenses are available to mitigate oxidative stress. PMID:22360336

  2. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

    PubMed

    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  3. Early Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sams, Wiley M.

    1966-01-01

    Cutaneous disorders which manifest themselves on the exposed parts are more likely than are hidden lesions to cause the patient to seek professional services promptly. Usually he consults his family physician or the community dermatologist. The physician who first sees the patient is dependent upon his own resources for management and diagnosis. A background of experience, a measure of energy and an inquisitive attitude are the necessary ingredients for successful management. The difficulties involved in differentiating early lupus erythematosus and polymorphic light eruptions cannot be invariably resolved even with the most complete review. The course of the disorder and the response to environmental factors supply important clues. Investigative work, especially in the field of immunology, offers hope for the solution of some of our problems. PMID:5909872

  4. Tropical dermatology: cutaneous larva migrans, gnathostomiasis, cutaneous amebiasis and trombiculiasis.

    PubMed

    Eichelmann, Kristian; Tomecki, Kenneth J; Martínez, José Darío

    2014-09-01

    In today's world, many people can travel easily and quickly around the globe. Most travel travel-related illnesses include fever, diarrhea, and skin disease, which are relatively uncommon in returning travelers. We review four of the most common emerging infestations and skin infections in the Americas, which are important to the clinical dermatologist, focusing on the clinical presentation and treatment of cutaneous larva migrans, gnathostomiasis, cutaneous amebiasis, and trombiculiasis.

  5. Proton therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direction of the tumor. A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. ... redness in the radiation area, and temporary hair loss. AFTER THE PROCEDURE Following proton therapy, you should ...

  6. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  7. Systemic diseases with cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to briefly discuss the following cutaneous manifestations of selected systemic diseases: poxvirus; feline leukemia virus (FeLV); feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV); herpesvirus; calcivirus; pseudorabies; plague; tularemia; toxoplasmosis; leishmania; hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; hyperadrenocorticism; diabetes mellitus; acromegaly; thallium poisoning; pancreatic disease; hypereosinophilic syndrome; mucopolysaccharidosis; and pansteatitis. Recognition of these cutaneous signs may help alert the clinician to the possibility of an internal disorder so that the appropriate diagnostic tests can be considered. PMID:8525575

  8. Cutaneous Lymphangioma circumscriptum - dermoscopic features**

    PubMed Central

    Massa, António Fernandes; Menezes, Nuno; Baptista, Armando; Moreira, Ana Isabel; Ferreira, Eduarda Osório

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangiomas are congenital lymphatic malformations and cutaneous lymphangioma circumscriptum is the most common type. It is clinically characterized by clusters of translucent vesicles and the presence of dermoscopically yellow lacunae surrounded by pale septa, as well as reddish to bluish lacunae. In our case, the recently described hypopyon-like feature manifested, aiding in the sometimes difficult differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphangioma circumscriptum with vascular lesions, further highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in what can be a diagnostic challenge. PMID:25831002

  9. Selected Cutaneous Disorders in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James D.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses selected cutaneous diseases seen in the athlete. These diseases may be caused by interaction with the elements, the playing surface, other athletes, or the clothing or equipment worn during sport. All of these dermatological conditions are relatively common, but the physically active individual can suffer from these maladies and their complications more often than the inactive person. The emphasis in caring for the participant is on prevention, early recognition and practical aspects of management of cutaneous diseases. PMID:21264034

  10. Familial cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 5-10 % of all cutaneous melanomas occur in families with hereditary melanoma predisposition. Worldwide, approximately 20-40% of kindreds with familial elanoma harbor germline mutations in the CDKN2A gene, located on chromosome 9p21, which encodes two different proteins, p16INK4 and p14ARF, both involved in regulation of cell cycle progression and induction of senescence. In different populations several recurring CDKN2A founder mutations have been described. The risk of melanoma in CDKN2A mutations carriers varies between populations and is higher in regions with high sun exposure and high incidence of melanoma in the general population. Some CDKN2A mutations have been associated not only with melanoma but also with increased risk of other malignancies--most notably pancreatic carcinoma. A much smaller number of families have germline mutations in the CDK4 gene on chromosome 12q14, encoding a cyclin dependent kinase which normally interacts with p16INK4A. The management of families with hereditary melanoma is discussed. PMID:20687502

  11. Thalidomide in cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Michelle T; Werth, Victoria P

    2003-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, thalidomide has struggled between success and controversy. After causing an epidemic of phocomelia and other birth defects during the 1960s, affecting thousands of neonates, thalidomide was used as a sedative in selective disorders including leprosy. The potent anti-inflammatory properties of thalidomide were serendipitously discovered while treating patients with erythema nodosum leprosum, and the drug is now approved by the US FDA for the treatment of this disease. Subsequently, the immunosuppressant effects of thalidomide, including the complex modulation of many cytokines, have been recognized. One promising application of thalidomide has been the treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Among the largest series reviewed, the drug has been found to ameliorate cutaneous lupus erythematosus in 90% of patients, on average. Remission is achieved in approximately 15-20% of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus at doses between 50-400 mg daily. Contraceptive concerns and the recognized neuropathic effects of thalidomide limit the use of the drug in patients with cutaneous lupus. Physicians who prescribe thalidomide in the US must be registered with the drug manufacturer. With appropriate control of drug access and close physician monitoring, thalidomide provides a needed therapeutic option for the treatment of refractory cases of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

  12. Treatment of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus is centered upon formulating a regimen of topical and systemic therapies designed to reduce disease activity and minimize cosmetic damage. Sun avoidance and sunscreen are important preventative measures proven to minimize cutaneous lupus erythematosus exacerbations. Limited disease is typically managed with topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. Antimalarial therapy is the gold standard of systemic therapy. Many other treatments have been studied in patients with recalcitrant cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and their use must be evaluated based on individual risk-benefit concerns. R-salbutamol and pulsed dye laser therapy have proven to be effective topical alternatives. Additional systemic agents include retinoids, immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, biologics, and other experimental therapies with novel modes of action. According to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria for evaluating the strength of evidence supporting an individual treatment measure, no therapy for cutaneous lupus erythematosus has achieved Level 1 status. This demonstrates the need for randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews of all cutaneous lupus erythematosus interventions in order to meet increasing standards and demand for evidence-based practice. PMID:23320123

  13. Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  14. Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Lauren G.; Werth, Victoria P.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus encompasses a wide range of dermatologic manifestations, which may or may not be associated with the development of systemic disease. Cutaneous lupus is divided into several subtypes, including acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus includes discoid lupus erythematosus, lupus erythematosus profundus, chilblain cutaneous lupus, and lupus tumidus. Diagnosis of these diseases requires proper classification of the subtype, through a combination of physical exam, laboratory studies, histology, antibody serology, and occasionally direct immunofluorescence, while ensuring to exclude systemic disease. Treatment of cutaneous lupus consists of patient education on proper sun protection along with appropriate topical and systemic agents. Systemic agents are indicated in cases of widespread, scarring, or treatment-refractory disease. In this review, we discuss issues in classification and diagnosis of the various subtypes of CLE, as well as provide an update on therapeutic management. PMID:24238695

  15. 21 CFR 882.1320 - Cutaneous electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous electrode. 882.1320 Section 882.1320...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1320 Cutaneous electrode. (a) Identification. A cutaneous electrode is an electrode that is applied directly to a patient's skin either...

  16. 21 CFR 882.1320 - Cutaneous electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous electrode. 882.1320 Section 882.1320...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1320 Cutaneous electrode. (a) Identification. A cutaneous electrode is an electrode that is applied directly to a patient's skin either...

  17. 21 CFR 882.1320 - Cutaneous electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous electrode. 882.1320 Section 882.1320...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1320 Cutaneous electrode. (a) Identification. A cutaneous electrode is an electrode that is applied directly to a patient's skin either...

  18. 21 CFR 882.1320 - Cutaneous electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous electrode. 882.1320 Section 882.1320...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1320 Cutaneous electrode. (a) Identification. A cutaneous electrode is an electrode that is applied directly to a patient's skin either...

  19. 21 CFR 882.1320 - Cutaneous electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous electrode. 882.1320 Section 882.1320...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1320 Cutaneous electrode. (a) Identification. A cutaneous electrode is an electrode that is applied directly to a patient's skin either...

  20. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  1. "Pure" cutaneous histiocytosis-X.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, S L; Botero, F; Hurwitz, S; Pearson, H A

    1981-11-15

    The case histories of two young children who experienced skin rashes involving various areas of the body are reported. The diagnosis of pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X was established after extensive studies revealed no other organ involvement. The patients were treated with oral corticosteroids. Currently, both children are in good health, show no evidence of disease, and have been followed over a four-to-five-year period. Therapy with corticosteroids may not be indicated with pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X unless there is evidence of extracutaneous dissemination or rapid progression of the disease.

  2. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  3. Cutaneous manifestation of gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerstetter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) and cutaneous systems are closely linked in origin. Skin manifestations are frequently seen as a part of different GI syndromes. Gastroenterologists play an important role in recognizing the symptoms, patient workup and arriving at appropriate diagnoses, often in consultation with dermatologists. This review discusses the diseases with both cutaneous and intestinal involvement. Hereditary polyposis GI cancers, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (CRCs), hamartomatous disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are reviewed with emphasis on the genetic basis, diagnostic, histologic findings, screening modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:27034812

  4. Proton Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The transport of protons across membranes is an essential process for both bioenergetics of modern cells and the origins of cellular life. All living systems make use of proton gradients across cell walls to convert environmental energy into a high-energy chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from adenosine diphosphate. ATP, in turn, is used as a source of energy to drive many cellular reactions. The ubiquity of this process in biology suggests that even the earliest cellular systems were relying on proton gradient for harvesting environmental energy needed to support their survival and growth. In contemporary cells, proton transfer is assisted by large, complex proteins embedded in membranes. The issue addressed in this Study was: how the same process can be accomplished with the aid of similar but much simpler molecules that could have existed in the protobiological milieu? The model system used in the study contained a bilayer membrane made of phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) which is a good model of the biological membranes forming cellular boundaries. Both sides of the bilayer were surrounded by water which simulated the environment inside and outside the cell. Embedded in the membrane was a fragment of the Influenza-A M$_2$ protein and enough sodium counterions to maintain system neutrality. This protein has been shown to exhibit remarkably high rates of proton transport and, therefore, is an excellent model to study the formation of proton gradients across membranes. The Influenza M$_2$ protein is 97 amino acids in length, but a fragment 25 amino acids long. which contains a transmembrane domain of 19 amino acids flanked by three amino acids on each side. is sufficient to transport protons. Four identical protein fragments, each folded into a helix, aggregate to form small channels spanning the membrane. Protons are conducted through a narrow pore in the middle of the channel in response to applied voltage. This

  5. Cutaneous Metastases From Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Georgia, Doulami; Gavriella-Zoi, Vrakopoulou; Dimitrios, Mpistarakis; Stulianos, Katsaragakis; Theodoros, Liakakos; Georgios, Zografos; Dimitrios, Theodorou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present 2 rare cases of cutaneous metastases originated from adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, thus, underline the need for early diagnosis and possible treatment of suspicious skin lesions among patients with esophageal malignancy. Metastatic cancer to the skin originated from internal malignancies, mostly lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, constitute 0.5 to 9% of all metastatic cancers.5,8,15 Skin metastases, mainly from squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, are rarely reported. Cutaneous metastasis is a finding indicating progressiveness of the disease.17 More precisely, median survival is estimated approximately 4.7 months.2,14 This study is a retrospective review of 2 cases of patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and a review of the literature. Two patients aged 60 and 32 years old, respectively, underwent esophagectomy. Both pathologic reports disclosed adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction staged T3 N2 M0 (stage IIIB). During follow-up time, the 2 patients were diagnosed with cutaneous metastases originated from the primary esophageal tumor 11 and 4 months after surgery, respectively. The first patient is alive 37 months after diagnosis, while the second one died 16 months after surgery. Cutaneous metastasis caused by esophageal adenocarcinoma is possible. Therefore, follow-up of patients who were diagnosed with esophageal malignancy and underwent esophagectomy is mandatory in order to reveal early surgical stages. PMID:25785344

  6. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  7. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: cutaneous manifestations*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Polizel, Juliana Ocanha; Munhoz, Tânia; Brandão, Marcela Calixto; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome is the current name for clinical manifestations of diseases previously known as “infantile systemic hyalinosis” and “juvenile hyaline fibromatosis”. The authors report representative clinical cases of each one of the above subtypes with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations and difficulties for early diagnosis in this syndrome, essentially of multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27192526

  8. Cutaneous manifestations of genitourinary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary cancers are associated with a range of cutaneous syndromes, which can reflect direct metastatic spread, non-metastatic manifestations of malignancy or the consequences of treatment. More than 220,000 new cases of prostate cancer occur each year in the United States, and thus the associations with cutaneous involvement are quite well documented-rare metastatic spread, vasculitic and hemorrhagic syndromes. Cancers of the bladder and kidney may be associated with direct cutaneous metastases, vasculitic syndromes, hereditary leiomyomatosis, and other familial syndromes. Testicular cancer occasionally metastasizes to the skin but more commonly is associated with the dysplastic nevus (multiple atypical nevus) syndrome. A structured approach to history-taking, examination, and investigation is essential for optimal management, especially when these syndromes precede the diagnosis of a known malignancy. A brief review of the more common iatrogenic cutaneous complications is provided, and includes Raynaud's phenomenon, purpura, rash, hand-foot syndrome, the consequences of marrow failure, and bleomycin-induced pigmentation. PMID:27178687

  9. Cutaneous innervation: form and function.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Siegel, Sandra M

    2005-12-01

    It is useful for dermatologists to know about the innervation of the skin because dysfunction of cutaneous neurons can cause symptoms--such as itching, pain, and paresthesias--that are evaluated by dermatologists. We review the innervation of the skin and update readers about recent neuroscientific discoveries.

  10. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  11. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    PubMed

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer.

  12. Solar radiation and cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Viola, M V; Houghton, A N

    1982-09-01

    Exposure to solar radiation has been widely implicated in the dramatic rise in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma throughout the world. The association may be more complex than originally suspected, involving such factors as sunspot-activity cycles and changes in the ozone layer affecting ultraviolet flux at the earth's surface. The evidence for these relationships is examined.

  13. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cutaneous Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Angela M; Hurley, M Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are broadly divided into cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. These classifications include numerous distinct entities, all with varying clinical presentations and disease courses. Herein, we will review the cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, including Mycosis Fungoides, Sézary syndrome, CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, as well as other less common entities. Cutaneous B-cell lymphomas will also be discussed, including primary cutaneous marginal zoned lymphoma, cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, as well as other less common entities. Accurate and early diagnosis is key, as the treatment and prognosis varies significantly between conditions. PMID:26455060

  14. Proton interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  15. Molecular genetics of cutaneous lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, S

    2001-09-01

    The underlying molecular basis of primary cutaneous lymphomas has not yet been clarified. However, abnormalities of cell cycle control genes and well-defined tumor suppressor genes such as p53 are common and may contribute to disease progression and treatment resistance. Biallelic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes usually occurs by a combination of deletion, point mutation, and/or promotor hypermethylation. The detection of UVB-specific mutations of p53 requires confirmation but may have important implications for the management of patients with mycosis fungoides. Molecular cytogenetic studies have identified common regions of chromosomal deletion and amplification, which suggests the presence and location of genes that are of critical importance in the pathogenesis of cutaneous lymphoma.

  16. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  17. Cutaneous Markers of Internal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, R. R.; Reardon, P. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Cutaneous markers of internal disease are legion. This article discusses the pigmentary disorders, acanthosis nigricans, pruritus, the xanthomas and problems of photosensitivity, outlining the appropriate procedures to establish a definite diagnosis, and in some cases the management of such patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:21286147

  18. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  19. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    PubMed

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  20. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  1. The Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, Carlos Garcia; Sassot, Rodolfo

    2003-10-01

    In this talk we present a collection of selected topics concerning the structure of the proton and the fundamental interactions as seen inside it. These topics have been thoroughly covered by high energy experiments with ever increasing precision in recent years and beautifully illustrate our present knowledge of the standard model.

  2. Proton Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. PMID:25686476

  3. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  4. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in newly diagnosed HIV

    PubMed Central

    Soza, Gabriela M.; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    We present a woman with a widespread severe papulopustular eruption, fever, and fatigue of 5 weeks' duration. HIV infection was diagnosed, with an absolute CD4+ count of 3 cells/µL. The eruption was consistent with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. The clinical manifestations and management of cutaneous histoplasmosis are reviewed. PMID:26722169

  5. [Cutaneous lymphomas: new entities and rare variants].

    PubMed

    Kempf, W; Mitteldorf, C

    2015-02-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are the second most common group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recently several new variants and entities have been described but have not yet become part of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. These forms include the granulomatous form of mycosis fungoides, which is associated with a poorer prognosis, as well as indolent CD8+ lymphoproliferations on the head and at acral localizations. Within the group of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, new histological types of lymphomatoid papulosis have been identified, such as type D (CD8+ epidermotropic) and type E (angioinvasive) which simulate aggressive lymphomas. Cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a prognostically heterogeneous group of cutaneous lymphomas. The cutaneous CD8+ aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma are very aggressive neoplasms, whereas cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-sized T-cell lymphoma in its solitary or localized form represents an indolent lymphoproliferation: the terminology, histogenesis and differentiation from nodular T-cell pseudolymphoma are still a matter of debate. Among B-cell lymphomas, disorders associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed focusing on EBV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly and EBV-associated mucocutaneous ulcer. This review describes the clinical, histological and immunophenotypic features of new and rare entities and variants of cutaneous lymphomas and highlights the impact of the clinicopathological correlation in the diagnostic process.

  6. The expanding spectrum of cutaneous borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Eisendle, K; Zelger, B

    2009-04-01

    The known spectrum of skin manifestations in cutaneous Lyme disease is continuously expanding and can not be regarded as completed. Besides the classical manifestations of cutaneous borreliosis like erythema (chronicum) migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans evidence is growing that at least in part also other skin manifestations, especially morphea, lichen sclerosus and cases of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma are causally related to infections with Borrelia. Also granuloma annulare and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis might be partly caused by Borrelia burgdorferi or similar strains. There are also single reports of other skin manifestations to be associated with borrelial infections like cutaneous sarcoidosis, necrobiosis lipoidica and necrobiotic xanthogranuloma. In addition, as the modern chameleon of dermatology, cutaneous borreliosis, especially borrelial lymphocytoma, mimics other skin conditions, as has been shown for erythema annulare centrifugum or lymphocytic infiltration (Jessner Kanof) of the skin. PMID:19357623

  7. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in cutaneous anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Demir, Halit; Oncu, Mehmet Resit; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Aypak, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Background Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been discovered in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data associated with cutaneous anthrax. The aim of this study was to investigate serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Material/Methods Sixteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. We measured ADA activity; peripheral blood leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; and C reactive protein levels. Results Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between ADA activity and lymphocyte counts (r=0.589, p=0.021) in the patient group. Conclusions This study suggests that serum ADA could be used as a biochemical marker in cutaneous anthrax. PMID:24997584

  8. Cutaneous fistulization of the hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Bahce, Zeynep Sener; Akbulut, Sami; Aday, Ulas; Demircan, Firat; Senol, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization. The literature search included case reports, review articles, original articles, and meeting presentations published until July 2016 without restrictions on language, journal, or country. Articles and abstracts containing adequate information, such as age, sex, cyst size, cyst location, clinical presentation, fistula opening location, and management, were included in the study, whereas articles with insufficient clinical and demographic data were excluded. We also present a new case of cysto-cutaneous fistulization of a liver hydatid cyst. Results: The literature review included 38 articles (32 full text, 2 abstracts, and 4 unavailable) on cutaneous fistulization in patients with HD. Among the 38 articles included in the study, 22 were written in English, 13 in French, 1 in German, 1 in Italian, and 1 in Spanish. Forty patients (21 males and 19 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 54.0 ± 21.5 years; range, 7–93 years) were involved in the study. Twenty-four patients had cysto-cutaneous fistulization (Echinococcus granulosus); 10 had cutaneous fistulization (E multilocularis), 3 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchio-biliary fistulization, 2 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchial fistulization; and 1 had cutaneo-bronchial fistulization (E multilocularis). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with E granulosis and 11 had E multilocularis detected by clinical, radiological, and/or histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Cutaneous fistulization is a rare complication of HD

  9. Drug-induced cutaneous vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Antiga, E; Verdelli, A; Bonciani, D; Bonciolini, V; Quintarelli, L; Volpi, W; Fabbri, P; Caproni, M

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous vasculitides (CV) can be idiopathic or secondary to several triggers, including drugs, which account for up to 30% of all the cases of CV. Several drugs can induce CV, including some medications commonly used in dermatology, including minocycline, and several new drugs, such as anti-TNF agents. Different pathomecanisms are involved in the development of drug-induced CV, including the formation and deposition of immune complexes, the induction of neutrophil apoptosis, the formation of neoantigens between the drugs and proteins from the host, the shift of the immune response, and others. Although the diagnosis is difficult, because the clinical picture of drug-induced CV is in general indistinguishable from that of other forms of CV, it is important to recognize such entities in order to correctly manage the patient. Anamnesis, diagnostic algorithms to assess the likelihood of the association between a drug and a cutaneous reaction, skin biopsy and laboratory testing (including the search for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) are useful tools to make a diagnosis of drug-induced CV. About the therapy, while in idiopathic vasculitides the treatment is usually more aggressive and long-lasting, very often requiring a maintenance therapy with immunosuppressive drugs, in drug-induced CV the discontinuation of the suspected drug alone is usually enough to achieve complete remission, making the prognosis usually very good.

  10. WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Willemze, Rein; Jaffe, Elaine S; Burg, Günter; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Swerdlow, Steven H; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Chimenti, Sergio; Diaz-Perez, José L; Duncan, Lyn M; Grange, Florent; Harris, Nancy Lee; Kempf, Werner; Kerl, Helmut; Kurrer, Michael; Knobler, Robert; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Sander, Christian; Santucci, Marco; Sterry, Wolfram; Vermeer, Maarten H; Wechsler, Janine; Whittaker, Sean; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2005-05-15

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are currently classified by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) classification or the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, but both systems have shortcomings. In particular, differences in the classification of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas other than mycosis fungoides, Sezary syndrome, and the group of primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders and the classification and terminology of different types of cutaneous B-cell lymphomas have resulted in considerable debate and confusion. During recent consensus meetings representatives of both systems reached agreement on a new classification, which is now called the WHO-EORTC classification. In this paper we describe the characteristic features of the different primary cutaneous lymphomas and other hematologic neoplasms frequently presenting in the skin, and discuss differences with the previous classification schemes. In addition, the relative frequency and survival data of 1905 patients with primary cutaneous lymphomas derived from Dutch and Austrian registries for primary cutaneous lymphomas are presented to illustrate the clinical significance of this new classification.

  11. Characterization of cutaneous and articular sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Serra, Ines; Husson, Zoé; Bartlett, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of stimuli can activate sensory neurons and neurons innervating specific tissues often have distinct properties. Here, we used retrograde tracing to identify sensory neurons innervating the hind paw skin (cutaneous) and ankle/knee joints (articular), and combined immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology analysis to determine the neurochemical phenotype of cutaneous and articular neurons, as well as their electrical and chemical excitability. Results Immunohistochemistry analysis using RetroBeads as a retrograde tracer confirmed previous data that cutaneous and articular neurons are a mixture of myelinated and unmyelinated neurons, and the majority of both populations are peptidergic. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, voltage-gated inward currents and action potential parameters were largely similar between articular and cutaneous neurons, although cutaneous neuron action potentials had a longer half-peak duration (HPD). An assessment of chemical sensitivity showed that all neurons responded to a pH 5.0 solution, but that acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) currents, determined by inhibition with the nonselective acid-sensing ion channel antagonist benzamil, were of a greater magnitude in cutaneous compared to articular neurons. Forty to fifty percent of cutaneous and articular neurons responded to capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, and menthol, indicating similar expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), respectively. By contrast, significantly more articular neurons responded to ATP than cutaneous neurons. Conclusion This work makes a detailed characterization of cutaneous and articular sensory neurons and highlights the importance of making recordings from identified neuronal populations: sensory neurons innervating different tissues have subtly different properties

  12. Cutaneous tuberculosis and squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ljubenovic, Milanka S; Ljubenovic, Dragisa B; Binic, Ivana I; Jankovic, Aleksandar S; Jancic, Snezana A

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of all forms of cutaneous tuberculosis, including lupus vulgaris (the most common form) decreased progressively in developed countries during the twentieth century, this change being attributed to improved living standards and specific therapy. Despite the decrease in cutaneous tuberculosis, some cases are still found and correct diagnosis and management are fundamental, both for the patients and for public health. Long lasting, misdiagnosed or untreated cutaneous tuberculosis may lead to different forms of cancer. This case report involves a 74-year old male farmer with lupus vulgaris on his face. During anti-tuberculosis treatment he developed a tumor on his forehead, which was histologically confirmed as a squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. An overview of cutaneous T cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bagherani, Nooshin; Smoller, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that are characterized by a cutaneous infiltration of malignant monoclonal T lymphocytes. They typically afflict adults with a median age of 55 to 60 years, and the annual incidence is about 0.5 per 100,000. Mycosis fungoides, Sézary syndrome, and primary cutaneous peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are the most important subtypes of CTCL. CTCL is a complicated concept in terms of etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. Herein, we summarize advances which have been achieved in these fields. PMID:27540476

  14. Cutaneous protothecosis--case report.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pâmela Craveiro Gomes da; Costa e Silva, Sabrina Beirão da; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lupi, Omar; Martins, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca. The lesions usually occur on exposed areas, related with trauma, in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical presentation is a vesicobullous and ulcerative lesion with pustules and scabs, simulating bacterial, fungal or herpetic infections or eczema. The diagnosis is determined by agent identification through histopathology, culture and the carbohydrates assimilation test. The finding of morula-like spherules is characteristic of Prototheca sp. Its rarity and non-specific clinical aspect may difficult the disease diagnosis. We report a case of a diabetic patient, in chronic use of systemic corticosteroids, that developed a skin lesion after trauma to the right leg. PMID:24346914

  15. Cutaneous Scarring: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike. PMID:20585482

  16. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity. PMID:25765687

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings can serve as a clue to internal disease. In this article, cutaneous manifestations of underlying lung malignancy are reviewed. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare, but when recognized early, can lead to early diagnosis of an underlying neoplasm. Malignancy-associated dermatoses comprise a broad group of hyperproliferative and inflammatory disorders, disorders caused by tumor production of hormonal or metabolic factors, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, among others. In this review, paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung malignancy are discussed, including ectopic ACTH syndrome, bronchial carcinoid variant syndrome, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy/digital clubbing, erythema gyratum repens, malignant acanthosis nigricans, sign of Leser-Trélat, tripe palms, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, and dermatomyositis. PMID:27178690

  18. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity.

  19. Proton scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    This note presents analytic estimates of the performance of proton beams in remote surveillance for nuclear materials. The analysis partitions the analysis into the eight steps used by a companion note: (1) Air scattering, (2) Neutron production in the ship and cargo, (3) Target detection probability, (4) Signal produced by target, (5) Attenuation of signal by ship and cargo, (6) Attenuation of signal by air, (7) Geometric dilution, and (8) Detector Efficiency. The above analyses indicate that the dominant air scattering and loss mechanisms for particle remote sensing are calculable with reliable and accepted tools. They make it clear that the conversion of proton beams into neutron sources rapidly goes to completion in all but thinnest targets, which means that proton interrogation is for all purposes executed by neutrons. Diffusion models and limiting approximations to them are simple and credible - apart from uncertainty over the cross sections to be used in them - and uncertainty over the structure of the vessels investigated. Multiplication is essentially unknown, in part because it depends on the details of the target and its shielding, which are unlikely to be known in advance. Attenuation of neutron fluxes on the way out are more complicated due to geometry, the spectrum of fission neutrons, and the details of their slowing down during egress. The attenuation by air is large but less uncertain. Detectors and technology are better known. The overall convolution of these effects lead to large but arguably tolerable levels of attenuation of input beams and output signals. That is particularly the case for small, mobile sensors, which can more than compensate for size with proximity to operate reliably while remaining below flux limits. Overall, the estimates used here appear to be of adequate accuracy for decisions. That assessment is strengthened by their agreement with companion calculations.

  20. [HPV-associated cutaneous lesions].

    PubMed

    Kiyofumi, Egawa

    2008-12-01

    More than 100 HPV genotypes are presently distinguished by comparing the DNA sequence of the L1 ORF of each HPV. Two important aspects of the nature of this group of heterogeneous viruses are the way in which specific HPV genotypes are associated with distinct clinical and histological morphologies and the way specific HPV genotypes affect distinct anatomical sites. The former is best evidenced by the HPV type specific cytopathic or cytopathogenic effect (CPE), whereas the latter is suggested by the marked preference of each HPV genotype for specific tissues and sites. Recent studies have also suggested that specific HPV genotypes may target epithelial stem cells at specific anatomical sites. HPV type-specific CPE is the central schema when we analyze and understand the HPV-associated diseases. The concept was suggested by the characterization of distinct HPVs from different types of warts: HPV 2/27/57 from common warts, HPV 3/10/28 from flat warts, HPV 6/11 from condyloma acuminatum, and HPV 5/8 from lesions of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). In this paper, I summarize recent advances in HPV study field, especially on HPV-associated cutaneous lesions. These include inclusion warts, HPV-associated epidermoid cysts, HPV type specific activation of melanogenesis, a double infection with HPV 1 and HPV 63 within a single cell, primary target cells and life cycle of the virus, and the identification of novel genes that are associated EV. The HPV-associated cutaneous lesions thus pose important problems to be resolved in virology and human pathology. PMID:19374195

  1. Delay in cutaneous melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Marcus H.S.B.; Drummond-Lage, Ana P.; Baeta, Cyntia; Rocha, Lorena; Almeida, Alessandra M.; Wainstein, Alberto J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Advanced melanoma is an incurable disease with complex and expensive treatments. The best approach to prevent melanoma at advanced stages is an early diagnosis. A knowledge of factors associated with the process of detecting cutaneous melanomas and the reasons for delays in diagnosis is essential for the improvement of the secondary prevention of the disease. Identify sociodemographic, individual, and medical aspects related to cutaneous melanoma diagnosis delay. Interviews evaluated the knowledge of melanoma, signals, symptoms, persons who were suspected, delays in seeking medical attention, physician's deferrals, and related factors of 211 patients. Melanomas were self-discovered in 41.7% of the patients; healthcare providers detected 29.9% of patients and others detected 27%. The main component in delay was patient-related. Only 31.3% of the patients knew that melanoma was a serious skin cancer, and most thought that the pigmented lesion was not important, causing a delay in seeking medical assistance. Patients (36.4%) reported a wait interval of more than 6 months from the onset of an observed change in a pigmented lesion to the first visit to a physician. The delay interval from the first physician visit to a histopathological diagnosis was shorter (<1 month) in 55.5% of patients. Improper treatments without a histopathological confirmation occurred in 14.7% of patients. A professional delay was related to both inappropriate treatments performed without histopathological confirmation (P = 0.003) and long requirements for medical referrals (P < 0.001). A deficient knowledge in the population regarding melanoma and physicians’ misdiagnoses regarding suspicious lesions contributed to delays in diagnosis. PMID:27495055

  2. Immunopathology of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411

  3. Ferrofluid-associated Cutaneous Dyschromia

    PubMed Central

    Arfa, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ferrofluid is a colloidal suspension that usually consists of surfactant-coated nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a carrier liquid. Ferromagnetic fluid forms spikes when the liquid is exposed to a magnetic field. Purpose: The authors describe a man who developed temporary discoloration of his right palm and fingers after accidental cutaneous contact with ferrofluid and discuss some of the current and potential applications of this unique liquid. Methods: A 28-year-old man was evaluating the effects of magnetic fields using ferrofluid. He performed a modification of the “leaping ferrofluid” demonstration in which he held a superstrong (14,800 gauss magnetic field strength) N52 rare earth neodymium magnet in his palm and slowly lowered that hand over an open bowl that was filled with ferrofluid. Results: As the magnet approached the liquid, the ferrofluid became magnetized. The liquid leaped from the bowl and contacted not only the magnet, but also the palmar surface of his hand and fingers, resulting in a black-brown dyschromia of the affected skin. The discoloration completely resolved after two weeks without any adverse sequellae. Conclusion: Ferrofluid has numerous current and potential applications; in addition to being of value educationally and aesthetically (after being subjected to magnetic fields), it is also utilized for audio loudspeakers, medical innovations (such as a component of either a research tool, a diagnostic aid, or a treatment modality), and seals. Although the authors’ patient did not experience any acute or chronic toxicity from his cutaneous exposure to ferrofluid, conservative follow-up for individuals who experience skin contact with ferromagnetic fluid may be appropriate. PMID:27354890

  4. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma mimicking cutaneous histiocytosis: differentiation by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Baines, S J; McCormick, D; McInnes, E; Dunn, J K; Dobson, J M; McConnell, I

    2000-07-01

    A two-year-old, neutered female cross-bred labrador had multiple cutaneous nodules, biopsies of which revealed pathological changes consistent with cutaneous histiocytosis. During a period of one month the dog developed multicentric lymphadenopathy, a retrobulbar mass and masses within the quadriceps and cervical muscles. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the cutaneous nodules and lymph nodes and histological examination of the cutaneous nodules and muscle masses suggested the presence of lymphoblastic lymphoma. A definitive diagnosis of CD8+ T cell lymphoma was achieved by immunophenotyping the tumour cells by flow cytometry.

  5. What's eating you? Cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kyle A; Ferringer, Tammie C

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a focused update and clinical review on cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), including atypical clinical presentations and newer management recommendations. The results and recommendations are subject to modification based on future studies.

  6. Initial cutaneous manifestation of lymphomas in children.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Christina Lopes Araujo de; Pereira, Luciana Baptista; Rodrigues, Priscila Cezarino; Sampaio, Keyla Cunha; Oliveira, Benigna Maria de; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphomas comprise a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders with skin involvement and are classified as a subgroup of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. From 1981 to 2007, 100 children with non-Hodgkin lymphomas were admitted to the Hematology Unit of the Federal University of Minas Gerais Teaching Hospital. In nine of these children, the skin was involved at the onset of the disease. Three patients were classified as having primary cutaneous lymphoma, while in six the disease was systemic with cutaneous involvement. In seven patients, the immunophenotype was T-cell, in one it was B-cell, and in the remaining case the immunophenotype was indefinable. No deaths occurred in any of the children with primary cutaneous lymphoma. PMID:21987155

  7. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  8. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control.

    PubMed

    Choi, Julia T; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-07-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased cutaneous sensory function as evidenced by increased touch threshold. Absolute dorsiflexion force error increased without visual feedback during peroneal nerve stimulation. This was not a general effect of stimulation because force error did not increase during plantar nerve stimulation. The effects of transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle joint. Understanding how the nervous system normally uses cutaneous feedback in motor control will help us identify which functional aspects are impaired in aging and neurological diseases.

  9. Choroidal Metastases From Cutaneous Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Carmel L; Toy, Brian C; Kistler, Henry B; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-05-01

    A 92-year-old man presented with months of progressive blurry vision, worsening acutely in his right eye. He denied pain, diplopia, or photopsias. His history was significant for multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, and malignant melanoma of his right shoulder treated with local excision. He had local recurrence with hepatic metastasis of the melanoma treated with radiation and chemotherapy. On examination, his visual acuity was counting fingers in the right eye and 20/60 in the left eye. Amsler grid testing demonstrated metamorphopsia in the right eye. Fundus exam of the right and left eyes revealed multiple, elevated, pigmented choroidal lesions, with associated subretinal fluid in the right macula. This appearance is consistent with hematogenous metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma to the choroid and associated serous fluid-causing metamorphopsia. The patient was enrolled in a clinical trial combining plasmid IL-12 with pembrolizumab (Keytruda; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ). He passed away 2 months after initial presentation to our clinic. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:497.]. PMID:27183558

  10. Cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.; Staberg, B.

    1983-12-01

    The disappearance rate of /sup 133/Xe was studied in 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using an epicutaneous labeling technique in involved skin lesions or normal-appearing skin of the proximal extensor site of the forearm. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal subjects. Calculations of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) in psoriatic skin lesions were performed using a tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for /sup 133/Xe, lambda c,pso, of 1.2 ml/100 g/min. lambda c,pso was estimated after the relative content of water, lipids, and proteins had been analyzed in psoriatic skin biopsies of 6 patients with untreated psoriasis. The mean relative content of water was markedly reduced to 23.5 +/- 1.5% (SEM), and lipids and proteins were markedly increased to 2.5 +/- 0.7% and 74.0 +/- 2.2, respectively, compared to previously published data for normal skin (water 72.5%, lipids 1%, proteins 26.5%). Mean CBF in untreated psoriatic skin was 63.5 +/- 9.0 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than the mean CBF in 10 normal subjects, 6.3 +/- 0.5 ml/100 g/min (p much less than 0.0001). Mean CBF in normal-appearing skin in patients with psoriasis was 11.0 +/- 1.3 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than CBF in normal subjects (p less than 0.0002).

  11. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Van Goethem, M.-J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images. This causes systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4%, but can become even 10% in bone regions [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. This may lead to no dose in parts of the tumor and too high dose in healthy tissues [1]. A direct measurement of proton stopping powers with high-energy protons will allow reducing these uncertainties and will improve the quality of the treatment. Several studies have shown that a sufficiently accurate radiograph can be obtained by tracking individual protons traversing a phantom (patient) [4,6,10]. Our studies benefit from the gas-filled time projection chambers based on GridPix technology [2], developed at Nikhef, capable of tracking a single proton. A BaF2 crystal measuring the residual energy of protons was used. Proton radiographs of phantom consisting of different tissue-like materials were measured with a 30×30 mm2 150 MeV proton beam. Measurements were simulated with the Geant4 toolkit.First experimental and simulated energy radiographs are in very good agreement [3]. In this paper we focus on simulation studies of the proton scattering angle as it affects the position resolution of the proton energy loss radiograph. By selecting protons with a small scattering angle, the image quality can be improved significantly.

