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Sample records for protostellar disks predictions

  1. Planet Forming Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The project achieved many of its objectives. The main area of investigation was the interaction of young binary stars with surrounding protostellar disks. A secondary objective was the interaction of young planets with their central stars and surrounding disks. The grant funds were used to support visits by coinvestigators and visitors: Pawel Artymowicz, James Pringle, and Gordon Ogilvie. Funds were also used to support travel to meetings by Lubow and to provide partial salary support.

  2. Molecular Line Emission from Massive Protostellar Disks: Predictions for ALMA and the EVLA

    SciTech Connect

    Krumholz, M R; Klein, R I; McKee, C F

    2007-05-07

    We compute the molecular line emission of massive protostellar disks by solving the equation of radiative transfer through the cores and disks produced by the recent radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of Krumholz, Klein, & McKee. We find that in several representative lines the disks show brightness temperatures of hundreds of Kelvin over velocity channels {approx} 10 km s{sup -1} wide, extending over regions hundreds of AU in size. We process the computed intensities to model the performance of next-generation radio and submillimeter telescopes. Our calculations show that observations using facilities such as the EVLA and ALMA should be able to detect massive protostellar disks and measure their rotation curves, at least in the nearest massive star-forming regions. They should also detect significant sub-structure and non-axisymmetry in the disks, and in some cases may be able to detect star-disk velocity offsets of a few km s{sup -1}, both of which are the result of strong gravitational instability in massive disks. We use our simulations to explore the strengths and weaknesses of different observational techniques, and we also discuss how observations of massive protostellar disks may be used to distinguish between alternative models of massive star formation.

  3. Gravitational instabilities in protostellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohline, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The nonaxisymmetric stability of self-gravitating, geometrically thick accretion disks has been studied for protostellar systems having a wide range of disk-to-central object mass ratios. Global eigenmodes with four distinctly different characters were identified using numerical, nonlinear hydrodynamic techniques. The mode that appears most likely to arise in normal star formation settings, however, resembles the 'eccentric instability' that was identified earlier in thin, nearly Keplerian disks: It presents an open, one-armed spiral pattern that sweeps continuously in a trailing direction through more than 2-pi radians, smoothly connecting the inner and outer edges of the disk, and requires cooperative motion of the point mass for effective amplification. This particular instability promotes the development of a single, self-gravitating clump of material in orbit about the point mass, so its routine appearance in our simulations supports the conjecture that the eccentric instability provides a primary route to the formation of short-period binaries in protostellar systems.

  4. Heating and Cooling Protostellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, S.; Turner, N. J.

    2011-05-01

    We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

  5. Molecule survival in magnetized protostellar disk winds. II. Predicted H2O line profiles versus Herschel/HIFI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvart, W.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Ferreira, J.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The origin of molecular protostellar jets and their role in extracting angular momentum from the accreting system are important open questions in star formation research. In the first paper of this series we showed that a dusty magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disk wind appeared promising to explain the pattern of H2 temperature and collimation in the youngest jets. Aims: We wish to see whether the high-quality H2O emission profiles of low-mass protostars, observed for the first time by the HIFI spectrograph on board the Herschel satellite, remain consistent with the MHD disk wind hypothesis, and which constraints they would set on the underlying disk properties. Methods: We present synthetic H2O line profiles predictions for a typical MHD disk wind solution with various values of disk accretion rate, stellar mass, extension of the launching area, and view angle. We compare them in terms of line shapes and intensities with the HIFI profiles observed by the WISH key program towards a sample of 29 low-mass Class 0 and Class 1 protostars. Results: A dusty MHD disk wind launched from 0.2-0.6 AU AU to 3-25 AU can reproduce to a remarkable degree the observed shapes and intensities of the broad H2O component observed in low-mass protostars, both in the fundamental 557 GHz line and in more excited lines. Such a model also readily reproduces the observed correlation of 557 GHz line luminosity with envelope density, if the infall rate at 1000 AU is 1-3 times the disk accretion rate in the wind ejection region. It is also compatible with the typical disk size and bolometric luminosity in the observed targets. However, the narrower line profiles in Class 1 sources suggest that MHD disk winds in these sources, if present, would have to be slower and/or less water rich than in Class 0 sources. Conclusions: MHD disk winds appear as a valid (though not unique) option to consider for the origin of the broad H2O component in low-mass protostars. ALMA appears ideally suited to

  6. Modeling of Radiative Transfer in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonAllmen, Paul; Turner, Neal

    2007-01-01

    This program implements a spectral line, radiative transfer tool for interpreting Spitzer Space Telescope observations by matching them with models of protostellar disks for improved understanding of planet and star formation. The Spitzer Space Telescope detects gas phase molecules in the infrared spectra of protostellar disks, with spectral lines carrying information on the chemical composition of the material from which planets form. Input to the software includes chemical models developed at JPL. The products are synthetic images and spectra for comparison with Spitzer measurements. Radiative transfer in a protostellar disk is primarily affected by absorption and emission processes in the dust and in molecular gases such as H2, CO, and HCO. The magnitude of the optical absorption and emission is determined by the population of the electronic, vibrational, and rotational energy levels. The population of the molecular level is in turn determined by the intensity of the radiation field. Therefore, the intensity of the radiation field and the population of the molecular levels are inter-dependent quantities. To meet the computational challenges of solving for the coupled radiation field and electronic level populations in disks having wide ranges of optical depths and spatial scales, the tool runs in parallel on the JPL Dell Cluster supercomputer with C++ and Fortran compiler with a Message Passing Interface. Because this software has been developed on a distributed computing platform, the modeling of systems previously beyond the reach of available computational resources is possible.

  7. Magnetic Fields in Early Protostellar Disk Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Casanova, Diego F.; Lazarian, Alexander; Santos-Lima, Reinaldo

    2016-03-01

    We consider formation of accretion disks from a realistically turbulent molecular gas using 3D MHD simulations. In particular, we analyze the effect of the fast turbulent reconnection described by the Lazarian & Vishniac model for the removal of magnetic flux from a disk. With our numerical simulations we demonstrate how the fast reconnection enables protostellar disk formation resolving the so-called “magnetic braking catastrophe.” In particular, we provide a detailed study of the dynamics of a 0.5 M⊙ protostar and the formation of its disk for up to several thousands years. We measure the evolution of the mass, angular momentum, magnetic field, and turbulence around the star. We consider effects of two processes that strongly affect the magnetic transfer of angular momentum, both of which are based on turbulent reconnection: the first, “reconnection diffusion,” removes the magnetic flux from the disk; the other involves the change of the magnetic field's topology, but does not change the absolute value of the magnetic flux through the disk. We demonstrate that for the first mechanism, turbulence causes a magnetic flux transport outward from the inner disk to the ambient medium, thus decreasing the coupling of the disk to the ambient material. A similar effect is achieved through the change of the magnetic field's topology from a split monopole configuration to a dipole configuration. We explore how both mechanisms prevent the catastrophic loss of disk angular momentum and compare both above turbulent reconnection mechanisms with alternative mechanisms from the literature.

  8. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  9. Protostellar Disk Instabilities and the Formation of Substellar Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, Brian K.; Durisen, Richard H.; Cassen, Patrick; Mejia, Annie C.

    2000-09-01

    Recent numerical simulations of self-gravitating protostellar disks have suggested that gravitational instabilities can lead to the production of substellar companions. In these simulations, the disk is typically assumed to be locally isothermal; i.e., the initial, axisymmetric temperature in the disk remains everywhere unchanged. Such an idealized condition implies extremely efficient cooling for outwardly moving parcels of gas. While we have seen disk disruption in our own locally isothermal simulations of a small, massive protostellar disk, no long-lived companions formed as a result of the instabilities. Instead, thermal and tidal effects and the complex interactions of the disk material prevented permanent condensations from forming, despite the vigorous growth of spiral instabilities. In order to compare our results more directly with those of other authors, we here present three-dimensional evolutions of an older, larger, but less massive protostellar disk. We show that potentially long-lived condensations form only for the extreme of local isothermality, and then only when severe restrictions are placed on the natural tendency of the protostellar disk to expand in response to gravitational instabilities. A more realistic adiabatic evolution leads to vertical and radial expansion of the disk but no clump formation. We conclude that isothermal disk calculations cannot demonstrate companion formation by disk fragmentation but only suggest it at best. It will be necessary in future numerical work on this problem to treat the disk thermodynamics more realistically.

  10. Keplerian Circumbinary Disk and Accretion Streams around the Protostellar Binary System L1551 NE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, S.; Saito, M.; Lim, J.; Saigo, K.; Hanawa, T.; Matsumoto, T.

    2013-10-01

    We show our recent observational results of L1551 NE, an archetypal binary protostellar system, in the 0.9-mm dust continuum emission and the C18O (J=3-2) emission with the SubMillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA results show firm evidence for a Keplerian circumbinary disk, circumstellar disks, and an inner clearing in the circumbinary disk, in L1551 NE. We demonstrate that future observations of L1551 NE with Atacama Large Millimeter and submillimeter Array (ALMA) have the potential to unveil the theoretically-predicted “accretion streams” that channel material from the circumbinary disk to the individual circumstellar disks.

  11. Ejection of gaseous clumps from gravitationally unstable protostellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, E. I.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the dynamics of gaseous clumps formed via gravitational fragmentation in young protostellar disks, focusing on the fragments that are ejected from the disk via many-body gravitational interaction. Methods: Numerical hydrodynamics simulations were employed to study the evolution of young protostellar disks that were formed from the collapse of rotating pre-stellar cores. Results: The protostellar disks that formed in our models undergo gravitational fragmentation driven by continuing mass-loading from parental collapsing cores. Several fragments can be ejected from the disk during the early evolution, but the low-mass fragments (<15 MJup) disperse, which creates spectacular bow-type structures while passing through the disk and collapsing core. The least massive fragment that survived the ejection (21 MJup) straddles the planetary-mass limit, while the most massive ejected fragments (145 MJup) can break up into several pieces, leading to the ejection of wide separation binary clumps in the brown-dwarf mass range. About half of the ejected fragments are gravitationally bound, the majority are supported by rotation against gravity, and all fragments have the specific angular momentum that is much higher than that expected for brown dwarfs. We found that the internal structure of the ejected fragments is distinct from what would be expected for gravitationally contracting clumps formed via molecular cloud fragmentation, which can help in differentiating their origin. Conclusions: The ejection of fragments is an important process, which is inherent to massive protostellar disks, and which produces freely floating pre-brown dwarf cores, regulates the disk and stellar masses and, potentially, enriches the intracluster medium with processed dust and complex organics.

  12. First Detection of Methanol in a Class O Protostellar Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, William D.; Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of emission from methanol in a compact source coincident with the position of the L1157 infrared source, which we attribute to molecules in the disk surrounding this young, Class O protostellar object. In addition, we identify a spectral feature in the outflow corresponding to an ethanol transition. Using the Caltech Owens Valley Millimeter Array with a synthesized beam size of 2", we detect spatially unresolved methanol in the 2k - 1k transitions at 3mm, which is coincident in position with the peak of the continuum emission. The gas phase methanol could be located in the central region (< 100 AU radius) of a flat disk, or in an extended heated surface layer (approx. 200 AU radius) of a flared disk. The fractional abundance of methanol X(CH3OH) is approx. 2 x l0-8 in the flat disk model, and 3 x l0-7 for the flared disk. The fractional abundance is small in the disk as a whole, but considerably larger in the warm portions. This difference indicates that substantial chemical processing probably takes place in the disk via depletion and desorption. The methanol desorbed from the grains in the warm surface layers returns to the icy grain mantles in the cooler interior of the disk, where it is available to become part of the composition of solar system-like bodies, such as comets, formed in the outer circumstellar region. This first millimeter-wavelength detection of a complex organic molecule in a young protostellar disk has implications for disk structure and chemical evolution and for potential use as a temperature probe. The research of TV and WL was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology with support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. On the tidal interaction between protostellar disks and companions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    1993-01-01

    Formation of protoplanets and binary stars in a protostellar disk modifies the structure of the disk. Through tidal interactions, energy and angular momentum are transferred between the disk and protostellar or protoplanetary companion. We summarize recent progress in theoretical investigations of the disk-companion tidal interaction. We show that low-mass protoplanets excite density waves at their Lindblad resonances and that these waves are likely to be dissipated locally. When a protoplanet acquires sufficient mass, its tidal torque induces the formation of a gap in the vicinity of its orbit. Gap formation leads to the termination of protoplanetary growth by accretion. For proto-Jupiter to attain its present mass, we require that (1) the primordial solar nebula is heated by viscous dissipation; (2) the viscous evolution time scale of the nebula is comparable to the age of typical T Tauri stars with circumstellar disks; and (3) the mass distribution in the nebula is comparable to that estimated from a minimum-mass nebula model.

  14. Magnetic Braking and Protostellar Disk Formation: The Ideal MHD Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, Richard R.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic fields are usually considered dynamically important in star formation when the dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio is close to, or less than, unity (λ lesssim 1). We show that, in disk formation, the requirement is far less stringent. This conclusion is drawn from a set of 2D (axisymmetric) simulations of the collapse of rotating, singular isothermal cores magnetized to different degrees. We find that a weak field corresponding to λ ~ 100 can begin to disrupt the rotationally supported disk through magnetic braking, by creating regions of rapid, supersonic collapse in the disk. These regions are separated by one or more centrifugal barriers, where the rapid infall is temporarily halted. The number of centrifugal barriers increases with the mass-to-flux ratio λ. When λ gtrsim 100, they merge together to form a more or less contiguous, rotationally supported disk. Even though the magnetic field in such a case is extremely weak on the scale of dense cores, it is amplified by collapse and differential rotation, to the extent that its pressure dominates the thermal pressure in both the disk and its surrounding region. For relatively strongly magnetized cores with λ lesssim 10, the disk formation is suppressed completely, as found previously. A new feature is that the mass accretion is highly episodic, due to reconnection of the magnetic field lines accumulated near the center. For rotationally supported disks to appear during the protostellar mass accretion phase of star formation in dense cores with realistic field strengths, the powerful magnetic brake must be weakened, perhaps through nonideal MHD effects. Another possibility is to remove, through protostellar winds, the material that acts to brake the disk rotation. We discuss the possibility of observing a generic product of the magnetic braking, an extended circumstellar region that is supported by a combination of toroidal magnetic field and rotation—a "magnetogyrosphere"—interferometrically.

  15. Signatures of Gravitational Instability in Resolved Images of Protostellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav; Chiang, Eugene; Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2016-06-01

    Protostellar (class 0/I) disks, which have masses comparable to those of their nascent host stars and are fed continuously from their natal infalling envelopes, are prone to gravitational instability (GI). Motivated by advances in near-infrared (NIR) adaptive optics imaging and millimeter-wave interferometry, we explore the observational signatures of GI in disks using hydrodynamical and Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations to synthesize NIR scattered light images and millimeter dust continuum maps. Spiral arms induced by GI, located at disk radii of hundreds of astronomical units, are local overdensities and have their photospheres displaced to higher altitudes above the disk midplane; therefore, arms scatter more NIR light from their central stars than inter-arm regions, and are detectable at distances up to 1 kpc by Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, and Subaru/HiCIAO/SCExAO. In contrast, collapsed clumps formed by disk fragmentation have such strong local gravitational fields that their scattering photospheres are at lower altitudes; such fragments appear fainter than their surroundings in NIR scattered light. Spiral arms and streamers recently imaged in four FU Ori systems at NIR wavelengths resemble GI-induced structures and support the interpretation that FUors are gravitationally unstable protostellar disks. At millimeter wavelengths, both spirals and clumps appear brighter in thermal emission than the ambient disk and can be detected by ALMA at distances up to 0.4 kpc with one hour integration times at ˜0.″1 resolution. Collapsed fragments having masses ≳1 M J can be detected by ALMA within ˜10 minutes.

  16. The formation of protostellar disks. I - 1 M(solar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamical calculations of the collapse of an axisymmetric, rotating one solar mass protostellar cloud, including the effects of radiative transfer and radiative acceleration but without magnetic fields, are presented. The results include calculations of infrared protostellar spectra as a function of time and viewing angle. A numerical algorithm involving explicit nested grids is used to resolve the region of initial disk formation and at the same time to include the outer regions in the calculation. The central part of the protostar is modeled approximately. Initial conditions are systematically varied to investigate their influence on the evolution and final configuration of central star plus circumstellar disk. The initial state for the standard case is a centrally condensed molecular cloud core of one solar mass with a mean density of 8 x 10 exp -18 g/cu cm and a specific angular momentum at the outer edge of 7 x 10 exp 20 sq cm/s. The collapse is followed for 8 x 10 exp 4 yr, at which point 0.45 solar mass is contained in a rapidly rotating central object and most of the remainder in a surrounding equilibrium disk. The stability of this final structure is qualitatively analyzed.

  17. MAGNETIZED ACCRETION AND DEAD ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Turner, Neal J.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-10

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M{sub Sun }, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  18. The physical and chemical evolution of protostellar disks. The growth of protostellar disks: Progress to date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahler, Steven W.

    1993-01-01

    This study constitutes one part of our multi-disciplinary approach to the evolution of planet-forming disks. The goal is to establish the disks' thermal and mechanical properties as they grow by the infall of their parent interstellar clouds. Thus far, significant advances toward establishing the evolving surface density of such disks was made.

  19. RAPID MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, T. T.; Huang, H.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2012-01-20

    Spectral energy distribution (SED) in protostellar disks is determined by the disks' internal dissipation and reprocessing of irradiation from their host stars. Around T Tauri stars, most mid-infrared (MIR) radiation (in a wavelength range from a few to a few tens of {mu}m) emerges from regions around a fraction to a few AU. This region is interesting because it contains both the habitable zone and the snow line. Recent observations reveal SED variations in the MIR wavelength range. These variations are puzzling because they occur on a timescale (a few days) which is much shorter than the dynamical (months to years) timescale from 1 AU to a few AU. They are probably caused by shadows cast by inner onto outer disk regions. Interaction between disks and their misaligned magnetized host stars can lead to warped structure and periodic SED modulations. Rapid aperiodic SED variations may also be induced by observed X-ray flares from T Tauri stars. These flares can significantly modulate the ionization fraction of the gas and the net charge carried by the grains near the surface of the inner disk. The newly charged grains may be accelerated by the stellar or disk magnetic field and adjust their distances from the midplane. Shadows cast by these grains attenuate the flux of stellar photons irradiated onto regions at several AU from the central stars. We use this model to account for the observed rapid aperiodic SED variabilities. We suggest that regular monitoring of SED variations will not only provide valuable information on the distribution of the disk aspect ratio near the habitable zone but also provide a probe of the interaction between the inner regions of the disk with the magnetosphere of their host stars.

  20. DUST TRANSPORT IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS THROUGH TURBULENCE AND SETTLING

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Carballido, A.; Sano, T.

    2010-01-01

    We apply ionization balance and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) calculations to investigate whether magnetic activity moderated by recombination on dust grains can account for the mass accretion rates and the mid-infrared spectra and variability of protostellar disks. The MHD calculations use the stratified shearing-box approach and include grain settling and the feedback from the changing dust abundance on the resistivity of the gas. The two-decade spread in accretion rates among solar-mass T Tauri stars is too large to result solely from variations in the grain size and stellar X-ray luminosity, but can plausibly be produced by varying these parameters together with the disk magnetic flux. The diverse shapes and strengths of the mid-infrared silicate bands can come from the coupling of grain settling to the distribution of the magnetorotational turbulence, through the following three effects. First, recombination on grains 1 mum or smaller yields a magnetically inactive dead zone extending more than two scale heights from the midplane, while turbulent motions in the magnetically active disk atmosphere overshoot the dead zone boundary by only about one scale height. Second, grains deep in the dead zone oscillate vertically in wave motions driven by the turbulent layer above, but on average settle at the rates found in laminar flow, so that the interior of the dead zone is a particle sink and the disk atmosphere will become dust-depleted unless resupplied from elsewhere. Third, with sufficient depletion, the dead zone is thinner and mixing dredges grains off the midplane. The last of these processes enables evolutionary signatures such as the degree of settling to sometimes decrease with age. The MHD results also show that the magnetic activity intermittently lifts clouds of small grains into the atmosphere. Consequently the photosphere height changes by up to one-third over timescales of a few orbits, while the extinction along lines of sight grazing the disk surface

  1. THE ROLE OF TURBULENT MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE FORMATION OF ROTATIONALLY SUPPORTED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Lazarian, A.

    2012-03-01

    The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star

  2. Long-term Evolution of Protostellar and Protoplanetary Disks. II. Layered Accretion with Infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee; Gammie, Charles

    2010-04-01

    We use one-dimensional two-zone time-dependent accretion disk models to study the long-term evolution of protostellar disks subject to mass addition from the collapse of a rotating cloud core. Our model consists of a constant surface density magnetically coupled active layer, with transport and dissipation in inactive regions only via gravitational instability. We start our simulations after a central protostar has formed, containing ~10% of the mass of the protostellar cloud. Subsequent evolution depends on the angular momentum of the accreting envelope. We find that disk accretion matches the infall rate early in the disk evolution because much of the inner disk is hot enough to couple to the magnetic field. Later infall reaches the disk beyond ~10 AU, and the disk undergoes outbursts of accretion in FU Ori-like events as described by Zhu et al. If the initial cloud core is moderately rotating, most of the central star's mass is built up by these outburst events. Our results suggest that the protostellar "luminosity problem" is eased by accretion during these FU Ori-like outbursts. After infall stops, the disk enters the T Tauri phase. An outer, viscously evolving disk has a structure that is in reasonable agreement with recent submillimeter studies and its surface density evolves from Σ vprop R -1 to R -1.5. An inner, massive belt of material—the "dead zone"—would not have been observed yet but should be seen in future high angular resolution observations by EVLA and ALMA. This high surface density belt is a generic consequence of low angular momentum transport efficiency at radii where the disk is magnetically decoupled, and would strongly affect planet formation and migration.

  3. Nonlinear evolution of protostellar disks and light modulations in young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Bell, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    An evolutionary model of dynamical processes in protostellar disks is described and illustrated with graphs of typical results. The effective transport mechanisms are discussed, including thermal convection, nonaxisymmetric gravitational instabilities in the outer regions of disks, and wave propagation. Consideration is then given to the stages of dynamical evolution, FU Ori outburst phenomena, unsteady accretion-disk flows, and nonlinear feedback as a mechanism to modulate mass transfer. The simulations show that mass redistribution is determined by angular-momentum transfer, which in turn is regulated by the effective viscosity generated by convectively driven turbulence. Significant mass transfer occurs as a result of mixing of infalling material with disk gas and is affected by the tidal torque associated with the growth of nonaxisymmetric disturbances in the outer disk. The time scale for disk evolution is found to be about 1 Myr.

  4. RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR COLLAPSE: NONIDEAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EFFECTS AND EARLY FORMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Tomida, Kengo; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Machida, Masahiro N. E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2015-03-10

    The transport of angular momentum by magnetic fields is a crucial physical process in the formation and evolution of stars and disks. Because the ionization degree in star-forming clouds is extremely low, nonideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects such as ambipolar diffusion and ohmic dissipation work strongly during protostellar collapse. These effects have significant impacts in the early phase of star formation as they redistribute magnetic flux and suppress angular momentum transport by magnetic fields. We perform three-dimensional nested-grid radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion. Without these effects, magnetic fields transport angular momentum so efficiently that no rotationally supported disk is formed even after the second collapse. Ohmic dissipation works only in a relatively high density region within the first core and suppresses angular momentum transport, enabling formation of a very small rotationally supported disk after the second collapse. With both ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion, these effects work effectively in almost the entire region within the first core and significant magnetic flux loss occurs. As a result, a rotationally supported disk is formed even before a protostellar core forms. The size of the disk is still small, about 5 AU at the end of the first core phase, but this disk will grow later as gas accretion continues. Thus, the nonideal MHD effects can resolve the so-called magnetic braking catastrophe while keeping the disk size small in the early phase, which is implied from recent interferometric observations.

  5. Variations in the accretion rate and luminosity in gravitationally unstable protostellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbakyan, V. G.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Glebova, G. M.

    2016-10-01

    Self-consistent modeling of a protostar and protostellar disk is carried out for early stages of their evolution. The accretion rate at distances of sevral astronomical units from the protostar is appreciably variable, which is reflected in the protostar's luminosity. The amplitude of the variations in the accretion rate and luminosity grows together with the sampling period, as a consequence of the nature of gravitationally unstable protostellar disks. A comparison of model luminosity variations with those derived from observations of nearby sites of star formation shows that the model variations are appreciably lower than the observed values for sampling periods of less than 10 years, indicating the presence of additional sources of variability on small dynamical distances from the protostar.

  6. Resonantly driven nonlinear density waves in protostellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Chi; Cassen, Pat

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations of binary, pre-main-sequence, solar-type stars provide evidence that such systems may coexist with circumstellar disks. The binary disk systems, besides being of general interest for the study of star formation, potentially provide useful tests of companion-disk interaction theories prominent in current hypotheses of planet formation. In this paper, we apply an asymptotic analysis of the nonlinear, resonant interaction of a stellar companion with a disk to understand the dependence of such interactions on the properties of the system: the binary mass ratio, the physical properties of the disk, and the effective dissipation (treated herein as viscosity). The method is based on a WKBJ approximation and exploits the conditions that the disk is thin and much less massive than the primary, but does not require that the companion-induced disturbance be small. Both isothermal and adiabatic responses are treated. Only circular orbit resonances are considered in this paper. It is demonstrated that the temperature of the disk as well as the relative mass of the companion affects the degree of nonlinearity, and that nonlinearity promotes high wave compression ratios, long wavelengths, and increased propagation distances. Nevertheless, the total torque exerted between the companion and the disk is well represented by linear theory. The amplitudes of density disturbances are reduced by viscosity and nonisothermality. Because resonant interactions are generally strong and capable of driving rapid evolution, one might expect observations of systems undergoing strong, resonant-driven evolution to be rare. In this connection, it is pointed out that the m = 1 resonance is distinguished by being anomalously weaker than the others and is therefore of observational interest. It is speculated that, in conditions of intrinsically small dissipation, the propagation of resonant-driven density waves is limited by the tendency of their wavelength to diminish with distance

  7. Externally Illuminated Proto-Stellar Disks and Naked Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John

    1994-01-01

    We propose to use HST to study low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) embedded in the Orion Nebula HII region. Radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray observations have identified a category of compact high density objects containing stellar cores. These objects are believed to be recently formed low mass stars that have become exposed by the intense UV radiation field of the hot stars responsible for excitation of the HII region. We propose to target 3 disk/YSO systems, identified from recent HST observations, for detailed high-resolution imaging and low-resolution spectroscopy. Since these objects are externally illuminated by the light of nearby massive stars, they provide a unique opportunity to investigate the structure and kinematics of the circumstellar environment of a YSO at optical and UV wavelengths. Our data will be used to search for evidence of boundary layer accretion onto the YSO, to search for structure in the protoplanetary disk, and to investigate the nature of the externally induced disk ablation flow. The high spatial and spectral resolution of HST may lead to insights into the formation of proto-planetary disks, the birth of planets, and other Solar-system type objects. We will use parallel observations with WFPC2 to serendipitously search for Herbig-Haro objects and visible YSO/disks in the surrounding Orion molecular cloud.

  8. ENERGETIC PROTONS, RADIONUCLIDES, AND MAGNETIC ACTIVITY IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the location of the magnetically inactive dead zone in the minimum-mass protosolar disk, under ionization scenarios including stellar X-rays, long- or short-lived radionuclide decay, and energetic protons arriving from the general interstellar medium, from a nearby supernova explosion, from the disk corona, or from the corona of the young star. The disk contains a dead zone in all scenarios except those with small dust grains removed and a fraction of the short-lived radionuclides remaining in the gas. All the cases without exception have an 'undead zone' where intermediate resistivities prevent magneto-rotational turbulence while allowing shear-generated large-scale magnetic fields. The mass column in the undead zone is typically greater than the column in the turbulent surface layers. The results support the idea that the dead and undead zones are robust consequences of cold, dusty gas with mass columns exceeding 1000 g cm{sup -2}.

  9. Protostellar Multiplicity in Perseus Characterized by the VLA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chandler, Claire J.; Dunham, Michael; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Sadavoy, Sarah; Melis, Carl; Harris, Robert J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Perez, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of multiple star systems is thought to begin early in the star formation process. However, there have not been sufficient numbers of young protostars observed with high enough resolution to determine when and where most multiple systems form. To significantly improve our knowledge of protostellar multiplicity, we have carried out the VLA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) survey, a 264 hour Jansky VLA program at wavelengths of 8 mm, 1 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm toward all known Perseus protostars (N ~ 80) down to 15 AU (0.065") resolution. The unbiased nature of the survey has enabled us to conduct the most complete characterization of protostellar multiplicity to date, finding evidence for a bi-modal distribution of multiple protostar system separations. The bi-modal distribution may be evidence for multiple processes contributing to the formation of multiple systems. The inner peak at ~75 AU could be produced from disk fragmentation, while the outer peak at ~3000 AU could be produced by turbulent and/or rotational fragmentation Moreover, three systems are found to reside within larger, disk-like structures suggesting that they may be the product of disk fragmentation via gravitational instability. The results of this survey demonstrate the power and utility of unbiased surveys toward young stars.

  10. Angular momentum exchange by gravitational torques and infall in the circumbinary disk of the protostellar system L1551 NE

    SciTech Connect

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Saito, Masao; Saigo, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Lim, Jeremy; Hanawa, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-20

    We report an ALMA observation of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE in the 0.9 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (3-2), and {sup 13}CO (3-2) lines at a ∼1.6 times higher resolution and a ∼6 times higher sensitivity than those of our previous SubMillimeter Array (SMA) observations, which revealed a r ∼ 300 AU scale circumbinary disk in Keplerian rotation. The 0.9 mm continuum shows two opposing U-shaped brightenings in the circumbinary disk and exhibits a depression between the circumbinary disk and the circumstellar disk of the primary protostar. The molecular lines trace non-axisymmetric deviations from Keplerian rotation in the circumbinary disk at higher velocities relative to the systemic velocity, where our previous SMA observations could not detect the lines. In addition, we detect inward motion along the minor axis of the circumbinary disk. To explain the newly observed features, we performed a numerical simulation of gas orbits in a Roche potential tailored to the inferred properties of L1551 NE. The observed U-shaped dust features coincide with locations where gravitational torques from the central binary system are predicted to impart angular momentum to the circumbinary disk, producing shocks and hence density enhancements seen as a pair of spiral arms. The observed inward gas motion coincides with locations where angular momentum is predicted to be lowered by the gravitational torques. The good agreement between our observation and model indicates that gravitational torques from the binary stars constitute the primary driver for exchanging angular momentum so as to permit infall through the circumbinary disk of L1551 NE.

  11. Angular Momentum Exchange by Gravitational Torques and Infall in the Circumbinary Disk of the Protostellar System L1551 NE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Saito, Masao; Saigo, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Lim, Jeremy; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2014-11-01

    We report an ALMA observation of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE in the 0.9 mm continuum, C18O (3-2), and 13CO (3-2) lines at a ~1.6 times higher resolution and a ~6 times higher sensitivity than those of our previous SubMillimeter Array (SMA) observations, which revealed a r ~ 300 AU scale circumbinary disk in Keplerian rotation. The 0.9 mm continuum shows two opposing U-shaped brightenings in the circumbinary disk and exhibits a depression between the circumbinary disk and the circumstellar disk of the primary protostar. The molecular lines trace non-axisymmetric deviations from Keplerian rotation in the circumbinary disk at higher velocities relative to the systemic velocity, where our previous SMA observations could not detect the lines. In addition, we detect inward motion along the minor axis of the circumbinary disk. To explain the newly observed features, we performed a numerical simulation of gas orbits in a Roche potential tailored to the inferred properties of L1551 NE. The observed U-shaped dust features coincide with locations where gravitational torques from the central binary system are predicted to impart angular momentum to the circumbinary disk, producing shocks and hence density enhancements seen as a pair of spiral arms. The observed inward gas motion coincides with locations where angular momentum is predicted to be lowered by the gravitational torques. The good agreement between our observation and model indicates that gravitational torques from the binary stars constitute the primary driver for exchanging angular momentum so as to permit infall through the circumbinary disk of L1551 NE.

  12. 3-D MHD disk wind simulations of protostellar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan E.; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid; Tanaka, Kei; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of large scale, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of disk winds for different initial magnetic field configurations. The jets are followed from the source to distances, which are resolvable by HST and ALMA observations. Our simulations show that jets are heated along their length by many shocks. The mass of the protostar is a free parameter that can be inserted in the post processing of the data, and we apply the simulations to both low mass and high mass protostars. For the latter we also compute the expected diagnostics when the outflow is photoionized by the protostar. We compute the emission lines that are produced, and find excellent agreement with observations. For a one solar mass protostar, we find the jet width to be between 20 and 30 au while the maximum velocities perpendicular to the jet are found to be 100 km s-1. The initially less open magnetic field configuration simulations result in a wider, two-component jet; a cylindrically shaped outer jet surrounding a narrow and much faster, inner jet. For the initially most open magnetic field configuration the kink mode creates a narrow corkscrew-like jet without a clear Keplerian rotation profile and even regions where we observe rotation opposite to the disk (counter-rotating). This is not seen in the less open field configurations.

  13. Gas Heating, Chemistry and Photoevaporation in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2004-01-01

    We model the thermal balance, the chemistry, and the radiative transfer in dusty disks orbiting young, low mass stars. These models are motivated by observations of infrared and ultraviolet transitions of H2 from protoplanetary disks, as well as millimeter and submillimeter observations of other molecules such as CO, and infrared continuum observations of the dust. The dust grains are heated primarily by the stellar radiation and the infrared radiation field produced by the dust itself. The gas is heated by collisions with warmer dust grains, X-rays from the region close to the stellar surface, UV pumping of hydrogen molecules, and the grain photoelectric heating mechanism initiated by UV photons from the central star. We treat cases where the gas to dust ratio is high, because the dust has settled to the midplane and coagulated into relatively large objects. We discuss situations in which the infrared emission from H2 can be detected, and how the comparison of the observations with our models can deduce physical parameters such as the mass and the density and temperature distribution of the gas.

  14. On the role of pseudodisk warping and reconnection in protostellar disk formation in turbulent magnetized cores

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi-Yun; Zhao, Bo; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien

    2014-10-01

    The formation of rotationally supported protostellar disks is suppressed in ideal MHD in non-turbulent cores with aligned magnetic fields and rotation axes. A promising way to resolve this so-called 'magnetic braking catastrophe' is through turbulence. The reason for the turbulence-enabled disk formation is usually attributed to the turbulence-induced magnetic reconnection, which is thought to reduce the magnetic flux accumulated in the disk-forming region. We advance an alternative interpretation, based on magnetic decoupling-triggered reconnection of severely pinched field lines close to the central protostar and turbulence-induced warping of the pseudodisk of Galli and Shu. Such reconnection weakens the central split magnetic monopole that lies at the heart of the magnetic braking catastrophe under flux freezing. We show, through idealized numerical experiments, that the pseudodisk can be strongly warped, but not completely destroyed, by a subsonic or sonic turbulence. The warping decreases the rates of angular momentum removal from the pseudodisk by both magnetic torque and outflow, making it easier to form a rotationally supported disk. More importantly, the warping of the pseudodisk out of the disk-forming, equatorial plane greatly reduces the amount of magnetic flux threading the circumstellar, disk-forming region, further promoting disk formation. The beneficial effects of pseudodisk warping can also be achieved by a misalignment between the magnetic field and rotation axis. These two mechanisms of disk formation, enabled by turbulence and field-rotation misalignment respectively, are thus unified. We find that the disks formed in turbulent magnetized cores are rather thick and significantly magnetized. Implications of these findings, particularly for the thick young disk inferred in L1527, are briefly discussed.

  15. IRAS 16293-2422: Evidence for Infall onto a Counter-Rotating Protostellar Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remijan, Anthony J.; Hollis, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution VLA observations of the low-mass star-forming region IRAS 16293-2422 using four molecular probes: ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN)) methyl formate (CH3OCHO), formic acid (HCOOH), and the ground vibrational state of silicon monoxide (SiO). Ethyl cyanide emission has a spatial scale of approx. 20" and encompasses binary cores A and B as determined by continuum emission peaks. Surrounded by formic acid emission, methyl formate emission has a spatial scale of approx. 6" and is confined to core B. SiO emission shows two velocity components with spatial scales less than 2" that map approx. 2" northeast of the A and B symmetry axis. The redshifted SiO is approx. 2" northwest of blueshifted SiO along a position angle of approx. 135deg which is approximately parallel to the A and B symmetry axis. We interpret the spatial position offset in red and blueshifted SiO emission as due to rotation of a protostellar accretion disk and we derive approx. 1.4 Solar Mass, interior to the SiO emission. In the same vicinity, Mundy et al. (1986) also concluded rotation of a nearly edge-on disk from OVRO observations of much stronger and ubiquitous CO-13 emission but the direction of rotation is opposite to the SiO emission findings. Taken together, SiO and CO-13 data suggest evidence for a counter-rotating disk. Moreover, archival BIMA array CO-12C data show an inverse P Cygni profile with the strongest absorption in close proximity to the SiO emission, indicating unambiguous material infall toward the counter-rotating protostellar disk at a new source location within the IRAS 16293-2422 complex. The details of these observations and our interpretations are discussed.

  16. ARE PROTOPLANETARY DISKS BORN WITH VORTICES? ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY PROTOSTELLAR INFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu

    2015-05-20

    We carry out two-fluid, two-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations to test whether protostellar infall can trigger the Rossby wave instability (RWI) in protoplanetry disks. Our results show that infall can trigger the RWI and generate vortices near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk (i.e., centrifugal radius). We find that the RWI is triggered under a variety of conditions, although the details depend on the disk parameters and the infall pattern. The common key feature of triggering the RWI is the steep radial gradient of the azimuthal velocity induced by the local increase in density at the outer edge of the infall region. Vortices form when the instability enters the nonlinear regime. In our standard model where self-gravity is neglected, vortices merge together to a single vortex within ∼20 local orbital times, and the merged vortex survives for the remaining duration of the calculation (>170 local orbital times). The vortex takes part in outward angular momentum transport, with a Reynolds stress of ≲10{sup −2}. Our two-fluid calculations show that vortices efficiently trap dust particles with stopping times of the order of the orbital time, locally enhancing the dust to gas ratio for particles of the appropriate size by a factor of ∼40 in our standard model. When self-gravity is considered, however, vortices tend to be impeded from merging and may eventually dissipate. We conclude it may well be that protoplanetary disks have favorable conditions for vortex formation during the protostellar infall phase, which might enhance early planetary core formation.

  17. Are Protoplanetary Disks Born with Vortices? Rossby Wave Instability Driven by Protostellar Infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-05-01

    We carry out two-fluid, two-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations to test whether protostellar infall can trigger the Rossby wave instability (RWI) in protoplanetry disks. Our results show that infall can trigger the RWI and generate vortices near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk (i.e., centrifugal radius). We find that the RWI is triggered under a variety of conditions, although the details depend on the disk parameters and the infall pattern. The common key feature of triggering the RWI is the steep radial gradient of the azimuthal velocity induced by the local increase in density at the outer edge of the infall region. Vortices form when the instability enters the nonlinear regime. In our standard model where self-gravity is neglected, vortices merge together to a single vortex within ˜20 local orbital times, and the merged vortex survives for the remaining duration of the calculation (>170 local orbital times). The vortex takes part in outward angular momentum transport, with a Reynolds stress of ≲10-2. Our two-fluid calculations show that vortices efficiently trap dust particles with stopping times of the order of the orbital time, locally enhancing the dust to gas ratio for particles of the appropriate size by a factor of ˜40 in our standard model. When self-gravity is considered, however, vortices tend to be impeded from merging and may eventually dissipate. We conclude it may well be that protoplanetary disks have favorable conditions for vortex formation during the protostellar infall phase, which might enhance early planetary core formation.

  18. A CHEMICAL VIEW OF PROTOSTELLAR-DISK FORMATION IN L1527

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nami; Oya, Yoko; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Kahane, Claudine; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Lefloch, Bertrand; Vastel, Charlotte; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Caux, Emmanuel; Coutens, Audrey; Aikawa, Yuri; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Ohashi, Nagayoshi

    2014-08-20

    Subarcsecond images of the rotational line emissions of CCH, CS, H{sub 2}CO, and CH{sub 3}OH have been obtained toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 04368+2557 in L1527 as one of the early science projects of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The intensity distributions of CCH and CS show a double-peaked structure along the edge-on envelope with a dip toward the protostar position, whereas those of H{sub 2}CO and CH{sub 3}OH are centrally peaked. By analyzing the position-velocity diagrams along the envelope, CCH and CS are found to reside mainly in the envelope, where the gas is infalling with conservation of its angular momentum. They are almost absent inward of the centrifugal barrier (a half of the centrifugal radius). Although H{sub 2}CO exists in the infalling rotating envelope, it also resides in the disk component inside the centrifugal barrier to some extent. On the other hand, CH{sub 3}OH seems to exist around the centrifugal barrier and in the disk component. Hence, the drastic chemical change occurs at the centrifugal barrier. A discontinuous infalling motion as well as the gas-grain interaction would be responsible for the chemical change. This result will put an important constraint on initial chemical compositions for chemical evolution of protostellar disks.

  19. Revolutionizing our View of Protostellar Multiplicity and Disks: The VLA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, J. J.; Looney, L. W.; Li, Z.-Y.; Chandler, C. J.; Dunham, M. M.; Segura-Cox, D.; Cox, E. G.; Harris, R. J.; Melis, C.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Pérez, L.; Kratter, K.

    2016-05-01

    There is substantial evidence for disk formation taking place during the early stages of star formation and for most stars being born in multiple systems; however, protostellar multiplicity and disk searches have been hampered by low resolution, sample bias, and variable sensitivity. We have conducted an unbiased, high-sensitivity Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) survey toward all known protostars (n = 94) in the Perseus molecular cloud (d ˜ 230 pc), with a resolution of ˜ 15 AU (0.06'') at λ = 8 mm. We have detected candidate protostellar disks toward 17 sources (with 12 of those in the Class 0 stage) and we have found substructure on < 50 AU scales for three Class 0 disk candidates, possibly evidence for disk fragmentation. We have discovered 16 new multiple systems (or new components) in this survey; the new systems have separations < 500 AU and 3 by < 30 AU. We also found a bi-modal distribution of separations, with peaks at ˜ 75 AU and ˜ 3000 AU, suggestive of formation through two distinct mechanisms: disk and turbulent fragmentation. The results from this survey demonstrate the necessity and utility of uniform, unbiased surveys of protostellar systems at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths.

  20. PROTOSTELLAR DISK EVOLUTION OVER MILLION-YEAR TIMESCALES WITH A PRESCRIPTION FOR MAGNETIZED TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Russell; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Turner, Neal J.

    2013-07-10

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is the most promising mechanism behind accretion in low-mass protostellar disks. Here we present the first analysis of the global structure and evolution of non-ideal MRI-driven T-Tauri disks on million-year timescales. We accomplish this in a 1+1D simulation by calculating magnetic diffusivities and utilizing turbulence activity criteria to determine thermal structure and accretion rate without resorting to a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation. Our major findings are as follows. First, even for modest surface densities of just a few times the minimum-mass solar nebula, the dead zone encompasses the giant planet-forming region, preserving any compositional gradients. Second, the surface density of the active layer is nearly constant in time at roughly 10 g cm{sup -2}, which we use to derive a simple prescription for viscous heating in MRI-active disks for those who wish to avoid detailed MHD computations. Furthermore, unlike a standard disk with constant-{alpha} viscosity, the disk midplane does not cool off over time, though the surface cools as the star evolves along the Hayashi track. Instead, the MRI may pile material in the dead zone, causing it to heat up over time. The ice line is firmly in the terrestrial planet-forming region throughout disk evolution and can move either inward or outward with time, depending on whether pileups form near the star. Finally, steady-state mass transport is an extremely poor description of flow through an MRI-active disk, as we see both the turnaround in the accretion flow required by conservation of angular momentum and peaks in M-dot (R) bracketing each side of the dead zone. We caution that MRI activity is sensitive to many parameters, including stellar X-ray flux, grain size, gas/small grain mass ratio and magnetic field strength, and we have not performed an exhaustive parameter study here. Our 1+1D model also does not include azimuthal information, which prevents

  1. ENVIRONMENT AND PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yichen; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2015-04-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  2. Angular Momentum Loss in the Envelope–Disk Transition Region of the HH 111 Protostellar System: Evidence for Magnetic Braking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Hwang, Hsiang-Chih; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-08-01

    HH 111 is a Class I protostellar system at a distance of ˜400 pc, with the central source VLA 1 associated with a rotating disk deeply embedded in a flattened envelope. Here we present the observations of this system at ˜0.″6 (240 au) resolution in C18O (J = 2 — 1) and a 230 GHz continuum obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, and in SO ({N}J = {5}6-{4}5) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. The observations show for the first time how a Keplerian rotating disk can be formed inside a flattened envelope. The flattened envelope is detected in C18O, extending out to ≳2400 au from the VLA 1 source. It has a differential rotation, with the outer part (≳2000 au) better described by a rotation that has constant specific angular momentum, and the innermost part (≲160 au) by a Keplerian rotation. The rotationally supported disk is therefore relatively compact in this system, which is consistent with the dust continuum observations. Most interestingly, if the flow is in steady state, there is a substantial drop in specific angular momentum in the envelope–disk transition region from 2000 to 160 au, by a factor of ˜3. Such a decrease is not expected outside a disk formed from simple hydrodynamic core collapse, but can happen naturally if the core is significantly magnetized, because magnetic fields can be trapped in the transition region outside the disk by the ram pressure of the protostellar accretion flow, which can lead to efficient magnetic braking. In addition, SO shock emission is detected around the outer radius of the disk and could trace an accretion shock around the disk.

  3. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE CLASS 0 PROTOSTELLAR DISK OF L1527

    SciTech Connect

    Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Looney, Leslie W.; Stephens, Ian W.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Crutcher, Richard; Kwon, Woojin; Tobin, John J.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We present subarcsecond (∼0.''35) resolved observations of the 1.3 mm dust polarization from the edge-on circumstellar disk around the Class 0 protostar L1527. The inferred magnetic field is consistent with a dominantly toroidal morphology; there is no significantly detected vertical poloidal component to which observations of an edge-on disk are most sensitive. This suggests that angular momentum transport in Class 0 protostars (when large amounts of material are fed down to the disk from the envelope and accreted onto the protostar) is driven mainly by magnetorotational instability rather than magnetocentrifugal winds at 50 AU scales. In addition, with the data to date there is an early, tentative trend that R > 30 AU disks have so far been found in Class 0 systems with average magnetic fields on the 1000 AU scale strongly misaligned with the rotation axis. The absence of such a disk in the aligned case could be due to efficient magnetic braking that disrupts disk formation. If this is the case, this implies that candidate Class 0 disk systems could be identified by the average magnetic field direction at ∼1000 AU spatial scales.

  4. The formation of substellar objects induced by the collision of protostellar disks

    PubMed

    Lin; Laughlin; Bodenheimer; Rozyczka

    1998-09-25

    Simulations of a close encounter between two protostars, each surrounded by a relatively massive disk, resulted in the ejection of some of the disk material into a tidal tail. A portion of the tail condensed into an object with a mass in the range of 5 to 10 jovian masses. This mechanism may explain the existence of the single objects of substellar mass that have recently been discovered. PMID:9748161

  5. DEAD, UNDEAD, AND ZOMBIE ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Ercolano, Barbara; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: ercolano@usm.lmu.de

    2013-02-10

    We investigate the viability of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in X-ray ionized viscous accretion disks around both solar-type stars and very low mass stars. In particular, we determine the disk regions where the MRI can be shut off either by Ohmic resistivity (the so-called dead and undead zones) or by ambipolar diffusion (a region we term the zombie zone). We consider two stellar masses: M {sub *} = 0.7 M {sub Sun} and 0.1 M {sub Sun }. In each case, we assume that: the disk surface density profile is that of a scaled Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, with M {sub disk}/M {sub *} = 0.01 as suggested by current data; disk ionization is driven primarily by stellar X-rays, complemented by cosmic rays and radionuclides; and the stellar X-ray luminosity scales with bolometric luminosity as L{sub X} /L {sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3.5}, as observed. Ionization rates are calculated with the MOCCASIN Monte Carlo X-ray transport code, and ionization balance determined using a simplified chemical network, including well-mixed 0.1 {mu}m grains at various levels of depletion. We find that (1) ambipolar diffusion is the primary factor controlling MRI activity in disks around both solar-type and very low mass classical T Tauri stars. Assuming that the MRI yields the maximum possible field strength at each radius, we further find that: (2) the MRI-active layer constitutes only {approx}5%-10% of the total disk mass; (3) the accretion rate ( M-dot ) varies radially in both magnitude and sign (inward or outward), implying time-variable accretion as well as the creation of disk gaps and overdensities, with consequences for planet formation and migration; (4) achieving the empirical accretion rates in solar-type and very low mass stars requires a depletion of well-mixed small grains (via grain growth and/or settling) by a factor of 10-1000 relative to the standard dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10{sup -2}; and (5) the current non-detection of polarized emission from field

  6. Dead, Undead, and Zombie Zones in Protostellar Disks as a Function of Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Ercolano, Barbara; Turner, Neal J.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the viability of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in X-ray ionized viscous accretion disks around both solar-type stars and very low mass stars. In particular, we determine the disk regions where the MRI can be shut off either by Ohmic resistivity (the so-called dead and undead zones) or by ambipolar diffusion (a region we term the zombie zone). We consider two stellar masses: M * = 0.7 M ⊙ and 0.1 M ⊙. In each case, we assume that: the disk surface density profile is that of a scaled Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, with M disk/M * = 0.01 as suggested by current data; disk ionization is driven primarily by stellar X-rays, complemented by cosmic rays and radionuclides; and the stellar X-ray luminosity scales with bolometric luminosity as LX /L * ≈ 10-3.5, as observed. Ionization rates are calculated with the MOCCASIN Monte Carlo X-ray transport code, and ionization balance determined using a simplified chemical network, including well-mixed 0.1 μm grains at various levels of depletion. We find that (1) ambipolar diffusion is the primary factor controlling MRI activity in disks around both solar-type and very low mass classical T Tauri stars. Assuming that the MRI yields the maximum possible field strength at each radius, we further find that: (2) the MRI-active layer constitutes only ~5%-10% of the total disk mass; (3) the accretion rate (\\dot{M}) varies radially in both magnitude and sign (inward or outward), implying time-variable accretion as well as the creation of disk gaps and overdensities, with consequences for planet formation and migration; (4) achieving the empirical accretion rates in solar-type and very low mass stars requires a depletion of well-mixed small grains (via grain growth and/or settling) by a factor of 10-1000 relative to the standard dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10-2 and (5) the current non-detection of polarized emission from field-aligned grains in the outer disk regions is consistent with active MRI at those radii.

  7. Coupling protoplanetary disk formation with early protostellar evolution: influence on planet traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, Kevin; Piau, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Protoplanetary disk structures are known to be shaped by various thermal and compositional effects such as (though not limited to) shadowed regions, sublimation lines, density bumps... The resulting irregularities in the surface mass density and temperature profiles are key elements to determine the location where planetary embryos can be trapped. These traps provide hints of which planets are most likely to survive, at what distance from the star, and potentially with what composition (Baillié, Charnoz, Pantin, 2015, A&A 577, A65; Baillié, Charnoz, Pantin, 2016, A&A 590, A60). These structures are determined by the viscous spreading of the disk, that is initially formed by the collapse of the molecular cloud.Starting from the numerical hydrodynamical model detailed in Baillié & Charnoz., 2014, ApJ 786, 35 which couples the disk thermodynamics, its photosphere geometry, its dynamics and its dust composition in order to follow its long-term evolution, we now consider the early stages of the central star. We model the joint formation of the disk and the star: their mass are directly derived from the collapse of the molecular cloud while the star temperature, radius and brightness are interpolated over pre-calculated stellar evolutions. Therefore, our simulations no longer depend on the initial profile of the "Minimum Mass Solar Nebula", and allow us to model the influence of the forming star on the protoplanetary disk. In particular, we will present the resulting distribution of the sublimation lines of the main dust species, as well as the locations of the planet traps at various disk ages. In the longer term, we intend to investigate the influence of the star properties on the selection of the surviving planets.

  8. THE SPINDLE: AN IRRADIATED DISK AND BENT PROTOSTELLAR JET IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Bally, John; Youngblood, Allison; Ginsburg, Adam E-mail: Allison.Youngblood@colorado.edu

    2012-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope observations of a bent, pulsed Herbig-Haro jet, HH 1064, emerging from the young star Parenago 2042 embedded in the H II region NGC 1977 located about 30' north of the Orion Nebula. This outflow contains eight bow shocks in the redshifted western lobe and five bow shocks in the blueshifted eastern lobe. Shocks within a few thousand AU of the source star exhibit proper motions of {approx}160 km s{sup -1} but motions decrease with increasing distance. Parenago 2042 is embedded in a proplyd-a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk. A remarkable set of H{alpha} arcs resembling a spindle surround the redshifted (western) jet. The largest arc with a radius of 500 AU may trace the ionized edge of a circumstellar disk inclined by {approx}30 Degree-Sign . The spindle may be the photoionized edge of either a {approx}3 km s{sup -1} FUV-driven wind from the outer disk or a faster MHD-powered flow from an inner disk. The HH 1064 jet appears to be deflected north by photoablation of the south-facing side of a mostly neutral jet beam. V2412 Ori, located 1' west of Parenago 2042 drives a second bent flow, HH 1065. Both HH 1064 and 1065 are surrounded by LL Ori-type bows marking the boundary between the outflow cavity and the surrounding nebula.

  9. Herbig stars' near-infrared excess: An origin in the protostellar disk's magnetically supported atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Benisty, M.; Dullemond, C. P.; Hirose, S.

    2014-01-01

    Young stars with masses 2-8 times solar, the Herbig Ae and Be stars, often show a near-infrared excess too large to explain with a hydrostatically supported circumstellar disk of gas and dust. At the same time, the accretion flow carrying the circumstellar gas to the star is thought to be driven by magnetorotational turbulence, which, according to numerical MHD modeling, yields an extended low-density atmosphere supported by the magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the base of the atmosphere can be optically thick to the starlight and that the parts lying near 1 AU are tall enough to double the fraction of the stellar luminosity reprocessed into the near-infrared. We generate synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations with opacities for submicron silicate and carbonaceous grains. The synthetic SEDs closely follow the median Herbig SED constructed recently by Mulders and Dominik and, in particular, match the large near-infrared flux, provided the grains have a mass fraction close to interstellar near the disk's inner rim.

  10. Chemical Evolution of Protostellar Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; vanDishoeck, Ewine F.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Whittet, Douglas C. B.

    2000-01-01

    We review the chemical processes that are important in the evolution from a molecular cloud core to a protostellar disk. These cover both gas phase and gas grain interactions. The current observational and theoretical state of this field are discussed.

  11. ALMA results of the pseudodisk, rotating disk, and jet in the continuum and HCO{sup +} in the protostellar system HH 212

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien; Ho, Paul T. P.; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-05-10

    HH 212 is a nearby (400 pc) Class 0 protostellar system showing several components that can be compared with theoretical models of core collapse. We have mapped it in the 350 GHz continuum and HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 emission with ALMA at up to ∼0.''4 resolution. A flattened envelope and a compact disk are seen in the continuum around the central source, as seen before. The HCO{sup +} kinematics shows that the flattened envelope is infalling with small rotation (i.e., spiraling) into the central source, and thus can be identified as a pseudodisk in the models of magnetized core collapse. Also, the HCO{sup +} kinematics shows that the disk is rotating and can be rotationally supported. In addition, to account for the missing HCO{sup +} emission at low-redshifted velocity, an extended infalling envelope is required, with its material flowing roughly parallel to the jet axis toward the pseudodisk. This is expected if it is magnetized with an hourglass B-field morphology. We have modeled the continuum and HCO{sup +} emission of the flattened envelope and disk simultaneously. We find that a jump in density is required across the interface between the pseudodisk and the disk. A jet is seen in HCO{sup +} extending out to ∼500 AU away from the central source, with the peaks upstream of those seen before in SiO. The broad velocity range and high HCO{sup +} abundance indicate that the HCO{sup +} emission traces internal shocks in the jet.

  12. Protostellar Jets: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, B. F.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Opher, R.

    1998-11-01

    Numerical simulations of astrophysical jets have been made in order to study their collimation and internal structure. Recently Ouyed & Pudritz (1997) did numerical simulations of axi-simetric magnetocentrifugal jets from a keplerian acretion disk employing the eulerian finite difference code Zeus-2D. During their simulation, it was raised a steady state jet confirming a lot of results of the MHD winds steady state theory. Following this scenario we did tridimensional numerial simulations of this model allowing the jet, after a perturbation, evolve into a not steady state producing the helical features observed in some protostellar jets.