  12. Epidemiology of chronic cutaneous wounds in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing; Liu, Hongwei; Ran, Xingwu; Lu, Shuliang; Hu, Dahai; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Ying; Wang, Runxiu; Xie, Ting; Cheng, Biao; Wang, Lingfeng; Liu, Yi; Ye, Xiangbai; Han, Chunmao; Chen, Huade

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cutaneous wounds represent a major health care burden in China. However, limited information exists regarding the epidemiologic changes associated with recent social and economic development. We designed a cross-sectional survey in 2,513 patients who underwent treatment of chronic cutaneous wounds from a nationally representative sample in 17 hospitals between 2007 and 2008. Results revealed the prevalence of chronic cutaneous wounds among hospitalized patients was 1.7‰. Patient ages ranged from 18 days to 96 years (median, 58 years). The highest ratios were among 40-60 and 60-80-year-old patients (31% and 38%, respectively). The leading causes of chronic cutaneous wounds were diabetes (31.3% men, 35.3% women) trauma (26.4% men, 19.2% women). Manual workers (38.5% men, 29.3% women) and retirees (27.9% men, 23.5% women) accounted for over half the chronic cutaneous wound patients. Regarding treatments, only 22.4% were treated with modern dressings or other novel technologies and more patients received antibiotics (77.8%). Treatment was paid for by the patients in 42.3% of cases, by social medical insurance in 25.0%, by commercial medical insurance in 4.8%, while 27.9% received free medical care. Approximately half the patients' wounds were completely healed at discharge (1,345/2,513). In conclusion, diabetes has recently become the leading cause of chronic cutaneous wounds in China. The large population and considerable financial burden mean that serious attention should be paid to the early detection, prevention and diagnosis of chronic cutaneous wounds, and suggest that an overall health insurance system should be established, especially for the elderly. PMID:21362085

  13. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, Walter

    2015-02-01

    In the last five decades, proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion-ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  14. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bogle, Melissa A; Riddle, Christy C; Triana, Emily M; Jones, Dan; Duvic, Madeleine

    2005-09-01

    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas include extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma, and, rarely, mantle cell lymphoma. Our purpose in conducting this review was to determine the clinical and behavioral characteristics of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, their relationship to infectious triggers, and therapeutic response. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 23 adult patients presenting to the dermatology clinic at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma between January 1999 and May 2003. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas generally present on the head and neck, with the trunk and extremities afflicted to a lesser extent. Patients were found to have serologic evidence of prior infection with Borrelia burgdorferi (n = 10), Helicobacter pylori (n = 5), and Epstein-Barr virus (n = 6). Overall, treatment of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma should involve multiple modalities; however, specific treatment aimed at concurrent or suspected infection, particularly B burgdorferi, is a helpful adjunct and may achieve complete remission in a small subset of patients.

  15. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  16. Management of cutaneous metastases using electrochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Matthiessen, Louise Wichmann; Chalmers, Richard Ling; Sainsbury, David Christopher George; Veeramani, Sivakumar; Kessell, Gareth; Humphreys, Alison Claire; Bond, Jane Elisabeth; Muir, Tobian; Gehl, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cutaneous metastases may cause considerable discomfort as a consequence of ulceration, oozing, bleeding and pain. Electrochemotherapy has proven to be highly effective in the treatment of cutaneous metastases. Electrochemotherapy utilises pulses of electricity to increase the permeability of the cell membrane and thereby augment the effect of chemotherapy. For the drug bleomycin, the effect is enhanced several hundred-fold, enabling once-only treatment. The primary endpoint of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of electrochemotherapy as a palliative treatment. Methods. This phase II study is a collaboration between two centres, one in Denmark and the other in the UK. Patients with cutaneous metastases of any histology were included. Bleomycin was administered intratumourally or intravenously followed by application of electric pulses to the tumour site. Results. Fifty-two patients were included. Complete and partial response rate was 68% and 18%, respectively, for cutaneous metastases <3 cm and 8% and 23%, respectively, for cutaneous metastases >3 cm. Treatment was well-tolerated by patients, including the elderly, and no serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions. ECT is an efficient and safe treatment and clinicians should not hesitate to use it even in the elderly. PMID:21574833

  17. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... LOC syndrome is missing patches of skin (cutaneous erosions). The erosions heal slowly and may become infected. People with ... These abnormalities of laminin 332 cause the cutaneous erosions and overgrowth of granulation tissue that are characteristic ...

  19. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  20. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  1. Novel Cutaneous Manifestations of Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Christopher M; Morrison, Annie O; Candelario, Nicole M; Khalafbeigi, Sheva; Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-10-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare progressive disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lobe and pleura. Approximately 100 cases have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations of PPFE have not previously been described. Diagnosis is dependent on histologic identification of fibrosis with atypical elastic fibers, necessitating an invasive peripheral lung wedge biopsy.A 68-year-old male with a history of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis presented with an asymptomatic, telangiectatic erythematous eruption on bilateral lower extremities. Biopsies demonstrated a subtle perivascular infiltrate with marked increase in atypical elastic fibers, similar to the elastosis in the patient's lungs.This is the first documented case of cutaneous manifestations in PPFE. Clinicians need to be aware that cutaneous eruptions clinically simulating telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans but lacking a mast cell infiltrate histologically, may have increased abnormal elastic fibers. Thus, early recognition of these lesions in patients with an undefined restrictive lung disorder, may facilitate the diagnosis of PPFE in some patients.

  2. Creation of a virtual cutaneous tissue bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFramboise, William A.; Shah, Sujal; Hoy, R. W.; Letbetter, D.; Petrosko, P.; Vennare, R.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2000-04-01

    Cellular and non-cellular constituents of skin contain fundamental morphometric features and structural patterns that correlate with tissue function. High resolution digital image acquisitions performed using an automated system and proprietary software to assemble adjacent images and create a contiguous, lossless, digital representation of individual microscope slide specimens. Serial extraction, evaluation and statistical analysis of cutaneous feature is performed utilizing an automated analysis system, to derive normal cutaneous parameters comprising essential structural skin components. Automated digital cutaneous analysis allows for fast extraction of microanatomic dat with accuracy approximating manual measurement. The process provides rapid assessment of feature both within individual specimens and across sample populations. The images, component data, and statistical analysis comprise a bioinformatics database to serve as an architectural blueprint for skin tissue engineering and as a diagnostic standard of comparison for pathologic specimens.

  3. Important cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Trost, L; McDonnell, J

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has many extraintestinal manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. Anyone presenting with IBD should be examined for cutaneous manifestations. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a severe painful ulcerating disease that requires moist wound management and, in the absence of secondary infection, systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, or both. Infliximab may also be used. Erythema nodosum is a common cause of tender red nodules of the shins. Management includes leg elevation, NSAIDs, and potassium iodide. Oral manifestations of IBD include aphthous stomatitis, mucosal nodularity (cobblestoning), and pyostomatitis vegetans. Treatment should be directed both at the cutaneous lesions and at the underlying systemic condition. PMID:16143688

  4. Novel Cutaneous Manifestations of Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Christopher M; Morrison, Annie O; Candelario, Nicole M; Khalafbeigi, Sheva; Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-10-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare progressive disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lobe and pleura. Approximately 100 cases have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations of PPFE have not previously been described. Diagnosis is dependent on histologic identification of fibrosis with atypical elastic fibers, necessitating an invasive peripheral lung wedge biopsy.A 68-year-old male with a history of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis presented with an asymptomatic, telangiectatic erythematous eruption on bilateral lower extremities. Biopsies demonstrated a subtle perivascular infiltrate with marked increase in atypical elastic fibers, similar to the elastosis in the patient's lungs.This is the first documented case of cutaneous manifestations in PPFE. Clinicians need to be aware that cutaneous eruptions clinically simulating telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans but lacking a mast cell infiltrate histologically, may have increased abnormal elastic fibers. Thus, early recognition of these lesions in patients with an undefined restrictive lung disorder, may facilitate the diagnosis of PPFE in some patients. PMID:27643829

  5. Current approach to cutaneous mastocytosis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Tamay, Zeynep; Özçeker, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by clonal proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in one of more organs which may lead to different clinical pictures. Pathological increase and activation of mast cells in various tissues can cause different clinical pictures. Cutaneous mastocytosis limited to the skin is the most typical clinical picture observed in children and systemic mastocytosis is very rare in the pediatric age group. The diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis is based on clinical findings, but is often delayed due to lack of clinical awareness of the disease and lack of its consideration in the differential diagnosis. This article focuses on the current diagnosis, management and treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis in children in order to increase awareness about this issue.

  6. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Staging of Cutaneous Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elise A

    2015-10-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCLs) are an extremely heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that manifest in the skin. Their diagnosis is complex and based on clinical lesion type and evaluation of findings on light microscopic examination, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis of representative skin biopsies. The evaluation, classification, and staging system is unique for mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), the most common subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) versus the other subtypes of Non-MF/Non-SS CTCL and the subtypes of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL). Since current treatment is stage-based, it is particularly important that the correct diagnosis and stage be ascertained initially. The purpose of this article is to review the current evaluation, diagnosis, classification, staging, assessment techniques, and response criteria for the various types of both T-cell and B-cell PCLs. PMID:26433839

  7. Problems in Cutaneous Communication from Psychophysics to Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmer, B. VonHaller; Clark, Leslie L., Ed.

    After reviewing the history of communication through the skin, this paper considers recent research into the problem of cutaneous stimulation induced both mechanically and electrically. The general demands of a cutaneous communication system are discussed, and four primary dimensions of cutaneous stimulation are summarized (locus, intensity,…

  8. Cutaneous metastasis from gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Ana Lucia Ariano; Corbett, Ana Maria França; Oliveira Filho, Jayme de; Nasser, Kassila da Rosa; Haddad, Natalie Nejem; Tebet, Ana Carolina Franco

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis is a rare manifestation of visceral malignancies that indicates primarily advanced disease. Due to its low incidence and similarity to other cutaneous lesions, it is not uncommon to have a delayed diagnosis and a shortened prognosis. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a cutaneous nodule in the sternal region as a first sign of malignancy.

  9. Porcine models of cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Max; Hocking, Anne; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing in the pig is frequently used as a model for human cutaneous wound healing. In this review, we examine the appropriateness of this model for studying normal and pathological wound healing, and describe models for chronic nonhealing wounds, diabetic wounds, burns, and hypertrophic scars. In addition, we focus on studies that have used pigs to evaluate wound-healing therapies, and discuss genetic engineering technology in the pig that may advance our knowledge of wound healing. We conclude that, although not perfect, the pig offers a versatile model that can be adjusted to mimic a wide range of clinical scenarios.

  10. Cutaneous mosaicisms: concepts, patterns and classifications*

    PubMed Central

    Kouzak, Samara Silva; Mendes, Marcela Sena Teixeira; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic is an organism composed of two or more genetically distinct cell populations derived from a genetically homogeneous zygote. Cutaneous mosaicisms are the clinical expressions of these disorders. The main event which allows the existence of mosaicism is a genetic mutation, either structural or functional. Cutaneous mosaicisms usually manifest by specific patterns on the skin and the archetypic pattern is the system of Blaschko lines, but others include checkerboard, phylloid, large patches without midline separation and lateralization. Since 1901, when Blaschko lines were first described, the study of mosasicism has helped to elucidate the behavior of numerous genetic diseases, generating therapeutic perspectives for these pathologies, including the promising gene therapy. PMID:24068120

  11. Paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations: concepts and updates*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josenilson Antônio; Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Lucas, Isabella Cristina Rodrigues Naves; Freitas, Aline Ferreira; de Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Campbell, Iphis Tenfuss

    2013-01-01

    The skin often signals systemic changes. Some neoplastic diseases that affect internal organs may trigger several cutaneous manifestations. Although these dermatoses are relatively unusual, the recognition of some typical paraneoplastic dermatoses may lead to the early diagnosis of a neoplasm and determine a better prognosis. In this review article, we discuss the paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations strongly associated with neoplasms, which include acanthosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, erythema gyratum repens, Bazex syndrome, acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa, necrolytic migratory erythema, Leser-Trélat sign and paraneoplastic pemphigus. We also review the clinical manifestations of each condition and include updated knowledge on disease pathogenesis. PMID:23538999

  12. Cutaneous malignancies in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ivette M Sosa; Zubair, Adeel; Brewer, Jerry D

    2014-01-01

    During the past century, organ transplantation has delivered the miracle of life to more than 500,000 patients in need. Secondary malignancies have developed as an unforeseen consequence of intense immunosuppressive regimens. Cutaneous malignancies have been recognized as the most frequent cancer that arises post-transplantation. Among organ transplant recipients (OTRs), skin cancer is a substantial cause of morbidity and potential mortality. The authors discuss epidemiology and clinical presentation of cutaneous malignancies; associated risk factors; recommendation for the care of immunosuppressed OTRs, and emerging therapies on the horizon.

  13. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nalli R Sumitra; Valarmathi, K; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-02-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  14. Romidepsin for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Prince, H Miles; Dickinson, Michael; Khot, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are relatively rare lymphomas and the most common form is mycosis fungoides. Its rare leukemic variant is Sezary syndrome. Advanced-stage disease is typically treated with bexarotene (a retinoid), IFN-α or conventional chemotherapeutic agents, but relapses are inevitable. Histone deacetylase inhibitors that modify the epigenome are an attractive addition to the armamentarium. Based on two large Phase II studies, the US FDA approved intravenous romidepsin for patients with relapsed/refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Romidepsin provides a subset of patients with an opportunity for prolonged clinical responses with a tolerable side-effect profile.

  15. Primary cutaneous lymphomas: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Olek-Hrab, Karolina; Ruckemann-Dziurdzińska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas (CLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative neoplasms, with lymphatic proliferation limited to the skin with no involvement of lymph nodes, bone marrow or viscera at the diagnosis. Cutaneous lymphomas originate from mature T-lymphocytes (65% of all cases), mature B-lymphocytes (25%) or NK cells. Histopathological evaluation including immunophenotyping of the skin biopsy specimen is the basis of the diagnosis, which must be complemented with a precise staging of the disease and identification of prognostic factors, to allow for the choice of the best treatment method as well as for the evaluation of the treatment results. PMID:26759546

  16. Three eyelid localized cutaneous anthrax cases.

    PubMed

    Esmer, Oktay; Karadag, Remzi; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Gultepe, Bilge; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2014-12-01

    Anthrax is primarily seen in the developing countries, but it can be a worldwide medical concern due to bioterrorism threats. Palpebral anthrax is a rare form of cutaneous anthrax. Untreated cutaneous anthrax can be lethal. Patients with palpebral anthrax can develop complications including cicatrisation and ectropion. Thus, anthrax should be considered in differential diagnosis for patients presenting with preseptal cellulitis in high-risk regions. Herein, we report three anthrax cases (with different age) involving eyelids that were cured without any complications due to early diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Primary cutaneous lymphomas: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Olek-Hrab, Karolina; Ruckemann-Dziurdzińska, Katarzyna

    2015-10-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas (CLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative neoplasms, with lymphatic proliferation limited to the skin with no involvement of lymph nodes, bone marrow or viscera at the diagnosis. Cutaneous lymphomas originate from mature T-lymphocytes (65% of all cases), mature B-lymphocytes (25%) or NK cells. Histopathological evaluation including immunophenotyping of the skin biopsy specimen is the basis of the diagnosis, which must be complemented with a precise staging of the disease and identification of prognostic factors, to allow for the choice of the best treatment method as well as for the evaluation of the treatment results. PMID:26759546

  18. Cutaneous Manifestations in POEMS Syndrome: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Flauberto Sousa; Pirmez, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Renata; Cuzzi, Tullia; Sodré, Celso Tavares; Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of sensorimotor polyneuropathy, diffuse cutaneous hyperpigmentation, skin sclerodermiform thickening and papular lesions in the infraclavicular and abdominal region. Besides weight loss, there were diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. The alterations were consistent with POEMS (Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal gammopathy and Skin changes) syndrome, which is a rare systemic disease with monoclonal proliferation of plasmacytes and slow progression. Cutaneous alterations are present in 68% of patients with diffuse cutaneous hyperpigmentation, plethora and acrocyanosis. Leukonychia, necrotizing vasculitis, hypertrichosis and cutaneous thickening of sclerodermiform type are also cited. The onset of multiple cutaneous angiomas in this syndrome has been observed in 24–44% of patients. PMID:26034475

  19. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Jason C.; Ward, Peter B.; Johnson, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Prototheca wickerhamii has been predominantly recognised as a pathogen in immunocompromised hosts with deficits in innate or cellular immunity. The role of specific immunoglobulin against Prototheca in host immunity is uncertain. We describe a case of persistent cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia most likely due to common variable immunodeficiency, with clinical response to voriconazole. PMID:24432237

  20. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jason C; Ward, Peter B; Johnson, Paul D

    2013-06-20

    Prototheca wickerhamii has been predominantly recognised as a pathogen in immunocompromised hosts with deficits in innate or cellular immunity. The role of specific immunoglobulin against Prototheca in host immunity is uncertain. We describe a case of persistent cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia most likely due to common variable immunodeficiency, with clinical response to voriconazole. PMID:24432237

  1. Prototheca wickerhamii Cutaneous and Systemic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Deng-Wei; Chung, Kuo-Mou; Lee, Chao-Tai

    2014-01-01

    Prototheca wickerhamii, an environmental alga, rarely causes human infections. We present a case of Prototheca wickerhamii cutaneous and systemic infections in an 85-year-old male with adrenal insufficiency. This organism was identified by morphological features and microbiological tests. The patient was successfully treated with ketoconazole. PMID:25274832

  2. Prototheca wickerhamii cutaneous and systemic infections.

    PubMed

    Chou, Deng-Wei; Chung, Kuo-Mou; Lee, Chao-Tai

    2014-10-01

    Prototheca wickerhamii, an environmental alga, rarely causes human infections. We present a case of Prototheca wickerhamii cutaneous and systemic infections in an 85-year-old male with adrenal insufficiency. This organism was identified by morphological features and microbiological tests. The patient was successfully treated with ketoconazole. PMID:25274832

  3. Cytomegalovirus Cutaneous Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Faye T; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Adjapong, Opoku; Thirumala, Raghukumar

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is an opportunistic infection with a typically benign course in the healthy host but has a more ominous course in the immunocompromised population. CMV infection commonly affects the visceral organs, particularly the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tract. CMV cutaneous lesions are rare and can be easily missed. We present a case of a 76-year-old woman presenting with a diffuse non-pruritic macular lesion with scattered vesicles and bullae, which was initially treated as a varicella zoster virus infection and herpes simplex viral infection, but was later found on biopsy to be due to cytomegalovirus. She has a history of Sjögren's syndrome, interstitial lung disease, and being on chronic immunosuppression therapy. This case highlights the importance of considering CMV infection in the differential diagnosis of vesicular skin lesions in immunocompromised patients. Based on a PubMed search for “cutaneous cytomegalovirus”, “cutaneous CMV”, “cytomegalovirus skin”, and “skin CMV” in material published in the last 20 years (from 1996 to 2016) and reviewing any applicable referenced material outside of those dates, cases of cutaneous CMV are not well documented. PMID:27335710

  4. [Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Bravo Puccio, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV). Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus, highlight among the first group. Regarding the lymphoproliferative disorders, we should mention the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1), which is responsible for the T-cell lymphomas, in which the cutaneous manifestations are non-specific and have a wide spectrum, thus posing a challenge for differential diagnosis. The Epstein Barr virus, linked to nasal lymphomas of NK/T-cells and Hydroa-like cutaneous lymphomas, is also part of this group. In an era in which the genetic and molecular aspects of cancer research prevail, we may not leave behind the concept of neoplasms as a result an infection with a viral agent, which opens a wide array of new possibilities for cancer treatment based on antiviral drugs. PMID:23612818

  5. Multiple cutaneous histiocytosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Thornton, R N; Tisdall, C J

    1988-12-01

    Two cases of canine cutaneous histiocytosis are described. Diagnosis depended on overall consideration of clinical and histopathological features of the disease, as well as its response to anti-inflammatory therapy. No aetiological agent was visible using light and electron microscopy.

  6. Transgenic mouse model of cutaneous adnexal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Yusuke; Saigo, Chiemi; Atsushi, Kurabayashi; Mutsuo, Furihata; Tamotsu, Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    TMEM207 was first characterized as being an important molecule for the invasion activity of gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma cells. In order to unravel the pathological properties of TMEM207, we generated several transgenic mouse lines, designated C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207), in which murine TMEM207 was ectopically expressed under a truncated (by ~200 bp) proximal promoter of the murine intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) gene (also known as Tff3). Unexpectedly, a C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse line exhibited a high incidence of spontaneous intradermal tumors with histopathological features that resembled those of various human cutaneous adnexal tumors. These tumors were found in ~14% female and 13% of male 6- to 12-month-old mice. TMEM207 immunoreactivity was found in hair follicle bulge cells in non-tumorous skin, as well as in cutaneous adnexal tumors of the transgenic mouse. The ITF-TMEM207 construct in this line appeared to be inserted to a major satellite repeat sequence at chromosome 2, in which no definite coding molecule was found. In addition, we also observed cutaneous adnexal tumors in three other C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) transgenic mouse lines. We believe that the C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse might be a useful model to understand human cutaneous adnexal tumors. PMID:25305140

  7. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  8. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication.

  9. Human cutaneous anthrax, Georgia 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kracalik, Ian; Malania, Lile; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Manvelyan, Julietta; Bakanidze, Lela; Imnadze, Paata; Tsanava, Shota; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-02-01

    We assessed the occurrence of human cutaneous anthrax in Georgia during 2010--2012 by examining demographic and spatial characteristics of reported cases. Reporting increased substantially, as did clustering of cases near urban centers. Control efforts, including education about anthrax and livestock vaccination, can be directed at areas of high risk.

  10. Periorbital cellulitis due to cutaneous anthrax.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Grant; Starks, Victoria; Vrcek, Ivan; Gilliland, Connor

    2015-12-01

    Virgil's plague of the ancient world, Bacillus anthracis, is rare in developed nations. Unfortunately rural communities across the globe continue to be exposed to this potentially lethal bacterium. Herein we report a case of periorbital cutaneous anthrax infection in a 3-year-old girl from the rural area surrounding Harare, Zimbabwe with a brief review of the literature.

  11. Cutaneous sporotrichosis. Intermittent treatment (pulses) with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Fierro, Leonel; Saúl, Amado; Ponce, Rosa María

    2008-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous and exceptionally deep mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. Itraconazole is a triazole derivative leading to good results in the treatment of sporotrichosis. Patients with cutaneous sporotrichosis proven with mycological tests (direct examination and culture) were enrolled. All patients underwent laboratory tests (at baseline and on a monthly basis) and received oral itraconazole 400 mg/day for one week with a 3-week break (pulses); thereafter the drug was administered as pulses until clinical and mycological cure was achieved. Five patients with sporotrichosis were enrolled, 4 with cutaneous lymphangitic form and one with fixed cutaneous form. Clinical and mycological cure was achieved in 4/5 cases (80%), with a mean number of pulses of 3.5. No patient had side effects and no laboratory test abnormalities occurred. Intermittent or pulsed itraconazole was effective in treating cutaneous sporotrichosis. It may be considered as a new treatment choice that entails an important reduction in total medication use.

  12. [Cutaneous malignant melanoma and the new drugs].

    PubMed

    Nieweg, Omgo E; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of cutaneous melanoma has historically been essentially surgical. Much progress has been made in this area, and the resection margins have been established based on tumour depth. Candidates are also identified for lymphadenectomy, avoiding the morbidity of the procedure in patients who do not require it. But little progress has been made in systemic treatment, since the 70's when the use of dacarbazine was introduced for the treatment of patients with tumour progression or distant metastasis, with disappointing results. Despite this, Dacarbazine has been the most used drug to the present. Three years ago, two new drugs were introduced, one of them based on the target therapy and other one in the immunotherapy, offering, with the obtained results, an alternative in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma The objectives of this article are to show the pathways of these drugs, to describe the current role of surgery in cutaneous melanoma, with the arrival of these drugs, as well as to know the therapeutic alternatives that are emerging for the cutaneous melanoma based on scientific evidence. PMID:26001767

  13. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  14. Clinical Characteristics of Odontogenic Cutaneous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Young; Kang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Won; Choi, Ki Hwa; Yoon, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic cutaneous fistula appears as dimpling or a nodule with purulent discharge, usually in the chin or jaw. Affected patients usually seek help from dermatologists or surgeons rather than from dentists. However, clinical symptoms of facial skin fistula without dental problems can lead to misdiagnosis. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with odontogenic cutaneous fistulas. Methods This retrospective observational study was performed at Chungbuk National University Hospital by analyzing patients who visited from April 1994 to September 2014. Following clinical and radiographic examinations, the paths and origins of sinus fistulas were determined. Investigated factors were gender, age, morphology, location, originating tooth, time to evolution, recurrence, and treatment method. Results Thirty-three patients (22 males, 11 females; average age 49.2 years) were examined during the investigation period. Thirty-four fistulas were diagnosed as odontogenic cutaneous fistulas. The most common morphology was dimpling (n=14, 41.2%). The various locations observed were related to the originating tooth. The most common site was the mandibular body related to mandibular molars. The referral clinical diagnosis was of odontogenic origin in 6 cases (18.2%). The majority of patients had experienced recurrence after treatment in previous clinics that had failed to diagnose odontogenic cutaneous fistula. Surgical fistulectomy and/or tooth treatment were performed in all cases. All patients were followed-up for 1 year. None showed signs of recurrence. Conclusion Extraoral and dental examinations are required to make a diagnosis of odontogenic cutaneous fistula. Thus, cooperation between dermatologists and dentists is essential. PMID:27489421

  15. Clinical characteristics of cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Szczęch, Justyna; Rutka, Maja; Samotij, Dominik; Zalewska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lupus erythematosus (LE) shows a wide variety of clinical manifestations, skin involvement being one of the most important. Aim To analyze the clinical presentation of cutaneous variants of lupus erythematosus in terms of skin lesion spectrum and extracutaneous involvement. Material and methods A total of 64 patients with cutaneous LE (CLE) were included. The study was based on the “Core Set Questionnaire” developed by the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE). Clinical severity of skin lesions was evaluated with the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index (CLASI). All results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results Fifteen (23.4%) patients had an acute CLE (ACLE), 26 (40.6%) subacute CLE (SCLE) and 21 (32.8%) chronic CLE (CCLE). Two (3.2%) individuals only demonstrated urticarial vasculitis as a cutaneous manifestation of LE and these patients were excluded. Patients with ACLE were characterized by the earliest onset of the disease (mean age of 31.9 ±15.0 years; p < 0.001). On average, 4.8 ±1.8 criteria of systemic LE were found in the ACLE group compared to 2.7 ±1.3 criteria in SCLE and 2.5 ±1.5 criteria in CCLE (p < 0.001). The highest activity of skin lesions according to CLASI was found in the SCLE group (p = 0.002). On the other hand, the most severe skin damage was observed in CCLE (p < 0.01). Conclusions Each variant of CLE differs significantly from the others in respect of various aspects of clinical manifestations. Due to a number of different variants of LE skin lesions, a unified classification of CLE still remains a challenge. PMID:26985173

  16. Circulating Immune Complexes in Cutaneous Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Mackel, Susan E.; Tappeiner, Gerhard; Brumfield, Hilton; Jordon, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate the pathogeneic significance of immune complexes in cutaneous vasculitis, 107 patients with various forms of cutaneous vasculitis, including 59 patients with necrotizing (leukocytoclastic) vasculitis (group 1), and 48 patients with lymphocytic vasculitis, or a predominately lymphocytic perivascular infiltrate (group 2), were studied. Immunoglobulins or complement components in cutaneous blood vessels were detected by direct immunofluorescence in high frequency in both groups (91 and 88%, respectively). Using two radioassays for circulating immune complexes, Clq or monoclonal rheumatoid factor (mRF) reactive material was detected in 68% of the patients with necrotizing vasculitis but only 44% of the patients in the lymphocytic-perivascular group. The mRF radioassay was elevated in 58% of the first group of patients and 41% of the patients in group 2, although Clq binding activity was increased in 54% of the patients with necrotizing vasculitis but only in 9% of the patients with a lymphocytic vasculitis or lymphocytic perivascular infiltrate. By using both sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and Sepharose 6B gel filtration, the Clq and mRF reactive material detected in some patients with necrotizing vasculitis eluted in high molecular weight fractions that were also anticomplementary. In one patient with necrotizing vasculitis and hepatitis B antigenemia, these heavy molecular weight Clq and mRF reactive fractions contained a two- to three-fold increase in hepatitis B surface antigen when compared with lighter molecular weight fractions. Heavy and light molecular weight mRF reactive material could be detected in selected patients in the lymphocytic-perivascular group as well as in the necrotizing vasculitis group. These studies suggest that cutaneous vasculitis, including acute necrotizing (leukocytoclastic) vasculitis and some forms of lymphocytic vasculitis, and perhaps some diseases characterized by a lymphocytic perivascular infiltrate

  17. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  18. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  19. What's In a Proton?

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  20. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  1. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  2. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. PMID:24074929

  3. Can proton pump inhibitors accentuate skin aging?

    PubMed

    Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Jowkar, Farideh

    2010-02-01

    Skin aging has long been important to human beings and in recent years this field has received tremendous attention by both researchers and the general population. Cutaneous aging includes two distinct phenomena, intrinsic aging and photoaging, and is characterized mainly by the loss of collagen fibers from dermis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed gastric acid-reducing agents that are usually consumed for long periods in some conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. We suggest that PPIs can accentuate skin aging by two mechanisms. First, through increasing intralysosomal PH, PPIs can suppress transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) processing and consequently decrease its secretion. Second, through inhibiting MNK, a P-type ATPase with steady-state localization at the trans-Golgi network, PPIs can hamper copper transport and consequently curb lysyl oxidase activity. PMID:20470945

  4. Verrucous cutaneous sarcoidosis: case report and review of this unusual variant of cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Stockman, David L; Rosenberg, Jason; Bengana, Chafik; Suster, Saul; Plaza, Jose A

    2013-04-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown origin, characterized by the accumulation of lymphocytes and mononuclear histiocytes inducing the formation of noncaseating "naked" epithelioid granulomas. The lungs, lymphatic system, and skin are most often affected, but sarcoidosis may affect any organ. Cutaneous involvement of sarcoidosis is often the sentinel sign of the disease, with the skin sometimes being exclusively affected. We present a case of a 54-year-old African American woman with long-standing history of pulmonary sarcoidosis that presented with multiple verrucous cutaneous lesions on the upper and lower extremities mimicking carcinoma. The initial cutaneous biopsy was superficial in nature, and the pathologist raised the consideration of a possible keratoacanthoma. A deeper skin shave biopsy was performed, and the histopathology showed verrucous pseudoepitheliomatous epidermal hyperplasia with scattered noncaseating granulomas in the superficial dermis. Stains (acid-fast bacillus, Periodic acid-Schiff, and Gomori-Grocott methenamine silver stains) were negative for microorganisms. Given the clinical setting and histomorphology of the cutaneous lesions, the diagnosis of verrucous sarcoidosis was rendered. Verrucous sarcoidosis is a rare cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis that could be easily misdiagnosed if it is not appropriately biopsied. This hinders the precise evaluation of the histological specimen, overall clinical picture, and administration of appropriate therapy. PMID:23344007

  5. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  6. Expertise effects in cutaneous wind perception.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Joost P; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Mulder, Fabian A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether expertise effects are present in cutaneous wind perception. To this end, we presented wind stimuli consisting of different wind directions and speeds in a wind simulator. The wind simulator generated wind stimuli from 16 directions and with three speeds by means of eight automotive wind fans. Participants were asked to judge cutaneously perceived wind directions and speeds without having access to any visual or auditory information. Expert sailors (n = 6), trained to make the most effective use of wind characteristics, were compared to less-skilled sailors (n = 6) and to a group of nonsailors (n = 6). The results indicated that expert sailors outperformed nonsailors in perceiving wind direction (i.e., smaller mean signed errors) when presented with low wind speeds. This suggests that expert sailors are more sensitive in picking up differences in wind direction, particularly when confronted with low wind speeds that demand higher sensitivity.

  7. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis:a case report.

    PubMed

    Bose, Mohua; Ghosh, Ranadeep; Mukherjee, Kheya; Ghoshal, Loknath

    2014-07-01

    Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by filamentous gram positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic non acid fast bacilli primarily of the genus Actinomyces that normally colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare entity and is generally associated with trauma. We report a case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the back and left axilla in a 32-year-old female patient with no suggestive history of trauma.The diagnosis was suggested by the characteristic lesions with multiple discharging sinuses draining sero-sanguinous fluid scattered all over the lesions. Gram positive bacilli with plenty of pus cells were demonstrated in the direct examination of the discharging pus. Diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the organisms by anaerobic culture giving typical molar tooth colonies. Final confirmation was done by histopathological examination.

  8. Solitary metachronous splenic metastasis from cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Goupou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma has been found to metastasise to the spleen, usually in cases of disseminated disease. Solitary splenic metastasis from cutaneous melanoma is very rare. Herein we report the case of a 43-year-old man who developed solitary splenic metastasis from cutaneous melanoma. The patient was operated for T4b N1a Mo superficial spreading melanoma of the anterior thoracic wall. He subsequently underwent left axillary lymph node dissection due to a positive sentinel lymph node. The 33 retrieved lymph nodes were negative for metastasis. The patient received adjuvant therapy with high-dose interferon α-2b. After 27 months and during the follow-up visit an increasing lactate dehydrogenase serum level was observed. Furthermore, CT of the whole body revealed a solitary hypodense tumour of the spleen 9 cm×6 cm. Curative splenectomy was performed and the histopathological report confirmed metastatic melanoma to the spleen. PMID:23104633

  9. Cutaneous porphyrias part II: treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Suzanne; Alikhan, Ali; Horner, Mary E; Hand, Jennifer L; Davis, Dawn Marie R

    2014-01-01

    The porphyrias are diverse in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, severity, and prognosis, presenting a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although not easily curable, the dermatological manifestations of these diseases, photosensitivity and associated cutaneous pathology, can be effectively prevented and managed. Sun avoidance is essential, and patient education regarding the irreversibility of photocutaneous damage is a necessary corollary. Beyond preventative measures, the care of fragile, vulnerable skin, and pain management, each of the porphyrias has a limited number of unique additional therapeutic options. Many of the treatments have been published only in small case series or anecdotal reports and do not have well-understood nor proven mechanisms of action. This article presents a comprehensive review of available therapeutic options and long-term management recommendations for the cutaneous porphyrias.

  10. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    PubMed

    Annessi, G; Cimitan, A; Zambruno, G; Di Silverio, A

    1992-01-01

    A 54-year-old man, affected by pemphigus vulgaris and severe steroid-induced diabetes, developed seven red-brown, firm, slightly raised 0.1-1 cm papular lesions on the anterior aspect of both knees and thighs. A cutaneous biopsy showed a granulomatous infiltrate with numerous fungal elements scattered in the dermis and also within giant cells. Cultures of cutaneous biopsy fragments on Sabouraud glucose agar in presence of chloramphenicol resulted in the growth of dark-green colonies at 25 degrees C. They were identified as typical Cladosporium cladosporioides. As far as we know, this species was previously isolated only in an HIV-seropositive patient as opportunistic pathogen in the site of skin testing.

  11. Genetic determinants of cutaneous melanoma predisposition.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, Durga; Mahato, Bisundev; Gabree, Michele; Tsao, Hensin

    2010-09-01

    In the last 2 decades, advances in genomic technologies and molecular biology have accelerated the identification of multiple genetic loci that confer risk for cutaneous melanoma. The risk alleles range from rarely occurring, high-risk variants with a strong familial predisposition to low-risk to moderate-risk variants with modest melanoma association. Although the high-risk alleles are limited to the CDKN2A and CDK4 loci, the authors of recent genome-wide association studies have uncovered a set of variants in pigmentation loci that contribute to low risk. A biological validation of these new findings would provide greater understanding of the disease. In this review we describe some of the important risk loci and their association to risk of developing cutaneous melanoma and also address the current clinical challenges in CDKN2A genetic testing. PMID:21051013

  12. Clinical outcome measures for Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Joerg; Werth, Victoria P.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a clinically heterogeneous group of rare skin diseases that only rarely have been subjected to controlled clinical trials. This may be have been partly due to a lack of suitable validated outcome instruments. Recently the FDA mandated that organ specific trials for lupus erythematosus need to use a combination of different outcome measures. The patient’s condition needs to be assessed in terms of quality of life, the patient’s global response and organ specific instruments that measure activity of the disease as well as damage due to the disease. For the skin the only formally validated and published instrument is currently the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosis Disease Area and Severity Index (CLASI). This paper discusses the background of the development of the CLASI as well as issues related to its use and interpretation in the context of clinical research of CLE. PMID:20693208

  13. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Eustace, K; Jolliffe, V; Sahota, A; Gholam, K

    2016-10-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of scalp nodules. He had undergone hair transplantation 2 months previously. Incision and drainage of one of the nodules yielded gelatinous material, which was sent for microscopy and culture, including low-temperature culture. After 2 weeks of incubation, culture of the nodule yielded acid- and alcohol-fast bacilli, which were identified as Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium, which has been reported to cause cutaneous, soft tissue and respiratory infections following trauma, surgery or injection with nonsterile needles. A high index of suspicion is therefore needed in patients who present with cutaneous infections after cosmetic dermatological procedures, including hair transplantation. PMID:27663154

  14. Cutaneous anthrax in a school teacher.

    PubMed

    Nandi, A K; Kamal, M M; Alam, M A; Rahman, F; Uddin, M J; Baidya, N R; Mostafa, S M

    2014-04-01

    Cutaneous anthrax is an infection of the skin caused by Bacillus anthracis. This is a report of a case of cutaneous anthrax attending outpatients of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital in October, 2010. The infected person was a retired school teacher with a very good body build. He reported to handle cow flesh about 4-5 days ago, developed few painless papules over shin of right leg, which gradually became large bullae and blackish eschar developed over the lesion. Smears from the lesions were investigated which confirmed the causative agent B. anthracis. The patient was treated with oral Ciprofloxacin (500mg) twice daily for seven days which cured the infection as observed on his subsequent follow up visits on 7 and 14 days later. Oral Ciprofloxacin is found effective as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  15. Necrobiotic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Woollons, A; Darvay, A; Khorshid, S M; Whittaker, S; Jones, R R

    1999-11-01

    We report 3 patients with granulomatous cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) who showed necrobiosis histologically with palisading granulomas. Although granulomatous change may be present in up to 4% of cases of CTCL, necrobiosis is rare. Misdiagnosis may occur if epidermotropism is minimal or if atypical cells are masked by the granulomatous infiltrate. T-cell receptor gene analysis confirmed the presence of clonal T-cell populations in lesional skin from all 3 cases.

  16. Cutaneous oxalosis after long-term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G; Schwartz, S T; Reginato, A J

    1992-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman undergoing long-term hemodialysis developed cutaneous calcifications on her fingers. A skin biopsy specimen showed that the deposits were calcium oxalate. To our knowledge, only one previous article has reported pathologic and crystallographic studies on calcifications of the skin resulting from dialysis oxalosis. We speculate that vitamin C supplements, liberal tea consumption, an increased serum ionized calcium concentration, and the long duration of hemodialysis contributed to the production of these deposits.

  17. A Familial Poikiloderma-Like Cutaneous Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Unni, Mahesh; Ankad, Balachandra; Naidu, Varna; Sudakar Rao, KM

    2014-01-01

    Familial poikiloderma-like cutaneous amyloidosis(FPLCA) is a rare, generalized but genetic dyschromic skin disorder characterized by amyloid deposits in dermis due to defective DNA repair secondary to sunlight damage. Clinically, it presents with diffuse brownish pigmentation with hypo-pigmented macules and many brownish scattered lichenoid papules with normal developmental milestones. The condition is autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance. We are here reporting a rare familial case of FPLCA with a review of the literature PMID:25484425

  18. Cutaneous leiomyomatosis and parotid pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vázquez-Martínez, Osvaldo; Regalado-Briz, Arturo; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Méndez-Olvera, Nora

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of cutaneous leiomyomas (CL) arising in a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of the parotid gland. PA and CL are benign tumors arising from the parotid gland and the erector pilli muscle, respectively. They both have a benign clinical course and in most cases leiomyomas are multiple in nature. PAs of the parotid are the most frequent benign tumors of the major salivary glands. To our knowledge this is the first case of PA with CL.

  19. Noncoplanarity effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Liou, M.K.; Timmermans, R.; Gibson, B.F.

    1998-10-01

    Noncoplanarity in proton-proton bremsstrahlung is investigated. Significant effects are observed for certain photon polar angles, {psi}{sub {gamma}}. Such noncoplanarity effects, not of dynamical origin, are possibly responsible for past disagreements between theory and experiment. The Harvard noncoplanar coordinate system, which avoids kinematic singularities in the cross section, is used in our calculations and is recommended for use in the analysis of experimental data. Alternative methods of presenting cross sections are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. [Cutaneous nocardiosis as an opportunistic infection].

    PubMed

    Bogaard, H J; Erkelens, G W; Faber, W R; de Vries, P J

    2004-03-13

    A 46-year-old man who had been treated with azathioprine and budesonide for Crohn's disease for the past eight years developed a purulent skin condition on the right ring finger. Despite surgical drainage and treatment with amoxicillin and flucloxacillin, the condition spread itself over the hand and lower arm, partly per continuum and partly in jumps. The patient did not feel ill and there were no systemic symptoms. Ultimately, Nocardia asteroides was cultured from the wound and complete cure was achieved after 8 months' treatment with co-trimoxazole. Infections with Nocardia spp. are rare but may occur more often and run a more fulminant course in patients under treatment with immunosuppressants. Cutaneous nocardiosis generally has a characteristic lymphogenous spreading pattern, but an atypical picture with pustules, pyoderma, cellulitis or abscess formation is also possible. In non-cutaneous nocardiosis there is usually pneumonia or lung abscess, possibly with secondary haematogenous spread to the central nervous system or skin. Culturing Nocardia requires more time than usual but can be promoted by special culture media. Treatment of the infection with co-trimoxazole is the method of choice and is almost always successful in cases of cutaneous nocardiosis.

  1. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Giles T. S.; Mills, Stuart J.; Cowin, Allison J.; Smith, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase. Cell therapies may be the solution. A range of cell based approaches have begun to cross the rift from bench to bedside and the supporting data suggests that the appropriate administration of stem cells can accelerate wound healing. This review examines the main cell types explored for cutaneous wound healing with a focus on clinical use. The literature overwhelmingly suggests that cell therapies can help to heal cutaneous wounds when used appropriately but we are at risk of clinical use outpacing the evidence. There is a need, now more than ever, for standardised methods of cell characterisation and delivery, as well as randomised clinical trials. PMID:26137471

  2. Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry in Cutaneous Neoplasia: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Leigh A.; Murphy, George F.; Lian, Christine G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important adjunct in the diagnosis of neoplastic skin diseases. In addition to the many established IHC markers currently in use, new markers continue to emerge, although their general acceptance and routine application requires robust validation. Here, we summarize the most well-established and commonly used biomarkers along with an array of newer ones reported in the past several decades that either demonstrate or hold high clinical promise in the field of cutaneous pathology. We also highlight recent applications of novel IHC markers in melanoma diagnosis including genetic mutation status markers [e.g. BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) and NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog)] and an epigenetic alteration marker (e.g. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine). We specifically focus on the role of IHC in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions that fall under the following categories: melanoma, epidermal tumors with an intraepidermal epitheliomatous pattern, spindle cell lesions of the dermis, small round blue cell tumors of the dermis, and cutaneous adnexal tumors. While IHC is a valuable tool in diagnostic dermatopathology, marker selection and interpretation must be highly informed by clinical context and the histologic differential diagnosis. With rapid progress in our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, new IHC markers will continue to emerge in the field of diagnostic dermatopathology. PMID:27047932

  3. Toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria in a returned traveller.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahim, Nur R; Koehler, Ann P; Shaw, Doug D; Graham, Caitlin R

    2014-12-31

    Diphtheria is rarely reported in Australia. A case of cutaneous diphtheria was reported to the South Australian Department for Health and Ageing in April 2013 in an Australian-born 18-year-old female following travel in India. The case presented with a skin ulcer on her toe. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. The case was treated with antibiotics. The public health response included infection control advice, assessing the case and household contacts for organism carriage and providing antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to contacts. Although cutaneous diphtheria is not included as part of the Australian communicable disease surveillance case definition, this may be an oversight as international evidence demonstrates that it is a source of organism transmission and can potentially result in outbreaks among susceptible populations. This formed the rationale for the public health response to this particular case. The protocol for the public health management of diphtheria in South Australia has since been revised to include cutaneous lesions caused by the toxigenic strain of the organism as part of the surveillance case definition.

  4. Association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Arsura, E L; Kilgore, W B; Caldwell, J W; Freeman, J C; Einstein, H E; Johnson, R H

    1998-01-01

    The skin is frequently a site of extrapulmonary dissemination in patients with coccidioidomycosis. Clinical experience in an endemic area suggests an association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis. Awareness of this association is important because coccidioidal meningitis is the most ominous site of spread in coccidioidomycosis. In this study, we assess whether cutaneous dissemination involving the face is associated with meningitis to a greater degree than that limited to the body. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 patients from 1987 to 1996 with disseminated coccidioidomycosis and found 30 patients with cutaneous involvement. Their mean age was 29.5 +/- 11.6 years; 20 patients were male; 14 were African American, 12 were Hispanic, 3 were white, and 1 was Asian. Nineteen patients had facial involvement, and 11 had isolated body involvement. Meningitis developed in 11 patients, 10 with facial involvement and 1 with only body involvement. Patients with facial lesions were more likely to have meningitis (odds ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 529, P = .023). The identification of a subgroup of patients at significant risk of developing meningitis may allow earlier detection and perhaps improved management of patients with meningeal disease. PMID:9682625

  5. Congenital cutaneous histiocytosis in a piglet.

    PubMed

    Hélie, P; Kiupel, M; Drolet, R

    2014-07-01

    A 2-week-old crossbred male piglet with numerous congenital, variably sized macules, plaques, and papules distributed all over the body was submitted for necropsy. Significant gross and histological lesions were restricted to the skin. On light microscopic examination, these cutaneous lesions corresponded to dermal and/or subcutaneous masses composed of spindle-shaped to round cells that multifocally contained hemosiderin; epidermotropism was not observed. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CD204; moderately positive for CD163, lysozyme, and vimentin; and negative for Mac 387, α-1-antitrypsin, S-100 protein and E-cadherin; frozen tissues were not available for CD1a and CD11c. Transmission electron microscopic examination of sections from formalin-fixed tissues did not reveal Birbeck's granules. The clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical results were consistent with a congenital cutaneous histiocytosis of non-Langerhans cell origin. The condition most resembled juvenile xanthogranuloma in humans, a generally skin-limited non-Langerhans histiocytic disorder that can be congenital. Cutaneous and/or systemic histiocytic disorders are well characterized in dogs and have been described in cats, and a case with some similarities to ours has been reported in a neonatal piglet, but this is to our knowledge the first immunohistochemically supported report of histiocytosis in the pig and congenital histiocytosis in animals.

  6. Cutaneous findings in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Gulsen; Metin, Ahmet; Emre, Selma; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2013-01-01

    Acromegaly is a systemic syndrome caused by overproduction of growth hormone. The syndrome affects cutaneous, endocrine, cardiovascular, skeletal, and respiratory systems. Cutaneous manifestations of acromegaly are various, usually being the first presenting findings of the disease. Forty-nine patients with acromegaly, followed-up at a tertiary referral hospital, underwent dermatological examination. There were 27 (55.1%) female and 22 (44.9%) male patients. The age at onset of the disease was older in females than males (P=0.045). Most patients had acral enlargements, large triangular nose, coarse face, thickened lower lip, and prognathism. Fourteen (28.6%) patients had multiple cherry angiomas, five (10.2%) had varicose veins in lower limbs, and two (4.1%) had psoriasis. In conclusion, a wide spectrum of cutaneous symptoms and features may be associated with acromegaly. Detailed dermatological examination of patients with acromegaly should be an essential component of systemic evaluation. Future prospective studies investigating the relationships between changes in skin signs, hormone levels, and response to treatments may help understand details of skin involvement in acromegaly.

  7. Differential diagnosis of severe cutaneous drug eruptions.

    PubMed

    Bachot, Nicolas; Roujeau, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs are frequent, mostly secondary to antibacterials, however, serious adverse cutaneous reactions are infrequent. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are a spectrum of the same disease. They are the more severe drug eruptions, with a mortality around 30% for TEN. The confusion between erythema multiforme major and SJS means that erythema multiforme major is the main differential diagnosis. Skin disorders involving desquamation, in particular after pustulosis, are also common differential diagnoses. Mechanical or autoimmune blistering are also potential misdiagnoses of TEN/SJS. Hypersensitivity Syndrome (HSS) or Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) is a severe cutaneous drug reaction with often a long duration of eruption and serious other organ involvement. Exfoliative dermatitis, whether caused by psoriasis, dermatitis or lymphoma, can be thought of as a differential diagnosis of DRESS/HSS. Angio-immunoblastic lymphadenopathy, viral eruption and vasculitis are other differential diagnoses of DRESS/HSS. Prompt recognition of a severe drug reaction and withdrawal of the culprit drug is often the most important therapeutic action. Alternatively, a delay in starting a specific treatment for a disease misdiagnosed as a drug eruption could be deleterious.

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Basrah Villages, South Iraq.

    PubMed

    Jarallah, Hind Mahdi

    2014-12-01

    CL in Iraq is caused by both Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica. Marshes Villages of Basrah province south Iraq are regarded as a rural area. A total of 35 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases 12 (34.28%) females and 23(65.71%) males were clinically registered from April 2013 to March 2014 in Health Care Center of Basrah Marshes Villages, South of Iraq are reported and investigated. All patients were parasitologically confirmed by stained smears and culture, the main clinical features were ulcerations. Number of cutaneous lesions per patients ranged from 1 to 5 with different lesions' size from 3x3 mm to 25x25 mm in diameter. Amastigotes form were detected in all cases 35 (100%), while promastigotes from were found in culture sample of 29 (82.8%) cases. The results were analyzed and evaluated. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Basrah marshes villages may differ from other regions because of the difference of the Leishmania strains, people life style, behaviors and difference in vectors and reservoir hosts.

  9. Cutaneous sarcoidosis masquerading as psoriatic plaques.

    PubMed

    Argraves, Melissa; Sloan, Steven B; Dadras, Soheil S

    2015-04-16

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by non-caseating granulomas present in the involved organ systems. The disease is believed to result from an interaction among genetic factors, antigens, and the immune response. Environmental exposures and infectious agents have been implicated as potential causes. Cutaneous sarcoidosis presents clinically in many forms and the lesions are classified as either specific or non-specific. Non-specific lesions show a nondescript inflammatory process whereas specific lesions display typical, non-caseating granulomas. There are many different forms of specific lesions with some being more common than others. Psoriasiform lesions are uncommon. The literature suggests that as few as 0.9% of patients display this type of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Some of these patients present solely with cutaneous sarcoidosis, but others have systemic involvement with pulmonary involvement being the most common concomitant presentation. Plaques appear as round or oval, brownish, red infiltrated lesions, frequently involving the extensor surface of the extremities, face, scalp, back, and buttocks. Multiple configurations, including discrete, confluent, annular, and polycyclic, have been reported. Despite the clinical resemblance to psoriasis, on histological examination, only non-caseating granulomas are seen in the dermis. In rare cases both psoriasiform sarcoidosis and psoriasis were present.

  10. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926

  11. [Cutaneous adverse reactions to tattoos and piercings].

    PubMed

    Mataix, J; Silvestre, J F

    2009-10-01

    Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications. Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic infections secondary to breach of the epidermal barrier, acute and delayed inflammatory reactions with different histopathological patterns, the appearance of benign and malignant tumors on tattooed areas of skin, and certain dermatoses triggered by isomorphic phenomena. Piercing-related complications are similar, though some, such as pyogenic skin infections, are much more common due to the delayed wound healing after piercing in certain sites. We must differentiate between complications that are independent of the site of piercing, and specific complications, which are closely related to the body area pierced. The rate of complications after performing piercings or tattoos depends on the experience of the artist, the hygiene techniques applied, and the postprocedural care by the customer. However, some of these complications are unpredictable and depend on factors intrinsic to the patient. In this article, we review the most common decorative techniques of body art, with particular focus on the potential cutaneous complications and their management. PMID:19775542

  12. Cutaneous pancreatic metastasis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hafez, H Z Abdel

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most dangerous human cancers and will continue to be a major unsolved health problem as we enter the 21(st) century. This is the case despite advances in imaging technology and surgical management. Indeed, 80% to 90% of pancreatic cancers are diagnosed either at the locally advanced or metastatic stage. Cutaneous metastases originating from pancreatic cancer are relatively rare. The most common site of cutaneous metastasis is the umbilicus, and this is known as the Sister Joseph's nodule. Very few patients have been reported with cutaneous lesions disclosing a pancreatic carcinoma at sites other than the umbilical area. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on cutaneous pancreatic metastasis in Egypt. This is a report on a patient with cutaneous pancreatic metastases at the neck and review of reported non-umbilical cutaneous metastases from pancreatic carcinoma in the literatures.

  13. Cutaneous pancreatic metastasis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Hza

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers and continues to be a major unsolved health problem as we enter the 21st century. This is the case despite advances in imaging technology and surgical management. Indeed, 80-90% of pancreatic cancers are diagnosed either at the locally advanced stage or metastatic stage. Cutaneous metastases originating from pancreatic cancer are relatively rare. The most common site of cutaneous metastasis is the umbilicus, and it is known as the Sister Joseph's nodule. Very few patients have been reported with cutaneous lesions disclosing pancreatic carcinoma at sites other than the umbilical area. To our knowledge, there were no previous reports on cutaneous pancreatic metastasis in Egypt. This is a report of a patient with cutaneous pancreatic metastases at the neck, followed by a review of reported non-umbilical cutaneous metastases from pancreatic carcinoma in the literature.

  14. Clinical implications of immunologic phenotyping in cutaneous T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vonderheid, E C; Tan, E; Sobel, E L; Schwab, E; Micaily, B; Jegasothy, B V

    1987-07-01

    The composition of cutaneous lesions from 158 patients with confirmed cutaneous T cell lymphoma, 91 patients with suspected cutaneous T cell lymphoma, and 145 patients with lymphoid disorders other than cutaneous T cell lymphoma was quantitated in situ with the use of commercially available murine monoclonal antibodies that identify the Pan T, T-helper/inducer (Th), T cytotoxic/suppressor (Ts), and Pan B lymphocyte subsets. On average, cutaneous infiltrates of confirmed cutaneous T cell lymphoma were found to contain significantly more Th and less Ts or Pan B cells compared to benign lymphoid disorders. Moreover, when analyzed in terms of the type of lesion examined by biopsy, the absolute amount of Th cells progressively expands with increasing magnitudes of infiltrate in the dermis while the amount of Ts and Pan B cells remains relatively constant among lesions. A useful diagnostic criterion (anti-Leu 1/4 greater than or equal to 70% and anti-Leu 3a/anti-Leu 2a ratio greater than or equal to 6) correctly discriminated between cutaneous T cell lymphoma and non-cutaneous T cell lymphoma in 87.5% of cases. A positive immunodiagnostic result also may be useful for the prediction of subsequent histopathologic confirmation of cutaneous T cell lymphoma in patients who have suspect lymphoid infiltrates, such as alopecia mucinosis or idiopathic generalized erythroderma, when first seen. With the use of multivariate analysis, stage and possibly the percentage of Th cells within the T cell component in cutaneous infiltrates were covariates with significant relationships to survival in patients with confirmed cutaneous T cell lymphoma. In addition, Ts cells in infiltrates did not correlate significantly with observed responses to topical treatment and subsequent course in pretumorous mycosis fungoides. These results indicate that Ts cells play little biologic role in modifying the natural history of cutaneous T cell lymphoma.

  15. Varied Presentations of Cutaneous Rhinosporidiosis: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Thurakkal; Komu, Fibin

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disorder of infective etiology and it frequently affects the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Involvement of skin in rhinosporidiosis is unusual and it may manifest itself in a diverse manner mimicking several common dermatological conditions. Three cases of cutaneous rhinosporidiosis with different presentations are reported here to highlight the manifold nature of the condition. Cutaneous rhinosporidiosis can mimic several common cutaneous disorders. PMID:27057026

  16. Topical Application of Fingolimod Perturbs Cutaneous Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wai Y; Dimasi, David P; Pitman, Melissa R; Zhuang, YiZhong; Heddle, Robert; Pitson, Stuart M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bonder, Claudine S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergies, including rhinitis, eczema, and anaphylaxis, is rising dramatically worldwide. This increase is especially problematic in children who bear the greatest burden of this rising trend. Increasing evidence identifies neutrophils as primary perpetrators of the more severe and difficult to manage forms of inflammation. A newly recognized mechanism by which neutrophils are recruited during the early phase of histamine-induced inflammation involves the sphingosine kinase (SK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate axis. This study examines whether topical application of fingolimod, an established SK/sphingosine-1-phosphate antagonist already in clinical use to treat multiple sclerosis, may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. Using two mouse models of ear skin inflammation (histamine- and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) we topically applied fingolimod prophylactically, as well as after establishment of the inflammatory response, and examined ear swelling, SK activity, vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and production of proinflammatory mediators. The present study reveals that when applied topically, fingolimod attenuates both immediate and late-phase responses to histamine with reduced extravasation of fluid, SK-1 activity, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and neutrophil influx and prevents ear swelling. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that histamine-induced neutrophil rolling and adhesion to the postcapillary venules in the mouse ears is significantly attenuated even after 24 h. More importantly, these effects are achievable even once inflammation is established. Translation into humans was also accomplished with epicutaneous application of fingolimod resolving histamine-induced and allergen-induced inflammatory reactions in forearm skin. Overall, this study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that fingolimod may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. PMID:27001955

  17. Postural reorganization induced by torso cutaneous covibration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Martin, Bernard J; Ho, Allison; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous information from joints has been attributed proprioceptive properties similar to those of muscle spindles. This study aimed to assess whether vibration-induced changes in torso cutaneous information contribute to whole-body postural reorganization in humans. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the left and right external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle locations at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. Vibrations around the torso were randomly applied at two locations simultaneously (covibration) or at all locations simultaneously. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that covibration applied to the skin over the internal oblique muscles induced shifts of both the head and torso in the anterior direction (torso flexion) while the hips shifted in the posterior direction (ankle plantar flexion). Conversely, covibration applied to the skin over the erector spinae muscle locations produced opposite effects. However, covibration applied to the skin over the left internal oblique and left erector spinae, the right internal oblique and right erector spinae, or at all locations simultaneously did not induce any significant postural changes. In addition, the center of pressure position as measured by the force plate was unaffected by all covibration conditions tested. These results were independent of stance and suggest an integrated and coordinated reorganization of posture in response to vibration-induced changes in cutaneous information. In addition, combinations of vibrotactile stimuli over multiple locations exhibit directional summation properties in contrast to the individual responses we observed in our previous work. PMID:23637178

  18. A case of cutaneous protothecosis mimics eczema.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Li; Yuli, Kang; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Junhao; Zhu, Min

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of cutaneous protothecosis due to Prototheca wickerhamii in an immunocompetent man presented with a specific eczema-like lesions. Dermatological examination revealed erythematous plaques, dark red papules with some coalescence, and a few superficial ulcerations, covered with less scales on his right side chest and neck. Fungal culture, histopathological examination and molecular identification confirmed the organism. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed strain sensitive to amphotericin B, Fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The patient was cured by oral itraconazole capsules and topical cream ketoconazole 2%. PMID:25200680

  19. Genomic landscape of cutaneous T cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaehyuk; Goh, Gerald; Walradt, Trent; Hong, Bok S.; Bunick, Christopher G.; Chen, Kan; Bjornson, Robert D.; Maman, Yaakov; Wang, Tiffany; Tordoff, Jesse; Carlson, Kacie; Overton, John D.; Liu, Kristina J.; Lewis, Julia M.; Devine, Lesley; Barbarotta, Lisa; Foss, Francine M.; Subtil, Antonio; Vonderheid, Eric C.; Edelson, Richard L.; Schatz, David G.; Boggon, Titus J.; Girardi, Michael; Lifton, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skin-homing T lymphocytes. We performed exome and whole genome DNA sequence and RNA sequencing on purified CTCL and matched normal cells. The results implicate mutations in 17 genes in CTCL pathogenesis, including genes involved in T cell activation and apoptosis, NFκB signaling, chromatin remodeling, and DNA damage response. CTCL is distinctive in that somatic copy number variants (SCNVs) comprise 92% of all driver mutations (mean of 11.8 pathogenic SCNVs vs. 1.0 somatic single nucleotide variants per CTCL). These findings have implications for novel therapeutics. PMID:26192916

  20. Lactic acid utilization by the cutaneous Micrococcaceae.

    PubMed

    Smith, R F

    1971-04-01

    Human cutaneous staphylococci and micrococci utilized lactic acid as an energy source on a minimal medium. Propionic acid was not utilized, but l(+)-lactic acid and pyruvic acid could replace ld-lactic acid as a substrate. Selected strains of cocci were inhibited more by the l(+) and d(-) forms of lactic acid than the balanced ld form, particularly at pH 5.6. With proper dilution of substrate, lactic acid was utilized by selected strains in the presence of 10 mug of oleic and palmitic acids per ml.

  1. Coagulation disorders and their cutaneous presentations: Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yunyoung; Dabiri, Ganary; Damstetter, Elizabeth; Baiyee Ebot, Emily; Powers, Jennifer Gloeckner; Phillips, Tania

    2016-05-01

    Hypercoagulable states are inherited or acquired predispositions to venous or arterial thromboses that are best understood in the context of the coagulation cascade. Dermatologists can play a critical role in diagnosing and treating patients with hypercoagulable states because cutaneous symptoms may be a presenting manifestation, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality related to these conditions. This review focuses on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypercoagulable states, while the accompanying article iterates the basic clinical features, diagnostic testing, and management of patients who have these conditions.

  2. Indigenous human cutaneous anthrax in Texas.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J P; Dimmitt, D C; Ezzell, J W; Whitford, H

    1993-01-01

    In December 1988 an indigenous case of cutaneous anthrax was identified in Texas. The patient, a 63-year-old male Hispanic from southwest Texas, was a sheep shearer and had a recent history of dissecting sheep that had died suddenly. He experienced an illness characterized by left arm pain and edema. A necrotic lesion developed on his left forearm, with cellulitis and lymphadenopathy. After treatment with oral and intravenous penicillins, the patient fully recovered. Western blot testing revealed a fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and lethal factor. This represents the first case of indigenous anthrax in Texas in more than 20 years. PMID:8420007

  3. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Paduraru, Mihai; Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Olalla Gallardo, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis is most common in immunocompromised patients, but it can also occur in healthy hosts, most frequently as primary cutaneous mucormycosis (PCM) and predominantly as a result of skin trauma. We present an uncommon case of PCM in a healthy, young man with no previous history of local trauma. Despite rapid progression of the infection, the patient was successfully treated through surgical intervention and by administering liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole. He made a full recovery without the need for skin grafting. PMID:27530872

  4. Cutaneous complications related to permanent decorative tattooing.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Decorative tattooing involves the introduction of exogenous pigments and/or dyes into the dermis to produce a permanent design. Practiced for thousands of years, it has gained tremendous popularity during the past 20 years, especially among the young. Tattoo-associated cutaneous complications have only been reported since the end of the 19th Century. With the increased prevalence of tattooed individuals, dermatologists have witnessed increasing numbers of patients presenting with complaints about their tattoos. Complications primarily include infections, hypersensitivity reaction to tattoo pigments, benign and sometimes malignant tumors arising on tattoos, and the localization of various dermatoses to tattoos. PMID:20441423

  5. Primary Cutaneous Plasmacytosis: Masquerading as Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Zawar, Vijay; Sharma, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Isolated cutaneous plasmacytosis (CP) is a rare entity with few cases reported in world literature. CP masquerading as hidradenitis suppurativa like presentation is a unique case with some features differentiating it clinically from it which were further confirmed by histopathology and immunostaining. Our case showed hyperplasia of mature plasma cells and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, immunostaining for CD138 positivity and kappa: lambda ratio more than 3:1. Extensive clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any underlying pathology, presence of any underlying disease accompanying the hypergammaglobulinemia and/or plasma cell proliferation. PMID:27057027

  6. Recurrent cutaneous jellyfish eruptions without envenomation.

    PubMed

    Månsson, T; Randle, H W; Mandojana, R M; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1985-01-01

    Three patients exhibiting recurrent cutaneous eruptions induced by contact with jellyfish tentacles are presented. The recurrent eruptions appeared several days after the primary exposure without contact with any offending coelenterate. The principal species involved include Pelagia noctiluca, Physalia physalis and probably Lychnorhiza lucerna. These three cases, combined with an earlier similar report of recurrent lesions induced by Physalia physalis suggest that this phenomenon may be widespread. In two of the three cases, the secondary eruption was more severe than that occurring after the primary envenomation. PMID:2578711

  7. [Cutaneous lupus erythematosus, a multidimensional entity].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Flores, Silvia; Tinoco-Fragoso, Fátima; Hernández-Molina, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions caused by systemic lupus erythematosus are among the most frequent manifestations of this disease. These lesions show great variability in both their clinical and histological expression, making their understanding and study difficult. Patients presenting with cutaneous lupus do not necessarily have serious systemic complications, but they do have significant morbidity from impact on quality of life given the extent of the lesions, chronic tendency, and the risk of scarring; hence the importance of establishing a fast and effective treatment. This paper addresses the different varieties of specific injuries attributed to lupus erythematosus, correlation with systemic activity, quality of life, and the treatments available.

  8. Multifocal Cutaneous Tuberculosis in Immunocompetent Individual.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Malay; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Rathod, Kirti; Vora, Rita V

    2015-12-01

    Most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is lupus vulgaris, which usually occurs in previously sensitized individuals who have a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. We are reporting a case of a young female, who presented with 6 well defined erythematous scaly plaques involving both arms and a puckered scar on right forearm and right breast. Clinically, it was looking like lupus vulgaris with cold abscess, few lesions mimicking scrofuloderma, but skin biopsy from both the types of lesions revealed lupus vulgaris. Patient improved with Anti Tuberculous Therapy and surgical drainage of underlying cold abscess.

  9. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in a preterm neonate

    PubMed Central

    Rogdo, Bjarte; Kahlert, Christian; Diener, Pierre André; Micallef, John

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous aspergillosis (PCA) is a rare fungal infection in premature infants. Extreme prematurity, immature immune system, therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and systemic steroids, as well as hyperglycaemia and a vulnerable and very thin epidermal layer are considered risk factors in this patient population. We present a premature male infant born at 24+3 weeks of gestation with PCA, successfully treated with amphotericin and surgical curettage of the ulcerating skin lesions. Complete resolution of the lesions was achieved and scarring was barely visible at later follow-up. PMID:25178889

  10. The Schwarzschild Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Haramein, Nassim

    2010-11-24

    We review our model of a proton that obeys the Schwarzschild condition. We find that only a very small percentage ({approx}10{sup -39}%) of the vacuum fluctuations available within a proton volume need be cohered and converted to mass-energy in order for the proton to meet the Schwarzschild condition. This proportion is equivalent to that between gravitation and the strong force where gravitation is thought to be {approx}10{sup -38} to 10{sup -40} weaker than the strong force. Gravitational attraction between two contiguous Schwarzschild protons can accommodate both nucleon and quark confinement. We calculate that two contiguous Schwarzschild protons would rotate at c and have a period of 10{sup -23} s and a frequency of 10{sup 22} Hz which is characteristic of the strong force interaction time and a close approximation of the gamma emission typically associated with nuclear decay. We include a scaling law and find that the Schwarzschild proton data point lies near the least squares trend line for organized matter. Using a semi-classical model, we find that a proton charge orbiting at a proton radius at c generates a good approximation to the measured anomalous magnetic moment.

  11. Cutaneous Force Feedback as a Sensory Subtraction Technique in Haptics.

    PubMed

    Prattichizzo, D; Pacchierotti, C; Rosati, G

    2012-01-01

    A novel sensory substitution technique is presented. Kinesthetic and cutaneous force feedback are substituted by cutaneous feedback (CF) only, provided by two wearable devices able to apply forces to the index finger and the thumb, while holding a handle during a teleoperation task. The force pattern, fed back to the user while using the cutaneous devices, is similar, in terms of intensity and area of application, to the cutaneous force pattern applied to the finger pad while interacting with a haptic device providing both cutaneous and kinesthetic force feedback. The pattern generated using the cutaneous devices can be thought as a subtraction between the complete haptic feedback (HF) and the kinesthetic part of it. For this reason, we refer to this approach as sensory subtraction instead of sensory substitution. A needle insertion scenario is considered to validate the approach. The haptic device is connected to a virtual environment simulating a needle insertion task. Experiments show that the perception of inserting a needle using the cutaneous-only force feedback is nearly indistinguishable from the one felt by the user while using both cutaneous and kinesthetic feedback. As most of the sensory substitution approaches, the proposed sensory subtraction technique also has the advantage of not suffering from stability issues of teleoperation systems due, for instance, to communication delays. Moreover, experiments show that the sensory subtraction technique outperforms sensory substitution with more conventional visual feedback (VF).

  12. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  13. Medical Applications: Proton Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2009-05-01

    Proton therapy is a highly advanced and precise form of radiation treatment for cancer. Due to the characteristic Bragg peak associated with ion energy deposition, proton therapy provides the radiation oncologist with an improved method of treatment localization within a patient, as compared with conventional radiation therapy using X-rays or electrons. Controlling disease and minimizing side effects are the twin aims of radiation treatment. Proton beams enhance the opportunity for both by facilitating maximal dose to tumor and minimal dose to surrounding tissue. In the United States, five proton radiotherapy centers currently treat cancer patients, with more in the construction phase. New facilities and enabling technologies abound. An overview of the treatment modality generally, as well as of the capabilities and research planned for the field and for the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute in particular, will be presented.

  14. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available. PMID:24916211

  15. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  16. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Valverde, N.J.; Da Silva, F.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. PMID:26445332

  17. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries. Current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management that prevent or minimize deficits and provide for speedy wound healing. Several laboratories are actively searching for improved therapies for cutaneous vesicant injury, with the aim of returning damaged skin to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest time. Improved treatment will result in a better cosmetic and functional outcome for the patient, and will enable the casualty to return to normal activities sooner. This editorial gives brief overviews of sulfur mustard use, its toxicity, concepts for medical countermeasures, current treatments, and strategies for the development of improved therapies. PMID:16921406

  18. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma of the penile foreskin.

    PubMed

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Nebhnani, Deepa; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma, considered to herald the onset of a blast crisis in the setting of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm/dysplasia, typically presents during the course of the disorder. Cutaneous involvement is uncommon and lesions on genital skin are seldom seen. We present a case of a well-differentiated myeloid sarcoma in the penile foreskin in an apparently healthy 29-year-old male presenting with phimosis. The unusual composition of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, and characteristic sparing of dermal blood vessels, nerves and smooth muscle fibres led to the correct diagnosis. Absence of commonly observed changes in the circumcision skin like those of balanitis xerotica was also helpful. Detailed hematological work up revealed a previously undiagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The patient also had simultaneous priapism, another rare presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia. One year hence, the patient is in hematological remission with no evidence of extramedullary disease. Although priapism has been described as a rare presenting symptom in chronic myeloid leukemia, the present case is unique as this is the first time a cutaneous myeloid sarcoma has been documented in the penile foreskin. PMID:24913300

  19. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell role in cutaneous malignancies.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Dana; Kurban, Mazen; Abbas, Ossama

    2016-07-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) correspond to a specialized dendritic cell population that exhibit plasma cell morphology, express CD4, CD123, HLA-DR, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2), and Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 within endosomal compartments. Through their production of type I interferons (IFNs) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, pDCs provide anti-viral resistance and link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. While lacking from normal skin, pDCs are usually recruited to the skin in several cutaneous pathologies where they appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious, inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Among the latter group, pDCs have the potential to induce anti-tumour immunity; however, the complex interaction of pDCs with tumor cells and their micro-environment appears to contribute to immunologic tolerance. In this review, we aim at highlighting the role played by pDCs in cutaneous malignancies with special emphasis on the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Molecular Bases of Cutaneous and Uveal Melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Gaudi, Sudeep; Messina, Jane L.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive research in recent years has begun to unlock the mysteries surrounding the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma, the deadliest of skin cancers. The high-penetrance, low-frequency susceptibility gene CDKN2A produces tumor suppressor proteins that function in concert with p53 and retinoblastoma protein to thwart melanomagenesis. Aberrant CDKN2A gene products have been implicated in a great many cases of familial cutaneous melanoma. Sporadic cases, on the other hand, often involve constitutive signal transduction along the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, with particular focus falling upon mutated RAS and RAF protooncogenes. The proliferative effects of the MAPK pathway may be complemented by the antiapoptotic signals of the PI3K/AKT pathway. After skin, melanoma most commonly affects the eye. Data for the constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway in uveal melanoma exists as well, however, not through mutations of RAS and RAF. Rather, evidence implicates the proto-oncogene GNAQ. In the following discussion, we review the major molecular pathways implicated in both familial and sporadic cutaneous melanomagenesis, the former accounting for approximately 10% of cases. Additionally, we discuss the molecular pathways for which preliminary evidence suggests a role in uveal melanomagenesis. PMID:21876842

  1. Engine having multiple pumps driven by a single shaft

    DOEpatents

    Blass, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An engine comprises an engine housing. A first engine fluid sub-system that includes a first pump and the engine housing defining a first fluid passage is also included in the engine. The engine also includes at least one additional engine fluid sub-system that includes a second pump and the engine housing defining a second fluid passage. A rotating shaft is at least partially positioned in the engine housing, the first pump and the second pump.

  2. How dogs lap: open pumping driven by acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-11-01

    Dogs drink by lapping because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck fluids into the mouth. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from a bath, which is then swallowed, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured the kinematics of lapping from nineteen dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments with an accelerating rod help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results suggest that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, and that dogs curl the tongue ventrally (backwards) and time their bite on the column to increase fluid intake per lap. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that though they both lap with the same frequency scaling with respect to body mass and have similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: a high-acceleration regime for dogs and a low-acceleration regime for cats.

  3. Flash Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Frank E.

    Protons were first investigated as radiographic probes as high energy proton accelerators became accessible to the scientific community in the 1960s. Like the initial use of X-rays in the 1800s, protons were shown to be a useful tool for studying the contents of opaque materials, but the electromagnetic charge of the protons opened up a new set of interaction processes which complicated their use. These complications in combination with the high expense of generating protons with energies high enough to penetrate typical objects resulted in proton radiography becoming a novelty, demonstrated at accelerator facilities, but not utilized to their full potential until the 1990s at Los Alamos. During this time Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigating a wide range of options, including X-rays and neutrons, as the next generation of probes to be used for thick object flash radiography. During this process it was realized that the charge nature of the protons, which was the source of the initial difficulty with this idea, could be used to recover this technique. By introducing a magnetic imaging lens downstream of the object to be radiographed, the blur resulting from scattering within the object could be focused out of the measurements, dramatically improving the resolution of proton radiography of thick systems. Imaging systems were quickly developed and combined with the temporal structure of a proton beam generated by a linear accelerator, providing a unique flash radiography capability for measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technique has now been employed at LANSCE for two decades and has been adopted around the world as the premier flash radiography technique for the study of dynamic material properties.