  13. High-resolution mm interferometry and the search for massive protostellar disks: the case of Cep-A HW2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comito, Claudia; Schilke, Peter; Endesfelder, Ulrike; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Martín-Pintado, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    The direct detection of accretion onto massive protostars through rotating disks constitutes an important tile in the massive-star-formation-theory mosaic. This task is however observationally very challenging. A very interesting example is Cepheus A HW2. The properties of the molecular emission around this YSO seems to suggest the presence of a massive rotating disk (cf. Patel et al. in Nature 437:109, 2005). We have carried out sub-arcsec-resolution PdBI observations of high-density and shock tracers such as SO2, SiO, CH3CN, and CH3OH towards the center of the outflow. A detailed analysis of the spatial distribution and of the velocity field traced by all observed species leads us to conclude that, on a ˜700 AU scale, the Cep-A “disk” is actually the result of the superposition of multiple hot-core-type objects, at least one of them ejecting an outflow at a small angle with respect to the line of sight. Together with the well-known large-scale outflow ejected by HW2, this setup makes for a very complex spatial and kinematic picture.

  14. Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John

    2016-09-01

    Outflows from accreting, rotating, and magnetized systems are ubiquitous. Protostellar outflows can be observed from radio to X-ray wavelengths in the continuum and a multitude of spectral lines that probe a wide range of physical conditions, chemical phases, radial velocities, and proper motions. Wide-field visual and near-IR data, mid-IR observations from space, and aperture synthesis with centimeter- and millimeterwave interferometers are revolutionizing outflow studies. Many outflows originate in multiple systems and clusters. Although most flows are bipolar and some contain highly collimated jets, others are wide-angle winds, and a few are nearly isotropic and exhibit explosive behavior. Morphologies and velocity fields indicate variations in ejection velocity, mass-loss rate, and in some cases, flow orientation and degree of collimation. These trends indicate that stellar accretion is episodic and often occurs in a complex dynamical environment. Outflow power increases with source luminosity but decreases with evolutionary stage. The youngest outflows are small and best traced by molecules such as CO, SiO, H2O, and H2. Older outflows can grow to parsec scales and are best traced by shock-excited atoms and ions such as hydrogen-recombination lines, [Sii], and [Oii]. Outflows inject momentum and energy into their surroundings and provide an important mechanism in the self-regulation of star formation. However, momentum injection rates remain uncertain with estimates providing lower bounds.

  15. [Predicting Spectra of Accretion Disks Around Galactic Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to construct detailed atmosphere solutions in order to predict the spectra of accretion disks around Galactic black holes. Our plan of action was to take an existing disk atmosphere code (TLUSTY, created by Ivan Hubeny) and introduce those additional physical processes necessary to make it applicable to disks of this variety. These modifications include: treating Comptonization; introducing continuous opacity due to heavy elements; incorporating line opacity due to heavy elements; adopting a disk structure that reflects readjustments due to radiation pressure effects; and injecting heat via a physically-plausible vertical distribution.

  16. TURBULENT LINEWIDTHS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PREDICTIONS FROM NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Jacob B.; Beckwith, Kris; Armitage, Philip J.

    2011-12-10

    Submillimeter observations of protoplanetary disks now approach the acuity needed to measure the turbulent broadening of molecular lines. These measurements constrain disk angular momentum transport, and furnish evidence of the turbulent environment within which planetesimal formation takes place. We use local magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to predict the distribution of turbulent velocities in low-mass protoplanetary disks, as a function of radius and height above the mid-plane. We model both ideal MHD disks and disks in which Ohmic dissipation results in a dead zone of suppressed turbulence near the mid-plane. Under ideal conditions, the disk mid-plane is characterized by a velocity distribution that peaks near v {approx_equal} 0.1c{sub s} (where c{sub s} is the local sound speed), while supersonic velocities are reached at z > 3H (where H is the vertical pressure scale height). Residual velocities of v Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} c{sub s} persist near the mid-plane in dead zones, while the surface layers remain active. Anisotropic variation of the linewidth with disk inclination is modest. We compare our MHD results to hydrodynamic simulations in which large-scale forcing is used to initiate similar turbulent velocities. We show that the qualitative trend of increasing v with height, seen in the MHD case, persists for forced turbulence and is likely a generic property of disk turbulence. Percentage level determinations of v at different heights within the disk, or spatially resolved observations that probe the inner disk containing the dead zone region, are therefore needed to test whether the MRI is responsible for protoplanetary disk turbulence.

  17. SMA and ALMA Studies of Protoplanetary-Disk Formation around Low-mass Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Chou, Ti-Lin; Aso, Yusuke; Saigo, Kazuya; Saito, Masao; Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomida, Kengo; Aikawa, Yuri; Tomisaka, Kohji; Koyamatsu, Shin; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation, we will report our systematic observational studies of protoplanetary-disk formation around low-mass protostars with the SMA and ALMA. We have identified five Class 0-I protostellar systems (L1551 IRS 5, L1551 NE, L1489 IRS, L1527 IRS, and TMC-1A) associated with the r~100 - 300 AU scale Keplerian disks and the outer infalling envelopes. The infalling velocities of the envelope gas onto the Keplerian disks are found to be a factor ~3 smaller than the free-fall velocities of the central protostellar masses inferred from the inner Keplerian rotation. On the other hand, the rotational angular momenta in the infalling envelopes appear to smoothly connect to those of the inner Keplerian disks. Including the other disk sources found by previous observations, we have also found a growth of the disk radii as a function of the protostellar evolution. These results demonstrate how the central Keplerian disks around protostars, precursors of the protoplanetary disks, grow and evolve. We will compile these observational results in the context of an unified picture of protoplanetary-disk formation, and compare them to the latest theoretical predictions of protoplanetary-disk formation.

  18. Molecular emission in chemically active protostellar outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, B.

    2011-12-01

    Protostellar outflows play an important role in the dynamical and chemical evolution of cloud through shocks. The Herschel Space Observatory (HSO) brings new insight both on the molecular content and the physical conditions in protostellar shocks through high spectral and angular resolution studies of the emission of major gas cooling agents and hydrides. The Herschel/CHESS key-program is carrying out an in depth study of the prototypical shock region L1157-B1. Analysis of the line profiles detected allows to constrain the formation/destruction route of various molecular species, in relation with the predictions of MHD shock models. The Herschel/WISH key-program investigates the properties and origin of water emission in a broad sample of protostellar outflows and envelopes. Implications of the first results for future studies on mass-loss phenomena are discussed.

  19. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  20. From Prestellar to Protostellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Yuri; Wakelam, Valentine; Hersant, Franck; Garrod, Robin; Herbst, Eric

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the molecular evolution and D/H abundance ratios that develop as star formation proceeds from dense cloud cores to protostellar cores. We solve a gas-grain reaction network, which is extended to include multi-deuterated species, using a 1-D radiative hydrodynamic model with infalling fluid parcels to derive molecular distribution in assorted evolutionary stages. We find that the abundances of large organic species in the central region increase with time. The duration of the warm-up phase, in which large organic species are efficiently formed, is longer in infalling fluid parcels at later stages. Formation of unsaturated carbon chains in the CH4 sublimation zone (warm carbon chain chemistry) is more effective in later stage. The carbon ion, which reacts with CH4 to form carbon chains, increases in abundance as the envelope density decreases. The large organic molecules and carbon chains are both heavily deuterated, mainly because their mother molecules have high D/H ratios, which are set in the cold phase. The observed CH2DOH/CH3OH ratio towards protostars is reproduced if we assume that the grain-surface exchange and abstraction reactions of CH3OH + D occurs efficiently. In our 1-D collapse model, the fluid parcels directly fall into the protostar, and the warm-up phase in the fluid parcels is rather short. But, in reality, a circumstellar disk is formed, and fluid parcels will stay there for a longer timescale than a free-fall time. We investigate the molecular evolution in such a disk by assuming that a fluid parcel stays at a constant temperature (i.e. a fixed disk radius) after the infall. The species CH3OCH3 and HCOOCH3 become more abundant in the disk than in the envelope. Both have high D/H abundance ratios as well.

  1. Heating and Cooling Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Neal

    Many of the disks of gas and dust orbiting young Sun-like stars produce mid-infrared emission from water and other oxygen- and carbon-bearing molecules, as discovered in the last few years using the Spitzer Space Telescope. The emission reveals the temperatures, columns and chemical composition of the gas in the disk atmosphere within 2 AU of the star, directly overlying the region where the planets form. Better understanding of the processes governing the line emission is vital for converting this new class of measurements into information about the planets' raw ingredients. We propose to combine MHD models of the turbulence driving the disk accretion flows, with a thermal-chemical model of the disk atmospheres, to predict emergent spectra that will capture the dynamics, heating, and chemical composition. By comparing the predicted and observed spectra we can determine the strength of the turbulence that heats and mixes the gas, and test ideas about the conditions in the disk interior. We will investigate the coupling of the turbulence to the thermal and chemical evolution, seek to locate the line emission's power source, gauge the rate at which the atmosphere and interior exchange material, and obtain new independent measures of the disk mass accretion rates. These efforts will help infrared spectroscopy of protostellar disks reach its full potential as a diagnostic of the environments in which planets form.

  2. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  3. STEADY STATE DUST DISTRIBUTIONS IN DISK VORTICES: OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Lin, Min-Kai E-mail: mklin924@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-09-20

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array has returned images of transitional disks in which large asymmetries are seen in the distribution of millimeter sized dust in the outer disk. The explanation in vogue borrows from the vortex literature and suggests that these asymmetries are the result of dust trapping in giant vortices, excited via Rossby wave instabilities at planetary gap edges. Due to the drag force, dust trapped in vortices will accumulate in the center and diffusion is needed to maintain a steady state over the lifetime of the disk. While previous work derived semi-analytical models of the process, in this paper we provide analytical steady-steady solutions. Exact solutions exist for certain vortex models. The solution is determined by the vortex rotation profile, the gas scale height, the vortex aspect ratio, and the ratio of dust diffusion to gas-dust friction. In principle, all of these quantities can be derived from observations, which would validate the model and also provide constrains on the strength of the turbulence inside the vortex core. Based on our solution, we derive quantities such as the gas-dust contrast, the trapped dust mass, and the dust contrast at the same orbital location. We apply our model to the recently imaged Oph IRS 48 system, finding values within the range of the observational uncertainties.

  4. VARIABLE ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Gammie, Charles E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu

    2013-02-20

    We extend the one-dimensional, two-zone models of long-term protostellar disk evolution with infall of Zhu et al. to consider the potential effects of a finite viscosity in regions where the ionization is too low for the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to operate (the {sup d}ead zone{sup )}. We find that the presence of a small but finite dead zone viscosity, as suggested by simulations of stratified disks with MRI-active outer layers, can trigger inside-out bursts of accretion, starting at or near the inner edge of the disk, instead of the previously found outside-in bursts with zero dead zone viscosity, which originate at a few AU in radius. These inside-out bursts of accretion bear a qualitative resemblance to the outburst behavior of one FU Ori object, V1515 Cyg, in contrast to the outside-in burst models, which more closely resemble the accretion events in FU Ori and V1057 Cyg. Our results suggest that the type and frequency of outbursts are potentially a probe of transport efficiency in the dead zone. Simulations must treat the inner disk regions, R {approx}< 0.5 AU, to show the detailed time evolution of accretion outbursts in general and to observe the inside-out bursts in particular.

  5. ON THE ROLE OF DISKS IN THE FORMATION OF STELLAR SYSTEMS: A NUMERICAL PARAMETER STUDY OF RAPID ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.

    2010-01-10

    We study rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks with a series of idealized global, numerical experiments using the code ORION. Our numerical parameter study focuses on protostellar disks, showing that one can predict disk behavior and the multiplicity of the accreting star system as a function of two dimensionless parameters which compare the infall rate to the disk sound speed and orbital period. Although gravitational instabilities become strong, we find that fragmentation into binary or multiple systems occurs only when material falls in several times more rapidly than the canonical isothermal limit. The disk-to-star accretion rate is proportional to the infall rate and governed by gravitational torques generated by low-m spiral modes. We also confirm the existence of a maximum stable disk mass: disks that exceed approx50% of the total system mass are subject to fragmentation and the subsequent formation of binary companions.

  6. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.; Caselli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Pineda, J. E.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ≲ 0.02 M {sub ☉} (∼20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ∼150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ∼ 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  7. The flow of a thin liquid film on a stationary and rotating disk. II - Theoretical prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    The existing theoretical models are improved and a systematic procedure to compute the free surface flow of a thin liquid film is suggested. The solutions for axisymmetric radial flow on a stationary horizontal disk and for the disk rotating around its axis are presented. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental data presented in Part I of this report. The analysis shows results for both supercritical and subcritical flows and the flow structure in the vicinity of a hydraulic jump which isolates these two flow types. The detailed flow structure in a hydraulic jump was computed and shown to contain regions of separation including a 'surface roller'. The effects of surface tension are found to be important near the outer edge of the disk where the fluid experiences a free fall. At other locations, the surface tension is negligible. For a rotating disk, the frictional resistance in the angular direction is found to be as important as that in the radial direction.

  8. SIMULATING PROTOSTELLAR JETS SIMULTANEOUSLY AT LAUNCHING AND OBSERVATIONAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Jon P.; Clarke, David A.

    2011-02-10

    We present the first 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of protostellar jets that include both the region in which the jet is launched magnetocentrifugally at scale lengths <0.1 AU and where the propagating jet is observed at scale lengths >10{sup 3} AU. These simulations, performed with the new adaptive mesh refinement MHD code AZEuS, reveal interesting relationships between conditions at the disk surface, such as the magnetic field strength, and direct observables such as proper motion, jet rotation, jet radius, and mass flux. By comparing these quantities with observed values, we present direct numerical evidence that the magnetocentrifugal launching mechanism is capable, by itself, of launching realistic protostellar jets.

  9. Predicting Secchi disk depth from average beam attenuation in a deep, ultra-clear lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; Hargreaves, B.R.; Collier, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    We addressed potential sources of error in estimating the water clarity of mountain lakes by investigating the use of beam transmissometer measurements to estimate Secchi disk depth. The optical properties Secchi disk depth (SD) and beam transmissometer attenuation (BA) were measured in Crater Lake (Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA) at a designated sampling station near the maximum depth of the lake. A standard 20 cm black and white disk was used to measure SD. The transmissometer light source had a nearly monochromatic wavelength of 660 nm and a path length of 25 cm. We created a SD prediction model by regression of the inverse SD of 13 measurements recorded on days when environmental conditions were acceptable for disk deployment with BA averaged over the same depth range as the measured SD. The relationship between inverse SD and averaged BA was significant and the average 95% confidence interval for predicted SD relative to the measured SD was ??1.6 m (range = -4.6 to 5.5 m) or ??5.0%. Eleven additional sample dates tested the accuracy of the predictive model. The average 95% confidence interval for these sample dates was ??0.7 m (range = -3.5 to 3.8 m) or ??2.2%. The 1996-2000 time-series means for measured and predicted SD varied by 0.1 m, and the medians varied by 0.5 m. The time-series mean annual measured and predicted SD's also varied little, with intra-annual differences between measured and predicted mean annual SD ranging from -2.1 to 0.1 m. The results demonstrated that this prediction model reliably estimated Secchi disk depths and can be used to significantly expand optical observations in an environment where the conditions for standardized SD deployments are limited. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  11. Numerical simulations of protostellar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Gerhard; Smith, Michael D.; Yorke, Harold W.; Zinnecker, Hans

    Molecular jets announce the successful birth of a protostar. We develop here a model for the jets and their environments, adapting a multi-dimensional hydrocode to follow the molecular-atomic transitions of hydrogen. We examine powerful outflows into dense gas. The cocoon which forms around a jet is a very low density cavity of atomic gas. These atoms originate from strong shocks which dissociate the molecules. The rest of the molecules are either within the jet or swept up into very thin layers. Pulsed jets produce wider cavities and molecular layers which can grow onto resolvable jet knots. Three-dimensional simulations produce shocked molecular knots, distorted and multiple bow shocks and arclike structures. Spectroscopic and excitation properties of the hydrogen molecules are calculated. In the infrared, strong emission is seen from shocks within the jet (when pulsed) as well as from discrete regions along the cavity walls. Excitation, as measured by line ratios, is not generally constant. Broad double-peaked, shifted emission lines are predicted. The jet model for protostellar outflows is confronted with the constraints imposed by CO spectroscopic observations. From the three dimensional simulations we calculate line profiles and construct position-velocity diagrams for the (low-J) CO transitions. We find (1) the profiles imply power law variation of integrated brightness with velocity over a wide range of velocities, (2) the velocity field resembles a `Hubble Law' and (3) a hollow-shell structure at low velocities becomes an elongated lobe at high velocities. Deviations from the simple power law dependence of integrated brightness versus velocity occur at high velocities in our simulations. The curve first dips to a shallow minimum and then rises rapidly and peaks sharply. Reanalysis of the NGC 2264G and Cepheus E data confirm these predictions. We identify these two features with a jet-ambient shear layer and the jet itself. A deeper analysis reveals that

  12. PROTOSTELLAR ACCRETION FLOWS DESTABILIZED BY MAGNETIC FLUX REDISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Li Zhiyun; Zhao Bo

    2012-09-20

    Magnetic flux redistribution lies at the heart of the problem of star formation in dense cores of molecular clouds that are magnetized to a realistic level. If all of the magnetic flux of a typical core were to be dragged into the central star, the stellar field strength would be orders of magnitude higher than the observed values. This well-known magnetic flux problem can in principle be resolved through non-ideal MHD effects. Two-dimensional (axisymmetric) calculations have shown that ambipolar diffusion, in particular, can transport magnetic flux outward relative to matter, allowing material to enter the central object without dragging the field lines along. We show through simulations that such axisymmetric protostellar accretion flows are unstable in three dimensions to magnetic interchange instability in the azimuthal direction. The instability is driven by the magnetic flux redistributed from the matter that enters the central object. It typically starts to develop during the transition from the prestellar phase of star formation to the protostellar mass accretion phase. In the latter phase, the magnetic flux is transported outward mainly through advection by strongly magnetized low-density regions that expand against the collapsing inflow. The tussle between the gravity-driven infall and magnetically driven expansion leads to a highly filamentary inner accretion flow that is more disordered than previously envisioned. The efficient outward transport of magnetic flux by advection lowers the field strength at small radii, making the magnetic braking less efficient and the formation of rotationally supported disks easier in principle. However, we find no evidence for such disks in any of our rotating collapse simulations. We conclude that the inner protostellar accretion flow is shaped to a large extent by the flux redistribution-driven magnetic interchange instability. How disks form in such an environment is unclear.

  13. Protostellar Accretion Flows Destabilized by Magnetic Flux Redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Li, Zhi-Yun; Shang, Hsien; Zhao, Bo

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic flux redistribution lies at the heart of the problem of star formation in dense cores of molecular clouds that are magnetized to a realistic level. If all of the magnetic flux of a typical core were to be dragged into the central star, the stellar field strength would be orders of magnitude higher than the observed values. This well-known magnetic flux problem can in principle be resolved through non-ideal MHD effects. Two-dimensional (axisymmetric) calculations have shown that ambipolar diffusion, in particular, can transport magnetic flux outward relative to matter, allowing material to enter the central object without dragging the field lines along. We show through simulations that such axisymmetric protostellar accretion flows are unstable in three dimensions to magnetic interchange instability in the azimuthal direction. The instability is driven by the magnetic flux redistributed from the matter that enters the central object. It typically starts to develop during the transition from the prestellar phase of star formation to the protostellar mass accretion phase. In the latter phase, the magnetic flux is transported outward mainly through advection by strongly magnetized low-density regions that expand against the collapsing inflow. The tussle between the gravity-driven infall and magnetically driven expansion leads to a highly filamentary inner accretion flow that is more disordered than previously envisioned. The efficient outward transport of magnetic flux by advection lowers the field strength at small radii, making the magnetic braking less efficient and the formation of rotationally supported disks easier in principle. However, we find no evidence for such disks in any of our rotating collapse simulations. We conclude that the inner protostellar accretion flow is shaped to a large extent by the flux redistribution-driven magnetic interchange instability. How disks form in such an environment is unclear.

  14. The Complex Protostellar Source IRAS 04325+2402

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Allen, Lori; Chen, Hua; Jayawardhana, Ray

    1999-10-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared NICMOS observations of a remarkable low-luminosity Class I (protostellar) source in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. IRAS 04325+2402 exhibits a complex bipolar scattered light nebula. The central continuum source is resolved and may be multiple, or it may be crossed by a small dust lane. Complex arcs seen in scattered light surround the central source; the physical nature of these structures is not clear, but they may reflect perturbations from multiple stellar sources or from time-dependent mass ejection. A second, resolved continuum source is found at a projected distance of approximately 1150 AU from the central region, near the edge of a nebular lobe probably produced by outflow. The images indicate that this second source is another low-luminosity young stellar object, seen nearly edge-on through a dusty disk and envelope system with disk diameter of about 60 AU. We suggest that the scattered light ``streaks'' associated with this second source are limb-brightened outflow cavities in the dusty envelope, possibly perturbed by interaction with the outflow lobes of the main source. The nature of the companion is uncertain, since it is observed mostly in scattered light. But it is most probably a very low mass star or brown dwarf, with a minimum luminosity of approximately 10^-2 L_solar. Our results show that protostellar sources may have multiple centers of infall and nonaligned disks and outflows, even on relatively small scales.

  15. Protostellar collapse in a self-gravitating sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Boss, Alan; Calvet, Nuria; Whitney, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    We present preliminary calculations of protostellar cloud collapse starting from an isothermal, self-gravitating gaseous layer in hydrostatic equilibrium. This gravitationally unstable layer collapses into a flattened or toroidal density distribution, even in the absence of rotation or magnetic fields. We suggest that the flat infalling envelope recently observed in HL Tau by Hayashi et al.is the result of collapse from an initially nonspherical layer. We also speculate that the later evolution of such a flattened, collapsing envelope can produce a structure similar to the 'flared disk' invoked by Kenyon and Hartmann to explain the infrared excesses of many T Tauri stars.

  16. Rotationally driven Fragmentation in the Formation of the Binary Protostellar System L1551 IRS 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeremy; Yeung, Paul K. H.; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    Both bulk rotation and local turbulence have been widely suggested to drive the fragmentation in collapsing cores that produces multiple star systems. Even when the two mechanisms predict different alignments for stellar spins and orbits, subsequent internal or external interactions can drive multiple systems toward or away from alignment, thus masking their formation processes. Here, we demonstrate that the geometrical and dynamical relationship between a binary system and its surrounding bulk envelope provide the crucial distinction between fragmentation models. We find that the circumstellar disks of the binary protostellar system L1551 IRS 5 are closely parallel, not just with each other but also with their surrounding flattened envelope. Measurements of the relative proper motion of the binary components spanning nearly 30 years indicate an orbital motion related to that of the envelope rotation. Eliminating orbital solutions whereby the circumstellar disks would be tidally truncated to sizes smaller than observed, the remaining solutions favor a circular or low-eccentricity orbit tilted by up to ˜25° from the circumstellar disks. Turbulence-driven fragmentation can generate local angular momentum to produce a coplanar binary system, but this would have no particular relationship to the system’s surrounding envelope. Instead, the observed properties conform with predictions for rotationally driven fragmentation. If the fragments were produced at different heights or on opposite sides of the mid-plane in the flattened central region of a rotating core, the resulting protostars would then exhibit circumstellar disks parallel with the surrounding envelope but tilted from the orbital plane, as is observed.

  17. Gravitoturbulence in magnetized protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Latter, H.

    2016-08-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disc evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understand the basic elements of their interaction, we perform local 2D ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations with an imposed toroidal field. In the regime of moderate plasma beta, we find that the system supports a hot gravitoturbulent state, characterized by considerable magnetic energy and stress and a surprisingly large Toomre parameter Q ≳ 10. This result has potential implications for disc structure, vertical thickness, ionization, etc. Our simulations also reveal the existence of long-lived and dense `magnetic islands' or plasmoids. Lastly, we find that the presence of a magnetic field has little impact on the fragmentation criterion of the disc. Though our focus is on protostellar discs, some of our results may be relevant for the outer radii of AGN.

  18. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2010-03-10

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M{sub +} from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M {approx}> M{sub Sat}), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a {approx}< 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence-which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models-as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity

  19. An alternative model for the origin of gaps in circumstellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Regaly, Zsolt; Guedel, Manuel; Lin, Doug N. C.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Motivated by recent observational and numerical studies suggesting that collapsing protostellar cores may be replenished from the local environment, we explore the evolution of protostellar cores submerged in the external counter-rotating environment. These models predict the formation of counter-rotating disks with a deep gap in the gas surface density separating the inner disk (corotating with the star) and the outer counter-rotating disk. The properties of these gaps are compared to those of planet-bearing gaps that form in disks hosting giant planets. Methods: We employ numerical hydrodynamics simulations of collapsing cores that are replenished from the local counter-rotating environment and numerical hydrodynamics simulations of isolated disks hosting giant planets to derive the properties of the gaps that form in both cases. Results: Our numerical simulations demonstrate that counter-rotating disks can form for a wide range of mass and angular momentum available in the local environment. The gap that separates both disks has a substantial depletion factor, can be located at a distance from ten to over a hundred AU from the star, and can propagate inward with velocity ranging from 1 AU Myr-1 to >100 AU Myr-1. Unlike our previous conclusion, the gap can therefore be a long-lived phenomenon that is, in some case, comparable to the lifetime of the disk itself. For a proper choice of the planetary mass, the viscous α-parameter and disk mass, the planet-bearing gaps and gaps in counter-rotating disks may show a remarkable similarity in the gas density profile and depletion factor, which may complicate their observational differentiation.

  20. The deterministic prediction of failure of low pressure steam turbine disks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service.

  1. Pericenter precession induced by a circumstellar disk on the orbit of massive bodies: comparison between analytical predictions and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, A.; Marzari, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Planetesimals and planets embedded in a circumstellar disk are dynamically perturbed by the disk gravity. It causes an apsidal line precession at a rate that depends on the disk density profile and on the distance of the massive body from the star. Aims: Different analytical models are exploited to compute the precession rate of the perihelion ϖ˙. We compare them to verify their equivalence, in particular after analytical manipulations performed to derive handy formulas, and test their predictions against numerical models in some selected cases. Methods: The theoretical precession rates were computed with analytical algorithms found in the literature using the Mathematica symbolic code, while the numerical simulations were performed with the hydrodynamical code FARGO. Results: For low-mass bodies (planetesimals) the analytical approaches described in Binney & Tremaine (2008, Galactic Dynamics, p. 96), Ward (1981, Icarus, 47, 234), and Silsbee & Rafikov (2015a, ApJ, 798, 71) are equivalent under the same initial conditions for the disk in terms of mass, density profile, and inner and outer borders. They also match the numerical values computed with FARGO away from the outer border of the disk reasonably well. On the other hand, the predictions of the classical Mestel disk (Mestel 1963, MNRAS, 126, 553) for disks with p = 1 significantly depart from the numerical solution for radial distances beyond one-third of the disk extension because of the underlying assumption of the Mestel disk is that the outer disk border is equal to infinity. For massive bodies such as terrestrial and giant planets, the agreement of the analytical approaches is progressively poorer because of the changes in the disk structure that are induced by the planet gravity. For giant planets the precession rate changes sign and is higher than the modulus of the theoretical value by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 1.8. In this case, the correction of the formula proposed by Ward (1981) to

  2. The Infrared Reflection Nebula Around the Protostellar System in S140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, D.; Bregman, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Temi, P.; Rank, D.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the protostellar system in S140 at 2.2, 3.1 and 3.45 microns using a 128x128 InSb array at the Lick Observatory 3m telescope. Besides the protostellar sources, the data reveal a bright infrared reflection nebula. We have developed a simple model of this region and derived the physical conditions. IRSI is surrounded by a dense dusty disk viewed almost edge-on. Photons leaking out through the poles illuminate almost directly north and south the inner edge of a surrounding shell of molecular gas, Analysis of the observed colors and intensities of the NIR light, using Mie scattering theory, reveal that the dust grains in the molecular cloud are somewhat larger than in the general diffuse interstellar medium. Moreover, the incident light has a "cool" color temperature, approximately equals 800K, and likely originates from a dust photosphere close to the protostar. Finally, we find little H2O ice associated with the dusty disk around IRSI. Most of the 3.1 micron ice extinction arises instead from cool intervening molecular cloud material. We have compared our infrared dust observations with millimeter and radio observations of molecular gas associated with this region. The large scale structure observable in the molecular gas is indicative of the interaction between the protostellar wind and the surrounding molecular cloud rather than the geometry of the protostellar disk. We conclude that S140 is a young blister formed by this outflow on the side of a molecular cloud and viewed edge-on.

  3. Chemistry in low-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions.

    PubMed

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2006-08-15

    When interstellar clouds collapse to form new stars and planets, the surrounding gas and dust become part of the infalling envelopes and rotating disks, thus providing the basic material from which new solar systems are formed. Instrumentation to probe the chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions has only recently become available. The results of a systematic program to study the abundances in solar-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions are presented. Surveys at submillimeter and infrared wavelengths reveal a rich chemistry, including simple and complex (organic) gases, ices, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and silicates. Each of these species traces different aspects of the physical and chemical state of the objects as they evolve from deeply embedded protostars to pre-main sequence stars with planet-forming disks. Quantitative information on temperatures, densities, and abundances is obtained through molecular excitation and radiative transfer models as well as from analysis of solid-state line profiles. The chemical characteristics are dominated by freeze-out in the coldest regions and ice evaporation in the warmer zones. In the surface layers of disks, UV radiation controls the chemistry. The importance of complementary laboratory experiments and calculations to obtain basic molecular data is emphasized.

  4. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ∼270 yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (∼100 km s{sup –1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (≲ 10 km s{sup –1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  5. Chemistry in low-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions

    PubMed Central

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2006-01-01

    When interstellar clouds collapse to form new stars and planets, the surrounding gas and dust become part of the infalling envelopes and rotating disks, thus providing the basic material from which new solar systems are formed. Instrumentation to probe the chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions has only recently become available. The results of a systematic program to study the abundances in solar-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions are presented. Surveys at submillimeter and infrared wavelengths reveal a rich chemistry, including simple and complex (organic) gases, ices, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and silicates. Each of these species traces different aspects of the physical and chemical state of the objects as they evolve from deeply embedded protostars to pre-main sequence stars with planet-forming disks. Quantitative information on temperatures, densities, and abundances is obtained through molecular excitation and radiative transfer models as well as from analysis of solid-state line profiles. The chemical characteristics are dominated by freeze-out in the coldest regions and ice evaporation in the warmer zones. In the surface layers of disks, UV radiation controls the chemistry. The importance of complementary laboratory experiments and calculations to obtain basic molecular data is emphasized. PMID:16894165

  6. Protosteller Disks Under the Influence of Winds and UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Star formation and the creation of protostellar disks generally occur in a crowded environment. Nearby young stars and protostars can influence the disks of their closets neighbors by a combination of outflows and hard radiation. The central stars themselves can have a stellar wind and may produce sufficient UV and X-ray to ultimately destroy their surrounding disks. Here we describe the results of numerical simulations of the influence that an external UV source and a central star's wind can have on its circumstellar disk. The numerical method (axial symmetry assumed) is described elsewhere. We find that protostellar disks will be destroyed on a relatively short time scale ( 10(sup 5)yr) unless they are well shielded from O-stars. Initially isotropic T-Tauri winds do not significantly influence their disks, but instead are focused toward the rotation axis by the disk wind from photoevaporation.

  7. Do siblings always form and evolve simultaneously? Testing the coevality of multiple protostellar systems through SEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, N. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tobin, J. J.; Fedele, D.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. Aims: We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. The coevality frequency is determined by constraining the relative evolutionary stages of the components in a multiple system. Methods: Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for known multiple protostars in Perseus were constructed from literature data. Herschel PACS photometric maps were used to sample the peak of the SED for systems with separations ≥7″, a crucial aspect in determining the evolutionary stage of a protostellar system. Inclination effects and the surrounding envelope and outflows were considered to decouple source geometry from evolution. This together with the shape and derived properties from the SED was used to determine each system's coevality as accurately as possible. SED models were used to examine the frequency of non-coevality that is due to geometry. Results: We find a non-coevality frequency of 33 ± 10% from the comparison of SED shapes of resolved multiple systems. Other source parameters suggest a somewhat lower frequency of non-coevality. The frequency of apparent non-coevality that is due to random inclination angle pairings of model SEDs is 17 ± 0.5%. Observations of the outflow of resolved multiple systems do not suggest significant misalignments within multiple systems. Effects of unresolved multiples on the SED shape are also investigated. Conclusions: We find that one-third of the multiple protostellar systems sampled here are non-coeval, which is more than expected from random geometric orientations. The other two-thirds are found to be coeval. Higher order multiples show a tendency to be non-coeval. The frequency of non-coevality found here is most likely due to formation and enhanced by

  8. Infall-driven Protostellar Accretion and the Solution to the Luminosity Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the role of mass infall in the formation and evolution of protostars. To avoid ad hoc initial and boundary conditions, we consider the infall resulting self-consistently from modeling the formation of stellar clusters in turbulent molecular clouds. We show that infall rates in turbulent clouds are comparable to accretion rates inferred from protostellar luminosities or measured in pre-main-sequence stars. They should not be neglected in modeling the luminosity of protostars and the evolution of disks, even after the embedded protostellar phase. We find large variations of infall rates from protostar to protostar, and large fluctuations during the evolution of individual protostars. In most cases, the infall rate is initially of order 10-5 M ⊙ yr-1, and may either decay rapidly in the formation of low-mass stars, or remain relatively large when more massive stars are formed. The simulation reproduces well the observed characteristic values and scatter of protostellar luminosities and matches the observed protostellar luminosity function. The luminosity problem is therefore solved once realistic protostellar infall histories are accounted for, with no need for extreme accretion episodes. These results are based on a simulation of randomly driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence on a scale of 4 pc, including self-gravity, adaptive-mesh refinement to a resolution of 50 AU, and accreting sink particles. The simulation yields a low star formation rate, consistent with the observations, and a mass distribution of sink particles consistent with the observed stellar initial mass function during the whole duration of the simulation, forming nearly 1300 sink particles over 3.2 Myr.

  9. Infall-driven protostellar accretion and the solution to the luminosity problem

    SciTech Connect

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the role of mass infall in the formation and evolution of protostars. To avoid ad hoc initial and boundary conditions, we consider the infall resulting self-consistently from modeling the formation of stellar clusters in turbulent molecular clouds. We show that infall rates in turbulent clouds are comparable to accretion rates inferred from protostellar luminosities or measured in pre-main-sequence stars. They should not be neglected in modeling the luminosity of protostars and the evolution of disks, even after the embedded protostellar phase. We find large variations of infall rates from protostar to protostar, and large fluctuations during the evolution of individual protostars. In most cases, the infall rate is initially of order 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, and may either decay rapidly in the formation of low-mass stars, or remain relatively large when more massive stars are formed. The simulation reproduces well the observed characteristic values and scatter of protostellar luminosities and matches the observed protostellar luminosity function. The luminosity problem is therefore solved once realistic protostellar infall histories are accounted for, with no need for extreme accretion episodes. These results are based on a simulation of randomly driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence on a scale of 4 pc, including self-gravity, adaptive-mesh refinement to a resolution of 50 AU, and accreting sink particles. The simulation yields a low star formation rate, consistent with the observations, and a mass distribution of sink particles consistent with the observed stellar initial mass function during the whole duration of the simulation, forming nearly 1300 sink particles over 3.2 Myr.

  10. An Evolutionary Algorithm for Feature Subset Selection in Hard Disk Drive Failure Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhasin, Harpreet

    2011-01-01

    Hard disk drives are used in everyday life to store critical data. Although they are reliable, failure of a hard disk drive can be catastrophic, especially in applications like medicine, banking, air traffic control systems, missile guidance systems, computer numerical controlled machines, and more. The use of Self-Monitoring, Analysis and…

  11. Predictions for shepherding planets in scattered light images of debris disks

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Malhotra, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Planets can affect debris disk structure by creating gaps, sharp edges, warps, and other potentially observable signatures. However, there is currently no simple way for observers to deduce a disk-shepherding planet's properties from the observed features of the disk. Here we present a single equation that relates a shepherding planet's maximum mass to the debris ring's observed width in scattered light, along with a procedure to estimate the planet's eccentricity and minimum semimajor axis. We accomplish this by performing dynamical N-body simulations of model systems containing a star, a single planet, and an exterior disk of parent bodies and dust grains to determine the resulting debris disk properties over a wide range of input parameters. We find that the relationship between planet mass and debris disk width is linear, with increasing planet mass producing broader debris rings. We apply our methods to five imaged debris rings to constrain the putative planet masses and orbits in each system. Observers can use our empirically derived equation as a guide for future direct imaging searches for planets in debris disk systems. In the fortuitous case of an imaged planet orbiting interior to an imaged disk, the planet's maximum mass can be estimated independent of atmospheric models.

  12. Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kuan, Y. J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

  13. Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment.

    PubMed

    Charnley, S B; Ehrenfreund, P; Kuan, Y J

    2001-03-15

    A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

  14. Reprocessing in Luminous Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. R.

    1999-11-01

    We develop and investigate a procedure that accounts for disk reprocessing of photons that originate in the disk itself. Surface temperatures and simple, blackbody spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostellar disks are calculated. In disks that flare with radius, reprocessing of stellar photons results in temperature profiles that are not power-law at all radii but are consistently shallower than r-3/4. Including the disk as a radiation source (as in the case of active accretion) along with the stellar source further flattens the temperature profile. Disks that flare strongly near the star and then smoothly curve over and become shadowed at some distance (``decreasing curvature'' disks) exhibit nearly power-law temperature profiles that result in power-law infrared SEDs with slopes in agreement with typical observations of young stellar objects. Disk models in which the photospheric thickness is controlled by the local opacity and in which the temperature decreases with radius naturally have this shape. Uniformly flaring models do not match observations as well; progressively stronger reprocessing at larger radii leads to SEDs that flatten toward the infrared or even have a second peak at the wavelength corresponding (through the Wien law) to the temperature of the outer edge of the disk. In FU Orionis outbursting systems, the dominant source of energy is the inner disk. Reprocessing throughout the disk depends sensitively on the inner disk shape and emitted temperature profile. We show that the thermal instability outburst models of Bell & Lin reproduce trends in the observed SEDs of FU Ori systems with T~r-3/4 in the inner disk (r<~0.25 AU corresponding to λ<~10 μm) and T~r-1/2 in the outer disk. Surface irradiation during outburst and quiescence is compared in the region of planet formation (1-10 AU). The contrast between the two phases is diminished by the importance of the reprocessing of photons from the relatively high mass flux, outer disk (Ṁ=10

  15. Volatile snowlines in embedded disks around low-mass protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsono, D.; Bruderer, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Models of the young solar nebula assume a hot initial disk in which most volatiles are in the gas phase. Water emission arising from within 50 AU radius has been detected around low-mass embedded young stellar objects. The question remains whether an actively accreting disk is warm enough to have gas-phase water up to 50 AU radius. No detailed studies have yet been performed on the extent of snowlines in an accreting disk embedded in a dense envelope (stage 0). Aims: We aim to quantify the location of gas-phase volatiles in the inner envelope and disk system for an actively accreting embedded disk. Methods: Two-dimensional physical and radiative transfer models were used to calculate the temperature structure of embedded protostellar systems. Heating due to viscous accretion was added through the diffusion approximation. Gas and ice abundances of H2O, CO2, and CO were calculated using the density-dependent thermal desorption formulation. Results: The midplane water snowline increases from 3 to ~55 AU for accretion rates through the disk onto the star between 10-9-10-4M⊙ yr-1. CO2 can remain in the solid phase within the disk for Ṁ ≤ 10-5M⊙ yr-1 down to ~20 AU. Most of the CO is in the gas phase within an actively accreting disk independent of disk properties and accretion rate. The predicted optically thin water isotopolog emission is consistent with the detected H218O emission toward the stage 0 embedded young stellar objects, originating from both the disk and the warm inner envelope (hot core). An accreting embedded disk can only account for water emission arising from R< 50 AU, however, and the extent rapidly decreases for Ṁ ≤ 10-5M⊙ yr-1. Thus, the radial extent of the emission can be measured with future ALMA observations and compared to this 50 AU limit. Conclusions: Volatiles such as H2O, CO2, CO, and the associated complex organics sublimate out to 50 AU in the midplane of young disks and, thus, can reset the chemical content

  16. OBSERVING SIMULATED PROTOSTARS WITH OUTFLOWS: HOW ACCURATE ARE PROTOSTELLAR PROPERTIES INFERRED FROM SEDs?

    SciTech Connect

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Hansen, Charles E.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-07-10

    The properties of unresolved protostars and their local environment are frequently inferred from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using radiative transfer modeling. In this paper, we use synthetic observations of realistic star formation simulations to evaluate the accuracy of properties inferred from fitting model SEDs to observations. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) three-dimensional gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud including the effects of protostellar outflows. To obtain the dust temperature distribution and SEDs of the forming protostars, we post-process the simulations using HYPERION, a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. We find that the ORION and HYPERION dust temperatures typically agree within a factor of two. We compare synthetic SEDs of embedded protostars for a range of evolutionary times, simulation resolutions, aperture sizes, and viewing angles. We demonstrate that complex, asymmetric gas morphology leads to a variety of classifications for individual objects as a function of viewing angle. We derive best-fit source parameters for each SED through comparison with a pre-computed grid of radiative transfer models. While the SED models correctly identify the evolutionary stage of the synthetic sources as embedded protostars, we show that the disk and stellar parameters can be very discrepant from the simulated values, which is expected since the disk and central source are obscured by the protostellar envelope. Parameters such as the stellar accretion rate, stellar mass, and disk mass show better agreement, but can still deviate significantly, and the agreement may in some cases be artificially good due to the limited range of parameters in the set of model SEDs. Lack of correlation between the model and simulation properties in many individual instances cautions against overinterpreting properties inferred from SEDs for unresolved protostellar

  17. Vibrationally Excited HCN around AFGL 2591: A Probe of Protostellar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veach, Todd J.; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hedden, Abigail

    2013-03-01

    Vibrationally excited molecules with submillimeter rotational transitions are potentially excellent probes of physical conditions near protostars. This study uses observations of the v = 1 and v = 2 ro-vibrational modes of HCN (4-3) to probe this environment. The presence or absence and relative strengths of these ro-vibrational lines probe the gas excitation mechanism and physical conditions in warm, dense material associated with protostellar disks. We present pilot observations from the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope and follow-up observations from the Submillimeter Array. All vibrationally excited HCN (4-3) v = 0, v = 1, and v = 2 lines were observed. The existence of the three v = 2 lines at approximately equal intensity imply collisional excitation with a density of greater than (1010 cm-3) and a temperature of >1000 K for the emitting gas. This warm, high-density material should directly trace structures formed in the protostellar envelope and disk environment. Further, the line shapes of the v = 2 emission may suggest a Keplerian disk. This Letter demonstrates the utility of this technique which is of particular interest due to the recent inauguration of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  18. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN AROUND AFGL 2591: A PROBE OF PROTOSTELLAR STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Veach, Todd J.; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hedden, Abigail

    2013-03-10

    Vibrationally excited molecules with submillimeter rotational transitions are potentially excellent probes of physical conditions near protostars. This study uses observations of the v = 1 and v = 2 ro-vibrational modes of HCN (4-3) to probe this environment. The presence or absence and relative strengths of these ro-vibrational lines probe the gas excitation mechanism and physical conditions in warm, dense material associated with protostellar disks. We present pilot observations from the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope and follow-up observations from the Submillimeter Array. All vibrationally excited HCN (4-3) v = 0, v = 1, and v = 2 lines were observed. The existence of the three v = 2 lines at approximately equal intensity imply collisional excitation with a density of greater than (10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) and a temperature of >1000 K for the emitting gas. This warm, high-density material should directly trace structures formed in the protostellar envelope and disk environment. Further, the line shapes of the v = 2 emission may suggest a Keplerian disk. This Letter demonstrates the utility of this technique which is of particular interest due to the recent inauguration of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  19. Radiation-hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2011-10-01

    We report the results of a series of adaptive mesh refinement radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star-forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7-15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. This simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of the collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density ones. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.

  20. Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, A J; Klein, R I; Krumholz, M R; McKee, C F

    2011-03-02

    We report the results of a series of AMR radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7 to 15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. The simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density one. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.

  1. Efficiency of particle trapping in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the strength of axisymmetric local pressure maxima (zonal flows) in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks, where ambipolar diffusion reduces turbulent stresses driven by the magnetorotational instability. Using local numerical simulations we show that in the absence of net vertical magnetic fields, the strength of turbulence in the ambipolar dominated region of the disk is low and any zonal flows that are present are weak. For net fields strong enough to yield observed protostellar accretion rates, however, zonal flows with a density amplitude of 10%-20% are formed. These strengths are comparable to those seen in simulations of ideal MHD disk turbulence. We investigate whether these zonal flows are able to reverse the inward radial drift of solids, leading to prolonged and enhanced concentration as a prelude to planetesimal formation. For commonly assumed mean surface density profiles (surface density Σ∝r {sup –1/2} or steeper) we find that the predicted perturbations to the background disk profile do not correspond to local pressure maxima. This is a consequence of radial width of the simulated zonal flows, which is larger than was assumed in prior analytic models of particle trapping. These larger scale flows would only trap particles for higher amplitude fluctuations than observed. We conclude that zonal flows are likely to be present in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks and are potentially large enough to be observable, but are unlikely to lead to strong particle trapping.

  2. Verification of CFD analysis methods for predicting the drag force and thrust power of an underwater disk robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Hyeung-Sik; Jung, Sang-Ki; Sammut, Karl; He, Fangpo

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the suitability of using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools, ANSYSCFX, as an initial analysis tool for predicting the drag and propulsion performance (thrust and torque) of a concept underwater vehicle design. In order to select an appropriate thruster that will achieve the required speed of the Underwater Disk Robot (UDR), the ANSYS-CFX tools were used to predict the drag force of the UDR. Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM) test simulations (i.e. pure heaving and pure pitching motion) by CFD motion analysis were carried out with the CFD software. The CFD results reveal the distribution of hydrodynamic values (velocity, pressure, etc.) of the UDR for these motion studies. Finally, CFD bollard pull test simulations were performed and compared with the experimental bollard pull test results conducted in a model basin. The experimental results confirm the suitability of using the ANSYS-CFX tools for predicting the behavior of concept vehicles early on in their design process.

  3. A SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Poteet, Charles A.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Fischer, William J.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Watson, Dan M.; Remming, Ian S.; McClure, Melissa K.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Sargent, Benjamin A.; Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori E.; Ali, Babar

    2011-06-01

    We present the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of the Orion A protostar HOPS-68. The mid-infrared spectrum reveals crystalline substructure at 11.1, 16.1, 18.8, 23.6, 27.9, and 33.6 {mu}m superimposed on the broad 9.7 and 18 {mu}m amorphous silicate features; the substructure is well matched by the presence of the olivine end-member forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). Crystalline silicates are often observed as infrared emission features around the circumstellar disks of Herbig Ae/Be stars and T Tauri stars. However, this is the first unambiguous detection of crystalline silicate absorption in a cold, infalling, protostellar envelope. We estimate the crystalline mass fraction along the line of sight by first assuming that the crystalline silicates are located in a cold absorbing screen and secondly by utilizing radiative transfer models. The resulting crystalline mass fractions of 0.14 and 0.17, respectively, are significantly greater than the upper limit found in the interstellar medium ({approx}<0.02-0.05). We propose that the amorphous silicates were annealed within the hot inner disk and/or envelope regions and subsequently transported outward into the envelope by entrainment in a protostellar outflow.

  4. A COMMON SOURCE OF ACCRETION DISK TILT

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-10-20

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source that causes and maintains disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through the disk's center of mass. The disk responds to lift by pitching around the disk's line of nodes. If the gas stream flow ebbs, then lift also ebbs and the disk attempts to return to its original orientation. To first approximation, lift does not depend on magnetic fields or radiation sources but does depend on the mass and the surface area of the disk. Also, for disk tilt to be initiated, a minimum mass transfer rate must be exceeded. For example, a 10{sup -11} M{sub sun} disk around a 0.8 M{sub sun} compact central object requires a mass transfer rate greater than {approx} 8 x 10{sup -11} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, a value well below the known mass transfer rates in cataclysmic variable dwarf novae systems that retrogradely precess and exhibit negative superhumps in their light curves and a value well below mass transfer rates in protostellar-forming systems.

  5. Modelling Magnetised Protostellar Jets with SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.; Price, Daniel J.; Tricco, Terrence S.

    We present results from the first smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to produce stable long-lived magnetised protostellar jets. We briefly discuss the problems that have arisen in modelling magnetic fields within the SPH formalism in the past, and describe our new method for satisfying the magnetic divergence constraint. We then present results from calculations that follow the collapse of molecular cloud cores to the formation of the first hydrostatic core and follow the magnetised jets launched from the vicinity of the core to distances in excess of 2,000 AU.

  6. FIRST DETECTION OF [C I] {sup 3}P{sub 1}–{sup 3}P{sub 0} EMISSION FROM A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake; Saito, Masao; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Shimajiri, Yoshito

    2015-03-20

    We performed single point [C i] {sup 3}P{sub 1}–{sup 3}P{sub 0} and CO J = 4–3 observations toward three T Tauri stars (TTSs), DM Tau, LkCa 15, and TW Hya, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 8 qualification model receiver installed on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. Two protostars (PSs) in the Taurus L1551 region, L1551 IRS 5 and HL Tau, were also observed. We successfully detected [C i] emission from the protoplanetary disk around DM Tau as well as the protostellar targets. The spectral profile of the [C i] emission from the protoplanetary disk is marginally single-peaked, suggesting that atomic carbon (C) extends toward the outermost disk. The detected [C i] emission is optically thin and the column densities of C are estimated to be ≲10{sup 16} and ∼10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} for the TTS targets and the PSs, respectively. We found a clear difference in the total mass ratio of C to dust, M(C)/M(dust), between the TTSs and protostellar targets; the M(C)/M(dust) ratio of the TTSs is one order of magnitude smaller than that of the PSs. The decrease of the estimated M(C)/M(dust) ratios for the disk sources is consistent with a theoretical prediction that the atomic C can survive only in the near surface layer of the disk and C{sup +}/C/CO transition occurs deeper into the disk midplane.

  7. ASSEMBLY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AND INCLINATIONS OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Foucart, Francois; Lai, Dong

    2013-02-10

    The Kepler satellite has discovered a number of transiting planets around close binary stars. These circumbinary systems have highly aligned planetary and binary orbits. In this paper, we explore how the mutual inclination between the planetary and binary orbits may reflect the physical conditions of the assembly of protoplanetary disks and the interaction between protostellar binaries and circumbinary disks. Given the turbulent nature of star-forming molecular clouds, it is possible that the gas falling onto the outer region of a circumbinary disk and the central protostellar binary have different axes of rotation. Thus, the newly assembled circumbinary disk can be misaligned with respect to the binary. However, the gravitational torque from the binary produces a warp and twist in the disk, and the back-reaction torque tends to align the disk and the binary orbital plane. We present a new, analytic calculation of this alignment torque and show that the binary-disk inclination angle can be reduced appreciably after the binary accretes a few percent of its mass from the disk. Our calculation suggests that in the absence of other disturbances, circumbinary disks and planets around close (sub-AU) stellar binaries, for which mass accretion onto the proto-binary is very likely to have occurred, are expected to be highly aligned with the binary orbits, while disks and planets around wide binaries can be misaligned. Measurements of the mutual inclinations of circumbinary planetary systems can provide a clue to the birth environments of such systems.

  8. Where is the oxygen in protostellar outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Oxygen (O) is the third-most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium. Despite its high elemental abundance, a good picture of where oxygen is located in low-mass protostellar outflows and jets is missing: we cannot account for > 60% of the oxygen budget in these objects. This hole in our picture means that we currently do not have a good understanding of the dominant cooling processes in outflows jets, despite the fact that [O I] emission at 63 micron is one of the dominant cooling lines, nor how cooling processes evolve with protostellar evolution. To shed light on these processes, we propose to observe the [O I] 63 micron line with SOFIA-GREAT toward five low-mass protostars. As a first step, the velocity-resolved line profile will be decomposed into its constituent components to isolate the relative contributions from the jet and the irradiated outflow. Second, the [O I] line profile will be compared to those of H2O, OH and CO to obtain the relative atomic O abundance with respect to CO, H2O, and OH. Third, the effects of evolution will be examined by observing protostars at different evolutionary stages. These three approaches will allow us to quantify: the oxygen chemistry in warm and hot gas, the relative amounts of material in the outflow and the jet, and finally to start tracing the evolutionary sequence of how feedback evolves with time.

  9. Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A

    2008-04-11

    The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.

  10. A Protostellar Jet Emanating from a Hypercompact H ii Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Garay, Guido; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Contreras, Yanett; Dougados, Catherine; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    We present radio continuum observations of the high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G345.4938+01.4677 obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 5, 9, 17, and 19 GHz. These observations provide definite evidence that the outer and inner pairs of radio lobes consist of shock-ionized material being excited by an underlying collimated and fast protostellar jet emanating from a hypercompact H ii region. By comparing with images taken 6 years earlier at 5 and 9 GHz using the same telescope, we assess the proper motions (PMs) of the radio sources. The outer west and east lobes exhibit PMs of 64 ± 12 and 48 ± 13 mas yr-1, indicating velocities projected in the plane of the sky and receding from G345.4938+01.4677 of 520 and 390 {\\text{km s}}-1, respectively. The internal radio lobes also display PM signals consistently receding from the HMYSO with magnitudes of 17 ± 11 and 35 ± 10 mas yr-1 for the inner west and east lobes, respectively. The morphology of the outer west lobe is that of a detached bow shock. At 17 and 19 GHz, the outer east lobe displays an arcuate morphology also suggesting a bow shock. These results show that disk accretion and jet acceleration—possibly occurring in a very similar way compared with low-mass protostars—is taking place in G345.4938+01.4677 despite the presence of ionizing radiation and the associated hypercompact H ii region.

  11. A Protostellar Jet Emanating from a Hypercompact H ii Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Garay, Guido; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Contreras, Yanett; Dougados, Catherine; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    We present radio continuum observations of the high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G345.4938+01.4677 obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 5, 9, 17, and 19 GHz. These observations provide definite evidence that the outer and inner pairs of radio lobes consist of shock-ionized material being excited by an underlying collimated and fast protostellar jet emanating from a hypercompact H ii region. By comparing with images taken 6 years earlier at 5 and 9 GHz using the same telescope, we assess the proper motions (PMs) of the radio sources. The outer west and east lobes exhibit PMs of 64 ± 12 and 48 ± 13 mas yr‑1, indicating velocities projected in the plane of the sky and receding from G345.4938+01.4677 of 520 and 390 {\\text{km s}}-1, respectively. The internal radio lobes also display PM signals consistently receding from the HMYSO with magnitudes of 17 ± 11 and 35 ± 10 mas yr‑1 for the inner west and east lobes, respectively. The morphology of the outer west lobe is that of a detached bow shock. At 17 and 19 GHz, the outer east lobe displays an arcuate morphology also suggesting a bow shock. These results show that disk accretion and jet acceleration—possibly occurring in a very similar way compared with low-mass protostars—is taking place in G345.4938+01.4677 despite the presence of ionizing radiation and the associated hypercompact H ii region.

  12. Protostellar Collapse Using Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaytet, N.; Chabrier, G.; Audit, E.; Commerçon, B.; Masson, J.; González, M.; Ferguson, J.; Delahaye, F.

    2015-10-01

    Many simulations of protostellar collapse make use of a grey treatment of radiative transfer coupled to the hydrodynamics. However, interstellar gas and dust opacities present large variations as a function of frequency. In this paper, we present multigroup radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of a spherically symmetric cloud and the formation of the first and second Larson cores. We have used a non-ideal gas equation of state as well as an extensive set of spectral opacities. Small differences between grey and multigroup simulations were observed. The first and second core accretion shocks were found to be super- and sub-critical, respectively. Varying the initial size and mass of the parent cloud had little impact on the core properties (especially for the second core). We finally present early results from 3D simulations that were performed using the RAMSES code.

  13. Protostellar chemistry dominated by external irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    In their youngest stages, protostars are deeply enshrouded in envelopes of gas and dust, material that later accretes onto the central object and the protoplanetary disc. The chemical composition and excitation properties measured towards these envelopes provide valuable information about the current and previous irradiation environment of the forming protostar.We demonstrate the strengths of unbiased single-dish line surveys, which we use to study the chemical and physical properties of protostellar envelopes. We have performed line surveys of more than 50 sources in the nearby Corona Australis and Ophiuchus star-forming regions using the APEX telescope. Many of the Corona Australis sources are located near the intermediate-mass Herbig Be star R CrA, and we find that despite its moderate luminosity, the irradiation from this star enhances the H2CO temperatures of the nearby protostellar envelopes from 10 K to at least 30-40 K. This drastically elevated temperature should be of crucial importance to the chemistry of these envelopes, due to thermal evaporation of many key species from the dust grain surfaces.Towards R CrA-IRS7B, the most thoroughly investigated object in our study, we find that the chemistry differs greatly from other thoroughly investigated deeply embedded protostars (hot corinos and warm carbon-chain chemistry sources, WCCC). We find low abundances of complex organic molecules such as CH3OCH3 and CH3CN, but instead elevated abundances of CN and some carbon-chain species like HC3N and C2H, although not to the same level as towards typical WCCC sources. We interpret the observed chemical properties as a result of thermal evaporation of CO from the grain mantles and photo-dissociation reactions in the IRS7B envelope, both initiated by the irradiation from R CrA.