  4. Strangeness in the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberg, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Both perturbative and non-perturbative mechanisms contribute to strangeness in the proton sea. We have developed a hybrid model in which non-perturbative contributions are calculated in a meson cloud model which expands the proton in terms of meson-baryon states, and perturbative contributions are calculated in a statistical model which expands the proton in terms of quark-gluon states. The perturbative contributions are represented in the parton distributions of the ``bare'' hadrons in the meson cloud. We compare our results to the recent experimental data of ATLAS and HERMES. This research has been supported in part by NSF Award 1205686.

  5. Are protons nonidentical fermions?

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We briefly review the progress of our investigation on the electric (charge) radius of the proton. In order to explain the recently measured proton radius, which is significantly smaller than the standard CODATA value, we assume that the real protons radii are not identical, they are randomly distributed in a certain range. To obtain the measured radius we average the radii and fit both the mean radius and the range. By using an averaged dipole form factor we obtain the charge radius r{sub E} = 0.8333 fm, in accordance with the recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen.

  6. Control of cutaneous blood flow by central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; Tanaka, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    Hairless skin acts as a heat exchanger between body and environment, and thus greatly contributes to body temperature regulation by changing blood flow to the skin (cutaneous) vascular bed during physiological responses such as cold- or warm-defense and fever. Cutaneous blood flow is also affected by alerting state; we ‘go pale with fright’. The rabbit ear pinna and the rat tail have hairless skin, and thus provide animal models for investigating central pathway regulating blood flow to cutaneous vascular beds. Cutaneous blood flow is controlled by the centrally regulated sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic premotor neurons in the medullary raphé in the lower brain stem are labeled at early stage after injection of trans-synaptic viral tracer into skin wall of the rat tail. Inactivation of these neurons abolishes cutaneous vasomotor changes evoked as part of thermoregulatory, febrile or psychological responses, indicating that the medullary raphé is a common final pathway to cutaneous sympathetic outflow, receiving neural inputs from upstream nuclei such as the preoptic area, hypothalamic nuclei and the midbrain. Summarizing evidences from rats and rabbits studies in the last 2 decades, we will review our current understanding of the central pathways mediating cutaneous vasomotor control. PMID:27227053

  7. Immunoexpression of p53 in cutaneous and subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Monteagudo, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of malignancy in cutaneous and subcutaneous smooth muscle tumors is based on subtle criteria. Therefore, any ancillary technique useful in this differential diagnosis is always welcome. In this report, we study the immunoexpression of p53 in 19 malignant smooth muscle tumors of the skin (15 cutaneous leiomyosarcomas, 2 subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas, and 2 cutaneous metastases of leiomyosarcoma), as well as in 1 leiomyoma with cellular atypia, therefore complementing a previous study on p53 immunoexpression in leiomyomas of the skin. The p53 staining was positive in 12 (63.16%) of 19 leiomyosarcomas. Percentages of immunostaining in the positive cases varied from 2% to 95%. Ten (66.66%) of 15 cutaneous leiomyosarcomas were positive for p53, and in 4 of these cases, immunoexpression was demonstrated by more than 50% of the cells. Five (33.33%) cutaneous leiomyosarcomas did not show any expression of p53. Of the 2 subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas, one was negative for p53 and the other expressed the marker in 70% of the cells. The only atypical leiomyoma included in the study did not express p53. Of the 2 cutaneous metastases of leiomyosarcoma, one was negative and the other expressed p53 in 20% of the cells. The current study supports our previous conclusions that p53 immunoexpression in more than 1% of the cells in a cutaneous smooth muscle tumor is indicative of malignancy. However, we believe that additional studies on atypical leiomyoma are needed.

  8. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  9. Immunoexpression of p53 in cutaneous and subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Monteagudo, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of malignancy in cutaneous and subcutaneous smooth muscle tumors is based on subtle criteria. Therefore, any ancillary technique useful in this differential diagnosis is always welcome. In this report, we study the immunoexpression of p53 in 19 malignant smooth muscle tumors of the skin (15 cutaneous leiomyosarcomas, 2 subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas, and 2 cutaneous metastases of leiomyosarcoma), as well as in 1 leiomyoma with cellular atypia, therefore complementing a previous study on p53 immunoexpression in leiomyomas of the skin. The p53 staining was positive in 12 (63.16%) of 19 leiomyosarcomas. Percentages of immunostaining in the positive cases varied from 2% to 95%. Ten (66.66%) of 15 cutaneous leiomyosarcomas were positive for p53, and in 4 of these cases, immunoexpression was demonstrated by more than 50% of the cells. Five (33.33%) cutaneous leiomyosarcomas did not show any expression of p53. Of the 2 subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas, one was negative for p53 and the other expressed the marker in 70% of the cells. The only atypical leiomyoma included in the study did not express p53. Of the 2 cutaneous metastases of leiomyosarcoma, one was negative and the other expressed p53 in 20% of the cells. The current study supports our previous conclusions that p53 immunoexpression in more than 1% of the cells in a cutaneous smooth muscle tumor is indicative of malignancy. However, we believe that additional studies on atypical leiomyoma are needed. PMID:27649950

  10. Muscle metaboreceptor modulation of cutaneous active vasodilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Stephens, D. P.; Johnson, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Isometric handgrip exercise in hyperthermia has been shown to reduce cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) by inhibiting the cutaneous active vasodilator system. METHODS: To identify whether this response was initiated by muscle metaboreceptors, in seven subjects two 3-min bouts of isometric handgrip exercise in hyperthermia were performed, followed by 2 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI). An index of forearm skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) was measured on the contralateral arm at an unblocked site and at a site at which adrenergic vasoconstrictor function was blocked via bretylium iontophoresis to reveal active cutaneous vasodilator function unambiguously. Sweat rate was measured via capacitance hygrometry, CVC was indexed from the ratio of skin blood flow to mean arterial pressure and was expressed as a percentage of maximal CVC at that site. In normothermia, neither isometric exercise nor PEI affected CVC (P > 0.05). RESULTS: The first bout of isometric handgrip exercise in hyperthermia reduced CVC at control sites and this reduction persisted through PEI (pre-exercise: 59.8 +/- 5.4, exercise: 49.8 +/- 4.9, PEI: 49.7 +/- 5.3% of maximum; both P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant changes in CVC at the bretylium treated sites. The succeeding bout of isometric exercise in hyperthermia significantly reduced CVC at both untreated (pre-exercise: 59.0 +/- 4.8, exercise: 47.3 +/- 4.0, PEI: 50.1 +/- 4.1% of maximum; both P < 0.05) and bretylium treated sites (pre-exercise: 61.4 +/- 7.3, exercise: 50.6 +/- 5.1, PEI: 53.9 +/- 6.0% of maximum, both P < 0.05). At both sites, CVC during PEI was lower than during the pre-exercise period (P < 0.05). Sweat rate rose significantly during both bouts of isometric exercise and remained elevated during PEI. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the reduction in CVC during isometric exercise in hyperthermia, including the inhibition of the active vasodilator system, is primarily mediated by muscle

  11. [Vacation souvenirs: inoculation pathologies (cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous leishmaniases, Lyme disease, rickettsioses)].

    PubMed

    Tas, S

    2000-09-01

    Residents of western countries travel more and more to (sub)tropical areas for holidays or work. During their stay they come in contact with insects and parasites susceptible to induce skin disorders that can manifest during their stay or after returning. This dermatosis account for approximatively 10% of referral to outpatient tropical clinics. The aim of this paper is to provide family physicians not familiar with these pathologies some practical guidelines to help them to identify and treat some tropical dermatosis: cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, rickettsiosis. Cutaneous larva migrans is the most frequent serpiginous itching eruption observed in travellers. It is cause by transepidermal penetration of animal hookworms (ancylostomas) through contact with soil infested with cat and dog feces. Effective treatments include topical thiabendazole or oral albendazole or ivermectine. Persons visiting mediterranean countries can acquire cutaneous leishmanisis that has many clinical presentations; the most typical is "bouton d'Orient", which manifests as painless ulceration resistant to antibiotic treatment. Treatment with intralesionel pentavalent antimony or pentamidine injection are effective. Lyme disease is an endemic infection in certain areas of North America and Europe, caused by the spirochete borrelia and transmitted through tick bite. It manifest as non-itching large persistent migrant erythema. If untreated this infection may expose to chronic debilitating rheumatologic, cardiac and neurological complications. Rickettsiosis, especially boutonneuse fever, are a potentially fatal multisystemic infectious diseases transmitted through the bite of a dog tick. Diagnosis must be evoked in the presence of a brutal fever syndrome, a painless eschar and widespread eruption associate to systemic symptoms. This infection must be recognized clinically in order to begin rapidly treatment with cyclines. PMID:11068477

  12. Cutaneous myoepithelioma: an under-recognized cutaneous neoplasm composed of myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, H; Mentzel, T; Kaddu, S; Soares, L M; Sangueza, O P; Requena, L

    2001-03-01

    Benign and malignant neoplasms of myoepithelial cells comprise a rare but well-characterized group of tumors, among which myoepithelioma of the salivary glands is the best known. Extrasalivary examples of myoepithelioma also have been described in the breast, larynx, and retroperitoneum. Recently, myoepithelioma of the soft tissue also has been reported. According to this description, myoepithelioma and mixed tumors arising in the skin and subcutis represent points along a clinicopathologic spectrum of cutaneous and soft-tissue tumors. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an entirely cutaneous myoepithelioma in the literature. We report herein five additional examples of purely myoepithelial tumors located exclusively in the dermis. Histopathologically, the neoplasms were well-circumscribed dermal lesions composed of fascicles of spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and ovoid-to spindle-shaped nuclei. Focally, neoplastic aggregations of more epithelioid cells representing large round cells with abundant pale cytoplasm arranged in solid clusters, cords, or strands were also seen. Ductal differentiation was not identified in either of these solid aggregations of epithelioid cells or in the fascicles of spindle-shaped cells. Nuclear pleomorphism in epithelioid and spindle-cell areas was mild, and mitotic figures were very sparse. In some cases, small, necrotic areas were seen within the solid aggregations of spindle-shaped cells. Neoplastic stroma was scant and composed of fibrillary collagen and abundant mucin. In one case, the stroma consisted of clusters of mature adipocytes intermingled with fascicles of myoepithelial cells. Areas of chondroid or osteoid metaplasia were not seen in any of the cases. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells expressed positivity for muscle specific actin (HHF35), alpha smooth muscle actin (IA4), S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), whereas

  13. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  14. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  15. Study on epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis in northern India and effectiveness of dimethylsulphoxide in cutaneous amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Arvind; Nath, Bhola; Dhir, G. G.; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Budhiraja, Virendra; Singh, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Context: Amyloidosis, which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of a proteinaceous substance, is usually associated with considerable tissue dysfunction. However, the etiology of the disease remains uncertain and the treatment disappointing. Aim: 1. To know the epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis 2. To evaluate the effect of dimethylsulphoxide on cutaneous amyloidosis. Settings and Design: Data was collected from patients attending the Outpatient Department (OPD) over a period of one year. Material and Methods: Patients were screened on the basis of signs and symptoms and then confirmed histologically. A total of 62 patients who were suspected to be suffering from amyloidosis on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and 38 patients who were further confirmed histopathologically underwent the treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used for testing the significance of proportions. Results: 63.15 percent of the patients had macular amyloidosis and the interscapular area was the most common area involved (52.63%). Pruritus, pigmentation, and papules responded excellently to dimethylsulphoxide after one month of treatment. Conclusions: Cutaneous amyloidosis is a disease found in middle-aged persons, with a female preponderance, and dimethylsulphoxide seems to be an effective therapy. PMID:23189250

  16. Limits of proton conductivity.

    PubMed

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Wohlfarth, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Parasitic current seems to be the cause for the "highest proton conductivity" of a material reported to date. Kreuer and Wohlfarth verify this hypothesis by measuring the conductivity of the same materials after preparing them in a different way. They further explain the limits of proton conductivity and comment on the problems of determining the conductivity of small objects (e.g., whiskers, see picture).

  17. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Cutaneous endometriosis: non-invasive analysis by epiluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, V; Massi, D; Mannone, F; Stante, M; Carli, P

    2003-05-01

    The clinical appearance of cutaneous endometriosis can share some features with malignant melanoma, thus representing a possible cause for concern in both patient and clinician. In recent years, the use of epiluminescence microscopy (ELM, dermoscopy) has proved useful in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dermoscopic features of cutaneous endometriosis with histopathological correlation. We studied a case which showed homogeneous reddish pigmentation, regularly distributed. Within this typical pigmentation there were small red globular structures, but more defined and of a deeper hue, which we called 'red atolls'. ELM thus revealed a distinctive pattern in cutaneous endometriosis. PMID:12780722

  19. Plasmablastic lymphoma: an atypical cutaneous presentation of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Mota, Fernando; Mesquita, Bruno; Carvalho, S; Coelho, André; Velho, Glória; Lima, Margarida; Selores, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a very rare B-cell lymphoma typically associated with immunosuppression: It occurs primarily in the oral cavity, although some cases were reported in other organs and tissues.To date, only 10 cases of primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma have been described. Clinically, primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma presents as non-specific cutaneous lesions (purple nodules, erythematous infiltrated plaques). In previously described cases, as in this case, histology and immunohistochemistry are required to make the diagnosis. Owing to the rarity of this entity, there is no established therapy, which makes its management an individualized, patient-based decision. PMID:27617520

  20. A case of cutaneous paragonimiasis presented with minimal pleuritis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Devi, KH Ranjana; Singh, S Rajen; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    Clinically, paragonimiasis is broadly classified into pulmonary, pleuropulmonary, and extrapulmonary forms. The common extrapulmonary forms are cerebral and cutaneous paragonimiasis. The cutaneous paragonimiasis is usually presented as a slowly migrating and painless subcutaneous nodule. The correct diagnosis is often difficult or delayed or remained undiagnosed until the nodule becomes enlarged and painful and the cause is investigated. We report here a case of cutaneous paragonimiasis in a male child who presented with mild respiratory symptoms. The diagnosis of paragonimiasis was based on a history of consumption of crabs, positive specific serological test, and blood eosinophilia. The swelling and respiratory symptoms subsided after a prescribed course of praziquantel therapy. PMID:23767026

  1. Primary Cutaneous Ewing Sarcoma: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Yuste, Veronica; Sierra, Elena; Ruano, David; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Conde, Esther; Azorin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare entity. Although the diagnosis may be very difficult, it can be confirmed through molecular biology. We present the case of a 13-years old male with a lesion in the sole of the right foot, characterized by a monomorphous proliferation of small, round and blue cells. The histology and molecular biology allowed us to perform the diagnosis of cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma. This neoplasm must be distinguished from other round cell tumors with cutaneous involvement. The prognosis and treatment of this rare disease will also be discussed. PMID:26207391

  2. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in naturally occurring bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas.

    PubMed

    Bocaneti, F; Altamura, G; Corteggio, A; Solcan, C; Velescu, E; Borzacchiello, G

    2015-01-01

    Bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas are benign skin tumours characterized by epithelial and dermal proliferation and induced by Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs). Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 are enzymes involved in pathological conditions, such as inflammation and epithelial carcinogenesis. Here we investigated biochemically and immunohistochemically COX-2 expression in bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas. Eight of twelve fibropapillomas (67%) showed COX-2 positive immunosignal mostly in the cytoplasm of the basal cell layer, while the normal skin did not stain. Biochemical analysis confirmed the expression of COX-2 in tumour samples. This study shows COX-2 expression in cutaneous fibropapillomas, suggesting a contribution in epithelial tumour development. PMID:26618600

  3. Proton transport by halorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Varo, G.; Brown, L.S.; Needleman, R.

    1996-05-28

    In halorhodopsin from Natronobacterium pharaonis, a light-driven chloride pump, the chloride binding site also binds azide. When azide is bound at this location the retinal Schiff base transiently deprotonates after photoexcitation with light >530 nm, like in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. As in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin, pyranine detects the release of protons to the bulk. The subsequent reprotonation of the Schiff base is also dependent on azide, but with different kinetics that suggest a shuttling of protons from the surface as described earlier for halorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarium. The azide-dependent, bacteriorhodopsin-like photocycle results in active electrogenic proton transport in the cytoplasmic to extracellular direction, detected in cell envelope vesicle suspensions both with a potential-sensitive electrode and by measuring light-dependent pH change. We conclude that in halorhodopsin an azide bound to the extracellular side of the Schiff base, and another azide shuttling between the Schiff base and the cytoplasmic surface, fulfill the functions of Asp-85 and Asp-96, respectively, in bacteriorhodopsin. Thus, although halorhodopsin is normally a chloride ion pump, it evidently contains all structural requirements, except an internal proton acceptor and a donor, of a proton pump. This observation complements our earlier finding that when a chloride binding site was created in bacteriorhodopsin through replacement of Asp-85 with a threonine, that protein became a chloride ion pump. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  4. A rare comorbidity: neurosarcoidosis and cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Lütfi; Aslan, Kerim; Özgen, Metin; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a neurosarcoidosis patient with skin lesions. A 50-year-old woman was admitted with a 1-year history of violaceous, smooth and shiny plaques on her face and right arm. These lesions were biopsied and the histological examination indicated sarcoidosis. The patient had a history of headache and syncope that lasted for about 1 h. Brain CT showed masses measuring 37×20 mm in both frontal lobes. Thoracic and abdominal CT showed many pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous, lung and neuronal sarcoidosis, and treated with 20 mg/day methylprednisolone, 15 mg/week methotrexate, 10 mg/week folic acid, 400 mg/day hydroxychloroquine and 800 mg/day carbamazepine. One month later, the patient's neurological symptoms had improved and her skin lesions had decreased. At 6-month follow-up, the size of the cranial masses had markedly regressed.

  5. Cutaneous melanoma in genetically modified animals.

    PubMed

    Larue, Lionel; Beermann, Friedrich

    2007-12-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are tumors originating from skin melanocytes which are present in hair follicles, and interfollicular epidermal and dermal layers. Experimental work in model systems involves in silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses. Such models allow to mimick melanocytic aberrations characteristic of melanoma, and to potentially exploit novel therapies. Transgenic technologies can be used to modify specifically the genome of the model organism and thereby generate transgenic strains, and combinations of such strains, which may develop metastasizing melanoma. In such strains, metastasizing melanoma either arises spontaneously after a period of latency or requires additional physical or chemical induction. In this review, we summarize the work of currently available transgenic melanoma models and discuss the most recent progress in creating improved and/or inducible models reflecting the human disease.

  6. Cutaneous and systemic complications associated with tattooing.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Tattooing can result in a wide variety of complications, whose prevalence and incidence remain still unclear. Hypersensitivity reactions (or allergies) to tattoo pigments are currently the most common complication on a tattoo, however they are not predictable. Infections are nowadays directly related to the lack of asepsis and hygiene during the tattooing procedure or during the healing phase. Patients with a known cutaneous disease should be warned of a potential risk of localization of their disease to the tattoo. A skin eruption restricted to a tattoo may reveal sarcoidosis. Patients with chronic conditions and/or impaired immunity should discuss with their physician about the possibility and when to have a tattoo. PMID:27160631

  7. Cutaneous leiomyomatosis in a mother and daughter*

    PubMed Central

    Lencastre, André; Cabete, Joana; Gonçalves, Rui; João, Alexandre; Fidalgo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman with no known medical history was evaluated for multiple painful brown nodules and papules on the anterior aspect of the trunk. She mentioned a history of similar cutaneous findings on her mother. Biopsies of three lesions revealed piloleiomyomata. Renal and adrenal ultrasound revealed an isolated simple cortical cyst, and pelvic and endovaginal ultrasound revealed two uterine myomata. The clinical diagnosis of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer was corroborated by the identification of a heterozygous variant on exon 5 of the fumarate hydratase gene (c.578C>T p.T193I). Identification of the tumor piloleiomyoma should alert the dermatologist to this rare genodermatosis, which is associated with an increased risk of renal cell tumors, demanding multidisciplinary follow-up, and personal and family counseling. PMID:24346898

  8. Inflammatory Cutaneous Diseases in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Paola; Cavaliere, Giovanni; Zavattaro, Elisa; Veronese, Federica; Fava, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Although our study shows a relatively low incidence of these pathologies in transplanted patients—in agreement with the general action of immunosuppressant therapies in reducing inflammation—we scored a different efficacy of the various immunosuppressive regimens on inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. This information can be key for designing immunosuppressive regimens and devising accurate follow-up protocols. PMID:27548160

  9. Cutaneous Melanoma: A Population Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Warren, Hermine

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM), generally referred to as melanoma, has been identified as an overall population health problem. Examination of evidence-based research revealed a strong correlation between CM and tanning bed usage, specifically by young females. For these reasons, a preliminary research question/hypothesis was structured that proposed examining different geographical locations, and whether the relationship between melanoma and tanning bed exposure by young females would be affected. Epidemiologic principles will be utilized to provide guidelines and tools for comprehensively examining this health issue and how it might affect morbidity and mortality within the populations where occurrences are identified. Furthermore, to understand some of the contributing factors of this disease, melanoma was discussed in terms of person, place, time, and how tanning bed exposure may significantly heighten CM as a potentially fatal health problem.

  10. Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis. Relation to systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (CNV) is a complex multisystem disease generally involving the skin and mucous membranes, often accompanied by renal, gastrointestinal, pericardial, neurological, and articular signs and symptoms. CNV may be idiopatical or occur in association with a drug, infection, or underlying disease. CNV has been shown in patients with chronic infections (viral, bacterial, protozoa, helminthic), serum sickness, a variety of collagen vascular diseases (systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease) hyperglobulinemic states, cryoglobulinemia, bowel bypass syndrome, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and HIV infection. Association with malignancies is not frequent. Lymphoproliferative disorders (Hodgkin's disease, mycosis fungoides, lymphosarcoma, adult T-cell leukemia, multiple mieloma) and solid tumors (lung cancer, colon carcinoma, renal, prostate, head and neck cancer and breast cancer) may be associated with CNV. Whenever possible, treatment is directed at the elimination of the cause. In other cases after adequate laboratory screening local and systemic therapy are recommended. PMID:10599332

  11. Anastrozole-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Juliya; Patel, Mital; Miller, Michael; Burris, Katy

    2016-08-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (DI-SCLE) has been associated with numerous drugs, but there are limited reports of its association with aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. We report the case of a patient undergoing treatment with anastrozole for breast cancer who presented with clinical, serological, and histological evidence consistent with DI-SCLE. Her condition quickly began to improve after the use of anastrozole was discontinued and hydroxychloroquine therapy was initiated. Cases such as ours as well as several others that implicate antiestrogen drugs in association with DI-SCLE seem to be contradictory to studies looking at the usefulness of treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with antiestrogen therapy. Further research on this relationship is warranted. PMID:27622265

  12. Anastrozole-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Juliya; Patel, Mital; Miller, Michael; Burris, Katy

    2016-08-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (DI-SCLE) has been associated with numerous drugs, but there are limited reports of its association with aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. We report the case of a patient undergoing treatment with anastrozole for breast cancer who presented with clinical, serological, and histological evidence consistent with DI-SCLE. Her condition quickly began to improve after the use of anastrozole was discontinued and hydroxychloroquine therapy was initiated. Cases such as ours as well as several others that implicate antiestrogen drugs in association with DI-SCLE seem to be contradictory to studies looking at the usefulness of treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with antiestrogen therapy. Further research on this relationship is warranted.

  13. In the clinic. Common cutaneous parasites.

    PubMed

    Markova, Alina; Kam, Sarah A; Miller, Daniel D; Lichtman, Michael K

    2014-09-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of Common Cutaneous Parasites focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, practice improvement, and patient information. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult http://smartmedicine.acponline.org, http://mksap.acponline.org, and other resources referenced in each issue of In the Clinic.

  14. Cutaneous pigmentation secondary to amiodarone therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, J.W.; Mendelson, D.S.; Fetter, B.F.; Ingram, P.; Gallagher, J.J.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an iodinated cardiac antiarrhythmic drug that causes a slate-gray discoloration of the sun-exposed skin and a yellow-brown stippling of the cornea. Histopathologically, biopsy specimens of aminodarone pigmentation sites disclose yellow-brown refractile granules in the reticular dermis. These granules were characterized by transmission electron microscopy as being concentrically arranged intralysosomal inclusions (''myelinlike'' bodies) in dermal endothelial cells and perivascular smooth-muscle cells. Electron probe x-ray analysis of these same inclusions disclosed definite peaks for iodine, evidence for the presence of amiodarone or a metabolite of the drug at these sites. Amiodarone, then, concentrates in lysosomes and causes an accumulation of lipids similar to what has been seen with other cationic amphiphilic compounds, such as the glycosphingolipid stored in Fabry's disease. Amiodarone must be recognized as a cause of a drug-induced lipid storage disease with cutaneous and corneal manifestations.

  15. Overcoming the cutaneous barrier with microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luciana B

    2014-01-01

    Microemulsions are fluid and isotropic formulations that have been widely studied as delivery systems for a variety of routes, including the skin. In spite of what the name suggests, microemulsions are nanocarriers, and their use as topical delivery systems derives from their multiple advantages compared to other dermatological formulations, such as ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and penetration-enhancing properties. Composition, charge and internal structure have been reported as determinant factors for the modulation of drug release and cutaneous and transdermal transport. This manuscript aims at reviewing how these and other characteristics affect delivery and make microemulsions appealing for topical and transdermal administration, as well as how they can be modulated during the formulation design to improve the potential and efficacy of the final system. PMID:24590260

  16. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject's upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging.

  17. Multiple Eruptive Dermatofibromas Masquerading as Cutaneous Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rowan; Aithal, Vijay; Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old male came with complaints of multiple firms to hard nontender, nonitchy nodules, measuring 2 cm × 2 cm to 1 cm × 1.5 cm, present predominantly over the lower limbs. This condition started 5 years back as a single nodule over the thigh but gradually increased in number and size with time to involve both lower limbs. A differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma and dermatofibroma was considered. He underwent a biopsy and immunohistochemistry for the same which were consistent with hemosiderotic histiocytoma and positive for vimentin. The patient was advised surgical excision for the same. The occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas although rare has been reported in a few case reports; however, the occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas of the hemosiderotic variant has not been documented yet. PMID:27688463

  18. Multiple Eruptive Dermatofibromas Masquerading as Cutaneous Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rowan; Aithal, Vijay; Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old male came with complaints of multiple firms to hard nontender, nonitchy nodules, measuring 2 cm × 2 cm to 1 cm × 1.5 cm, present predominantly over the lower limbs. This condition started 5 years back as a single nodule over the thigh but gradually increased in number and size with time to involve both lower limbs. A differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma and dermatofibroma was considered. He underwent a biopsy and immunohistochemistry for the same which were consistent with hemosiderotic histiocytoma and positive for vimentin. The patient was advised surgical excision for the same. The occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas although rare has been reported in a few case reports; however, the occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas of the hemosiderotic variant has not been documented yet. PMID:27688463

  19. Romidepsin for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Prince, H Miles; Dickinson, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are relatively rare lymphomas with an annual incidence of approximately 0.2 to 0.8/100,000 and comprise a variety of clinical entities; mycosis fungoides or its leukemic variant Sezary syndrome account for the majority of cases. Advanced-stage disease is typically treated with bexarotene (a retinoid), interferon, or conventional chemotherapeutic agents, but relapses are inevitable. Histone deacetylase inhibitors, which modify the epigenome, are an attractive addition to the armamentarium. On the basis of 2 large phase II studies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved intravenous romidepsin for patients with relapsed and/or refractory CTCL. Romidepsin provides a subset of patients with an opportunity for prolonged clinical responses with a tolerable side effect profile.

  20. Acquired cutis laxa associated with cutaneous mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Minh Van; Dang, Phuoc Van; Bui, Duc Van; Mejbel, Haider; Mani, Divya Thomas; Smoller, Bruce Robert; Phung, Thuy Linh

    2015-07-01

    Cutis laxa is characterized by dramatic wrinkling of skin that is lacking in elasticity due to inherent defects in dermal elastic fibers. Cutis laxa can be caused by genetic and metabolic disorders. It can also be acquired, possibly resulting from inflammatory processes with destruction of elastic fibers. This report describes a 26-year old woman who developed acquired cutis laxa and cutaneous mastocytosis leading to premature aging. She represents a unique co-occurrence of these two separate disease entities. To our knowledge, there has been only one published case report of acquired cutis laxa occurring in association with urticaria pigmentosa in a 4-year old girl. Our case would be a second case that exhibits the coexistence of these two disorders in an adult female. PMID:26436968

  1. Overcoming the Cutaneous Barrier with Microemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luciana B.

    2014-01-01

    Microemulsions are fluid and isotropic formulations that have been widely studied as delivery systems for a variety of routes, including the skin. In spite of what the name suggests, microemulsions are nanocarriers, and their use as topical delivery systems derives from their multiple advantages compared to other dermatological formulations, such as ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and penetration-enhancing properties. Composition, charge and internal structure have been reported as determinant factors for the modulation of drug release and cutaneous and transdermal transport. This manuscript aims at reviewing how these and other characteristics affect delivery and make microemulsions appealing for topical and transdermal administration, as well as how they can be modulated during the formulation design to improve the potential and efficacy of the final system. PMID:24590260

  2. Treatment of cutaneous ulcers with benzoyl peroxide.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide, a powerful organic oxidizing agent, was applied topically according to a carefully developed technique to cutaneous ulcers of different types. The healing time was shortened greatly by the rapid development of healthy granulation tissue and the quick ingrowth of epithelium. Exceptionally large pressure ulcers with deep cavities, undercut edges and sinus tracts were sucessfully treated, as were stasis ulcers of long duration resistant to all other therapy. There were only 13 treatment failures among the 133 cases. The slow, sustained release of oxygen by benzoyl peroxide was though to be responsible for the success. The only complications were contact irritant dermatitis in 3% and contact allergic dermatitis in 2% of patients treated. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1000442

  3. Multiple Eruptive Dermatofibromas Masquerading as Cutaneous Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rowan; Aithal, Vijay; Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old male came with complaints of multiple firms to hard nontender, nonitchy nodules, measuring 2 cm × 2 cm to 1 cm × 1.5 cm, present predominantly over the lower limbs. This condition started 5 years back as a single nodule over the thigh but gradually increased in number and size with time to involve both lower limbs. A differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma and dermatofibroma was considered. He underwent a biopsy and immunohistochemistry for the same which were consistent with hemosiderotic histiocytoma and positive for vimentin. The patient was advised surgical excision for the same. The occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas although rare has been reported in a few case reports; however, the occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas of the hemosiderotic variant has not been documented yet.

  4. Fibromodulin Enhances Angiogenesis during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Jian, Jia; Velasco, Omar; Hsu, Ching-yun; Zhang, Kermit; Levin, Andrew; Murphy, Maxwell; Zhang, Xinli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fibromodulin (FMOD) plays a critical role in the wound-healing process. Our previous studies revealed that FMOD deficiency led to marked alterations in adult wound healing characterized by delayed dermal cell migration, postponed wound closure, and increased scar formation, all accompanied by impeded angiogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reveal the effect of FMOD on angiogenesis during the wound-healing process. Methods: In vivo angiogenic effects of FMOD were assessed by a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, a Matrigel (BD Bioscience, Franklin Lakes, N.J.) plug implant assay, and rodent primary closure wound models. In vitro angiogenic effects of FMOD were recorded by cell invasion and dimensional and topological parameters of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Results: We provided evidence that FMOD significantly enhanced vascularization: first, FMOD boosted blood vessel formation on the chorioallantoic membrane; second, FMOD markedly stimulated capillary infiltration into Matrigel plugs subcutaneously implanted in adult mice; and finally, FMOD robustly promoted angiogenesis in multiple adult rodent cutaneous wound models. Furthermore, FMOD administration restored the vascularity of fmod−/− mouse wounds. In support of this, FMOD endorsed an angiogenesis-favored microenvironment in adult rodent wounds not only by upregulating angiogenic genes but also by downregulating angiostatic genes. In addition, FMOD significantly enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell invasion and tube-like structure formation in vitro. Conclusions: Altogether, we demonstrated that in addition to reducing scar formation, FMOD also promotes angiogenesis. As blood vessels organize and regulate wound healing, its potent angiogenic properties will further expand the clinical application of FMOD for cutaneous healing of poorly vascularized wounds. PMID:25587509

  5. Cutaneous balloon cell dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma).

    PubMed

    Tran, Tien Anh; Hayner-Buchan, Alida; Jones, David M; McRorie, Duane; Carlson, J Andrew

    2007-04-01

    Dermatofibroma (DF) or cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma is a common benign skin tumor that exhibits multiple, distinct histologic variants. Although clear cell DF has been described in the literature, balloon cell degeneration causing a clear cell DF phenotype has been not been reported to date. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic findings of balloon cell DF arising on the heel of a 43-year-old man. Clinically, it presented as enlarging tan-white, ulcerated, firm 1.5 cm nodule, clinically suspected to be pyogenic granuloma. Excisional biopsy revealed a circumscribed fibrous tumor populated by mostly clear and spindle cells. A zonal arrangement separated the varied tumor cells where the most superficial, polypoid area showed large, clear polygonal balloon cells; the mid-dermal zone demonstrated a transition between balloon cells, epithelioid cells, and spindle cells; and the deep dermal zone had storiform arrangement of spindle cells, with the fascicles separated by coarse collagen bundles. A CD10+ > CD68+ > Factor XIIIa+ immunophenotype was identified with negative immunolabeling for S-100 protein, HMB-45, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, desmin, smooth muscle actin, lysozyme, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). Ultrastructurally, the clear tumor cells were filled with multiple, empty, nonmembrane bound vacuoles of varying size. No recurrence has been described after complete excision and 7 months of follow up. DF with balloon cell change, likely secondary to persistent irritation, should be added to the differential diagnosis of cutaneous primary and metastatic neoplasms showing balloon cell degeneration such as balloon cell melanocytic nevi and renal cell carcinoma, respectively.

  6. [Proton generator of superhigh frequency].

    PubMed

    Liberman, E A; Eĭdus, V L

    1981-01-01

    Possible mechanism of superhigh frequency (10(10)-10(12) Hz) electromagnetic oscillation generation by an external proton in a system of hydrogen bonds of biomacromolecules is briefly discussed. The external proton in a proton channel deforms the potential profile of the proton of hydrogen bond in such a way, that there appears a possibility of the low frequency proton tunneling along the hydrogen bond. The interaction with the neighbouring bonds leads to further lowering of the generated frequency.

  7. Exotic Protonated Species Produced by UV-Induced Photofragmentation of a Protonated Dimer: Metastable Protonated Cinchonidine.

    PubMed

    Alata, Ivan; Scuderi, Debora; Lepere, Valeria; Steinmetz, Vincent; Gobert, Fabrice; Thiao-Layel, Loïc; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2015-10-01

    A metastable protonated cinchona alkaloid was produced in the gas phase by UV-induced photodissociation (UVPD) of its protonated dimer in a Paul ion trap. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectrum of the molecular ion formed by UVPD was obtained and compared to DFT calculations to characterize its structure. The protonation site obtained thereby is not accessible by classical protonation ways. The protonated monomer directly formed in the ESI source or by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimer undergoes protonation at the most basic alkaloid nitrogen. In contrast, protonation occurs at the quinoline aromatic ring nitrogen in the UVPD-formed monomer. PMID:26347997

  8. Exotic Protonated Species Produced by UV-Induced Photofragmentation of a Protonated Dimer: Metastable Protonated Cinchonidine.

    PubMed

    Alata, Ivan; Scuderi, Debora; Lepere, Valeria; Steinmetz, Vincent; Gobert, Fabrice; Thiao-Layel, Loïc; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2015-10-01

    A metastable protonated cinchona alkaloid was produced in the gas phase by UV-induced photodissociation (UVPD) of its protonated dimer in a Paul ion trap. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectrum of the molecular ion formed by UVPD was obtained and compared to DFT calculations to characterize its structure. The protonation site obtained thereby is not accessible by classical protonation ways. The protonated monomer directly formed in the ESI source or by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimer undergoes protonation at the most basic alkaloid nitrogen. In contrast, protonation occurs at the quinoline aromatic ring nitrogen in the UVPD-formed monomer.

  9. [Tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans: unpleasant travel souvenirs].

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-12-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) and cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption) are parasitic skin diseases in which the infectious agents only temporarily invade human skin. The parasites die in situ and eventually are eliminated by tissue repair mechanisms. Both diseases are zoonoses. Humans only accidentally become a host for animal hookworm larvae (resulting in cutaneous larva migrans), but get infected with Tunga penetrans as frequent as domestic animals. In travelers to tropical and subtropical regions tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans are the most common imported skin diseases. The diagnosis is made clinically. In tungiasis the clinical manifestations depend on the stage of the disease. Intense local inflammation and bacterial superinfection are common. Cutaneous larva migrans is treated orally with ivermectin or albendazole. A repellent based on coconut oil effectively prevents penetration of sand fleas.

  10. [Tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans: unpleasant travel souvenirs].

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-12-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) and cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption) are parasitic skin diseases in which the infectious agents only temporarily invade human skin. The parasites die in situ and eventually are eliminated by tissue repair mechanisms. Both diseases are zoonoses. Humans only accidentally become a host for animal hookworm larvae (resulting in cutaneous larva migrans), but get infected with Tunga penetrans as frequent as domestic animals. In travelers to tropical and subtropical regions tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans are the most common imported skin diseases. The diagnosis is made clinically. In tungiasis the clinical manifestations depend on the stage of the disease. Intense local inflammation and bacterial superinfection are common. Cutaneous larva migrans is treated orally with ivermectin or albendazole. A repellent based on coconut oil effectively prevents penetration of sand fleas. PMID:20088345

  11. Minocycline-induced cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Fabien; Puzenat, Eve; Blanc, Dominique; Faivre, Brigitte; Humbert, Philippe; Aubin, François

    2003-01-01

    Minocycline is an antibiotic widely used in the treatment of acne. Among the induced auto-immune disorders, cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is very rare. A new case is reported below. A 23-year-old female patient treated with minocycline for acne for 24 months developed sub-cutaneous nodules, livedo reticularis and pigmented lesions of the lower limbs. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were positive at 1/320. Skin biopsy showed vasculitis of a medium-sized artery. The role of minocycline was suspected using the imputability criteria. The diagnosis of minocycline-induced cutaneous PAN with ANCA was sustained. After withdrawal of the treatment, the nodular lesions decreased spontaneously, whereas livedo disappeared and inflammatory parameters were normalized after oral corticosteroid therapy. Minocycline is a tetracycline which is efficient for treating acne. Auto-immune disorders are frequently observed. Among them, it is very rare to observe cutaneous PAN associated with positive ANCA. The pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Isolated benign primary cutaneous plasmacytosis in a child.