  14. Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst.

    PubMed

    Cieza, Lucas A; Casassus, Simon; Tobin, John; Bos, Steven P; Williams, Jonathan P; Perez, Sebastian; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Caceres, Claudio; Canovas, Hector; Dunham, Michael M; Hales, Antonio; Prieto, Jose L; Principe, David A; Schreiber, Matthias R; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Zurlo, Alice

    2016-07-13

    A snow-line is the region of a protoplanetary disk at which a major volatile, such as water or carbon monoxide, reaches its condensation temperature. Snow-lines play a crucial role in disk evolution by promoting the rapid growth of ice-covered grains. Signatures of the carbon monoxide snow-line (at temperatures of around 20 kelvin) have recently been imaged in the disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars TW Hydra and HD163296 (refs 3, 10), at distances of about 30 astronomical units (au) from the star. But the water snow-line of a protoplanetary disk (at temperatures of more than 100 kelvin) has not hitherto been seen, as it generally lies very close to the star (less than 5 au away for solar-type stars). Water-ice is important because it regulates the efficiency of dust and planetesimal coagulation, and the formation of comets, ice giants and the cores of gas giants. Here we report images at 0.03-arcsec resolution (12 au) of the protoplanetary disk around V883 Ori, a protostar of 1.3 solar masses that is undergoing an outburst in luminosity arising from a temporary increase in the accretion rate. We find an intensity break corresponding to an abrupt change in the optical depth at about 42 au, where the elevated disk temperature approaches the condensation point of water, from which we conclude that the outburst has moved the water snow-line. The spectral behaviour across the snow-line confirms recent model predictions: dust fragmentation and the inhibition of grain growth at higher temperatures results in soaring grain number densities and optical depths. As most planetary systems are expected to experience outbursts caused by accretion during their formation, our results imply that highly dynamical water snow-lines must be considered when developing models of disk evolution and planet formation.

  15. Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Casassus, Simon; Tobin, John; Bos, Steven P.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Perez, Sebastian; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Caceres, Claudio; Canovas, Hector; Dunham, Michael M.; Hales, Antonio; Prieto, Jose L.; Principe, David A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Zurlo, Alice

    2016-07-01

    A snow-line is the region of a protoplanetary disk at which a major volatile, such as water or carbon monoxide, reaches its condensation temperature. Snow-lines play a crucial role in disk evolution by promoting the rapid growth of ice-covered grains. Signatures of the carbon monoxide snow-line (at temperatures of around 20 kelvin) have recently been imaged in the disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars TW Hydra and HD163296 (refs 3, 10), at distances of about 30 astronomical units (AU) from the star. But the water snow-line of a protoplanetary disk (at temperatures of more than 100 kelvin) has not hitherto been seen, as it generally lies very close to the star (less than 5 AU away for solar-type stars). Water-ice is important because it regulates the efficiency of dust and planetesimal coagulation, and the formation of comets, ice giants and the cores of gas giants. Here we report images at 0.03-arcsec resolution (12 AU) of the protoplanetary disk around V883 Ori, a protostar of 1.3 solar masses that is undergoing an outburst in luminosity arising from a temporary increase in the accretion rate. We find an intensity break corresponding to an abrupt change in the optical depth at about 42 AU, where the elevated disk temperature approaches the condensation point of water, from which we conclude that the outburst has moved the water snow-line. The spectral behaviour across the snow-line confirms recent model predictions: dust fragmentation and the inhibition of grain growth at higher temperatures results in soaring grain number densities and optical depths. As most planetary systems are expected to experience outbursts caused by accretion during their formation, our results imply that highly dynamical water snow-lines must be considered when developing models of disk evolution and planet formation.

  16. Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst.

    PubMed

    Cieza, Lucas A; Casassus, Simon; Tobin, John; Bos, Steven P; Williams, Jonathan P; Perez, Sebastian; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Caceres, Claudio; Canovas, Hector; Dunham, Michael M; Hales, Antonio; Prieto, Jose L; Principe, David A; Schreiber, Matthias R; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Zurlo, Alice

    2016-07-14

    A snow-line is the region of a protoplanetary disk at which a major volatile, such as water or carbon monoxide, reaches its condensation temperature. Snow-lines play a crucial role in disk evolution by promoting the rapid growth of ice-covered grains. Signatures of the carbon monoxide snow-line (at temperatures of around 20 kelvin) have recently been imaged in the disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars TW Hydra and HD163296 (refs 3, 10), at distances of about 30 astronomical units (au) from the star. But the water snow-line of a protoplanetary disk (at temperatures of more than 100 kelvin) has not hitherto been seen, as it generally lies very close to the star (less than 5 au away for solar-type stars). Water-ice is important because it regulates the efficiency of dust and planetesimal coagulation, and the formation of comets, ice giants and the cores of gas giants. Here we report images at 0.03-arcsec resolution (12 au) of the protoplanetary disk around V883 Ori, a protostar of 1.3 solar masses that is undergoing an outburst in luminosity arising from a temporary increase in the accretion rate. We find an intensity break corresponding to an abrupt change in the optical depth at about 42 au, where the elevated disk temperature approaches the condensation point of water, from which we conclude that the outburst has moved the water snow-line. The spectral behaviour across the snow-line confirms recent model predictions: dust fragmentation and the inhibition of grain growth at higher temperatures results in soaring grain number densities and optical depths. As most planetary systems are expected to experience outbursts caused by accretion during their formation, our results imply that highly dynamical water snow-lines must be considered when developing models of disk evolution and planet formation. PMID:27411631

  17. Outflows from Thick, Turbulent Accretion in High Accretion-Rate Protostellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we argued that jets might not be produced through magnetocentrifugal acceleration, but rather through the toroidal stresses of magnetorotational instability (MRI)-driven turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion in a geometrically thick disk or flow. High accretion-rate protostars are among the best candidates for this process because a geometrically thick accretion disk that extends down to the central star is more plausible in this context than in other protostellar systems. These systems are also cleaner objects to study than active galactic nuclei (AGN), microquasars, and the like, which necessarily involve more exotic relativistic physics. Here we present a novel in-depth analysis of the laboratory analog that inspired our work on this topic. This analog consists of the meridional flow around a rotating sphere in a viscoelastic fluid. We examine in detail the fluxes of mass, angular momentum, linear momentum, and energy, and how these depend upon system parameters. We find that the presence of an axial outflow depends critically upon the ratio of the analogous turbulent magnetic stress to turbulent Reynolds stress, which must be roughly equal to or larger than unity to drive an outflow. We also find that the flux of angular momentum can actually be opposed to the flow of matter within the outflow, despite the fact that the outflow is ultimately powered by the radial transport of angular momentum from the central object. In particular we show that, in contrast with magnetocentrifugal acceleration, the angular momentum of the outflow actually decreases even while the material is being axially accelerated. This translates to observational tests in protostellar jets. There are some obvious enormous differences between compressible flow in a gravitational field and incompressible flow in a laboratory. We address this and we and argue why, despite these differences, there is much to learn from this laboratory system.

  18. DISENTANGLING THE ENTANGLED: OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF THE TRIPLE NON-COEVAL PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM VLA1623

    SciTech Connect

    Murillo, Nadia M.; Lai, Shih-Ping E-mail: slai@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2013-02-10

    Commonplace at every evolutionary stage, multiple protostellar systems (MPSs) are thought to be formed through fragmentation, but it is unclear when and how. The youngest MPSs, which have not yet undergone much evolution, provide important constraints to this question. It is then of interest to disentangle early stage MPSs. In this Letter we present the results of our work on VLA1623 using our observations and archival data from the Submillimeter Array. Our continuum and line observations trace VLA1623's components, outflow, and envelope, revealing unexpected characteristics. We construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) for each component using the results of our work and data from literature, as well as derive physical parameters from continuum and perform a simple kinematical analysis of the circumstellar material. Our results show VLA1623 to be a triple non-coeval system composed of VLA1623A, B, and W, with each source driving its own outflow and unevenly distributed circumstellar material. From the SED, physical parameters, and IR emission we conclude that VLA1623A and W are Class 0 and Class I protostars, respectively, and together drive the bulk of the observed outflow. Furthermore, we find two surprising results, first the presence of a rotating disk-like structure about VLA1623A with indications of pure Keplerian rotation, which, if real, would make it one of the first evidence of Keplerian disk structures around Class 0 protostars. Second, we find VLA1623B to be a bona fide extremely young protostellar object between the starless core and Class 0 stages.

  19. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  20. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    SciTech Connect

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B.; Sipilä, Olli

    2014-08-10

    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H{sub 2} and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  1. Centrally-Rupturing Squib-Closure Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1986-01-01

    Rupture-disk design makes squib action more predictable. In new design, center of rupture disk contains cruciform indentation in which thickness reduced to about 0.5 mil (0.013 mm). Reduces strength of center of rupture disk in same manner as that of pull tabs on beverage cans; therefore, disk will fail predictably in center.

  2. The one dimensional collapse models of turbulent protostellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamozdra, S. N.

    The spherically-symmetric numerical modelling of the gravitational collapse of protostellar clouds is carried out, taking ambipolar diffusion and the pressure of Alfvenic turbulence into account. It is shown that the dependency of protostar formation time on ekg (the initial turbulent-to-gravitational energies ratio) is non-monotonic because it is determined by the complex interaction of large scale magnetosonic waves with the waves of turbulence amplification. Protostellar mass is almost independent on ekg while accretion rate variations with ekg can be of order of 10%.

  3. The collapse of clouds and the formation and evolution of stars and disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Frank; Najita, Joan; Galli, Daniele; Ostriker, Eve; Lizano, Susana

    1993-01-01

    We consider the interrelationships among the structure of molecular clouds; the collapse of rotating cloud cores; the formation of stars and disks; the origin of molecular outflows, protostellar winds, and highly collimated jets; the birth of planetary and binary systems; and the dynamics of star/disk/satellite interactions. Our discussion interweaves theory with the results of observations that span from millimeter wavelengths to X-rays.

  4. Properties of Planet-Forming Prostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor); Lubow, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The proposal achieved many of its objectives. The main area of investigation was the interaction of young planets with surrounding protostellar disks. The grant funds were used to support visits by CoIs and visitors: Gordon Ogilvie, Gennaro D Angelo, and Matthew Bate. Funds were used for travel and partial salary support for Lubow. We made important progress in two areas described in the original proposal: secular resonances (Section 3) and nonlinear waves in three dimensions (Section 5). In addition, we investigated several new areas: planet migration, orbital distribution of planets, and noncoorbital corotation resonances.

  5. FIRST DETECTION OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE TOWARD PROTOSTELLAR SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Codella, C.; Vasta, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Salez, M.; Cabrit, S.; Viti, S.

    2012-01-10

    We present the first detection of hydrogen chloride in a protostellar shock by observing the fundamental transition at 626 GHz with the HIFI spectrometer. We detected two of the three hyperfine lines from which we derived a line opacity {<=}1. Using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium large velocity gradient code, we constrained the HCl column density, temperature, and density of the emitting gas. The hypothesis that the emission originates in the molecular cloud is ruled out because it would imply a very dense gas. Conversely, assuming that the emission originates in the 10''-15'' size shocked gas previously observed at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we obtain N(HCl) = 0.7-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, temperature >15 K, and density >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}. Combining these with the Herschel HIFI CO(5-4) observations allows us to further constrain the gas density and temperature, 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} and 120-250 K, respectively, as well as the HCl column density, 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, and, finally, the abundance {approx}3-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. The estimated HCl abundance is consistent with that previously observed in low- and high-mass protostars. This puzzling result in the L1157-B1 shock, where species from volatile and refractory grain components are enhanced, suggests either that HCl is not the main reservoir of chlorine in the gas phase, which goes against previous chemical model predictions, or that the elemental chlorine abundance is low in L1157-B1. Astrochemical modeling suggests that HCl is in fact formed in the gas phase at low temperatures prior to the occurrence of the shock; the latter does not enhance its abundance.

  6. DEUTERIUM CHEMISTRY IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. THE INNER 30 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Willacy, K.; Woods, P. M. E-mail: Paul.Woods@manchester.ac.u

    2009-09-20

    We present the results of models of the chemistry, including deuterium, in the inner regions of protostellar disks. We find good agreement with recent gas-phase observations of several (non-deuterated) species. We also compare our results with observations of comets and find that in the absence of other processing, e.g., in the accretion shock at the surface of the disk, or by mixing in the disk, the calculated D/H ratios in ices are higher than measured and reflect the D/H ratio set in the molecular cloud phase. Our models give quite different abundances and molecular distributions to other inner disk models because of the differences in physical conditions in the model disk. This emphasizes how changes in the assumptions about the density and temperature distribution can radically affect the results of chemical models.

  7. X-Ray Emission from Protostellar Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Jon A.; McCray, Dick; Bally, John; Devine, David

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this program were to identify the termination shocks in several parsec-scale protostellar jets through the thermal soft X-rays emitted by the high-velocity terminal shock waves, and to assess the impact these outflows have on the surrounding interstellar and intercloud medium. The terminal shock waves that plow into the undisturbed interstellar medium may have shock velocities commensurate with the observed space motions of several hundred km s(exp -1). Such shocks will heat and ionize the interstellar medium, perhaps creating large ovoid bubbles of hot gas. Identifying the location of the terminal shocks in these outflows would also allow us to place constraints on the ages of these outflows, and hence the duration of the mass-loss phase that accompanies the formation of a star. We targeted four outflows where the outer optical shock waves are projected against low-extinction backgrounds. From the two dozen or so parsec-scale flows known, we chose those that have the highest velocities, brightest optical counterparts, and/or the richest concentration of shock waves in a small area on the sky. Four giant HH flows have been observed with the ROSAT HRI at Priority A for 30 ksec each. Results: Unfortunately, we failed to detect X-ray emission from the terminal bow shocks of the giant HH flows using the ROSAT HRI. The reasons are likely to be: (1) The shock velocities may be too low to emit in the soft X-rays. (2) The sensitivity of the HRI is too low to detect the diffuse emission. The fields that we observed were chosen to be low extinction sight-lines, with the consequence that the tenuous media into which the outer bow shocks are propagating produce low fluxes. Despite the failure to achieve the primary science goals, we have identified in each image a half a dozen or so point-source young stellar objects. The HRI images have been very useful for discerning potential outflow sources and are being combined with optical, near-IR, and radio imaging data

  8. Signatures of Chemical Evolution in Protostellar Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    A decade ago observers began to take serious notice of the presence of crystalline silicate grains in the dust flowing away from some comets. While crystallinity had been seen in such objects previously, starting with the recognitions by Campins and Ryan (1990) that the 10 micron feature of Comet Halley resembled that of the mineral forsterite, most such observations were either ignored or dismissed as no path to explain such crystalline grains was available in the literature. When it was first suggested that an outward flow must be present to carry annealed silicate grains from the innermost regions of the Solar Nebula out to the regions where comets could form (Nuth, 1999; 2001) this suggestion was also dismissed because no such transport mechanism was known at the time. Since then not only have new models of nebular dynamics demonstrated the reality of long distance outward transport (Ciesla, 2007; 2008; 2009) but examination of older models (Boss, 2004) showed that such transport had been present but had gone unrecognized for many years. The most unassailable evidence for outward nebular transport came with the return of the Stardust samples from Comet Wild2, a Kuiper-belt comet that contained micron-scale grains of high temperature minerals resembling the Calcium-Aluminum Inclusions found in primitive meteorites (Zolensky et aI., 2006) that formed at T > 1400K. Now that outward transport in protostellar nebulae has been firmly established, a re-examination of its consequences for nebular gas is in order that takes into account both the factors that regulate both the outward flow as well as those that likely control the chemical composition of the gas. Laboratory studies of surface catalyzed reactions suggest that a trend toward more highly reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds in the gas phase should be correlated with a general increase in the crystallinity of the dust (Nuth et aI., 2000), but is such a trend actually observable? Unlike the Fischer-Tropsch or

  9. A WFPC2 Study of Proplyds and a Protostellar Condensation at the Center of M20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2001-07-01

    The Trifid nebula {M20} is a well-known prominent optical HII region trisected by bands of obscuring dust lanes and excited by an O7.5 star HD 164492A. Our recent study of near-IR ground-based observations of this region at J, H, K and L show all seven components of HD 164492 {A to G} identified optically. Our sub-arcsecond radio continuum VLA and ground- based observations of M20 also show free-free emission from three stellar sources {B, C and D} and a bright rim outlining a protostellar condensation {TC1} lying close to the O7V star {HD 164492A} at the center of the nebula. Based on a number of strong arguments, these stars have disks associated with them and their envelopes are photoionized externally by the UV radiation from the hot central star, HD 164492A. The proposed WFPC2 observations are intended to search for neutral protoplanetary disks ``proplyds'', to study the optically bright rim of ionized gas associated with TC1 for signs of star formation, and to make a detailed subarcsecond determination of extinction toward the dust lanes of M20 using HAlpha and 6cm data.

  10. Herniated Disk

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep them in place. As you age, the disks break down or degenerate. As they do, they lose their cushioning ability. This can lead to pain if the back is stressed. A herniated disk is a disk that ruptures. This allows the ...

  11. Dust Coagulation in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, W.; Henning, Th.; Mucha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution of dust particles in circumstellar disk-like structures around protostars and young stellar objects is discussed. In particular, we consider the coagulation of grains due to collisional aggregation. The coagulation of the particles is calculated by solving numerically the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. The different physical processes leading to relative velocities between the grains are investigated. The relative velocities may be induced by Brownian motion, turbulence and drift motion. Starting from different regimes which can be identified during the grain growth we also discuss the evolution of dust opacities. These opacities are important for both the derivation of the circumstellar dust mass from submillimeter/millimeter continuum observations and the dynamical behavior of the disks. We present results of our numerical studies of the coagulation of dust grains in a turbulent protoplanetary accretion disk described by a time-dependent one-dimensional (radial) alpha-model. For several periods and disk radii, mass distributions of coagulated grains have been calculated. From these mass spectra, we determined the corresponding Rosseland mean dust opacities. The influence of grain opacity changes due to dust coagulation on the dynamical evolution of a protostellar disk is considered. Significant changes in the thermal structure of the protoplanetary nebula are observed. A 'gap' in the accretion disk forms at the very frontier of the coagulation, i.e., behind the sublimation boundary in the region between 1 and 5 AU.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope and United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Observations of the Center of the Trifid Nebula: Evidence for the Photoevaporation of a Proplyd and a Protostellar Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Biretta, J.; Geballe, T. R.

    2005-09-01

    The Trifid Nebula (M20) is a well-known prominent optical H II region trisected by bands of obscuring dust lanes and excited by an O7.5 star, HD 164492A. Previous near-IR, mid-IR, and radio continuum observations of the cluster of stars at the center of the Trifid Nebula indicated the presence of circumstellar disks associated with hot stars with envelopes that are photoionized externally by the UV radiation from the hot central star, HD 164492A. Using the WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we present evidence of a resolved proplyd in Hα and [S II] line emission from a stellar source emitting cool dust emission. Using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, an infrared observation of the stellar source with a proplyd indicates a late F to mid-G spectral type. We also note a remarkable complex of filamentary and sheetlike structures that appear to arise from the edge of a protostellar condensation. These observations are consistent with a picture in which the bright massive star HD 164492A is responsible for the photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks of other less massive members of the cluster, as well as the closest protostellar condensation facing the central cluster. Using the evidence for a proplyd, we argue that the massive and intermediate-mass members of the cluster, HD 164492C (B6 star) and HD 164492 (Herbig Be star), have disks associated with them.

  13. Protostellar formation in rotating interstellar clouds. VIII - Inner core formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    The results are presented of a variety of spherically symmetric one-dimensional (1D) calculations intended to determine the robustness of the dynamical hiccup phenomenon in protostellar cores. The 1D models show that the phenomenon is relatively insensitive to changes in the equations of state, numerical resolution, initial density and temperature, and the radiative transfer approximation. In 1D, the hiccup results in an explosive destruction of the entire inner protostellar core. Inner core formation is studied with a sequence of three-dimensional models which show that rapid inner core rotation stabilizes the hiccup instability. Instead, the inner core becomes quite flat and undergoes a cycle of binary fragmentation, binary decay into a single object surrounded by a bar, breakup of the bar into a binary, etc. When lesser amounts of rotation are involved, the inner core does hiccup somewhat, but mass is ejected in only a few directions, leading to several broad streams of ejecta.

  14. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. I. THE CONSTANT COOLING TIME CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Scott; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: tomsc@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: aaron.boley@gmail.com

    2012-02-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protostellar disk, subject to a constant global cooling time and susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs), at a time when heating and cooling are roughly balanced. Our goal is to determine the gravitational torques produced by GIs, the level to which transport can be represented by a simple {alpha}-disk formulation, and to examine fragmentation criteria. Four simulations are conducted, identical except for the number of azimuthal computational grid points used. A Fourier decomposition of non-axisymmetric density structures in cos (m{phi}), sin (m{phi}) is performed to evaluate the amplitudes A{sub m} of these structures. The A{sub m} , gravitational torques, and the effective Shakura and Sunyaev {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses are determined for each resolution. We find nonzero A{sub m} for all m-values and that A{sub m} summed over all m is essentially independent of resolution. Because the number of measurable m-values is limited to half the number of azimuthal grid points, higher-resolution simulations have a larger fraction of their total amplitude in higher-order structures. These structures act more locally than lower-order structures. Therefore, as the resolution increases the total gravitational stress decreases as well, leading higher-resolution simulations to experience weaker average gravitational torques than lower-resolution simulations. The effective {alpha} also depends upon the magnitude of the stresses, thus {alpha}{sub eff} also decreases with increasing resolution. Our converged {alpha}{sub eff} is consistent with predictions from an analytic local theory for thin disks by Gammie, but only over many dynamic times when averaged over a substantial volume of the disk.

  15. DETECTION OF A MAGNETIZED DISK AROUND A VERY YOUNG PROTOSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Ramprasad; Girart, Josep M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Marrone, Daniel P. E-mail: girart@ice.cat

    2014-01-01

    We present subarcsecond resolution polarimetric observations of the 878 μm thermal dust continuum emission obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward the IRAS 16293–2422 protostellar binary system. We report the detection of linearly polarized dust emission arising from the circumstellar disk associated with the IRAS 16293–2422 B protostar. The fractional polarization of ≅ 1.4% is only slightly lower than that expected from theoretical calculations in such disks. The magnetic field structure on the plane of the sky derived from the dust polarization suggests a complex magnetic field geometry in the disk, possibly associated with a rotating disk that is wrapping the field lines as expected from the simulations. The polarization around IRAS 16293–2422 A at subarcsecond angular resolution is only marginally detected.

  16. Revealing the dynamics of Class 0 protostellar discs with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Walch, S.; Banerjee, R.

    2016-06-01

    We present synthetic ALMA observations of Keplerian, protostellar discs in the Class 0 stage studying the emission of molecular tracers like 13CO, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, and H2CO. We model the emission of discs around low- and intermediate-mass protostars. We show that under optimal observing conditions ALMA is able to detect the discs already in the earliest stage of protostellar evolution, although the emission is often concentrated to the innermost 50 au. Therefore, a resolution of a few 0.1 arcsec might be too low to detect Keplerian discs around Class 0 objects. We also demonstrate that under optimal conditions for edge-on discs Keplerian rotation signatures are recognisable, from which protostellar masses can be inferred. For this we here introduce a new approach, which allows us to determine protostellar masses with higher fidelity than before. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to reveal Keplerian rotation even for strongly inclined discs and that ALMA should be able to detect possible signs of fragmentation in face-on discs. In order to give some guidance for future ALMA observations, we investigate the influence of varying observing conditions and source distances. We show that it is possible to probe Keplerian rotation in inclined discs with an observing time of 2 h and a resolution of 0.1 arcsec, even in the case of moderate weather conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that under optimal conditions, Keplerian discs around intermediate-mass protostars should be detectable up to kpc distances.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Small Organics in Prestellar and Protostellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waalkes, William; Guzman, Viviana; Oberg, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    In the interstellar medium, formaldehyde (H2CO) has efficient formation pathways in both the gas-phase and on the surfaces of dust grains. Methanol (CH3OH), on the other hand, is believed to form exclusively on grains as there are no efficient gas-phase reactions leading to CH3OH. We present observations taken with the IRAM 30m telescope of several H2CO and CH3OH lines in a prestellar and protostellar core. We investigated the formation pathways of H2CO and CH3OH by comparing their spatial distributions. We find that in the prestellar core, the two species are anti-correlated in the densest region, while their emission is correlated in the low-density region. In contrast, for the protostellar core we find a correlation in the distribution of both species. We conclude that in the protostellar source, H2CO and CH3OH form together on grains and have been thermally desorbed due to the central newly formed star. In the prestellar core, however, CH3OH forms on the ices and remains depleted in the coldest regions, while H2CO can form efficiently in the gas-phase. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  18. Near-Infrared Imaging of Protostellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megeath, S. T.; Pipher, Judy; Myers, Phil; Peterson, Dawn

    2000-08-01

    We propose SQIID multiband IR imaging of the LBS 23 and OMC2/3 regions in the Orion Giant Molecular Clouds. Submillimeter observations of these regions show a remarkable number of protostars, indicating that these regions are forming stars at a rapid rate, but neither LBS-23 or OMC-2/3 have been surveyed extensively at infrared wavelengths. Using deep observations with SQIID on the 2.1-m telescope, we will survey the embedded stellar population of pre--main sequence stars down to the hydrogen burning limit in these highly extincted regions. These observations will give us a unique opportunity to study the earlier stages of cluster formation before the parental molecular gas has been significantly disrupted by HII regions. We will examine the spatial distribution to study the fragmentation history of the molecular gas and to use the spacing of the observed YSOs to constrain theories of cluster formation. We will also study the early evolution of the IMF and fraction of stars with disks by comparing these ``protoclusters'' to more more evolved regions such as the Trapezium cluster and NGC 2024.

  19. Clarifying Massive Protostellar Evolution and Circumstellar Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal; Hoare, Melvin; Lumsden, Stuart; Robitaille, Thomas; Sewilo, Marta; Urquhart, James; Viti, Serena; Whitney, Barbara

    2008-03-01

    Massive stars dominate the evolution of galaxies and even as protostars, their feedback can affect their own formation and that of their host clusters. We propose a systematic study of massive protostars through the stages of their early evolution, to derive a clearer evolutionary sequence and a better link between the state of the central source and physical conditions in circumstellar material. This experiment will improve over existing work by careful source selection to systematically span evolutionary parameter space, resulting in a more uniform and comprehensive sample. Sophisticated radiative transfer, ionization, and chemical modeling will be used to extract the full riches of each IRS spectrum and find trends in how massive stars form and process their natal material: We will be able to determine the temperature, density, and chemical state (heating history) of circumstellar dust and ice in the accretion disk and envelope, and at later evolutionary stages the ionizing and soft (PAH-exciting) ultraviolet radiation emitted by the protostars and how that radiation is quenched and shadowed by circumstellar material. This investigation is the key to realizing the full potential of previous infrared imaging surveys like MSX and Spitzer's GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL to study massive star formation. These surveys have provided a basis for us to select a large relatively unbiased sample spanning evolutionary state. In return, revealing the spectroscopic signature of massive YSOs will greatly clarify the modeling and interpretation of the thousands of other protostars in these imaging survey data.

  20. Optical Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, John C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This four-article section focuses on information storage capacity of the optical disk covering the information workstation (uses microcomputer, optical disk, compact disc to provide reference information, information content, work product support); use of laser videodisc technology for dissemination of agricultural information; encoding databases…

  1. The development of a protoplanetary disk from its natal envelope.

    PubMed

    Watson, Dan M; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Forrest, William J; Furlan, E; Najita, J; Calvet, Nuria; d'Alessio, Paola; Hartmann, Lee; Sargent, B; Green, Joel D; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Houck, J R

    2007-08-30

    Class 0 protostars, the youngest type of young stellar objects, show many signs of rapid development from their initial, spheroidal configurations, and therefore are studied intensively for details of the formation of protoplanetary disks within protostellar envelopes. At millimetre wavelengths, kinematic signatures of collapse have been observed in several such protostars, through observations of molecular lines that probe their outer envelopes. It has been suggested that one or more components of the proto-multiple system NGC 1333-IRAS 4 (refs 1, 2) may display signs of an embedded region that is warmer and denser than the bulk of the envelope. Here we report observations that reveal details of the core on Solar System dimensions. We detect in NGC 1333-IRAS 4B a rich emission spectrum of H2O, at wavelengths 20-37 microm, which indicates an origin in extremely dense, warm gas. We can model the emission as infall from a protostellar envelope onto the surface of a deeply embedded, dense disk, and therefore see the development of a protoplanetary disk. This is the only example of mid-infrared water emission from a sample of 30 class 0 objects, perhaps arising from a favourable orientation; alternatively, this may be an early and short-lived stage in the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. PMID:17728752

  2. DISK-SATELLITE INTERACTION IN DISKS WITH DENSITY GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovich, Cristobal; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2012-10-10

    Gravitational coupling between a gaseous disk and an orbiting perturber leads to angular momentum exchange between them that can result in gap opening by planets in protoplanetary disks and clearing of gas by binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) embedded in accretion disks. Understanding the co-evolution of the disk and the orbit of the perturber in these circumstances requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of the torque exerted by the latter on a highly non-uniform disk. Here we explore disk-satellite interaction in disks with gaps in linear approximation both in Fourier and in physical space, explicitly incorporating the disk non-uniformity in the fluid equations. Density gradients strongly displace the positions of Lindblad resonances in the disk (which often occur at multiple locations), and the waveforms of modes excited close to the gap edge get modified compared to the uniform disk case. The spatial distribution of the excitation torque density is found to be quite different from the existing prescriptions: most of the torque is exerted in a rather narrow region near the gap edge where Lindblad resonances accumulate, followed by an exponential falloff with the distance from the perturber. Despite these differences, for a given gap profile, the full integrated torque exerted on the disk agrees with the conventional uniform disk theory prediction at the level of {approx}10%. The nonlinearity of the density wave excited by the perturber is shown to decrease as the wave travels out of the gap, slowing down its nonlinear evolution and damping. Our results suggest that gap opening in protoplanetary disks and gas clearing around SMBH binaries can be more efficient than the existing theories predict. They pave the way for self-consistent calculations of the gap structure and the orbital evolution of the perturber using accurate prescription for the torque density behavior.

  3. Simulating the Formation of Massive Protostars. I. Radiative Feedback and Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Kuiper, Rolf; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi

    2016-05-01

    We present radiation hydrodynamic simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with initial masses of 30, 100, and 200 M ⊙. We follow their gravitational collapse and the formation of a massive protostar and protostellar accretion disk. We employ a new hybrid radiative feedback method blending raytracing techniques with flux-limited diffusion for a more accurate treatment of the temperature and radiative force. In each case, the disk that forms becomes Toomre-unstable and develops spiral arms. This occurs between 0.35 and 0.55 freefall times and is accompanied by an increase in the accretion rate by a factor of 2–10. Although the disk becomes unstable, no other stars are formed. In the case of our 100 and 200 M ⊙ simulations, the star becomes highly super-Eddington and begins to drive bipolar outflow cavities that expand outwards. These radiatively driven bubbles appear stable, and appear to be channeling gas back onto the protostellar accretion disk. Accretion proceeds strongly through the disk. After 81.4 kyr of evolution, our 30 M ⊙ simulation shows a star with a mass of 5.48 M ⊙ and a disk of mass 3.3 M ⊙, while our 100 M ⊙ simulation forms a 28.8 M ⊙ mass star with a 15.8 M ⊙ disk over the course of 41.6 kyr, and our 200 M ⊙ simulation forms a 43.7 M ⊙ star with an 18 M ⊙ disk in 21.9 kyr. In the absence of magnetic fields or other forms of feedback, the masses of the stars in our simulation do not appear to be limited by their own luminosities.

  4. Rotation and Outflow Motions in the Very Low-Mass Class 0 Protostellar System HH 211 at Subarcsecond Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Hirano, Naomi; Palau, Aina; Ho, Paul T. P.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Zhang, Qizhou; Shang, Hsien

    2009-07-01

    HH 211 is a nearby young protostellar system with a highly collimated jet. We have mapped it in 352 GHz continuum, SiO (J = 8 - 7), and HCO+ (J = 4 - 3) emission at up to ~0farcs2 resolution with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The continuum source is now resolved into two sources, SMM1 and SMM2, with a separation of ~ 84 AU. SMM1 is seen at the center of the jet, probably tracing a (inner) dusty disk around the protostar driving the jet. SMM2 is seen to the southwest of SMM1 and may trace an envelope-disk around a small binary companion. A flattened envelope-disk is seen in HCO+ around SMM1 with a radius of ~ 80 AU perpendicular to the jet axis. Its velocity structure is consistent with a rotation motion and can be fitted with a Keplerian law that yields a mass of ~50 ± 15 M Jup (a mass of a brown dwarf) for the protostar. Thus, the protostar could be the lowest mass source known to have a collimated jet and a rotating flattened envelope-disk. A small-scale (~200 AU) low-speed (~2 km s-1) outflow is seen in HCO+ around the jet axis extending from the envelope-disk. It seems to rotate in the same direction as the envelope-disk and may carry away part of the angular momentum from the envelope-disk. The jet is seen in SiO close to ~100 AU from SMM1. It is seen with a "C-shaped" bending. It has a transverse width of lsim 40 AU and a velocity of ~ 170 ± 60 km s-1. A possible velocity gradient is seen consistently across its innermost pair of knots, ~0.5 km s-1 at ~10 AU, consistent with the sense of rotation of the envelope-disk. If this gradient is an upper limit of the true rotational gradient of the jet, then the jet carries away a very small amount of angular momentum of lsim 5 AU km s-1 and thus must be launched from the very inner edge of the disk near the corotation radius.

  5. FROM PRESTELLAR TO PROTOSTELLAR CORES. II. TIME DEPENDENCE AND DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Y.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Garrod, R. T.; Herbst, E.

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the molecular evolution and D/H abundance ratios that develop as star formation proceeds from a dense molecular cloud core to a protostellar core, by solving a gas-grain reaction network applied to a one-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic model with infalling fluid parcels. Spatial distributions of gas and ice-mantle species are calculated at the first-core stage, and at times after the birth of a protostar. Gas-phase methanol and methane are more abundant than CO at radii r {approx}< 100 AU in the first-core stage, but gradually decrease with time, while abundances of larger organic species increase. The warm-up phase, when complex organic molecules are efficiently formed, is longer-lived for those fluid parcels infalling at later stages. The formation of unsaturated carbon chains (warm carbon-chain chemistry) is also more effective in later stages; C{sup +}, which reacts with CH{sub 4} to form carbon chains, increases in abundance as the envelope density decreases. The large organic molecules and carbon chains are strongly deuterated, mainly due to high D/H ratios in the parent molecules, determined in the cold phase. We also extend our model to simulate simply the chemistry in circumstellar disks, by suspending the one-dimensional infall of a fluid parcel at constant disk radii. The species CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} and HCOOCH{sub 3} increase in abundance in 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yr at the fixed warm temperature; both also have high D/H ratios.

  6. The two-dimensional angular momentum distribution in a protostellar core L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokane, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao; Saigo, Kazuya; Kurono, Yasutaka

    2013-07-01

    In star formation at the early phase, angular momentum distribution of a natal core is crucial to determine the evolution of the core such as binary formation and disk formation. We have not yet fully understood the angular momentum distribution of such dense cores. We therefore mapped a 6 arcmin x6 arcmin region (0.2 pc x 0.2 pc) of the protostellar core L1527 in C18O(1-0) with 0.1 km/s resolution with the Nobeyama 45m Telescope in order to derive rotation properties. In the C18O(1-0) integrated intensity map, the emission distribution is centered on the protostar. We introduced a new method to calculate the two-dimensional specific angular momentum distribution of a core and derived the direction of the rotation axis as a function of the core radius. We found that the direction of the angular momentum vector changes from outside to inside and thus, we have confirmed that the dense core L1527 cannot be described by a single rotation axis. Since the inner rotational axis direction is especially important with formation and evolution of the inner rotating disk (Tobin+2013), we think that analysis of the two dimensional specific angular momentum distributions is required. Our method has advantages over the previous analysis of dense cores. First the linear or planar fitting of the line of sight velocity to derive a velocity gradient cannot detect change of the rotational axis (Goodman+1993, Ohashi+1997, and Caselli+2002). Second the position-velocity diagrams can distinguish between rigid-rotation or differential rotation of the core, but only the cut direction. (Belloch+2002). Indeed our analysis results agree with Tobin+2011 who firstly showed the different directions of the velocity gradient on between large- and small-scales.

  7. PROTOSTELLAR FEEDBACK AND FINAL MASS OF THE SECOND-GENERATION PRIMORDIAL STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W. E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com

    2012-12-01

    The first stars in the universe ionized the ambient primordial gas through various feedback processes. 'Second-generation' primordial stars potentially form from this disturbed gas after its recombination. In this Letter, we study the late formation stage of such second-generation stars, where a large amount of gas accretes onto the protostar and the final stellar mass is determined when the accretion terminates. We directly compute the complex interplay between the accretion flow and stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, performing radiation-hydrodynamic simulations coupled with stellar evolution calculations. Because of more efficient H{sub 2} and HD cooling in the pre-stellar stage, the accretion rates onto the star are 10 times lower than in the case of the formation of the first stars. The lower accretion rates and envelope density result in the occurrence of an expanding bipolar H II region at a lower protostellar mass M{sub *} {approx_equal} 10 M{sub Sun }, which blows out the circumstellar material, thereby quenching the mass supply from the envelope to the accretion disk. At the same time the disk loses mass due to photoevaporation by the growing star. In our fiducial case the stellar UV feedback terminates mass accretion onto the star at M{sub *} {approx_equal} 17 M{sub Sun }. Although the derived masses of the second-generation primordial stars are systematically lower than those of the first generation, the difference is within a factor of only a few. Our results suggest a new scenario, whereby the majority of the primordial stars are born as massive stars with tens of solar masses, regardless of their generations.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Disk-Planet Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this thesis is the study the dynamical interactions occurring between a forming planet and its surrounding protostellar environment. This task is accomplished by means of both 2D and 3D numerical simulations. The first part of this work concerned global simulations in 3D. These were intended to investigate large-scale effects caused by a Jupiter-size body still in the process of accreting matter from its surroundings. Simulations show that, despite a density gap forms along the orbital path, Jupiter-mass protoplanets still accrete at a rate on the order of 0.01 Earth's masses per year when they are embedded in a minimum-mass Solar nebula. In the same conditions, the migration time scale due to gravitational torques by the disk is around 100000 years. The second part of the work was dedicated to perform 2D calculations, by employing a nested-grid technique. This method allows to carry out global simulations of planets orbiting in disks and, at the same time, to resolve in great detail the dynamics of the flow inside the Roche lobe of both massive and low-mass planets. Regardless of the planet mass, the high resolution supplied by the nested-grid technique permits an evaluation of the torques, resulting from short and very short range gravitational interactions, more reliable than the one previously estimated with the aid of numerical methods. Likewise, the mass flow onto the planet is computed in a more accurate fashion. Resulting migration time scales are in the range from 20000 years, for intermediate-mass planets, to 1000000 years, for very low-mass as well as high-mass planets. Circumplanetary disks form inside of the Roche lobe of Jupiter-size secondaries. In order to evaluate the consequences of the flat geometry on the local flow structure around planets, 3D nested-grid simulations were carried out to investigate a range of planetary masses spanning from 1.5 Earth's masses to one Jupiter's mass. Outcomes show that migration rates are relatively

  9. Experimental verification of a non-axisymmetric displacement field predicted by finite element analysis of a composite disk subjected to an axisymmetric loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Stanley T.

    A finite element analysis of a circular quasi-isotropic composite disk that was clamped around its boundary and subjected to a uniform pressure was developed by the author prior to initiating this work. The analysis was performed as part of a program being developed to measure the permeability of materials. While investigating the results of the proposed configuration, it was determined that the allowable stress for the material to be tested would be exceeded close to the boundary. However, it was suggested that a pre-stress could be incorporated by tapering the clamped boundary so that, after the pressure was applied, the combined stress would fall within the material's allowable limit. Interestingly, the finite element analysis of the pre-stressed disk predicted an unexpected out-of-plane displacement that did not follow the principal material directions despite the fact that the disk was quasi-isotropic and loaded uniformly around the boundary. Further investigation revealed that this was due to variations in the terms contained in the bending stiffness matrix as a function of the angle measured relative to the principal material directions. The permeability test was subsequently adopted as part of the proposed test program and no failures have occurred to date near the boundary. However, since the initial finite element model developed for the pre-stressed condition does not accurately reflect the clamped condition currently found in practice, a more sophisticated model is needed. This dissertation focuses on the actual pre-stressed condition. After a thorough investigation is made of the bending stiffness matrix, two improved finite element models are developed using different analysis codes. The first model was developed in Nastran, mainly because the author used this package in his initial work. But the procedure to develop a nonlinear contact model for Nastran in Patran was found to be cumbersome. So, Abaqus was used because the associated pre

  10. Self-gravitating disk models of YSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodato, G.; Bertin, G.

    2001-12-01

    Disks cannot be too cold, otherwise gravitational instabilities would violently set in. A simple model of self-gravitating accretion disk is presented here and applied to fit and interpret the Spectral Energy Distribution of a sample of Young Stellar Objects. In general, this scenario is likely to be more relevant for younger objects, for which mm observations point to disk masses comparable to that of the central protostar. The key characteristic of the model is the process of self-regulation associated with gravitational instabilities. This is incorporated in our model equations explicitly and significantly modifies the energy budget inside the disk with respect to standard pictures. Dynamical mechanisms related to the physical processes considered by us have been addressed by other authors, especially by means of numerical simulations. The disk self-gravity may thus enhance the long-wavelength emission of protostellar nebulae through the combined effects of increased viscous dissipation (resulting from significant deviations from Keplerian rotation) and of additional heating (responsible for maintaining the disk close to marginal Jeans stability). An investigation of a relatively large sample of YSOs, which includes four T Tauri stars and two FU Orionis objects discussed by us earlier (A&A, 375, 455-468) and a number of Herbig Ae/Be objects, allows us to identify a subsample of objects for which self-gravity may indeed provide an important contribution to the observed infrared excess. The model turns out to be more appealing for FU Orionis objects, while for T Tauri stars the derived values of the physical parameters, such as disk mass and accretion rate, tend to fall outside the generally accepted range.

  11. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  12. Herniated disk

    MedlinePlus

    ... roots. Slipped disks occur more often in middle-aged and older men, usually after strenuous activity. Other ... calm the nerves Muscle relaxants to relieve back spasms LIFESTYLE CHANGES If you are overweight, diet and ...

  13. Accretion and magnetic field morphology around Class 0 stage protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.; Klessen, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse simulations of turbulent, magnetized molecular cloud cores focusing on the formation of Class 0 stage protostellar discs and the physical conditions in their surroundings. We show that for a wide range of initial conditions Keplerian discs are formed in the Class 0 stage already. In particular, we show that even subsonic turbulent motions reduce the magnetic braking efficiency sufficiently in order to allow rotationally supported discs to form. We therefore suggest that already during the Class 0 stage the fraction of Keplerian discs is significantly higher than 50 per cent, consistent with recent observational trends but significantly higher than predictions based on simulations with misaligned magnetic fields, demonstrating the importance of turbulent motions for the formation of Keplerian discs. We show that the accretion of mass and angular momentum in the surroundings of protostellar discs occurs in a highly anisotropic manner, by means of a few narrow accretion channels. The magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the discs is highly disordered, revealing field reversals up to distances of 1000 au. These findings demonstrate that as soon as even mild turbulent motions are included, the classical disc formation scenario of a coherently rotating environment and a well-ordered magnetic field breaks down. Hence, it is highly questionable to assess the magnetic braking efficiency based on non-turbulent collapse simulation. We strongly suggest that, in addition to the global magnetic field properties, the small-scale accretion flow and detailed magnetic field structure have to be considered in order to assess the likelihood of Keplerian discs to be present.

  14. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STARLESS AND PROTOSTELLAR CORES IN GOULD BELT CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Di Francesco, James; Bontemps, Sylvain; Megeath, S. Thomas; Allgaier, Erin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carey, Sean; McCabe, Caer-Eve; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Padgett, Deborah; Gutermuth, Robert; Hora, Joe; Huard, Tracy; Muzerolle, James; Terebey, Susan

    2010-02-20

    Using data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue (850 {mu}m) and Spitzer Space Telescope (3.6-70 {mu}m), we explore dense cores in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, Serpens, and Orion molecular clouds. We develop a new method to discriminate submillimeter cores found by Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) as starless or protostellar, using point source photometry from Spitzer wide field surveys. First, we identify infrared sources with red colors associated with embedded young stellar objects (YSOs). Second, we compare the positions of these YSO candidates to our submillimeter cores. With these identifications, we construct new, self-consistent starless and protostellar core mass functions (CMFs) for the five clouds. We find best-fit slopes to the high-mass end of the CMFs of -1.26 +- 0.20, -1.22 +- 0.06, -0.95 +- 0.20, and -1.67 +- 0.72 for Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion, respectively. Broadly, these slopes are each consistent with the -1.35 power-law slope of the Salpeter initial mass function at higher masses, but suggest some differences. We examine a variety of trends between these CMF shapes and their parent cloud properties, potentially finding a correlation between the high-mass slope and core temperature. We also find a trend between core mass and effective size, but we are very limited by sensitivity. We make similar comparisons between core mass and size with visual extinction (for A{sub V} >= 3) and find no obvious trends. We also predict the numbers and mass distributions of cores that future surveys with SCUBA-2 may detect in each of these clouds.

  15. THE ANATOMY OF THE YOUNG PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HH 211

    SciTech Connect

    Tappe, A.; Forbrich, J.; Lada, C. J.; Martin, S.; Yuan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope 5-36 {mu}m mapping observations toward the southeastern lobe of the young protostellar outflow HH 211. The southeastern terminal shock of the outflow shows a rich mid-infrared spectrum including molecular emission lines from OH, H{sub 2}O, HCO{sup +}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and HD. The spectrum also shows a rising infrared continuum toward 5 {mu}m, which we interpret as unresolved emission lines from highly excited rotational levels of the CO v = 1-0 fundamental band. This interpretation is supported by a strong excess flux observed in the Spitzer/IRAC 4-5 {mu}m channel 2 image compared to the other IRAC channels. The extremely high critical densities of the CO v = 1-0 ro-vibrational lines and a comparison to H{sub 2} and CO excitation models suggest jet densities larger than 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} in the terminal shock. We also observed the southeastern terminal outflow shock with the Submillimeter Array and detected pure rotational emission from CO 2-1, HCO{sup +} 3-2, and HCN 3-2. The rotationally excited CO traces the collimated outflow backbone as well as the terminal shock. HCN traces individual dense knots along the outflow and in the terminal shock, whereas HCO{sup +} solely appears in the terminal shock. The unique combination of our mid-infrared and submillimeter observations with previously published near-infrared observations allow us to study the interaction of one of the youngest known protostellar outflows with its surrounding molecular cloud. Our results help us to understand the nature of some of the so-called green fuzzies (Extended Green Objects), and elucidate the physical conditions that cause high OH excitation and affect the chemical OH/H{sub 2}O balance in protostellar outflows and young stellar objects. In an appendix to this paper, we summarize our Spitzer follow-up survey of protostellar outflow shocks to find further examples of highly excited OH occurring together with H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}.

  16. A triple protostar system formed via fragmentation of a gravitationally unstable disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Persson, Magnus V.; Looney, Leslie W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chandler, Claire J.; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Harris, Robert J.; Melis, Carl; Pérez, Laura M.

    2016-10-01

    Binary and multiple star systems are a frequent outcome of the star formation process and as a result almost half of all stars with masses similar to that of the Sun have at least one companion star. Theoretical studies indicate that there are two main pathways that can operate concurrently to form binary/multiple star systems: large-scale fragmentation of turbulent gas cores and filaments or smaller-scale fragmentation of a massive protostellar disk due to gravitational instability. Observational evidence for turbulent fragmentation on scales of more than 1,000 astronomical units has recently emerged. Previous evidence for disk fragmentation was limited to inferences based on the separations of more-evolved pre-main sequence and protostellar multiple systems. The triple protostar system L1448 IRS3B is an ideal system with which to search for evidence of disk fragmentation as it is in an early phase of the star formation process, it is likely to be less than 150,000 years old and all of the protostars in the system are separated by less than 200 astronomical units. Here we report observations of dust and molecular gas emission that reveal a disk with a spiral structure surrounding the three protostars. Two protostars near the centre of the disk are separated by 61 astronomical units and a tertiary protostar is coincident with a spiral arm in the outer disk at a separation of 183 astronomical units. The inferred mass of the central pair of protostellar objects is approximately one solar mass, while the disk surrounding the three protostars has a total mass of around 0.30 solar masses. The tertiary protostar itself has a minimum mass of about 0.085 solar masses. We demonstrate that the disk around L1448 IRS3B appears susceptible to disk fragmentation at radii between 150 and 320 astronomical units, overlapping with the location of the tertiary protostar. This is consistent with models for a protostellar disk that has recently undergone gravitational instability

  17. Circumstellar Disks in Very Young Embedded Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariñas, Naibí; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    We used FLAMINGOS near-IR photometry and spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-IR photometry to study disk fractions in the 1 to 2 Myr old NGC2264 clusters. We find that stars with masses < 0.3 solar masses have lower disk fractions than stars of solar mass or higher at these early ages. We also find that most disks disappear within the first 4 Myr, which is consistent with previous studies of disk lifetimes. Our study suggests that either some very low mass stars form without disks or that their disks are less massive and/or colder than predicted from models and not detected with Spitzer/Flamingos sensitivities.

  18. Molecular ions in the protostellar shock L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podio, L.; Lefloch, B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Codella, C.; Bachiller, R.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We perform a complete census of molecular ions with an abundance greater than ~10-10 in the protostellar shock L1157-B1. This allows us to study the ionisation structure and chemistry of the shock. Methods: An unbiased high-sensitivity survey of L1157-B1 performed with the IRAM-30 m and Herschel/HIFI as part of the CHESS and ASAI large programmes allows searching for molecular ions emission. Then, by means of a radiative transfer code in the large velocity gradient approximation, the gas physical conditions and fractional abundances of molecular ions are derived. The latter are compared with estimates of steady-state abundances in the cloud and their evolution in the shock calculated with the chemical model Astrochem. Results: We detect emission from HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, HCS+, and for the first time in a shock, from HOCO+ and SO+. The bulk of the emission peaks at blue-shifted velocity, ~0.5-3 km s -1 with respect to systemic, has a width of ~3-7 km s-1 and is associated with the outflow cavities (Tkin ~ 20-70 K, nH2 ~ 105 cm-3). A high-velocity component up to -40 km s-1, associated with the primary jet, is detected in the HCO+ 1-0 line. Observed HCO+ and N2H+ abundances (XHCO+ ~ 0.7-3 × 10-8, XN2H+ ~ 0.4-8 × 10-9) agree with steady-state abundances in the cloud and with their evolution in the compressed and heated gas in the shock for cosmic rays ionisation rate ζ = 3 × 10-16 s-1. HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ observed abundances (XHOCO+ ~ 10-9, XSO+ ~ 8 × 10-10, XHCS+ ~ 3-7 × 10-10), instead, are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than predicted in the cloud; on the other hand, they are strongly enhanced on timescales shorter than the shock age (~2000 years) if CO2, S or H2S, and OCS are sputtered off the dust grains in the shock. Conclusions: The performed analysis indicates that HCO+ and N2H+ are a fossil record of pre-shock gas in the outflow cavity, whilst HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ are effective shock tracers that can be used to infer the amount of CO2 and sulphur

  19. DISPERSING ENVELOPE AROUND THE KEPLERIAN CIRCUMBINARY DISK IN L1551 NE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR BINARY GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Kiyokane, Kazuhiro; Saigo, Kazuya; Saito, Masao

    2015-12-01

    We performed mapping observations of the Class I protostellar binary system L1551 NE in the C{sup 18}O (J = 3–2), {sup 13}CO (J = 3–2), CS (J = 7–6), and SO (J{sub N} = 7{sub 8}–6{sub 7}) lines with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The ASTE C{sup 18}O data were combined with our previous SMA C{sup 18}O data, which show a r ∼ 300 AU scale Keplerian disk around the protostellar binary system. The C{sup 18}O maps show a ∼20,000 AU scale protostellar envelope surrounding the central Keplerian circumbinary disk. The envelope exhibits a northeast (blue) to southwest (red) velocity gradient along the minor axis, which can be interpreted as a dispersing gas motion with an outward velocity of 0.3 km s{sup −1}, while no rotational motion in the envelope is seen. In addition to the envelope, two ≲4000 AU scale, high-velocity (≳1.3 km s{sup −1}) redshifted {sup 13}CO and CS emission components are found ∼40″ southwest and ∼20″ west of the protostellar binary. These redshifted components are most likely outflow components driven from the neighboring protostellar source L1551 IRS 5, and are colliding with the envelope in L1551 NE. The net momentum, kinetic, and internal energies of the L1551 IRS 5 outflow components are comparable to those of the L1551 NE envelope, and the interactions between the outflows and the envelope are likely to cause the dissipation of the envelope and thus suppression of further growth of the mass and mass ratio of the central protostellar binary in L1551 NE.

  20. Predicting lake trophic state by relating Secchi-disk transparency measurements to Landsat-satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2003-05 and 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Jodoin, R.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Sampling for this program began in 2001; by 2010, 730 of Michigan’s 11,000 inland lakes are expected to have been sampled once. Volunteers coordinated by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment began sampling lakes in 1974 and continue to sample (in 2010) approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Michigan Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program. Despite these sampling efforts, it still is impossible to physically collect measurements for all Michigan inland lakes; however, Landsat-satellite imagery has been used successfully in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and elsewhere to predict the trophic state of unsampled inland lakes greater than 20 acres by producing regression equations relating in-place Secchi-disk measurements to Landsat bands. This study tested three alternatives to methods previously used in Michigan to improve results for predicted statewide Trophic State Index (TSI) computed from Secchi-disk transparency (TSI (SDT)). The alternative methods were used on 14 Landsat-satellite scenes with statewide TSI (SDT) for two time periods (2003– 05 and 2007–08). Specifically, the methods were (1) satellitedata processing techniques to remove areas affected by clouds, cloud shadows, haze, shoreline, and dense vegetation for inland lakes greater than 20 acres in Michigan; (2) comparison of the previous method for producing a single open-water predicted TSI (SDT) value (which was based on an area of interest (AOI) and lake-average approach) to an alternative Gethist method for identifying open-water areas in inland lakes (which follows the initial satellite-data processing and targets the darkest pixels, representing the deepest water

  1. Predicting lake trophic state by relating Secchi-disk transparency measurements to Landsat-satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2003-05 and 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Jodoin, R.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Sampling for this program began in 2001; by 2010, 730 of Michigan's 11,000 inland lakes are expected to have been sampled once. Volunteers coordinated by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment began sampling lakes in 1974 and continue to sample (in 2010) approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Michigan Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program. Despite these sampling efforts, it still is impossible to physically collect measurements for all Michigan inland lakes; however, Landsat-satellite imagery has been used successfully in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and elsewhere to predict the trophic state of unsampled inland lakes greater than 20 acres by producing regression equations relating in-place Secchi-disk measurements to Landsat bands. This study tested three alternatives to methods previously used in Michigan to improve results for predicted statewide Trophic State Index (TSI) computed from Secchi-disk transparency (TSI (SDT)). The alternative methods were used on 14 Landsat-satellite scenes with statewide TSI (SDT) for two time periods (2003-05 and 2007-08). Specifically, the methods were (1) satellite-data processing techniques to remove areas affected by clouds, cloud shadows, haze, shoreline, and dense vegetation for inland lakes greater than 20 acres in Michigan; (2) comparison of the previous method for producing a single open-water predicted TSI (SDT) value (which was based on an area of interest (AOI) and lake-average approach) to an alternative Gethist method for identifying open-water areas in inland lakes (which follows the initial satellite-data processing and targets the darkest pixels, representing the deepest water

  2. Ice Chemistry in Interstellar Dense Molecular Clouds, Protostellar Disks, and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the low temperatures (T less than 20K), low pressures, and low molecular densities found in much of the cosmos, considerable chemistry is expected to occur in many astronomical environments. Much of this chemistry happens in icy grain mantles on dust grains and is driven by ionizing radiation. This ionizing radiation breaks chemical bonds of molecules in the ices and creates a host of ions and radicals that can react at the ambient temperature or when the parent ice is subsequently warmed. Experiments that similar these conditions have demonstrated a rich chemistry associated with these environments that leads to a wide variety of organic products. Many of these products are of considerable interest to astrobiology. For example, the irradiation of simple ices has been shown to abiotically produce amino acids, nucleobases, quinones, and amphiphiles, all compounds that play key roles in modern biochemistry. This suggests extraterrestrial chemistry could have played a role in the origin of life on Earth and, by extension, do so on planets in other stellar systems.

  3. Testing Protostellar Collapse Theory through Extinction Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilner, David

    1997-07-01

    The identification of collapsing protostars remains a ``holy grail'' of star formation studies. The best collapse candidate is generally recognized to be B335, an isolated round globule containing a deeply embedded low luminosity young stellar object {detected only at Lambda>60 Mum}. In an influential study, Zhou et al. {1993} observed a variety of trace molecules in B335 and showed that detailed radiative transfer models based on the velocity and density fields of the ``inside-out'' collapse theory developed by Shu {1977} reproduced the spectra extremely well. Here we propose to use NICMOS to obtain near-infrared photometry of background stars shining through B335, to measure the density field in a way that suffers from none of the problems inherent in molecular line work {abundances, opacities, unknown collision rates, etc.}. Ground based data show that the projected reddening distribution at large radii {>30''} is in good agreement with an npropto r^-2 density profile. Deeper observations using NICMOS will probe into higher extinctions and smaller radii and show directly if the density field has relaxed to the npropto r^-1.5 form predicted for collapse. The proposed observations take advantage of the high sensitivity of NICMOS to sample the B335 infall zone to equivalent visual extinctions of 50 magnitudes or more, a regime that simply cannot be probed from the ground.

  4. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  5. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  6. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Zhang Qizhou; Li Huabai

    2012-02-15

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH{sub 3} (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH masers. Multiple NH{sub 3} transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH{sub 3} (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH{sub 3} (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  7. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of protostellar collapse: Low-metallicity environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tomida, Kengo

    2014-05-10

    Among many physical processes involved in star formation, radiation transfer is one of the key processes because it dominantly controls the thermodynamics. Because metallicities control opacities, they are one of the important environmental parameters that affect star formation processes. In this work, I investigate protostellar collapse in solar-metallicity and low-metallicity (Z = 0.1 Z {sub ☉}) environments using three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Because radiation cooling in high-density gas is more effective in low-metallicity environments, first cores are colder and have lower entropies. As a result, first cores are smaller, less massive, and have shorter lifetimes in low-metallicity clouds. Therefore, first cores would be less likely to be found in low-metallicity star forming clouds. This also implies that first cores tend to be more gravitationally unstable and susceptible to fragmentation. The evolution and structure of protostellar cores formed after the second collapse weakly depend on metallicities in the spherical and magnetized models, despite the large difference in the metallicities. Because this is due to the change of the heat capacity by dissociation and ionization of hydrogen, it is a general consequence of the second collapse as long as the effects of radiation cooling are not very large during the second collapse. On the other hand, the effects of different metallicities are more significant in the rotating models without magnetic fields, because they evolve slower than other models and therefore are more affected by radiation cooling.

  8. Herschel Finds Evidence for Stellar Wind Particles in a Protostellar Envelope: Is This What Happened to the Young Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Kama, M.; Padovani, M.; Caux, E.; Caselli, P.

    2014-07-01

    There is evidence that the young Sun emitted a high flux of energetic (>=10 MeV) particles. The collisions of these particles with the material at the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk induced spallation reactions that formed short-lived radionuclei, like 10Be, whose trace is now visible in some meteorites. However, it is poorly known exactly when this happened, and whether and how it affected the solar system. Here, we present indirect evidence for an ejection of energetic particles in the young protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4, similar to that experienced by the young solar system. In this case, the energetic particles collide with the material in the protostellar envelope, enhancing the abundance of two molecular ions, HCO+ and N2H+, whose presence is detected via Herschel observations. The flux of energetic particles at a distance of 1 AU from the emitting source, estimated from the measured abundance ratio of HCO+ and N2H+, can easily account for the irradiation required by meteoritic observations. These new observations demonstrate that the ejection of >=10 MeV particles is a phenomenon occurring very early in the life of a protostar, before the disappearance of the envelope from which the future star accretes. The whole envelope is affected by the event, which sets constraints on the magnetic field geometry in the source and opens up the possibility that the spallation reactions are not limited to the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk.

  9. Predicting water quality by relating Secchi-Disk transparency and chlorophyll a measurements to satellite imagery for Michigan Inland Lakes, August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Aichele, S.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Through this program, approximately 730 of Michigan's 11,000 inland lakes will be monitored once during this 15-year study. Targeted lakes will be sampled during spring turnover and again in late summer to characterize water quality. Because more extensive and more frequent sampling is not economically feasible in the Lake Water Quality Assessment program, the U.S. Geological Survey and Michigan Department of Environmental Quality investigate the use of satellite imagery as a means of estimating water quality in unsampled lakes. Satellite imagery has been successfully used in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and elsewhere to compute the trophic state of inland lakes from predicted secchi-disk measurements. Previous attempts of this kind in Michigan resulted in a poorer fit between observed and predicted data than was found for Minnesota or Wisconsin. This study tested whether estimates could be improved by using atmospherically corrected satellite imagery, whether a more appropriate regression model could be obtained for Michigan, and whether chlorophyll a concentrations could be reliably predicted from satellite imagery in order to compute trophic state of inland lakes. Although the atmospheric-correction did not significantly improve estimates of lake-water quality, a new regression equation was identified that consistently yielded better results than an equation obtained from the literature. A stepwise regression was used to determine an equation that accurately predicts chlorophyll a concentrations in northern Lower Michigan.

  10. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  11. Long-Wavelength Excesses of FU Orionis Objects: Flared Outer Disks or Infalling Envelopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Hernandez, Jesus; Tannirkulam, Ajay-Kumar; D'Alessio, Paola

    2008-09-01

    The mid- to far-infrared emission of the outbursting FU Orionis objects has been attributed either to a flared outer disk or to an infalling envelope. We revisit this issue using detailed radiative transfer calculations to model the recent, high signal-to-noise ratio data from the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the case of FU Ori, we find that a physically plausible flared disk irradiated by the central accretion disk matches the observations. Building on our previous work, our accretion disk model with outer disk irradiation by the inner disk reproduces the spectral energy distribution between ~4000 Å and ~40 μm. Our model is consistent with near-infrared interferometry, but there are some inconsistencies with mid-infrared interferometric results. Including the outer disk allows us to refine our estimate of the outer radius of the outbursting, high mass accretion rate disk in FU Ori as ~0.5 AU, which is a crucial parameter in assessing theories of the FU Orionis phenomenon. We are able to place an upper limit on the mass infall rate of any remnant envelope infall rate to ~7 × 10-7 M⊙ yr -1 assuming a centrifugal radius of 200 AU. The FUor BBW 76 is also well modeled by a 0.6 AU inner disk and a flared outer disk. However, V1515 Cyg requires an envelope with an outflow cavity to adequately reproduce the IRS spectrum. In contrast with the suggestion by Green et al., we do not require a flattened envelope to match the observations; the inferred cavity shape is qualitatively consistent with typical protostellar envelopes. This variety of dusty structures suggests that the FU Orionis phase can be present at either early or late stages of protostellar evolution.

  12. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Nelson, Richard P. E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the initial core

  13. Disentangling the jet emission from protostellar systems. The ALMA view of VLA1623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, G.; Murillo, N. M.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; Bruderer, S.; Lai, S.-P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2015-09-01

    Context. High-resolution studies of class 0 protostars represent the key to constraining protostar formation models. VLA16234-2417 represents the prototype of class 0 protostars, and it has been recently identified as a triple non-coeval system. Aims: We aim at deriving the physical properties of the jets in VLA16234-2417 using tracers of shocked gas. Methods: ALMA Cycle 0 Early Science observations of CO(2-1) in the extended configuration are presented in comparison with previous SMA CO(3-2) and Herschel-PACS [Oi] 63 μm observations. Gas morphology and kinematics were analysed to constrain the physical structure and origin of the protostellar outflows. Results: We reveal a collimated jet component associated with the [Oi] 63 μm emission at about 8'' (~960 AU) from source B. This newly detected jet component is inversely oriented with respect to the large-scale outflow driven by source A, and it is aligned with compact and fast jet emission very close to source B (about 0''&dotbelow;3) rather than with the direction perpendicular to the A disk. We also detect a cavity-like structure at low projected velocities, which surrounds the [Oi] 63 μm emission and is possibly associated with the outflow driven by source A. Finally, no compact outflow emission is associated with source W. Conclusions: Our high-resolution ALMA observations seem to suggest there is a fast and collimated jet component associated with source B. This scenario would confirm that source B is younger than A, that it is in a very early stage of evolution, and that it drives a faster, more collimated, and more compact jet with respect to the large-scale slower outflow driven by A. However, a different scenario of a precessing jet driven by A cannot be firmly excluded from the present observations. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Gas disks to gas giants: simulating the birth of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Thommes, Edward W; Matsumura, Soko; Rasio, Frederic A

    2008-08-01

    The ensemble of now more than 250 discovered planetary systems displays a wide range of masses, orbits and, in multiple systems, dynamical interactions. These represent the end point of a complex sequence of events, wherein an entire protostellar disk converts itself into a small number of planetary bodies. Here, we present self-consistent numerical simulations of this process, which produce results in agreement with some of the key trends observed in the properties of the exoplanets. Analogs to our own solar system do not appear to be common, originating from disks near the boundary between barren and (giant) planet-forming.

  15. The formation of primordial binaries in globular clusters by star-disk interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen D.; Clarke, C. J.; Pringle, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of primordial binaries in globular clusters is examined using simple numerical models. Clusters of protostars collapse until their velocity dispersion rises sufficiently to reverse the infall and the cluster reaches equilibrium. During the collapse, interactions between stars and protostellar disks lead to stellar capture. It is found that binary fraction of a few percent typically result. Binary formation is terminated when the velocity dispersion rises to a point at which most encounters result in disk destruction rather than capture. As a result, much gas is returned to the cluster ISM, limiting the star formation efficiency to a value significantly below 100 percent.

  16. Massive Star Formation: The Role of Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallscheer, Cassandra L.; Beuther, H.; Sauter, J.; Wolf, S.; Zhang, Q.; Keto, E.; Sridharan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained multiple data sets from the SMA, PdBI, and IRAM 30m telescope of the Infrared Dark Cloud IRDC18223-3, the High-Mass Protostellar Object IRAS18151-1208, and the hot core source IRAS18507+0121 in order to search for clues regarding the role of rotation and disks in high mass star formation. These three objects allow us to compare the central-most regions surrounding the embedded continuum source at three different evolutionary stages of the formation process. Toward all three regions we see rotational or elongated structures perpendicular to the molecular outflows. Similarities and differences in the evolutionary sequence are discussed in the context of core and disk evolution. We have also carried out continuum and line radiative transfer modeling of the disk-like structures. Having a more complete picture of the evolutionary process that a massive star experiences will contribute significantly to the future of massive star formation research. Support for this project comes from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the International Max-Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg.

  17. Stem thrust prediction model for Westinghouse wedge gate valves with linkage type stem-to-disk connection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.K.; Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1996-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a comprehensive research program with the objective of providing nuclear utilities with analytical methods to predict motor operated valve (MOV) performance under design basis conditions. This paper describes the stem thrust calculation model developed for evaluating the performance of one such valve, the Westinghouse flexible wedge gate valve. These procedures account for the unique functional characteristics of this valve design. In addition, model results are compared to available flow loop and in situ test data as a basis for evaluating the performance of the valve model.

  18. Observations of Protostellar Outflow Feedback in Clustered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, F.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the role of protostellar outflow feedback in clustered star formation using the observational data of recent molecular outflow surveys toward nearby cluster-forming clumps. We found that for almost all clumps, the outflow momentum injection rate is significantly larger than the turbulence dissipation rate. Therefore, the outflow feedback is likely to maintain supersonic turbulence in the clumps. For less massive clumps such as B59, L1551, and L1641N, the outflow kinetic energy is comparable to the clump gravitational energy. In such clumps, the outflow feedback probably affects significantly the clump dynamics. On the other hand, for clumps with masses larger than about 200 M⊙, the outflow kinetic energy is significantly smaller than the clump gravitational energy. Since the majority of stars form in such clumps, we conclude that outflow feedback cannot destroy the whole parent clump. These characteristics of the outflow feedback support the scenario of slow star formation.

  19. One hundred first stars: Protostellar evolution and the final masses

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Shingo; Umeda, Hideyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Chiaki, Gen; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2014-02-01

    We perform a large set of radiation hydrodynamic simulations of primordial star formation in a fully cosmological context. Our statistical sample of 100 First Stars shows that the first generation of stars has a wide mass distribution M {sub popIII} = 10 ∼ 1000 M {sub ☉}. We first run cosmological simulations to generate a set of primordial star-forming gas clouds. We then follow protostar formation in each gas cloud and the subsequent protostellar evolution until the gas mass accretion onto the protostar is halted by stellar radiative feedback. The accretion rates differ significantly among the primordial gas clouds that largely determine the final stellar masses. For low accretion rates, the growth of a protostar is self-regulated by radiative feedback effects, and the final mass is limited to several tens of solar masses. At high accretion rates the protostar's outer envelope continues to expand, and the effective surface temperature remains low; such protostars do not exert strong radiative feedback and can grow in excess of 100 solar masses. The obtained wide mass range suggests that the first stars play a variety of roles in the early universe, by triggering both core-collapse supernovae and pair-instability supernovae as well as by leaving stellar mass black holes. We find certain correlations between the final stellar mass and the physical properties of the star-forming cloud. These correlations can be used to estimate the mass of the first star from the properties of the parent cloud or of the host halo without following the detailed protostellar evolution.

  20. Predicting water quality by relating secchi-disk transparency and chlorophyll a measurements to Landsat satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2001-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The State of Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes; approximately 3,500 of these lakes are greater than 25 acres. The USGS, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), has been monitoring the quality of inland lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment monitoring program. Approximately 100 inland lakes will be sampled per year from 2001 to 2015. Volunteers coordinated by MDEQ started sampling lakes in 1974, and continue to sample to date approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program (CLMP), Michigan’s volunteer lakes monitoring program. Despite this sampling effort, it is still impossible to physically collect the necessary water-quality measurements for all 3,500 Michigan inland lakes. Therefore, a technique was used by USGS, modeled after Olmanson and others (2001), in cooperation with MDEQ that uses satellite remote sensing to predict water quality in unsampled inland lakes greater than 25 acres. Water-quality characteristics that are associated with water clarity can be predicted for Michigan inland lakes by relating sampled measurements of secchi-disk transparency (SDT) and chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl-a), to satellite imagery. The trophic state index (TSI) which is an indicator of the biological productivity can be calculated based on SDT measurements, Chl-a concentrations, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations measured near the lake’s surface. Through this process, unsampled inland lakes within the fourteen Landsat satellite scenes encompassing Michigan can be translated into estimated TSI from either predicted SDT or Chl-a (fig. 1).

  1. Disk Dispersal Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2004-01-01

    We first review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source, 2) close stellar encounters, 3) stellar winds, and 4) photoevaporation caused by the heating of the disk surface by ultraviolet radiation. Photoevaporation is likely the most important dispersal mechanism for the outer regions of disks, and this talk focuses on the evaporation caused by the presence of a nearby, luminous star rather than the central star itself. We also focus on disks around low-mass stars like the Sun rather than high-mass stars, which we have treated previously. Stars often form in clusters and the ultraviolet flux from the most luminous star in the cluster can have a dramatic effect on the disk orbiting a nearby low-mass star. We apply our theoretical models to the evaporating protoplanetary disks (or "proplyds") in the Trapezium cluster in Orion, to the formation of gas giant planets like Jupiter around Sun-like stars in the Galaxy, and to the formation of Kuiper belts around low mass stars. We find a possible explanation for the differences between Neptune and Jupiter, and make a prediction concerning recent searches for giant planets in large clusters. We discuss recent models of the infrared spectra from gaseous disks around young stars.

  2. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  3. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  4. A High-mass Dusty Disk Candidate: The Case of IRAS 18151-1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallscheer, C.; Beuther, H.; Sauter, J.; Wolf, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2011-03-01

    Many questions remain regarding the properties of disks around massive prototstars. Here, we present the observations of a high-mass protostellar object including an elongated dust continuum structure perpendicular to the outflow. Submillimeter Array 230 GHz line and continuum observations of the high-mass protostellar object IRAS 18151-1208 along with single-dish IRAM 30 m observations afford us high spatial resolution (0farcs8) as well as recovery of the extended emission that gets filtered out by the interferometer. The observations of 12CO confirm the outflow direction to be in the southeast-northwest direction, and the 1.3 mm continuum exhibits an elongation in the direction perpendicular to the outflow. We model the physical parameters of the elongated structure by simultaneously fitting the observed spectral energy distribution and the brightness profile along the major axis using the 3D Radiative Transfer code MC3D. Assuming a density profile similar to that of a low-mass disk, we can also reproduce the observations of this high-mass protostellar object. This is achieved by using the same density distribution and flaring parameters as were used in the low-mass case, and scaling up the size parameters that successfully modeled the circumstellar disk of several T Tauri stars. We also calculate that a region within the inner 30 AU of such a high-mass disk is stable under the Toomre criterion. While we do not rule out other scenarios, we show here that the observations in the high-mass regime are consistent with a scaled-up version of a low-mass disk. Implications on high-mass star formation are discussed.

  5. Chondrules and the Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, R. H.; Jones, Rhian; Scott, Ed

    2011-03-01

    Part I. Introduction: 1. Chondrules and the protoplanetary disk: An overview R. H. Hewins; Part. II. Chonrules, Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions and Protoplanetary Disks: 2. Astronomical observations of phenomena in protostellar disks L. Hartmann; 3. Overview of models of the solar nebula: potential chondrule-forming environments P. Cassen; 4. Large scale processes in the solar nebula A. P. Boss; 5. Turbulence, chondrules and planetisimals J. N. Cuzzi, A. R. Dobrovolskis and R. C. Hogan; 6. Chondrule formation: energetics and length scales J. T. Wasson; 7. Unresolved issues in the formation of chondrules and chondrites J. A. Wood; 8. Thermal processing in the solar nebula: constraints from refractory inclusions A. M. Davis and G. J. MacPherson; 9. Formation times of chondrules and Ca-Al-Rich inclusions: constraints from short-lived radionuclides T. D. Swindle, A. M. Davis, C. M. Hohenberg, G. J. MacPherson and L. E. Nyquist; 10. Formation of chondrules and chondrites in the protoplanetary nebula E. R. D. Scott, S. G. Love and A. N. Krot; Part III. Chondrule precursors and multiple melting: 11. Origin of refractory precursor components of chondrules K. Misawa and N. Nakamura; 12. Mass-independent isotopic effects in chondrites: the role of chemical processes M. H. Thiemens; 13. Agglomeratic chondrules: implications for the nature of chondrule precursors and formation by incomplete melting M. K. Weisberg and M. Prinz; 14. Constraints on chondrule precursors from experimental Data H. C. Connolly Jr. and R. H. Hewins; 15. Nature of matrix in unequilibrated chondrites and its possible relationship to chondrules A. J. Brearly; 16. Constraints on chondrite agglomeration from fine-grained chondrule Rims K. Metzler and A. Bischoff; 17. Relict grains in chondrules: evidence for chondrule recycling R. H. Jones; 18. Multiple heating of chondrules A. E. Rubin and A. N. Krot; 19. Microchondrule-bearing chondrule rims: constraints on chondrule formation A. N. Krot and A. E. Rubin; Part IV

  6. Rotational Signatures of Disks in Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallscheer, Cassandra L.; Beuther, H.; Zhang, Q.; Sridharan, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    We have obtained multiple data sets from the SMA, PdBI, and IRAM 30m telescope of the massive Infrared Dark Cloud IRDC18223-3 and High-Mass Protostellar Object IRAS18151-1208 in order to look for clues regarding the role of rotation and disks in high mass star formation. Because IRAS 18151-1208 is at a later evolutionary stage than IRDC 18223-3, these two objects allow us to compare the central-most regions surrounding the embedded continuum source at two different periods in the formation process. Toward both regions we see rotational structures perpendicular to molecular outflows. Similarities and differences will be discussed in the context of core and disk evolution.

  7. SMA OBSERVATIONS OF CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS: A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF PROTOSTELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M.; Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L.; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Foster, Jonathan B.; Pineda, Jaime E. E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu

    2013-05-10

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 {mu}m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 {+-} 0.08 and 0.91 {+-} 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 {+-} 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 {+-} 0.07) and main-sequence stars ({<=}0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% {+-} 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this work and

  8. Photoevaporating Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the central star or from a nearby massive star heats the surfaces of protoplanetary disks and causes the outer, less gravitationally bound part of the disks, to photoevaporate into interstellar space. Photoevaporation is likely the most important dispersal mechanism for the outer regions of disks. We focus in this talk on disks around low-mass stars like the Sun rather than high-mass stars, which we have treated previously. Stars often form in clusters and the ultraviolet flux from the most luminous star in the cluster can have a dramatic effect on the disk orbiting a nearby low-mass star. We apply our theoretical models to the evaporating protoplanetary disks (or "proplyds") in the Trapezium cluster in Orion, to the formation of gas giant planets like Jupiter around Sun-like stars in the Galaxy, and to the formation of Kuiper belts around low mass stars. We discuss recent models of the effects of the radiation from the central low mass star including both the predicted infrared spectra from the heated disks as well as preliminary results on the photoevaporation rates.

  9. Dark-disk universe.

    PubMed

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

    2013-05-24

    We point out that current constraints on dark matter imply only that the majority of dark matter is cold and collisionless. A subdominant fraction of dark matter could have much stronger interactions. In particular, it could interact in a manner that dissipates energy, thereby cooling into a rotationally supported disk, much as baryons do. We call this proposed new dark matter component double-disk dark matter (DDDM). We argue that DDDM could constitute a fraction of all matter roughly as large as the fraction in baryons, and that it could be detected through its gravitational effects on the motion of stars in galaxies, for example. Furthermore, if DDDM can annihilate to gamma rays, it would give rise to an indirect detection signal distributed across the sky that differs dramatically from that predicted for ordinary dark matter. DDDM and more general partially interacting dark matter scenarios provide a large unexplored space of testable new physics ideas.

  10. Dark-disk universe.

    PubMed

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

    2013-05-24

    We point out that current constraints on dark matter imply only that the majority of dark matter is cold and collisionless. A subdominant fraction of dark matter could have much stronger interactions. In particular, it could interact in a manner that dissipates energy, thereby cooling into a rotationally supported disk, much as baryons do. We call this proposed new dark matter component double-disk dark matter (DDDM). We argue that DDDM could constitute a fraction of all matter roughly as large as the fraction in baryons, and that it could be detected through its gravitational effects on the motion of stars in galaxies, for example. Furthermore, if DDDM can annihilate to gamma rays, it would give rise to an indirect detection signal distributed across the sky that differs dramatically from that predicted for ordinary dark matter. DDDM and more general partially interacting dark matter scenarios provide a large unexplored space of testable new physics ideas. PMID:23745856

  11. AN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF A VISCOUS, IRRADIATED DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, J. E.

    2009-11-10

    We describe an analytic model for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk heated by viscous accretion and radiation from the central star. The disk is assumed to be flared and viscosity is assumed to follow an 'alpha' model, where viscosity is proportional to the local sound speed and scale height. In the inner disk, the midplane temperature is mainly determined by the energy released by the viscous accretion of material through the disk and onto the star. In the outer disk, stellar irradiation is the dominant heat source. A third regime is present in the innermost part of the disk, where viscous heating dominates but the opacity declines rapidly with increasing temperature due to dust grain sublimation. Changes in the protostellar radius and luminosity over time are readily incorporated into the model, although these have a relatively minor effect on the disk evolution. The model yields the surface density and midplane temperature at any point in space and time during the lifetime of the disk. It is especially suited to studies of planet formation that require a self-consistent model of disk evolution with minimal computational expense.

  12. Development report for dual-burst disks

    SciTech Connect

    Fusco, A.M.

    1996-11-01

    Burst disks, commonly used in pressure relief applications, were studied as single-use valves. A dual-burst disk design was chosen for primary investigation for systems involving separation of gases of two significantly different pressures. The two disks are used to seal either end of a piston cavity that has a different cross-sectional area on each side. Different piston surface areas are used to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium, P{sub 1}A{sub 1} = P{sub 2}A{sub 2}. The single-use valve functions when the downstream pressure is reduced to approximately atmospheric pressure, creating a pressure differential that causes the burst disks to fail. Several parameters were studied to determine the optimum design of the burst disk. These parameters include thickness, diameter, area/pressure ratio, scoring, and disk geometry. The disk material was limited to 304L stainless steel. Factors that were considered essential to the optimization of the design were robustness, manufacturability, and burst pressure variability. The thicknesses of the disks that were studied range from 0.003 in. to 0.010 in. A model for predicting burst pressures of the burst disks was derived. The model combines membrane stress theory with force/displacement data to predict the burst pressure of various designs to within {+-}10%. This model results from studies that characterize the behavior of individual small and large disks. Welding techniques used to join the dual-disk assembly are discussed. Laser welds are used to join and seal the disks to the bulkhead. These welds were optimized for repeatability and robustness. Resistance upset welding is suggested for joining the dual-disk assembly to the pressure vessel body. Resistance upset weld parameters were developed for this particular design so as to minimize the side effects on the burst-disk performance and to provide high-quality welds.

  13. STELLAR-MASS-DEPENDENT DISK STRUCTURE IN COEVAL PLANET-FORMING DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Szucs, Laszlo; Apai, Daniel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Dullemond, Cornelis P. E-mail: apai@stsci.ed E-mail: dullemon@mpia.d

    2010-09-10

    Previous studies suggest that the planet-forming disks around very low mass stars/brown dwarfs may be flatter than those around more massive stars, in contrast to model predictions of larger scale heights for gas-disks around lower-mass stars. We conducted a statistically robust study to determine whether there is evidence for stellar-mass-dependent disk structure in planet-forming disks. We find a statistically significant difference in the Spitzer/IRAC color distributions of disks around very low mass and low mass stars all belonging to the same star-forming region, the Chamaeleon I star-forming region. We show that self-consistently calculated flared disk models cannot fit the median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the two groups. These SEDs can only be explained by flatter disk models, consistent with the effect of dust settling in disks. We find that, relative to the disk structure predicted for flared disks, the required reduction in disk scale height is anti-correlated with the stellar mass; i.e., disks around lower-mass stars are flatter. Our results show that the initial and boundary conditions of planet formation are stellar-mass-dependent, an important finding that must be considered in planet formation models.

  14. A DISK-WIND MODEL FOR THE NEAR-INFRARED EXCESS EMISSION IN PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bans, Alissa; Koenigl, Arieh E-mail: akonigl@uchicago.edu

    2012-10-20

    Protostellar systems, ranging from low-luminosity classical T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars to high-luminosity Herbig Be stars, exhibit a near-infrared (NIR) excess in their spectra that is dominated by a bump in the monochromatic luminosity with a peak near 3 {mu}m. The bump can be approximated by a thermal emission component of temperature {approx}1500 K that is of the order of the sublimation temperature of interstellar dust grains. In the currently popular 'puffed-up rim' scenario, the bump represents stellar radiation that propagates through the optically thin inner region of the surrounding accretion disk and is absorbed and reemitted by the dust that resides just beyond the dust sublimation radius r {sub sub}. However, this model cannot account for the strongest bumps measured in these sources, and it predicts a pronounced secondary bounce in the interferometric visibility curve that is not observed. In this paper we present an alternative interpretation, which attributes the bump to reemission of stellar radiation by dust that is uplifted from the disk by a centrifugally driven wind. Winds of this type are a leading candidate for the origin of the strong outflows associated with protostars, and there is observational evidence for disk winds originating on scales {approx}r {sub sub}. Using a newly constructed Monte Carlo radiative transfer code and focusing on low-luminosity sources, we show that this model can account for the NIR excess emission even in bright Herbig Ae stars such as AB Auriga and MWC 275, and that it successfully reproduces the basic features of the visibilities measured in these protostars. We argue that a robust dusty outflow in these sources could be self-limiting-through shielding of the stellar FUV photons-to a relatively narrow launching region between r {sub sub} and {approx}2 r {sub sub}. We also suggest that the NIR and scattered-light variability exhibited by a source like MWC 275 can be attributed in this picture to the uplifting of

  15. HERSCHEL FINDS EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR WIND PARTICLES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE: IS THIS WHAT HAPPENED TO THE YOUNG SUN?

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccarelli, C.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Padovani, M.; Caux, E.; Caselli, P.

    2014-07-20

    There is evidence that the young Sun emitted a high flux of energetic (≥10 MeV) particles. The collisions of these particles with the material at the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk induced spallation reactions that formed short-lived radionuclei, like {sup 10}Be, whose trace is now visible in some meteorites. However, it is poorly known exactly when this happened, and whether and how it affected the solar system. Here, we present indirect evidence for an ejection of energetic particles in the young protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4, similar to that experienced by the young solar system. In this case, the energetic particles collide with the material in the protostellar envelope, enhancing the abundance of two molecular ions, HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, whose presence is detected via Herschel observations. The flux of energetic particles at a distance of 1 AU from the emitting source, estimated from the measured abundance ratio of HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, can easily account for the irradiation required by meteoritic observations. These new observations demonstrate that the ejection of ≥10 MeV particles is a phenomenon occurring very early in the life of a protostar, before the disappearance of the envelope from which the future star accretes. The whole envelope is affected by the event, which sets constraints on the magnetic field geometry in the source and opens up the possibility that the spallation reactions are not limited to the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR INFALLING GAS OF LOW ANGULAR MOMENTUM TOWARD THE L1551 NE KEPLERIAN CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Saito, Masao; Lim, Jeremy; Saigo, Kazuya

    2013-10-10

    We report follow-up C{sup 18}O(3-2) line observations of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE with the Submillimeter Array in its compact and subcompact configurations. Our previous observations at a higher angular resolution in the extended configuration revealed a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion. The combined data, with more extensive spatial coverage (∼140-2000 AU), verify the presence of a Keplerian circumbinary disk and reveal for the first time a distinct low-velocity (∼< ± 0.5 km s{sup –1} from the systemic velocity) component that displays a velocity gradient along the minor axis of the circumbinary disk. Our simple model that reproduces the main features seen in the position-velocity diagrams comprises a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion out to a radius of ∼300 AU, beyond which the gas exhibits pure infall at a constant velocity of ∼0.6 km s{sup –1}. This velocity is significantly smaller than the expected free-fall velocity of ∼2.2 km s{sup –1} onto the L1551 NE protostellar mass of ∼0.8 M{sub ☉} at ∼300 AU, suggesting that the infalling gas is decelerated as it moves into regions of high gas pressure in the circumbinary disk. The discontinuity in angular momenta between the outer infalling gas and the inner Keplerian circumbinary disk implies an abrupt transition in the effectiveness at which magnetic braking is able to transfer angular momentum outward, a result perhaps of the different plasma β values and the ionization fractions between the outer and inner regions of the circumbinary disk.

  17. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    PubMed

    Wu, M T; Burnham, C-A D; Westblade, L F; Dien Bard, J; Lawhon, S D; Wallace, M A; Stanley, T; Burd, E; Hindler, J; Humphries, R M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  18. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. T.; Westblade, L. F.; Dien Bard, J.; Wallace, M. A.; Stanley, T.; Burd, E.; Hindler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  19. Workshop on Physics of Accretion Disks Around Compact and Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E (Editor); Stepinski, T. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the two-day Workshop on Physics of Accretion Disks Around Compact and Young Stars was to bring together workers on accretion disks in the western Gulf region (Texas and Louisiana). Part 2 presents the workshop program, a list of poster presentations, and a list of workshop participants. Accretion disks are believed to surround many stars. Some of these disks form around compact stars, such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes that are members of binary systems and reveal themselves as a power source, especially in the x-ray and gamma regions of the spectrum. On the other hand, protostellar disks are believed to be accretion disks associated with young, pre-main-sequence stars and manifest themselves mostly in infrared and radio observations. These disks are considered to be a natural outcome of the star formation process. The focus of this workshop included theory and observations relevant to accretion disks around compact objects and newly forming stars, with the primary purpose of bringing the two communities together for intellectual cross-fertilization. The nature of the workshop was exploratory, to see how much interaction is possible between distinct communities and to better realize the local potential in this subject. A critical workshop activity was identification and documentation of key issues that are of mutual interest to both communities.

  20. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jonathan P.; Mann, Rita K.; Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca; Hughes, A. Meredith; Bally, John

    2014-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO{sup +} 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  1. CCS Observations of the Protostellar Envelope of B335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Langer, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the density, velocity and chemical profiles around protostars is of fundamental importance for testing dynamical models of protostar evolution and understanding the nature of the material falling onto circumstellar disks. Presented are single dish and interferometric spectral line observations of CCS towards the core of B335, a classic example of a young, low mass stellar object.

  2. Proper motions of embedded protostellar jets in Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djupvik, A. A.; Liimets, T.; Zinnecker, H.; Barzdis, A.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A.; Petersen, L. R.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We determine the proper motion of protostellar jets around Class 0 and Class I sources in an active star forming region in Serpens. Methods: Multi-epoch deep images in the 2.122 μm line of molecular hydrogen, v = 1-0 S(1), obtained with the near-infrared instrument NOTCam on a timescale of 10 years, are used to determine the proper motion of knots and jets. K-band spectroscopy of the brighter knots is used to supply radial velocities, estimate extinction, excitation temperature, and H2 column densities towards these knots. Results: We measure the proper motion of 31 knots on different timescales (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years). The typical tangential velocity is around 50 km s-1 for the 10-year baseline, but for shorter timescales, a maximum tangential velocity up to 300 km s-1 is found for a few knots. Based on morphology, velocity information, and the locations of known protostars, we argue for the existence of at least three partly overlapping and deeply embedded flows, one Class 0 flow and two Class I flows. The multi-epoch proper motion results indicate time-variable velocities of the knots, for the first time directly measured for a Class 0 jet. We find in general higher velocities for the Class 0 jet than for the two Class I jets. While the bolometric luminosites of the three driving sources are about equal, the derived mass flow rate Ṁout is two orders of magnitude higher in the Class 0 flow than in the two Class I flows. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  3. A carbonate-rich, hydrated, interplanetary dust particle: possible residue from protostellar clouds.

    PubMed

    Tomeoka, K; Buseck, P R

    1986-03-28

    Transmission electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP) indicates that it contains abundant magnesium-iron carbonates, primarily breunnerite and magnesian siderite. This IDP displays a strong absorption band at 6.8 micrometers in its infrared spectrum, similar to that in certain protostellar spectra. The carbonates probably account for the 6.8-micrometer band in the IDP spectrum, suggesting that carbonate also may occur in interstellar dust and be the source of the controversial 6.8-micrometer feature from the protostellar spectra.

  4. Geometrical Structures of Chemically Decomposed Thick and Thin Disk Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, D.; Brook, C. B.; Rahimi, A.; Gibson, B. K.

    2016-10-01

    We summarize the thick and thin disk formation commonly seen in cosmological N-body simulations. As suggested in Brook et al. (2004), a hierarchical clustering scenario causes multiple minor gas-rich mergers, and leads to the formation of a kinematically hot disk, thick disk population, at a high redshift. Once the mergers become less significant at a later epoch, the thin disk population starts building up. Because in this scenario the thick disk population forms intensively at high redshift through multiple gas-rich mergers, the thick disk population is compact and has systematically higher [α/Fe] abundance than the thin disk population. We discuss that the thick disk population would be affected by the formation of the thin disk and suffer from the radial migration, which helps the thick disk population to be observed in the solar neighborhood. In addition, we show that the current cosmological simulations also naturally predict that the thin disk population is flaring at the outer region. As shown in Rahimi et al. (2014), at high vertical height from the disk plane, the compact thick disk population (low metallicity and high [α/Fe]) is dominant in the inner region and the flaring thin disk population (high metallicity and low [α/Fe]) contributes more in the outer region. This helps to explain the positive radial metallicity gradient and negative radial [α/Fe] gradient observed at high vertical height in the Milky Way stellar disk.

  5. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  6. Molecules in protostellar shocks: the CHESS view on L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Cabrit, S.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Parise, B.; Salez, M.; Vasta, M.; Viti, S.; CHESS Team

    2011-05-01

    Shocks driven by protostellar outflows play an important role in the chemical evolution of molecular gas through temperature and density changes resulting from the activation of endothermic reactions, ionization, and dust destruction. These various processes lead to molecular abundance enhancements up to several orders of magnitude, as reported for various molecular species in "chemically active" outflows, whose archetype is the outflow of the low mass Class 0 protostar L1157. The opening up of the full far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength domains by Herschel has deep impact in the field by providing access to key spectral diagnostics of shock dynamics and chemistry at very high spectral resolution with HIFI and permitting to map the brightest features with the PACS and SPIRE multi-pixel spectrometers. We present the results of the spectral survey of the shock region L1157-B1 from 3.75mm up to 60 μm, carried out with the instruments onboard Herschel and with the IRAM 30m telescope, as part of the CHESS key project. The unprecedented sensitivity of these instruments brings new insight both on the molecular content and the physical conditions of this long studied region, thanks to the detection of hydrides (H2O, NH, HCl, ..) and of the high-excitation lines of heavy molecules (CO, CS, HCO+, HCN, ..). We will discuss the molecular content and the properties of the warm chemically enriched gas (abundance, excitation conditions). We will show how multi-transition analysis of the line profiles allows to constrain the shock physical conditions, the formation scenarios of various molecular species, including water, in relation with the predictions of MHD shock models.

  7. On the evolution of multiple protoplanets embedded in a protostellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, P.; Nelson, R. P.

    2006-05-01

    Context: .Theory predicts that low mass protoplanets in a laminar protostellar disc will migrate into the central star prior to disc dispersal. It is known that protoplanets on orbits with eccentricity e ⪆ H/r, where H is the disc scale height and r is the radius, can halt or reverse their migration. Aims: .We examine whether a system of interacting protoplanetary cores can excite and sustain significant eccentricity of the population, allowing some planetary cores to survive in the disc over its lifetime. Methods: .We employ two distinct numerical schemes: an N-body code, adapted to include migration and eccentricity damping due to the gas disc via analytic prescriptions, and a hydrodynamics code that explicitly evolves a 2D protoplanetary disc model with embedded protoplanets. The former allows us to study the long term evolution, the latter to model the systems with greater fidelity but for shorter times. Results: .After a brief period of chaotic interaction between the protoplanets that involves scattering, orbital exchange, collisions and the formation of co-orbital planets, we find that the system settles into a quiescent state of inward migration. Differential migration causes the protoplanets to form a series of mean motion resonances, such that a planet is often in resonance with both its interior and exterior neighbours. This helps prevent close encounters and leads to the protoplanetary swarm, or subgroups within it, migrating inward at a uniform rate. In about 2 % of runs a single planet is scattered onto a distant orbit with significant eccentricity, allowing it to survive in the disc for ˜ 106 years. Over 20 % of runs produce co-orbital planets that survive for the duration of the simulation, occupying mutual horseshoe or tadpole orbits. Conclusions: .Disc-induced damping overwhelms eccentricity growth through planet-planet interactions, such that a protoplanetary swarm migrates inward. We suggest co-orbital planets may be observed in future

  8. "High Angular Resolution Observations of Protoplanetary Disks with Adaptive Optics"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois

    1999-01-01

    Significant results were obtained and published in the literature. The first optical detection of a circumbinary disk was reported in the ApJ at millimetric wavelengths. The size and inclination of this disk were found to be consistent with millimetric observations. Evidence was found for a cavity inside the disk as theory predicts from dust clearing by the stellar companion.

  9. The First Stars: Mass Growth Under Protostellar Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, Athena

    2012-01-01

    We perform three-dimensional cosmological simulations to examine the growth of metal-free, Population III (Pop III) stars under radiative feedback. We begin our simulation at z=100 and trace the evolution of gas and dark matter until the formation of the first minihalo. We then follow the collapse of the gas within the minihalo up to densities of n = 1012 cm-3, at which point we replace the high-density particles with a sink particle to represent the growing protostar. We model the effect of Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation emitted by the protostar, and employ a ray-tracing scheme to follow the growth of the surrounding HII region over the next 5000 yr. A disk assembles around the first protostar, and radiative feedback does not prevent further fragmentation of the disk to form multiple Pop III stars. The ionizing and photodissociating radiation leads to heating of the dense gas to several thousand Kelvin, and this warm region expands outward at the gas sound speed. Once the extent of this warm region becomes equivalent to the size of the disk, the disk mass declines while the accretion rate onto the protostars is reduced by an order of magnitude. This occurs when the largest sink has grown to 20 Msol while the second sink has grown to 7 Msol, and we estimate the main sink will approach an asymptotic value of 30 Msol by the time it reaches the main sequence. Our simulation thus indicates that the most likely outcome is a massive Pop III binary. If Pop III stars were typically unable to grow to more than a few tens of solar masses, this would have important consequences for the occurrence of pair-instability supernovae in the early Universe as well as the Pop III chemical signature in the oldest stars observable today.

  10. MODELING PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION WITH N-BODY SIMULATIONS: ROLE OF GAS DISK AND STATISTICS COMPARED TO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Huigen; Zhou Jilin; Wang Su

    2011-05-10

    During the late stage of planet formation, when Mars-sized cores appear, interactions among planetary cores can excite their orbital eccentricities, accelerate their merging, and thus sculpt their final orbital architecture. This study contributes to the final assembling of planetary systems with N-body simulations, including the type I or II migration of planets and gas accretion of massive cores in a viscous disk. Statistics on the final distributions of planetary masses, semimajor axes, and eccentricities are derived and are comparable to those of the observed systems. Our simulations predict some new orbital signatures of planetary systems around solar mass stars: 36% of the surviving planets are giant planets (>10 M{sub +}). Most of the massive giant planets (>30 M{sub +}) are located at 1-10 AU. Terrestrial planets are distributed more or less evenly at <1-2 AU. Planets in inner orbits may accumulate at the inner edges of either the protostellar disk (3-5 days) or its magnetorotational instability dead zone (30-50 days). There is a planet desert in the mass-eccentricity diagram, i.e., a lack of planets with masses 0.005-0.08M{sub J} in highly eccentric orbits (e > 0.3-0.4). The average eccentricity ({approx}0.15) of the giant planets (>10 M{sub +}) is greater than that ({approx}0.05) of the terrestrial planets (<10 M{sub +}). A planetary system with more planets tends to have smaller planet masses and orbital eccentricities on average.

  11. Evolutionary status of the pre-protostellar core L1498

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B.; Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Levin, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    L1498 is a classic example of a dense cold pre-protostellar core. To study the evolutionary status, the structure, dynamics, and chemical properties of this core we have obtained high spatial and high spectral resolution observations of molecules tracing densities of 10(3)-10(5) cm-3. We observed CCS, NH3, C3H2, and HC7N with NASA's DSN 70 m antennas. We also present large-scale maps of C18O and 13CO observed with the AT&T 7 m antenna. For the high spatial resolution maps of selected regions within the core we used the VLA for CCS at 22 GHz, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) MMA for CCS at 94 GHz and CS (2-1). The 22 GHz CCS emission marks a high-density [n(H2) > 10(4) cm -3] core, which is elongated with a major axis along the SE-NW direction. NH3 and C3H2 emissions are located inside the boundary of the CCS emission. C18O emission traces a lower density gas extending beyond the CCS boundary. Along the major axis of the dense core, CCS, NH3 and C3H2 emission show evidence of limb brightening. The observations are consistent with a chemically differentiated onion-shell structure for the L1498 core, with NH3 in the inner and CCS in the outer parts of the core. The high angular resolution (9"-12") spectral line maps obtained by combining NASA Goldstone 70 m and VLA data resolve the CCS 22 GHz emission in the southeast and northwest boundaries into arclike enhancements, supporting the picture that CCS emission originates in a shell outside the NH3 emitting region. Interferometric maps of CCS at 94 GHz and CS at 98 GHz show that their emitting regions contain several small-scale dense condensations. We suggest that the differences between the CCS, CS, C3H2, and NH3 emission are caused by a time-dependent effect as the core evolves slowly. We interpret the chemical and physical properties of L1498 in terms of a quasi-static (or slowly contracting) dense core in which the outer envelope is still growing. The growth rate of the core is determined by the

  12. Identification of Gas Phase PAHs in Absorption Towards Protostellar Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The infrared emission bands (also known as the UIR bands.) have recently been observed in absorption at 3.25 micrometers in the ices surrounding a few proto-stellar objects at 11.2 micrometers in MonR2, and at 6.2 micrometers towards two sources near the galactic center. The UIR bands have been observed in emission for many years, but identifying these bands has proven to be both difficult and contentious as no one has yet found a single material that provides a good match to the features. However, most investigators agree that some form of carbon-based material with aromatic bonds is the most likely candidate, and many arguments favor free molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) as the carriers of at least the narrow emission bands. Since the emission arises not from a single molecule but from a family of molecules, identifying which PAHs are contributing to the infrared emission bands is difficult. The identification is further complicated by the fact that the emission at short wavelengths is dominated by small molecules while at long wavelengths it is dominated by large molecules. Thus, for example, the emission at 3.3 micrometers is from a different mix of molecules than those which produce the 11.2 micrometer band. To complicate matters further, the molecular mix includes both neutral and ionic species. In absorption, the same mixture of molecules contributes at all wavelengths and the molecules should be neutral, potentially simplifying comparisons with lab data. Also, absorption strengths measured in the lab are directly applicable to interstellar absorption bands without the need to model an emission spectrum of an unknown mixture of ionized and neutral PAHs. In this paper we show that a mixture of argon matrix isolated PAH molecules can reproduce the 3.25 micrometers absorption band seen in the ISO SWS spectra of four embedded Infrared sources, S140 IRS1, AFGL 2591, Elias 29, and AFGL 989. In section 2 we describe the ISO SWS data analysis and

  13. Class 0 Protostellar Candidates in the AKARI-FIS Bright Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunada, K.; Ikeda, N.; Kitamura, Y.; Nakazato, T.; Yang, J.

    2009-12-01

    It is expected that the FIS Bright Source Catalogue contains many Class 0 protostellar candidates. In particular, the identification of high-mass protostellar candidates is expected. To search new protostellar candidates systematically in the FIS Bright Source Catalogue, we characterized the far-infrared properties of various known objects. We carried out the identification of the FIS point sources for our 1563 survey sources. As a result, we could find the region occupied by the sources associated with the water maser emission on the FIS log(F140 μm) - log(F90 μm/F65 μm) diagram. Comparing the core properties with the far-infrared properties, we also found the spread of the region occupied by the H2O maser sources meant the mass difference and the evolution sequence. Finally, we examined the far-infrared properties of all the point sources in the catalogue. Considering the above results, we were able to confirm the new protostellar candidates from low- to high-mass in the FIS Bright Source Catalogue.

  14. HiRes deconvolved Spitzer images of 89 protostellar jets and outflows: New data on the evolution of the outflow morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Thompson, T. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of protosellar jets and outflows in the time evolution of the parent cores and the protostars, the astronomical community needs a large enough database of infrared images of protostars at the highest spatial resolution possible to reveal the details of their morphology. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features, however, its spatial resolution is limited by its 0.85 m mirror. Here, we use a high-resolution deconvolution algorithm, 'HiRes,' to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating side lobes from bright sources in a sample of 89 protostellar objects. These reprocessed images are useful for detecting (1) wide-angle outflows seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details of H{sub 2} emission in jets and bow shocks, and (3) compact features in MIPS 24 μm images as protostar/disk and atomic/ionic line emission associated with the jets. The HiRes FITS image data of such a large homogeneous sample presented here will be useful to the community in studying these protostellar objects. To illustrate the utility of this HiRes sample, we show how the opening angle of the wide-angle outflows in 31 sources, all observed in the HiRes-processed Spitzer images, correlates with age. Our data suggest a power-law fit to opening angle versus age with an exponent of ∼0.32 and 0.02, respectively, for ages ≤8000 yr and ≥8000 yr.

  15. Melting of polydisperse hard disks.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Sander; Frenkel, Daan

    2004-06-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find that while there is pronounced fractionation in polydispersity, the apparent density-polydispersity gap does not increase in width, contrary to 3D polydisperse hard spheres. The point where the Young's modulus is low enough for the dislocation unbinding to occur moves with the apparent melting point, but stays within the density gap, just like for the monodisperse hard-disk system. Additionally, we find that throughout the accessible polydispersity range, the bound dislocation-pair concentration is high enough to affect the dislocation-unbinding melting as predicted by Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young.

  16. Disk Alloy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Tim; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The advanced powder metallurgy disk alloy ME3 was designed using statistical screening and optimization of composition and processing variables in the NASA HSR/EPM disk program to have extended durability at 1150 to 1250 "Fin large disks. Scaled-up disks of this alloy were produced at the conclusion of this program to demonstrate these properties in realistic disk shapes. The objective of the UEET disk program was to assess the mechanical properties of these ME3 disks as functions of temperature, in order to estimate the maximum temperature capabilities of this advanced alloy. Scaled-up disks processed in the HSR/EPM Compressor / Turbine Disk program were sectioned, machined into specimens, and tested in tensile, creep, fatigue, and fatigue crack growth tests by NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with General Electric Engine Company and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines. Additional sub-scale disks and blanks were processed and tested to explore the effects of several processing variations on mechanical properties. Scaled-up disks of an advanced regional disk alloy, Alloy 10, were used to evaluate dual microstructure heat treatments. This allowed demonstration of an improved balance of properties in disks with higher strength and fatigue resistance in the bores and higher creep and dwell fatigue crack growth resistance in the rims. Results indicate the baseline ME3 alloy and process has 1300 to 1350 O F temperature capabilities, dependent on detailed disk and engine design property requirements. Chemistry and process enhancements show promise for further increasing temperature capabilities.

  17. ON THE FORMATION OF GALACTIC THICK DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Minchev, I.; Streich, D.; Scannapieco, C.; De Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Martig, M.

    2015-05-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations in the Milky Way suggest that the chemically defined thick disk (stars that have high [α/Fe] ratios and are thus old) has a significantly smaller scale-length than the thin disk. This is in apparent contradiction with observations of external edge-on galaxies, where the thin and thick components have comparable scale-lengths. Moreover, while observed disks do not flare (scale-height does not increase with radius), numerical simulations suggest that disk flaring is unavoidable, resulting from both environmental effects and secular evolution. Here we address these problems by studying two different suites of simulated galactic disks formed in the cosmological context. We show that the scale-heights of coeval populations always increase with radius. However, the total population can be decomposed morphologically into thin and thick disks, which do not flare. We relate this to the disk inside-out formation, where younger populations have increasingly larger scale-lengths and flare at progressively larger radii. In this new picture, thick disks are composed of the imbedded flares of mono-age stellar populations. Assuming that disks form inside out, we predict that morphologically defined thick disks must show a decrease in age (or [α/Fe] ratios) with radius and that coeval populations should always flare. This also explains the observed inversion in the metallicity and [α/Fe] gradients for stars away from the disk midplane in the Milky Way. The results of this work are directly linked to, and can be seen as evidence of, inside-out disk growth.

  18. Magnetic fields in primordial accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are considered a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong, tangled magnetic field. We explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the α-Ω dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. For this purpose, we consider two characteristic cases, a typical Pop. III star with 10M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, and a supermassive star with 105M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-1M⊙ yr-1. For the 10M⊙ Pop. III star, we find that coherent magnetic fields can be produced on scales of at least 100 AU, which are sufficient to drive a jet with a luminosity of 100L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-3.7M⊙ yr-1. For the supermassive star, the dynamical timescales in its environment are even shorter, implying smaller orbital timescales and an efficient magnetization out to at least 1000 AU. The jet luminosity corresponds to ~106.0L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-2.1M⊙ yr-1. We expect that the feedback from the supermassive star can have a relevant impact on its host galaxy.

  19. D/H Measurements in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Jacqueline

    2007-05-01

    It is generally accepted that a considerable fraction of early Earths water was delivered by asteroids, comets, and planetesimals. The local planets and comets were assembled from the material in circumstellar disks, which in turn evolved from the envelopes and clouds surrounding protostars. Here at the University of Hawaii-NASA Astrobiology Institute the key research goal is to connect the major aspects of starformation and planetary water, in effect aiming to understand the terms of a "watery Drake Equation". To achieve this goal, we use the infrared and submillimeter telescopes on Mauna Kea to survey several molecules in a variety of starforming clouds. Observations show that water is the most common interstellar ice component. Moreover, there is evidence for enhanced water ice formation in the inner parts of protostellar envelopes. Simple molecules form on the icy grain mantles from surface reactions or thermal annealing of the ice, in turn these molecules drive a rich gas phase chemistry that produces more complex prebiotic molecules. Ice bands, therefore, serve as unique tracers of the chemical and thermal history of circumstellar environments. Here we will discuss constraints on the reservoirs of water and organic molecules in starforming regions, taking in to account the latest observational and theoretical measurements. Recent observations of a number of deuterated molecules, including water, will be discussed in terms of grain surface chemistry and its role in driving the enhanced fractionation of methanol like species, while at the same time inhibiting the deuteration of water.

  20. Giant Planet Migration, Disk Evolution, and the Origin of Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Richard D.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2009-10-01

    We present models of giant planet migration in evolving protoplanetary disks. Our disks evolve subject to viscous transport of angular momentum and photoevaporation, while planets undergo Type II migration. We use a Monte Carlo approach, running large numbers of models with a range in initial conditions. We find that relatively simple models can reproduce both the observed radial distribution of extrasolar giant planets, and the lifetimes and accretion histories of protoplanetary disks. The use of state-of-the-art photoevaporation models results in a degree of coupling between planet formation and disk clearing, which has not been found previously. Some accretion across planetary orbits is necessary if planets are to survive at radii lsim1.5 AU, and if planets of Jupiter mass or greater are to survive in our models they must be able to form at late times, when the disk surface density in the formation region is low. Our model forms two different types of "transitional" disks, embedded planets and clearing disks, which show markedly different properties. We find that the observable properties of these systems are broadly consistent with current observations, and highlight useful observational diagnostics. We predict that young transition disks are more likely to contain embedded giant planets, while older transition disks are more likely to be undergoing disk clearing.

  1. GIANT PLANET MIGRATION, DISK EVOLUTION, AND THE ORIGIN OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Richard D.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2009-10-20

    We present models of giant planet migration in evolving protoplanetary disks. Our disks evolve subject to viscous transport of angular momentum and photoevaporation, while planets undergo Type II migration. We use a Monte Carlo approach, running large numbers of models with a range in initial conditions. We find that relatively simple models can reproduce both the observed radial distribution of extrasolar giant planets, and the lifetimes and accretion histories of protoplanetary disks. The use of state-of-the-art photoevaporation models results in a degree of coupling between planet formation and disk clearing, which has not been found previously. Some accretion across planetary orbits is necessary if planets are to survive at radii approx<1.5 AU, and if planets of Jupiter mass or greater are to survive in our models they must be able to form at late times, when the disk surface density in the formation region is low. Our model forms two different types of 'transitional' disks, embedded planets and clearing disks, which show markedly different properties. We find that the observable properties of these systems are broadly consistent with current observations, and highlight useful observational diagnostics. We predict that young transition disks are more likely to contain embedded giant planets, while older transition disks are more likely to be undergoing disk clearing.

  2. Inner Structure of Protostellar Collapse Candidate B335 Derived from Millimeter-Wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Daniel W. A.; Wilner, David J.; Myers, Philip C.; Tafalla, Mario; Mardones, Diego

    2003-02-01

    We present a study of the density structure of the protostellar collapse candidate B335 using continuum observations from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer made at wavelengths of 1.2 and 3.0 mm. We analyze these data, which probe spatial scales from 5000 to 500 AU, directly in the visibility domain by comparison with synthetic observations constructed from models that assume different physical conditions. This approach allows for much more stringent constraints to be derived from the data than from analysis of images. A single radial power law in density provides a good description of the data, with a best-fit power-law density index p=1.65+/-0.05. Through simulations, we quantify the sensitivity of this result to various model uncertainties, including assumptions of temperature distribution, outer boundary, dust opacity spectral index, and an unresolved central component. The largest uncertainty comes from the unknown presence of a centralized point source. The maximal point source, with 1.2 mm flux of F=12+/-7 mJy, reduces the power-law density index to p=1.47+/-0.07. The remaining sources of systematic uncertainty, of which the most important is the radial dependence of the temperature distribution, likely contribute a total uncertainty at the level of δp<~0.2. Taking into account the uncertainties, we find strong evidence that the power-law index of the density distribution within 5000 AU is significantly less than the value at larger radii, close to 2.0, from previous studies of dust emission and extinction. Images made from the data show clear departures from spherical symmetry, with the globule being slightly extended perpendicular to the outflow axis. The inclusion of a crude model of the outflow as a hollow bipolar cone of constant opening angle improves the fit and leaves the resulting density power-law index unchanged. These results conform well to the generic paradigm of isolated, low-mass star formation, which predicts a power-law density index

  3. Understanding Floppy Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the floppy disk with an analogy to the phonograph record, and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and capabilities of hard-sectored and soft-sectored floppy disks. She concludes that, at present, the floppy disk will continue to be the primary choice of personal computer manufacturers and their customers. (KC)

  4. Disk-loss and disk-renewal phases in classical Be stars. II. Contrasting with stable and variable disks

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, Zachary H.; Wisniewski, John P.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Haubois, Xavier; Mota, Bruno C.; Carciofi, Alex C. E-mail: karen.bjorkman@utoledo.edu E-mail: meade@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: carciofi@usp.br

    2014-05-10

    Recent observational and theoretical studies of classical Be stars have established the utility of polarization color diagrams (PCDs) in helping to constrain the time-dependent mass decretion rates of these systems. We expand on our pilot observational study of this phenomenon, and report the detailed analysis of a long-term (1989-2004) spectropolarimetric survey of nine additional classical Be stars, including systems exhibiting evidence of partial disk-loss/disk-growth episodes as well as systems exhibiting long-term stable disks. After carefully characterizing and removing the interstellar polarization along the line of sight to each of these targets, we analyze their intrinsic polarization behavior. We find that many steady-state Be disks pause at the top of the PCD, as predicted by theory. We also observe sharp declines in the Balmer jump polarization for later spectral type, near edge-on steady-state disks, again as recently predicted by theory, likely caused when the base density of the disk is very high, and the outer region of the edge-on disk starts to self absorb a significant number of Balmer jump photons. The intrinsic V-band polarization and polarization position angle of γ Cas exhibits variations that seem to phase with the orbital period of a known one-armed density structure in this disk, similar to the theoretical predictions of Halonen and Jones. We also observe stochastic jumps in the intrinsic polarization across the Balmer jump of several known Be+sdO systems, and speculate that the thermal inflation of part of the outer region of these disks could be responsible for producing this observational phenomenon. Finally, we estimate the base densities of this sample of stars to be between ≈8 × 10{sup –11} and ≈4 × 10{sup –12} g cm{sup –3} during quasi steady state periods given there maximum observed polarization.