    PubMed

    On, Hye Rang; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, You Chan; Kim, Soo-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated benign primary cutaneous plasmacytosis in a child is a very rare and benign disease. Herein we present a case of this condition occurring in a child who showed good response to topical corticosteroid. PMID:25424220

  13. [Familial cases of cutaneous myxomas and spotty pigmentation (Carney's complex)].

    PubMed

    Koyano, T; Satoh, T; Ohtaki, N

    1990-09-01

    In 1985, Carney et al reported a complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity and subsequently demonstrated dominant inheritance of the condition. The criteria for diagnosis of the complex is the presence of two or more of the following conditions: (1) cardiac myxoma, (2) cutaneous myxoma, (3) mammary myxoma, (4) spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation, (5) primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (Cushing's syndrome), (6) testicular tumors (sexual precocity), (7) pituitary adenoma secreting growth hormone (acromegaly or gigantism). We encountered a family with an affected mother and daughter. Case 1 was a 43-year-old woman with multiple cutaneous myxomas, mammary myxomas and spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation. Case 2, the 19-year-old daughter of case 1 had multiple cutaneous myxomas and spotty cutaneous pigmentation. These two cases both met the criteria for the diagnosis of the complex. Our report is believed to be the first report on the complex in Japan. PMID:2266598

  14. Rapidly Progressive Acute Pustular Secondary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mordorski, Breanne; Friedman, Adam; Han, George

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon diagnosis that may either present as a primary cutaneous process or develop secondary to systemic disease. It is imperative to distinguish between these two entities due to differences in treatment recommendations and prognosis. Here, their salient features will be reviewed. It is also important that clinicians recognize atypical clinical morphologies of cutaneous ALCL, including pustular lesions, which may masquerade as infectious or other inflammatory conditions, thereby delaying the onset of treatment. In this report, we present a case of secondary cutaneous ALCL associated with an atypical pustular morphology and an aggressive, fatal course.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1132-1135. PMID:27602978

  15. [Cutaneous blastomycosis: description of two cases in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    El Euch, D; Cherif, F; Aoun, K; Mokni, M; Bouratbine, A; Haouet, S; Ben Osman Dhahri, A

    2004-01-01

    Blastomycosis is an uncommon mycotic infection in Africa. Isolated cutaneous disease is extremely rare. The purpose of this report is to describe 2 cases of cutaneous blastomycosis. The first case Involved a 70-year-old rural woman who presented papulonodules associated with scars on the upper extremities and right leg, ongoing for 2 months. The second patient was a 47-year-old woman who presented 2 vegetating plaque areas above the left knee and on the left shoulder, ongoing for 4 months. In addition a bow-shaped scar resulting from a dog bite was observed. Histologic examination and culture on Sabouraud's medium and brain heart agar confirmed diagnosis of cutaneous blastomycosis in both patients. No visceral involvement was found. Blastomycosis is uncommon in Tunisia with only 6 previously published cases. The two cases reported here are interesting because involvement was confined to the skin suggesting cutaneous inoculation of Blastomyces dermatitidis.

  16. Cutaneous Lymphoma in Korea: A Nationwide Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Suh, Kee Suck; Lee, Dong-Youn; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Oh, Sang Ho; Kim, Soo-Chan; Lee, Seok-Jong; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Young; Won, Young Ho; Kim, You Chan

    2016-05-01

    The epidemiological and clinicopathological features of cutaneous lymphoma may vary by geographical area. However, only a few large-scale epidemiological studies of cutaneous lymphoma have been performed, mainly in the USA and Europe. This aim of this study was to determine the recent characteristics of cutaneous lymphoma in Korea according to the WHO/EORTC classification. A total of 422 patients with newly diagnosed cutaneous lymphoma from January 2009 to December 2013 comprising 293 cases of mature T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma and 39 cases of mature B-cell lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence of mature B-cell lymphoma was lower in Korea than in Europe and the USA. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more prevalent in Korea than in Western countries. The incidence of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type was higher in Korea than in Western countries and Japan. PMID:26560051

  17. [Secondary amyloidosis (AA-type) due to localized cutaneous vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Esteve, V; Ribera, L; Ponz, E; Almirall, J; López, T; Martínez Ocaña, J C; Ibeas, J; Rodríguez Jornet, A; Andreu, X; García, M

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of a 49 year old man, diagnosed soon after the outcome of casual proteinuria, of AA-type amyloidosis in relation to small and medium vessel cutaneous vasculitis without systemic involvement. This combination is a rare entity and only two cases of cutaneous hypersensibility vasculitis complicated with AA-type amyloidosis had been reported. We describe the results of the use of several immunosuppressive drugs during four years follow up with temporally total remission of the disease. PMID:18045042

  18. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  19. [Erythema multiforme secondary to cutaneous Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Barrera, Martha E; Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Torres-Guerrero, D Edoardo; Aguilar-Donis, Adriana; Arenas, Roberto

    2009-06-30

    Erythema multiforme is an acute self-limited cutaneous syndrome associated in more than 50% of the cases with herpes simplex virus infection; but it can also be a consequence of other infectious agents or drugs. We report on a 24 year-old female patient with erythema multiforme secondary to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes cutaneous infection acquired from contact with animals in a research laboratory.

  20. Studying Proton-Proton Collisions Using Pythia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, Adi

    2004-10-01

    At Brookhaven National Lab, the RHIC experiments are currently investigating, on a subatomic level, what happens when heavy ions collide at high speeds. This is done in order to create such high temperatures and densities that quarks are no longer bound to one another. This state of matter is called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Evidence for the existence of the QGP may be the quenching of hadron jets, which occurs when the fast quarks or gluons lose so much energy in the hot, dense medium that they cannot survive. Then the jets of particles that these particles usually result in cannot be made. By studying the particle yield at high transverse momentum (Pt), one can probe what is happening to the jets created during collisions. Using Pythia, a standard model event generator based on the Lund String Model, we study jets of particles created when elementary protons collide. Then we know what should happen to jets at high transverse momentum transfer, when no QGP is present. Comparing the pt spectrum of jet partners generated by Pythia to RHIC results for proton-proton collisions shows that the two do in fact agree. This not only insures that the analysis of RHIC data is correct, but it also establishes a basis for comparison for Au-Au collisions. Comparing d+Au collision data to the Pythia Pt spectrum of jets with leading baryon and meson triggers, we found good agreement. Thus the jet production does not change drastically in nature in the presence of a cold nuclear medium.

  1. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  2. Proton charge extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Jesse R.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how corrections to S -state energy levels En S in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to En S are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order rp/aB times the size of the leading order term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the current discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of rp/aB that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to , rather than , as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to n =7 .

  3. Proton transfer in organic scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Dipankar

    This dissertation focuses on the fundamental understanding of the proton transfer process and translating the knowledge into design/development of new organic materials for efficient non-aqueous proton transport. For example, what controls the shuttling of a proton between two basic sites? a) Distance between two groups? or b) the basicity? c) What is the impact of protonation on molecular conformation when the basic sites are attached to rigid scaffolds? For this purpose, we developed several tunable proton sponges and studied proton transfer in these scaffolds theoretically as well as experimentally. Next we moved our attention to understand long-range proton conduction or proton transport. We introduced liquid crystalline (LC) proton conductor based on triphenylene molecule and established that activation energy barrier for proton transport is lower in the LC phase compared to the crystalline phase. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of several critical factors: the choice of the proton transferring groups, mobility of the charge carriers, intrinsic vs. extrinsic charge carrier concentrations and the molecular architectures on long-range proton transport. The outcome of this research will lead to a deeper understanding of non-aqueous proton transfer process and aid the design of next generation proton exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel cell.

  4. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps.

    PubMed

    Buch-Pedersen, M J; Pedersen, B P; Veierskov, B; Nissen, P; Palmgren, M G

    2009-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK(a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires.

  5. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: p<0.001). During the dose-response, SkBF increased with increasing doses of menthol (main effect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol

  6. Cutaneous Manifestations of Selected Parasitic Infections in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian Regions.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente; Delos Trinos, John Paul Caesar; Garcia, Nikko Benjamin; Reyes, Maureen

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections often result in discomfort, debilitation, and even stigmatization. Data on cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections, however, are limited. This article provides updates on the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections which are known to occur in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian regions, such as scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, larva currens, cutaneous schistosomiasis, cutaneous enterobiasis, cutaneous cysticercosis, acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (lymphatic filariasis), and cutaneous amoebiasis. The lack of epidemiological data on these conditions suggests the need for improvements in recording and reporting of cases. Utilization of advance diagnostic modalities and capacity building of health workers are important for proper case management. Cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections are a topic rarely studied and thus represent an opportunity for further research. PMID:27447892

  7. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature.

  8. The physics of proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy. PMID:25803097

  9. Folliculotropic Cutaneous Metastases and Lymphangitis Carcinomatosa: When Cutaneous Metastases of Breast Carcinoma Are Mistaken for Cutaneous Infections.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Giovanni; Panetta, Chiara; Didona, Dario; Donati, Michele; Donati, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    Dear Editor, Cutaneous metastases (CM) are detected in about 0.6-10.4% of patients with an internal malignancy (1-3). Excluding melanoma, breast and lung carcinomas are the main source of CM in women and men, respectively (1,4,5). CM can have different clinical features, and a diagnosis of CM is usually suspected before performing a biopsy. However, this can be a pitfall for clinicians when the clinical presentation is not the typical inflammatory nodule or mass. Herein we report 2 cases of cutaneous metastases of breast carcinoma, initially treated as a common skin infection. Case 1 A 51-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our Institute with a four-month history of diffuse and erythematous pustular, lesions on the right arm that were painless and non pruritic (Figure 1). The patient had undergone excision for a breast adenocarcinoma (stage IIIA) 5 years earlier. An initial diagnosis of folliculitis was established, and the patient started systemic and topical antibiotics without any improvement. Based on the clinical features and the patient medical history, we performed a skin biopsy. Pathologically dermal nests of tumor cells, arranged in a glandular-like pattern and involving the perifollicular and follicular areas (Figure 2, Figure 3), were highlighted. The tumor cells were positive to cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK19, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and negative for CK20, CK5/6, CD10, and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) (Figure 4). According to the clinical history and pathology, a final diagnosis of folliculotropic metastatic breast carcinoma was established. Unfortunately, the patient died after 10 months. Case 2 A 61-year old Caucasian woman presented to our Department with a two-month history of pink/violet macular lesions with diffuse telangiectasia on the left breast and arm (Figure 5, Figure 6). Five years earlier she had undergone excision for a breast adenocarcinoma (stage II A). A previous diagnosis of cellulitis had been made, and systemic

  10. Shielding of relativistic protons.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, A; Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Manti, L; Pugliese, M; Scampoli, P; Mancusi, D; Sihver, L; Rusek, A

    2007-06-01

    Protons are the most abundant element in the galactic cosmic radiation, and the energy spectrum peaks around 1 GeV. Shielding of relativistic protons is therefore a key problem in the radiation protection strategy of crewmembers involved in long-term missions in deep space. Hydrogen ions were accelerated up to 1 GeV at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York. The proton beam was also shielded with thick (about 20 g/cm2) blocks of lucite (PMMA) or aluminium (Al). We found that the dose rate was increased 40-60% by the shielding and decreased as a function of the distance along the axis. Simulations using the General-Purpose Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) show that the dose increase is mostly caused by secondary protons emitted by the target. The modified radiation field after the shield has been characterized for its biological effectiveness by measuring chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed just behind the shield block, or to the direct beam, in the dose range 0.5-3 Gy. Notwithstanding the increased dose per incident proton, the fraction of aberrant cells at the same dose in the sample position was not significantly modified by the shield. The PHITS code simulations show that, albeit secondary protons are slower than incident nuclei, the LET spectrum is still contained in the low-LET range (<10 keV/microm), which explains the approximately unitary value measured for the relative biological effectiveness. PMID:17256178

  11. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references.

  12. Proton-Proton Scattering at 105 Mev and 75 Mev

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Birge, R. W.; Kruse, U. E.; Ramsey, N. F.

    1951-01-31

    The scattering of protons by protons provides an important method for studying the nature of nuclear forces. Recent proton-proton scattering experiments at energies as high as thirty Mev{sup 1} have failed to show any appreciable contribution to the cross section from higher angular momentum states, but it is necessary to bring in tensor forces to explain the magnitude of the observed cross section.

  13. Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2013-04-15

    We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

  14. Cutaneous Bronchobiliary Fistula Treated with Tissucol Sealant

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto-Nieto, M. I. Perez-Robledo, J. P.; Alvarez-Luque, A. Suz, J. I. Acitores Torres, J. Novo

    2011-02-15

    Bronchobiliary fistula is a rare and is an uncommon but severe complication of hydatid disease of the liver. Treatment has traditionally been surgical resection, but embolization and stent placement have been described. The invasive method seems to be a key component of patient treatment. We describe a case of a 58-year-old woman who, 25 years before, had undergone surgery for a hydatid cyst. A total cystectomy without previous puncture or parasite extraction was carried out. The lower aspect of the cyst was found to be completely perforated over the biliary duct. During the postoperative course, the patient had subphrenic right-sided pleural effusion and biliary fistula that subsided with medical treatment. Afterward, the patient came to the outpatient area of our hospital complaining of leakage of purulent exudate through the cutaneous opening, pain located on the right hypochondrium radiating to the right hemithorax, malaise, fever, chronic cough, and occasional vomiting of bile. Fistulography revealed an anfractuous cavity communicating with a residual cystic cavity on the right hepatic lobe. We observed communication with the intrahepatic canaliculi. Computed tomographic scan revealed a fistulous tract on the anterior liver border through the abdominal wall. There were no posttreatment complications. The patient is asymptomatic.

  15. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject’s upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject’s lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging. PMID:25604545

  16. [NMF and cosmetology of cutaneous hydration].

    PubMed

    Marty, J-P

    2002-01-01

    In the stratum corneum, the water binds to the intracellular hygroscopic and hydrosoluble substances called "natural moisturizing factors" or NMF. These "natural moisturizing factors" contained in the corneocytes are formed during epidermal differentiation and may represent up to 10 p. cent of the corneocyte mass. They are principally amino acids, carboxylic pyrrolidone acid, lactic acid, urea, glucose and mineral ions. Keratinization plays an important part in the formation of NMF that exhibit strong osmotic potential attracting the water molecules. The binding of water to NMF is the static aspect of cutaneous hydration. The second, dynamic, aspect is related to the selective permeability of the stratum corneum and to its lipid barrier properties, the permeability of which depends on the integrity and nature of the inter-corneocyte lipids and their lamellar organization between the cells. In these conditions, hydration cosmetics rely on two concepts that can be isolated or associated: the supply of hydrophilic substances to the stratum corneum, capable of attracting and retaining water (moisturizer) or capable of restoring the barrier in order to restore normal water loss or of protecting it against aggression (occlusive). PMID:11976540

  17. Cutaneous candidiasis: treatment with miconazole nitrate.

    PubMed

    Cullin, S I

    1977-01-01

    In a well-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 30 patients with cutaneous candidiasis were treated with a 2% miconazole nitrate lotion or its placebo control. By the 14th day, 13 of the 15 patients [87%] treated with miconazole nitrate achieved clinical and mycologic cures. Only a single patient treated with the placebo lotion would be classified as a therapeutic cure. In a second portion of the study those patients judged to be therapeutic failures were treated with the lotion containing 2% miconazole nitrate. By combining the results of both portions of the study we find that miconazole nitrate lotion produced both a clinical and mycologic cure in all patients receiving the active lotion. The miconazole lotion formula was well tolerated by all patients and no side effects were noted. The fact that miconazole nitrate acts rapidly in relieving symptoms, is well tolerated, and is highly effective against dermatophytes, yeasts and gram-positive bacteria, makes it a welcome addition to available topical therapy of skin infections.

  18. Cutaneous melanoma: new advances in treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Foletto, Michele Ceolin; Haas, Sandra Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life. PMID:24770508

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  20. Objective evaluation of cutaneous thermal sensivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbeaumont, W.

    1972-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining reliable and objective quantitative responses was investigated under conditions where only temperature changes in localized cutaneous areas evoked measurable changes in remote sudomotor activity. Both male and female subjects were studied to evaluate sex difference in thermal sensitivity. The results discussed include: sweat rate responses to contralateral cooling, comparison of sweat rate responses between men and women to contralateral cooling, influence of the menstrual cycle on the sweat rate responses to contralateral cooling, comparison of threshold of sweating responses between men and women, and correlation of latency to threshold for whole body sweating. It is concluded that the quantitative aspects of the reflex response is affected by both the density and activation of receptors as well as the rate of heat loss; men responded 8-10% more frequently than women to thermode cooling, the magnitude of responses being greater for men; and women responded 7-9% more frequently to thermode cooling on day 1 of menstruation, as compared to day 15.

  1. Cutaneous defenses against dermatophytes and yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, D K; Sohnle, P G

    1995-01-01

    Predispositions to the superficial mycoses include warmth and moisture, natural or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and perhaps some degree of inherited susceptibility. Some of these infections elicit a greater inflammatory response than others, and the noninflammatory ones are generally more chronic. The immune system is involved in the defense against these infections, and cell-mediated immunity appears to be particularly important. The mechanisms involved in generating immunologic reactions in the skin are complex, with epidermal Langerhans cells, other dendritic cells, lymphocytes, microvascular endothelial cells, and the keratinocytes themselves all participating in one way or another. A variety of defects in the immunologic response to the superficial mycoses have been described. In some cases the defect may be preexistent, whereas in others the infection itself may interfere with protective cell-mediated immune responses against the organisms. A number of different mechanisms may underlie these immunologic defects and lead to the development of chronic superficial fungal infection in individual patients. Although the immunologic defects appear to be involved in the chronicity of certain types of cutaneous fungal infections, treatment of these defects remains experimental at the present time. PMID:7553568

  2. Mechanosensory neurons, cutaneous mechanoreceptors, and putative mechanoproteins.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, M E; Cobo, T; Cobo, J L; Vega, J A

    2012-08-01

    The mammalian skin has developed sensory structures (mechanoreceptors) that are responsible for different modalities of mechanosensitivity like touch, vibration, and pressure sensation. These specialized sensory organs are anatomically and functionally connected to a special subset of sensory neurons called mechanosensory neurons, which electrophysiologically correspond with Aβ fibers. Although mechanosensory neurons and cutaneous mechanoreceptors are rather well known, the biology of the sense of touch still remains poorly understood. Basically, the process of mechanosensitivity requires the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into an electrical signal through the activation of ion channels that gate in response to mechanical stimuli. These ion channels belong primarily to the family of the degenerin/epithelium sodium channels, especially the subfamily acid-sensing ion channels, and to the family of transient receptor potential channels. This review compiles the current knowledge on the occurrence of putative mechanoproteins in mechanosensory neurons and mechanoreceptors, as well as the involvement of these proteins on the biology of touch. Furthermore, we include a section about what the knock-out mice for mechanoproteins are teaching us. Finally, the possibilities for mechanotransduction in mechanoreceptors, and the common involvement of the ion channels, extracellular membrane, and cytoskeleton, are revisited.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of cutaneous malignant melanoma (review).

    PubMed

    Serraino, D; Fratino, L; Gianni, W; Campisi, C; Pietropaolo, M; Trimarco, G; Marigliano, V

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the etiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Once considered a rare tumour, CMM is now the fourth commonest cancer in Australia and New Zeland, the tenth in the Usa, Canada and Scandinavia and the eighteenth in Great Britain. The growing scientific concern on the urgent need to highlight the cause/s of CMM is well documented by the large number of well-designed and well-conducted epidemiological studies reported in the last two decades. Such studies facilitated testing of many etiological hypotheses derived from earlier descriptive investigations and contributed to significant progress in understanding the etiology of such disease. The quantification of the extent to which the increases in CMM incidence and mortality rates are related to new lifestyles and to new patterns of exposure to potential carcinogenetic agents is essential in order to establish an appropriate preventive strategy. In population of mainly European origin a substantial proportion of the increased incidence of CMM is attributable to steady change from predominantly occupational to predominantly recreational exposure to solar radiation. Therefore the present review puts particular emphasis on exposure to sunlight as well as to artificial ultraviolet light, as modifiable causes of CMM. Incidence and mortality data and other potential risk factors for the development of CMM will also be briefly reviewed.

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  5. Tissue prognostic biomarkers in primary cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Mario; Massi, Daniela

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) causes the greatest number of skin cancer-related deaths worldwide. Predicting CM prognosis is important to determine the need for further investigation, counseling of patients, to guide appropriate management (particularly the need for postoperative adjuvant therapy), and for assignment of risk status in groups of patients entering clinical trials. Since recurrence rate is largely independent from stages defined by morphological and morphometric criteria, there is a strong need for identification of additional robust prognostic factors to support decision-making processes. Most data on prognostic biomarkers in melanoma have been evaluated in tumor tissue samples by conventional morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as well as DNA and RNA analyses. In the present review, we critically summarize main high-quality studies investigating IHC-based protein biomarkers of melanoma outcome according to Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK)-derived criteria. Pathways have been classified and conveyed in the "biologic road" previously described by Hanahan and Weinberg. Data derived from genomic and transcriptomic technologies have been critically reviewed to better understand if any of investigated proteins or gene signatures should be incorporated into clinical practice or still remain a field of melanoma research. Despite a wide body of research, no molecular prognostic biomarker has yet been translated into clinical practice. Conventional tissue biomarkers, such as Breslow thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate and lymph node positivity, remain the backbone prognostic indicators in melanoma.

  6. Myeloid Cells in Cutaneous Wound Repair.

    PubMed

    Cash, Jenna L; Martin, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous wound repair is a complex, dynamic process with the goal of rapidly sealing any breach in the skin's protective barrier. Myeloid cells compose a significant proportion of the inflammatory cells recruited to a wound site and play important roles in decontaminating the injured tissue of any invading microorganisms. Subsequently, myeloid cells are able to influence many aspects of the healing response, in part through their capacity to release a large array of signaling molecules that allow them to communicate with and regulate the behavior of other wound cells and in turn, be themselves exquisitely regulated by the wound microenvironment. Macrophages, for example, appear to play important, temporally changing roles in the initiation of scarring and subsequently in matrix remodeling to resolve fibrosis. In this way, myeloid cells seem to play both positive (e.g., pathogen killing and matrix remodeling) and negative (e.g., scarring) roles in wound repair. Further research is of course needed to elucidate the precise temporal and spatial myeloid cell phenotypes and behaviors and ultimately to design effective strategies to optimize the beneficial functions of these cells while minimizing their detrimental contributions to improve wound healing in the clinic. PMID:27337466

  7. Comorbidity of Leishmania Major with Cutaneous Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Moravvej, Hamideh; Vesal, Parvaneh; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nahidi, Shizar; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: leishmaniasis infection might manifest as sarcoidosis; on the other hand, some evidences propose an association between sarcoidosis and leishmaniasis. Most of the times, it is impossible to discriminate idiopathic sarcoidosis from leishmaniasis by conventional histopathologic exam. Aim: We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association of sarcoidosis with leishmaniasis in histopathologically diagnosed sarcoidal granuloma biopsy samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: We examined paraffin-embedded skin biopsy samples obtained from patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis as naked sarcoidal granuloma, referred to Skin Research Center of Shaheed Beheshti Medical University from January 2001 to March 2010, in order to isolate Leishmania parasite. The samples were reassessed by an independent dermatopathologist. DNA extracted from all specimens was analyzed by the commercially available PCR kits (DNPTM Kit, CinnaGen, Tehran, Iran) to detect endemic Leishmania species, namely leishmania major (L. major). Results: L. major was positive in PCR of Eight out of twenty-five examined samples. Conclusion: Cutaneous leishmaniasis may be misinterpreted as sarcoidosis; in endemic areas, when conventional methods fail to detect Leishmania parasite, PCR should be utilized in any granulomatous skin disease compatible with sarcoidosis, regardless of the clinical presentation or histopathological interpretation. PMID:24891680

  8. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features. PMID:26844434

  9. Alagille syndrome: cutaneous manifestations in 38 children.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maria Amelia; Ramonet, Margarita; Ciocca, Mirta; Cabrera, Hugo; Lapunzina, Pablo; Alvarez, Estela; de Davila, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    The Alagille syndrome is one of the most common inherited disorders causing chronic liver disease during childhood. During the 1990s, 38 children with Alagille syndrome were evaluated at two pediatric centers in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Characteristic clinical, humoral, and cutaneous features were analyzed. The average age of diagnosis was 29 months old (range of between 2 months and 15 years). Cholestasis was evident in 92% of patients during the neonatal period. Family antecedents related to the syndrome were found in 18.5% of the patients. Peculiar facies developed in 85% of patients. Chronic cholestasis and pruritus were observed in all of the patients and jaundice was evident in 78%. Eighty-four percent of the patients had heart disease (pulmonary stenosis, intraauricular communication, intraventricular communication), 76% of them showed growth retardation, and vertebrae abnormalities were found in 63%. Embryotoxon appeared in 76% of patients, and renal disturbances in 21%. Eleven children (28%) had xanthomas, in the neck, elbows, palms, helixes, inguinal area, gluteus, and knees. The earliest findings appeared in the first months of life, and the latest at 5 years of age. The xanthomas located in the folds had a stony aspect. Cholesterol levels ranging from 220 to 1600 mg percentage (mg%) were demonstrated in all of the children with xanthomas. Liver transplantation was performed in seven of the patients (18.4%). Two of them died after this operation. The disappearance of xanthomas after transplantation was remarkable in all of the patients. PMID:15660889

  10. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features.

  11. Acceleration of cutaneous wound healing by brassinosteroids.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Schmidt, Barbara; Shakarjian, Michael P; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant growth hormones involved in cell growth, division, and differentiation. Their effects in animals are largely unknown, although recent studies showed that the anabolic properties of brassinosteroids are possibly mediated through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway. Here, we examined biological activity of homobrassinolide (HB) and its synthetic analogues in in vitro proliferation and migration assays in murine fibroblast and primary keratinocyte cell culture. HB stimulated fibroblast proliferation and migration and weakly induced keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. The effects of topical HB administration on progression of wound closure were further tested in the mouse model of cutaneous wound healing. C57BL/6J mice were given a full-thickness dermal wound, and the rate of wound closure was assessed daily for 10 days, with adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 as a positive control. Topical application of brassinosteroid significantly reduced wound size and accelerated wound healing in treated animals. mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 were significantly lower, while tumor necrosis factor alpha was nearly suppressed in the wounds from treated mice. Our data suggest that topical application of brassinosteroids accelerates wound healing by positively modulating inflammatory and reepithelialization phases of the wound repair process, in part by enhancing Akt signaling in the skin at the edges of the wound and enhancing migration of fibroblasts in the wounded area. Targeting this signaling pathway with brassinosteroids may represent a promising approach to the therapy of delayed wound healing.

  12. Therapeutic management of cutaneous and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    During their lifetime, at least 10 % of the population will be infected by human papillomaviruses (HPV), clinically characterized by the formation of cutaneous or genital warts. Although warts are ubiquitous, there are no defined treatments. Especially in the first six months, warts frequently resolve without therapeutic intervention. This complicates the interpretation of study data, given that many studies do not differentiate between newly infected patients and those with infections that have persisted for a long time. Similarly, most studies do not take location, size, and thickness of lesions into account, either. The objective of the present review article is to analyze the study data currently available, taking into consideration both subtypes and locations - factors exceedingly crucial in clinical practice. In particular, the distinction between new-onset and chronic recalcitrant warts is reflected in a therapeutic algorithm. In the case of genital warts, the algorithm is more clearly determined by the extent of the area affected rather than the longevity of lesions. In immunocompetent individuals, any therapeutic intervention must be aimed at achieving complete resolution. PMID:27607030

  13. Can biologic treatment induce cutaneous focal mucinosis?

    PubMed Central

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Sieniawska, Joanna; Rogowski-Tylman, Michał; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Olejniczak-Staruch, Irmina; Narbutt, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Skin mucinosis is a rare skin disease which clinically manifests as firm papules and waxy nodules. We report a case of a 66-year-old female psoriatic patient who developed skin mucinosis during biological therapy. Because of a previous lack of response to the local and conventional systemic treatment of psoriasis, the patient received biological therapy (infliximab from June 2008 to May 2009 – initial clinical improvement and loss of treatment effectiveness in the 36th week of the therapy; adalimumab from June 2009 to January 2010 – lack effectiveness; ustekinumab from March 2012 to the present). Throughout 2 months we observed a manifestation of the skin mucinosis as well-demarcated, yellow and brown, papulo-nodular lesions of 5–10 mm in diameter, localized on the back. Histopathological examination with alcian blue staining demonstrated mucin deposits in the dermis. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of cutaneous focal mucinosis was established. We present the case because of the extremely rare occurrence of the disease. Scarce literature and data suggest that there is an association between focal mucinosis and thyroid dysfunction, as well as possible adverse effects of biological therapy with TNF-α antagonists. PMID:25610359

  14. Cutaneous cylindroma: it's all about MYB.

    PubMed

    Corda, Gabriele; Sala, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Cutaneous cylindroma is a rare benign tumour that occasionally turns into malignant cylindrocarcinoma. The cancer can be sporadic or emerge in the context of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS), an inheritable condition characterized by mutation of the gene CYLD, encoding a tumour suppressor protein that controls the activity of the transcription factor NF-kB. Sporadic cylindromas present histological features shared with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a head and neck cancer originating from salivary or other exocrine glands. Like ACCs, sporadic cylindromas express, although at lower frequency, the aberrant fusion transcript MYB-NFIB. In a paper recently published in the Journal of Pathology, the research teams led by Neil Rajan and Goran Stenman demonstrate that CYLD-defective cyclindromas in BSS patients are negative for the MYB-NFIB fusion. Only the wild-type MYB oncoprotein is activated in the majority of these tumours. RNA interference studies in cells derived from BSS patients indicate that ablating MYB expression results in a striking reduction of cylindroma cell proliferation, suggesting that MYB plays a pivotal role in the biology of this cancer. The take-home message of the study is that activation of MYB, in its wild-type form or fusion derivatives, is a common feature of spontaneous and hereditary cylindromas, constituting a potentially actionable therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  16. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Blessing, William; McAllen, Robin; McKinley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery. Inputs for cognitive-emotional control from the exteroceptive sense organs (touch, vision, sound, smell, etc.) are integrated in forebrain centers including the amygdala. Psychoactive drugs have major effects on the acral cutaneous circulation. Interoceptors, chemoreceptors more than baroreceptors, also influence cutaneous sympathetic outflow. A major advance has been the discovery of a lower brainstem control center in the rostral medullary raphé, regulating outflow to both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to the acral cutaneous beds. Neurons in the medullary raphé, via their descending axonal projections, increase the discharge of spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons controlling the cutaneous vasculature, utilizing glutamate, and serotonin as neurotransmitters. Present evidence suggests that both thermoregulatory and cognitive-emotional control of the cutaneous beds from preoptic, hypothalamic, and forebrain centers is channeled via the medullary raphé. Future studies will no doubt further unravel the details of neurotransmitter pathways connecting these rostral control centers with the medullary raphé, and those operative within the raphé itself. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1161-1197, 2016. PMID:27347889

  17. Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.

    1993-08-18

    Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  18. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  19. The Search for Proton Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Provides the rationale for and examples of experiments designed to test the stability of protons and bound neutrons. Also considers the unification question, cosmological implications, current and future detectors, and current status of knowledge on proton decay. (JN)

  20. Proton bunch compression strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The paper discusses main limitations on the beam power and other machine parameters for a 4 MW proton driver for muon collider. The strongest limitation comes from a longitudinal microwave instability limiting the beam power to about 1 MW for an 8 GeV compressor ring.

  1. High Power Proton Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the capabilities and challenges of high intensity proton accelerators, such as J-PARC, Fermilab MI, SNS, ISIS, PSI, ESS (in the future) and others. The presentation will focus on lessons learned, new concepts, beam loss mechanisms and methods to mitigate them.

  2. Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Proton Pump Inhibitors: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Otani, Iris M; Banerji, Aleena

    2016-03-01

    PPIs are among the most commonly administered medications in the USA and are generally well tolerated. Immediate and delayed immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are rare but increasingly recognized adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can occur due to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to PPIs and can be evaluated by immediate hypersensitivity skin testing and oral provocation challenge testing. A desensitization protocol can be used when PPI use cannot be avoided in an allergic patient. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs have also been reported. Occupational exposures causing cutaneous reactions to PPIs are the most commonly reported delayed hypersensitivity reaction, followed by drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. This review presents a summary of the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs.

  3. Intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Kooy, H M; Grassberger, C

    2015-07-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed "pencil beams" of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak-the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range-combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose "painting" within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the highest level of

  4. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  5. Dissociation of cutaneous vascular permeability and the development of cutaneous late-phase allergic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Keahey, T.M.; Indrisano, J.; Kaliner, M.A.

    1989-03-01

    Cutaneous late-phase allergic reactions (LPR) are characterized by an early, immediate hypersensitivity whealing reaction followed by persistent, localized induration that peaks 6 to 8 hours later. In this study we used rodents to examine the relationship between vascular permeability (VP) and induration during LPR. Efflux of macromolecular tracers from the vasculature into skin was measured with the use of radiolabeled albumin and neutral dextran tracers having large molecular radii. To induce LPR immunologically, we used either intradermal injections of antirat IgE or passive cutaneous sensitization with IgE antidinitrophenyl followed 24 hours later by intravenous injection of albumin-dinitrophenyl. (/sup 125/I)albumin and (/sup 3/H)dextran tracers were injected intravenously before and at various intervals after the induction of LPR. Although a marked increase in VP occurred within the first 30 minutes after induction of mast cell degranulation, analysis of radiolabeled tracer accumulation at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours failed to demonstrate any further increase in VP. These findings indicate that the induration observed in rodent LPR is not associated with increased VP beyond the immediate hypersensitivity stage and suggest that impairment of lymphatic drainage, cellular infiltration, and/or fibrin deposition are contributing factors.

  6. Agraphesthesia. A disorder of directional cutaneous kinesthesia or a disorientation in cutaneous space.

    PubMed

    Bender, M B; Stacy, C; Cohen, J

    1982-03-01

    Tests for graphesthesia and for directional cutaneous kinesthesia (DCK) were performed on a large series of neurological patients and normal subjects, in addition to the standard tests for discriminative sensation. Defects in graphesthesia and DCK were found with lesions at all levels of the nervous system. Graphesthesia was more often and more severely affected than DCK. These functions when impaired were always associated with other sensory defects (directional joint kinesthesia, two-point discrimination, etc.) in different combinations. It appears DCK is probably the basis for graphesthesia. Recent experimental studies have provided an anatomic and physiologic basis for DCK and for graphesthesia. These studies have also discredited wide-held beliefs on the transmission of discriminative sensation through the spinal cord. In this light, the history of ideas about sensation and its mediation is reviewed, and it is concluded that DCK alone deserves to be called a "posterior column function". Graphesthesia and DCK are discussed as kinesthetic functions implying orientation in cutaneous sensory space. These are compared to stereognosis and braille reading, which are complex derived functions depending also on motion, but directed towards recognition in external haptic space. Graphesthesia and DCK should both be considered as distinct forms of somatic sensibility which are valuable adjuncts to the clinical sensory examination.

  7. Pembrolizumab Cutaneous Adverse Events and Their Association With Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Adil; Algazi, Alain; Gubens, Matthew; Luna, Sara Alcántara; Lin, Kevin; Quaglino, Pietro; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Immunomodulatory anticancer drugs, such as the anti–programmed death-1 drug pembrolizumab, have shown promising results in trials, and more patients will receive such treatments. Little is known about cutaneous adverse events (AEs) caused by these drugs and their possible correlation with treatment response. OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency and spectrum of cutaneous AEs linked with pembrolizumab and their possible correlation with treatment response. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A single-institution, retrospective medical record review was conducted of patients with cancer who were treated with pembrolizumab from March 1, 2011, to May 28, 2014. The review comprised 83 consecutive patients who were enrolled in 2 clinical trials, received at least 1 dose of pembrolizumab, and had at least 1 follow-up visit. Patients were grouped according to the following therapeutic regimen for pembrolizumab: 43 received 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 24 received 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks, and 16 received 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Sixty-six patients were treated for melanoma, 15 patients for lung cancer, 1 patient for prostate cancer, and 1 patient for Merkel cell carcinoma. Median follow-up was 15 weeks (range, 2-105 weeks). The analysis was conducted from March 1 to September 30, 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Occurrence, severity, and type of cutaneous AEs, as well as disease progression and response to pembrolizumab treatment. RESULTS Thirty-five patients (42%) developed cutaneous AEs attributed to pembrolizumab. The most common cutaneous AEs were macular papular eruption (24 [29%]), pruritus (10 [12%]), and hypopigmentation (7 [8%]). All 7 patients who developed hypopigmentation were treated for melanoma. Survival analyses showed that patients who developed cutaneous AEs had significantly longer progression-free intervals in all 3 groups (pembrolizumab, 10 mg/kg, every 3 weeks, P = .001; pembrolizumab, 10 mg/kg, every 2 weeks, P = .003; pembrolizumab, 2 mg/kg, every 3

  8. Exploring universality of transversity in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radici, Marco; Ricci, Alessandro M.; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Mukherjee, Asmita

    2016-08-01

    We consider the azimuthal correlations of charged hadron pairs with large total transverse momentum and small relative momentum, produced in proton-proton collisions with one transversely polarized proton. One of these correlations directly probes the chiral-odd transversity parton distribution in connection with a chiral-odd interference fragmentation function. We present predictions for this observable based on previous extractions of transversity (from charged pion pair production in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering) and of the interference fragmentation function (from the production of back-to-back charged pion pairs in electron-positron annihilations). All analyses are performed in the framework of collinear factorization. We compare our predictions to the recent data on proton-proton collisions released by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC, and we find them reasonably compatible. This comparison confirms for the first time the predicted role of transversity in proton-proton collisions, and it allows us to test its universality.

  9. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  10. Cutaneous xanthomas with concurrent demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vogelnest, L J

    2001-07-01

    Multiple cutaneous xanthomas, associated with fasting hyperlipidaemia, are described in a 9-month-old domestic long-haired cat. A severely pruritic, papular, and crusting dermatitis affecting the head and neck, initially diagnosed as lesions of the eosinophilic granuloma complex, progressively developed on the head and pinnae. Pruritus was controlled with administration of prednisolone and chlorambucil. Repeat histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous xanthoma and concurrent mild demodicosis. Marked fasting hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and transient hyperglycaemia were subsequently confirmed. Treatment for hyperlipidaemia and xanthomas with a low-fat diet (Hill's Feline r/d) and the previously unreported treatment for feline demodicosis of daily oral milbemycin were commenced. Multiple pink, alopecic plaques and papules gradually regressed, however pruritus recurred if immunosuppressive treatment was reduced, and well-demarcated areas of alopecia developed on the head, limbs and trunk, despite negative skin scrapings for demodex mites. Fungal culture of hair samples yielded Microsporum canis. All cutaneous lesions resolved with the addition of griseofulvin to the treatment regimen. Concurrent corneal ulceration and keratoconjunctivitis sicca ultimately resolved with treatment, including topical cyclosporin. Diabetes mellitus developed 6 months after resolution of skin lesions. No cutaneous or ocular abnormalities were present 6 months later with continued low-fat diet and insulin administration, although transient recurrence of papules and pruritus occurred after inadvertent access to a fatty meal. An underlying primary hyperlipidaemia was suspected, causing pruritic xanthomas. This may represent the first report of concurrent cutaneous xanthomas, demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

  11. Photodynamic therapy for multi-resistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Valérie; Wauters, Odile; Caucanas, Marie; Nikkels-Tassoudji, Nazli; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2010-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare group of proliferative disorders. Beside cutaneous involvement, other internal organs can be affected. The treatment of cutaneous lesions is difficult and relies on topical corticosteroids, carmustine, nitrogen mustard, and photochemotherapy. Systemic steroids and vinblastine are used for recalcitrant skin lesions. However, some cases fail to respond. An 18-month old boy presented a CD1a+, S100a+ Langerhans cell histocytosis with cutaneous and severe scalp involvement. Topical corticosteroids and nitrogen mustard failed to improve the skin lesions. Systemic corticosteroids and vinblastine improved the truncal involvement but had no effect on the scalp lesions. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) resulted in a significant regression of the scalp lesions. Control histology revealed an almost complete clearance of the tumor infiltrate. Clinical follow-up after six months showed no recurrence. Although spontaneous regression of cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis is observed, the rapid effect of photodynamic therapy after several failures of other treatment suggests that photodynamic therapy was successful. As far as we know this is the first report of photodynamic therapy for refractory skin lesions. Larger series are needed to determine whether photodynamic therapy deserves a place in the treatment of multiresistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:21139836

  12. Cutaneous primary B-cell lymphomas: from diagnosis to treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of mature B-cells neoplasms with tropism for the skin, whose biology and clinical course differ significantly from the equivalent nodal lymphomas. The most indolent forms comprise the primary cutaneous marginal zone and follicle center B-cell lymphomas that despite the excellent prognosis have cutaneous recurrences very commonly. The most aggressive forms include the primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas, consisting in two major groups: the leg type, with poor prognosis, and others, the latter representing a heterogeneous group of lymphomas from which specific entities are supposed to be individualized over time, such as intravascular large B-cell lymphomas. Treatment may include surgical excision, radiotherapy, antibiotics, corticosteroids, interferon, monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy, depending on the type of lymphoma and on the type and location of the skin lesions. In subtypes with good prognosis is contraindicated overtreatment and in those associated with a worse prognosis the recommended therapy relies on CHOP-like regimens associated with rituximab, assisted or not with local radiotherapy. We review the primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, remembering the diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, classification, and prognostic factors and presenting the available therapies. PMID:26560215

  13. Eight cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas.

    PubMed

    Trainor, K E; Porter, B F; Logan, K S; Hoffman, R J; Snowden, K F

    2010-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by intracellular Leishmania protozoa that are transmitted by sandflies. The disease occurs in 3 forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in cats in Europe and South America and in 1 cat from Texas. Leishmania mexicana is endemic in Texas and has been reported to cause cutaneous lesions in humans. This article describes the pathology of 8 biopsy cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis presented to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory over a 3.5-year period. The median age of the cats was 3 years; each was presented with nodular, ulcerative lesions on the pinnae and less commonly on the muzzle and periorbital skin. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse histiocytic dermatitis with numerous amastigotes (2-4 μm) within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within round, clear, intracellular vacuoles. In areas of necrosis, organisms were also free within the interstitium. The overlying epidermis was hyperkeratotic, hyperplastic, and often ulcerated. The organisms were not argyrophilic (Gomori methenamine silver), reacted poorly with periodic acid-Schiff reagent, and were inconsistently basophilic with Giemsa. Although not readily visible histologically, kinetoplasts were evident in amastigotes in cytologic preparations. The lesions were similar to those described for cutaneous L. mexicana infection in humans. In 5 of the 8 cats, Leishmania mexicana DNA was amplified from paraffin-embedded tissue by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced.

  14. Lupus erythematosus: considerations about clinical, cutaneous and therapeutic aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Moura Filho, Jucélio Pereira; Peixoto, Raiza Luna; Martins, Lívia Gomes; de Melo, Sillas Duarte; de Carvalho, Ligiana Leite; Pereira, Ana Karine F. da Trindade C.; Freire, Eutilia Andrade Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease with multifactorial etiology. Although clinical manifestations are varied, the skin is an important target-organ, which contributes to the inclusion of skin lesions in 4 out of the 17 new criteria for the diagnosis of the disease, according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. The cutaneous manifestations of lupus are pleomorphic. Depending on their clinical characteristics, they can be classified into Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus and Intermittent Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus. Treatment is based on preventive measures, reversal of inflammation, prevention of damage to target organs and relief of adverse events due to pharmacological therapy. The most commonly used treatment options are topical, systemic and surgical treatment, as well as phototherapy. The correct handling of the cases depends on a careful evaluation of the morphology of the lesions and the patient's general status, always taking into consideration not only the benefits but also the side effects of each therapeutic proposal. PMID:24626656

  15. Swimming and the risk of cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, P J; Rampen, F H; Groenendal, H; Kiemeney, L A; Ruiter, D J; Verbeek, A L

    1994-10-01

    Recreational exposure to the sun may not explain fully current trends in melanoma incidence. The hypothesis was examined whether carcinogens in water play a role in the development of cutaneous melanoma. In a case-control study, 128 melanoma patients and 168 patients with other types of malignancy completed a detailed questionnaire on aquatic leisure time activities. All relative risk estimates were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, pigmentation characteristics, and exposure to sun habits. Regular swimming during the summer months in swimming pools and in open waters such as rivers and seas before the age of 15 years, was associated with odds ratios of 2.20 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-4.62) and 2.41 (95% CI, 1.04-5.58), respectively, compared with no swimming at all or swimming in relatively unpolluted waters, such as lakes and fens. Melanoma patients learned to swim at a younger age; compared with those who never learned to swim or who learned to swim after the age of 12 years, the odds ratio was 1.87 (95% CI, 0.91-3.78) for those who learned to swim at ages 9-12 years, and 2.22 (95% CI, 1.16-4.26) for those who learned to swim before 9 years of age. Compared with persons who had no swimming certificates, an odds ratio of 1.25 (95% CI, 0.71-2.23) was found for persons with one or two certificates, and an odds ratio of 2.96 (95% CI, 1.25-6.96) for persons with three or more certificates. The positive association between a history of swimming and melanoma risk suggests that carcinogenic agents in water, possibly chlorination by products, play a role in melanoma aetiology. PMID:7858410

  16. INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Shada, Amber L.; Dengel, Lynn T.; Petroni, Gina R.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Acton, Scott; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differentiating melanoma metastasis from benign cutaneous lesions currently requires biopsy or costly imaging, such as positron emission tomography scans. Melanoma metastases have been observed to be subjectively warmer than similarly appearing benign lesions. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) thermography would be sensitive and specific in differentiating palpable melanoma metastases from benign lesions. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients (36 females and 38 males) had 251 palpable lesions imaged for this pilot study. Diagnosis was determined using pathologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Lesions were divided into size strata for analysis: 0–5, >5–15, >15–30, and >30 mm. Images were scored on a scale from −1 (colder than the surrounding tissue) to +3 (significantly hotter than the surrounding tissue). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each stratum. Logistical challenges were scored. Results IR imaging was able to determine the malignancy of small (0–5 mm) lesions with a sensitivity of 39% and specificity of 100%. For lesions >5–15 mm, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 98%. For lesions >15–30 mm, sensitivity was 95% and specificity 100%, and for lesions >30 mm, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 89%. The positive predictive value was 88%–100% across all strata, and the negative predictive value was 95% for >15–30 mm lesions and 80% for >30 mm lesions. Conclusions Malignant lesions >15 mm were differentiated from benign lesions with excellent sensitivity and specificity. IR imaging was well tolerated and feasible in a clinic setting. This pilot study shows promise in the use of thermography for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with further potential as a noninvasive tool to follow tumor responses to systemic therapies. PMID:23043862

  17. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vaccination: A Matter of Quality

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Paula Mello; Macedo, Amanda Beatriz Barreto

    2016-01-01

    There have been exhaustive efforts to develop an efficient vaccine against leishmaniasis. Factors like host and parasite genetic characteristics, virulence, epidemiological scenarios, and, mainly, diverse immune responses triggered by Leishmania species make the achievement of this aim a complex task. It is already clear that the induction of a Th1, pro-inflammatory response, is important in the protection against Leishmania infection. However, many questions must still be answered to fully understand Leishmania immunopathology, especially regarding Leishmania-specific Th1 response induction, regulation, and persistence. A large number of Leishmania antigens able to induce pro-inflammatory response have been selected so far, but none of them demonstrated efficiency in protection assays. A possible explanation is that CD4 T cells display marked heterogeneity at a single-cell level especially regarding the production of Th1-defining cytokines and multifunctionality. It has been established in the literature that Th1 cells undergo a differentiation process, which can generate cells with diverse phenotypes and survival capabilities. Despite that, only a few studies evaluate this heterogenic response and the amount of multifunctional CD4 T cells induced by Leishmania vaccine candidates, missing what can be a crucial point in defining a correlate of protection after vaccination. Moreover, most of the knowledge involving the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) vaccines comes from the mouse model of infection with Leishmania major, which cannot be fully applied to New World Leishmaniasis. For this reason, the immune response triggered by infection with New World Leishmania species, as well as vaccine candidates, need further studies. In this review, we will reinforce the importance of evaluating the quality of immune response against Leishmania, using a multiparametric analysis in order to understand better this complex host-parasite interaction, discussing the

  18. The indeterminate cell proliferative disorder: report of a case manifesting as an unusual cutaneous histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, G S; Hu, C H; Beckstead, J H; Turner, R R; Winkelmann, R K

    1985-11-01

    A patient with an unusual, distinctive cutaneous histiocytosis is described. Extensive morphologic, antigenic, and enzymatic studies indicate that this histiocytosis represents a proliferative disorder of cutaneous indeterminate cells. Features that distinguish this disorder from other histiocytoses are discussed.

  19. Cutaneous Connective Tissue Diseases: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Bobby Y.; Hantash, Basil M.

    2010-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a group of clinical disorders that have an underlying autoimmune pathogenesis. These include a diverse set of diseases such as relapsing polychondritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and eosinophilic fasciitis, along with more common entities like Sjogren’s syndrome, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, and lupus erythematosus. The latter three will be the focus of this review, as they constitute the most significant and common CTD with cutaneous manifestations. The cutaneous signs often represent the preliminary stages of disease and the presenting clinical symptoms. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge of CTD manifestations is essential for accurate diagnosis, better assessment of prognosis, and effective management. Although the precise etiologies of CTDs remain obscure, recent advances have allowed for further understanding of their pathogenesis and improved disease classifications. In addition, there have been developments in therapeutic options for CTDs. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and current treatment options of cutaneous lupus erythematous, dermatomyositis and scleroderma. PMID:21218179

  20. p53 immunoreactivity is uncommon in primary cutaneous lymphoma.

    PubMed

    McGregor, J M; Dublin, E A; Levison, D A; MacDonald, D M; Smith, N P; Whittaker, S

    1995-03-01

    p53 gene mutation appears to play an important role in the development of systemic lymphoma, and may be associated with tumour progression. Its role in cutaneous lymphoma is currently unknown. We examined p53 expression in 55 biopsies of cutaneous lymphoma, including patch-, plaque- and tumour-stage mycosis fungoides (MF), T- and B-cell lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis. Strong, homogeneous p53 expression, thought to correlate most closely with p53 gene mutation, was seen in only three cases; in a plaque and tumour from a patient with tumour-stage MF, in plaque-stage MF in a patient without tumours, and in one case of CD30+ large-cell anaplastic lymphoma. These data suggest that p53 gene mutation is not a critical step in the development of the majority of primary cutaneous lymphomas.

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: immune responses in protection and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phillip; Novais, Fernanda O

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major public health problem and causes a range of diseases from self-healing infections to chronic disfiguring disease. Currently, there is no vaccine for leishmaniasis, and drug therapy is often ineffective. Since the discovery of CD4(+) T helper 1 (TH1) cells and TH2 cells 30 years ago, studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice have answered basic immunological questions concerning the development and maintenance of CD4(+) T cell subsets. However, new strategies for controlling the human disease have not been forthcoming. Nevertheless, advances in our knowledge of the cells that participate in protection against Leishmania infection and the cells that mediate increased pathology have highlighted new approaches for vaccine development and immunotherapy. In this Review, we discuss the early events associated with infection, the CD4(+) T cells that mediate protective immunity and the pathological role that CD8(+) T cells can have in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:27424773

  2. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  3. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions.

  4. Enhancing the Performance of Passive Teleoperation Systems via Cutaneous Feedback.

    PubMed

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Tirmizi, Asad; Bianchini, Gianni; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel method to improve the performance of passive teleoperation systems with force reflection. It consists of integrating kinesthetic haptic feedback provided by common grounded haptic interfaces with cutaneous haptic feedback. The proposed approach can be used on top of any time-domain control technique that ensures a stable interaction by scaling down kinesthetic feedback when this is required to satisfy stability conditions (e.g., passivity) at the expense of transparency. Performance is recovered by providing a suitable amount of cutaneous force through custom wearable cutaneous devices. The viability of the proposed approach is demonstrated through an experiment of perceived stiffness and an experiment of teleoperated needle insertion in soft tissue.

  5. Treatment of metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease with certolizumab.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Maija; Camp, Brendan; Adhami, Katayun; Jacob, Vinita; Magro, Cynthia; Wildman, Horatio

    2015-11-01

    Metastatic Crohn disease is a rare cutaneous manifestation of Crohn disease characterized by granulomatous lesions discontinuous with the diseased areas of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with history of Crohn disease who was admitted for treatment of cellulitis after presenting with a tender erythematous plaque of the left calf. Microbiological tests including tissue cultures were negative. A skin biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitis consistent with metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease. Owing to concomitant perianal fistulas and abscesses and prior infusion reaction to infliximab, the patient was treated with certolizumab, a pegylated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor combined with methotrexate resulting in complete resolution of the skin lesion. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing this rare skin manifestation of Crohn disease and adds certolizumab as one of TNF inhibitors useful in the treatment of metastatic cutaneous Crohn disease. PMID:26632928

  6. Cutaneous metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma 15 years after curative gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Yan, Wen Liang; Liu, Haibo; Zhang, Min; Sang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old man, who developed cutaneous metastases in the left inguinal groove 15 years after curative gastrectomy for advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. They were stained positive for villin, CDX-2, CKpan (AE1/ AE3), CEA, CK8/18, CK19, CK7, EMA, Ki-67 (50%), and negative for S-100, CK20, CD34, GCDFP-15 and TTF-1. The patient underwent local excision, after the presence of other metastases was excluded. Nevertheless, local recurrence developed at the surgical bed one year later and PET/CT revealed metastases to lymph nodes, bone and skin. He died 2 years after the appearance of cutaneous metastases. We have reviewed the literature and described the immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:26312672

  7. Recent advances in cytokines in cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mikita, Naoya; Ikeda, Takaharu; Ishiguro, Mariko; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2011-09-01

    Lupus erythematosus (LE) includes a broad spectrum of diseases from a cutaneous-limited type to a systemic type. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease which affects multiple organs. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) includes skin symptoms seen in SLE and cutaneous-limited LE. Although immune abnormalities, as well as heritable, hormonal and environmental factors, are involved in the pathology of LE, the actual pathogenesis is still unclear. Recently, the involvement of various cytokines has been shown in the pathogenesis of LE. Moreover, some trials with biological agents targeted specific cytokines are also ongoing for SLE. In this article, we review the contributions of major cytokines such as interferon, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-18 to LE, especially SLE and CLE.

  8. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given – 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  9. Isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis: a new insight into the old entity.

    PubMed

    Kumar H K, Sharath; M N, Gayathri; M, Bharathi; T, Ravikumar

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous lesions are a part of common manifestation in multi-systemic sarcoidosis and skin involvement occurs in 20% to 35% of the patients with systemic disease. An exclusive cutaneous involvement is rare and it is reported in about 4%-5% of the patients of sarcoidosis. These lesions have been classified into specific and non-specific, depending on the presence of non- caseating granulomas, on histopathologic studies. In the present study, we are reporting two cases of isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis without systemic manifestations, which is a rare presentation. Sarcoidosis will continue to challenge even the most experienced clinicians with respect to a high degree of suspicion and further investigations for diagnosing and treating this disorder.

  10. Primary cutaneous dermal mucinosis on herpes zoster scars.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Diana; Feltes, Federico; Machán, Salma; Pielasinski, Úrsula; Fariña, María C; Gavin, Eduardo; Requena, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The term isotopic response refers to the appearance of a new skin disease at the site of another unrelated and already healed skin disorder. Often, the first disease is herpes zoster (HZ). Several cutaneous reactions have been described in a dermatome recently affected by HZ. We present the case of a 33-year-old man who developed whitish papules with a zosteriform distribution on HZ scars. Histopathologic study with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue (pH 2.5) staining demonstrated abundant deposits of mucin interstitially arranged between collagen bundles of the papillary dermis. Cutaneous dermal mucinosis as a postherpetic isotopic response is rare, but it should be added to the list of cutaneous reactions arising in HZ scars. PMID:27529717

  11. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  12. Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma: a role for a triggering stimulus?

    PubMed

    Zendri, E; Venturi, C; Ricci, R; Giordano, G; De Panfilis, G

    2005-05-01

    Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma is a rare type of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma, characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells, that primarily develops in the skin. Five cases have been described to date in which a local triggering stimulus may be involved in development of this skin tumour. We describe the case of a primary cutaneous plasmacytoma localized to the lower lip. This site had been affected for 15 years with recurrent herpes simplex virus-1 infection. Neoplastic plasma cells were found to be bcl-2-positive. We hypothesize that chronic stimulation of keratinocytes by herpes simplex virus-1, possibly through toll-like receptors, may have favoured the release of cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6) able to induce plasma cell proliferation, transformation and survival. PMID:15807675

  13. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given - 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  14. Palatogenesis and cutaneous repair: a two headed coin

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Leah C.; Goudy, Steven L.; Dunnwald, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The reparative mechanism that operates following post-natal cutaneous injury is a fundamental survival function that requires a well-orchestrated series of molecular and cellular events. At the end, the body will have closed the hole using processes like cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation and fusion. These processes are similar to those occurring during embryogenesis and tissue morphogenesis. Palatogenesis, the formation of the palate from two independent palatal shelves growing towards each other and fusing, intuitively, shares many similarities with the closure of a cutaneous wound from the two migrating epithelial fronts. In this review, we summarize the current information on cutaneous development, wound healing, palatogenesis and orofacial clefting and propose that orofacial clefting and wound healing are conserved processes that share common pathways and gene regulatory networks. PMID:25370680

  15. Cutaneous metastasis from internal carcinomas: a review of 45 years*

    PubMed Central

    Sittart, Jose Alexandre de Souza; Senise, Monica

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND cutaneous metastases are not so frequent and in the medical literature there are several communications of isolated cases, thereby we decided to continue our study initiated in 1981 (45 years). OBJECTIVE our objective is to present the research and review of cutaneous metastases of 45 years through our archives at Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo. METHODS the data were collected from clinical cases registered in our archives at anatomopathology department. RESULTS since 1963 we have registered 209 patients with cutaneous metastases being the anterior thorax region the most affected area and in second place the abdominal region. Breast cancer was responsible for most of the cases in women and the lung in men. CONCLUSION this study represents a signioficant number of cases in medical practice because skin metastases of internal carcinomas rarely are observed and the great predominance, mainly due of his origin were represented by adenocarcinomas. PMID:24068124

  16. MUCI positive cutaneous metastasis with transepidermal elimination from a breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luna, Amalia; Merino, Maria Emilia; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Abba, Martin C; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cutaneous metastases from internal malignancies. Generally, the neoplastic cells are located in the dermis or hypodermis, while a finding of transepidermal elimination on cutaneous metastases is exceptional. In this report we present a patient with perforating cutaneous metastases from breast cancer with mucin 1 expression. Cutaneous, bone, lung, and hepatic lesions were detected two years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.

  17. MUCI positive cutaneous metastasis with transepidermal elimination from a breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Amalia; Merino, Maria Emilia; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Abba, Martin C; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cutaneous metastases from internal malignancies. Generally, the neoplastic cells are located in the dermis or hypodermis, while a finding of transepidermal elimination on cutaneous metastases is exceptional. In this report we present a patient with perforating cutaneous metastases from breast cancer with mucin 1 expression. Cutaneous, bone, lung, and hepatic lesions were detected two years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. PMID:24235849

  18. Proton transfer at carbon.

    PubMed

    Richard, J P; Amyes, T L

    2001-12-01

    The viability of living systems requires that C--H bonds of biological molecules be stable in water, but that there also be a mechanism for shortening the timescale for their heterolytic cleavage through enzymatic catalysis of a variety of catabolic and metabolic reactions. An understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic catalysis of proton transfer at carbon requires the integration of results of studies to determine the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex with model studies on the mechanism for the non-enzymatic reaction in water, and the effect of the local protein environment on the stability of the transition state for this reaction. A common theme is the importance of electrostatic interactions in providing stabilization of bound carbanion intermediates of enzyme-catalyzed proton-transfer reactions.

  19. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  20. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    SciTech Connect

    Marc-André Pleier

    2010-05-05

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) — the world’s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC’s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  1. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  2. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    ScienceCinema

    Marc-André Pleier

    2016-07-12

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) — the world’s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC’s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  3. Supervised exercise improves cutaneous reinnervation capacity in metabolic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, J. Robinson; Marcus, Robin L.; Lessard, Margaret; Jackson, Justin E.; Smith, A. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or Metabolic Syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Re-growth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Methods Baseline ankle IENFD and 30 day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (35) or metabolic syndrome (32) without symptoms or exam evidence of neuropathy. 36 participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month four during this intervention. Results Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30 day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 +/− 0.027 fibers/mm/day before versus 0.072 +/− 0.030, p= 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more Metabolic Syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30 day reinnervation (p<0.012) Interpretation Metabolic Syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. PMID:25388934

  4. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  5. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-10-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  6. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  7. Pion, Kaon, Proton and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive pion, kaon, proton, and antiproton production from proton-proton collisions is studied at a variety of proton energies. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are compared with experimental data. The Badhwar and Alper parameterizations are moderately satisfactory for charged pion production. The Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best, and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. However, no parameterization is able to fully account for all the data.

  8. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  9. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive... relative changes in a hemodynamically stable patient's cutaneous carbon dioxide tension as an adjunct...

  10. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive... relative changes in a hemodynamically stable patient's cutaneous carbon dioxide tension as an adjunct...

  11. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  12. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  13. Human cutaneous protothecosis: report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jae Yeon; Lee, Yoonho; Lee, Hyukmin; Yi, Sang Yeop; Oh, Hwa Eun; Song, Ji-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The Prototheca species is achlorophyllic algae and rarely causes human infection. Human protothecosis presents clinically as a cutaneous infection, olecranon bursitis, and disseminated systemic disease. We report a case of human cutaneous protothecosis involving the left wrist. A 68-year-old man presented with an ill-defined erythematous lesion with crust at the dorsal aspect of his left wrist. A punch biopsy was performed to reveal the histologic features of granulomatous inflammation with necrosis at the upper dermis, containing Prototheca organisms, of which, the characteristic features were highlighted by special staining. Through a molecular study, the Prototheca zopfii species was identified. PMID:24421852

  14. Human Cutaneous Protothecosis: Report of a Case and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Jae Yeon; Lee, Yoonho; Lee, Hyukmin; Yi, Sang Yeop; Oh, Hwa Eun

    2013-01-01

    The Prototheca species is achlorophyllic algae and rarely causes human infection. Human protothecosis presents clinically as a cutaneous infection, olecranon bursitis, and disseminated systemic disease. We report a case of human cutaneous protothecosis involving the left wrist. A 68-year-old man presented with an ill-defined erythematous lesion with crust at the dorsal aspect of his left wrist. A punch biopsy was performed to reveal the histologic features of granulomatous inflammation with necrosis at the upper dermis, containing Prototheca organisms, of which, the characteristic features were highlighted by special staining. Through a molecular study, the Prototheca zopfii species was identified. PMID:24421852

  15. Cutaneous tuberculosis revealing multifocal tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, N; Krich, S; Meziane, M; Gallouj, S; Abid, H; Elmrini, A; Moumna, K; Harmouch, T; Mernissi, F

    2015-09-01

    Multifocal tuberculosis (TB) is rare. It occurs especially in immunocompromised patients. Association with skin involvement is rarer, and few cases are reported in the literature. The present study reports 7 cases of multifocal TB with cutaneous localization in immunocompetent patients. Cutaneous forms of TB included in this series are: gummas, scrofuloderma, vasculitis TB and lupus TB. The patients had at least two extra skin locations, namely: osteoarticular, lung, pleural, scrotal, muscular, digestive, laryngeal, nodal and splenic locations. These patients had no context of immunosuppression which is uncommon, but should be kept in mind, especially in endemic countries. PMID:27649875

  16. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  17. Atypical scleromyxedema presenting with cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Sue-Ann; Kandiah, David A

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxedema is part of a group of cutaneous mucinoses, characterized by a generalized papular eruption, dermal mucin deposition, and an increase in dermal collagen. This condition can be localized as discrete papular lichen myxedematous skin or as a systemic condition usually associated with paraproteinaemia. To date, there is no unifying treatment and is limited by rarity, small number of case reports, and the lack of randomized controlled trials. We describe the case of a 56-year-old gentleman with features of scleromyxedema who had cutaneous and cardiac involvement, and significant mediastinal lymphadenopathy without monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:27698568

  18. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases.

  19. Atypical scleromyxedema presenting with cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Sue-Ann; Kandiah, David A

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxedema is part of a group of cutaneous mucinoses, characterized by a generalized papular eruption, dermal mucin deposition, and an increase in dermal collagen. This condition can be localized as discrete papular lichen myxedematous skin or as a systemic condition usually associated with paraproteinaemia. To date, there is no unifying treatment and is limited by rarity, small number of case reports, and the lack of randomized controlled trials. We describe the case of a 56-year-old gentleman with features of scleromyxedema who had cutaneous and cardiac involvement, and significant mediastinal lymphadenopathy without monoclonal gammopathy.

  20. Isolation and characterization of cutaneous epithelial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Uffe B.; Ghazizadeh, Soosan; Owens, David M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During homeostasis, adult mammalian skin turnover is maintained by a number of multipotent and unipotent epithelial progenitors located either in the epidermis, hair follicle or sebaceous gland. Recent work has illustrated that these various progenitor populations reside in regionalized niches and are phenotypically distinct from one another. This degree of heterogeneity within the progenitor cell landscape in the cutaneous epithelium complicates our ability to target, purify and manipulate cutaneous epithelial stem cell subpopulations in adult skin. The techniques outlined in this chapter describe basic procedures for the isolation and purification of murine epithelial progenitors and assessing their capacity for ex vivo propagation. PMID:23483387

  1. Penile cutaneous horn: An enigma-newer insights and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous horn refers to unusually cohesive keratinized material and not a true pathologic diagnosis. Though cutaneous horn has been described at various sites, horn over the penis is very rare and represents the most unusual site. The role of chronic irritation, phimosis, surgical trauma and radiotherapy have been implicated in penile horn formation. Penile horns present as elongated, keratinous, white or yellowish projections that range from a few millimeters to centimeters in size arising from the glans penis. Histopathology of the keratotic mass reveals nothing but keratin. The underlying mass may vary from verruca vulgaris to squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment is based on the pathology. PMID:26392650

  2. Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: Preamble of a Paucisymptomatic Systemic Disease.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Huaranga, Marco Aurelio; Ramos Rodríguez, Claudia Carolina; de la Rocha Vedia, Iris Violeta; García Arpa, Mónica; Murillo Lázaro, Cristina; Bellón Guardia, María

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Skin involvement is an early, frequent and accessible location for a histopathological study. Several risk factors have been described to determine the likelihood of systemic involvement of an apparent cutaneous condition. Early diagnosis and systemic treatment could prevent future complications. A series of three cases is presented in which the initial diagnosis was cutaneous sarcoidosis, but it was actually the first manifestation of a systemic disease. A review of this topic is also presented. PMID:25823568

  3. Cutaneous Ossifying Fibroma in a Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Murphy, B; Imai, D M

    2016-01-01

    A cutaneous proliferative mass was identified arising from the caudal peduncle of a captive neon tetra fish (Paracheirodon innesi). The lesion was histologically consistent with an ossifying fibroma (OF), a fibro-osseous proliferative lesion typically identified in the jaws or tooth-associated supportive tissues of mammals. Although it has been previously reported, there is no recent report of this lesion occurring in a fish. This is the first report of a cutaneous ossifying fibroma in a characin fish. The authors speculate on the pathogenesis of this lesion, which may have arisen from the scale-associated mesenchymal tissues. PMID:27476108

  4. Cutaneous Ossifying Fibroma in a Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Murphy, B; Imai, D M

    2016-01-01

    A cutaneous proliferative mass was identified arising from the caudal peduncle of a captive neon tetra fish (Paracheirodon innesi). The lesion was histologically consistent with an ossifying fibroma (OF), a fibro-osseous proliferative lesion typically identified in the jaws or tooth-associated supportive tissues of mammals. Although it has been previously reported, there is no recent report of this lesion occurring in a fish. This is the first report of a cutaneous ossifying fibroma in a characin fish. The authors speculate on the pathogenesis of this lesion, which may have arisen from the scale-associated mesenchymal tissues.

  5. "Turkey ear" as a cutaneous maniestation of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Küçükünal, Aslı; Ekmekçi, Tuğba R; Sakız, Damlanur

    2012-11-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. Classical lupus lesions are often seen in the head and neck region. Turkey ear is a clinically descriptive term, previously being used for the earlobe with reddish indurated plaque lesions, which recently can be a sign for lupus vulgaris. A 65-year-old man presented with lupus vulgaris of the earlobe. The diagnosis was confirmed by conventional laboratory investigations and the patient showed well response to antituberculous therapy. This is the second reported case of "turkey ear" as a manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis.

  6. Cutaneous fibroma in a captive common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Bauer, G; Bauer, A; Aguiar, L S; Brito, L T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2012-11-01

    An adult female common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) had a mass on the plantar surface of the right forelimb that was removed surgically. Microscopical examination revealed many spindle cells with mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis and a surrounding collagenous stroma. There were no mitoses. Immunohistochemistry showed that the spindle cells expressed vimentin, but not desmin. A diagnosis of cutaneous fibroma was made. Tumours are reported uncommonly in chelonian species. Cutaneous fibroma has been diagnosed in an alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii), but not previously in a common snapping turtle. PMID:22578330

  7. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Tandberg, Daniel J; Craciunescu, Oana; Kelsey, Chris R

    2015-10-01

    Radiation therapy is an extraordinarily effective skin-directed therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to radiation and a complete response is generally achieved even with low doses. Radiation therapy has several important roles in the management of mycosis fungoides. For the rare patient with unilesional disease, radiation therapy alone is potentially curative. For patients with more advanced cutaneous disease, radiation therapy to local lesions or to the entire skin can effectively palliate symptomatic disease and provide local disease control. Compared with other skin-directed therapies, radiation therapy is particularly advantageous because it can effectively penetrate and treat thicker plaques and tumors. PMID:26433843

  8. Cutaneous metastasis: An unusual presenting feature of urologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Arun Ramdas; Thomas, Anju Sussanna; Suresh, Nivedita; Shashidhar, Shashank Malagi

    2016-01-01

    Urological malignancies are well known for their ability to metastasize widely. The incidence of cutaneous metastasis from all urologic malignancies has been reported to be 0.73–1.3% with the primary most commonly being renal cell carcinoma followed by carcinoma bladder, adenocarcinoma prostate, and testicular germ cell tumor in decreasing order of frequency. Metastasis to the skin is unusual and has been predominantly reported as a late manifestation of the disease. We describe two patients with urologic malignancies who had cutaneous metastasis as their initial presenting feature. PMID:27453667

  9. Proton-proton correlations observed in two-proton radioactivity of 94Ag.

    PubMed

    Mukha, Ivan; Roeckl, Ernst; Batist, Leonid; Blazhev, Andrey; Döring, Joachim; Grawe, Hubert; Grigorenko, Leonid; Huyse, Mark; Janas, Zenon; Kirchner, Reinhard; La Commara, Marco; Mazzocchi, Chiara; Tabor, Sam L; Van Duppen, Piet

    2006-01-19

    The stability and spontaneous decay of naturally occurring atomic nuclei have been much studied ever since Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity in 1896. In 1960, proton-rich nuclei with an odd or an even atomic number Z were predicted to decay through one- and two-proton radioactivity, respectively. The experimental observation of one-proton radioactivity was first reported in 1982, and two-proton radioactivity has now also been detected by experimentally studying the decay properties of 45Fe (refs 3, 4) and 54Zn (ref. 5). Here we report proton-proton correlations observed during the radioactive decay of a spinning long-lived state of the lightest known isotope of silver, 94Ag, which is known to undergo one-proton decay. We infer from these correlations that the long-lived state must also decay through simultaneous two-proton emission, making 94Ag the first nucleus to exhibit one- as well as two-proton radioactivity. We attribute the two-proton emission behaviour and the unexpectedly large probability for this decay mechanism to a very large deformation of the parent nucleus into a prolate (cigar-like) shape, which facilitates emission of protons either from the same or from opposite ends of the 'cigar'.

  10. Selective vascular injury during cutaneous laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnell, James William

    Pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) can induce selective vascular injury to remove cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port wine stains (PWS), hemangiomas, and facial veins. In this group of studies, we characterized the cryogen heat removal process and determined the effects of pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling of human skin. First, we employed an inverse heat conduction algorithm to measure the thermal boundary condition due to CSC in in vitro skin phantoms. Second, we developed a mathematical model of laser irradiation in conjunction with CSC in human skin. We determined tissue damage and temperature profiles due to varying combinations of laser pulse duration, radiant exposure, and CSC application times. Finally, we used ex vivo and in vivo human skin to determine the effects of high radiant exposures and CSC on epidermal and vascular injury. CSC induces a dynamic cooling effect, removing heat from the skin both during and following the spurt application time. Residual cryogen, deposited on the skin surface during the cryogen spurt, remains on the skin surface several times as long as the as cryogen spurt itself. The heat removal rate during the cryogen spurt is greatest; however, the total energy removed following the cryogen spurt is also substantial (approximately half as much as during the spurt application time). CSC was effective in protecting the human skin epidermis in light to moderately pigmented skin. Mathematical modeling, ex vivo, and in vivo studies showed that the epidermal damage threshold could be increased by a factor of approximately two. Increased radiant exposures increased the risk of non-selective vascular injury observed in histology as injury to the epidermis and perivascular collagen; however, proper choice of cryogen cooling durations resulted in the elimination of epidermal injury as well as perivascular tissue injury. In addition, higher radiant

  11. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  12. Dose-Escalation Trial of Carfilzomib With and Without Romidepsin in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-10

    Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IIB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IIIB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IVA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IVB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  13. Cutaneous localization of Ga-67 in systemic sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1981-03-01

    /sup 67/Ga scans have been used in patients with sarcoidosis to assess noninvasively the intensity of alveolitis and to detect areas of extrathoracic involvement. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of the localization of gallium in cutaneous lesions of a patient with sarcoidosis.

  14. Loeffler's Syndrome Following Cutaneous Larva Migrans: An Uncommon Sequel

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Indrashis; Chandra, Somodyuti; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is characterized by the formation of distinctive, tortuous, and serpentine skin lesions occurring as a result of epidermal burrowing by certain helminthic larvae. Although this condition is usually uneventful, rarely it may result in patchy pulmonary infiltration with peripheral eosinophilia, also called Loeffler's syndrome. This association is fairly uncommon and is thus being reported. PMID:27057020

  15. [Salivary stone in parotid gland with a cutaneous fistula].