  5. Disk-loss and Disk-renewal Phases in Classical Be Stars. II. Contrasting with Stable and Variable Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Zachary H.; Wisniewski, John P.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Haubois, Xavier; Mota, Bruno C.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Bjorkman, Jon E.

    2014-05-01

    Recent observational and theoretical studies of classical Be stars have established the utility of polarization color diagrams (PCDs) in helping to constrain the time-dependent mass decretion rates of these systems. We expand on our pilot observational study of this phenomenon, and report the detailed analysis of a long-term (1989-2004) spectropolarimetric survey of nine additional classical Be stars, including systems exhibiting evidence of partial disk-loss/disk-growth episodes as well as systems exhibiting long-term stable disks. After carefully characterizing and removing the interstellar polarization along the line of sight to each of these targets, we analyze their intrinsic polarization behavior. We find that many steady-state Be disks pause at the top of the PCD, as predicted by theory. We also observe sharp declines in the Balmer jump polarization for later spectral type, near edge-on steady-state disks, again as recently predicted by theory, likely caused when the base density of the disk is very high, and the outer region of the edge-on disk starts to self absorb a significant number of Balmer jump photons. The intrinsic V-band polarization and polarization position angle of γ Cas exhibits variations that seem to phase with the orbital period of a known one-armed density structure in this disk, similar to the theoretical predictions of Halonen & Jones. We also observe stochastic jumps in the intrinsic polarization across the Balmer jump of several known Be+sdO systems, and speculate that the thermal inflation of part of the outer region of these disks could be responsible for producing this observational phenomenon. Finally, we estimate the base densities of this sample of stars to be between ≈8 × 10-11 and ≈4 × 10-12 g cm-3 during quasi steady state periods given there maximum observed polarization.

  6. A Keplerian disk around a Class 0 source: ALMA observations of VLA1623A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Nadia M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Bruderer, Simon; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Rotationally supported disks are critical in the star formation process. The questions of when they form and what factors influence or hinder their formation have been studied but are largely unanswered. Observations of early-stage YSOs are needed to probe disk formation. Aims: VLA1623 is a triple non-coeval protostellar system, with a weak magnetic field perpendicular to the outflow, whose Class 0 component, VLA1623A, shows a disk-like structure in continuum with signatures of rotation in line emission. We aim to determine whether this structure is in part or in whole a rotationally supported disk, i.e. a Keplerian disk, and what its characteristics are. Methods: ALMA Cycle 0 Early Science 1.3 mm continuum and C18O (2-1) observations in the extended configuration are presented here and used to perform an analysis of the disk-like structure using position-velocity (PV) diagrams and thin disk modeling with the addition of foreground absorption. Results: The PV diagrams of the C18O line emission suggest the presence of a rotationally supported component with a radius of at least 50 AU. Kinematical modeling of the line emission shows that the disk out to 180 AU is actually rotationally supported, with the rotation described well by Keplerian rotation out to at least 150 AU, and the central source mass is ~0.2 M⊙ for an inclination of 55°. Pure infall and conserved angular momentum rotation models are excluded. Conclusions: VLA1623A, a very young Class 0 source, presents a disk with an outer radius Rout = 180 AU with a Keplerian velocity structure out to at least 150 AU. The weak magnetic fields and recent fragmentation in this region of ρ Ophiuchus may have played a leading role in the formation of the disk. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Floppy disk utility user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A floppy disk utility program is described which transfers programs between files on a hard disk and floppy disk. It also copies the data on one floppy disk onto another floppy disk and compares the data. The program operates on the Data General NOVA-4X under the Real Time Disk Operating System. Sample operations are given.

  8. Floppy disk utility user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Floppy Disk Utility Program transfers programs between files on the hard disk and floppy disk. It also copies the data on one floppy disk onto another floppy disk and compares the data. The program operates on the Data General NOVA-4X under the Real Time Disk Operating System (RDOS).

  9. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    SciTech Connect

    Akeson, R. L.

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  10. Nonaxisymmetric instabilities in self-gravitating disks. II. Linear and quasi-linear analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Kathryn Z.; Fernandez, Paul; Imamura, James N.; Keever, Erik; Tumblin, Rebecka; Dumas, William

    2014-09-01

    We studied global nonaxisymmetric hydrodynamic instabilities in an extensive collection of hot, self-gravitating polytropic disk systems, systems that covered a wide expanse of the parameter space relevant to protostellar and protoplanetary systems. We examined equilibrium disk models varying three parameters: the ratio of the inner to outer equatorial radii, the ratio of star mass to disk mass, and the rotation law exponent q. We took the polytropic index n=1.5 and examined the exponents q=1.5 and 2, and the transitional one q=1.75. For each of these sets of parameters, we examined models with inner to outer radius ratios from 0.1 to 0.75, and star mass to disk mass ratios from 0 to 103. We numerically calculated the growth rates and oscillation frequencies of low-order nonaxisymmetric disk modes, modes with azimuthal dependence ∝ e imϕ . Low- m modes are found to dominate with the character and strength of instability strongly dependent on disk self-gravity. Representatives of each mode type are examined in detail, and torques and mass transport rates are calculated.

  11. A SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH STUDY OF DEBRIS DISKS AROUND PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Beichman, C. A.; Carpenter, John M.; Bryden, Geoffrey

    2011-01-15

    Since giant planets scatter planetesimals within a few tidal radii of their orbits, the locations of existing planetesimal belts indicate regions where giant planet formation failed in bygone protostellar disks. Infrared observations of circumstellar dust produced by colliding planetesimals are therefore powerful probes of the formation histories of known planets. Here we present new Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectrophotometry of 111 solar-type stars, including 105 planet hosts. Our observations reveal 11 debris disks, including two previously undetected debris disks orbiting HD 108874 and HD 130322. Combining the 32 {mu}m spectrophotometry with previously published MIPS photometry, we find that the majority of debris disks around solar-type stars have temperatures in the range 60 {approx}< T{sub dust} {approx}< 100 K. Assuming a dust temperature T{sub dust} = 70 K, which is representative of the nine debris disks detected by both IRS and MIPS, debris rings surrounding Sun-like stars orbit between 15 and 240 AU depending on the mean particle size. Our observations imply that the planets detected by radial-velocity searches formed within 240 AU of their parent stars. If any of the debris disks studied here have mostly large, blackbody emitting grains, their companion giant planets must have formed in a narrow region between the ice line and 15 AU.

  12. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Kastner, Joel

    2015-07-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling.

  13. Change in the chemical composition of infalling gas forming a disk around a protostar.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Nami; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Kahane, Claudine; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Caux, Emmanuel; Demyk, Karine; Vastel, Charlotte; Coutens, Audrey; Taquet, Vianney; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Aikawa, Yuri; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2014-03-01

    IRAS 04368+2557 is a solar-type (low-mass) protostar embedded in a protostellar core (L1527) in the Taurus molecular cloud, which is only 140 parsecs away from Earth, making it the closest large star-forming region. The protostellar envelope has a flattened shape with a diameter of a thousand astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun), and is infalling and rotating. It also has a protostellar disk with a radius of 90 AU (ref. 6), from which a planetary system is expected to form. The interstellar gas, mainly consisting of hydrogen molecules, undergoes a change in density of about three orders of magnitude as it collapses from the envelope into the disk, while being heated from 10 kelvin to over 100 kelvin in the mid-plane, but it has hitherto not been possible to explore changes in chemical composition associated with this collapse. Here we report that the unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule cyclic-C3H2 resides in the infalling rotating envelope, whereas sulphur monoxide (SO) is enhanced in the transition zone at the radius of the centrifugal barrier (100 ± 20 AU), which is the radius at which the kinetic energy of the infalling gas is converted to rotational energy. Such a drastic change in chemistry at the centrifugal barrier was not anticipated, but is probably caused by the discontinuous infalling motion at the centrifugal barrier and local heating processes there. PMID:24522533

  14. Evidence for dust grain growth in young circumstellar disks.

    PubMed

    Throop, H B; Bally, J; Esposito, L W; McCaughrean, M J

    2001-06-01

    Hundreds of circumstellar disks in the Orion nebula are being rapidly destroyed by the intense ultraviolet radiation produced by nearby bright stars. These young, million-year-old disks may not survive long enough to form planetary systems. Nevertheless, the first stage of planet formation-the growth of dust grains into larger particles-may have begun in these systems. Observational evidence for these large particles in Orion's disks is presented. A model of grain evolution in externally irradiated protoplanetary disks is developed and predicts rapid particle size evolution and sharp outer disk boundaries. We discuss implications for the formation rates of planetary systems.

  15. Episodic molecular outflow in the very young protostellar cluster Serpens South.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Adele L; Arce, Héctor G; Mardones, Diego; van Dokkum, Pieter; Dunham, Michael M; Fernández-López, Manuel; Gallardo, José; Corder, Stuartt A

    2015-11-01

    The loss of mass from protostars, in the form of a jet or outflow, is a necessary counterpart to protostellar mass accretion. Outflow ejection events probably vary in their velocity and/or in the rate of mass loss. Such 'episodic' ejection events have been observed during the class 0 protostellar phase (the early accretion stage), and continue during the subsequent class I phase that marks the first one million years of star formation. Previously observed episodic-ejection sources were relatively isolated; however, the most common sites of star formation are clusters. Outflows link protostars with their environment and provide a viable source of the turbulence that is necessary for regulating star formation in clusters, but it is not known how an accretion-driven jet or outflow in a clustered environment manifests itself in its earliest stage. This early stage is important in establishing the initial conditions for momentum and energy transfer to the environment as the protostar and cluster evolve. Here we report that an outflow from a young, class 0 protostar, at the hub of the very active and filamentary Serpens South protostellar cluster, shows unambiguous episodic events. The (12)C(16)O (J = 2-1) emission from the protostar reveals 22 distinct features of outflow ejecta, the most recent having the highest velocity. The outflow forms bipolar lobes--one of the first detectable signs of star formation--which originate from the peak of 1-mm continuum emission. Emission from the surrounding C(18)O envelope shows kinematics consistent with rotation and an infall of material onto the protostar. The data suggest that episodic, accretion-driven outflow begins in the earliest phase of protostellar evolution, and that the outflow remains intact in a very clustered environment, probably providing efficient momentum transfer for driving turbulence.

  16. Episodic molecular outflow in the very young protostellar cluster Serpens South.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Adele L; Arce, Héctor G; Mardones, Diego; van Dokkum, Pieter; Dunham, Michael M; Fernández-López, Manuel; Gallardo, José; Corder, Stuartt A

    2015-11-01

    The loss of mass from protostars, in the form of a jet or outflow, is a necessary counterpart to protostellar mass accretion. Outflow ejection events probably vary in their velocity and/or in the rate of mass loss. Such 'episodic' ejection events have been observed during the class 0 protostellar phase (the early accretion stage), and continue during the subsequent class I phase that marks the first one million years of star formation. Previously observed episodic-ejection sources were relatively isolated; however, the most common sites of star formation are clusters. Outflows link protostars with their environment and provide a viable source of the turbulence that is necessary for regulating star formation in clusters, but it is not known how an accretion-driven jet or outflow in a clustered environment manifests itself in its earliest stage. This early stage is important in establishing the initial conditions for momentum and energy transfer to the environment as the protostar and cluster evolve. Here we report that an outflow from a young, class 0 protostar, at the hub of the very active and filamentary Serpens South protostellar cluster, shows unambiguous episodic events. The (12)C(16)O (J = 2-1) emission from the protostar reveals 22 distinct features of outflow ejecta, the most recent having the highest velocity. The outflow forms bipolar lobes--one of the first detectable signs of star formation--which originate from the peak of 1-mm continuum emission. Emission from the surrounding C(18)O envelope shows kinematics consistent with rotation and an infall of material onto the protostar. The data suggest that episodic, accretion-driven outflow begins in the earliest phase of protostellar evolution, and that the outflow remains intact in a very clustered environment, probably providing efficient momentum transfer for driving turbulence. PMID:26536957

  17. Three-dimensional simulations of multiple protoplanets embedded in a protostellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, P.; Nelson, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    Context: Theory predicts that low-mass protoplanets in a protostellar disc migrate into the central star on a time scale that is short compared with the disc lifetime or the giant planet formation time scale. Protoplanet eccentricities of e⪆ H/r can slow or reverse migration, but previous 2D studies of multiple protoplanets embedded in a protoplanetary disc have shown that gravitational scattering cannot maintain significant planet eccentricities against disc-induced damping. The eventual fate of these systems was migration into the central star. Aims: Here we simulate the evolution of low-mass protoplanetary swarms in three dimensions. The aim is to examine both protoplanet survival rates and the dynamical structure of the resulting planetary systems, and to compare them with 2D simulations. Methods: We present results from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of eight protoplanets embedded in a protoplanetary disc. We also present a suite of simulations performed using an N-body code, modified to include prescriptions for planetary migration and for eccentricity and inclination damping. These prescriptions were obtained by fitting analytic formulae to hydrodynamic simulations of planets embedded in discs with initially eccentric and/or inclined orbits. Results: As was found in two dimensions, differential migration produces groups of protoplanets in stable, multiple mean-motion resonances that migrate in lockstep, preventing prolonged periods of gravitational scattering. In almost all simulations, this leads to large-scale migration of the protoplanet swarm into the central star in the absence of a viable stopping mechanism. The evolution involves mutual collisions, occasional instances of large-scale scattering, and the frequent formation of the long-lived, co-orbital planet systems that arise in >30% of all runs. Conclusions: Disc-induced damping overwhelms eccentricity and inclination growth due to planet-planet interactions, leading to large-scale migration of

  18. Broad N2H+ Emission toward the Protostellar Shock L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Podio, L.; Vasta, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first detection of N2H+ toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ~0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N2H+(1-0) line originated from the dense (>=105 cm-3) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N2H+ column density of a few 1012 cm-2 corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10-9. The N2H+ abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 104 yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (sime2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N2H+ is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N2H+ is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 104 cm-3, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  19. Deuterium Fractionation and Ionization Degree in Massive Protostellar/cluster Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huei-Ru; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Su, Yu-Nung

    2013-03-01

    We have conducted a survey of deuterium fractionation of N2H+, RD (N2H+) ≡ N(N2D+)/N(N2H+), with the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) to assess the use of RD (N2H+) as an evolutionary tracer among massive protostellar/cluster cores in early stages. Our sample includes 32 dense cores in various evolutionary stages, from high-mass starless cores (HMSCs), high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), to ultra-compact (UC) HII regions, in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and high infrared extinction clouds. The results show a decreasing trend in deuterium fractionation with evolutionary stage traced by gas temperature and line width (Fig. 1). A moderate increasing trend of deuterium fractionation with the CO depletion factor is also found among cores in IRDCs and HMSCs. These suggest a general chemical behavior of deuterated species in low- and high-mass protostellar candidates. Upper limits to the ionization degree are also estimated to be in the range of 4 × 10-8 - 5 × 10-6.

  20. EVAPORATION OF GRAIN-SURFACE SPECIES BY SHOCK WAVES IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Aota, Takuhiro; Aikawa, Yuri; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of young protostellar objects detected warm SO emission, which could be associated with a forming protostellar disk. In order to investigate if such warm gas can be produced by accretion shock onto the forming disk, we calculate the sputtering and thermal desorption of various grain-surface species in one-dimensional shock waves. We find that thermal desorption is much more efficient than the sputtering in the post-shock region. While H{sub 2}O can be thermally desorbed, if the accretion velocity is larger than 8 km s{sup –1} with the pre-shock gas number density of 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}, SO is desorbed if the accretion velocity ≳2 km s{sup –1} and ≳4 km s{sup –1}, with the pre-shock density of 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3} and 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}, respectively. We also find that the column density of hydrogen nuclei in warm post-shock gas is N {sub warm} ∼ 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2}.

  1. Why Do T Tauri Disks Accrete?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; D'Alessio, Paola; Calvet, Nuria; Muzerolle, James

    2006-01-01

    Observations of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs suggest that the accretion rates of their disks scales roughly with the square of the central stellar mass. No dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass is predicted by the simplest version of the Gammie layered disk model, in which nonthermal ionization of upper disk layers allows accretion to occur via the magnetorotational instability. We show that a minor modification of Gaminie's model to include heating by irradiation from the central star yields a modest dependence of accretion on the mass of the central star. A purely viscous disk model could provide a strong dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass if the initial disk radius (before much viscous evolution has occurred) has a strong dependence on stellar mass. However, it is far from clear that at least the most massive pre-main-sequence disks can be totally magnetically activated by X-rays or cosmic rays. We suggest that a combination of effects are responsible for the observed dependence, with the lowest mass stars having the lowest mass disks, which can be thoroughly magnetically active, while the higher mass stars have higher mass disks that have layered accret,ion and relatively inactive or "dead" central zones at some radii. In such dead zones, we suggest that gravitational instabilities may play a role in allowing accretion to proceed. In this connection, we emphasize the uncertainty in disk masses derived from dust emission and argue that T Tauri disk masses have been systematically underestimated by conventional analyses. Furtlier study of accretion rates, especially in the lowest mass stars, would help to clarify the mechanisms of accretion in T Tauri stars.

  2. The Dark Disk of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Chris W.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2009-10-01

    Massive satellite accretions onto early galactic disks can lead to the deposition of dark matter in disk-like configurations that co-rotate with the galaxy. This phenomenon has potentially dramatic consequences for dark matter detection experiments. We utilize focused, high-resolution simulations of accretion events onto disks designed to be Galaxy analogues, and compare the resultant disks to the morphological and kinematic properties of the Milky Way's thick disk in order to bracket the range of co-rotating accreted dark matter. In agreement with previous results, we find that the Milky Way's merger history must have been unusually quiescent compared to median Λ cold dark matter expectations and, therefore, its dark disk must be relatively small: the fraction of accreted dark disk material near the Sun is about 20% of the host halo density or smaller and the co-rotating dark matter fraction near the Sun, defined as particles moving with a rotational velocity lag less than 50 km s-1, is enhanced by about 30% or less compared to a standard halo model. Such a dark disk could contribute dominantly to the low energy (of order keV for a dark matter particle with mass 100 GeV) nuclear recoil event rate of direct detection experiments, but it will not change the likelihood of detection significantly. These dark disks provide testable predictions of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter models and should be considered in detailed comparisons to experimental data. Our findings suggest that the dark disk of the Milky Way may provide a detectable signal for indirect detection experiments, contributing up to about 25% of the dark matter self-annihilation signal in the direction of the center of the Galaxy, lending the signal a noticeably oblate morphology.

  3. Structure and dynamics of Andromeda's stellar disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Claire Elise

    2015-10-01

    Lambda cold dark matter (LambdaCDM) cosmology predicts that the disks of Milky Way-mass galaxies should have undergone at least one merger with a large (mass ratio 1:10) satellite in the last several Gyr. However, the stellar disk in the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way is too thin and dynamically cold to have experienced such an impact. The dynamics of the nearby Andromeda galaxy can serve as a second data point, and help us understand whether the Milky Way may simply have had an unusually quiescent merger history, or whether LambdaCDM theory needs to be revisited. Over the last few years, we have carried out a detailed study of the resolved stellar populations in the disk of the Andromeda galaxy using data from two surveys: six-filter Hubble Space Telescope photometry from the recently-completed Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey, and radial velocities derived from Keck/DEIMOS optical spectra obtained as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar 0Halo (SPLASH) program. These detailed, multidimensional data sets allow us to decouple the structural subcomponents and characterize them individually. We find that an old, dynamically hot (velocity dispersion 150 km/s) RGB population extends out to 20 kpc (the edge of the visible disk) but has a disk-like surface brightness profile and luminosity function. This population may have originated in the disk but been kicked out subsequently in impacts with satellite galaxies. We also study the kinematics of the disk as a function of the age of stellar tracers, and find a direct correlation between age and velocity dispersion, indicating that Andromeda has undergone a continuous heating or disk settling process throughout its lifetime. Overall, both the velocity dispersion of Andromeda's disk and the slope of the velocity dispersion vs. stellar age curve are several times those of the Milky Way's, suggesting a more active merger history more in line with Lambda

  4. MODELING THE RESOLVED DISK AROUND THE CLASS 0 PROTOSTAR L1527

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Looney, Leslie W.; Wilner, David J.; Loinard, Laurent; D'Alessio, Paola

    2013-07-01

    We present high-resolution sub/millimeter interferometric imaging of the Class 0 protostar L1527 IRS (IRAS 04368+2557) at {lambda} = 870 {mu}m and 3.4 mm from the Submillimeter Array and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We detect the signature of an edge-on disk surrounding the protostar with an observed diameter of 180 AU in the sub/millimeter images. The mass of the disk is estimated to be 0.007 M{sub Sun }, assuming optically thin, isothermal dust emission. The millimeter spectral index is observed to be quite shallow at all the spatial scales probed: {alpha} {approx} 2, implying a dust opacity spectral index {beta} {approx} 0. We model the emission from the disk and surrounding envelope using Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, simultaneously fitting the sub/millimeter visibility amplitudes, sub/millimeter images, resolved L' image, spectral energy distribution, and mid-infrared spectrum. The best-fitting model has a disk radius of R = 125 AU, is highly flared (H{proportional_to}R {sup 1.3}), has a radial density profile {rho}{proportional_to}R {sup -2.5}, and has a mass of 0.0075 M{sub Sun }. The scale height at 100 AU is 48 AU, about a factor of two greater than vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The resolved millimeter observations indicate that disks may grow rapidly throughout the Class 0 phase. The mass and radius of the young disk around L1527 are comparable to disks around pre-main-sequence stars; however, the disk is considerably more vertically extended, possibly due to a combination of lower protostellar mass, infall onto the disk upper layers, and little settling of {approx}1 {mu}m-sized dust grains.

  5. Coupling the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and Large Eddy Simulations with Actuator Disk Model: predictions of wind farm power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cartagena, Edgardo Javier; Santoni, Christian; Ciri, Umberto; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    A large-scale wind farm operating under realistic atmospheric conditions is studied by coupling a meso-scale and micro-scale models. For this purpose, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is coupled with an in-house LES solver for wind farms. The code is based on a finite difference scheme, with a Runge-Kutta, fractional step and the Actuator Disk Model. The WRF model has been configured using seven one-way nested domains where the child domain has a mesh size one third of its parent domain. A horizontal resolution of 70 m is used in the innermost domain. A section from the smallest and finest nested domain, 7.5 diameters upwind of the wind farm is used as inlet boundary condition for the LES code. The wind farm consists in six-turbines aligned with the mean wind direction and streamwise spacing of 10 rotor diameters, (D), and 2.75D in the spanwise direction. Three simulations were performed by varying the velocity fluctuations at the inlet: random perturbations, precursor simulation, and recycling perturbation method. Results are compared with a simulation on the same wind farm with an ideal uniform wind speed to assess the importance of the time varying incoming wind velocity. Numerical simulations were performed at TACC (Grant CTS070066). This work was supported by NSF, (Grant IIA-1243482 WINDINSPIRE).

  6. Astounding Jumping Disk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzdziol, Edward S.

    1991-01-01

    Activities involving concave rubber disks are utilized to illustrate the scientific principles of kinetic and potential energy. Provides teacher instructions and questions related to the activity. (MDH)

  7. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  8. Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.

    PubMed

    Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2004-10-01

    The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gamma

  9. Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2004-10-01

    The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King’s theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio γ is larger than a critical value γ*(≈1.9) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a*(γ) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples (γ⩽γ*) can be formulated by the shape factor f(γ,a) when a⩽a*(γ) . It is found experimentally that a necessary condition of the acoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval Hn . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis.

  10. Fast Radial Flows in Transition Disk Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Chiang, Eugene; Andrews, Sean M.

    2014-02-01

    Protoplanetary "transition" disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.

  11. Fast radial flows in transition disk holes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Chiang, Eugene

    2014-02-20

    Protoplanetary 'transition' disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.

  12. Superalloy Disk With Dual-Grain Structure Spin Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced nickel-base disk alloys for future gas turbine engines will require greater temperature capability than current alloys, but they must also continue to deliver safe, reliable operation. An advanced, nickel-base disk alloy, designated Alloy 10, was selected for evaluation in NASA s Ultra Safe Propulsion Project. Early studies on small test specimens showed that heat treatments that produced a fine grain microstructure promoted high strength and long fatigue life in the bore of a disk, whereas heat treatments that produced a coarse grain microstructure promoted optimal creep and crack growth resistance in the rim of a disk. On the basis of these results, the optimal combination of performance and safety might be achieved by utilizing a heat-treatment technology that could produce a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim in a nickel-base disk. Alloy 10 disks that were given a dual microstructure heat treatment (DMHT) were obtained from NASA s Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program for preliminary evaluation. Data on small test specimens machined from a DMHT disk were encouraging. However, the benefit of the dual grain structure on the performance and reliability of the entire disk still needed to be demonstrated. For this reason, a high temperature spin test of a DMHT disk was run at 20 000 rpm and 1500 F at the Balancing Company of Dayton, Ohio, under the direction of NASA Glenn Research Center personnel. The results of that test showed that the DMHT disk exhibited significantly lower crack growth than a disk with a fine grain microstructure. In addition, the results of these tests could be accurately predicted using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric finite element analysis of the DMHT disk. Although the first spin test demonstrated a significant performance advantage associated with the DMHT technology, a second spin test on the DMHT disk was run to determine burst margin. The disk burst in the web at a very high speed, over 39 000 rpm, in line with

  13. Migration and growth of protoplanetary embryos. I. Convergence of embryos in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Liu, Beibei; Li, Hui

    2014-12-10

    According to the core accretion scenario, planets form in protostellar disks through the condensation of dust, coagulation of planetesimals, and emergence of protoplanetary embryos. At a few AU in a minimum mass nebula, embryos' growth is quenched by dynamical isolation due to the depletion of planetesimals in their feeding zone. However, embryos with masses (M{sub p} ) in the range of a few Earth masses (M {sub ⊕}) migrate toward a transition radius between the inner viscously heated and outer irradiated regions of their natal disk. Their limiting isolation mass increases with the planetesimals surface density. When M{sub p} > 10 M {sub ⊕}, embryos efficiently accrete gas and evolve into cores of gas giants. We use a numerical simulation to show that despite stream line interference, convergent embryos essentially retain the strength of non-interacting embryos' Lindblad and corotation torques by their natal disks. In disks with modest surface density (or equivalently accretion rates), embryos capture each other in their mutual mean motion resonances and form a convoy of super-Earths. In more massive disks, they could overcome these resonant barriers to undergo repeated close encounters, including cohesive collisions that enable the formation of massive cores.

  14. Low-Mass Star Formation: From Molecular Cloud Cores to Protostars and Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inutsuka, S.-I.; Machida, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Iwasaki, K.

    2016-05-01

    This review describes realistic evolution of magnetic field and rotation of the protostars, dynamics of outflows and jets, and the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks. Recent advances in the protostellar collapse simulations cover a huge dynamic range from molecular cloud core density to stellar density in a self-consistent manner and account for all the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects, such as Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, and Hall current. We explain the emergence of the first core, i.e., the quasi-hydrostatic object that consists of molecular gas, and the second core, i.e., the protostar. Ohmic dissipation largely removes the magnetic flux from the center of a collapsing cloud core. A fast well-collimated bipolar jet along the rotation axis of the protostar is driven after the magnetic field is re-coupled with warm gas (˜103 K) around the protostar. The circumstellar disk is born in the "dead zone", a region that is de-coupled from the magnetic field, and the outer radius of the disk increases with that of the dead zone during the early accretion phase. The rapid increase of the disk size occurs after the depletion of the envelope of molecular cloud core. The effect of Hall current may create two distinct populations of protoplanetary disks.

  15. Observational evidence for thin AGN disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, Hagai

    1992-01-01

    AGN spectrum and spectral features, polarization, inclination, and X-ray line and continuum reflection features are discussed in a critical way in order to determine the ones that are the least model-dependent. The sign and strength of absorption and emission edges are found to be model-dependent, and relativistic broadening and shifting makes them hard to detect. The presence or absence of the predicted Lyman edge polarization feature may be used as a decisive test for thin, bare AGN disks. Other good model-independent tests are several inclination-related line and continuum correlations in big AGN samples. It is shown that electron temperature near the surface of the disk can greatly exceed the disk equilibrium temperature, which causes deviations from LTE. This effect must be incorporated into realistic disk models.

  16. THE NATURE OF TRANSITION CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS. II. SOUTHERN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Cieza, Lucas A.; Merin, Bruno; Smith Castelli, Analia V.; Allen, Lori E.; Morrell, Nidia

    2012-04-10

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from {approx}<1 to 10 M{sub JUP}, and accretion rates ranging from {approx}<10{sup -11} to 10{sup -7.7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  17. From Cores to Envelopes to Disks: A Multi-scale View of Magnetized Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.

    2014-12-01

    protostellar envelope may be a turning point: at larger scales B-fields may still retain the memory of the global B-field drawn in from the ambient medium; but at smaller scales the B-fields may be affected by the dynamics of both envelope and disk rotation. This sets the stage for ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), which will soon reveal the morphology of B-fields in circumstellar disks themselves.

  18. Probabilistic Analysis of Aircraft Gas Turbine Disk Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; August, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Two series of low cycle fatigue (LCF) test data for two groups of different aircraft gas turbine engine compressor disk geometries were reanalyzed and compared using Weibull statistics. Both groups of disks were manufactured from titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy. A NASA Glenn Research Center developed probabilistic computer code Probable Cause was used to predict disk life and reliability. A material-life factor A was determined for titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy based upon fatigue disk data and successfully applied to predict the life of the disks as a function of speed. A comparison was made with the currently used life prediction method based upon crack growth rate. Applying an endurance limit to the computer code did not significantly affect the predicted lives under engine operating conditions. Failure location prediction correlates with those experimentally observed in the LCF tests. A reasonable correlation was obtained between the predicted disk lives using the Probable Cause code and a modified crack growth method for life prediction. Both methods slightly overpredict life for one disk group and significantly under predict it for the other.

  19. BE STAR DISK MODELS IN CONSISTENT VERTICAL HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Sigut, T. A. A.; McGill, M. A.; Jones, C. E. E-mail: mmcgill@astro.uwo.ca

    2009-07-10

    A popular model for the circumstellar disks of Be stars is that of a geometrically thin disk with a density in the equatorial plane that drops as a power law of distance from the star. It is usually assumed that the vertical structure of such a disk (in the direction parallel to the stellar rotation axis) is governed by the hydrostatic equilibrium set by the vertical component of the star's gravitational acceleration. Previous radiative equilibrium models for such disks have usually been computed assuming a fixed density structure. This introduces an inconsistency as the gas density is not allowed to respond to temperature changes and the resultant disk model is not in vertical, hydrostatic equilibrium. In this work, we modify the BEDISK code of Sigut and Jones so that it enforces a hydrostatic equilibrium consistent with the temperature solution. We compare the disk densities, temperatures, H{alpha} line profiles, and near-IR excesses predicted by such models with those computed from models with a fixed density structure. We find that the fixed models can differ substantially from the consistent hydrostatic models when the disk density is high enough that the circumstellar disk develops a cool (T {approx}< 10, 000 K) equatorial region close to the parent star. Based on these new hydrostatic disks, we also predict an approximate relation between the (global) density-averaged disk temperature and the T{sub eff} of the central star, covering the full range of central Be star spectral types.

  20. The SEEDS of Planet Formation: Observations of Transitional Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    As part of its 5-year study, the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disk Systems (SEEDS) has already observed a number of YSOs with circumstellar disks, including 13 0.5-8 Myr old A-M stars with indications that they host wide gaps or central cavities in their circumstellar disks in millimeter or far-IR observations, or from deficits in warm dust thermal emission. For 8 of the disks, the 0.15" inner working angle of HiCIAO+A0188 samples material in the millimeter or mid-IR identified cavity. In one case we report detection of a previously unrecognized wide gap. For the remaining 4 stars, the SEEDS data sample the outer disk: in 3 cases, we present the first NIR imagery of the disks. The data for the youngest sample members 1-2 Myr) closely resemble coeval primordial disks. After approximately 3 Myr, the transitional disks show a wealth of structure including spiral features, rings, divots, and in some cases, largely cleared gaps in the disks which are not seen in coeval primordial disks. Some of these structural features are predicted consequences of Jovian-mass planets having formed in the disk, while others are novel features. We discuss the implications for massive planet formation timescales and mechanisms.

  1. The SEEDS of Planet Formation: Observations of Transitional Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol

    2011-01-01

    As part of its 5-year study, the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disk Systems (SEEDS) has already observed a number of YSOs with circumstellar disks, including 13 0.5- 8 Myr old A-M stars with indications that they host wide gaps or central cavities in their circumstellar disks in millimeter or far-IR observations, or from deficits in warm dust thermal emission. For 8 of the disks, the 0.15" inner working angle of HiCIAO+A0188 samples material in the millimeter or mid-IR identified cavity. In one case we reprt detection of a previously unrecognized wide gap. For the remaining 4 stars, the SEEDS data sample the outer disk: in 3 cases, we present the first NIR imagery of the disks. The data for the youngest sample members (less than 1-2 Myr) closely resemble coeval primordial disks. After approximately 3 Myr, the transitional disks show a wealth of structure including spiral features, rings, divots, and in some cases, largely cleared gaps in the disks which are not seen in coeval primordial disks. Some of these structural features are predicted consequences of lovianmass planets having formed in the disk, while others are novel features. We discuss the implications for massive planet formation timescales and mechanisms.

  2. Burst Testing of a Superalloy Disk with a Dual Grain Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete

    2002-01-01

    Room temperature burst testing of an advanced nickel-base superalloy disk with a dual grain structure was conducted. The disk had a fine grain bore and a coarse grain rim. The results of this test showed that the disk burst at 39,100 rpm in line with predictions based on a 2-D finite element analysis. Further, significant growth of the disk was observed before failure which was also in line with predictions.

  3. Modeling collisions in circumstellar debris disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvold, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Observations of resolved debris disks show a spectacular variety of features and asymmetries, including inner cavities and gaps, inclined secondary disks or warps, and eccentric, sharp-edged rings. Embedded exoplanets could create many of these features via gravitational perturbations, which sculpt the disk directly and by generating planetesimal collisions. In this thesis, I present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. I show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 107 yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. As an example of the algorithm's capabilities, I use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit and demonstrate that differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring. To demonstrate SMACK's utility in studying debris disk physics, I apply SMACK to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (alpha = 2/7). I find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index alpha of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by alpha = 0.32(t/ tcoll)-0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion

  4. Where a Neutron Star's Accretion Disk Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    In X-ray binaries that consist of a neutron star and a companion star, gas funnels from the companion into an accretion disk surrounding the neutron star, spiraling around until it is eventually accreted. How do the powerful magnetic fields threading through the neutron star affect this accretion disk? Recent observations provide evidence that they may push the accretion disk away from the neutron stars surface.Truncated DisksTheoretical models have indicated that neutron star accretion disks may not extend all the way in to the surface of a neutron star, but may instead be truncated at a distance. This prediction has been difficult to test observationally, however, due to the challenge of measuring the location of the inner disk edge in neutron-star X-ray binaries.In a new study, however, a team of scientists led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University) has managed to measure the location of the inner edge of the disk in Aquila X-1, a neutron-star X-ray binary located 17,000 light-years away.Iron line feature detected by Swift (red) and NuSTAR (black). The symmetry of the line is one of the indicators that the disk is located far from the neutron star; if the inner regions of the disk were close to the neutron star, severe relativistic effects would skew the line to be asymmetric. [King et al. 2016]Measurements from ReflectionsKing and collaborators used observations made by NuSTAR and Swift/XRT both X-ray space observatories of Aquila X-1 during the peak of an X-ray outburst. By observing the reflection of Aquila X-1s emission off of the inner regions of the accretion disk, the authors were able to estimate the location of the inner edge of the disk.The authors find that this inner edge sits at ~15 gravitational radii. Since the neutron stars surface is at ~5 gravitational radii, this means that the accretion disk is truncated far from the stars surface. In spite of this truncation, material still manages to cross the gap and accrete onto the

  5. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    mass ejected from colliding protoplanets is typically around 0.4 Earth masses. This mass is ejected in the form of fragments that then spread into the terrestrial planet region around the star. The fragments undergo cascading collisions as they orbit, forming an infrared-emitting debris disk at ~1 AU from the star.The authors then calculate the infrared flux profile expected from these simulated disks. They show that the warm disks can exist and radiate for up to ~100 Myr before the fragments are smashed into micrometer-sized pieces small enough to be blown out of the solar system by radiation pressure.The Spitzer Space Telescope has, thus far, observed tens of warm-debris-disk signatures roughly consistent with the authors predictions, primarily located at roughly 1 AU around stars with ages of 10100 Myr. This region is near the habitable zone of these stars, which makes it especially interesting that these systems may currently be undergoing a giant impact stage perhaps on the way to forming terrestrial planets.CitationH. Genda et al 2015 ApJ 810 136. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/136

  6. ANOMALOUS CO{sub 2} ICE TOWARD HOPS-68: A TRACER OF PROTOSTELLAR FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Poteet, Charles A.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Watson, Dan M.; Sheehan, Patrick D.; Isokoski, Karoliina; Linnartz, Harold

    2013-04-01

    We report the detection of a unique CO{sub 2} ice band toward the deeply embedded, low-mass protostar HOPS-68. Our spectrum, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, reveals a 15.2 {mu}m CO{sub 2} ice bending mode profile that cannot be modeled with the same ice structure typically found toward other protostars. We develop a modified CO{sub 2} ice profile decomposition, including the addition of new high-quality laboratory spectra of pure, crystalline CO{sub 2} ice. Using this model, we find that 87%-92% of the CO{sub 2} is sequestered as spherical, CO{sub 2}-rich mantles, while typical interstellar ices show evidence of irregularly shaped, hydrogen-rich mantles. We propose that (1) the nearly complete absence of unprocessed ices along the line of sight is due to the flattened envelope structure of HOPS-68, which lacks cold absorbing material in its outer envelope, and possesses an extreme concentration of material within its inner (10 AU) envelope region and (2) an energetic event led to the evaporation of inner envelope ices, followed by cooling and re-condensation, explaining the sequestration of spherical, CO{sub 2} ice mantles in a hydrogen-poor mixture. The mechanism responsible for the sublimation could be either a transient accretion event or shocks in the interaction region between the protostellar outflow and envelope. The proposed scenario is consistent with the rarity of the observed CO{sub 2} ice profile, the formation of nearly pure CO{sub 2} ice, and the production of spherical ice mantles. HOPS-68 may therefore provide a unique window into the protostellar feedback process, as outflows and heating shape the physical and chemical structure of protostellar envelopes and molecular clouds.

  7. Accretion Disks and the Formation of Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratter, Kaitlin Michelle

    2011-02-01

    In this thesis, we examine the role of accretion disks in the formation of stellar systems, focusing on young massive disks which regulate the flow of material from the parent molecular core down to the star. We study the evolution of disks with high infall rates that develop strong gravitational instabilities. We begin in chapter 1 with a review of the observations and theory which underpin models for the earliest phases of star formation and provide a brief review of basic accretion disk physics, and the numerical methods that we employ. In chapter 2 we outline the current models of binary and multiple star formation, and review their successes and shortcomings from a theoretical and observational perspective. In chapter 3 we begin with a relatively simple analytic model for disks around young, high mass stars, showing that instability in these disks may be responsible for the higher multiplicity fraction of massive stars, and perhaps the upper mass to which they grow. We extend these models in chapter 4 to explore the properties of disks and the formation of binary companions across a broad range of stellar masses. In particular, we model the role of global and local mechanisms for angular momentum transport in regulating the relative masses of disks and stars. We follow the evolution of these disks throughout the main accretion phase of the system, and predict the trajectory of disks through parameter space. We follow up on the predictions made in our analytic models with a series of high resolution, global numerical experiments in chapter 5. Here we propose and test a new parameterization for describing rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks. We find that disk properties and system multiplicity can be mapped out well in this parameter space. Finally, in chapter 6, we address whether our studies of unstable disks are relevant to recently detected massive planets on wide orbits around their central stars.

  8. The segregation of starless and protostellar clumps in the Hi-GAL ℓ = 224° region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, L.; Cunningham, M.; Elia, D.; Jones, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Stars form in dense, dusty structures, which are embedded in larger clumps of molecular clouds often showing a clear filamentary structure on large scales (≳1 pc). The origin (e.g., turbulence or gravitational instabilities) and evolution of these filaments, as well as their relation to clump and core formation, are not yet fully understood. A large sample of both starless and protostellar clumps can now be found in the Herschel Infrared GALactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) key project, which also provides striking images of the filamentary structure of the parent molecular clouds. Recent results indicate that populations of clumps on and off filaments may differ. Aims: One of the best-studied regions in the Hi-GAL survey can be observed toward the ℓ = 224° field. Here, a filamentary region has been studied and it has been found that protostellar clumps are mostly located along the main filament, whereas starless clumps are detected off this filament and are instead found on secondary, less prominent filaments. We want to investigate this segregation effect and how it may affect the clumps properties. Methods: We mapped the 12CO (1-0) line and its main three isotopologues toward the two most prominent filaments observed toward the ℓ = 224° field using the Mopra radio telescope, in order to set observational constraints on the dynamics of these structures and the associated starless and protostellar clumps. Results: Compared to the starless clumps, the protostellar clumps are more luminous, more turbulent and lie in regions where the filamentary ambient gas shows larger linewidths. We see evidence of gas flowing along the main filament, but we do not find any signs of accretion flow from the filament onto the Hi-GAL clumps. We analyze the radial column density profile of the filaments and their gravitational stability. Conclusions: The more massive and highly fragmented main filament appears to be thermally supercritical and gravitationally bound

  9. Search for massive protostellar candidates in the southern hemisphere. I. Association with dense gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Testi, L.; Molinari, S.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2005-03-01

    We have observed two rotational transitions of both CS and C17O, and the 1.2 mm continuum emission towards a sample of 130 high-mass protostellar candidates with δ < -30°. This work represents the first step of the extension to the southern hemisphere of a project started more than a decade ago aimed at the identification of massive protostellar candidates. Following the same approach adopted for sources with δ ≥ -30°, we have selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue 429 sources which potentially are compact molecular clouds on the basis of their IR colours. The sample has then been divided into two groups according to the colour indices [25 12] and [60 12]: the 298 sources with [25 12] ≥ 0.57 and [60 12] ≥ 1.30 have been called High sources, the remaining 131 have been called Low sources. In this paper, we check the association with dense gas and dust in 130 Low sources. We have obtained a detection rate of ~85% in CS, demonstrating a tight association of the sources with dense molecular clumps. Among the sources detected in CS, ~76% have also been detected in C17O and ~93% in the 1.2 mm continuum. Millimeter-continuum maps show the presence of clumps with diameters in the range 0.2-2 pc and masses from a few M⊙ to 105 M⊙; H2 volume densities computed from CS line ratios lie between ~104.5 and 105.5 cm-3. The bolometric luminosities of the sources, derived from IRAS data, are in the range 103-106 L⊙, consistent with embedded high-mass objects. Based on our results and those found in the literature for other samples of high-mass young stellar objects, we conclude that our sources are massive objects in a very early evolutionary stage, probably prior to the formation of an Hii region. We propose a scenario in which High and Low sources are both made of a massive clump hosting a high-mass protostellar candidate and a nearby stellar cluster. The difference might be due to the fact that the 12 μm IRAS flux, the best discriminant between the two

  10. Hydrodynamic Stability and Magnetic Reconnection in Disks and Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jeremy; Kulsrud, Russell

    1999-01-01

    edges of disks in close binaries [2], and it may be important in disks of very low ionization such as protostellar disks, or even cataclysmic-variable disks in quiescence where the MHD mechanism may be ineffective [5]. All analyses up to 1996 were done in a local approximation where the orbital frequency, shear rate, and tidal field were treated as constants. The locally computed growth rate turns out to depend strongly on radius, and it was unclear how to average these local rates to obtain the correct global rate. This is a critical issue for accretion disks in close binaries, because the local growth rate is comparable to the orbital frequency towards the outer edge of the disk but decreases rapidly inwards. Paper #1 examined this issue in a simplified global model where the destabilizing terms vary with position. We found that the global growth rate is essentially equal to the maximum local rate, provided that the latter is smoothed over a radial range equal to the distance that the destabilized wave propagates at its group speed in one growth time. Thus, in an accretion disk, waves would grow rapidly in the outer parts but would propagate both inwards and outwards at a maximum group speed of order the disk thickness divided by the orbital period.

  11. CHASING DISK DISPERSAL INDICATORS: THE ORIGIN OF THE [OI] LOW-VELOCITY COMPONENT FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Pascucci, I.; Gorti, U.; Edwards, S.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The formation time, masses, and location of planets are strongly impacted by the physical mechanisms that disperse protoplanetary disks and the timescale over which protoplanetary material is cleared out. Accretion of matter onto the central star, protostellar winds/jets, magnetic disk winds, and photoevaporative winds operate concurrently. Hence, disentangling their relative contribution to disk dispersal requires identifying diagnostics that trace different star-disk environments. Here, I will discuss the analysis the low velocity component (LVC) of the Oxygen optical forbidden lines, which is found to be blueshifted by a few km/s with respect to the stellar velocity. We find that the [OI] LVC profiles are different from those of other lines tracing disk and photoevaporative winds ([NeII] at 12.81μm and CO at 4.7μm), pointing to different origins for these gas lines. The analysis of the [OI] LVC, and the comparison with the stellar properties favor an origin of the [OI] LVC in a region where OH is photodissociated by stellar FUV photons and argue against thermal emission from an X-ray-heated layer. Detailed modeling of two spectra with the highest S/N and resolution shows that there are two components within the LVC: a broad, centrally peaked component that can be attributed to gas arising in a warm disk surface in Keplerian rotation, and a narrow component that may arise in a cool (<1,000 K) molecular wind.

  12. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles; Davidson, Jacqueline A.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Houde, Martin; Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W.; Li Zhiyun; Matthews, Brenda; Peng Ruisheng; Vaillancourt, John E.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.

    2013-06-20

    We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

  13. UNVEILING THE EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE FROM INFALLING ENVELOPES TO KEPLERIAN DISKS AROUND LOW-MASS PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2013-07-20

    We performed Submillimeter Array observations in the C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission line toward six Class 0 and I protostars to study rotational motions of their surrounding envelopes and circumstellar material on 100-1000 AU scales. C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission with intensity peaks located at the protostellar positions is detected toward all six sources. The rotational velocities of the protostellar envelopes as a function of radius were measured from the position-velocity diagrams perpendicular to the outflow directions passing through the protostellar positions. Two Class 0 sources, B335 and NGC 1333 IRAS 4B, show no detectable rotational motion, while L1527 IRS (Class 0/I) and L1448-mm (Class 0) exhibit rotational motions with radial profiles of V{sub rot}{proportional_to}r {sup -1.0{+-}0.2} and {proportional_to}r {sup -1.0{+-}0.1}, respectively. The other Class I sources, TMC-1A and L1489 IRS, exhibit the fastest rotational motions among the sample, and their rotational motions have flatter radial profiles of V{sub rot}{proportional_to}r {sup -0.6{+-}0.1} and {proportional_to}r {sup -0.5{+-}0.1}, respectively. The rotational motions with the radial dependence of {approx}r {sup -1} can be interpreted as rotation with a conserved angular momentum in a dynamically infalling envelope, while those with the radial dependence of {approx}r {sup -0.5} can be interpreted as Keplerian rotation. These observational results demonstrate categorization of rotational motions from infalling envelopes to Keplerian-disk formation. Models of the inside-out collapse where the angular momentum is conserved are discussed and compared with our observational results.

  14. Ripples in disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Francois; Seitzer, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The authors present evidence that ripples ("shells") occur not only in ellipticals, as hitherto believed, but also in disk galaxies of Hubble types S0, S0/Sa, and Sa, and probably even in the Sbc galaxy NGC 3310. This evidence includes the discovery of ripples in the northern disk galaxies NGC 3032, 3619, 4382, 5548 (a Seyfert), and 5739, and in the "diskless S0" NGC 7600. It is argued that these ripples cannot usually have resulted form transient spiral waves or other forced vibrations in the existing disks, but instead consist of extraneous sheet-like matter. The frequent presence of major disk-shaped companions suggests that ripple material may be acquired not only through wholesale mergers, but also through mass transfer from neighbor galaxies.

  15. Hot Accretion Disks Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoernsson, Gunnlaugur; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Chen, Xingming; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    1996-08-01

    All previous studies of hot (Tp 1010-1012 K), optically thin accretion disks have neglected either the presence of e+ e- pairs or advective cooling. Thus all hot disk models constructed previously have not been self-consistent. In this paper we calculate local disk models including pair physics, relevant radiative processes in the hot plasma, and the effect of advective cooling. We use a modification of the Björnsson & Svensson mapping method. We find that the role of e+ e- pairs in the structure of hot, optically thin accretion disks is far less significant than was previously thought. The improved description of the radiation-matter interactions provided in the present paper modify the previously obtained values of the critical parameters characterizing advectively dominated flows.

  16. Gas in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2008-01-01

    Gas makes up the bulk of the mass in a protoplanetary disk, but it is much more difficult to observe than the smaller dust component. The l ifetime of gas in a disk has far-reaching consequences. including lim iting the time available for giant planet formation and controlling t he migration of planetary bodies of all sizes, from Jupiters to meter-sized planetesimals. Here I will discuss what is known about the gas component of protoplanetary disks, highlighting recent results from i nfrared studies with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Exciting upcoming o pportunities for gas studies will also be discussed. In particular, the first large far-IR survey of gas tracers from young disks will be p erformed using the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (GASPS) Open Time Key Project.

  17. Gas in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2008-01-01

    Gas makes up the bulk of the mass in a protoplanetary disk, but it is much more difficult to observe than the smaller dust component. The lifetime of gas in a disk has far-reaching consequences, including limiting the time available for giant planet formation and controlling the migration of planetary bodies of all sizes, from Jupiters to meter-sized planetesimals. Here I will discuss what is known about the gas component of protoplanetary disks, highlighting recent results from infrared studies with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Exciting upcoming opportunities for gas studies will also be discussed. In particular, the first large far-IR survey of gas tracers from young disks will be performed using the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems' (GASPS) Open Time Key Project.

  18. Organizing Your Hard Disk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, H. Robert; Hilton, Thomas S. E.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests strategies that make hard disk organization easy and efficient, such as making, changing, and removing directories; grouping files by subject; naming files effectively; backing up efficiently; and using PATH. (JOW)

  19. DIAGNOSING CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    2010-08-20

    A numerical model of a circumstellar debris disk is developed and applied to observations of the circumstellar dust orbiting {beta} Pictoris. The model accounts for the rates at which dust is produced by collisions among unseen planetesimals, and the rate at which dust grains are destroyed due to collisions. The model also accounts for the effects of radiation pressure, which is the dominant perturbation on the disk's smaller but abundant dust grains. Solving the resulting system of rate equations then provides the dust abundances versus grain size and dust abundances over time. Those solutions also provide the dust grains' collisional lifetime versus grain size, and the debris disk's optical depth and surface brightness versus distance from the star. Comparison to observations then yields estimates of the unseen planetesimal disk's radius, and the rate at which the disk sheds mass due to planetesimal grinding. The model can also be used to measure or else constrain the dust grain's physical and optical properties, such as the dust grains' strength, their light-scattering asymmetry parameter, and the grains' efficiency of light scattering Q{sub s}. The model is then applied to optical observations of the edge-on dust disk orbiting {beta} Pictoris, and good agreement is achieved when the unseen planetesimal disk is broad, with 75 {approx}< r {approx}< 150 AU. If it is assumed that the dust grains are bright like Saturn's icy rings (Q{sub s} = 0.7), then the cross section of dust in the disk is A{sub d} {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 20} km{sup 2} and its mass is M{sub d} {approx_equal} 11 lunar masses. In this case, the planetesimal disk's dust-production rate is quite heavy, M-dot {sub d{approx}}9 M {sub +} Myr{sup -1}, implying that there is or was a substantial amount of planetesimal mass there, at least 110 Earth masses. If the dust grains are darker than assumed, then the planetesimal disk's mass-loss rate and its total mass are heavier. In fact, the apparent dearth

  20. Protostars and Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The research concentrated on high angular resolution (arc-second scale) studies of molecular cloud cores associated with very young star formation. New ways to study disks and protoplanetary systems were explored. Findings from the areas studied are briefly summarized: (1) molecular clouds; (2) gravitational contraction; (3) jets, winds, and outflows; (4) Circumstellar Disks (5) Extrasolar Planetary Systems. A bibliography of publications and submitted papers produced during the grant period is included.

  1. Millimeter-sized grains in the protostellar envelopes: Where do they come from?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Yi Hang Valerie; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Grain growth during star formation affects the physical and chemical processes in the evolution of star-forming clouds. We investigate the origin of the millimeter (mm)-sized grains recently observed in Class I protostellar envelopes. We use the coagulation model developed in our previous paper and find that a hydrogen number density of as high as 1010 cm-3, instead of the typical density 105 cm-3, is necessary for the formation of mm-sized grains. Thus, we test a hypothesis that such large grains are transported to the envelope from the inner, denser parts, finding that gas drag by outflow efficiently "launches" the large grains as long as the central object has not grown to ≳0.1 M⊙. By investigating the shattering effect on the mm-sized grains, we ensure that the large grains are not significantly fragmented after being injected in the envelope. We conclude that the mm-sized grains observed in the protostellar envelopes are not formed in the envelopes but formed in the inner parts of the star-forming regions and transported to the envelopes before a significant mass growth of the central object, and that they survive in the envelopes.

  2. Investigations of protostellar outflow launching and gas entrainment: Hydrodynamic simulations and molecular emission

    SciTech Connect

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Arce, Héctor G.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate protostellar outflow evolution, gas entrainment, and star formation efficiency using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, turbulent low-mass cores. We adopt an X-wind launching model, in which the outflow rate is coupled to the instantaneous protostellar accretion rate and evolution. We vary the outflow collimation angle from θ = 0.01-0.1 and find that even well-collimated outflows effectively sweep up and entrain significant core mass. The Stage 0 lifetime ranges from 0.14-0.19 Myr, which is similar to the observed Class 0 lifetime. The star formation efficiency of the cores spans 0.41-0.51. In all cases, the outflows drive strong turbulence in the surrounding material. Although the initial core turbulence is purely solenoidal by construction, the simulations converge to approximate equipartition between solenoidal and compressive motions due to a combination of outflow driving and collapse. When compared to simulation of a cluster of protostars, which is not gravitationally centrally condensed, we find that the outflows drive motions that are mainly solenoidal. The final turbulent velocity dispersion is about twice the initial value of the cores, indicating that an individual outflow is easily able to replenish turbulent motions on sub-parsec scales. We post-process the simulations to produce synthetic molecular line emission maps of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O and evaluate how well these tracers reproduce the underlying mass and velocity structure.

  3. CORRELATING THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD WITH PROTOSTELLAR JETS AND ITS SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Targon, C. G.; Rodrigues, C. V.

    2011-12-10

    This paper combines new CCD polarimetric data with previous information about protostellar objects in a search for correlations involving the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). Specifically, we carried out an optical polarimetric study of a sample of 28 fields of 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' located in the neighborhood of protostellar jets and randomly spread over the Galaxy. The polarimetry of a large number of field stars is used to estimate both the average and dispersion of the ISMF direction in each region. The results of the applied statistical tests are as follows. Concerning the alignment between the jet direction and the ISMF, the whole sample does not show alignment. There is, however, a statistically significant alignment for objects of Classes 0 and I. Regarding the ISMF dispersion, our sample presents values slightly larger for regions containing T Tauri objects than for those harboring younger protostars. Moreover, the ISMF dispersion in regions containing high-mass objects tends to be larger than in those including only low-mass protostars. In our sample, the mean interstellar polarization as a function of the average interstellar extinction in a region reaches a maximum value around 3% for A(V) = 5, after which it decreases. Our data also show a clear correlation of the mean value of the interstellar polarization with the dispersion of the ISMF: the larger the dispersion, the smaller the polarization. Based on a comparison of our and previous results, we suggest that the dispersion in regions forming stars is larger than in quiescent regions.

  4. IRS Scan Mapping of IRAS16253-2429: A Textbook Example for Unlocking the Secrets of Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsony, Mary; Arce, Hector; Ciardi, David; Cole, David; Cotera, Angela; Forebrich, Dirk; Frank, Adam; Goodman, Alyssa; Haisch, Karl; Hurt, Robert; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald; O'Linger, Joann; Phelps, Randy; Ressler, Michael; Sahai, Raghvendra; Simpson, Janet; Smith, Michael; Wolf-Chase, Grace; Ybarra, Jason

    2006-05-01

    IRAS 16253-2429 is a newly discovered Class 0 protostar in the nearby Rho Ophiuchi molecular clouds. Ground-based imaging tracing its 2.12 micron H2 emission and CO(3-2) molecular line maps reveal its bipolar, molecular outflow. The IRAC images from the Spitzer archive show a beautiful, bipolar hourglass structure, tracing the outflow cavities, in addition to shock features from the flow. The requested IRS scan mapping is necessary to separate the pure shocked molecular line emission associated with the flow, from the scattered dust continuum emission of the cavity, and from the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) feature emission found throughout the Rho Oph clouds. Hydrodynamic jet models , including molecular chemistry and cooling, can then be quantitatively compared with the IRS scan maps to infer jet characteristics, such as the presence of an underlying pulsed, continuous, and/or precessing jet. The uniqueness of IRAS16253-2429 stems from the fact that its infall envelope is seen in absorption against the bright background PAH emission of its parent cloud, which is backlit by the FUV/UV light of the Sco OB2 association. This means we can derive the infallenvelope's density distribution (at multiple wavelengths, with IRS scan mapping), as well as the outflow cavities' density distributions at the highest spatial resolution ever achieved for a Class 0 protostar. The derived envelope density distribution will then serve as input for hydrodynamic models of jet-driven and wide-angled wind driven cavities. The predicted cavity density distributions from these models will then be quantitatively compared with the observations to infer the nature of the driving wind/jet at this very early protostellar stage.

  5. Instability and transition in rotating disk flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The stability of three dimensional rotating disk flow and the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature were investigated. It was shown that this analysis gives better growth rates than Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Results support the numerical prediction that the number of stationary vortices varies directly with the Reynolds number.

  6. Fomalhaut's Debris Disk and Planet: Constraining the Mass of Formalhaut B from Disk Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, E.; Kite, E.; Kalas, P.; Graham, J. R.; Clampin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Following the optical imaging of exoplanet candidate Fomalhaut b (Fom b), we present a numerical model of how Fomalhaut's debris disk is gravitationally shaped by a single interior planet. The model is simple, adaptable to other debris disks, and can be extended to accommodate multiple planets. If Fom b is the dominant perturber of the belt, then to produce the observed disk morphology it must have a mass M(sub pl) < 3M(sub J), an orbital semimajor axis a(sub pl) > 101.5AU, and an orbital eccentricity e(sub pl) = 0.11 - 0.13. These conclusions are independent of Fom b's photometry. To not disrupt the disk, a greater mass for Fom b demands a smaller orbit farther removed from the disk; thus, future astrometric measurement of Fom b's orbit, combined with our model of planet-disk interaction, can be used to determine the mass more precisely. The inner edge of the debris disk at a approximately equals 133AU lies at the periphery of Fom b's chaotic zone, and the mean disk eccentricity of e approximately equals 0.11 is secularly forced by the planet, supporting predictions made prior to the discovery of Fom b. However, previous mass constraints based on disk morphology rely on several oversimplifications. We explain why our constraint is more reliable. It is based on a global model of the disk that is not restricted to the planet's chaotic zone boundary. Moreover, we screen disk parent bodies for dynamical stability over the system age of approximately 100 Myr, and model them separately from their dust grain progeny; the latter's orbits are strongly affected by radiation pressure and their lifetimes are limited to approximately 0.1 Myr by destructive grain-grain collisions. The single planet model predicts that planet and disk orbits be apsidally aligned. Fomalhaut b's nominal space velocity does not bear this out, but the astrometric uncertainties are difficult to quantify. Even if the apsidal misalignment proves real, our calculated upper mass limit of 3 M(sub J) still

  7. Chemistry in disks. X. The molecular content of protoplanetary disks in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilloteau, S.; Reboussin, L.; Dutrey, A.; Chapillon, E.; Wakelam, V.; Piétu, V.; Di Folco, E.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We attempt to determine the molecular composition of disks around young low-mass stars. Methods: We used the IRAM 30 m radio telescope to perform a sensitive wideband survey of 30 stars in the Taurus Auriga region known to be surrounded by gaseous circumstellar disks. We simultaneously observed HCO+(3-2), HCN(3-2), C2H(3-2), CS(5-4), and two transitions of SO. We combined the results with a previous survey that observed 13CO (2-1), CN(2-1), two o-H2CO lines, and another transition of SO. We used available interferometric data to derive excitation temperatures of CN and C2H in several sources. We determined characteristic sizes of the gas disks and column densities of all molecules using a parametric power-law disk model. Our study is mostly sensitive to molecules at 200-400 au from the stars. We compared the derived column densities to the predictions of an extensive gas-grain chemical disk model under conditions representative of T Tauri disks. Results: This survey provides 20 new detections of HCO+ in disks, 18 in HCN, 11 in C2H, 8 in CS, and 4 in SO. HCO+ is detected in almost all sources and its J = 3-2 line is essentially optically thick, providing good estimates of the disk radii. The other transitions are (at least partially) optically thin. Large variations of the column density ratios are observed, but do not correlate with any specific property of the star or disk. Disks around Herbig Ae stars appear less rich in molecules than those around T Tauri stars, although the sample remains small. SO is only found in the (presumably younger) embedded objects, perhaps reflecting an evolution of the S chemistry due to increasing depletion with time. Overall, the molecular column densities, and in particular the CN/HCN and CN/C2H ratios, are well reproduced by gas-grain chemistry in cold disks. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive census of simple molecules in disks of radii >200-300 au. Extending that to smaller disks, or searching for less

  8. Evolution and precession of accretion disk in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, R.-F.; Matzner, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    In a supermassive black hole (BH) tidal disruption event (TDE), the tidally disrupted star feeds the BH via an accretion disk. Most often it is assumed that the accretion rate history, hence the emission light curve, tracks the rate at which new debris mass falls back onto the disk, notably the t-5/3 power law. But this is not the case when the disk evolution due to viscous spreading - the driving force for accretion - is carefully considered. We construct a simple analytical model that comprehensively describes the accretion rate history across 4 different phases of the disk evolution, in the presence of mass fallback and disk wind loss. Accretion rate evolves differently in those phases which are governed by how the disk heat energy is carried away, early on by advection and later by radiation. The accretion rate can decline as steeply as t-5/3 only if copious disk wind loss is present during the early advection-cooled phase. Later, the accretion rate history is t-8/7 or shallower. These have great implications on the TDE flare light curve. A TDE accretion disk is most likely misaligned with the equatorial plane of the spinning BH. Moreover, in the TDE the accretion rate is super- or near-Eddington thus the disk is geometrically thick, for which case the BH's frame dragging effect may cause the disk precess as a solid body, which may manifest itself as quasi-periodic signal in the TDE light curve. Our disk evolution model predicts the disk precession period increases with time, typically as ∝ t. The results are applied to the recently jetted TDE flare Swift transient J1644 + 57 which shows numerous, quasi-periodic dips in its long-term X-ray light curve. As the current TDE sample increases, the identification of the disk precession signature provides a unique way of measuring BH spin and studying BH accretion physics.

  9. Fast, Capacious Disk Memory Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Ronald M.

    1990-01-01

    Device for recording digital data on, and playing back data from, memory disks has high recording or playback rate and utilizes available recording area more fully. Two disks, each with own reading/writing head, used to record data at same time. Head on disk A operates on one of tracks numbered from outside in; head on disk B operates on track of same number in sequence from inside out. Underlying concept of device applicable to magnetic or optical disks.

  10. An Extremely High Velocity Molecular Jet Surrounded by an Ionized Cavity in the Protostellar Source Serpens SMM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Girart, Josep M.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Dunham, Michael M.; Rodríguez-Kamenetzky, Adriana; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Cortés, Paulo C.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Plambeck, Richard L.

    2016-06-01

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a one-sided, high-velocity (˜80 km s-1) CO(J = 2\\to 1) jet powered by the intermediate-mass protostellar source Serpens SMM1-a. The highly collimated molecular jet is flanked at the base by a wide-angle cavity; the walls of the cavity can be seen in both 4 cm free-free emission detected by the Very Large Array and 1.3 mm thermal dust emission detected by ALMA. This is the first time that ionization of an outflow cavity has been directly detected via free-free emission in a very young, embedded Class 0 protostellar source that is still powering a molecular jet. The cavity walls are ionized either by UV photons escaping from the accreting protostellar source or by the precessing molecular jet impacting the walls. These observations suggest that ionized outflow cavities may be common in Class 0 protostellar sources, shedding further light on the radiation, outflow, and jet environments in the youngest, most embedded forming stars.

  11. SHADOWS CAST BY A WARP IN THE HD 142527 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, S.; Perez, S.; Casassus, S.

    2015-01-10

    Detailed observations of gaps in protoplanetary disks have revealed structures that drive current research on circumstellar disks. One such feature is the two intensity nulls seen along the outer disk of the HD 142527 system, which are particularly well traced in polarized differential imaging. Here we propose that these are shadows cast by the inner disk. The inner and outer disk are thick, in terms of the unit-opacity surface in the H band, so that the shape and orientation of the shadows inform on the three-dimensional structure of the system. Radiative transfer predictions on a parametric disk model allow us to conclude that the relative inclination between the inner and outer disks is 70° ± 5°. This finding taps the potential of high-contrast imaging of circumstellar disks, and bears consequences on the gas dynamics of gapped disks, as well as on the physical conditions in the shadowed regions.

  12. High Temperature Spin Testing of a Superalloy Disk With a Dual Grain Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete

    2002-01-01

    Comparative spin tests were run on superalloy disks at an elevated temperature to determine the benefits of a DMHT disk, with a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim, versus a traditional subsolvus disk with a fine grain structure in the bore and rim. The results of these tests showed that the DMHT disk exhibited significantly lower growth at 1500 F. Further, the results of these tests could be accurately predicted using a 2D viscoelastic finite element analysis. These results indicate DMHT technology can be used to extend disk operating temperatures when compared to traditional subsolvus heat treatment options for superalloy disks. However, additional research is required to ensure the safe operation of a DMHT disk under more realistic engine operating conditions. This includes testing to determine the burst margin and cyclic capability of DMHT disks in a spin pit, at a minimum, and ultimately running an engine test with a DMHT disk.

  13. Drag reduction of a hairy disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jun; Hu, David L.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate experimentally the hydrodynamics of a hairy disk immersed in a two-dimensional flowing soap film. Drag force is measured as a function of hair length, density, and coating area. An optimum combination of these parameters yields a drag reduction of 17%, which confirms previous numerical predictions (15%). Flow visualization indicates the primary mechanism for drag reduction is the bending, adhesion, and reinforcement of hairs trailing the disk, which reduces wake width and traps "dead water." Thus, the use of hairy coatings can substantially reduce an object's drag while negligibly increasing its weight.

  14. On radial flow between parallel disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, A. Y. L.; Gorin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Approximate analytical solutions are presented for converging flow in between two parallel non rotating disks. The static pressure distribution and radial component of the velocity are developed by averaging the inertial term across the gap in between parallel disks. The predicted results from the first approximation are favourable to experimental results as well as results presented by other authors. The second approximation shows that as the fluid approaches the center, the velocity at the mid channel slows down which is due to the struggle between the inertial term and the flowrate.

  15. HTS nonlinearities in microwave disk resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, Carlos; Mateu, Jordi; Shaw, Timothy J.; O'Callaghan, Juan M.

    2002-08-01

    This article describes a procedure for the calculation of the intermodulation behavior of the TM0 1 0 mode in high temperature superconducting (HTS) disk resonators from a description of the local HTS nonlinearities. Successful cross-checks are performed by comparing the theoretical results with experimental measurements and simulations based on the multiport harmonic balance algorithm for a specific model of HTS nonlinearity. The application of this procedure to the determination of nonlinear material parameters from disk resonator measurements is illustrated and compared to theoretical predictions.

  16. Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core. The CHESS spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, M.; Caux, E.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Wakelam, V.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lanza, M.; Lique, F.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Lis, D. C.; Caballero, R. N.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances <10-5 has not yet been well studied. Aims: Our aim here is to study the depletion of chlorine in the protostellar core, OMC-2 FIR 4. Methods: We observed transitions of HCl and H2Cl+ towards OMC-2 FIR 4 using the Herschel Space Observatory and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facilities. Our analysis makes use of state of the art chlorine gas-grain chemical models and newly calculated HCl-H2 hyperfine collisional excitation rate coefficients. Results: A narrow emission component in the HCl lines traces the extended envelope, and a broad one traces a more compact central region. The gas-phase HCl abundance in FIR 4 is 9 × 10-11, a factor of only 10-3 that of volatile elemental chlorine. The H2Cl+ lines are detected in absorption and trace a tenuous foreground cloud, where we find no depletion of volatile chlorine. Conclusions: Gas-phase HCl is the tip of the chlorine iceberg in protostellar cores. Using a gas-grain chemical model, we show that the hydrogenation of atomic chlorine on grain surfaces in the dark cloud stage sequesters at least 90% of the volatile chlorine into HCl ice, where it remains in the protostellar stage. About 10% of chlorine is in gaseous atomic form. Gas-phase HCl is a minor, but diagnostically key reservoir, with an abundance of ≲10-10 in most of the protostellar core. We find the [35Cl]/[37Cl] ratio in OMC-2 FIR 4 to be 3.2 ± 0.1, consistent with the solar system value. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Simulations of accretion disks in pseudo-complex General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. O.; Algalán B., M.; Schönenbach, T.; Greiner, W.

    2015-11-01

    After a summary on pseudo-complex General Relativity (pc-GR), circular orbits and stable orbits in general are discussed, including predictions compared to observations. Using a modified version of a model for accretions disks, presented by Page and Thorne in 1974, we apply the raytracing technique in order to simulate the appearance of an accretion disk as it should be observed in a detector. In pc-GR we predict a dark ring near a very massive, rapidly rotating object.

  18. Planetesimal Disk Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R.

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  19. Radio pulsar disk electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, F.C.

    1983-03-01

    We outline the macroscopic physics of a disk close to an isolated, magnetized, rotating neutron star. It seems likely that such systems are formed from time to time in the universe. The neutron star acts as a Faraday disk dynamo, and the disk acts as both a load and a neutral sheet, permitting the polar cap current to return to the neutron star and also splitting a dipolar magnetic field into two monopolar halves. Michel and Dessler have proposed that such systems are radio pulsars. The dominant energy loss is from the stellar wind torque (giving a deceleration index n = 7/3), and the next contribution is dissipation in the ''auroral'' zones, where the current returns to the star in a sheet about 5 cm thick. The latter is comparable to the observed radio luminosities and is in reasonable accord with the data. The disk itself may be a source of visible radiation comparable to that in pulsed radiofrequency emission. As the pulsar ages, the disk expands and narrows into a ring, the plausible consequence of which could be cessation of pulsed emission at periods of a few seconds.

  20. PLANETESIMAL DISK MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R. E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2009-12-10

    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  1. The Chemistry of Nearby Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    The gas and dust rich disks around young stars are the formation sites of planets. Observations of molecular trace species have great potential as probes of the disk structures and volatile compositions that together regulate planet formation. The disk around young star TW Hya has become a template for disk molecular studies due to a combination of proximity, a simple face-on geometry and richness in volatiles. It is unclear, however, how typical the chemistry of the TW disk is. In this proceeding, we review lessons learnt from exploring the TW Hya disk chemistry, focusing on the CO snowline, and on deuterium fractionation chemistry. We compare these results with new ALMA observations toward more distant, younger disks. We find that while all disks have some chemical structures in common, there are also substantial differences between the disks, which may be due to different initial conditions, structural or chemical evolutionary stages, or a combination of all three.

  2. Water in high-mass pre- and proto-stellar cores from Hi-GAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Carina M.; Olmi, Luca; Codella, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    As a part of our on-going investigation of the earliest phases of massive star formation, we present Herschel-HIFI data of H2O, NH3 and N2H+ towards a sample of high-mass starless cores and proto-stellar objects in two galactic fields, each containing objects in different evolutionary stages. We observed 17 sources in the l = 30° galactic field, and 35 sources in the l = 59° field. The clumps in the l = 59°region have lower luminosity and mass than the l = 30° objects. We find that the sources with detections have much higher mean luminosities than compared to the sources with no detection of any line, but the mean masses are similar. Most sources with detections are proto-stellar, and at least two of the detected sources in the l = 59° region are in a more advanced stage of evolution. For the l = 30° sources no preferential evolutionary phase is evident. None of these sources, however, appear to belong to the late phase of envelope dispersal.The detections show complex line shapes from the protostellar envelopes, molecular outflows and infall. All detections in the l = 59° field show similar water line profiles with broad outflows, whereas towards l = 30° no outflows are detected and all sources display very different line shapes. Both water and ammonia are also often self-absorbed, sometimes saturated, and some sources show an inverse or a regular P-Cygni line profile. N2H+ do not exhibit line asymmetries or absorption. The integrated intensities of the three lines are correlated, and we also find correlations between the water line luminosity and continuum temperature. The typical water luminosity towards the l = 30° sources is lower than compared to l = 59° sources, but their continuum temperature is higher, which may suggest a later evolutionary stage.In the sight-lines towards 11 sources in the l = 30° field, among which four have no detections in the star-forming regions, we also detect H2O and NH3 in absorption from interstellar gas. Since

  3. Forming Disk Galaxies Early in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    What were galaxies like in the first 500 million years of the universe? According to simulations by Yu Feng (UC Berkeley) and collaborators, the earliest massive galaxies to form were mostly disk-shaped, rather than the compact clumps previously predicted. Early-Galaxy Models. Current models for galaxy formation predict that small perturbations in the distribution of matter in the early universe collapsed to form very compact, irregular, clumpy first galaxies. Observations support this: the furthest out that we've spotted disk-shaped galaxies is at z=3, whereas the galaxies we've observed from earlier times -- up to redshifts of z=8-10 -- are very compact. But could this be a selection effect, arising from the rarity of large galaxies in the early universe? Current surveys at high redshift have thus far only covered relatively small volumes of space, so it's not necessarily surprising that we haven't yet spotted any large disk galaxies. Similarly, numerical simulations of galaxy formation are limited in the size of the volume they can evolve, so resulting models of early galaxy formation also tend to favor compact clumpy galaxies over large disks. An Enormous Simulation. Pushing at these limitations, Feng and his collaborators used the Blue Waters supercomputer to carry out an enormous cosmological hydrodynamic simulation called BlueTides. In this simulation, they track 700 billion particles as they evolve in a volume of 400 comoving Mpc/h -- 40 times the volume of the largest previous simulation and 300 times the volume of the largest observational survey at these redshifts. What they find is that by z=8, a whopping 70% of the most massive galaxies (over 7 billion solar masses each) were disk-shaped, though they are more compact, gas-rich, and turbulent than present-day disk galaxies like the Milky Way. The way the most massive galaxies formed in the simulation also wasn't expected: rather than resulting from major mergers, they were built from smooth accretion

  4. Reprocessing of ices in turbulent protoplanetary disks: Carbon and nitrogen chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri

    2014-08-01

    We study the influence of the turbulent transport on ice chemistry in protoplanetary disks, focusing on carbon- and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking the turbulent mixing in the vertical direction. Turbulence can bring ice-coated dust grains from the midplane to the warm irradiated disk surface, and the ice mantles are reprocessed by photoreactions, thermal desorption, and surface reactions. The upward transport decreases the abundance of methanol and ammonia ices at r ≲ 30 AU because warm dust temperature prohibits their reformation on grain surfaces. This reprocessing could explain the smaller abundances of carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules in cometary coma than those in low-mass protostellar envelopes. We also show the effect of mixing on the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) in two ways: (1) transport of ices from the midplane to the disk surface and (2) transport of atomic hydrogen from the surface to the midplane. The former enhances the COMs formation in the disk surface, while the latter suppresses it in the midplane. Then, when mixing is strong, COMs are predominantly formed in the disk surface, while their parent molecules are (re)formed in the midplane. This cycle expands the COMs distribution both vertically and radially outward compared with that in the non-turbulent model. We derive the timescale of the sink mechanism by which CO and N{sub 2} are converted to less volatile molecules to be depleted from the gas phase and find that the vertical mixing suppresses this mechanism in the inner disks.

  5. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  6. Supersized Disk (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated ImageData Graph

    This illustration compares the size of a gargantuan star and its surrounding dusty disk (top) to that of our solar system. Monstrous disks like this one were discovered around two 'hypergiant' stars by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Astronomers believe these disks might contain the early 'seeds' of planets, or possibly leftover debris from planets that already formed.

    The hypergiant stars, called R 66 and R 126, are located about 170,000 light-years away in our Milky Way's nearest neighbor galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. The stars are about 100 times wider than the sun, or big enough to encompass an orbit equivalent to Earth's. The plump stars are heavy, at 30 and 70 times the mass of the sun, respectively. They are the most massive stars known to sport disks.

    The disks themselves are also bloated, with masses equal to several Jupiters. The disks begin at a distance approximately 120 times greater than that between Earth and the sun, or 120 astronomical units, and terminate at a distance of about 2,500 astronomical units.

    Hypergiant stars are the puffed-up, aging descendants of the most massive class of stars, called 'O' stars. The stars are so massive that their cores ultimately collapse under their own weight, triggering incredible explosions called supernovae. If any planets circled near the stars during one of these blasts, they would most likely be destroyed.

    The orbital distances in this picture are plotted on a logarithmic scale. This means that a given distance shown here represents proportionally larger actual distances as you move to the right. The sun and planets in our solar system have been scaled up in size for better viewing. Little Dust Grains in Giant Stellar Disks The graph above of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the composition of a monstrous disk of what may be planet-forming dust circling the colossal 'hypergiant' star

  7. Study of Scattered Light from Known Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Roberge, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, a group of edge on debris disks, surrounding main-sequence shell stars have been discovered in the infrared. These disks are of high interest because they not only have dust, but an observed amount of circumstellar gas. HD158352 was an ideal target to try and image the disk because it was one of the closest stars in this group. Using the Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), we attempted to take a direct image of the light scattered from the known disk in a broad optical bandpass. Studying these particular type of disks in high detail will allow us to learn more about gas-dust interactions. In particular, this will allow us to learn how the circumstellar gas evolves during the planet-forming phase. Even though it was predicted that the disk should have a magnitude of 20.5 at 3", no disk was seen in any of the optical images. This suggests that the parameters used to predict the brightness of the disk are not what we first anticipated and adjustments to the model must be performed. We also present the blue visible light spectrum of the scattered light from the debris disk surrounding Beta Pictoris. We are analyzing archival observations taken by Heap, using Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument. A long slit with a bar was used to occult Beta Pictoris as well as the PSF star. This was done because it is necessary to subtract a PSF observed the same way at the target to detect the disk. It appears that we have detected light from the disk but the work was in progress at the time of the abstract deadline.

  8. THE SPHERICALIZATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS BY GALAXY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Abadi, Mario G.; Navarro, Julio F. E-mail: mario@oac.uncor.ed

    2010-09-01

    Cosmological simulations indicate that cold dark matter (CDM) halos should be triaxial. Validating this theoretical prediction is, however, less than straightforward because the assembly of galaxies is expected to modify halo shapes and to render them more axisymmetric. We use a suite of N-body simulations to quantitatively investigate the effect of the growth of a central disk galaxy on the shape of triaxial dark matter halos. In most circumstances, the halo responds to the presence of the disk by becoming more spherical. The net effect depends weakly on the timescale of the disk assembly but noticeably on the orientation of the disk relative to the halo principal axes, and it is maximal when the disk symmetry axis is aligned with the major axis of the halo. The effect depends most sensitively on the overall gravitational importance of the disk. Our results indicate that exponential disks whose contribution peaks at less than {approx}50% of their circular velocity are unable to noticeably modify the shape of the gravitational potential of their surrounding halos. Many dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies are expected to be in this regime, and therefore their detailed kinematics could be used to probe halo triaxiality, one of the basic predictions of the CDM paradigm. We argue that the complex disk kinematics of the dwarf galaxy NGC 2976 might be the reflection of a triaxial halo. Such signatures of halo triaxiality should be common in galaxies where the luminous component is subdominant.

  9. Slim accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Czerny, B.; Lasota, J.P.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    1988-09-01

    A new branch of equilibrium solutions for stationary accretion disks around black holes is found. These solutions correspond to moderately super-Eddington accretion rates. The existence of the new branch is a consequence of an additional cooling due to general relativistic Roche lobe overflow and horizontal advection of heat. On an accretion rate versus surface density plane the new branch forms, together with the two standard branches (corresponding to the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk models) a characteristically S-shaped curve. This could imply a limit cycle-type behavior for black hole accretion flows with accretion rates close ot the Eddington one. 29 references.

  10. The structure of the Cepheus E protostellar outflow: The jet, the bowshock, and the cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, B.; Gusdorf, A.; Codella, C.; Eislöffel, J.; Neri, R.; Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Güsten, R.; Leurini, S.; Risacher, C.; Benedettini, M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Protostellar outflows are a crucial ingredient of the star-formation process. However, the physical conditions in the warm outflowing gas are still poorly known. Aims: We present a multi-transition, high spectral resolution CO study of the outflow of the intermediate-mass Class 0 protostar Cep E-mm. The goal is to determine the structure of the outflow and to constrain the physical conditions of the various components in order to understand the origin of the mass-loss phenomenon. Methods: We have observed the J = 12-11, J = 13-12, and J = 16-15 CO lines at high spectral resolution with SOFIA/GREAT and the J = 5-4, J = 9-8, and J = 14-13 CO lines with HIFI/Herschel towards the position of the terminal bowshock HH377 in the southern outflow lobe. These observations were complemented with maps of CO transitions obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope (J = 1-0, 2-1), the Plateau de Bure interferometer (J = 2-1), and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (J = 3-2, 4-3). Results: We identify three main components in the protostellar outflow: the jet, the cavity, and the bowshock, with a typical size of 1.7″ × 21″, 4.5″, and 22″ × 10″, respectively. In the jet, the emission from the low-J CO lines is dominated by a gas layer at Tkin = 80-100 K, column density N(CO) = 9 × 1016 cm-2, and density n(H2) = (0.5-1) × 105 cm-3; the emission of the high-J CO lines arises from a warmer (Tkin = 400-750 K), denser (n(H2) = (0.5-1) × 106 cm-3), lower column density (N(CO) = 1.5 × 1016 cm-2) gas component. Similarly, in the outflow cavity, two components are detected: the emission of the low-J lines is dominated by a gas layer of column density N(CO) = 7 × 1017 cm-2 at Tkin = 55-85 K and density in the range (1-8) × 105 cm-3; the emission of the high-J lines is dominated by a hot, denser gas layer with Tkin = 500-1500K, n(H2) = (1-5) × 106 cm-3, and N(CO) = 6 × 1016 cm-2. A temperature gradient as a function of the velocity is found in the high-excitation gas

  11. Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, B; Ciardi, A; Nakatsutsumi, M; Vinci, T; Béard, J; Bonito, R; Billette, J; Borghesi, M; Burkley, Z; Chen, S N; Cowan, T E; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Higginson, D P; Kroll, F; Pikuz, S A; Naughton, K; Romagnani, L; Riconda, C; Revet, G; Riquier, R; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Skobelev, I Yu; Faenov, A Ya; Soloviev, A; Huarte-Espinosa, M; Frank, A; Portugall, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2014-10-17

    Although bipolar jets are seen emerging from a wide variety of astrophysical systems, the issue of their formation and morphology beyond their launching is still under study. Our scaled laboratory experiments, representative of young stellar object outflows, reveal that stable and narrow collimation of the entire flow can result from the presence of a poloidal magnetic field whose strength is consistent with observations. The laboratory plasma becomes focused with an interior cavity. This gives rise to a standing conical shock from which the jet emerges. Following simulations of the process at the full astrophysical scale, we conclude that it can also explain recently discovered x-ray emission features observed in low-density regions at the base of protostellar jets, such as the well-studied jet HH 154. PMID:25324383

  12. Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, B; Ciardi, A; Nakatsutsumi, M; Vinci, T; Béard, J; Bonito, R; Billette, J; Borghesi, M; Burkley, Z; Chen, S N; Cowan, T E; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Higginson, D P; Kroll, F; Pikuz, S A; Naughton, K; Romagnani, L; Riconda, C; Revet, G; Riquier, R; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Skobelev, I Yu; Faenov, A Ya; Soloviev, A; Huarte-Espinosa, M; Frank, A; Portugall, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2014-10-17

    Although bipolar jets are seen emerging from a wide variety of astrophysical systems, the issue of their formation and morphology beyond their launching is still under study. Our scaled laboratory experiments, representative of young stellar object outflows, reveal that stable and narrow collimation of the entire flow can result from the presence of a poloidal magnetic field whose strength is consistent with observations. The laboratory plasma becomes focused with an interior cavity. This gives rise to a standing conical shock from which the jet emerges. Following simulations of the process at the full astrophysical scale, we conclude that it can also explain recently discovered x-ray emission features observed in low-density regions at the base of protostellar jets, such as the well-studied jet HH 154.

  13. Induced velocities of grains embedded in a turbulent gas. [test particle theory application to protostellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voelk, H. J.; Morfill, G.; Roeser, S.; Jones, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    A theory is presented for the dynamics of dust particles in an incompressible turbulent fluid. Grain-gas coupling occurs through friction forces that are proportional to the mean grain velocity relative to the gas. This test particle theory is applied to the case of Kolmogoroff spectrum in a protostellar cloud. The mean turbulence induced grain velocity and the mean turbulent relative velocity of two grains are calculated. Whereas the former should determine the dust scale height, grain-grain collisions are influenced by the latter. For a reasonable strength of turbulence, the mean induced relative velocity of two particles turns out to be at least as large as the corresponding terminal velocity difference during gravitational settling.

  14. Hot stars with disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika D.

    The evolutionary paths of the massive O and B type stars are often defined by angular momentum transformations that involve circumstellar gas disks. This circumstellar gas is revealed in several kinds of observations, and here I describe a series of investigations of the hydrogen line emission from such disk using detailed studies of five massive binaries and a survey of 128 Be stars. By examining three sets of spectra of the active mass-transfer binary system RY Scuti, I determined masses of 7.1±1.2 [Special characters omitt ed.] for the bright supergiant and 30.0±2.1 [Special characters omitted.] for the massive companion that is hidden by an accretion torus. I also present a cartoon model of the complex mass flows in the system. Using optical spectroscopy and X-ray flux data, I investigated the mass transfer processes in four massive X-ray binaries (a massive B star with mass flowing onto a compact, neutron star companion). The B-supergiant system LS I +65 010 transfers mass via stellar winds. I find the X-ray flux modulates with the orbital period. In the other three X-ray binary systems (LS I +61 303, HDE 245770, and X Per), an outflowing circumstellar disk is responsible for the mass transfer, and in all three systems, the disk appears to be truncated by gravitational interactions with the compact companion. The disk in the microquasar system LS I +61 303 is limited in radius by the periastron separation and an increase in both Ha equivalent width and X-ray flux following periastron may be due to a density wave in the disk induced by tidal forces. Observations of HDE 245770 document what appears to be the regeneration of a circumstellar disk. The disk of X Per appears to have grown to near record proportions and the X-ray flux has dramatically increased. Tidal interaction may generate a spiral density wave in the disk and cause an increase in Ha equivalent width and mass transfer to the compact companion. During the course of the analysis of the X

  15. Bridging the gap: disk formation in the Class 0 phase with ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapp, Wolf B.; Basu, Shantanu; Kunz, Matthew W.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations have revealed catastrophic magnetic braking in the protostellar phase, which prevents the formation of a centrifugal disk around a nascent protostar. Aims: We determine if non-ideal MHD, including the effects of ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation determined from a detailed chemical network model, will allow for disk formation at the earliest stages of star formation. Methods: We employ the axisymmetric thin-disk approximation in order to resolve a dynamic range of 9 orders of magnitude in length and 16 orders of magnitude in density, while also calculating partial ionization using up to 19 species in a detailed chemical equilibrium model. Magnetic braking is applied to the rotation using a steady-state approximation, and a barotropic relation is used to capture the thermal evolution. Results: We resolve the formation of the first and second cores, with expansion waves at the periphery of each, a magnetic diffusion shock, and prestellar infall profiles at larger radii. Power-law profiles in each region can be understood analytically. After the formation of the second core, the centrifugal support rises rapidly and a low-mass disk of radius ≈ 10 R⊙ is formed at the earliest stage of star formation, when the second core has mass ~10-3 M⊙. The mass-to-flux ratio is ~104 times the critical value in the central region. Conclusions: A small centrifugal disk can form in the earliest stage of star formation, due to a shut-off of magnetic braking caused by magnetic field dissipation in the first core region. There is enough angular momentum loss to allow the second collapse to occur directly, and a low-mass stellar core to form with a surrounding disk. The disk mass and size will depend upon how the angular momentum transport mechanisms within the disk can keep up with mass infall onto the disk. Accounting only for direct infall, we estimate that the disk will remain ≲10 AU, undetectable even by ALMA, for

  16. Giant Planet Formation by Disk Instability in Low Mass Disks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2010-12-01

    Forming giant planets by disk instability requires a gaseous disk that is massive enough to become gravitationally unstable and able to cool fast enough for self-gravitating clumps to form and survive. Models with simplified disk cooling have shown the critical importance of the ratio of the cooling to the orbital timescales. Uncertainties about the proper value of this ratio can be sidestepped by including radiative transfer. Three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics models of a disk with a mass of 0.043 M sun from 4 to 20 AU in orbit around a 1 M sun protostar show that disk instabilities are considerably less successful in producing self-gravitating clumps than in a disk with twice this mass. The results are sensitive to the assumed initial outer disk (To ) temperatures. Models with To = 20 K are able to form a single self-gravitating clump, whereas models with To = 25 K form clumps that are not quite self-gravitating. These models imply that disk instability requires a disk with a mass of at least ~0.043 M sun inside 20 AU in order to form giant planets around solar-mass protostars with realistic disk cooling rates and outer-disk temperatures. Lower mass disks around solar-mass protostars must rely upon core accretion to form inner giant planets.

  17. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    that are available to them. They do this by spreading - the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand. Significant changes happen only if some process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The consequences are very general: evolution by spreading happens in stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks. This meeting is about disk galaxies, so the evolution most often involves the redistribution of angular momentum. We now have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the center. Numerical simulations reproduce observed morphologies very well. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities that are seen in CO observations. Star formation rates measured (e.g.) in the mid-infrared show that many barred and oval galaxies grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central `pseudobulges' that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). Our resulting picture of secular evolution accounts for the richness observed in morphological classification schemes such as those of de Vaucouleurs (1959) and Sandage (1961). State-of-the art morphology discussions include the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies (Buta et al. 2007) and Buta (2012, 2013). Pseudobulges as disk-grown alternatives to merger-built classical bulges are important because they impact many aspects of our understanding of galaxy evolution. For example, they are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well known, tight correlations between BH mass and host properties (Kormendy et al. 2011). We can distinguish between classical and pseudo bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of

  18. Solar disk sextant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, S.; Chiu, H.-Y.; Maier, E.; Schatten, K. H.; Minott, P.; Endal, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of an instrument, called the solar disk sextant, to be used in space to measure the shape and the size of the sun and their variations. The instrumental parameters required to produce sufficient sensitivity to address the problems of solar oblateness, solar pulsations, and global size changes of climatic importance are given.

  19. Accretion disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Holt, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations of partial X-ray eclipses from 4U1822-37 have shown that the central X-ray source in this system is diffused by a large Compton-thick accretion disk corona (ADC). Another binary, 4U2129-47, also displays a partial eclipse and contains an ADC. The possible origin of an ADC is discussed and a simple hydrostatic evaporated ADC model is developed which, when applied to 4U1822-37, 4U2129+47 and Cyg X-3, can explain their temporal and spectral properties. The quasi-sinusoidal modulation of all three sources can be reconciled with the partial occultation of the ADC by a bulge at the edge of the accretion disk which is caused by the inflowing material. The height of this bulge is an order of magnitude larger than the hydrostatic disk height and is the result of turbulence in the outer region of the disk. The spectral properties of all three sources can be understood in terms of Compton scattering of the original source spectrum by the ADC. Spectral variations with epoch in Cyg X-3 are probably caused by changes in the optical depth of the corona. A consequence of our model is that any accreting neutron star X-ray source in a semi-detached binary system which is close to its Eddington limit most likely contains an optically thick ADC.

  20. Herniated disk repair (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common causes of lower back pain. The mainstay of treatment for herniated disks is an initial period of rest with pain and anti-inflammatory medications followed by physical therapy. If pain and symptoms persist, surgery to remove ...

  1. Plasmofluidic Disk Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Suk; Ku, Bonwoo; Kim, Yonghan

    2016-01-01

    Waveguide-coupled silicon ring or disk resonators have been used for optical signal processing and sensing. Large-scale integration of optical devices demands continuous reduction in their footprints, and ultimately they need to be replaced by silicon-based plasmonic resonators. However, few waveguide-coupled silicon-based plasmonic resonators have been realized until now. Moreover, fluid cannot interact effectively with them since their resonance modes are strongly confined in solid regions. To solve this problem, this paper reports realized plasmofluidic disk resonators (PDRs). The PDR consists of a submicrometer radius silicon disk and metal laterally surrounding the disk with a 30-nm-wide channel in between. The channel is filled with fluid, and the resonance mode of the PDR is strongly confined in the fluid. The PDR coupled to a metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguide is implemented by using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. If the refractive index of the fluid increases by 0.141, the transmission spectrum of the waveguide coupled to the PDR of radius 0.9 μm red-shifts by 30 nm. The PDR can be used as a refractive index sensor requiring a very small amount of analyte. Plus, the PDR filled with liquid crystal may be an ultracompact intensity modulator which is effectively controlled by small driving voltage. PMID:26979929

  2. ALMA observations of infalling flows toward the Keplerian disk around the class I protostar L1489 IRS

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aikawa, Yuri; Aso, Yusuke; Koyamatsu, Shin; Machida, Masahiro N.; Saigo, Kazuya; Saito, Masao; Tomida, Kengo; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2014-09-20

    We have conducted ALMA observations in the 1.3 mm continuum and {sup 12}CO (2-1), C{sup 18}O (2-1), and SO (5{sub 6}-4{sub 5}) lines toward L1489 IRS, a Class I protostar surrounded by a Keplerian disk and an infalling envelope. The Keplerian disk is clearly identified in the {sup 12}CO and C{sup 18}O emission, and its outer radius (∼700 AU) and mass (∼0.005 M {sub ☉}) are comparable to those of disks around T Tauri stars. The protostellar mass is estimated to be 1.6 M {sub ☉} with the inclination angle of 66°. In addition to the Keplerian disk, there are blueshifted and redshifted off-axis protrusions seen in the C{sup 18}O emission pointing toward the north and the south, respectively, adjunct to the middle part of the Keplerian disk. The shape and kinematics of these protrusions can be interpreted as streams of infalling flows with a conserved angular momentum following parabolic trajectories toward the Keplerian disk, and the mass infalling rate is estimated to be ∼5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The specific angular momentum of the infalling flows (∼2.5 × 10{sup –3} km s{sup –1} pc) is comparable to that at the outer radius of the Keplerian disk (∼4.8 × 10{sup –3} km s{sup –1} pc). The SO emission is elongated along the disk major axis and exhibits a linear velocity gradient along the axis, which is interpreted to mean that the SO emission primarily traces a ring region in the flared Keplerian disk at radii of ∼250-390 AU. The local enhancement of the SO abundance in the ring region can be due to the accretion shocks at the centrifugal radius where the infalling flows fall onto the disk. Our ALMA observations unveiled both the Keplerian disk and the infalling gas onto the disk, and the disk can further grow by accreting material and angular momenta from the infalling gas.

  3. Equilibrium Initialization and Stability of Three-Dimensional Gas Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Bosch, Frank C.van den; Fuchs, Burkhard; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-08-25

    We present a new systematic way of setting up galactic gas disks based on the assumption of detailed hydrodynamic equilibrium. To do this, we need to specify the density distribution and the velocity field which supports the disk. We first show that the required circular velocity has no dependence on the height above or below the midplane so long as the gas pressure is a function of density only. The assumption of disks being very thin enables us to decouple the vertical structure from the radial direction. Based on that, the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium together with the reduced Poisson equation leads to two sets of second-order non-linear differential equation, which are easily integrated to set-up a stable disk. We call one approach 'density method' and the other one 'potential method'. Gas disks in detailed balance are especially suitable for investigating the onset of the gravitational instability. We revisit the question of global, axisymmetric instability using fully three-dimensional disk simulations. The impact of disk thickness on the disk instability and the formation of spontaneously induced spirals is studied systematically with or without the presence of the stellar potential. In our models, the numerical results show that the threshold value for disk instability is shifted from unity to 0.69 for self-gravitating thick disks and to 0.75 for combined stellar and gas thick disks. The simulations also show that self-induced spirals occur in the correct regions and with the right numbers as predicted by the analytic theory.

  4. Elastic and hydrodynamic torques on a colloidal disk within a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovner, Joel B.; Borgnia, Dan S.; Reich, Daniel H.; Leheny, Robert L.

    2012-10-01

    The orientationally dependent elastic energy and hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal disks with homeotropic surface anchoring suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) have been investigated. In the absence of external torques, the disks align with the normal of the disk face â parallel to the nematic director n̂. When a magnetic field is applied, the disks rotate â by an angle θ so that the magnetic torque and the elastic torque caused by distortion of the nematic director field are balanced. Over a broad range of angles, the elastic torque increases linearly with θ in quantitative agreement with a theoretical prediction based on an electrostatic analogy. When the disks are rotated to angles θ>(π)/(2), the resulting large elastic distortion makes the disk orientation unstable, and the director undergoes a topological transition in which θπ-θ. In the transition, a defect loop is shed from the disk surface, and the disks spin so that â sweeps through π radians as the loop collapses back onto the disk. Additional measurements of the angular relaxation of disks to θ=0 following removal of the external torque show a quasi-exponential time dependence from which an effective drag viscosity for the nematic can be extracted. The scaling of the angular time dependence with disk radius and observations of disks rotating about â indicate that the disk motion affects the director field at surprisingly modest Ericksen numbers.

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF INNER DISK GAS IN TRANSITION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoadley, K.; France, K.; McJunkin, M.; Alexander, R. D.; Schneider, P. C.

    2015-10-10

    Investigating the molecular gas in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) provides insight into how the molecular disk environment changes during the transition from primordial to debris disk systems. We conduct a small survey of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) fluorescent emission, using 14 well-studied Classical T Tauri stars at two distinct dust disk evolutionary stages, to explore how the structure of the inner molecular disk changes as the optically thick warm dust dissipates. We simulate the observed Hi-Lyman α-pumped H{sub 2} disk fluorescence by creating a 2D radiative transfer model that describes the radial distributions of H{sub 2} emission in the disk atmosphere and compare these to observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. We find the radial distributions that best describe the observed H{sub 2} FUV emission arising in primordial disk targets (full dust disk) are demonstrably different than those of transition disks (little-to-no warm dust observed). For each best-fit model, we estimate inner and outer disk emission boundaries (r{sub in} and r{sub out}), describing where the bulk of the observed H{sub 2} emission arises in each disk, and we examine correlations between these and several observational disk evolution indicators, such as n{sub 13–31}, r{sub in,} {sub CO}, and the mass accretion rate. We find strong, positive correlations between the H{sub 2} radial distributions and the slope of the dust spectral energy distribution, implying the behavior of the molecular disk atmosphere changes as the inner dust clears in evolving PPDs. Overall, we find that H{sub 2} inner radii are ∼4 times larger in transition systems, while the bulk of the H{sub 2} emission originates inside the dust gap radius for all transitional sources.

  6. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Kaplan, David L

    2006-04-01

    Pulsars are rotating, magnetized neutron stars that are born in supernova explosions following the collapse of the cores of massive stars. If some of the explosion ejecta fails to escape, it may fall back onto the neutron star or it may possess sufficient angular momentum to form a disk. Such 'fallback' is both a general prediction of current supernova models and, if the material pushes the neutron star over its stability limit, a possible mode of black hole formation. Fallback disks could dramatically affect the early evolution of pulsars, yet there are few observational constraints on whether significant fallback occurs or even the actual existence of such disks. Here we report the discovery of mid-infrared emission from a cool disk around an isolated young X-ray pulsar. The disk does not power the pulsar's X-ray emission but is passively illuminated by these X-rays. The estimated mass of the disk is of the order of 10 Earth masses, and its lifetime (> or = 10(6) years) significantly exceeds the spin-down age of the pulsar, supporting a supernova fallback origin. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks seen around ordinary young stars, suggesting the possibility of planet formation around young neutron stars.

  7. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Kaplan, David L

    2006-04-01

    Pulsars are rotating, magnetized neutron stars that are born in supernova explosions following the collapse of the cores of massive stars. If some of the explosion ejecta fails to escape, it may fall back onto the neutron star or it may possess sufficient angular momentum to form a disk. Such 'fallback' is both a general prediction of current supernova models and, if the material pushes the neutron star over its stability limit, a possible mode of black hole formation. Fallback disks could dramatically affect the early evolution of pulsars, yet there are few observational constraints on whether significant fallback occurs or even the actual existence of such disks. Here we report the discovery of mid-infrared emission from a cool disk around an isolated young X-ray pulsar. The disk does not power the pulsar's X-ray emission but is passively illuminated by these X-rays. The estimated mass of the disk is of the order of 10 Earth masses, and its lifetime (> or = 10(6) years) significantly exceeds the spin-down age of the pulsar, supporting a supernova fallback origin. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks seen around ordinary young stars, suggesting the possibility of planet formation around young neutron stars. PMID:16598251

  8. Effects of turbulence on cosmic ray propagation in protostars and young star/disk systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C. E-mail: fca@umich.edu

    2014-05-20

    The magnetic fields associated with young stellar objects are expected to have an hour-glass geometry, i.e., the magnetic field lines are pinched as they thread the equatorial plane surrounding the forming star but merge smoothly onto a background field at large distances. With this field configuration, incoming cosmic rays experience both a funneling effect that acts to enhance the flux impinging on the circumstellar disk and a magnetic mirroring effect that acts to reduce that flux. To leading order, these effects nearly cancel out for simple underlying magnetic field structures. However, the environments surrounding young stellar objects are expected to be highly turbulent. This paper shows how the presence of magnetic field fluctuations affects the process of magnetic mirroring, and thereby changes the flux of cosmic rays striking circumstellar disks. Turbulence has two principle effects: (1) the (single) location of the magnetic mirror point found in the absence of turbulence is replaced with a wide distribution of values. (2) The median of the mirror point distribution moves outward for sufficiently large fluctuation amplitudes (roughly when δB/B {sub 0} > 0.2 at the location of the turbulence-free mirror point); the distribution becomes significantly non-Gaussian in this regime as well. These results may have significant consequences for the ionization fraction of the disk, which in turn dictates the efficiency with which disk material can accrete onto the central object. A similar reduction in cosmic ray flux can occur during the earlier protostellar stages; the decrease in ionization can help alleviate the magnetic braking problem that inhibits disk formation.

  9. Advection/Diffusion of Large Scale Magnetic Field in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Rothstein, David M.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S.

    Winds and jets of proto-stellar systems are thought to arise from disk accretion involving (1) a small-scale turbulent magnetic field in the disk (due to the magneto-rotational instability or MRI) and (2) a large-scale magnetic field which gives rise to the winds and/or jets. An important problem with this picture is that the enhanced viscosity is accompanied by an enhanced magnetic diffusivity which acts to prevent the build up of a significant large-scale field. Recent work has pointed out that the surface layers of the disk are non-turbulent and thus highly conducting (or non-diffusive). This is because the MRI is suppressed in the surface layers where the magnetic and radiation pressures are larger than the thermal pressure. Here, we calculate the vertical (z) profiles of the stationary accretion flows (with radial and azimuthal components), and the profiles of the large-scale, magnetic field taking into account the turbulent viscosity and diffusivity due to the MRI and the fact that the turbulence vanishes at the surface of the disk. We derive a sixth-order differential equation for the radial flow velocity v r (z) which depends mainly on the midplane thermal to magnetic pressure ratio β > 1 and the magnetic Prandtl number of the turbulence P = viscosity/diffusivity. Boundary conditions at the disk surfaces take into account possible magnetic winds or jets and allow for a surface current flow in the highly conducting surface layers. The stationary solutions we find indicate that a weak (β > 1) large-scale field does not diffuse away as suggested by earlier work.

  10. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  11. THE DISCOVERY OF THE YOUNGEST MOLECULAR OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTELLAR CORE, MMS-6/OMC-3

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2012-01-20

    We present subarcsecond resolution HCN (4-3) and CO (3-2) observations made with the Submillimeter Array, toward an extremely young intermediate-mass protostellar core, MMS 6-main, located in the Orion Molecular Cloud 3 region (OMC-3). We have successfully imaged a compact molecular outflow lobe ( Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU) associated with MMS 6-main, which is also the smallest molecular outflow ever found in the intermediate-mass protostellar cores. The dynamical timescale of this outflow is estimated to be {<=}100 yr. The line width dramatically increases downstream at the end of the molecular outflow ({Delta}v {approx} 25 km s{sup -1}) and clearly shows the bow-shock-type velocity structure. The estimated outflow mass ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }) and outflow size are approximately two to four orders and one to three orders of magnitude smaller, respectively, while the outflow force ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) is similar, compared to the other molecular outflows studied in OMC-2/3. These results show that MMS 6-main is a protostellar core at the earliest evolutionary stage, most likely shortly after the second core formation.

  12. Comparison of cefadroxil and cephalothin disk susceptibility test results.

    PubMed Central

    Barry, A L; Jones, R N

    1989-01-01

    Diffusion susceptibility tests with 30-micrograms cefadroxil disks and 30-micrograms cephalothin disks were evaluated. For both agents, the same zone size interpretive criteria were recommended (less than or equal to 14 mm for resistance and greater than or equal to 18 mm for susceptibility). Tests were performed with 904 bacterial isolates, and the data were examined to determine whether the two cephalosporins might be used interchangeably for purposes of in vitro susceptibility testing. When Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, and methicillin-resistant staphylococci were evaluated, the two agents differed significantly. For testing other species, a cephalothin disk or cephalothin MIC could be used for predicting susceptibility or resistance to cefadroxil. PMID:2504768

  13. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitke, P.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Kamp, I.; Rab, C.; Anthonioz, F.; Antonellini, S.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Carmona, A.; Dominik, C.; Dionatos, O.; Greaves, J.; Güdel, M.; Ilee, J. D.; Liebhart, A.; Ménard, F.; Rigon, L.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on the assumptions about the shape of the disk, the dust opacities, dust settling, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In particular, we propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs in radiative equilibrium which is sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple yet physically justified treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts continuum and line observations that resemble typical multi-wavelength continuum and line observations of Class II T Tauri stars. We systematically study the impact of each model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dust settling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all mainstream continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuum visibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63 μm, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties, i.e. large grains, often needed to fit the SED, have important consequences for disk chemistry and heating/cooling balance, leading to stronger near- to far-IR emission lines in general. Strong dust settling and missing disk flaring have similar effects on continuum observations, but opposite effects on far-IR gas emission lines. PAH molecules can efficiently shield the gas from stellar UV radiation because of their strong absorption and negligible scattering opacities in comparison to evolved dust. The observable millimetre-slope of the SED can become significantly more gentle in the case of cold disk midplanes, which we find regularly in our T Tauri models

  14. Herschel-HIFI view of mid-IR quiet massive protostellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpin, F.; Chavarría, L.; Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Baudry, A.; Bontemps, S.; Kristensen, L.; Schmalzl, M.; Mata, J.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We present Herschel/HIFI observations of 14 water lines in a small sample of Galactic massive protostellar objects: NGC 6334I(N), DR21(OH), IRAS 16272-4837, and IRAS 05358+3543. Using water as a tracer of the structure and kinematics, we individually study each of these objects with the aim to estimate the amount of water around them, but to also to shed light on the high-mass star formation process. Methods: We analyzed the gas dynamics from the line profiles using Herschel-HIFI observations acquired as part of the WISH key-project of 14 far-IR water lines (H_216O, H_217O, H_218O) and several other species. Then through modeling the observations using the RATRAN radiative transfer code, we estimated outflow, infall, turbulent velocities, and molecular abundances and investigated the correlation with the evolutionary status of each source. Results: The four sources (and the previously studied W43-MM1) have been ordered in terms of evolution based on their spectral energy distribution from youngest to older: 1) NGC 64334I(N); 2) W43-MM1; 3) DR21(OH); 4) IRAS 16272-4837; 5) IRAS 05358+3543. The molecular line profiles exhibit a broad component coming from the shocks along the cavity walls that is associated with the protostars, and an infalling (or expanding, for IRAS 05358+3543) and passively heated envelope component, with highly supersonic turbulence that probably increases with the distance from the center. Accretion rates between 6.3 × 10-5 and 5.6 × 10-4M⊙ yr-1 are derived from the infall observed in three of our sources. The outer water abundance is estimated to be at the typical value of a few 10-8, while the inner abundance varies from 1.7 × 10-6 to 1.4 × 10-4 with respect to H2 depending on the source. Conclusions: We confirm that regions of massive star formation are highly turbulent and that the turbulence probably increases in the envelope with the distance to the star. The inner abundances are lower than the expected, 10-4, perhaps because

  15. Macroscopic Velocity Amplification in Stacked Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Srividya; White, Gary

    2015-04-01

    When a small sphere rests atop a larger sphere (for example, a basketball with a tennis ball balanced on top), and both are released from a height, the resulting ``velocity amplification'' of the small sphere when the pair rebound from a hard floor, is a staple of the physics demonstration toolkit--usually impressive, sometimes dangerous. While this phenomenon has been studied in the literature in some detail, we set out to explore this effect by constructing a device involving stacked disks falling in a plane, fashioned after an online design by Wayne Peterson of Brigham Young University. When two disks, stacked edge to edge atop one another and confined to a vertical plane, are dropped, the top disk rebounds to a much greater height than it started from, as expected. In this talk, we report on experiments conducted by dropping the disks and recording the heights to which they rise on rebound, and the comparison of these results with our theoretical predictions and computer simulations. Frances E. Walker Fellowship.

  16. DVD - digital versatile disks

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG

  17. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ∼1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ∼0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ∼150 Myr and mass ∼4 M {sub ☉}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ∼0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ∼1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  18. DIAGNOSTIC LINE EMISSION FROM EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET AND X-RAY-ILLUMINATED DISKS AND SHOCKS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, David; Gorti, U.

    2009-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 13.6 eV disks around young, low-mass stars to thousands of degrees and ionize species with ionization potentials greater than 13.6 eV. Shocks generated by protostellar winds can also heat and ionize the same species close to the star/disk system. These processes produce diagnostic lines (e.g., [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m and [O I] 6300 A) that we model as functions of key parameters such as EUV luminosity and spectral shape, X-ray luminosity and spectral shape, and wind mass loss rate and shock speed. Comparing our models with observations, we conclude that either internal shocks in the winds or X-rays incident on the disk surfaces often produce the observed [Ne II] line, although there are cases where EUV may dominate. Shocks created by the oblique interaction of winds with disks are unlikely [Ne II] sources because these shocks are too weak to ionize Ne. Even if [Ne II] is mainly produced by X-rays or internal wind shocks, the neon observations typically place upper limits of {approx}<10{sup 42} s{sup -1} on the EUV photon luminosity of these young low-mass stars. The observed [O I] 6300 A line has both a low velocity component (LVC) and a high velocity component. The latter likely arises in internal wind shocks. For the former we find that X-rays likely produce more [O I] luminosity than either the EUV layer, the transition layer between the EUV and X-ray layer, or the shear layer where the protostellar wind shocks and entrains disk material in a radial flow across the surface of the disk. Our soft X-ray models produce [O I] LVCs with luminosities up to 10{sup -4} L{sub sun}, but may not be able to explain the most luminous LVCs.