    PubMed

    Abadi, Peymaneh; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Parotid fistulas are very rare and arise from various causes such as trauma, operative complications, infection, malignancy and stone. They may also be congenital. A rare case of cutaneous salivary fistula is presented. A 59-year-old man had a recurrent inflammatory parotid disease which disappeared after the expulsion of the calculus. PMID:23305643

  16. Paraneoplastic subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; McPherson, Tess

    2016-02-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a dermatosis that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. The exogenous stimulus that triggers this condition is usually unknown; however, medication is often implicated. Malignancy is a rare cause. We present a case of paraneoplastic SCLE to cholangiocarcinoma and briefly review the features of this interesting entity.

  17. Cutaneous mucinosis and mastocytosis in a shar-pei.

    PubMed Central

    López, A; Spracklin, D; McConkey, S; Hanna, P

    1999-01-01

    A 7-year-old shar-pei was presented because of a recurrent dermatologic condition. Skin biopsies revealed an idiopathic (primary) cutaneous mucinosis that initially responded to corticosteroids. The condition reappeared 2 years later and subsequent biopsies revealed a mast cell tumor in some of the skin sites previously diagnosed with mucinosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10646065

  18. Cutaneous soft tissue tumors that make you say, "oh $*&%!".

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajiv M; Billings, Steven D

    2012-09-01

    Subsets of cutaneous soft tissue tumors present morphologic features which are diagnostically challenging in part because of their ability to obscure the ultimate nature of the underlying neoplastic process. This review discusses entities, which in the authors' experience, present such challenges. The clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and where appropriate, molecular features of these entities are discussed along with their prognosis and differential diagnosis.

  19. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma revealing clinically unsuspected HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Abbade, Luciana P Fernandes; Guiotoku, Marcelo Massaki; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma more frequently diagnosed in immunosuppressed patients, mainly HIV-infected. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma is extremely rare, and in this patient it was the first clinical manifestation of unsuspected HIV-infection. PMID:27579749

  20. Cardiofacio-cutaneous syndrome: Classical presentation of a rare genodermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Prajapat, Mahesh; Kothiwala, Sunil K; Sharma, Mohit; Kuldeep, CM

    2016-01-01

    Cardiofacio-cutaneous syndrome is a rare genodermatoses with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) and mental retardation. Although various mutations have been described, the diagnosis can be made clinically based on constellation of symptoms. Herein, we report a classical case with typical craniofacial features and atrial septal defect. PMID:27730037

  1. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Krähn, G; Peter, R U

    2000-08-01

    Accidental exposure to ionizing radiation may occur during such catastrophic events as the Chernobyl accident in 1986 or over days to weeks as in Goiania in 1987 and in the military camp during the training of soldiers in Lilo/Georgia in 1997, as well as in medical institutions. The cutaneous symptoms after radiation exposure are based on a combination of inflammatory processes and alteration of cellular proliferation as a result of a specific pattern of transcriptionally activated proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. They follow a time course consisting of prodromal erythema, latency period, acute stage, chronic stage and late stage. The entire complex is referred to as cutaneous radiation syndrome. The time course depends on several factors such as the radiation dose, radiation quality, individual radiation sensitivity, the extent of contamination and absorption and amount of skin exposed. For the diagnosis of the cutaneous radiation syndrome the following procedures are used: 7.5 MHz to 20 MHz-B-scan sonography, thermography, capillary microscopy, profilometry, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, bone scintigraphy and histology. Based on the results of experimental and clinical research, today treatment may include topical or systemic corticosteroids, gamma-interferon, pentoxifylline, vitamin E and superoxide dismutase. The treatment depends on the stage of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. Due to the complexity of the clinical manifestations of radiation disease, most patients require interdisciplinary treatment in specialized centres. Dermatologists are essential partners in the life-long follow-up and therapy of such patients.

  2. Cerebral cavernous malformations associated with cutaneous angiokeratomas and hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Walter W; Hick, Ryan W; Nelson, Kelly C; Sidhu-Malik, Navjeet K

    2015-11-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old man with adult-onset seizures and multiple cerebral cavernous malformations who developed numerous eruptive cutaneous angiokeratomas on the legs, scrotum, abdomen, and back as well as lobular and cavernous hemangiomas on the arms. Genetic analysis demonstrated a mutation in the KRIT1, ankyrin repeat containing gene (also known as CCM1).

  3. Cutaneous colesional acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated Kaposi sarcoma and cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Subrayan, Sumeshini; Calonje, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The clinicopathologic features of 4 AIDS patients with cutaneous colesional Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and cryptococcosis, a rare phenomenon, are described. Biopsies from 3 patients who were highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive demonstrated predominant KS with a conspicuous spindle cell component and small aggregates of cryptococcal yeasts in 2 biopsies and predominant gelatinous cryptococcosis with attenuated KS spindle cells in 1 biopsy. One patient was HAART exposed. He had childhood pulmonary tuberculosis, was treated for disseminated cutaneous cryptococcosis 18 months earlier and presented with cutaneous lesions, odynophagia and massive cervical lymphadenopathy in the eighth week of HAART, after achieving viral suppression and a CD4 cell increase from 28 to 184 cells/μL. His skin biopsy demonstrated a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, neutrophils, and granulomas with admixed aggregates and single Cryptococcus neoformans and focal aggregation of human herpes virus 8-immunopositive spindle cells. Acid fast bacilli were not identified and mycobacterial molecular studies were negative. The features were compatible with cutaneous cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. His nodal and oropharyngeal biopsies demonstrated dense mixed, including granulomatous, inflammation with few cryptococcal yeasts and acid fast bacilli, confirmed to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis on polymerase chain reaction testing, without KS. These features were also compatible with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, but the exact role of each infection in the extracutaneous sites was unconfirmed. Colesional KS and cryptococcosis served as the sentinel lesion of AIDS in 3 patients and of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in 1 patient.

  4. Cutaneous sterile pyogranuloma/granuloma syndrome in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Spaterna, Andrea; Mechelli, Luca; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A case of canine cutaneous sterile pyogranuloma/granuloma syndrome (SPGS) with generalized asymmetrical alopecia and plaques is described. Results from histopathologic examination were suggestive of SPGS and failed to demonstrate any etiological agent. A systematic approach on how to definitively rule out infectious skin diseases is discussed. PMID:19252712

  5. [Secondary cutaneous plasmacytoma revealing multiple myeloma: about a case].

    PubMed

    Ngolet, Lydie Ocini; N'soundhat, Norbert Lamini; Ndounga, Eliane; Kocko, Innocent; Kidédé, Daphtone Chabel Nkouala; Ntsiba, Honoré

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metastatic cutaneous plasmacytoma is a multiple extramedullary plasma cell proliferation involving skin. Its diagnosis is based on the identification of malignant plasma cells proliferation in the bone marrow and in the skin. Its occurrence is associated with advanced myeloma and a poor prognosis. PMID:27642385

  6. [The cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face in Gafsa area, Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, A; Kitar, A; Rebai, M; Bouassida, S; Turki, H; Zahaf, A

    2005-12-01

    The cutaneous leishmaniasis is a frequent affection in Tunisia. In the Gafsa region it is a endemoepidemic infection. Our prospective study was carried out on 225 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face collected over two years in the outpatients' department of dermatology at Gafsa hospital. The aim of our study was to know more about the evolutive epidemio-clinical particularities of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face. The relative frequency of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face for the new patients reached 5%. An equal distribution between the two sexes was noted. The average age of our patients was 24 years old and 6 months old with extremes ranging from 3 months to 77 years. The nodular and ulcerated forms were the most frequent (35.3%), followed by impetiginoid forms (23%), then the lupoid forms (15%). The papular form was quite frequent (13%). Impetiginoid lesions occurred frequently in the child. Lupoid lesions appeared particularly on the nose. The complicated forms: the cutaneuos necrosis or erysipelas of the face appeared after intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). The intramuscular meglumine antimoniate was used in 172 patients, among them 47 needed two treatments or more because of a particular resistance of the lesions of the face. The pimple of Gafsa, term initially used for ulcerated skin nodules, was actually characterised by a lesional polymorphism. The prognosis was good however the risk of in aesthetic scar of the face was important. PMID:16425717

  7. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma revealing clinically unsuspected HIV infection*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Abbade, Luciana P. Fernandes; Guiotoku, Marcelo Massaki; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma more frequently diagnosed in immunosuppressed patients, mainly HIV-infected. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma is extremely rare, and in this patient it was the first clinical manifestation of unsuspected HIV-infection. PMID:27579749

  8. Histopathological features of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in horse.

    PubMed

    Amininajafi, Fatemeh; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Arman; Fattahi, Rooholla; Taghizadeh, Mehdi; Hasanzadeh, Sardar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of study was to describe clinico histopathological manifestations of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in horse. The adult worms live on the wall of the stomach and cutaneous of the host without internal migration. A 5 year old 700 kg warm-blood, cross gelding was referred to the Tehran School of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The horse presented skin lesions around. In our survey, several raised granulomatous nodules with a cystic space and parasites within the cysts were observed. Also gastric rupture at greater curvature due to abscess and perforation through the serosa causing diffused peritonitis and subsequent death. Eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were present in large numbers. Furthermore, cutaneous lesions were characterized by single or multiple ulcerated timorous masses with eosinophil epithelioid cell infiltration and scattered necrotic debris. Granulation tissue and neutrophils were observed along the ulcerated area. In this report a case of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in a horse in Iran is described with special attention to confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. PMID:27605815

  9. Selected benign cutaneous lesions that may simulate melanoma histologically.

    PubMed

    Wick, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    As cutaneous melanomas manifest a wide spectrum of clinical and pathologic presentations, several other lesions enter into their differential diagnosis. This article considers those entities, including melanocytic hyperplasia, cellular nodules in congenital nevi, atypical lentiginous melanocytic proliferations, "special site" nevi, epithelioid histiocytoma, neurothekeoma, cellular schwannoma, and proliferating scars.

  10. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  11. Cutaneous Anthrax—the Non-industrial Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Knight, A. H.; Wynne-Williams, C. J. E.; Willis, A. T.

    1969-01-01

    Two patients contracted cutaneous anthrax after contact with infected bone meal. Awareness of the risk of infection from this source may help in achieving early clinical diagnosis and a low fatality rate following effective antibiotic therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4974297

  12. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  13. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was 7 years after exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crewmembers.

  14. The Spectrum of Paraneoplastic Cutaneous Vasculitis in a Defined Population

    PubMed Central

    Loricera, Javier; Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; González-López, Marcos A.; Fernández-Llaca, Hector; Rueda-Gotor, Javier; Gonzalez-Vela, Maria C.; Alvarez, Lino; Mata, Cristina; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martínez-Taboada, Victor M.; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Blanco, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous vasculitis may be associated with malignancies, and may behave as a paraneoplastic syndrome. This association has been reported in a variable proportion of patients depending on population selection. We conducted the current study to assess the frequency, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of paraneoplastic vasculitis in a large unselected series of 766 patients with cutaneous vasculitis diagnosed at a single university hospital. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 67.94 ± 14.20 yr; range, 40–85 yr) presenting with cutaneous vasculitis were ultimately diagnosed as having an underlying malignancy. They constituted 3.80% of the 421 adult patients. There were 9 hematologic and 7 solid underlying malignancies. Skin lesions were the initial clinical presentation in all of them, and the median interval from the onset of cutaneous vasculitis to the diagnosis of the malignancy was 17 days (range, 8–50 d). The most frequent skin lesions were palpable purpura (15 patients). Other clinical manifestations included constitutional syndrome (10 patients) and arthralgia and/or arthritis (4 cases). Hematologic cytopenias (11 cases) as well as immature peripheral blood cells (6 cases) were frequently observed in the full blood cell count, especially in those with vasculitis associated with hematologic malignancies. Specific treatment for vasculitis was prescribed in 10 patients; nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (4 patients), corticosteroids (3 patients), chloroquine (1 patient), antihistamines (1 patient), and cyclophosphamide (1 patient). Ten patients died due to the malignancy and 6 patients recovered following malignancy therapy. Patients with paraneoplastic vasculitis were older, more frequently had constitutional syndrome, and less frequently had organ damage due to the vasculitis than the remaining patients with cutaneous vasculitis. In summary, cutaneous paraneoplastic vasculitis is an entity not uncommonly

  15. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  16. Case of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with anti-Ku and anti-centromere antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Sonoko; Ueda-Hayakawa, Ikuko; Isei, Taiki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    We report the case of a 58-year-old man who had an ulcer on the right middle finger that was cured by surgery 4 years before consultation with our department. A few years after the surgery, he noticed recurrence of the ulcer and sclerosis of the skin. At the initial examination, skin sclerosis was observed from the fingers to the upper arms and from the feet to the thighs. Pitting scars on the fingertips and punctured hemorrhages of the nail-fold capillaries were also present. Gastroscopy showed slight reflex esophagitis. Laboratory findings were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA; 1:640) with a speckled and discrete speckled pattern. Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) antibody and anti-RNA polymerase III were negative, but anti-centromere antibody was positive in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti-Ku antibody was positive in an immunoprecipitation assay using extracts of the leukemia cell line K562. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with anti-Ku and anti-centromere antibodies. Treatment with an oral antiplatelet agent, vitamin E, a proton pump inhibitor, and i.v. lipoprostaglandin E1 were started. Subsequently, there has been repeated recurrence of finger ulcers, but no muscle involvement has been detected since his first visit. This is the first reported case of systemic sclerosis with anti-Ku and anti-centromere antibodies.

  17. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging.

  18. Proton in SRF Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John Paul

    2011-03-31

    Hydrogen is a difficult impurity to physically deal with in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium, therefore, its properties in the metals should be well understood to allow the metal's superconducting properties to be optimized for minimum loss in the construction of resonant accelerator cavities. It is known that hydrogen is a paramagnetic impurity in niobium from NMR studies. This paramagnetism and its effect on superconducting properties are important to understand. To that end analytical induction measurements aimed at isolating the magnetic properties of hydrogen in SRF niobium are introduced along with optical reflection spectroscopy which is also sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. From the variety, magnitude and rapid kinetics found in the optical and magnetic properties of niobium contaminated with hydrogen forced a search for an atomic model. This yielded quantum mechanical description that correctly generates the activation energy for diffusion of the proton and its isotopes not only in niobium but the remaining metals for which data is available. This interpretation provides a frame work for understanding the individual and collective behavior of protons in metals.

  19. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  20. Emission of neutron-proton and proton-proton pairs in neutrino scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Simo, I.; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; De Pace, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Megias, G. D.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use a recently developed model of relativistic meson-exchange currents to compute the neutron-proton and proton-proton yields in (νμ ,μ-) scattering from 12C in the 2p-2h channel. We compute the response functions and cross sections with the relativistic Fermi gas model for different kinematics from intermediate to high momentum transfers. We find a large contribution of neutron-proton configurations in the initial state, as compared to proton-proton pairs. In the case of charge-changing neutrino scattering the 2p-2h cross section of proton-proton emission (i.e., np in the initial state) is much larger than for neutron-proton emission (i.e., two neutrons in the initial state) by a (ω , q)-dependent factor. The different emission probabilities of distinct species of nucleon pairs are produced in our model only by meson-exchange currents, mainly by the Δ isobar current. We also analyze other effects including exchange contributions and the effect of the axial and vector currents.

  1. The CLASI (Cutaneous LE Disease Area and Severity Index): an outcome instrument for cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Joerg; Taylor, Lynne; Berlin, Jesse A.; Dulay, Samuel; Ang, Gina; Fakharzadeh, Steven; Kantor, Jonathan; Kim, Ellen; Militello, Giuseppe; McGinnis, Karen; Richardson, Stephen; Treat, James; Vittorio, Carmela; Van Voorhees, Abby; Werth, Victoria P.

    2013-01-01

    We developed and validated a measurement instrument (CLASI - Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index) for lupus erythematosus that could be used in clinical trials. The instrument has separate scores for damage and activity. A group of 7 American Dermato-Rheumatologists and the “American College of Rheumatology Response Criteria Committee on SLE” assessed content validity. After a preliminary session, we conducted standardized interviews with the raters and made slight changes to the instrument. The final instrument was evaluated by 5 dermatologists and 6 residents who scored 9 patients to estimate inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability in two sessions. Consultation with experts has established content validity of the instrument. Reliability studies demonstrated an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for inter-rater reliability of 0.86 for the activity score (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.73 to 0.99) and of 0.92 for the damage score (95% CI 0.85 to 1.00). The Spearman’s Rho for intra-rater reliability for the activity score was 0.96 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.00) and for the damage score Spearman’s Rho was 0.99 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.00). Clinical responsiveness needs to be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial, which is ongoing. PMID:16297185

  2. Fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides.

    PubMed

    Paizs, Béla; Suhai, Sándor

    2005-01-01

    The fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides are reviewed in the present paper paying special attention to classification of the known fragmentation channels into a simple hierarchy defined according to the chemistry involved. It is shown that the 'mobile proton' model of peptide fragmentation can be used to understand the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides only in a qualitative manner rationalizing differences observed for low-energy collision induced dissociation of peptide ions having or lacking a mobile proton. To overcome this limitation, a deeper understanding of the dissociation chemistry of protonated peptides is needed. To this end use of the 'pathways in competition' (PIC) model that involves a detailed energetic and kinetic characterization of the major peptide fragmentation pathways (PFPs) is proposed. The known PFPs are described in detail including all the pre-dissociation, dissociation, and post-dissociation events. It is our hope that studies to further extend PIC will lead to semi-quantative understanding of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides which could be used to develop refined bioinformatics algorithms for MS/MS based proteomics. Experimental and computational data on the fragmentation of protonated peptides are reevaluated from the point of view of the PIC model considering the mechanism, energetics, and kinetics of the major PFPs. Evidence proving semi-quantitative predictability of some of the ion intensity relationships (IIRs) of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides is presented. PMID:15389847

  3. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  4. Proton therapy for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Romaine C; Huh, Soon; Li, Zuofeng; Rutenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly offered to patients with pancreatic malignancies although its ultimate utility is compromised since the pancreas is surrounded by exquisitely radiosensitive normal tissues, such as the duodenum, stomach, jejunum, liver, and kidneys. Proton radiotherapy can be used to create dose distributions that conform to tumor targets with significant normal tissue sparing. Because of this, protons appear to represent a superior modality for radiotherapy delivery to patients with unresectable tumors and those receiving postoperative radiotherapy. A particularly exciting opportunity for protons also exists for patients with resectable and marginally resectable disease. In this paper, we review the current literature on proton therapy for pancreatic cancer and discuss scenarios wherein the improvement in the therapeutic index with protons may have the potential to change the management paradigm for this malignancy. PMID:26380057

  5. The proton (nuclear) microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, G. J. F.

    1989-04-01

    The scanning proton microprobe (SPMP) is closely related to the scanning electron microprobe (SEMP) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray detector. Though the much greater elemental sensitivity of the SPMP is inherent in the physics, the generally inferior spatial resolution of the SPMP is not inherent and big improvements are possible, As its alternative name would imply, the SPMP is often used with heavier particle beams and with nuclear rather than atomic reactions. Its versatility and quantitative accuracy have justified greater instrumentation and computer power than that associated with other microprobes. It is fast becoming an industrially and commercially important instrument and there are few fields of scientific research in which it has not played a part. Notable contributions have been made in biology, medicine, agriculture, semiconductors, geology, mineralogy, extractive metallurgy, new materials, archaeology, forensic science, catalysis, industrial problems and reactor technology.

  6. Ion-proton pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Evidence derived with minimal assumptions from existing published observations is presented to show that an ion-proton plasma is the source of radio-frequency emission in millisecond and in normal isolated pulsars. There is no primary involvement of electron-positron pairs. This conclusion has also been reached by studies of the plasma composition based on well-established particle-physics processes in neutron stars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density. This work has been published in a series of papers which are also summarized here. It is now confirmed by simple analyses of the observed radio-frequency characteristics, and its implications for the further study of neutron stars are outlined.

  7. Immunohistopathology of Prototheca wickerhamii in cutaneous lesions of protothecosis.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Sobukawa, Hideto; Suzuki, Minako; Hiruma, Masataro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Protothecosis is a rare infection caused by pathogenic algae of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca wickerhamii causes cutaneous/subcutaneous opportunistic infections in humans and small animals. The diagnosis of protothecosis is based on histopathological examination of this organism, which can be confused with other fungi and inflammatory cells in infected tissues. In this study, immunohistopathological investigation was made of infected cutaneous human and animal tissues exhibiting protothecosis using rabbit antiserum against P. wickerhamii. Serum detected P. wickerhamii in human and feline protothecosis tissues, and did not react with Candida albicans in the human kidney tissues showing candidiasis. This antiserum can therefore differentiate P. wickerhamii cells from the yeast-like cells of C. albicans and Prototheca zopfii in target tissues. PMID:24682095

  8. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  9. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Gurudutt, Vivek V; Genden, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  10. [The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands in evolutionary perspective].

    PubMed

    Chernova, O F

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands is considered based on the analysis of the literature and our own original data with the focus on the issues of gland polymorphism and specific features in postnatal development (from the case study of circumanal hepatoid glands of newborn domestic dogs), including the features reflecting the evolutionary relationships of various types of cutaneous glands. The hepatoid glands are a component of the glandular complex ofthe hair follicle, which also includes sebaceous and sweat glands; have a specific structure; and produce protein secretion by a merocrine pathway. Characteristic of these glands are wide polymorphism, sex- and age-related differences in the degree of development, occurrence in only a few phylogenetically related mammalian taxa (even-toed ungulates and carnivores); and a signaling type of their secretion. The data support the "generative concept," relying on the idea of a separate and independent origination of diverse derivatives of the external integuments. PMID:22679770

  11. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in association with mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alun V; Scarisbrick, Julia J; Child, F J; Acland, Katharine M; Whittaker, Sean J; Russell-Jones, Robin

    2004-05-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the first 461 cases entered into our cutaneous lymphoma database and found 285 cases of mycosis fungoides. We also identified 6 cases of malignant melanoma, all of which were found in patients with mycosis fungoides. The crude rate of melanoma in the general population in England, United Kingdom, in 1998 was 8.8/100,000 in men and 11.4/100,000 in women. The incidence of melanoma found in our cohort of patients with mycosis fungoides was far higher, and in 4 of the 6 patients cannot be explained on the basis of prior therapy. The reason for this association is unclear, but this report emphasizes the risk of second malignancies for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and melanoma.

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D F H; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-02-24

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistry method applied for the first time to equine tissues which clearly demonstrated leishmanial amastigote forms. Two serological determinations with the direct agglutination test performed 13 months apart showed seroconversion specific for Leishmania from a <25 to a 200 antibody titre. Polymerase chain reaction followed by kinetoplast DNA sequencing provided a 116-bp sequence with 98% identity to Leishmania infantum closest sequence deposited in GenBank. No recurrence was observed after complete surgical excision. Leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular or papular lesions in the equine species in Portugal. PMID:24388338

  13. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    PubMed

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:23350294

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D F H; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-02-24

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistry method applied for the first time to equine tissues which clearly demonstrated leishmanial amastigote forms. Two serological determinations with the direct agglutination test performed 13 months apart showed seroconversion specific for Leishmania from a <25 to a 200 antibody titre. Polymerase chain reaction followed by kinetoplast DNA sequencing provided a 116-bp sequence with 98% identity to Leishmania infantum closest sequence deposited in GenBank. No recurrence was observed after complete surgical excision. Leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular or papular lesions in the equine species in Portugal.

  15. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cao, Can; Zeng, Kang; Wang, Menglei; Han, Kai; Peng, Yusheng; Xiong, Hao; Wang, Qi; Li, Qian; Wang, Qian; Li, Li

    2016-07-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is a part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes. The characteristics include single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate as skin lesion, slow disease progression, autoregressive, and recurrent in few years. The present study report the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting PCALCL with single nodules, ulcer, keloid, and scab in his right-side face. He showed a good response to the treatment with systemic chemotherapy and dermatoplasty, and regained confidence after the appearance of recovery. There is no relapse of the primary lesion and organs involved till now. The chemotherapy combining with surgical excision and dermatoplasty is a good method for PCALCL, per the lesion biopsy and positron emission tomography-computed tomography before and after treatment. PMID:26970422

  16. Regulation of cutaneous allergic reaction by odorant inhalation.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, J; Tsuchiya, T

    2000-03-01

    Olfactory stimuli modulate emotional conditions and the whole body immune system. Effects of odorant inhalation on cutaneous immune reaction were examined. Contact hypersensitivity to 2,4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene was elicited in C57BL/6 mice. The reaction was suppressed at both the induction and elicitation phases by exposure to an odorant, citralva. Topical application of citralva or lyral/lilial did not affect the reaction. The suppressive effect of citralva was more potent than that of another odorant, lyral/lilial. Citralva decreased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells, whereas lyral/lilial had a weak effect. Citralva but not lyral/lilial induced plasma corticosterone. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonist abrogated the suppressive effect of citralva on contact hypersensitivity. Serum interleukin-12 was downregulated by exposure to citralva or lyral/lilial. These data demonstrate that olfactory stimuli regulate the cutaneous immune system.

  17. Cutaneous Melioidosis Cluster Caused by Contaminated Wound Irrigation Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Adam J.; Peck, Mariani; Gayle, Dionne; Levy, Avram; Ler, Yi-Horng; Raby, Edward; Gibbs, Tristan M.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis usually occurs after environmental exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei in the tropics. A cluster of 5 cutaneous melioidosis cases occurred in suburban southwest Australia after an earlier case in January 2012. We collected environmental samples at the first patient’s home in January 2012 and from a nearby health center in December 2013 after 2 new cases occurred in the same postal district. We isolated genotypically identical B. pseudomallei from the first patient and 5 other patients in the district. Environmental sampling implicated an opened bottle of saline wound irrigation fluid containing >106 B. pseudomallei/mL. The bottle included instructions to discard within 24 hours of opening. No further cases of B. pseudomallei infection occurred after removing the contaminated bottle. This cutaneous melioidosis cluster demonstrates that B. pseudomallei can survive and disseminate in widely used medical fluids beyond its known geographic distribution, highlighting a need to use these products according to manufacturers’ instructions. PMID:27438887

  18. Cutaneous location of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Nathalia; Fraitag, Sylvie; Miquel, Catherine; Salomon, Laurent J; Bourdeaut, Franck; Bodemer, Christine; Roujeau, Thomas; Zerah, Michel; Hadj-Rabia, Smail

    2014-07-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour is a rare and highly malignant tumour of the posterior fossae nervous system that occurs in children especially in the first few years of life. Cutaneous location is not previously reported. A newborn boy was referred for both aqueductal stenosis detected antenatally and skin tags mimicking hamartoma. The cerebral tumour increased in size during a few months leading to both skin and cerebral biopsies. Integrase Interactor-1 (INI-1) immunostaining and tumoural and leukocytes INI-1 gene sequencing confirmed the atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour nature of the cerebral tumour. INI-1 immunostaining in skin biopsy confirmed the dermal location of rhabdoid tumour. Thus, unusual cutaneous lesions may be part of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour. The loss of Integrase INI-1 on immunohistochemical staining is characteristic.

  19. Defining the dermoscopic characteristics of fast-growing cutaneous melanomas.

    PubMed

    Tejera-Vaquerizo, Antonio; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Nagore, Eduardo; Martín-Cuevas, Paula; Orgaz-Molina, Javier; Traves, Victor; Herrera-Acosta, Enrique; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramón; Guillén, Carlos; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    A high growth rate in melanomas has been associated with a more aggressive phenotype and worse survival. The aim of this study was to define the dermoscopic characteristics associated with this type of cutaneous melanoma. We carried out a retrospective study of 132 cutaneous melanomas, analyzing certain clinical characteristics and the most important dermoscopic variables related to the melanomas. Fast-growing melanomas were considered to be those with a growth rate of more than 0.5 mm per month. Fast-growing melanomas more often lacked an atypical network, were symmetrical, presented ulceration, and were hypopigmented. The dermoscopic vascular pattern often showed atypical irregular vessels and milky-red areas. The association of these two is a specific characteristic. Fast-growing melanomas have a characteristic phenotype and dermoscopy can be useful for their identification.

  20. Synovial cutaneous fistula complicating a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Letter, Haley P; Limback, Joseph; Wasyliw, Christopher; Bancroft, Laura; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is becoming a common form of shoulder arthroplasty that is often performed in the setting of rotator cuff pathology. Infection is a rare complication but is more common in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty than in hemiarthroplasty or anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. We present the case of a 69-year-old patient with a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty who presented with purulent drainage from the skin of his anterior shoulder. Computed tomography arthrogram confirmed the presence of a synovial cutaneous fistula. Synovial cutaneous fistula is a rare variant of periprosthetic infection that, to our knowledge, has not been described previously in the setting of a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Computed tomography arthrogram proved to be a reliable method for confirming the diagnosis and was used for operative planning to remove the hardware. PMID:27257460

  1. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite. PMID:19288959

  2. Managing the Cutaneous Sinus Tract of Dental Origine

    PubMed Central

    Janev, Edvard; Redzep, Enis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Draining cutaneous sinus tract in chin area may be caused by chronic periapical dental infections. Misdiagnosis of these lesions usually leads to destructive invasive treatment of the sinus tract that is not correct and curative. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old male patient referred to us with a chronically draining lesion on his chin. The lesion previously was misdiagnosed by medical doctors and had undergone two times surgery with a focus on the skin lesion and had received antibiotic therapy for a prolonged period of time. After clinical and radiologic examination the dental origin of the lesion was evident and proper endodontic and surgical treatment was performed. Three months later, after the treatment, the lesion showed total healing and reoccurrence occurred. CONCLUSION: The key to successful treatment of cutaneous sinus tract of dental origin must be in appropriate communication between the dentist and the physician in order to achieve correct diagnosis and therapy in such cases. PMID:27703580

  3. Management of cutaneous disorders related to inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer, Zaira; Santiago, Jesus Manuel; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Alonso, Vicent; Antón, Rosario; Bosca, Marta Maia

    2012-01-01

    Almost one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develop skin lesions. Cutaneous disorders associated with IBD may be divided into 5 groups based on the nature of the association: specific manifestations (orofacial and metastatic IBD), reactive disorders (erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum, pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans, Sweet’s syndrome and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa), miscellaneous (epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, bullous pemphigoid, linear IgA bullous disease, squamous cell carcinoma-Bowen’s disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, secondary amyloidosis and psoriasis), manifestations secondary to malnutrition and malabsorption (zinc, vitamins and iron deficiency), and manifestations secondary to drug therapy (salicylates, immunosupressors, biological agents, antibiotics and steroids). Treatment should be individualized and directed to treating the underlying IBD as well as the specific dermatologic condition. The aim of this review includes the description of clinical manifestations, course, work-up and, most importantly, management of these disorders, providing an assessment of the literature on the topic. PMID:24713996

  4. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  5. Geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakila, Ashraf; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Salim, Azra; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is found in all the four provinces of Pakistan; these are NWFP, Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. In Balochistan the areas from where the patients came are Uthal, Quetta and Ormara. The highest number of patients came from Quetta and least from Ormara. The patients included in this study were from the Mangopir and Chakewara, areas of Karachi. The infection is endemic in this country and the recent epidemics in the Dadu District and Nawabshah indicate its importance in the locality. The sand fly vector is found in all four provinces of Pakistan that are listed here. It is quite obvious that presence of leishmaniasis indicates the presence of sand flies and cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common.

  6. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite.

  7. [Cutaneous and mucosal manifestations associated with cocaine use].

    PubMed

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrián; Chico, Ricardo; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    Complications due to cocaine are a public health problem. The typical cutaneous disease is leukocytoclastic vasculitis and/or thrombotic vasculopathy affecting mainly the ears. No intense systemic involvement is usually present, but there may be several cutaneous, mucosal and systemic manifestations. Other findings associated as arthralgia, neutropaenia or agranulocytosis, low titer positive antinuclear antibodies, antiphospholipid antibody positivity and neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against multiple antigens help the diagnosis. This disease requires a clinical suspicion with a clinical history, a complete physical examination and a broad differential diagnosis for an early and correct diagnosis. The course is usually self-limited. In most cases the only treatment is to discontinue the use of cocaine associated with symptomatic treatment, no proven benefit of systemic corticosteroids.

  8. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. PMID:24592936

  9. Strategies for Treating Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the management of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma will be presented in terms of the strategies that guide treatment. With the strategies and goals in mind, treatment options to achieve a measurable goal will be presented. The treatments presented in this article are those utilized to reliably achieve a remission. If remission is not achieved, a patient’s management plan must be changed. The landmarks that help guide the therapy plan will be discussed. PMID:20729945

  10. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  11. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis and idiopathic bone marrow aplasia*

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Karina Colossi; Pires, Mario Cezar; Kakizaki, Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia and severe neutropenia, who developed skin ulcers under cardiac monitoring electrodes. The diagnosis of primary cutaneous aspergillosis was made after the second biopsy and culture. Imaging investigation did not reveal internal fungal infection. The child was treated, but did not improve and died 3 months after admission. The report highlights and discusses the preventable risk of aspergillus skin infection in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27438213

  12. Novel therapeutic agents for cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome (SS) represent the most common subtypes of primary Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Patients with advanced MF and SS have a poor prognosis leading to an interest in the development of new therapies with targeted mechanisms of action and acceptable safety profiles. In this review we focus on such novel strategies that have changed the treatment paradigm of this rare malignancy. PMID:22594538

  13. Cutaneous mast cell tumor (Mastocytoma): Cyto- histopathological and haematological investigations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common skin tumours in dogs. Due to the prevalence of canine MCTs and the variable biologic behavior of this disease, accurate prognostication and a thorough understanding of MCT biology are critical for the treatment of this disease. A cytologic diagnosis of mast cell tumor with evidence of prior hemorrhage was made, and the masses were surgically removed. Cytological evaluation of fine-needle aspirates from the cutaneous mass from the axillary comprised many well-differentiated, highly granulated mast cells with moderate numbers of eosinophils. Nuclei were varied in size and shape with high nuclear’to’cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, marked atypical and mitotic figures. Microscopically, mass consisted of sheets of neoplastic round cells that formed nonencapsulated nodules in the dermis and infiltrated into the adjacent dermal collagen, and also there was diffuse subcutis invasion of round to pleomorphic tumor cells. Tumor cells had moderate to abundant cytoplasm, round to ovoid nuclei with scattered chromatin, and mitotic figures. In this tumor, cytoplasmic granules showed atypical metachromasia. In addition, eosinophils were scattered among the mast cells at the periphery of the nodules. The presence of eosinophils and the observation, at high magnification, of cells with cytoplasmic metachromatic granules. Invasion of the deep subcutaneous fat or cutaneous muscles were a common feature of grade III tumour. Finally, a diagnosis of grade III cutaneous mast cell tumor was made. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) of this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4755249151157024. PMID:24444100

  14. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis and idiopathic bone marrow aplasia.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Karina Colossi; Pires, Mario Cezar; Kakizaki, Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia and severe neutropenia, who developed skin ulcers under cardiac monitoring electrodes. The diagnosis of primary cutaneous aspergillosis was made after the second biopsy and culture. Imaging investigation did not reveal internal fungal infection. The child was treated, but did not improve and died 3 months after admission. The report highlights and discusses the preventable risk of aspergillus skin infection in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27438213

  15. Cutaneous vasculitis in breast cancer treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Maida; Grossman, Jennifer; Hahn, Bevra H; La Cava, Antonio

    2008-10-01

    A patient from the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center who developed cutaneous vasculitis during the course of treatment for metastatic breast cancer is presented (status: post-lumpectomy and radiation therapy). Since the onset of vasculitis occurred during the course of therapy for the neoplasm, it was difficult to differentiate between drug-induced vasculitis and paraneoplastic vasculitis. The patient had been exposed to medications including gabapentin, methimazole, trastuzumab, fulvestrant, and letrozole - which could cause endothelial cell toxicity. Drug-induced small vessel vasculitis usually attacks the skin or subcutaneous parts of the skin. In cancer therapy, there have been case reports that hormonal drugs such as estrogen receptor antagonists, aromatase inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors can induce cutaneous vasculitis. On the other hand, paraneoplastic syndromes manifested as cutaneous vasculitis have been documented, possibly mediated by unknown immunological mechanisms associated with the tumor such as formation of immune complexes, direct antibody-mediated effects on endothelial cells, or direct effects of tumor cells on the vascular wall. Some patients with drug-induced cutaneous vasculitis have antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) directed to one or more neutrophil cytoplasm antigens - the most common being granule protein myeloperoxidase (MPO), human leukocyte elastase (HLE), cathepsin G and lactoferrin. Some patients also have antibodies against histones and antiphospholipid. Serologic testing and measurements suggest an influence of therapy on vasculitis, yet the lack of sensitivity and specificity for a biomarker in endothelial injury indicate the need to search and evaluate new markers for improved predictive value of the tests, and to provide guidance in therapy.

  16. Cutaneous vasculitis in breast cancer treated with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Maida; Grossman, Jennifer; Hahn, Bevra H.; La Cava, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A patient from the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center who developed cutaneous vasculitis during the course of treatment for metastatic breast cancer is presented (status: post-lumpectomy and radiation therapy). Since the onset of vasculitis occurred during the course of therapy for the neoplasm, it was difficult to differentiate between drug-induced vasculitis and paraneoplastic vasculitis. The patient had been exposed to medications including gabapentin, methimazole, trastuzumab, fulvestrant, and letrozole - which could cause endothelial cell toxicity. Drug-induced small vessel vasculitis usually attacks the skin or subcutaneous parts of the skin. In cancer therapy, there have been case reports that hormonal drugs such as estrogen receptor antagonists, aromatase inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors can induce cutaneous vasculitis. On the other hand, paraneoplastic syndromes manifested as cutaneous vasculitis have been documented, possibly mediated by unknown immunological mechanisms associated with the tumor such as formation of immune complexes, direct antibody-mediated effects on endothelial cells, or direct effects of tumor cells on the vascular wall. Some patients with drug-induced cutaneous vasculitis have antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) directed to one or more neutrophil cytoplasm antigens - the most common being granule protein myeloperoxidase (MPO), human leukocyte elastase (HLE), cathepsin G and lactoferrin. Some patients also have antibodies against histones and antiphospholipid. Serologic testing and measurements suggest an influence of therapy on vasculitis, yet the lack of sensitivity and specificity for a biomarker in endothelial injury indicate the need to search and evaluate new markers for improved predictive value of the tests, and to provide guidance in therapy. PMID:18640073

  17. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria longipes in an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed Central

    Gené, J; Azón-Masoliver, A; Guarro, J; Ballester, F; Pujol, I; Llovera, M; Ferrer, C

    1995-01-01

    Alternaria longipes was reported as the agent of a cutaneous infection in a patient with a neoplastic disease. The fungus has not been reported previously as causing disease in humans. It was distinguished by its rather small conidia with smooth or slightly verruculose walls and a pale brown beak which rarely extended into a secondary conidiophore. In vitro inhibitory activities of amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole were shown. PMID:8567925

  18. [DRUG INDUCED EXANTHEMA AND SEVERE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTIONS].