  19. Wobbling The Galactic Disk with Bombardment of Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onghia, Elena

    We propose to assess the effect of impacts of large visible satellite galaxies on a disk, as well as the relevance of the continuing bombardment of the Galactic disk by dark matter clumps as predicted by the current cosmological framework that can wobble the disk, heating it and eventually exciting ragged spiral structures. In particular, we make detailed predictions for observable features such as spiral arms, rings and their associated stars in galactic disks and relate them to the physical processes that drive their formation and evolution in our Milky Way galaxy and nearby spirals. To do this, we will combine analytic methods and numerical simulations that allow us to calculate observables, which we will compare to present and forthcoming observations. Our methodology utilizes a combination of state of the art hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy evolution and multi- wavelength radiative transfer simulations. Our primary goals are: (1) To identify the physical processes that are responsible for spiral structure formation observed in our Milky Way and nearby disk galaxies, from the flocculent to grand- designed spiral galaxies and to provide observable signatures to be compared with data on nearby galaxies combining maps of 24 micron emission (Spitzer) and cold gas, CO (Heracles) and HI (THINGS). (2) To explore different morphologies of spiral galaxies: from the multi-armed galaxies to the Milky Way sized galaxies with few arms. (3) For a Milky Way disk we will assess the effect of impacts of substructures passing through the disk to origin the asymmetry in the number density of stars recently discovered from SDSS and SEGUE data and confirmed from RAVE data. We will also investigate the disk heating in the vertical plane due to the formation of vertical oscillations that are produced by the impact and migration of stars in the disk as consequence of the heating as compared to the classical stellar migration mechanism. (4) We will measure the spiral pattern speed

  20. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND RADIAL MIGRATIONS IN VIRGO DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Roediger, Joel C.; Courteau, Stephane; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; McDonald, Michael E-mail: courteau@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: mcdonald@space.mit.edu

    2012-10-10

    We present new stellar age profiles, derived from well-resolved optical and near-infrared images of 64 Virgo cluster disk galaxies, whose analysis poses a challenge for current disk galaxy formation models. Our ability to break the age-metallicity degeneracy and the significant size of our sample represent key improvements over complementary studies of field disk galaxies. Our results can be summarized as follows: first, and contrary to observations of disk galaxies in the field, these cluster galaxies are distributed almost equally amongst the three main types of disk galaxy luminosity profiles (I/II/III), indicating that the formation and/or survival of Type II breaks is suppressed within the cluster environment. Second, we find examples of statistically significant inversions ({sup U}-shapes{sup )} in the age profiles of all three disk galaxy types, reminiscent of predictions from high-resolution simulations of classically truncated Type II disks in the field. These features characterize the age profiles for only about a third ({<=}36%) of each disk galaxy type in our sample. An even smaller fraction of cluster disks ({approx}11% of the total sample) exhibit age profiles that decrease outward (i.e., negative age gradients). Instead, flat and/or positive age gradients prevail ({>=}50%) within our Type I, II, and III subsamples. These observations thus suggest that while stellar migrations and inside-out growth can play a significant role in the evolution of all disk galaxy types, other factors contributing to the evolution of galaxies can overwhelm the predicted signatures of these processes. We interpret our observations through a scenario whereby Virgo cluster disk galaxies formed initially like their brethren in the field but which, upon falling into the cluster, were transformed into their present state through external processes linked to the environment (e.g., ram-pressure stripping and harassment). Current disk galaxy formation models, which have largely

  1. CYANIDE PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND NITROGEN FRACTIONATION IN THE MWC 480 DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Guzmán, V. V.; Öberg, K. I.; Loomis, R.; Qi, C.

    2015-11-20

    HCN is a commonly observed molecule in Solar System bodies and in interstellar environments. Its abundance with respect to CN is a proposed tracer of UV exposure. HCN is also frequently used to probe the thermal history of objects, by measuring its degree of nitrogen fractionation. To address the utility of HCN as a probe of disks, we present Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array observations of CN, HCN, H{sup 13}CN, and HC{sup 15}N toward the protoplanetary disk around Herbig Ae star MWC 480, and of CN and HCN toward the disk around T Tauri star DM Tau. Emission from all molecules is clearly detected and spatially resolved, including the first detection of HC{sup 15}N in a disk. Toward MWC 480, CN emission extends radially more than 1″ exterior to the observed cut-off of HCN emission. Quantitative modeling further reveals very different radial abundance profiles for CN and HCN, with best-fit outer cut-off radii of >300 AU and 110 ± 10 AU, respectively. This result is in agreement with model predictions of efficient HCN photodissociation into CN in the outer-part of the disk where the vertical gas and dust column densities are low. No such difference in CN and HCN emission profiles are observed toward DM Tau, suggestive of different photochemical structures in Herbig Ae and T Tauri disks. We use the HCN isotopologue data toward the MWC 480 disk to provide the first measurement of the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in a disk. We find a low disk averaged {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio of 200 ± 100, comparable to what is observed in cloud cores and comets, demonstrating interstellar inheritance and/or efficient nitrogen fractionation in this disk.

  2. Kinematic Mass Measurements of Inner and Outer Spiral Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Ciardullo, R.

    2010-01-01

    Our knowledge of the structure and kinematics of galactic disks and halos is quite limited. While integrated light spectroscopy has provided a large amount of information on inner disks, once outside 2.5 disk scale lengths, almost nothing is known. Does the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) stay constant in the outer regions? Does the stellar scale height stay constant or do disks flare? Are galactic disks really maximal and could there be any trends with Hubble type? Are dark matter halos fit better by NFW or pseudo-isothermal models? We have been using planetary nebulae (PNe) to probe the kinematic structure of face-on spiral disks by identifying large ( 100) samples of these objects via narrow-band imaging, and then measuring their radial velocities with follow-up, high-precision ( 5 km/s) spectroscopy. Our results for IC 342, M74, M83, M94, and M101 are quite interesting. With one exception (M101) the z-velocity dispersion (sigmaz) of galactic disks declines exponentially with the light out to 3 disk scale lengths. This is exactly as expected for a constant M/L, constant scale height disk. However, in the two galaxies with significant data past this radius, the values of sigmaz asymptote out at 20 km/s. Moreover, our analysis finds kinematic evidence for significant flaring in the outer regions, especially in M94. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions derived from models of disk heating by halo substructure, and demonstrate how kinematic surveys in the outer disks of spirals can be used to test hierarchical models of galaxy formation. We also find that the disks of late-type galaxies are far from maximal, that the disks of early type spirals have higher M/L ratios than the disks of later-type objects, and that the unseen inner halos of spiral galaxies are better fit by pseudo-isothermal laws than by NFW models.

  3. FORMATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT: COLD STREAMS, CLUMPY DISKS, AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Dekel, Avishai; Sari, Re'em; Ceverino, Daniel E-mail: sari@phys.huji.ac.i

    2009-09-20

    We present a simple theoretical framework for massive galaxies at high redshift, where the main assembly and star formation occurred, and report on the first cosmological simulations that reveal clumpy disks consistent with our analysis. The evolution is governed by the interplay between smooth and clumpy cold streams, disk instability, and bulge formation. Intense, relatively smooth streams maintain an unstable dense gas-rich disk. Instability with high turbulence and giant clumps, each a few percent of the disk mass, is self-regulated by gravitational interactions within the disk. The clumps migrate into a bulge in {approx}<10 dynamical times, or {approx}<0.5 Gyr. The cosmological streams replenish the draining disk and prolong the clumpy phase to several Gigayears in a steady state, with comparable masses in disk, bulge, and dark matter within the disk radius. The clumps form stars in dense subclumps following the overall accretion rate, {approx}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, and each clump converts into stars in {approx}0.5 Gyr. While the clumps coalesce dissipatively to a compact bulge, the star-forming disk is extended because the incoming streams keep the outer disk dense and susceptible to instability and because of angular momentum transport. Passive spheroid-dominated galaxies form when the streams are more clumpy: the external clumps merge into a massive bulge and stir up disk turbulence that stabilize the disk and suppress in situ clump and star formation. We predict a bimodality in galaxy type by z {approx} 3, involving giant-clump star-forming disks and spheroid-dominated galaxies of suppressed star formation. After z {approx} 1, the disks tend to be stabilized by the dominant stellar disks and bulges. Most of the high-z massive disks are likely to end up as today's early-type galaxies.

  4. Molecules with a peptide link in protostellar shocks: a comprehensive study of L1157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Lefloch, B.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Codella, C.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Bachiller, R.

    2014-11-01

    Interstellar molecules with a peptide link (-NH-C(=O)-), like formamide (NH2CHO), acetamide (NH2COCH3) and isocyanic acid (HNCO), are particularly interesting for their potential role in pre-biotic chemistry. We have studied their emission in the protostellar shock regions L1157-B1 and L1157-B2, with the IRAM 30 m telescope, as part of the ASAI Large Programme. Analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with B1 and B2. Molecular abundances of ≈(0.4-1.1) × 10-8 and (3.3-8.8) × 10-8 are derived for formamide and isocyanic acid, respectively, from a simple rotational diagram analysis. Conversely, NH2COCH3 was not detected down to a relative abundance of a few ≤10-10. B1 and B2 appear to be among the richest Galactic sources of HNCO and NH2CHO molecules. A tight linear correlation between their abundances is observed, suggesting that the two species are chemically related. Comparison with astrochemical models favours molecule formation on icy grain mantles, with NH2CHO generated from hydrogenation of HNCO.

  5. Protostellar binary fragmentation: a comparison of results from two distinct second-order hydrodynamic codes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalotti, L. Di G.; Klapp, J.

    1997-03-01

    A new second-order Eulerian code is compared with a version of the TREESPH code formulated by Hernquist and Katz (1989) for the standard isothermal collapse test. The results indicate that both codes produce a very similar evolution ending with the formation of a protostellar binary system. Contrary to previous first-order calculations, the binary forms by direct fragmentation, i.e. without the occurrence of an intermediate bar configuration. A similar trend was also found in second-order Eulerian calculations (Myhill and Boss 1993), suggesting that it is a result of the decreased numerical diffusion associated with the new second-order schemes. The results have also implications on the differences between the finite difference methods and the particle method SPH, raised by Monaghan and Lattanzio (1986) for this problem. In particular, the Eulerian calculation does not result in a run-away collapse of the fragments, and as found in the TREESPH evolution, they also show a clear tendency to get closer together. In agreement with previous SPH calculations (Monaghan and Lattanzio 1986), the results of the long term evolution with code TREESPH show that the gravitational interaction between the two fragments may become important, and eventually induce the binary to coalesce. However, SPH calculations by Bate, Bonnell and Price (1995) indicate that the two fragments, after having reached a minimum separation distance, do not merge but continue to orbit each other.

  6. A Theoretical Perspective on the Formation and Fragmentation of Protostellar Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, A.; Lomax, O.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the factors influencing the formation and gravitational fragmentation of protostellar discs. We start with a review of how observations of prestellar cores can be analysed statistically to yield plausible initial conditions for simulations of their subsequent collapse. Simulations based on these initial conditions show that, despite the low levels of turbulence in prestellar cores, they deliver primary protostars and associated discs which are routinely subject to stochastic impulsive perturbations; consequently misalignment of the spins and orbits of protostars are common. Also, the simulations produce protostars that collectively have a mass function and binary statistics matching those observed in nearby star-formation regions, but only if a significant fraction of the turbulent energy in the core is solenoidal, and accretion onto the primary protostar is episodic with a duty cycle ≳ 3 000 yr. Under this circumstance, a core typically spawns between 4 and 5 protostars, with high efficiency, and the lower mass protostars are mainly formed by disc fragmentation. The requirement that a proto-fragment in a disc lose thermal energy on a dynamical timescale dictates that there is a sweet spot for disc fragmentation at radii 70 AU ≲ R ≲ 100 AU and temperatures 10 K ≲ T ≲ 20 K, and this might explain the brown dwarf desert.

  7. A candidate protostellar object in the L 1457/MBM 12 cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heithausen, A.; Böttner, C.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: The association of young T Tauri stars, MBM 12A, indicates that L 1457 was forming stars not too long ago. With our study we want to find out whether there are still signs of ongoing star formation in that cloud. Methods: Using the Max-Planck-Millimeter-Bolometer MAMBO at the IRAM 30 m telescope, we obtained a map of about 8'×8' centered on L 1457 in the dust continuum emission at 230 GHz. Towards the most intense regions in our bolometer map, we obtained spectra at high angular resolution in the CS (2 → 1) and the N2H+ (1 → 0) lines using the IRAM 30 m telescope. Results: We find that the cold dust in L 1457 is concentrated in several small cores with high H2 column densities and solar masses. The density profiles of the cores are inconsistent with a sphere with constant density. These cores are closer to virial equilibrium than is the cloud as a whole. Data from the VLA and Spitzer archives reveal two point sources in the direction of one dust core. One of the sources is probably a distant quasar, whereas the other source is projected right on a local maximum of our dust map and shows characteristics of a protostellar object.

  8. Tracing Massive Protostellar Jets from Intermediate-Mass Protostars in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, A.

    2014-09-01

    We present new spectroscopy and imaging of four protostellar jets in the Carina nebula. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces dense gas in the jet that is self-shielded from Lyman continuum photons from nearby O-type stars. New near-IR [Fe II] images reveal a substantial mass of dense, neutral gas that is not seen in the Halpha emission from these jets, leading to densities and mass-loss rate estimates an order of magnitude larger than those derived from the Halpha emission measure. Higher jet mass-loss rates require higher accretion rates, implying that these jets are driven by intermediate-mass (around 2 - 8 solar masses) protostars. Velocities from new proper motion and spectroscopic measurements fall among the velocities typically measured in lower-luminosity sources (100 - 200 km/s). We propose that these jets reflect essentially the same outflow phenomenon seen in low-mass protostars, but that the collimated atomic jet core is irradiated and rendered observable. Thus, the jets in Carina constitute a new view of collimated jets from intermediate-mass protostars that exist in a feedback-dominated environment, and offer strong additional evidence that stars up to 8 solar masses form by the same accretion mechanisms as low-mass stars.

  9. The dependence of protostellar luminosity on environment in the Cygnus-X star-forming complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Hora, J. L.; Smith, Howard A.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Bontemps, S.; Schneider, N.; Kraemer, K.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.

    2014-07-01

    The Cygnus-X star-forming complex is one of the most active regions of low- and high-mass star formation within 2 kpc of the Sun. Using mid-infrared photometry from the IRAC and MIPS Spitzer Cygnus-X Legacy Survey, we have identified over 1800 protostar candidates. We compare the protostellar luminosity functions of two regions within Cygnus-X: CygX-South and CygX-North. These two clouds show distinctly different morphologies suggestive of dissimilar star-forming environments. We find the luminosity functions of these two regions are statistically different. Furthermore, we compare the luminosity functions of protostars found in regions of high and low stellar density within Cygnus-X and find that the luminosity function in regions of high stellar density is biased to higher luminosities. In total, these observations provide further evidence that the luminosities of protostars depend on their natal environment. We discuss the implications this dependence has for the star formation process.

  10. Champagne flutes and brandy snifters: modelling protostellar outflow-cloud chemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, R. P.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Redman, M. P.

    2014-10-01

    A rich variety of molecular species has now been observed towards hot cores in star-forming regions and in the interstellar medium. An increasing body of evidence from millimetre interferometers suggests that many of these form at the interfaces between protostellar outflows and their natal molecular clouds. However, current models have remained unable to explain the origin of the observational bias towards wide-angled `brandy snifter' shaped outflows over narrower `champagne flute' shapes in carbon monoxide imaging. Furthermore, these wide-angled systems exhibit unusually high abundances of the molecular ion HCO+. We present results from a chemodynamic model of such regions where a rich chemistry arises naturally as a result of turbulent mixing between cold, dense molecular gas and the hot, ionized outflow material. The injecta drives a rich and rapid ion-neutral chemistry in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. The observational bias towards wide-angled outflows is explained naturally by the geometry-dependent ion injection rate causing rapid dissociation of CO in the younger systems.

  11. A Self-Perpetuating Catalyst for the Production of Complex Organic Molecules in Protostellar Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of abundant carbonaceous material in meteorites is a long standing problem and an important factor in the debate on the potential for the origin of life in other stellar systems. Many mechanisms may contribute to the total organic content in protostellar nebulae, ranging from organics formed via ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the cold dark clouds from which such nebulae collapse, to similar ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the dark regions of the nebula far from the proto star, to gas phase reactions in sub-nebulae around growing giant planets and in the nebulae themselves. The Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalytic reduction of CO by hydrogen was once the preferred model for production of organic materials in the primitive solar nebula. The Haber-Bosch catalytic reduction of N2 by hydrogen was thought to produce the reduced nitrogen found in meteorites. However, the clean iron metal surfaces that catalyze these reactions are easily poisoned via reaction with any number of molecules, including the very same complex organics that they produce and both reactions work more efficiently in the hot regions of the nebula. We have demonstrated that many grain surfaces can catalyze both FTT and HB-type reactions, including amorphous iron and magnesium silicates, pure silica smokes as well as several minerals. Although none work as well as pure iron grains, and all produce a wide range of organic products rather than just pure methane, these materials are not truly catalysts.

  12. A DENSITY DEPENDENCE FOR PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY IN CLASS I SOURCES: COLLABORATIVE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Hurst, Rachel; Koenig, Xavier

    2014-02-10

    Class I protostars in three high-mass star-forming regions are found to have correlations among the local projected density of other Class I protostars, the summed flux from these other protostars, and the protostellar luminosity in the WISE 22 μm band. Brighter Class I sources form in higher-density and higher-flux regions, while low luminosity sources form anywhere. These correlations depend slightly on the number of neighbors considered (from 2 to 20) and could include a size-of-sample effect from the initial mass function (i.e., larger numbers include rarer and more massive stars). Luminosities seem to vary by neighborhood with nearby protostars having values proportional to each other and higher density regions having higher values. If Class I luminosity is partially related to the accretion rate, then this luminosity correlation is consistent with the competitive accretion model, although it is more collaborative than competitive. The correlation is also consistent with primordial mass segregation and could explain why the stellar initial mass function resembles the dense core mass function even when cores form multiple stars.

  13. Inversions for axisymmetric galactic disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiotelis, N.; Patsis, P. A.

    1993-08-01

    We use two models for the distribution function to solve an inverse problem for axisymmetric disks. These systems may be considered - under certain assumptions - as galactic disks. In some cases the solutions of the resulting integral equations are simple, which allows the determination of the kinematic properties of self-consistent models for these systems. These properties for then = 1 Toomre disk are presented in this study.

  14. High Temperature Burst Testing of a Superalloy Disk With a Dual Grain Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Kantzos, P.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated temperature burst testing of a disk with a dual grain structure made from an advanced nickel-base superalloy, LSHR, was conducted. The disk had a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim, produced using NASA's low cost DMHT technology. The results of the spin testing showed the disk burst at 42 530 rpm in line with predictions based on a 2-D finite element analysis. Further, significant growth of the disk was observed before failure which was also in line with predictions.

  15. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  16. PRE-TRANSITIONAL DISK NATURE OF THE AB Aur DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, M.; Inoue, A. K.; Okamoto, Y. K.; Kataza, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Kamizuka, T.; Fukagawa, M.; Yamashita, T.; Tamura, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Sakon, I.; Onaka, T.

    2010-08-01

    The disk around AB Aur was imaged and resolved at 24.6 {mu}m using the Cooled Mid-infrared Camera and Spectrometer on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The Gaussian full width at half-maximum of the source size is estimated to be 90 {+-} 6 AU, indicating that the disk extends further out at 24.6 {mu}m than at shorter wavelengths. In order to interpret the extended 24.6 {mu}m image, we consider a disk with a reduced surface density within a boundary radius R{sub c} , which is motivated by radio observations that suggest a reduced inner region within about 100 AU from the star. Introducing the surface density reduction factor f{sub c} for the inner disk, we determine that the best match with the observed radial intensity profile at 24.6 {mu}m is achieved with R{sub c} = 88 AU and f{sub c} = 0.01. We suggest that the extended emission at 24.6 {mu}m is due to the enhanced emission from a wall-like structure at the boundary radius (the inner edge of the outer disk), which is caused by a jump in the surface density at R{sub c} . Such a reduced inner disk and geometrically thick outer disk structure can also explain the more point-like nature at shorter wavelengths. We also note that this disk geometry is qualitatively similar to a pre-transitional disk, suggesting that the AB Aur disk is in a pre-transitional disk phase.

  17. THE COLLISIONAL EVOLUTION OF DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, Andras; Rieke, George H.; Balog, Zoltan E-mail: grieke@as.arizona.edu

    2013-05-01

    We explore the collisional decay of disk mass and infrared emission in debris disks. With models, we show that the rate of the decay varies throughout the evolution of the disks, increasing its rate up to a certain point, which is followed by a leveling off to a slower value. The total disk mass falls off {proportional_to}t {sup -0.35} at its fastest point (where t is time) for our reference model, while the dust mass and its proxy-the infrared excess emission-fades significantly faster ({proportional_to}t {sup -0.8}). These later level off to a decay rate of M{sub tot}(t){proportional_to}t {sup -0.08} and M{sub dust}(t) or L{sub ir}(t){proportional_to}t {sup -0.6}. This is slower than the {proportional_to}t {sup -1} decay given for all three system parameters by traditional analytic models. We also compile an extensive catalog of Spitzer and Herschel 24, 70, and 100 {mu}m observations. Assuming a log-normal distribution of initial disk masses, we generate model population decay curves for the fraction of stars harboring debris disks detected at 24 {mu}m. We also model the distribution of measured excesses at the far-IR wavelengths (70-100 {mu}m) at certain age regimes. We show general agreement at 24 {mu}m between the decay of our numerical collisional population synthesis model and observations up to a Gyr. We associate offsets above a Gyr to stochastic events in a few select systems. We cannot fit the decay in the far-infrared convincingly with grain strength properties appropriate for silicates, but those of water ice give fits more consistent with the observations (other relatively weak grain materials would presumably also be successful). The oldest disks have a higher incidence of large excesses than predicted by the model; again, a plausible explanation is very late phases of high dynamical activity around a small number of stars. Finally, we constrain the variables of our numerical model by comparing the evolutionary trends generated from the exploration

  18. Thermodynamical Structure of Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, S.; Turner, N.

    2009-12-01

    The thermodynamics of protoplanetary disks determines chemical and physical evolution of dust and gas in the disks, and thus is relevant for understanding the origin and formation of planetary systems. In this paper, the thermodynamical structure of protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars is studied using three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Local patches of the disk are modeled using the shearing box approximation with vertical gravity. For simplicity, the dust and gas are well mixed and have the same temperature, and ideal MHD is assumed. The frequency-integrated radiation field is evolved using the flux-limited diffusion approximation, adopting thermally averaged opacities. The heating arises from the dissipation of MHD turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability due to differential rotation of the disk, and the cooling comes from infrared radiation losses. Irradiation by the central star is treated by injecting appropriate amount of thermal energy near the disk photosphere for visible lights. The results indicate the heating is more concentrated in the disk atmosphere than in the classical model. The single-point heating rate in the atmosphere fluctuates by orders of magnitude over time intervals comparable to the orbital period due to magnetic reconnection and shocks, while the patch of disk overall sustains dynamical and thermodynamical equilibrium over many cooling times. We will discuss implications of our numerical results for line and continuum emission from protoplanetary disks.

  19. Gravitational Instability in Planetesimal Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Bryce T.; Lithwick, Yoram; Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-11-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) has been proposed as a method of forming giant gas planets enhanced by disk thermodynamics in a protoplanetary disk (Boss, 1997, Science 276; Durisen et al., 2007, Protostars and Planets V) and as a method of forming planetesimals through the focusing of boulders by the interaction between solids and gases in a turbulent circumstellar disk (Johansen et al., 2007, Nature 448; Youdin & Goodman, 2005, Astrophys. J. 620). GI is mediated through a gaseous circumstellar disk in each each of these scenarios. We explore the possibility of GI occurring in a planetesimal disk devoid of gas. In this regime, mutual collisions between planetesimals are required to dissipate their orbital shear and velocity dispersion enough for collapse to occur as described by the Toomre stability criterion (Toomre, 1964, Astrophys. J. 139; Toomre, 1981, Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies). How frequent must collisions be between planetesimals in a gravitationally stable planetesimal disk for GI to occur? Are there collisional rates where GI is postponed indefinitely in an equilibrium state between gravitational stirring and collisional cooling? We present 3D shearing sheet simulations using the REBOUND N-body code with the symplectic epicyclic integrator (Rein & Liu, 2011, A&A 537; Rein & Tremaine, 2011, MNRAS 415) in which the candidate collision rates are within a few orders of magnitude of the disk dynamical lifetime. Our simulations suggest that collisions rate directly controls disk cooling. The shape of the disk cooling curve is independent of the collision rate when scaled to the collision time.

  20. Comets as collisional fragments of a primordial planetesimal disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; Rickman, H.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta mission and its exquisite measurements have revived the debate on whether comets are pristine planetesimals or collisionally evolved objects. Aims: We investigate the collisional evolution experienced by the precursors of current comet nuclei during the early stages of the solar system in the context of the so-called Nice model. Methods: We considered two environments for the collisional evolution: (1) the transplanetary planetesimal disk, from the time of gas removal until the disk was dispersed by the migration of the ice giants; and (2) the dispersing disk during the time that the scattered disk was formed. We performed simulations using different methods in the two cases to determine the number of destructive collisions typically experienced by a comet nucleus of 2 km radius. Results: In the widely accepted scenario, where the dispersal of the planetesimal disk occurred at the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment about 4 Gy ago, comet-sized planetesimals have a very low probability of surviving destructive collisions in the disk. On the extreme assumption that the disk was dispersed directly upon gas removal, a significant fraction of the planetesimals might have remained intact. However, these survivors would still bear the marks of many nondestructive impacts. Conclusions: The Nice model of solar system evolution predicts that typical km-sized comet nuclei are predominantly fragments resulting from collisions experienced by larger parent bodies. An important goal for future research is to investigate whether the observed properties of comet nuclei are compatible with such a collisional origin.

  1. Observations of Water Ice Distribution in the HD169142 Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Icy grains play an important role on planetesimal/planet formation and related matters. Therefore, to reveal ice dust distribution within a protoplanetary disk is an important work for understanding planet formation. However, observations of icy grain IN THE DISK are scarce due to various observational limitations. Here we propose observations to trace the icy grains by making K, H_2O ice, and L' imaging photometric observations of disk scattered light to derive H_2O ice dust distribution in a disk surface via 3.1 mu m absorption. For the moment, only Gemini/NICI is capable of such observations. We have already demonstrated the effectiveness of such observing method toward Herbig Fe star HD142527. Since some theoretical studies suggest that there are no ice grains at the surface of the disk around A/B stars due to intense UV irradiation, we propose to observe disks around Herbig Ae star HD169142. When we fail to detect the ice feature, it supports the theoretical prediction that photodesorption is important. While the ice feature is detected, it requires reconsideration of the theories and provides an important constraint for the disk chemistry.

  2. Higher order diffractions from a circular disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsland, Diane P.; Balanis, Constantine A.; Brumley, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    The backscattering from a circular disk is analyzed using the geometrical theory of diffraction. First-, second-, and third-order diffractions are included in the hard polarization analysis, while first-, second-, and third-order slope diffractions are included for soft polarization. Improvements in the prediction of the monostatic radar cross section over previous works are noted. For hard polarization, an excellent agreement is exhibited between experimental and theoretical results, while a very good agreement is noted for soft polarization. To further improve the soft polarization results for wide angles, a model for the creeping wave or circulating current on the edge of the disk is obtained and used to find an additional component of the backscattered field. The addition of this component significantly improves the results for wide angles, leading to excellent agreement for soft polarization also. An axial-caustic correction method using equivalent currents is also included in the analysis.

  3. Disk MHD generator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Retallick, F. D.

    1980-01-01

    Directly-fired, separately-fired, and oxygen-augmented MHD power plants incorporating a disk geometry for the MHD generator were studied. The base parameters defined for four near-optimum-performance MHD steam power systems of various types are presented. The finally selected systems consisted of (1) two directly fired cases, one at 1920 K (2996F) preheat and the other at 1650 K (2500 F) preheat, (2) a separately-fired case where the air is preheated to the same level as the higher temperature directly-fired cases, and (3) an oxygen augmented case with the same generator inlet temperature of 2839 (4650F) as the high temperature directly-fired and separately-fired cases. Supersonic Mach numbers at the generator inlet, gas inlet swirl, and constant Hall field operation were specified based on disk generator optimization. System pressures were based on optimization of MHD net power. Supercritical reheat stream plants were used in all cases. Open and closed cycle component costs are summarized and compared.

  4. Disk storage at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Cano, E.; Chan, B.; Espinal, X.; Fiorot, A.; González Labrador, H.; Iven, J.; Lamanna, M.; Lo Presti, G.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S.; Rousseau, H.; van der Ster, D.

    2015-12-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  5. A twisted disk equation that describes warped galaxy disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, K.

    1994-01-01

    Warped H1 gas layers in the outer regions of spiral galaxies usually display a noticeably twisted structure. This structure is thought to arise primarily as a result of differential precession in the H1 disk as it settles toward a 'preferred orientation' in an underlying dark halo potential well that is not spherically symmetric. In an attempt to better understand the structure and evolution of these twisted, warped disk structures, we have utilized the 'twist-equation' formalism. Specifically, we have generalized the twist equation to allow the treatment of non-Keplerian disks and from it have derived the steady-state structure of twisted disks that develop from free precession in a nonspherical, logarithmic halo potential. This generalized equation can also be used to examine the time-evolutionary behavior of warped galaxy disks.

  6. Numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbaraman, M. R.; Hadid, A. H.; McConnaughey, P. K.

    The cooling arrangement of the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) incorporates two jet rings, each of which produces 19 high-velocity coolant jets. At some operating conditions, the frequency of excitation associated with the 19 jets coincides with the natural frequency of the turbine blades, contributing to fatigue cracking of blade shanks. In this paper, an alternate turbine disk cooling arrangement, applicable to disk faces of zero hub radius, is evaluated, which consists of a single coolant jet impinging at the center of the turbine disk. Results of the CFD analysis show that replacing the jet ring with a single central coolant jet in the HPOTP leads to an acceptable thermal environment at the disk rim. Based on the predictions of flow and temperature fields for operating conditions, the single central jet cooling system was recommended for implementation into the development program of the Technology Test Bed Engine at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Vector diffraction and polarization effects in an optical disk system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, W H; Li, L; Mansuripur, M

    1998-10-10

    The track pitch of current optical disks is comparable with the wavelength of the laser source. In this domain of the pitch-to-wavelength ratio, the complex-diffraction amplitudes are different for different incident polarization states, and the validity of the scalar diffraction theory is questionable. Furthermore, the use of multilayer coatings and high-numerical-aperture beams in modern optical disk technology inevitably entails the excitation of surface waves, which can disturb the baseball pattern significantly. To describe the interaction of a focused beam with a grooved multilayer system fully, it is necessary to have a rigorous vector theory. We use a rigorous vector theory to model the diffraction of light at the optical disk. We present the simulation and the experimental results and demonstrate the ability of this approach to predict or model accurately all essential features of beam-disk interaction, including the polarization effects and the excitation of surface waves. PMID:18301517

  8. Vector Diffraction and Polarization Effects in an Optical Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Hung; Li, Lifeng; Mansuripur, M.

    1998-10-01

    The track pitch of current optical disks is comparable with the wavelength of the laser source. In this domain of the pitch-to-wavelength ratio, the complex-diffraction amplitudes are different for different incident polarization states, and the validity of the scalar diffraction theory is questionable. Furthermore, the use of multilayer coatings and high-numerical-aperture beams in modern optical disk technology inevitably entails the excitation of surface waves, which can disturb the baseball pattern significantly. To describe the interaction of a focused beam with a grooved multilayer system fully, it is necessary to have a rigorous vector theory. We use a rigorous vector theory to model the diffraction of light at the optical disk. We present the simulation and the experimental results and demonstrate the ability of this approach to predict or model accurately all essential features of beam disk interaction, including the polarization effects and the excitation of surface waves.

  9. Vector diffraction and polarization effects in an optical disk system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, W H; Li, L; Mansuripur, M

    1998-10-10

    The track pitch of current optical disks is comparable with the wavelength of the laser source. In this domain of the pitch-to-wavelength ratio, the complex-diffraction amplitudes are different for different incident polarization states, and the validity of the scalar diffraction theory is questionable. Furthermore, the use of multilayer coatings and high-numerical-aperture beams in modern optical disk technology inevitably entails the excitation of surface waves, which can disturb the baseball pattern significantly. To describe the interaction of a focused beam with a grooved multilayer system fully, it is necessary to have a rigorous vector theory. We use a rigorous vector theory to model the diffraction of light at the optical disk. We present the simulation and the experimental results and demonstrate the ability of this approach to predict or model accurately all essential features of beam-disk interaction, including the polarization effects and the excitation of surface waves.

  10. NGC 3516: Disk Diagnostics from a Windy BLSy1 in a High-State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Tracey Jane

    2005-10-01

    Recent advances have shown X-ray flux to be simply correlated with reflection-signatures from the disk and an associated wind. It appears two things are essential to observe the disk/wind: 1) catch the Seyfert in a high-state where disk/wind features show up strongly and 2) separate out reprocessing from distant gas to allow isolation of disk/wind features. NGC 3516 provides the ideal source for further study in this regard. The source is currently in a very high state, which we predict will lead to observable features from the disk and its wind. We request 210 ks XMM exposure on NGC 3156 with supporting Chandra time to test our prediction of flux-linked disk reflection and wind.

  11. VISCOUS EVOLUTION AND PHOTOEVAPORATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Kassandra R.; Adams, Fred C.; Calvet, Nuria

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of FUV radiation fields from external stars on circumstellar disk evolution. Disks residing in young clusters can be exposed to extreme levels of FUV flux from nearby OB stars, and observations show that disks in such environments are being actively photoevaporated. Typical FUV flux levels can be factors of {approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} higher than the interstellar value. These fields are effective in driving mass loss from circumstellar disks because they act at large radial distance from the host star, i.e., where most of the disk mass is located, and where the gravitational potential well is shallow. We combine viscous evolution (an {alpha}-disk model) with an existing FUV photoevaporation model to derive constraints on disk lifetimes, and to determine disk properties as functions of time, including mass-loss rates, disk masses, and radii. We also consider the effects of X-ray photoevaporation from the host star using an existing model, and show that for disks around solar-mass stars, externally generated FUV fields are often the dominant mechanism in depleting disk material. For sufficiently large viscosities, FUV fields can efficiently photoevaporate disks over the entire range of parameter space. Disks with viscosity parameter {alpha} = 10{sup -3} are effectively dispersed within 1-3 Myr; for higher viscosities ({alpha} = 10{sup -2}) disks are dispersed within {approx}0.25-0.5 Myr. Furthermore, disk radii are truncated to less than {approx}100 AU, which can possibly affect the formation of planets. Our model predictions are consistent with the range of observed masses and radii of proplyds in the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  12. The Evolving Properties of Water in a Dynamic Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, Fred

    2015-08-01

    Protoplanetary disks are dynamic objects, through which mass and angular momentum are transported as part of the final stages of pre-main sequence evolution of their central stars. These disks are also rich chemical factories, in which materials inherited from the interstellar medium are transformed through a series of reactions (involving, gases, solids, ions, and photons) to the eventual building blocks of the planets.The chemical and physical evolution of a protoplanetary disk are intimately connected. Both solids and gases are subjected to large-scale motions associated with disk evolution and diffusion within the gas. Solids also settle toward the disk midplane and migrate inwards due to gravity and gas drag. This dynamical evolution exposes primitive materials to a range of physical conditions (pressure, temperature, radiation environment) within the disk. It is the integrated effects of these environments that define the physical and chemical properties of a solid grain prior to its incorporation into a planetesimal or planet.Water serves as an interesting tracer of this evolution, as it would be processed in a variety of ways within a protoplanetary disk. I will discuss new methods that allow us to trace the dynamical movement of water vapor and ice throughout the lifetime of a protoplanetary disk and to determine the physical environments to which the water would be exposed. In particular, I will show how the early evolution of a protoplanetary disk impacts the D/H ratio of the water inherited by planetary materials. I will also explore how photodesorption of water by UV photons can lead to the formation of amorphous ice and thus the trapping of noble gases and other volatiles at levels that are much greater than predicted by equilibrium chemistry models. These effects combine to lead to constantly evolving properties of water during the early stages of planet formation. I will also discuss how the observed properties of Solar System bodies constrain these

  13. OUTWARD MIGRATION OF JUPITER AND SATURN IN EVOLVED GASEOUS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Marzari, Francesco E-mail: francesco.marzari@pd.infn.it

    2012-09-20

    The outward migration of a pair of resonant-orbit planets, driven by tidal interactions with a gas-dominated disk, is studied in the context of evolved solar nebula models. The planets' masses, M{sub 1} and M{sub 2}, correspond to those of Jupiter and Saturn. Hydrodynamical calculations in two and three dimensions are used to quantify the migration rates and analyze the conditions under which the outward migration mechanism may operate. The planets are taken to be fully formed after 10{sup 6} and before 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} years. The orbital evolution of the planets in an evolving disk is then calculated until the disk's gas is completely dissipated. Orbital locking in the 3:2 mean motion resonance may lead to outward migration under appropriate conditions of disk viscosity and temperature. However, resonance locking does not necessarily result in outward migration. This is the case, for example, if convergent migration leads to locking in the 2:1 mean motion resonance, as post-formation disk conditions seem to suggest. Accretion of gas on the planets may deactivate the outward migration mechanism by raising the mass ratio M{sub 2}/M{sub 1} and/or by reducing the accretion rate toward the star, and hence depleting the inner disk. For migrating planets locked in the 3:2 mean motion resonance, there are stalling radii that depend on disk viscosity and on stellar irradiation, when it determines the disk's thermal balance. Planets locked in the 3:2 orbital resonance that start moving outward from within 1-2 AU may reach beyond Almost-Equal-To 5 AU only under favorable conditions. However, within the explored space of disk parameters, only a small fraction-less than a few percent-of the models predict that the interior planet reaches beyond Almost-Equal-To 4 AU.

  14. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  15. Scattering from Thin Dielectric Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Schneider, A.; Lang, R. H.; Carter, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    A solution was obtained for scattering from thin dielectric disks by approximating the currents induced inside the disk with the currents which would exist inside a dielectric slab of the same thickness, orientation and dielectric properties. This approximation reduces to an electrostatic approximation when the disk thickness, T, is small compared to the wavelength of the incident radiation and the approximation yields a conventional physical optics solution when the dimension, A, characteristic of the geometrical cross section of the disk (e.g., the diameter of a circular disk) is large compared to wavelength. When the ratio A/T is sufficiently large the disk will always be in one or the other of these regimes (T lambda or kA1. Consequently, when A/T is large this solution provides a conventional approximation for the scattered fields which can be applied at all frequencies. As a check on this conclusion, a comparison was made between the theoretical and measured radar cross section of thin dielectric disks. Agreement was found for thin disks with both large and small values of kA.

  16. The Composition of the Protosolar Disk and the Formation Conditions for Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willacy, K.; Alexander, C.; Ali-Dib, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Charnley, S. B.; Doronin, M.; Ellinger, Y.; Gast, P.; Gibb, E.; Milam, S. N.; Mousis, O.; Pauzat, F.; Tornow, C.; Wirström, E. S.; Zicler, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conditions in the protosolar nebula have left their mark in the composition of cometary volatiles, thought to be some of the most pristine material in the solar system. Cometary compositions represent the end point of processing that began in the parent molecular cloud core and continued through the collapse of that core to form the protosun and the solar nebula, and finally during the evolution of the solar nebula itself as the cometary bodies were accreting. Disentangling the effects of the various epochs on the final composition of a comet is complicated. But comets are not the only source of information about the solar nebula. Protostellar disks around young stars similar to the protosun provide a way of investigating the evolution of disks similar to the solar nebula while they are in the process of evolving to form their own solar systems. In this way we can learn about the physical and chemical conditions under which comets formed, and about the types of dynamical processing that shaped the solar system we see today.

  17. Small Scale Chemical Segregation Within Keplerian Disk Candidate G35.20-0.74N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Veronica; van der Tak, Floris; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Beltrán, Maria T.

    2016-06-01

    In the study of high-mass star formation, hot cores are empirically defined stages where chemically rich emission is detected toward a massive protostar. It is unknown whether the physical origin of this emission is a disk, inner envelope, or outflow cavity wall and whether the hot core stage is common to all massive stars. With the advent of the highly sensitive sub-millimeter interferometer, ALMA, the ability to chemically characterize high mass star forming regions other than Orion has become possible. In the up-and-coming field of observational astrochemistry, these sensitive high resolution observations have opened up opportunities to find small scale variations in young protostellar sources.We have done an in depth analysis of high spatial resolution (~1000 AU) Cycle 0 ALMA observations of the high mass star forming region G35.20-0.74N, where Sánchez-Monge et al (2013) found evidence for Keplerian rotation. After further chemical analysis, numerous complex organic species have been identified in this region and we notice an interesting asymmetry in the distribution of the Nitrogen-bearing species within this source. In my talk, I will briefly outline the case for the disk and the consequences for this hypothesis following the chemical segregation we have seen.

  18. Optical disk technology and information.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, C M

    1982-02-12

    The optical video disk, spawned by the home entertainment industry, and its counterpart, the optical digital disk, both hold great promise for information storage and retrieval and the scientific enterprise. Optical digital disks for computer mass storage are currently under development by many firms. In addition, efforts are under way to allow encoding of digital information on video disks. This is desirable as an inexpensive publication medium for machine-readable data as well as a means of obtaining both video and digital information on one disk. Potential applications of this technology include inexpensive on-line storage, random access graphics to complement on-line information systems, hybrid network architectures, office automation systems, and archival storage.

  19. BROAD N{sub 2}H{sup +} EMISSION TOWARD THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1

    SciTech Connect

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Vasta, M.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Caselli, P.

    2013-10-10

    We present the first detection of N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ∼0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) line originated from the dense (≥10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N{sub 2}H{sup +} column density of a few 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10{sup –9}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 10{sup 4} yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (≅2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N{sub 2}H{sup +} is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  20. Multiwavelength search for protoplanetary disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    1994-01-01

    Infrared emission of circumstellar dust was observed for almost one hundred T Tauri stars. This dust is interpreted to be part of a protoplanetary disk orbiting the central star. T Tauri stars are young stellar objects and evolve into solar type stars. Planets are believed to form in these disks. The spectral energy distribution of a disk depends on its temperature profile. Different disk regions emit at different wavelengths. The disk-star boundary layer is hot and emits H(alpha) radiation. Inner disk regions at around 1 AU with a temperature of a few hundred Kelvin can be probed in near infrared wavelength regimes. Outer disk regions at around 100 AU distance from the star are colder and emit far infrared and sub-millimeter radiation. Also, X-ray emission from the stellar surface can reveal information on disk properties. Emission from the stellar surface and the boundary layer may be shielded by circumstellar gas and dust. T Tauri stars with low H(alpha) emission, i.e. no boundary layer, show stronger X-ray emission than classical T Tauri stars, because the inner disk regions of weak emission-line T Tauri stars may be clear of material. In this paper, first ROSAT all sky survey results on the X-ray emission of T Tauri stars and correlations between X-ray luminosity and properties of T Tauri disks are presented. Due to atmospheric absorption, X-ray and most infrared observations cannot be carried out on Earth, but from Earth orbiting satellites (e.g. IRAS, ROSAT, ISO) or from lunar based observatories, which would have special advantages such as a stable environment.

  1. Berkeley Disk Resource Manager

    2004-02-27

    The Berkeley Disk Resource Manager (B-DRM) is a middleware component whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of a shared disk system on the Grid. It provides space allocation and dynamic information on storage availability for the planning and execution of Grid jobs. The B-DRM manages two types of resources: space and files. Vi1en managing space, the B-DRM allocates space to the requesting client based on a default space quota, Thenmore » managing files, the B-DRM allocates space for files, invokes file transfer services to move files into the space, pins files for a certain lifetime, releases files upon the client’s request, and uses file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. The B-DRM is designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and making dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, the B-DRM performs automatic garbage collection of unused files when space is needed by removing selected files that were released by the client or whose lifetime has expired. The BDRM supports requests to get multiple files in a single call, manages a queue of the requested files, brings in as many files as the space quota permits, and continues to reuse the space when files are released to stream files to the client until the entire request is satisfied. Similarly, the B-DRM supports requests to put multiple files into its space, streaming files into the allocated space and reusing the space if necessary.« less

  2. Protostellar binary fragmentation: a comparison of results from two distinct second-order hydrodynamic codes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di G. Sigalotti, L.; Klapp, J.

    1997-03-01

    A new second-order Eulerian code is compared with a version of the TREESPH code formulated by Hernquist & Katz (1989ApJS...70..419H) for the standard isothermal collapse test. The results indicate that both codes produce a very similar evolution ending with the formation of a protostellar binary system. Contrary to previous first-order calculations, the binary forms by direct fragmentation, i.e., without the occurrence of an intermediate bar configuration. A similar trend was also found in recent second-order Eulerian calculations (Myhill & Boss 1993ApJS...89..345M), suggesting that it is a result of the decreased numerical diffusion associated with the new second-order schemes. The results have also implications on the differences between the finite difference methods and the particle method SPH, raised by Monaghan & Lattanzio (1986A&A...158..207M) for this problem. In particular, the Eulerian calculation does not result in a run-away collapse of the fragments, and as found in the TREESPH evolution, they also show a clear tendency to get closer together. In agreement with previous SPH calculations (Monaghan & Lattanzio 1986A&A...158..207M), the results of the long term evolution with code TREESPH show that the gravitational interaction between the two fragments may become important, and eventually induce the binary to coalesce. However, most recent SPH calculations (Bate, Bonnell & Price 1995MNRAS.277..362B ) indicate that the two fragments, after having reached a minimum separation distance, do not merge but continue to orbit each other.

  3. On the mechanism of self gravitating Rossby interfacial waves in proto-stellar accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Heifetz, Eyal; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical response of edge waves under the influence of self-gravity is examined in an idealized two-dimensional model of a proto-stellar disc, characterized in steady state as a rotating vertically infinite cylinder of fluid with constant density except for a single density interface at some radius r0. The fluid in basic state is prescribed to rotate with a Keplerian profile $\\Omega_k(r)\\sim r^{-3/2}$ modified by some additional azimuthal sheared flow. A linear analysis shows that there are two azimuthally propagating edge waves, kin to the familiar Rossby waves and surface gravity waves in terrestrial studies, which move opposite to one another with respect to the local basic state rotation rate at the interface. Instability only occurs if the radial pressure gradient is opposite to that of the density jump (unstably stratified) where self-gravity acts as a wave stabilizer irrespective of the stratification of the system. The propagation properties of the waves are discussed in detail in the language of vorticity edge waves. The roles of both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq effects upon the stability and propagation of these waves with and without the inclusion of self-gravity are then quantified. The dynamics involved with self-gravity non- Boussinesq effect is shown to be a source of vorticity production where there is a jump in the basic state density, in addition, self-gravity also alters the dynamics via the radial main pressure gradient, which is a Boussinesq effect . Further applications of these mechanical insights are presented in the conclusion including the ways in which multiple density jumps or gaps may or may not be stable.

  4. SCUBA and HIRES Results for Protostellar Cores in the MON OB1 Dark Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf-Chase, G.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Fich, M.; Barsony, M.

    1999-05-01

    We have used HIRES-processing of IRAS data and point-source modelling techniques (Hurt & Barsony 1996; O'Linger 1997; Barsony et al. 1998), together with submillimeter continuum imaging using the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the 15-meter James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), to search CS cores in the Mon OB1 dark cloud (Wolf-Chase, Walker, & Lada 1995; Wolf-Chase & Walker 1995) for deeply embedded sources. These observations, as well as follow-up millimeter photometry at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 12-meter telescope on Kitt Peak, have lead to the identification of two Class 0 protostellar candidates, which were previously unresolved from two brighter IRAS point sources (IRAS 06382+0939 & IRAS 06381+1039) in this cloud. Until now, only one Class 0 object had been confirmed in Mon OB1; the driving source of the highly-collimated outflow NGC 2264 G (Ward-Thompson, Eiroa, & Casali 1995; Margulis et al. 1990; Lada & Fich 1996), which lies well outside the extended CS cores. One of the new Class 0 candidates may be an intermediate-mass source associated with an H_2O maser, and the other object is a low-mass source which may be associated with a near-infrared jet, and possibly with a molecular outflow. We report accurate positions for the new Class 0 candidates, based on the SCUBA images, and present new SEDs for these sources, as well as for the brighter IRAS point sources. A portion of this work was performed while GWC held a President's Fellowship from the University of California. MB and GWC gratefully acknowledge financial support from MB's NSF CAREER Grant, AST97-9753229.

  5. Unveiling the Detailed Density and Velocity Structures of the Protostellar Core B335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurono, Yasutaka; Saito, Masao; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2013-03-01

    We present an observational study of the protostellar core B335 harboring a low-mass Class 0 source. The observations of the H13CO+(J = 1-0) line emission were carried out using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Our combined image of the interferometer and single-dish data depicts detailed structures of the dense envelope within the core. We found that the core has a radial density profile of n(r)vpropr -p and a reliable difference in the power-law indices between the outer and inner regions of the core: p ≈ 2 for r >~ 4000 AU and p ≈ 1.5 for r <~ 4000 AU. The dense core shows a slight overall velocity gradient of ~1.0 km s-1 over the scale of 20, 000 AU across the outflow axis. We believe that this velocity gradient represents a solid-body-like rotation of the core. The dense envelope has a quite symmetrical velocity structure with a remarkable line broadening toward the core center, which is especially prominent in the position-velocity diagram across the outflow axis. The model calculations of position-velocity diagrams do a good job of reproducing observational results using the collapse model of an isothermal sphere in which the core has an inner free-fall region and an outer region conserving the conditions at the formation stage of a central stellar object. We derived a central stellar mass of ~0.1 M ⊙, and suggest a small inward velocity, v_{r ≥ r_inf}˜ 0 km s^{-1} in the outer core at >~ 4000 AU. We concluded that our data can be well explained by gravitational collapse with a quasi-static initial condition, such as Shu's model, or by the isothermal collapse of a marginally critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere.

  6. COMPLEX SCATTERED RADIATION FIELDS AND MULTIPLE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE PROTOSTELLAR CLUSTER IN NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya; Hough, James H.; Werner, Michael W.; Teixeira, Paula S.

    2011-11-01

    Near-infrared imaging polarimetry in the J, H, and K{sub s} bands has been carried out for the protostellar cluster region around NGC 2264 IRS 2 in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud. Various infrared reflection nebula clusters (IRNCs) associated with NGC 2264 IRS 2 and the IRAS 12 S1 core, as well as local infrared reflection nebulae (IRNe), were detected. The illuminating sources of the IRNe were identified with known or new near- and mid-infrared sources. In addition, 314 point-like sources were detected in all three bands and their aperture polarimetry was studied. Using a color-color diagram, reddened field stars and diskless pre-main-sequence stars were selected to trace the magnetic field (MF) structure of the molecular cloud. The mean polarization position angle of the point-like sources is 81 Degree-Sign {+-} 29 Degree-Sign in the cluster core, and 58 Degree-Sign {+-} 24 Degree-Sign in the perimeter of the cluster core, which is interpreted as the projected direction on the sky of the MF in the observed region of the cloud. The Chandrasekhar-Fermi method gives a rough estimate of the MF strength to be about 100 {mu}G. A comparison with recent numerical simulations of the cluster formation implies that the cloud dynamics is controlled by the relatively strong MF. The local MF direction is well associated with that of CO outflow for IRAS 12 S1 and consistent with that inferred from submillimeter polarimetry. In contrast, the local MF direction runs roughly perpendicular to the Galactic MF direction.

  7. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  8. Importance of the initial conditions for star formation - III. Statistical properties of embedded protostellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girichidis, Philipp; Federrath, Christoph; Allison, Richard; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the formation of protostellar clusters during the collapse of dense molecular cloud cores with a focus on the evolution of potential and kinetic energy, the degree of substructure and the early phase of mass segregation. Our study is based on a series of hydrodynamic simulations of dense cores, where we vary the initial density profile and the initial turbulent velocity. In the three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we follow the dynamical formation of filaments and protostars until a star formation efficiency of 20 per cent. Despite the different initial configurations, the global ensemble of all protostars in a setup shows a similar energy evolution and forms sub-virial clusters with an energy ratio Ekin/|Epot|˜ 0.2. Concentrating on the innermost central region, the clusters show a roughly virialized energy balance. However, the region of virial balance only covers the innermost ˜10-30 per cent of all the protostars. In all simulations with multiple protostars, the total kinetic energy of the protostars is higher than the kinetic energy of the gas cloud, although the protostars only contain 20 per cent of the total mass. The clusters vary significantly in size, mass and number of protostars, and show different degrees of substructure and mass segregation. Flat density profiles and compressive turbulent modes produce more subclusters than centrally concentrated profiles and solenoidal turbulence. We find that dynamical relaxation and hence dynamical mass segregation is very efficient in all cases from the very beginning of the nascent cluster, i.e. during a phase when protostars constantly form and accrete.

  9. Dense cavity walls traced by CS in the L1157-B1 protostellar shocked region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Ruiz, Arturo; Codella, Claudio; Lefloch, Bertrand; Benedettini, Milena; Busquet, Gemma; Nisini, Brunella; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Cabrit, Sylvie; Viti, Serena

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the CHESS Key Program, an unbiased spectral survey performed with Herschel and IRAM, in the frequency range from 97 to 600 GHz, have provided a chemical census of the protostellar shock L1157-B1. Here we focus on the study of carbon monosulfide (CS), a standard tracer of high-density gas. We have detected a total of 18 emission lines, with E_u up to 183 K, due to four isotopologues (^12C^32S, ^12C^34S, ^13C^32S, and ^12C^33S). The unprecedented sensitivity of the survey allow us to carefully analyze the line profiles. These profiles can be well fitted by two exponential laws: I ∝ exp(-|v/v0|) with v0 = 4.4, and 2.5 km s-1. Remarkably these two exponential laws are the same as those found in the CO line profiles by Lefloch et al. (2012), and named g2 and g3 components, respectively. These components have been related to the cavity walls produced by the B1 shock and the older B2 shock, respectively. An important characteristic of the lines profiles is that the emission of high-J CS transitions (E_u > 60 K) comes only from the g2 component. Using the LVG approximation, the CS solutions constrain n >= 10^4.5 cm^-3. In addition, when contrasted with the CO results (that already constrained T_k of 90 K and 40 K for g2 and g3, respectively), we see that the LVG can provide strong constrains to the gas density, in this case about 5 x 10^5 cm^-3 for both g2 and g3 components. Thus, the combination of CO and CS is a powerful tool to constrain both n and T_k. Our CS observations show therefore that this molecule is highlighting the dense cavity walls produced by the episodic outflow.

  10. Identification of protostellar clusters in the inner part of the milky way : Interaction between the ISM and star forming regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuret, M.; Billot, N.; Cambrésy, L.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Pestalozzi, M.; Schisano, E.

    2014-12-01

    Interactions between the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects (YSO) need to be investigated to better understand star formation. We used the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method to identify protostellar clusters in the inner part of galactic plane. Using heliocentric distance estimates, we obtained about 230 clusters over a 140 × 2 square degree region. Most of these clusters are correlated with Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) or H II regions. We conclude that clustering is more important for protostars than for prestellar clumps and that a strong correlation can be established between the distribution of H II regions, known star formation complexes and the YSOs identified in the Hi-GAL data.

  11. Accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Maruta, Akito; Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from heliocentric orbits rotating in protoplanetary disks, which is a key process for the formation of regular satellite systems. In the late stage of the gas-capturing phase of giant planet formation, the accreting gas from protoplanetary disks forms circumplanetary disks. Since the accretion flow toward the circumplanetary disks affects the particle motion through gas drag force, we use hydrodynamic simulation data for the gas drag term to calculate the motion of solid materials. We consider a wide range of size for the solid particles (10{sup –2}-10{sup 6} m), and find that the accretion efficiency of the solid particles peaks around 10 m sized particles because energy dissipation of drag with circum-planetary disk gas in this size regime is most effective. The efficiency for particles larger than 10 m becomes lower because gas drag becomes less effective. For particles smaller than 10 m, the efficiency is lower because the particles are strongly coupled with the background gas flow, which prevents particles from accretion. We also find that the distance from the planet where the particles are captured by the circumplanetary disks is in a narrow range and well described as a function of the particle size.

  12. Low-state disks and low-beta disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineshige, Shin; Kusnose, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    1995-01-01

    Stellar black hole candidates (BHCs) exhibit bimodal spectral states. We calculate nonthermal disk spectra, demonstrating that a large photon index (alpha (sub x) approximately 2-3) observed in the soft (high) state is due to a copious soft photon supply, whereas soft photon starvation leads to a smaller index (alpha (sub x) approximately 1.5-2) in the hard (low) state. Thus, the absence of the soft component flux in the low state cannot be due to obscuration. A possible disk configuration during the low state is discussed. We proposed that a low-state disk may be a low-beta disk in which magnetic pressure may exceed gas pressure becuase of the suppression of field escape by a strong shear. As a result, disk material will take the form of blobs constricted by mainly toroidal magnetic fields. Fields are dissipated mainly by occasional reconnection events with a huge energy release. This will account for large-amplitude, aperiodic X-ray variations (flickering) and high-energy radiation with small alpha(sub x) from hard state BHCs and possibly from active galactic nuclei. Further, we propose a hysteretic relation between the mass-flow rate and plasma-beta, a ratio of gas pressure to magnetic pressure, for the spectral evolution of transient BHCs. The disk is in the low-beta state in quiescence and early rise. The low-beta disk is optically thin and affected by advection. A hard-to-soft transition occurs before the peak luminosity, since there is no advection-dominated branch at higher luminosities. An optically thick, high-beta disk appears at small radii. In the decay phase of the light curve, the standard-type disk becomes effectively optically thin, when a soft-hard transition is triggered. High-beta plasmas in the main body shrink to form minute blobs, and low-beta coronal plasma fills interblob space.