    PubMed

    Bensaïd, Benoît; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Lebrun-Vignes, Bénédicte; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) are delayed hypersensivities. Their clinical presentation and severity are very diverse ranging from the frequent and benign exanthemas to the rare but severe CADR involving deep organs in the case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or leading to skin bulla and epidermal detachment in toxic epidermal necrolysis. The main differential diagnoses are infections, especially viral ones, which could give clinical symptoms identical to those occurring in CADR.

  19. [Cutaneous changes in long-standing erythropoietic protoporphyria].

    PubMed

    Meister, L; Valesky, E; Ochsendorf, F; Kaufmann, R

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria results in highly increased photosensitivity of the skin. Solar irradiation causes sunburn-like symptoms with erythema, edema and wheals. We report the case of a 60-year-old man suffering from erythropoietic protoporphyria since his childhood who additionally developed chronic cutaneous lichenoid papules in sun-exposed skin areas. Vaporization with both electrocautery and carbon dioxide laser proved to be a successful treatment option. PMID:27052526

  20. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: an intriguing model of immune dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Eleonora; Gambardella, Alessio; Langella, Giovanni Giuseppe; Lo Schiavo, Ada; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease characterized by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. Its etiology remains obscure. A plausible hypothesis suggests that a complex interplay of host factors, infectious processes, and non-infectious environmental factors, matched with a susceptible genetic background, results in a pathway that leads to systemic granulomatous inflammation. Although presentations of sarcoidosis vary enormously, multi-organ involvement is a common feature. Cutaneous involvement occurs in about 25% of patients with protean manifestations and variable prognoses. Skin manifestations are divided into specific lesions with histopathologically evident non-caseating granulomas and nonspecific lesions arising from a reactive process that does not form granulomas. A peculiar form of cutaneous sarcoidosis is represented by sarcoidal lesions at sites of trauma that has caused scarring. The pathogenesis of scar sarcoidosis remains unknown. Scar sarcoidosis is also associated with herpes zoster infection, surgery, and tattooing. Such heterogeneous events, along with those at the sites of chronic lymphedema, thermal burns, radiation dermatitis, and vaccinations, occur on areas of vulnerable skin labeled "immunocompromised districts". Numerous options are available for the treatment of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Although corticosteroids remain the treatment of choice for initial systemic therapy, other nonsteroidal agents have proven effective and therefore useful for long-term management. Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists such as infliximab may have a role in the treatment of cutaneous sarcoidosis, especially in refractory cases that are resistant to standard regimens. Elucidation of the relationship of sarcoidal granulomas with malignancy and immunity may facilitate a better understanding of some pathomechanisms operating in neoplastic and immunity-related disorders.

  1. Other Chemotherapeutic Agents in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Catherine G; Poligone, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Traditional chemotherapies, interleukins, phosphorylase inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors are important therapies available to patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Traditional chemotherapies, both in combination and as single agents, are commonly used in relapsed, refractory CTCLs that behave in an aggressive manner. Interleukins, phosphorylase inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors are less commonly used but data support a role in patients with more refractory disease. PMID:26433850

  2. Rapid onset of cutaneous angiosarcoma after radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, C.N.; Peschel, R.; McKhann, C.; Merino, M.J.; Duray, P.H.

    1986-06-01

    Malignant neoplasms known to develop following external beam radiation include squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, mixed mullerian tumors, malignant schwannoma, myelogenous leukemia and angiosarcoma. Latency periods of many years characterize the onset of these tumors following the exposure. Cutaneous angiosarcoma following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma has been rarely documented, occurring up to 13 years postirradiation. Two cases of this entity are reported occurring 37 months postradiotherapy at the site of mastectomy performed for mammary duct carcinoma.

  3. Response to Antimalarials in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aileen Y.; Piette, Evan W.; Foering, Kristen P.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; Okawa, Joyce; Werth, Victoria P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate response to antimalarials in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus using activity scores from the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index, a validated outcome measure. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Setting University cutaneous autoimmune disease clinic. Participants One hundred twenty-eight patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus who presented from January 2007-July 2010 and had at least 2 visits with activity scores. Main Outcome Measures Response defined by 4-point or 20% decrease in activity score. Response to initiation determined with score before treatment and first visit at least 2 months after treatment. Response to continuation determined with score at first visit and most recent visit on treatment. Results Of 11 patients initiated on hydroxychloroquine, 55% were responders with a decrease in median (interquartile range) activity score from 8.0 (3.5-13) to 3.0 (1.8-7.3) (p=0.03). Of 15 patients who had failed hydroxychloroquine, 67% were responders to initiation of hydroxychloroquine-quinacrine, with a decrease in median (interquartile range) activity score from 6.0 (4.8-8.3) to 3.0 (0.75-5.0) (p=0.004). Nine out of 21 patients (43%) continued on hydroxychloroquine and 9 out of 21 patients (43%) continued on hydroxychloroquine-quinacrine were responders with a decrease in median (interquartile range) activity score from 6.0 (1.5-9.5) to 1.0 (0-4.5) (p=0.009) and 8.5 (4.25-17.5) to 5.0 (0.5-11.5) (p=0.01), respectively. Conclusion The use of quinacrine with hydroxychloroquine is associated with response in patients who fail hydroxychloroquine monotherapy. Further reduction in disease activity can be associated with continuation of antimalarials. PMID:21768444

  4. Localized Cutaneous Cryptococcosis: Summary of Reported Cases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiromitsu; Hiruma, Masataro; Maruo, Keishi; Jono, Masayoshi; Miyata, Keishi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tanabe, Koichi; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Ihn, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old male plasterer with no history of trauma presented to our clinic in March 2012 with a 16×14-mm ulcer that developed following a crushed small papule on the right anterior chest. In April 2012, the patient was referred to another hospital, where cutaneous cryptococcosis was diagnosed based on discharge culture results. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole at a dose of 150 mg/day for 10 weeks; however, the ulcer remained unchanged and he discontinued the treatment. In May 2014, when he revisited our clinic, the ulcer with crust had grown to 29×13 mm. No regional lymph node swelling was noted. India ink staining showed a yeast-like fungus with a thick, clear capsule. A cream-colored, viscous yeast-like colony was observed on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Genetic testing identified the isolate as Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A. The patient was negative for serum cryptococcal antigen. Neither chest radiography nor computed tomography revealed any abnormalities. The patient had no underlying disease. Oral fluconazole (400 mg/day for 12 weeks) was prescribed, resulting in scar formation. The patient has remained free of relapse for one year to date, since the end of treatment. Localized cutaneous cryptococcosis is not a commonly used disease name overseas. However, 36 cases of this disease have been reported in Japan (since in 1968). We herein report a new case with localized cutaneous cryptococcosis and summarize previously reported cases in Japan. PMID:27581773

  5. Control of food handling by cutaneous receptor input in squirrels.

    PubMed

    Brenowitz, G L

    1980-01-01

    In a complementary neuroanatomical study by Brenowitz in 1980, it was shown that tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) have a higher relative density of mechanoreceptors in their glabrous forepaw skin than do ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). The main purpose of this sudy was to test the prediction that tree squirrels would depend upon somatic sensory (cutaneous) input from their forepaws to a greater extent than would ground squirrels in food handling behavior. In addition, a series of more general questions about the sensory control of food handling was examined. First, using different sized food items, it was shown that food handling (rate of manipulation) is subject to sensory control, in general. Secondly, comparision of sham-operated groups with groups receiving median nerve (innervating the palmar surface) lesions showed that cutaneous input from the volar surface of the forepaw contributes to the sensory control in both species of squirrels. Thirdly, comparison of lesion effects in the two species showed that, as predicted, tree squirrels depend upon cutaneous input from their volar forepaw to a greater extent than do ground squirrels. Fourthly, by reanalyzing the above data it was shown that there is continued sensory feedback from food items rather than only an initial evaluation of them. PMID:7437901

  6. Interferon alpha-2a in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vegna, M L; Papa, G; Defazio, D; Pisani, F; Coppola, G; De Pità, O; Puddu, P; Ferranti, G; Simoni, R; Mandelli, F

    1990-01-01

    23 newly diagnosed patients affected by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma were treated with sub-cutaneous interferon alpha-2a to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of this agent. IFN was administered daily with dose escalation from 3 to 18 million units for 12 weeks; thereafter, patients induced into complete (CR) or partial (PR) remission were given IFN at maximal tolerated dose 3 times weekly for 6 or 9 months. The objective tumor response was observed in 17 patients (74%): 8 (35%) were CR and 9 (39%) were PR. A 74-yr-old patient died because of neutropenia and sepsis at the end of induction phase, while receiving IFN at dose of 18 million units. Disease stage is the initial feature predictive of response to IFN therapy. The dose schedule of this study was well tolerated: only 3 patients developed liver toxicity, while leukopenia was evident in 6 patients. Only 2 CR patients have relapsed, 18 and 24 months from response; the remaining 6 CR patients are in continuous complete remission with a median follow-up of 41.8 months. 6 PR patients have progressed from 8 to 17 months after response, and in the 3 PR patients not yet progressed the response duration ranges from 20 to 24 months. In conclusion, interferon alpha-2a is a very effective agent in therapy of untreated cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with an overall response rate of 74%.

  7. Pruritus in Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Kristen; Gilmore, Elaine S.; Poligone, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background Pruritus can be a distressing and even debilitating symptom for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To date, few studies have evaluated the pathophysiology of this symptom. Due to this, therapy for pruritus in CTCL has mainly relied on those therapies that target and treat the lymphoma. For patients living with CTCL that relapses or becomes refractory to treatment, and who continue to experience severe itch, this lymphoma-targeted treatment may not be enough to combat their pruritus. Therefore, other itch-targeted therapies are needed for use in this disease Objective Evaluate the current evidence regarding the mechanism of action and treatments for pruritus associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Methods An explicit and thorough search was restricted to all peer-reviewed literature available through MEDLINE (1950 to September 2011) and pubmed.org. Search terms used were pruritus, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), mycosis fungoides (MF), and Sézary Syndrome (SS). All studies that involved pruritus in either CTCL, MF, or SS were evaluated by all three authors. Results The current literature helps to identify therapies and possible mechanisms for treating patients with CTCL associated pruritus. . Limitation Most studies were pre-clinical. Only studies involving mechanisms of action or treatment were included Conclusion A guideline is necessary to assist in the treatment of pruritus in CTCL and additional studies are necessary to uncover the exact mechanism(s) of action. PMID:22285672

  8. Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in Dogs Treated with Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Tina; Mueller, Ralf S.; Dobenecker, Britta; Fischer, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders in dogs and life-long treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is frequently required. Adverse events of AED targeting the skin are only rarely reported in veterinary medicine and the true incidence and spectrum of cutaneous reactions in epileptic dogs remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that cutaneous reactions commonly occur in epileptic dogs and are related to AED treatment. A retrospective case review of 185 dogs treated for epilepsy identified 20.0% with simultaneous appearance of dermatologic signs. In a subsequent prospective case investigation (n = 137), we identified newly appearing or distinct worsening of skin lesions following initiation of AED therapy in 10.9% of dogs treated for epilepsy (95% CI 6.8–17.7%). Cutaneous lesions were classified as probably drug-induced in 40.0% of these cases. Patch testing and intradermal testing were further investigated as potential diagnostic methods to confirm AED hypersensitivity. They were of high specificity but sensitivity and positive predictive value appeared inappropriate to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:27148543

  9. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  10. Multiple lesions of cutaneous focal mucinosis in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Claudia; Fowler, Ashley; Gandhi, Mona Y

    2007-01-01

    A 19-year-old Hispanic woman presented to our clinic with a chief complaint of multiple pink papules on her face (Figure 1). The lesions were asymptomatic, had appeared several years before her consultation, and had remained stable in size. Similar lesions on her trunk and extremities had spontaneously resolved before presentation. She had no significant medical history and was not on any medications. Cutaneous examination was remarkable for a few scattered, well-demarcated, slightly raised pink papules and plaques with no scale, ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter. The lesions were distributed on the right cheek, right temple, left lower eyelid, and neck area. The rest of the cutaneous examination was unremarkable. A punch biopsy was performed from a lesion near the left premandibular area. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the biopsy specimen revealed superficial perivascular dermatitis with a slight increase in the number of fibroblasts (Figure 2). Colloidal iron staining was diffusely positive with replacement of collagen with mucinous material in the dermal layer (Figure 3). Laboratory values for a complete blood cell count, metabolic panel, serum protein electrophoresis, urine protein electrophoresis, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and antinuclear antibody were within normal limits. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous focal mucinosis. Because of cosmetic concerns, the patient declined surgical excision and intralesional corticosteroid injections. A 4-month trial of topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was ineffective. PMID:17975357

  11. Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Extensive Cutaneous Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Gunes, Gursel; Yayar, Okan; Demiroglu, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we aimed to report a diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) case that had extensive cutaneous relapse with no skin involvement previously. A 59-year-old man presented to hospital in April 2014 with fatigue, anorexia, fever, and anemia. Cervical lymph node biopsy revealed CD20+, BCL2+, MUM1+, BCL6+ high grade B lymphoproliferative neoplasm. After FISH investigation, he was diagnosed as DLBCL. He was given 7 cycles of R-CHOP and achieved remission. However, in November 2014, he had emerging skin lesions that cover nearly all of his body. A control PET-CT revealed diffuse cutaneous involvement. CD20+, BCL2+, MUM1+, BCL6+ high grade B cell lymphoma infiltration was detected with skin biopsy. He was diagnosed as relapse lymphoma, so 2 cycles of R-DHAP were given. There was no treatment response; therefore, R-ICE regimen was started. The patient had achieved second complete remission and his skin lesions were completely regressed. The involvement of skin with CD20+ cells after 7 cycles of rituximab therapy favors that there is a rituximab resistant disease which tends to involve the skin. To conclude, DLBCL may relapse extensively with cutaneous involvement and the best treatment option in these patients is salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:26457084

  12. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  13. Cutaneous bacterial species from Lithobates catesbeianus can inhibit pathogenic dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Antje; Hernandez, Trang

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics are being successfully used to fight many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, new infectious diseases are continuously being identified, and some known pathogens are becoming resistant against known antibiotics. Furthermore, many antifungals are causing serious side effects in long-term treatments of patients, and many skin infections caused by dermatophytes are difficult to cure. The beneficial roles of resident cutaneous microbiota to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms have been shown for many vertebrate species. Microbial symbionts on the amphibian skin for example can be a source of powerful antimicrobial metabolites that can protect amphibians against diseases, such as chytridiomycosis, caused by a fungal pathogen. In this research, we investigated whether cutaneous bacterial species isolated from Lithobates catesbeianus (North American bullfrog), an invasive amphibian species that is resistant to chytridiomycosis, produce secondary metabolites that can be used to inhibit the growth of three species of dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) which are known to cause topical or subdermal skin infections in humans. Strongly anti-dermatophyte bacterial species that belonged to the Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. This research has provided evidence of the presence of cutaneous anti-dermatophyte bacteria from L. catesbeianus which might provide a basis for health care providers to experiment with new antifungals in the future. PMID:25431089

  14. Three Cases of Cutaneous Warts Treated With Moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Yun, Younghee; Shin, Sangho; Kim, Kyu Seok; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Choi, Inhwa

    2016-01-01

    Moxibustion is a treatment that uses thermal stimulation generated when herbal materials are burned, indirectly or directly, on the affected area or acupoint. Three cases are presented to report the efficacy of direct moxibustion on cutaneous warts. Three patients with chronic cutaneous warts received direct moxibustion made of Artemisia argyi (Dongbang Inc., Chungnam, Korea). Moxa burning was performed using moxa cones. Approximately 80% of a cone was burned, until patients reported feeling a burning sensation, at which time the cone was removed and another one burned. As part of this approach, patients underwent 5-19 moxibustion procedures during and after wart removal. After warts were completely eliminated, moxa burning was performed on each patient until approximately 60% of a cone was burned or the patient felt heat sensitization but no pain. In these cases, moxibustion seemed to have an effect on cutaneous warts. A possible mechanism is that direct moxibustion likely induces tissue damage from burning and, subsequently, a wound healing effect at a different temperature level. Our reports suggest that it would be worthwhile to conduct further studies on the safety and efficacy of moxibustion on warts or to develop a medical device that uses modified moxibustion. PMID:27234466

  15. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers. It is caused by neural crest-derived melanocytes - pigmented cells normally present in the epidermis and, sometimes, in the dermis. Methods We performed a review of current knowledge on the risk factors of cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, Scholar Google and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Results Melanoma incurs a considerable public health burden owing to the worldwide dramatic rise in incidence since the mid-1960s. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the predominant environmental risk factor. The role of geographical (latitude) and individual factors such as skin type, life style, vitamin D levels and antioxidant protection, sunburn, and exposure to other environmental factors possibly contributing to melanoma risk (such as cosmetics including sunscreen, photosensitising drugs, and exogenous hormones) are reviewed in this article. Recently, both rare high risk susceptibility genes and common polymorphic genes contributing to melanoma risk have been identified. Conclusions Cutaneous melanoma is a complex cancer with heterogeneous aetiology that continues to increase in incidence. Introduction of new biomarkers may help to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis and individual susceptibility to the disease, and make both prevention and treatment more effective. PMID:22759494

  16. Cutaneous chemical burns in children - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Bechar, Janak; Bella, Husam; Moiemen, Naiem

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals is an unusual causation of cutaneous burns in children. The aim of this study is to look at childhood chemical burns and compare this to adult chemical burns from the same population. A total of 2054 patients were referred to the pediatric burns unit during the study period. This included 24 cutaneous chemical burns, equating to an incidence of 1.1%. Over half of the injuries occurred in the domestic setting. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) affected was 1.9%. When compared to a cohort of adult patients from the same population with cutaneous chemical burns, the TBSA affected was identical (1.9%) but distribution favored the buttock and perineum in children, rather than the distal lower limb in adults. Children presented earlier, had lower rates of surgical intervention and had a shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.001). Children also had a lower rate of appropriate first aid treatment. Chemical burns in children are rare, but are becoming more common in our region. It is important to be aware of the characteristic distribution, etiology and need to identify children at risk of child protection issues.

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Racines, R J; Zurita, C; Izurieta, R; Herrera, E; Hinojsa, E

    1994-06-01

    Popular perceptions and knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment were studied in an endemic area of subtropical Northwest Ecuador. Although most of the adults surveyed were familiar with the disease, the vector, and traditional treatments, many showed a lack of knowledge about transmission of the disease, ulcer healing, and conventional treatment. Gender was found to have a significant impact on disease risk, perceptions, and treatment knowledge. Males experienced a risk of contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis that was almost triple that of women. Men were also more likely to perceive that the disease seriously diminished the victim's capacity to work. Women, on the other hand, were more prone to perceive that cutaneous leishmaniasis was a serious disease that significantly decreased self-esteem. Although 80% of the subjects knew at least one method of treating the disease, women tended to know more methods than men. Most of 150 different therapies reported involved the use of indigenous plants, chemicals, acids, antibiotics, heat treatments, or petroleum by-products. Some of these treatments could have clinical value. However, only 7% of the subjects knew about pentavalent antimonials. Almost 70% of the subjects with a past or present infection history were treated solely by traditional methods; only 12% received a full course of Glucantime, while 7.5% got an incomplete course. The findings indicate that it will be important to consider the identified gaps in knowledge and gender perceptions regarding the disease and its treatment when planning future control programs.

  18. Image-guided plasma therapy of cutaneous wound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwu; Ren, Wenqi; Yu, Zelin; Zhang, Shiwu; Yue, Ting; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    The wound healing process involves the reparative phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Interrupting any of these phases may result in chronically unhealed wounds, amputation, or even patient death. Despite the clinical significance in chronic wound management, no effective methods have been developed for quantitative image-guided treatment. We integrated a multimodal imaging system with a cold atmospheric plasma probe for image-guided treatment of chronic wound. Multimodal imaging system offers a non-invasive, painless, simultaneous and quantitative assessment of cutaneous wound healing. Cold atmospheric plasma accelerates the wound healing process through many mechanisms including decontamination, coagulation and stimulation of the wound healing. The therapeutic effect of cold atmospheric plasma is studied in vivo under the guidance of a multimodal imaging system. Cutaneous wounds are created on the dorsal skin of the nude mice. During the healing process, the sample wound is treated by cold atmospheric plasma at different controlled dosage, while the control wound is healed naturally. The multimodal imaging system integrating a multispectral imaging module and a laser speckle imaging module is used to collect the information of cutaneous tissue oxygenation (i.e. oxygen saturation, StO2) and blood perfusion simultaneously to assess and guide the plasma therapy. Our preliminary tests show that cold atmospheric plasma in combination with multimodal imaging guidance has the potential to facilitate the healing of chronic wounds.

  19. Sympathetic control of reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in human aging.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-10-01

    This Synthesis highlights a series of recent studies that has systematically interrogated age-related deficits in cold-induced skin vasoconstriction. In response to cold stress, a reflex increase in sympathetic nervous system activity mediates reductions in skin blood flow. Reflex vasoconstriction during cold exposure is markedly impaired in aged skin, contributing to the relative inability of healthy older adults to maintain core temperature during mild cold stress in the absence of appropriate behavioral thermoregulation. This compromised reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in healthy aging can occur as a result of functional deficits at multiple points along the efferent sympathetic reflex axis, including blunted sympathetic outflow directed to the skin vasculature, reduced presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis and/or release, and altered end-organ responsiveness at several loci, in addition to potential alterations in afferent thermoreceptor function. Arguments have been made that the relative inability of aged skin to appropriately constrict is due to the aging cutaneous arterioles themselves, whereas other data point to the neural circuitry controlling those vessels. The argument presented herein provides strong evidence for impaired efferent sympathetic control of the peripheral cutaneous vasculature during whole body cold exposure as the primary mechanism responsible for attenuated vasoconstriction.

  20. The role of nuclear hormone receptors in cutaneous wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Sandra; Zhao, Hengguang; Martin, Paige; Abe, Koichiro; Lisse, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous wound repair process involves balancing a dynamic series of events ranging from inflammation, oxidative stress, cell migration, proliferation, survival and differentiation. A complex series of secreted trophic factors, cytokines, surface and intracellular proteins are expressed in a temporospatial manner to restore skin integrity after wounding. Impaired initiation, maintenance or termination of the tissue repair processes can lead to perturbed healing, necrosis, fibrosis or even cancer. Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) in the cutaneous environment regulate tissue repair processes such as fibroplasia and angiogenesis. Defects in functional NHRs and their ligands are associated with the clinical phenotypes of chronic non-healing wounds and skin endocrine disorders. The functional relationship between NHRs and skin niche cells such as epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts is pivotal for successful wound closure and permanent repair. The aim of this review is to delineate the cutaneous effects and cross-talk of various nuclear receptors upon injury towards functional tissue restoration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25529612

  1. The "mystery" of cutaneous sarcoidosis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Cardoso, J C; Chokoeva, A A; Verma, S B; Tana, C; Ananiev, J; Gulubova, M; Philipov, S; Kanazawa, N; Nenoff, P; Lotti, T; Wollina, U

    2014-01-01

    The reason why the cutaneous form of sarcoidosis is well known in the literature is because of its spectrum of manifestations granting it the fame of a Great Imitator. The mystery shrouding the pathogenesis of this rare cutaneous disease is still there (in spite of the fundamental progress of the various diagnostic methods in current day medicine). The production of the morphological substrate - the epithelioid cell granuloma - which is considered to be characteristic of skin sarcoidosis, could, however, also be the end result of a reaction to i) various specific infectious agents such as Leishmaniasis cutis, coccidioidomycosis, etc., ii) certain residual bacterial or other mycobacterial antigens which, at the moment of setting the diagnosis are - by definition - non-infectious but still immunogenic, as well as iii) different tumor antigens in lesional tissue or other location. Often, differentiating between sarcodiosis and a sarcoid-like reaction, based on the updated criteria for cutaneous sarcoidosis, is problematic to downright impossible. A future characterization of the genetic signature of the two conditions, as well as the implementation of additional mandatory panels for i) the identification of certain infectious or ii) non-infectious but immunogenic and iii) tumor antigens in the epithelioid cell granuloma (or in another location in the organism), could be a considerable contribution to the process of differentiating between the two above-mentioned conditions. This will create conditions for greater accuracy when setting the subsequent therapeutic approaches.

  2. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-12-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family. Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer.

  3. Alternating-pulse iontophoresis for targeted cutaneous anesthesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Peter F.; Oddsson, Lars I E.

    2003-01-01

    In studies of sensory contributions to motor control, it may be advantageous to temporarily reduce the sensitivity of specific sensory systems. This article details a method for non-invasively inducing cutaneous anesthesia, leaving proprioceptive and motor functions intact. This method, called alternating-pulse iontophoresis, differs from conventional direct-current (DC) iontophoretic drug delivery in that adjacent drug delivery electrodes are stimulated out-of-phase. The total current delivered at any instant is then less than that produced during a comparable DC application, while the uniformity of drug delivery is expected to improve. Effective delivery of local anesthetics to the cutaneous foot soles by alternating-pulse iontophoresis was demonstrated using cutaneous pressure sensory threshold levels (STL's) assessed with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (arbitrary units of perceived force, or a.u.). Thirteen of 16 healthy subjects achieved a level of anesthesia greater than or equal to that normally associated with clinical peripheral sensory neuropathy. Average STL's measured prior to the anesthesia procedure were 4.00 a.u. ( approximately 10 mN). Immediately following the procedure, STL's were elevated to an average of 5.40 a.u. ( approximately 246 mN) and averaged 4.97 a.u. ( approximately 92 mN) after 50 min of standing. A number of research and clinical applications for this technique are suggested.

  4. Actinic DNA damage and the pathogenesis of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ross, P M; Carter, D M

    1989-05-01

    The near epidemic of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in the United States and certain other industrialized nations is attributable to cutaneous exposure to sunlight more than to any other factor. Chronic exposure to UV irradiation and a high total cumulative dose may be less deleterious than are periodic bursts of large amounts of sun exposure leading to severe sunburn. Such an exposure pattern is characteristic of individuals such as office workers whose outdoor activities are irregular rather than daily, as with farmers or fisherman. Although UV irradiation is injurious to many cellular elements, the mechanisms underlying UV-mediated skin cancer are thought to be most likely related to DNA damage to cutaneous cells. Various types of UV-induced DNA damage have been identified, and they differ in biologic significance. Damage which is apt to be most cytotoxic is probably less effective as an inducer of skin cancer than is more subtle damage, which is tolerated but can initiate malignant transformation. Repair of DNA damage involves specific cellular activities which vary in their effectiveness in restoring cutaneous cell function to normal. Other biologic effects of UV irradiation may contribute to the development of skin cancer through effects on such defenses as pigmentation and the immune response. Sun-induced damage to DNA, however, is apparently necessary. Biologic consequences of dangerous environmental exposure to UV irradiation can be modulated by changes in life-style, the depth of the ozone layer, use of sunscreens, and possibly by hormones or their synthetic analogs.

  5. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-12-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family. Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer. PMID:26251183

  6. Sympathetic control of reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in human aging

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2015-01-01

    This Synthesis highlights a series of recent studies that has systematically interrogated age-related deficits in cold-induced skin vasoconstriction. In response to cold stress, a reflex increase in sympathetic nervous system activity mediates reductions in skin blood flow. Reflex vasoconstriction during cold exposure is markedly impaired in aged skin, contributing to the relative inability of healthy older adults to maintain core temperature during mild cold stress in the absence of appropriate behavioral thermoregulation. This compromised reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in healthy aging can occur as a result of functional deficits at multiple points along the efferent sympathetic reflex axis, including blunted sympathetic outflow directed to the skin vasculature, reduced presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis and/or release, and altered end-organ responsiveness at several loci, in addition to potential alterations in afferent thermoreceptor function. Arguments have been made that the relative inability of aged skin to appropriately constrict is due to the aging cutaneous arterioles themselves, whereas other data point to the neural circuitry controlling those vessels. The argument presented herein provides strong evidence for impaired efferent sympathetic control of the peripheral cutaneous vasculature during whole body cold exposure as the primary mechanism responsible for attenuated vasoconstriction. PMID:26272321

  7. Hemorrhagic bullous dermatosis: a rare heparin-induced cutaneous manifestation.

    PubMed

    Govind, Bhuvanesh; Gnass, Esteban; Merli, Geno; Eraso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Heparin is one of the most widely prescribed medications. Cutaneous reactions distant to the injection site are rare and under-reported in the literature. We present an elderly man with history of CNS lymphoma who underwent treatment of a deep venous thrombosis with enoxaparin and subsequently developed well demarcated bullous lesions within days of heparin initiation. The exact pathophysiology is not well understood. Hemorrhagic bullous dermatosis is a rare cutaneous reaction that is temporally associated with the initiation of heparin products. The handful of cases thus far suggest that regression of these seemingly benign lesions may or may not be associated with dose reduction or discontinuation of heparin products and typically occur within a few weeks. Elderly age appears to be one potential risk factor for development of these rare asymptomatic lesions. Malignancy may have some contributing factor and differentiation between this rare cutaneous manifestation from heparin products and other dermatological findings in patients with malignancy is key. Because of the asymptomatic and self-limiting nature of hemorrhagic bullous dermatoses in the setting of heparin product use, we presume that the reported incidence does not reflect true clinical practice.

  8. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  9. Where is the proton's spin

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience, which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future. 33 refs.

  10. Eta Meson Production in Proton-Proton and Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Total cross sections for eta meson production in proton - proton collisions are calculated. The eta meson is mainly produced via decay of the excited nucleon resonance at 1535 MeV. A scalar quantum field theory is used to calculate cross sections, which also include resonance decay. Comparison between theory and experiment is problematic near threshold when resonance decay is not included. When the decay is included, the comparison between theory and experiment is much better.

  11. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma successfully treated with local thermotherapy using pocket hand warmers.

    PubMed

    Honma, Masaru; Hashimoto, Makoto; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Iinuma, Shin; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2008-11-01

    Apart from for cutaneous deep fungal or mycobacterial infections, thermotherapy has been used for various malignant tumors. We report a case of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which responded quite well to topical thermotherapy using chemical pocket hand warmers. The treatment resulted in an immediate tumor regression without recurrence. This method is simple and might be a useful tool against solitary cutaneous lymphoma, especially of elderly patients with poor performance status or with various systemic complications. PMID:19120772

  12. CUTANEOUS SARCOIDOSIS - A GREAT MASQUERADER: A REPORT OF THREE INTERESTING CASES

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Raghunatha R; Shashi Kumar, B M; Harish, M R

    2011-01-01

    It is a known fact that cutaneous sarcoidosis is a great imitator in dermatology. We report three cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis without systemic involvement and with varied dermatologic presentation with regard to age and morphology. Lesions mimicked various common dermatologic conditions, causing great confusion for the diagnosis and posing problems for management. Awareness of these varied morphologic presentations is essential for the early diagnosis and management of the master mimicker - cutaneous sarcoidosis. PMID:22121281

  13. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cutaneous lupus erythematosus at a paediatric dermatology referral centre

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, BZ; Holland, KE; Drolet, BA; Galbraith, SS; Lyon, VB; Siegel, DH; Chiu, YE

    2016-01-01

    Background Paediatric cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE) is uncommon and inadequately described in the literature. Similar to adults, children with cutaneous LE develop LE-specific and/or LE-nonspecific skin findings. Similarities and differences in demographics and clinical course between paediatric and adult cutaneous LE have not been sufficiently described. Objectives The purpose of this study is to detail the demographic and clinical features of paediatric cutaneous LE and then compare these findings to those reported in the adult literature. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of 53 children seen in a paediatric dermatology clinic with cutaneous manifestations of LE. Results Patients presented with all five major subtypes of cutaneous LE, with some notable differences from adult cutaneous LE and previously published reports of paediatric cutaneous LE. Progression from discoid LE to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) did not occur in our cohort. Patients with subacute cutaneous LE were more likely than adults to have lesions below the waist as well as concomitant SLE. Sex distribution for cutaneous LE in our study was equal prior to puberty and female-predominant in post-pubertal patients. Conclusions Children with cutaneous LE have variable clinical presentations and progression to SLE that may be different from adult disease. Specifically, children with acute and subacute cutaneous LE may be more likely than adults to have systemic disease; therefore, patients with these subtypes should be monitored closely for evidence of SLE. Study limitations included small patient numbers that may limit ability to generalize this data and relatively short follow-up intervals. PMID:23601021

  14. High intensity proton synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, M. K.

    1986-10-01

    Strong initiatives are being pursued in a number of countries for the construction of ``kaon factory'' synchrotrons capable of producing 100 times more intense proton beams than those available now from machines such as the Brookhaven AGS and CERN PS. Such machines would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos of all varieties)—or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux—opening new avenues to various fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics. Major areas of investigation would be rare decay modes, CP violation, meson and hadron spectroscopy, antinucleon interactions, neutrino scattering and oscillations, and hypernuclear properties. Experience with the pion factories has already shown how high beam intensities make it possible to explore the ``precision frontier'' with results complementary to those achievable at the ``energy frontier''. This paper will describe proposals for upgrading and AGS and for building kaon factories in Canada, Europe, Japan and the United States, emphasizing the novel aspects of accelerator design required to achieve the desired performance (typically 100 μA at 30 GeV).

  15. A 27-Year-Old Severely Immunosuppressed Female with Misleading Clinical Features of Disseminated Cutaneous Sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Atiyah; Mudenda, Victor; Lakhi, Shabir; Ngalamika, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic granulomatous mycosis caused by fungus of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. It is considered to be a rare condition in most parts of the world. It mostly causes cutaneous infection but can also cause multisystemic disease. Unlike most deep cutaneous mycoses which have a primary pulmonary focus, it is usually caused by direct inoculation of the fungus into the skin causing a classical linear, lymphocutaneous nodular eruption. However, atypical presentations of the condition can occur especially in immunosuppressed individuals. We report the case of a severely immunosuppressed female who presented with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis which was initially diagnosed and treated as disseminated cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. PMID:26881148

  16. Subcutaneous L-tyrosine elicits cutaneous analgesia in response to local skin pinprick in rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the ability of L-tyrosine to induce cutaneous analgesia and to investigate the interaction between L-tyrosine and the local anesthetic lidocaine. After subcutaneously injecting the rats with L-tyrosine and lidocaine in a dose-dependent manner, cutaneous analgesia (by blocking the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex-CTMR) was evaluated in response to the local pinprick. The drug-drug interaction was analyzed by using an isobolographic method. We showed that both L-tyrosine and lidocaine produced dose-dependent cutaneous analgesia. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the rank of drug potency was lidocaine (5.09 [4.88-5.38] μmol)>L-tyrosine (39.1 [36.5-41.8] μmol) (P<0.05). At the equipotent doses (ED25, ED50, and ED75), the duration of cutaneous analgesia caused by L-tyrosine lasted longer than that caused by lidocaine (P<0.01). Lidocaine co-administered with L-tyrosine exhibited an additive effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Our pre-clinical study demonstrated that L-tyrosine elicits the local/cutaneous analgesia, and the interaction between L-tyrosine and lidocaine is additive. L-tyrosine has a lower potency but much greater duration of cutaneous analgesia than lidocaine. Adding L-tyrosine to lidocaine preparations showed greater duration of cutaneous analgesia compared with lidocaine alone. PMID:26376025

  17. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-07-11

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid-base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron-proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ λ. Multiple-Site Electron-Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron-proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron-proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e-/2H+ MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving

  18. Interplanetary Proton Model: JPL 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Spitale, G.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    This study was carried out to increase the acuracy and energy range of predictive models of interplanetary proton fluences. Such an estimate is often needed when spacecraft spend a signigicant amount of time in the interplanetary environmnet.

  19. POLARIZED PROTON COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC. In 2002, polarized proton beams were first accelerated to 100 GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. Optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limited conditions are reported.

  20. Parametric Model for Astrophysical Proton-Proton Interactions and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Observations of gamma-rays have been made from celestial sources such as active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts and supernova remnants as well as the Galactic ridge. The study of gamma rays can provide information about production mechanisms and cosmic-ray acceleration. In the high-energy regime, one of the dominant mechanisms for gamma-ray production is the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of ultra-relativistic cosmic-ray nuclei and interstellar matter. Presented here is a parametric model for calculations of inclusive cross sections and transverse momentum distributions for secondary particles--gamma rays, e±, ve, $\\bar{v}$e, vμ and $\\bar{μ}$e--produced in proton-proton interactions. This parametric model is derived on the proton-proton interaction model proposed by Kamae et al.; it includes the diffraction dissociation process, Feynman-scaling violation and the logarithmically rising inelastic proton-proton cross section. To improve fidelity to experimental data for lower energies, two baryon resonance excitation processes were added; one representing the Δ(1232) and the other multiple resonances with masses around 1600 MeV/c2. The model predicts the power-law spectral index for all secondary particle to be about 0.05 lower in absolute value than that of the incident proton and their inclusive cross sections to be larger than those predicted by previous models based on the Feynman-scaling hypothesis. The applications of the presented model in astrophysics are plentiful. It has been implemented into the Galprop code to calculate the contribution due to pion decays in the Galactic plane. The model has also been used to estimate the cosmic-ray flux in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on HI, CO and gamma-ray observations. The transverse momentum distributions enable calculations when the proton distribution is anisotropic. It is shown that the gamma-ray spectrum and flux due to a