  13. Particle on a boron disk: ring currents and disk aromaticity in B20(2-).

    PubMed

    Tai, Truong Ba; Havenith, Remco W A; Teunissen, Jos L; Dok, Ahmet R; Hallaert, Simon D; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2013-09-16

    The B20(2-) cluster is predicted to exhibit a planar sheet-like structure with a circular circumference. Orbital plots and energy correlations demonstrate the close correspondence between the electronic structure of B20(2-) and the Bessel functions describing the waves of a quantum mechanical particle confined to a disk. The π-band of B20(2-), and its B19(-) congener, contains 12 π-electrons, forming a (1σ)(2)(1π)(4)(1δ)(4)(2σ)(2) configuration, which corresponds to a "disk aromaticity" electron count. The analogy not only applies to the π-band, but also extends to the 50 valence σ-electrons. The occupied σ-orbitals are assigned on the basis of radial and angular nodes of the scalar disk waves. The magnetic response of the cluster was examined by Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) values and current density calculations based on the ipsocentric model. B20(2-) is found to exhibit a remarkable inner paratropic current in the σ-channel and an outer diatropic current in the π-channel. The orbital excitations responsible for the antiaromaticity in σ and the disk-aromaticity in π are identified. PMID:24011355

  14. Protoplanetary and Debris Disk Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Wisniewski, John P.; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.; Hashimoto, Jun; Donaldson, Jessica; Debes, John H.; Malumuth, Eliot; Roberge, Aki; Weinberger, Alycia J.; SEEDS Team

    2016-01-01

    The types of planets that form around other stars are highly dependent on their natal disk conditions. Therefore, the composition, morphology, and distribution of material in protoplanetary and debris disks are important for planet formation. Here we present the results of studies of two disk systems: AB Aur and AU Mic.The circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae star AB Aur has many interesting features, including spirals, asymmetries, and non-uniformities. However, comparatively little is known about the envelope surrounding the system. Recent work by Tang et al (2012) has suggested that the observed spiral armss may not in fact be in the disk, but instead are due to areas of increased density in the envelope and projection effects. Using Monte Carlo modeling, we find that it is unlikely that the envelope holds enough material to be responsible for such features and that it is more plausible that they form from disk material. Given the likelihood that gravitational perturbations from planets cause the observed spiral morphology, we use archival H band observations of AB Aur with a baseline of 5.5 years to determine the locations of possible planets.The AU Mic debris disk also has many interesting morphological features. Because its disk is edge on, the system is an ideal candidate for color studies using coronagraphic spectroscopy. Spectra of the system were taken by placing a HST/STIS long slit parallel to and overlapping the disk while blocking out the central star with an occulting fiducial bar. Color gradients may reveal the chemical processing that is occuring within the disk. In addition, it may trace the potential composition and architecture of any planetary bodies in the system because collisional break up of planetesimals produces the observed dust in the system. We present the resulting optical reflected spectra (5200 to 10,200 angstroms) from this procedure at several disk locations. We find that the disk is bluest at the innermost locations of the

  15. Evidence for a solar system-size accretion disk around the massive protostar G192.16-3.82.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, D S; Claussen, M J; Kurtz, S E

    2001-05-25

    Seven-millimeter continuum observations of a massive bipolar outflow source, G192.16-3.82, were made at a milli-arc-second resolution with a capability that links the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array radio interferometer with the Very Long Baseline Array antenna, located in Pie Town, New Mexico. The observations provide evidence for a true accretion disk that is about the size of our solar system and located around a massive star. A model of the radio emission suggests the presence of a binary protostellar system. The primary protostar, G192 S1, at the center of the outflow, with a protostar mass of about 8 to 10 times the solar mass, is surrounded by an accretion disk with a diameter of 130 astronomical units (AU). The mass of the disk is on the order of the protostar mass. The outflow is poorly collimated with a full opening angle of about 40 degrees; there is no indication of a more highly collimated jetlike component. The companion source, G192 S2, is located 80 AU north of the primary source.

  16. SELF-GRAVITATIONAL FORCE CALCULATION OF SECOND-ORDER ACCURACY FOR INFINITESIMALLY THIN GASEOUS DISKS IN POLAR COORDINATES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Taam, Ronald E.; Yen, David C. C.

    2015-11-15

    Investigating the evolution of disk galaxies and the dynamics of proto-stellar disks can involve the use of both a hydrodynamical and a Poisson solver. These systems are usually approximated as infinitesimally thin disks using two-dimensional Cartesian or polar coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates, the calculations of the hydrodynamics and self-gravitational forces are relatively straightforward for attaining second-order accuracy. However, in polar coordinates, a second-order calculation of self-gravitational forces is required for matching the second-order accuracy of hydrodynamical schemes. We present a direct algorithm for calculating self-gravitational forces with second-order accuracy without artificial boundary conditions. The Poisson integral in polar coordinates is expressed in a convolution form and the corresponding numerical complexity is nearly linear using a fast Fourier transform. Examples with analytic solutions are used to verify that the truncated error of this algorithm is of second order. The kernel integral around the singularity is applied to modify the particle method. The use of a softening length is avoided and the accuracy of the particle method is significantly improved.

  17. Disk Dispersal Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Yorke, Harold W.; Johnstone, Doug; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source, 2) close stellar encounters, 3) stellar winds, and 4) by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the, inner disk (r approx. less than A 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r approximately greater than 10 AU. Disk dispersed timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed the solar nebula is called into question.

  18. Constraining the Milky Way thick disk formation: Chemical characterization of the thick disk outside of the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posbic, H.; Katz, D.; Haywood, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Gomez, A.; Sbordone, L.; Arenou, F.; Royer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The formation of the Milky Way disk is still an open question. Many scenarios are proposed. Different formation scenarios predict different disk chemical trends. This work aims to chemically characterize the Milky Way disk inside and outside the solar neighbourhood, to better constrain its formation scenario. This is possible thanks to high resolution spectra of 200 disk stars observed using the Giraffe spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). They were selected to have galactic altitudes |Z| that cover both the thin and thick disk (|Z| up to 2 kpc). The new automatic spectra analysis software SPADES (Stellar PArameters DEtermination Software, Posbic et al. 2012) was used to determine the stellar parameters, and most importantly, the elemental abundances of these stars. The distances of these stars were also determined. The metallicity distribution function of the disk using this sample was calculated. It showed a large contribution of the thick disk stars and a smooth transition at the metallicity of the thick disk/halo interface. The vertical behaviour of the metallicity distribution function was also studied. A vertical metallicity gradient in the disk of partial [Fe/H] / partial |Z| = -0.19 ± 0.14 dex/kpc was marginally detected at the 1.4 sigma level. The [Ti/Fe] and [Ca/Fe] vs [Fe/H] trends for the stars are determined. The main result of the analysis is that the trends of [Ca/Fe] vs [Fe/H] and [Ti/Fe] vs [Fe/H] show no significant difference close (i.e. |Z| leq 1 kpc) and farther away (1 < |Z| < 2.5 kpc) from the Galactic plane. This suggests that thick disk gas and stars have been enriched by the same proportion of type II and type I super-novae from the galactic plane up to at least 2.5 kpc. These results support thick disk formation scenarios like collapse or gas-rich accretion and disfavour a thick disk formed of stars captured during a merger event.

  19. Phase Stability of a Powder Metallurgy Disk Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Kantzos, P.; Telesman, Jack; Gang, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Advanced powder metallurgy superalloy disks in aerospace turbine engines now entering service can be exposed to temperatures approaching 700 C, higher than those previously encountered. They also have higher levels of refractory elements, which can increase mechanical properties at these temperatures but can also encourage phase instabilities during service. Microstructural changes including precipitation of topological close pack phase precipitation and coarsening of existing gamma' precipitates can be slow at these temperatures, yet potentially significant for anticipated disk service times exceeding 1,000 h. The ability to quantify and predict such potential phase instabilities and degradation of capabilities is needed to insure structural integrity and air worthiness of propulsion systems over the full life cycle. A prototypical advanced disk superalloy was subjected to high temperature exposures, and then evaluated. Microstructural changes and corresponding changes in mechanical properties were quantified. The results will be compared to predictions of microstructure modeling software.

  20. Low extreme-ultraviolet luminosities impinging on protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, I.; Hendler, N. P.; Ricci, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.; Brooks, K. J.; Contreras, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The amount of high-energy stellar radiation reaching the surface of protoplanetary disks is essential to determine their chemistry and physical evolution. Here, we use millimetric and centimetric radio data to constrain the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity impinging on 14 disks around young (∼2-10 Myr) sun-like stars. For each object we identify the long-wavelength emission in excess to the dust thermal emission, attribute that to free-free disk emission, and thereby compute an upper limit to the EUV reaching the disk. We find upper limits lower than 10{sup 42} photons s{sup –1} for all sources without jets and lower than 5 × 10{sup 40} photons s{sup –1} for the three older sources in our sample. These latter values are low for EUV-driven photoevaporation alone to clear out protoplanetary material in the timescale inferred by observations. In addition, our EUV upper limits are too low to reproduce the [Ne II] 12.81 μm luminosities from three disks with slow [Ne II]-detected winds. This indicates that the [Ne II] line in these sources primarily traces a mostly neutral wind where Ne is ionized by 1 keV X-ray photons, implying higher photoevaporative mass loss rates than those predicted by EUV-driven models alone. In summary, our results suggest that high-energy stellar photons other than EUV may dominate the dispersal of protoplanetary disks around sun-like stars.

  1. X-ray Illuminated Ionized Skin of Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, S.

    Recently (Nayakshin, Kazanas & Kallman 2000), it was confirmed that the X-ray illuminated upper layer of accretion disk is unstable to the thermal ionization instability, and that most of the previous models of X-ray reflection and iron Kα line emission missed this instability. Not only the detailed predictions of these models, but even the intuition that one gained from the theoretical literature in the last 10 years is often misleading. We discuss how we can deduce the geometry of the primary X-ray source(s) by studying X-ray illuminated accretion disks. In particular, we show that the spectra and iron lines from disks that are illuminated by a single source above the black hole will usually contain highly ionized features that are rarely seen in real spectra. A full corona above a standard like disk will yield a neutral-like reflection component and iron Kα lines and is also incompatible with observations. On the other hand, if the X-ray sources are magnetic flares, then the X-ray flux illuminating the disk surface near to them is very much higher than the disk flux, leading to cold-like reflection and lines with an apparently smaller normalization. Therefore, we claim that the former model is strongly favored by the existing data.

  2. VLA and CARMA observations of protostars in the Cepheus clouds: Sub-arcsecond proto-binaries formed via disk fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Chandler, Claire J.; Wilner, David J.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Loinard, Laurent; D'Alessio, Paola; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Kwon, Woojin

    2013-12-20

    We present observations of three Class 0/I protostars (L1157-mm, CB230 IRS1, and L1165-SMM1) using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of two (L1165-SMM1 and CB230 IRS1) with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The VLA observations were taken at wavelengths of λ = 7.3 mm, 1.4 cm, 3.3 cm, 4.0 cm, and 6.5 cm with a best resolution of ∼0.''06 (18 AU) at 7.3 mm. The L1165-SMM1 CARMA observations were taken at λ = 1.3 mm with a best resolution of ∼0.''3 (100 AU) and the CB230 IRS1 observations were taken at λ = 3.4 mm with a best resolution of ∼3'' (900 AU). We find that L1165-SMM1 and CB230 IRS1 have probable binary companions at separations of ∼0.''3 (100 AU) from detections of secondary peaks at multiple wavelengths. The position angles of these companions are nearly orthogonal to the direction of the observed bipolar outflows, consistent with the expected protostellar disk orientations. We suggest that these companions may have formed from disk fragmentation; turbulent fragmentation would not preferentially arrange the binary companions to be orthogonal to the outflow direction. For L1165-SMM1, both the 7.3 mm and 1.3 mm emission show evidence of a large (R > 100 AU) disk. For the L1165-SMM1 primary protostar and the CB230 IRS1 secondary protostar, the 7.3 mm emission is resolved into structures consistent with ∼20 AU radius disks. For the other protostars, including L1157-mm, the emission is unresolved, suggesting disks with radii <20 AU.

  3. Propulsion Health Monitoring of a Turbine Engine Disk Using Spin Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark R.; Oza, Nikunj; Matthews, Bryan; Baaklini, George Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers data collected from an experimental study using high frequency capacitive sensor technology to capture blade tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a rotating turbine engine-like-disk-to predict the disk faults and assess its structural integrity. The experimental results collected at a range of rotational speeds from tests conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Rotordynamics Laboratory are evaluated using multiple data-driven anomaly detection techniques to identify abnormalities in the disk. Further, this study presents a select evaluation of an online health monitoring scheme of a rotating disk using high caliber sensors and test the capability of the in-house spin system.

  4. Equatorial disk formation around rotating stars due to ram pressure confinement by the stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, J. E.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The axisymmetric 2D supersonic solution of a rotating, radiation-driven stellar wind presently obtained by a simple approximation predicts the formation of a dense equatorial disk, when the star's rotation rate lies above a threshold value that depends on the ratio of the wind's terminal speed to the escape speed of the star. The disk is formed because the trajectories of the wind leaving the stellar surface at high latitudes carry it down to the equatorial plane; there, the material passes through a standing oblique shock atop the disk; it is therefore the ram pressure of the polar wind that compresses and confines the disk.

  5. Fourteen Years of Structural Evolution in the HH 30 Protostellar Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl; choudhary, arpita

    2015-08-01

    HH 30 is an edge-on young stellar object disk with highly collimated emission line jets outflowing along its polar axis. As a prototype of its class, and of astrophysical accretion disks generally, the object has been the subject of extensive study with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Thirteen HST observing programs imaged the object at nineteen epochs over the period 1994-2008. We present an Archival study of the astrometric and morphological evolution of the jet knots using fifteen epochs of HST broadband R imaging and five epochs of [S II]+Halpha imaging. The data was taken with the WFPC2 and ACS cameras. New knots continue to emerge at regular intervals in the bipolar jets, expand laterally, and cool significantly on timescales of a few years. We present measurements pf the knot velocities, accelerations, expansion, mergers, and luminosity evolution and compare these to hydrodynamic models.

  6. Magnetically Self-regulated Formation of Early Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoît; Chabrier, Gilles; Marchand, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The formation of protoplanetary disks during the collapse of molecular dense cores is significantly influenced by angular momentum transport, notably by the magnetic torque. In turn, the evolution of the magnetic field is determined by dynamical processes and non-ideal MHD effects such as ambipolar diffusion. Considering simple relations between various timescales characteristic of the magnetized collapse, we derive an expression for the early disk radius, r≃ 18 {au} {({η }{AD}/0.1{{s}})}2/9{({B}z/0.1{{G}})}-4/9{(M/0.1{M}ȯ )}1/3, where M is the total disk plus protostar mass, {η }{AD} is the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, and B z is the magnetic field in the inner part of the core. This is significantly smaller than the disks that would form if angular momentum was conserved. The analytical predictions are confronted against a large sample of 3D, non-ideal MHD collapse calculations covering variations of a factor 100 in core mass, a factor 10 in the level of turbulence, a factor 5 in rotation, and magnetic mass-to-flux over critical mass-to-flux ratios 2 and 5. The disk radius estimates are found to agree with the numerical simulations within less than a factor 2. A striking prediction of our analysis is the weak dependence of circumstellar disk radii upon the various relevant quantities, suggesting weak variations among class-0 disk sizes. In some cases, we note the onset of large spiral arms beyond this radius.

  7. DISK MASSES AT THE END OF THE MAIN ACCRETION PHASE: CARMA OBSERVATIONS AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH MODELING OF CLASS I PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, J. A.

    2012-08-10

    We present imaging observations at the 1.3 mm wavelength of Class I protostars in the Taurus star-forming region, obtained with the CARMA interferometer. Of an initial sample of 10 objects, we detected and imaged millimeter wavelength emission from 9. One of the nine is resolved into two sources and detailed analysis of this binary protostellar system is deferred to a future paper. For the remaining eight objects, we use the CARMA data to determine the basic morphology of the millimeter emission. Combining the millimeter data with 0.9 {mu}m images of scattered light, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and broadband spectral energy distributions (all from the literature), we attempt to determine the structure of the circumstellar material. We consider models including both circumstellar disks and envelopes, and constrain the masses (and other structural parameters) of each of these components. We show that the disk masses in our sample span a range from {approx}< 0.01 to {approx}> 0.1 M{sub Sun }. The disk masses for our sample are significantly higher than for samples of more evolved Class II objects. Thus, Class I disk masses probably provide a more accurate estimate of the initial mass budget for star and planet formation. However, the disk masses determined here are lower than required by theories of giant planet formation. The masses also appear too low for gravitational instability, which could lead to high mass accretion rates. Even in these Class I disks, substantial particle growth may have hidden much of the disk mass in hard-to-see larger bodies.

  8. Black hole accretion disks - Coronal stabilization of the Lightman-Eardley instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionson, J. A.; Kuperus, M.

    1984-01-01

    Physical processes by which the presence of a corona around a black hole can raise the threshold of onset of the Lightman-Eardley (L-E, 1976) instability are explored analytically. The L-E model predicts that an optically thick disk becomes unstable when the disk radiation pressure exceeds the disk gas pressure. The model has important implications for the validity of either the coronal disk or two-temperature disk models for accretion zones around black holes. It is shown that a corona can dissipate accreting gravitational energy through radiative cooling. Specific ratios of hard/soft X-rays are quantified for stable and unstable conditions. X-ray spectra from Cyg X-1 are cited as residing below the instability threshold value and thus are supportive of the coronal disk model.

  9. UNVEILING THE DETAILED DENSITY AND VELOCITY STRUCTURES OF THE PROTOSTELLAR CORE B335

    SciTech Connect

    Kurono, Yasutaka; Saito, Masao; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2013-03-10

    We present an observational study of the protostellar core B335 harboring a low-mass Class 0 source. The observations of the H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(J = 1-0) line emission were carried out using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Our combined image of the interferometer and single-dish data depicts detailed structures of the dense envelope within the core. We found that the core has a radial density profile of n(r){proportional_to}r {sup -p} and a reliable difference in the power-law indices between the outer and inner regions of the core: p Almost-Equal-To 2 for r {approx}> 4000 AU and p Almost-Equal-To 1.5 for r {approx}< 4000 AU. The dense core shows a slight overall velocity gradient of {approx}1.0 km s{sup -1} over the scale of 20, 000 AU across the outflow axis. We believe that this velocity gradient represents a solid-body-like rotation of the core. The dense envelope has a quite symmetrical velocity structure with a remarkable line broadening toward the core center, which is especially prominent in the position-velocity diagram across the outflow axis. The model calculations of position-velocity diagrams do a good job of reproducing observational results using the collapse model of an isothermal sphere in which the core has an inner free-fall region and an outer region conserving the conditions at the formation stage of a central stellar object. We derived a central stellar mass of {approx}0.1 M{sub Sun }, and suggest a small inward velocity, v{sub r{>=}r{sub i{sub n{sub f}}}}{approx}0 km s{sup -1} in the outer core at {approx}> 4000 AU. We concluded that our data can be well explained by gravitational collapse with a quasi-static initial condition, such as Shu's model, or by the isothermal collapse of a marginally critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere.

  10. The L723 Low-Mass Star Forming Protostellar System: Resolving a Double Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girart, J. M.; Rao, R.; Estalella, R.

    2009-03-01

    We present 1.35 mm Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations around the low-mass Class 0 source IRAS 19156+1906, at the center of the LDN 723 (L723) dark cloud. We detected emission from dust as well as emission from H2CO 30,3-20,2, DCN 3-2, and CN 2-1 lines, which arise from two cores, SMA 1 and SMA 2, separated by 2farcs9 (880 AU in projected distance). SMA 2 is associated with the previously detected source VLA 2. Weak SiO 5-4 emission is detected, possibly tracing a region of interaction between the dense envelope and the outflow. We modeled the dust and H2CO emission from the two cores. The results from the modeling show that the cores have similar physical properties (density and temperature distribution) but that SMA 2 has a larger p-H2CO abundance (by a factor of 3-10) than SMA 1. The p-H2CO abundances' findings are compatible with the value of the outer part of the circumstellar envelopes associated with Class 0 sources. SMA 2 is harboring an active multiple low-mass protostellar system and powering at least one molecular outflow. In contrast, there are no known signs of outflow activity toward SMA 1. This suggests that SMA 2 is more evolved than SMA 1. The kinematics of the two sources show marginal evidence of infall and rotation motions. The mass detected by the SMA observation, which trace scales of lsim1000 AU, is only a small fraction of the mass contained in the large-scale molecular envelope, which suggests that L723 is still in a very early phase of star formation. Despite the apparent quiescent nature of the L723, fragmentation is occurring at the center of the cloud at different scales. Thus, at sime1000 AU, the cloud has fragmented in two cores: SMA 1 and SMA 2. At the same time, at least one of these cores, SMA 2, has undergone additional fragmentation at scales of sime150 AU, forming a multiple stellar system.

  11. SPITZER SPECTRAL LINE MAPPING OF PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS. II. H{sub 2} EMISSION IN L1157

    SciTech Connect

    Nisini, Brunella; Giannini, Teresa; Antoniucci, Simone; Neufeld, David A.; Yuan Yuan; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.

    2010-11-20

    We present an analysis of Spitzer-IRS spectroscopic maps of the L1157 protostellar outflow in the H{sub 2} pure-rotational lines from S(0) to S(7). The aim of this work is to derive the physical conditions pertaining to the warm molecular gas and study their variations within the flow. The mid-IR H{sub 2} emission follows the morphology of the precessing flow, with peaks correlated with individual CO clumps and H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m ro-vibrational emission. More diffuse emission delineating the CO cavities is detected only in the low-laying transitions, with J{sub lower{<=}} 2. The H{sub 2} line images have been used to construct two-dimensional maps of N(H{sub 2}), H{sub 2} ortho-to-para ratio (OPR), and temperature spectral index {beta}, in the assumption of a gas temperature stratification where the H{sub 2} column density varies as T {sup -}{beta}. Variations of these parameters are observed along the flow. In particular, the OPR ranges from {approx}0.6 to 2.8, highlighting the presence of regions subject to recent shocks where the OPR has not had time yet to reach the equilibrium value. Near-IR spectroscopic data on ro-vibrational H{sub 2} emission have been combined with the mid-IR data and used to derive additional shock parameters in the brightest blueshifted and redshifted emission knots. A high abundance of atomic hydrogen (H/H{sub 2} {approx} 0.1-0.3) is implied by the observed H{sub 2} column densities, assuming n(H{sub 2}) values as derived by independent SiO observations. The presence of a high fraction of atomic hydrogen indicates that a partially dissociative shock component should be considered for the H{sub 2} excitation in these localized regions. However, planar shock models, either of C- or J-type, are not able to consistently reproduce all the physical parameters derived from our analysis of the H{sub 2} emission. Globally, H{sub 2} emission contributes to about 50% of the total shock radiated energy in the L1157 outflow. We find that the

  12. Rewriteable optical disk recorder development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Thomas A.; Rinsland, Pamela L.

    1991-01-01

    A NASA program to develop a high performance (high rate, high capability) rewriteable optical disk recorder for spaceflight applications is presented. An expandable, adaptable system concept is proposed based on disk Drive modules and a modular Controller. Drive performance goals are 10 gigabyte capacity are up to 1.8 gigabits per second rate with concurrent I/O, synchronous data transfer, and 2 to 5 years operating life in orbit. Technology developments, design concepts, current status, and future plans are presented.

  13. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J.; Nomura, Hideko

    2010-10-20

    We have developed a high-resolution combined physical and chemical model of a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. Our aims were to use our model to calculate the chemical structure of disks on small scales (submilliarcsecond in the inner disk for objects at the distance of Taurus, {approx}140 pc) to investigate the various chemical processes thought to be important in disks and to determine potential molecular tracers of each process. Our gas-phase network was extracted from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry to which we added gas-grain interactions including freezeout and thermal and non-thermal desorption (cosmic-ray-induced desorption, photodesorption, and X-ray desorption), and a grain-surface network. We find that cosmic-ray-induced desorption has the least effect on our disk chemical structure while photodesorption has a significant effect, enhancing the abundances of most gas-phase molecules throughout the disk and affecting the abundances and distribution of HCN, CN, and CS, in particular. In the outer disk, we also see enhancements in the abundances of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. X-ray desorption is a potentially powerful mechanism in disks, acting to homogenize the fractional abundances of gas-phase species across the depth and increasing the column densities of most molecules, although there remain significant uncertainties in the rates adopted for this process. The addition of grain-surface chemistry enhances the fractional abundances of several small complex organic molecules including CH{sub 3}OH, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} to potentially observable values (i.e., a fractional abundance of {approx}>10{sup -11}).

  14. Lumbar disk herniation surgery: outcome and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Objectives To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated

  15. Lumbar disk herniation surgery: outcome and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Objectives To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated

  16. Lumbar Disk Herniation Surgery: Outcome and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Objectives To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated

  17. A ∼0.2-solar-mass protostar with a Keplerian disk in the very young L1527 IRS system.

    PubMed

    Tobin, John J; Hartmann, Lee; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Wilner, David J; Looney, Leslie W; Loinard, Laurent; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola

    2012-12-01

    In their earliest stages, protostars accrete mass from their surrounding envelopes through circumstellar disks. Until now, the smallest observed protostar-to-envelope mass ratio was about 2.1 (ref. 1). The protostar L1527 IRS is thought to be in the earliest stages of star formation. Its envelope contains about one solar mass of material within a radius of about 0.05 parsecs (refs 3, 4), and earlier observations suggested the presence of an edge-on disk. Here we report observations of dust continuum emission and (13)CO (rotational quantum number J = 2 → 1) line emission from the disk around L1527 IRS, from which we determine a protostellar mass of 0.19 ± 0.04 solar masses and a protostar-to-envelope mass ratio of about 0.2. We conclude that most of the luminosity is generated through the accretion process, with an accretion rate of about 6.6 × 10(-7) solar masses per year. If it has been accreting at that rate through much of its life, its age is approximately 300,000 years, although theory suggests larger accretion rates earlier, so it may be younger. The presence of a rotationally supported disk is confirmed, and significantly more mass may be added to its planet-forming region as well as to the protostar itself in the future.

  18. Outflows from Accretion Disks around Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Cheng-Liang; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2013-02-01

    We solve the set of hydrodynamic equations for accretion disks in the spherical coordinates (rθφ) to obtain the explicit structure along the θ direction. The results display thinner, quasi-Keplerian disks for Shakura-Sunyaev Disks (SSDs) and thicker, sub-Keplerian disks for Advection Dominated Accretion Flows (ADAFs) and slim disks, which are consistent with previous popular analytical models, while an inflow region and an outflow region always exist, which supports the results of some recent numerical simulation works. Our results indicate that the outflows should be common in various accretion disks and stronger in slim disks and ADAFs.

  19. Theory and numerical simulation of three-dimensional vortices in protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Joseph Andrew

    2004-12-01

    We show (via 3D spectral anelastic hydrodynamic simulations) that finite- amplitude perturbations in a stably stratified protoplanetary disk lead to the natural formation of 3D, long-lived, coherent vortices. This is in contrast to previous 3D constant density studies that, showed that perturbations to Keplerian shear always rapidly decay. Our results are also entirely distinct from the numerous 2D studies of vortex dynamics in the midplane of Keplerian disks: We show that vortices in the midplane are linearly unstable with an e - folding time of only a few orbital periods; the nonlinear development of the instability leads to the destruction of vortices in the midplane. In our numerical simulations, a midplane vortex (prior to its destruction) was a source of perturbations: as it oscillated, it excited internal gravity waves which would propagate away from the midplane, break, and create vorticity (a baroclinic effect). The regions of vorticity above and below the midplane would coalesce into new vortices. Whereas the midplane vortex would eventually succumb to the instability, the off-midplane vortices were stable (to infinitesimal and finite-amplitude perturbations) and long-lived. The key ingredient for stable 3D vortices is stable stratification: the vertical component of protostellar gravity vanishes in the midplane, so the gas is unstratified there; off the midplane, the magnitudes of gravity and stratification increase linearly with height. Stable. 3D off-midplane vortices may play two key roles in star and planet formation: in cool, nonmagnetized disks, vortices may transport angular momentum outward so that mass can continue to accrete onto the growing protostar; and vortices rapidly sweep-up and concentrate dust particles, which may help in the formation of planetesimals, the basic "building blocks" of planets, either by increasing the efficiency of binary agglomeration, or by seeding a local gravitational instability.

  20. MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Xuening

    2011-09-20

    Non-ideal MHD effects play an important role in the gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks (PPDs). This paper addresses the influence of non-ideal MHD effects on the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and angular momentum transport in PPDs using the most up-to-date results from numerical simulations. We perform chemistry calculations using a complex reaction network with standard prescriptions for X-ray and cosmic-ray ionizations. We first show that whether or not grains are included, the recombination time is at least one order of magnitude less than the orbital time within five disk scale heights, justifying the validity of local ionization equilibrium and strong coupling limit in PPDs. The full conductivity tensor at different disk radii and heights is evaluated, with the MRI active region determined by requiring that (1) the Ohmic Elsasser number {Lambda} be greater than 1 and (2) the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure {beta} be greater than {beta}{sub min}(Am) as identified in the recent study by Bai and Stone, where Am is the Elsasser number for ambipolar diffusion. With full flexibility as to the magnetic field strength, we provide a general framework for estimating the MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot and the magnetic field strength in the MRI active layer. We find that the MRI active layer always exists at any disk radius as long as the magnetic field in PPDs is sufficiently weak. However, the optimistically predicted M-dot in the inner disk (r = 1-10 AU) appears insufficient to account for the observed range of accretion rates in PPDs (around 10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) even in the grain-free calculation, and the presence of solar abundance sub-micron grains further reduces M-dot by one to two orders of magnitude. Moreover, we find that the predicted M-dot increases with radius in the inner disk where accretion is layered, which would lead to runaway mass accumulation if disk accretion is solely driven by the MRI. Our results suggest that stronger

  1. GROWTH OF GRAINS IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We perform coagulation and fragmentation simulations using the new physically motivated model by Garaud et al. to determine growth locally in brown dwarf disks. We show that large grains can grow and that if brown dwarf disks are scaled-down versions of T Tauri disks (in terms of stellar mass, disk mass, and disk radius) growth at an equivalent location with respect to the disk truncation radius can occur to the same size in both disks. We show that similar growth occurs because the collisional timescales in the two disks are comparable. Our model may therefore potentially explain the recent observations of grain growth to millimeter sizes in brown dwarf disks, as seen in T Tauri disks.

  2. Magneto-thermal Disk Winds from Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Ye, Jiani; Goodman, Jeremy; Yuan, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are governed by disk angular-momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular-momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a one-dimensional model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on (1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfvén speed vAp, (2) the sound speed cs near the wind base, and (3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve {R}-2 scaling). When {v}{Ap}\\gg {c}{{s}}, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accelerated mainly by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field. In both cases, the dominant role played by magnetic forces likely yields wind outflow rates that exceed purely hydrodynamical mechanisms. For typical PPD accretion-rate and wind-launching conditions, we expect vAp to be comparable to cs at the wind base. The resulting wind is heavily loaded, with a total wind mass-loss rate likely reaching a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. Implications for modeling global disk evolution and planet formation are also discussed.

  3. Final Masses of Giant Planets II: Jupiter Formation in a Gas-Depleted Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-12-01

    Firstly, we study the final masses of giant planets growing in protoplanetary disks through capture of disk gas, by employing an empirical formula for the gas capture rate and a shallow disk gap model, which are both based on hydrodynamical simulations. The shallow disk gaps cannot terminate growth of giant planets. For planets less massive than 10 Jupiter masses, their growth rates are mainly controlled by the gas supply through the global disk accretion, rather than their gaps. The insufficient gas supply compared with the rapid gas capture causes a depletion of the gas surface density even at the outside of the gap, which can create an inner hole in the protoplanetary disk. Our model can also predict how deep the inner hole is for a given planet mass. Secondly, our findings are applied to the formation of our solar system. For the formation of Jupiter, a very low-mass gas disk with a few or several Jupiter masses is required at the beginning of its gas capture because of the non-stopping capture. Such a low-mass gas disk with sufficient solid material can be formed through viscous evolution from an initially ˜10AU-sized compact disk with the solar composition. By the viscous evolution with a moderate viscosity of α˜10-3, most of disk gas accretes onto the sun and a widely spread low-mass gas disk remains when the solid core of Jupiter starts gas capture at t˜107 yrs. The depletion of the disk gas is suitable for explaining the high metallicity in giant planets of our solar system. A very low-mass gas disk also provides a plausible path where type I and II planetary migrations are both suppressed significantly. In particular, we also show that the type II migration of Jupiter-size planets becomes inefficient because of the additional gas depletion due to the rapid gas capture by themselves.

  4. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    that are available to them. They do this by spreading - the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand. Significant changes happen only if some process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The consequences are very general: evolution by spreading happens in stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks. This meeting is about disk galaxies, so the evolution most often involves the redistribution of angular momentum. We now have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the center. Numerical simulations reproduce observed morphologies very well. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities that are seen in CO observations. Star formation rates measured (e.g.) in the mid-infrared show that many barred and oval galaxies grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central `pseudobulges' that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). Our resulting picture of secular evolution accounts for the richness observed in morphological classification schemes such as those of de Vaucouleurs (1959) and Sandage (1961). State-of-the art morphology discussions include the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies (Buta et al. 2007) and Buta (2012, 2013). Pseudobulges as disk-grown alternatives to merger-built classical bulges are important because they impact many aspects of our understanding of galaxy evolution. For example, they are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well known, tight correlations between BH mass and host properties (Kormendy et al. 2011). We can distinguish between classical and pseudo bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of

  5. Physical Processes in Circumstellar Disks around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Paulo J. V.

    2011-05-01

    Circumstellar disks are vast expanses of dust that form around new stars in the earliest stages of their birth. Predicted by astronomers as early as the eighteenth century, they weren't observed until the late twentieth century, when interstellar imaging technology enabled us to see nascent stars hundreds of light years away. Since then, circumstellar disks have become an area of intense study among astrophysicists, largely because they are thought to be the forerunners of planetary systems like our own - the possible birthplaces of planets.

  6. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  7. Scattering line polarization in rotating, optically thick disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milić, I.; Faurobert, M.

    2014-11-01

    Context. To interpret observations of astrophysical disks, it is essential to understand the formation process of the emitted light. If the disk is optically thick, scattering dominated and permeated by a Keplerian velocity field, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer modeling must be done to compute the emergent spectrum from a given disk model. Aims: We investigate NLTE polarized line formation in different simple disk models and aim to demonstrate the importance of both radiative transfer effects and scattering, as well as the effects of velocity fields. Methods: We self-consistently solve the coupled equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium for a two-level atom model by means of Jacobi iteration. We use the short characteristics method of formal solution in two-dimensional axisymmetric media and compute scattering polarization, that is Q/I and U/I line profiles, using the reduced intensity formalism. We account for the presence of Keplerian velocity fields by casting the radiative transfer equation in the observer's frame. Results: Relatively simple (homogeneous and isothermal) disk models show complex intensity profiles that owe their shape to the interplay of multidimensional NLTE radiative transfer and the presence of rotation. The degree of scattering polarization is significantly influenced not only by the inclination of the disk with respect to observer, but also by the optical thickness of the disk and the presence of rotation. Stokes U/I shows double-lobed profiles with amplitude that increases with the disk rotation. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the line profiles, especially the polarized ones, emerging from gaseous disks differ significantly from the profiles predicted by simple approximations. Even in the case of the simple two-level atom model, we obtain line profiles that are diverse in shape, but typically symmetric in Stokes Q and antisymmetric in Stokes U. A clear indicator of disk rotation is

  8. Localization of peripherin/rds in the disk membranes of cone and rod photoreceptors: relationship to disk membrane morphogenesis and retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The outer segments of vertebrate rod photoreceptor cells consist of an ordered stack of membrane disks, which, except for a few nascent disks at the base of the outer segment, is surrounded by a separate plasma membrane. Previous studies indicate that the protein, peripherin or peripherin/rds, is localized along the rim of mature disks of rod outer segments. A mutation in the gene for this protein has been reported to be responsible for retinal degeneration in the rds mouse. In the present study, we have shown by immunogold labeling of rat and ground squirrel retinas that peripherin/rds is present in the disk rims of cone outer segments as well as rod outer segments. Additionally, in the basal regions of rod and cone outer segments, where disk morphogenesis occurs, we have found that the distribution of peripherin/rds is restricted to a region that is adjacent to the cilium. Extension of its distribution from the cilium coincides with the formation of the disk rim. These results support the model of disk membrane morphogenesis that predicts rim formation to be a second stage of growth, after the first stage in which the ciliary plasma membrane evaginates to form open nascent disks. The results also indicate how the proteins of the outer segment plasma membrane and the disk membranes are sorted into their separate domains: different sets of proteins may be incorporated into membrane outgrowths during different growth stages of disk morphogenesis. Finally, the presence of peripherin/rds protein in both cone and rod outer segment disks, together with the phenotype of the rds mouse, which is characterized by the failure of both rod and cone outer segment formation, suggest that the same rds gene is expressed in both types of photoreceptor cells. PMID:1730772

  9. Planetesimal and Protoplanet Dynamics in a Turbulent Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, M.; Menou, K.

    2010-01-01

    In core accretion scenario of planet formation, kilometer-sized planetesimals are the building blocks toward planetary cores. Their dynamics, however, are strongly influenced by their natal protoplanetary gas disks. It is generally believed that these disks are turbulent, most likely due to magnetorotational instability. The resulting density perturbations in the gas render the movement of the particles a random process. Depending on its strength, this process might cause several interesting consequences in the course of planet formation, specifically the survivability of objects under rapid inward type-I migration and/or collisional destruction. Using the local-shearing-box approximation, we conduct numerical simulations of planetesimals moving in a turbulent, magnetized gas disk, either unstratified or vertically stratified. We produce a fiducial disk model with turbulent accretion of Shakura-Sunyaev alpha about 10-2 and root-mean-square density perturbation of about 10% and statistically characterize the evolution of the orbital properties of the particles moving in the disk. These measurements result in accurate calibration of the random process of particle orbital change, indicating noticeably smaller magnitudes than predicted by global simulations, although the results may depend on the size of the shearing box. We apply these results to revisit the survivability of planetesimals under collisional destruction or protoplanets under type-I migration. Planetesimals are probably secure from collisional destruction, except for kilometer-sized objects situated in the outer regions of a young protoplanetary disk. On the other hand, we confirm earlier studies of local models in that type-I migration probably dominates diffusive migration due to stochastic torques for most planetary cores and terrestrial planets. Discrepancies in the derived magnitude of turbulence between local and global simulations of magnetorotationally unstable disks remains an open issue, with

  10. Properties of Disk Galaxies in a Hierarchical Formation Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Firmani, Claudio

    2000-04-01

    We used galaxy evolutionary models in a hierarchical inside-out disk formation scenario to study the origin of the main local and global properties of disk galaxies as well as their correlations. We found that most of these properties and correlations are the result of three (cosmological) initial factors and their dispersions: the virial mass, the halo mass aggregation history (MAH), and the angular momentum given through the spin parameter lambda. The MAH determines mainly the halo structure and the integral color indexes while Lambda determines mainly the surface brightness and the bulge-to-disk ratio. We calculated star formation (SF) using a gravitational instability criterion and a self-regulation mechanism in the disk turbulent ISM. The efficiency of SF in this model is almost independent from the mass. We show that the luminosity- dependent dust absorption empirically determined by Wang & Heckman explains the observed color-magnitude and color Tully-Fisher (TF) relations without the necessity of introducing a mass-dependent SF efficiency. The disks in centrifugal equilibrium form within growing cold dark matter halos with a gas accretion rate proportional to the rate of the MAH. The disks present exponential surface density and brightness profiles, negative radial color index gradients, and nearly flat rotation curves. We also calculated the secular formation of a bulge due to gravitational instabilities in the stellar disk. The intensive properties of our models agree with the observational data and the trends of the Hubble sequence are reproduced. The predicted infrared TF and luminosity-radius relations also agree with observations. The main shortcomings of our inside-out hierarchical models are the excessive radial color gradients and the dark halo dominion in the rotation curve decompositions.

  11. Implications of the β Lyrae accretion disk rim Teff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, A. P.

    2000-12-01

    Photometric evidence indicates that the massive gainer in the β Lyrae system is hidden from the observer by a thick accretion disk (Linnell, Hubeny, & Harmanec, 1998, ApJ, 509, 379). It is believed that the gainer approximates a main sequence star of Teff= 30000K. Spectroscopic analysis by Balachrandan et al. (1986, MNRAS, 219, 479) establishes a Teff of 13,300K for the donor. System synthetic spectra, fitted via the BINSYN suite to spectrophotometric scan data and IUE spectra, establish a mean rim Teff of 9000K. Assuming conservative mass transfer, Harmanec & Scholz (1993, A&A, 279, 131) use the rate of period change to derive a mass transfer rate of 20x10-6M⊙ yr-1. Connecting the rim Teff to the accretion disk face Teff with the Hubeny theory (Hubeny & Plavec 1991, AJ, 102, 1156) and using the standard accretion disk relations (Frank, King & Raine), the adopted mass transfer rate predicts a rim Teff of 4500K. The BINSYN-derived 9000K rim Teff would require a mass transfer rate 30 times larger than the adopted value. The observed rate of period change excludes such a large mass transfer rate. The bolometric luminosity of the rim, from the BINSYN model, is 5.6x1036erg sec-1. The bolometric luminosity of the gainer, on the adopted model, is 9.8x1037erg sec-1. Thus, the luminosity of the rim is 6% of the luminosity of the gainer. On the BINSYN model, the accretion disk covers 26% of the sky, as seen by the gainer. Absorption of radiation from the gainer, and its reradiation by the accretion disk, could explain the derived Teff of the rim. The conclusion is that the β Lyrae accretion disk structure must be strongly affected by radiation from the hot gainer (unseen by the observer) at the center of the accretion disk.

  12. Lightcurves of Extreme Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Meng, Huan; Su, Kate

    2012-12-01

    We have recently discovered that some planetary debris disks with extreme fractional luminosities are variable on the timescale of a few years. This behavior opens a new possibility to understand planet building. Two of the known variable disks are around solar-like stars in the age range of 30 to 100+ Myr, which is the expected era of the final stages of terrestrial planet building. Such variability can be attributed to violent collisions (up to ones on the scale of the Moon-forming event between the proto-Earth and another proto-planet). The collisional cascades that are the aftermaths of these events can produce large clouds of tiny dust grains, possibly even condensed from silica vapor. A Spitzer pilot program has obtained the lightcurve of such a debris disk and caught two minor outbursts. Here we propose to continue the lightcurve monitoring with higher sampling rates and to expand it to more disks. The proposed time domain observations are a new dimension of debris disk studies that can bring unique insight to their evolution, providing important constraints on the collisional and dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation.

  13. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  14. Single and multiple jet impingement heat transfer on rotating disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Partipilo, V. A.

    1989-01-01

    In some gas turbine engine designs cooling air jets are directed at the rotating disk in an atempt to enhance the convection coefficients and reduce the amount of gas flow required for cooling. The jet-impingement scheme is particularly attractive for achieving intense cooling at a specific radial location, such as the blade attachment region. In earlier single-jet studies, the interaction between an impinging jet and rotating disk has been found to involve a flow regime transition. The present study extends the previously acquired data base with new results from both heat-transfer and flow-visualization testing, including effects of hub size, jet travel distance, and the number of jets. Results include a superposition scheme for predicting heat transfer for multiple jets and a criterion for the minimum amount of flow required through each jet nozzle to assure enhancement of the disk convection.

  15. Slip effect for thin liquid film on a rotating disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahiro

    1987-02-01

    A flow for thin liquid films on rotating disks has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Liquid depletion behavior during a spin-coating process is calculated by solving the Navier-Stokes equation, taking into account interface slip between liquid and disk. Excellent agreement is seen between the model prediction and experimental data. According to observed depletion behavior on thin liquid films for various spin-coating parameters, half life falls off at the inverse square of rotational speed, and increases when viscosity increases, although the increasing rate falls off. The interface slip, represented as an external friction coefficient, is thermodynamically explained by the different (Δrc) in critical surface tension (rc) values between the liquid and the disk, which will be proportional to the solubility parameter. An infinite external friction coefficient, representing nonslip flow, may be given, when Δrc is zero. Spin-off experiments for liquids of various rc values, prepared by differing surface treatments, support this consideration.

  16. Transition state theory and the dynamics of hard disks.

    PubMed

    Barnett-Jones, M; Dickinson, P A; Godfrey, M J; Grundy, T; Moore, M A

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of two- and five-disk systems confined in a square has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations and compared with the predictions of transition state theory. We determine the partition functions Z and Z(‡) of transition state theory using a procedure first used by Salsburg and Wood for the pressure. Our simulations show this procedure and transition state theory are in excellent agreement with the simulations. A generalization of the transition state theory to the case of a large number of disks N is made and shown to be in full agreement with simulations of disks moving in a narrow channel. The same procedure for hard spheres in three dimensions leads to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann formula for their alpha relaxation time.

  17. Mapping water in protostellar outflows with Herschel. PACS and HIFI observations of L1448-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisini, B.; Santangelo, G.; Antoniucci, S.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Giannini, T.; Lorenzani, A.; Liseau, R.; Tafalla, M.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Kristensen, L.; Neufeld, D.; Melnick, G.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Water is a key probe of shocks and outflows from young stars because it is extremely sensitive to both the physical conditions associated with the interaction of supersonic outflows with the ambient medium and the chemical processes at play. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the spatial and velocity distribution of H2O along outflows, its relationship with other tracers, and its abundance variations. In particular, this study focuses on the outflow driven by the low-mass protostar L1448-C, which previous observations have shown to be one of the brightest H2O emitters among the class 0 outflows. Methods: To this end, maps of the o-H2O 110-101 and 212-101 transitions taken with the Herschel-HIFI and PACS instruments, respectively, are presented. For comparison, complementary maps of the CO(3-2) and SiO(8-7) transitions, obtained at the JCMT, and the H2 S(0) and S(1) transitions, taken from the literature, were used as well. Physical conditions and H2O column densities were inferred using large velocity gradient radiative transfer calculations. Results: The water distribution appears to be clumpy, with individual peaks corresponding to shock spots along the outflow. The bulk of the 557 GHz line is confined to radial velocities in the range ±10-50 km s-1, but extended emission at extreme velocities (up to vr ~ 80 km s-1) is detected and is associated with the L1448-C extreme high-velocity (EHV) jet. The H2O 110-101/CO(3-2) ratio shows strong variations as a function of velocity that likely reflect different and changing physical conditions in the gas that is responsible for the emissions from the two species. In the EHV jet, a low H2O/SiO abundance ratio is inferred, which could indicate molecular formation from dust-free gas directly ejected from the proto-stellar wind. The ratio between the two observed H2O lines and the comparison with H2 indicate averaged Tkin and n(H2) values of ~300-500 K and 5 × 106 cm-3, respectively, while a water abundance with

  18. High-resolution ammonia mapping of the very young protostellar core Chamaeleon-MMS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisälä, M. S.; Harju, J.; Mantere, M. J.; Miettinen, O.; Sault, R. S.; Walmsley, C. M.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the structure and kinematics of the nearby candidate first hydrostatic core Cha-MMS1. Methods: Cha-MMS1 was mapped in the NH3(1,1) line and the 1.2 cm continuum using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The angular resolution of the ATCA observations is 7″ (~1000 AU), and the velocity resolution is 50 m s-1. The core was also mapped with the 64 m Parkes Telescope in the NH3(1,1) and (2,2) lines. Observations from Herschel Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope were used to help interpretation. The ammonia spectra were analysed using Gaussian fits to the hyperfine structure. A two-layer model was applied in the central parts of the core where the ATCA spectra show signs of self-absorption. Results: A compact high column density core with a steep velocity gradient (~20 km s-1 pc-1) is detected in ammonia. We derive a high gas density (~106 cm-3) in this region, and a fractional ammonia abundance compatible with determinations towards other dense cores (~10-8). This suggests that the age of the high density core is comparable to the freeze-out timescale of ammonia in these conditions, on the order of 104 years. The direction of the velocity gradient agrees with previous single-dish observations, and the overall velocity distribution can be interpreted as rotation. The rotation axis goes through the position of a compact far-infrared source detected by Spitzer and Herschel. The specific angular momentum of the core, ~10-3km s-1 pc, is typical for protostellar envelopes. A string of 1.2 cm continuum sources is tentatively detected near the rotation axis. The ammonia spectra suggest the presence of warm embedded gas in its vicinity. An hourglass-shaped structure is seen in ammonia at the cloud's average LSR velocity, also aligned with the rotation axis. Although this structure resembles a pair of outflow lobes the ammonia spectra show no indications of shocked gas. Conclusions: The observed ammonia

  19. The HIFI spectral survey of AFGL 2591 (CHESS). III. Chemical structure of the protostellar envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaźmierczak-Barthel, M.; Semenov, D. A.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarría, L.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to understand the richness of chemical species observed in the isolated high-mass envelope of AFGL 2591, a prototypical object for studying massive star formation. Methods: Based on HIFI and JCMT data, the molecular abundances of species found in the protostellar envelope of AFGL 2591 were derived with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code (Ratran), assuming a mixture of constant and 1D stepwise radial profiles for abundance distributions. The reconstructed 1D abundances were compared with the results of the time-dependent gas-grain chemical modeling, using the best-fit 1D power-law density structure. The chemical simulations were performed considering ages of 1-5 × 104 years, cosmic ray ionization rates of 5-500 × 10-17 s-1, uniformly-sized 0.1-1 μm dust grains, a dust/gas ratio of 1%, and several sets of initial molecular abundances with C/O < 1 and >1. The most important model parameters varied one by one in the simulations are age, cosmic ray ionization rate, external UV intensity, and grain size. Results: Constant abundance models give good fits to the data for CO, CN, CS, HCO+, H2CO, N2H+, CCH, NO, OCS, OH, H2CS, O, C, C+, and CH. Models with an abundance jump at 100 K give good fits to the data for NH3, SO, SO2, H2S, H2O, HCl, and CH3OH. For HCN and HNC, the best models have an abundance jump at 230 K. The time-dependent chemical model can accurately explain abundance profiles of 15 out of these 24 species. The jump-like radial profiles for key species like HCO+, NH3, and H2O are consistent with the outcome of the time-dependent chemical modeling. The best-fit model has a chemical age of ~10-50 kyr, a solar C/O ratio of 0.44, and a cosmic-ray ionization rate of ~5 × 10-17 s-1. The grain properties and the intensity of the external UV field do not strongly affect the chemical structure of the AFGL 2591 envelope, whereas its chemical age, the cosmic-ray ionization rate, and the initial abundances play an important role

  20. As the Disk Turns... Monitoring the Azimuthal Thermal Gradient of the Irradiated Dust Disk in Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, Donald; Howell, Steve; Stencel, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is the eclipsing binary star with the longest known orbital period, showing a single long (~2 yr) eclipse every 27.1 yr. For the last ~200 years, the nature of the eclipsing object defied explanation. We recently showed that epsilon Aur most likely consists of a high luminosity F0 post-AGB star, and a B5 V star surrounded by a solar system size (~8 AU diameter) disk of dusty material. We propose to continue our IRAC monitoring of epsilon Aur, to characterize the disk's azimuthal thermal variation as its irradiated, warm (1150 K) portion increasingly comes into view. We request 0.2 hr to obtain 2 IRAC observations. If Cycle 10 is extended through Jan 2015, we request another 6 visits (0.6 hr) in Dec 2014, coinciding with the predicted start of coherent pulsations of the F star, which occur every ~3000 days. The most recent eclipse was in Aug 2009-Jul 2011; we are now in the post-eclipse phase, when the heated side of the disk begins rotating into view. During the majority of our past IRAC observations (starting a few months prior to the eclipse ingress), only the cool (550 K) side of the disk was visible. In 2014-2015, as we move toward quadrature, the effect of heating due to the F star will increase the IRAC ch1/ch2 flux ratio. The eclipse of epsilon Aur is a rare event and a unique astrophysical opportunity, since backlighting of the disk by the luminous eclipsed star reveals details that cannot be detected in similar disks around single stars. This is one of the very few astrophysical disks where azimuthal thermal gradients can be mapped and interpreted. Observations of the warm side of the disk are crucial to test and constrain new models of disk structure. As part of our overall monitoring campaign with Spitzer, Hubble, Herschel, and numerous ground-based facilities, the proposed observations will make an important contribution to the understanding of binary stars, including mass transfer and evolution, along with new insights into

  1. THE mm-COLORS OF A YOUNG BINARY DISK SYSTEM IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Testi, L.; Williams, J. P.; Mann, R. K.; Birnstiel, T.

    2011-09-20

    We present new Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) continuum observations at 7 mm of the 253-1536 binary disk system in the Orion Nebula Cluster. The measured fluxes were combined with data in the submillimeter to derive the millimeter spectral index of each individual disk component. We show how these observations can be used to test the models of dust evolution and early growth of solids in protoplanetary disks. Our analysis indicates that the disk with lower density and higher temperature hosts larger grains than the companion disk. This result is the opposite of what is predicted by the dust evolution models. The models and observational results can be reconciled if the viscosity {alpha}-parameter differs by more than a factor of 10 in the two disks, or if the distribution of solids in the disks is strongly affected by radial motions. This analysis can be applied to future high angular resolution observations of young disks with EVLA and ALMA to provide even stronger observational constraints to the models of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks.

  2. Observational Tests of the Picture of Disk Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    In this chapter, I present a summary of observational tests of the basic picture of disk accretion. An emphasis is placed on tests relevant to black holes, but many of the fundamental results are drawn from studies of other classes of systems. Evidence is discussed for the basic structures of accretion flows. The cases of systems with and without accretion disks are discussed, as is the evidence that disks actually form. Also discussed are the hot spots where accretion streams impact the disks, and the boundary layers in the inner parts of systems where the accretors are not black holes. The nature of slow, large amplitude variability is discussed. It is shown that some of the key predictions of the classical thermal-viscous ionization instability model for producing outbursts are in excellent agreement with observational results. It is also show that there are systems whose outbursts are extremely difficult to explain without invoking variations in the rate of mass transfer from the donor star into the outer accretion disk, or tidally induced variations in the mass transfer rates. Finally, I briefly discuss recent quasar microlensing measurements which give truly independent constraints on the inner accretion geometry around black holes.

  3. TRANSITION DISK CHEMISTRY AND FUTURE PROSPECTS WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; Bethell, Thomas J.; Calvet, Nuria; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Sauter, Juergen; Wolf, Sebastian

    2011-12-10

    We explore the chemical structure of a disk that contains a large central gap of R {approx} 45 AU, as is commonly seen in transitional disk systems. In our chemical model of a disk with a cleared inner void, the midplane becomes revealed to the central star so that it is directly irradiated. The midplane material at the truncation radius is permissive to reprocessed optical heating radiation, but opaque to the photodissociating ultraviolet, creating an environment abundant in gas-phase molecules. Thus the disk midplane, which would otherwise for a full disk be dominated by near complete heavy element freeze-out, should become observable in molecular emission. If this prediction is correct this has exciting prospects for observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, as the inner transition region should thus be readily detected and resolved, especially using high-J rotational transitions excited in the high density midplane gas. Therefore, such observations will potentially provide us with a direct probe of the physics and chemistry at this actively evolving interface.

  4. Spiral Waves Triggered by Shadows in Transition Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Matías; Perez, Sebastian; Casassus, Simon; Marino, Sebastian; Cuadra, Jorge; Christiaens, Valentin

    2016-05-01

    Circumstellar asymmetries such as central warps have recently been shown to cast shadows on outer disks. We investigate the hydrodynamical consequences of such variable illumination on the outer regions of a transition disk, and the development of spiral arms. Using 2D simulations, we follow the evolution of a gaseous disk passively heated by the central star, under the periodic forcing of shadows with an opening angle of ˜28°. With a lower pressure under the shadows, each crossing results in a variable azimuthal acceleration, which in time develops into spiral density waves. Their pitch angles evolve from Π ˜ 15°-22° at the onset, to ˜11°-14°, over ˜65 au to 150 au. Self-gravity enhances the density contrast of the spiral waves, as also reported previously for spirals launched by planets. Our control simulations with unshadowed irradiation do not develop structures, except for a different form of spiral waves seen at later times only in the gravitationally unstable control case. Scattered light predictions in the H-band show that such illumination spirals should be observable. We suggest that spiral arms in the case-study transition disk HD 142527 could be explained as a result of shadowing from the tilted inner disk.

  5. Spiral Waves Triggered by Shadows in Transition Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Matías; Perez, Sebastian; Casassus, Simon; Marino, Sebastian; Cuadra, Jorge; Christiaens, Valentin

    2016-05-01

    Circumstellar asymmetries such as central warps have recently been shown to cast shadows on outer disks. We investigate the hydrodynamical consequences of such variable illumination on the outer regions of a transition disk, and the development of spiral arms. Using 2D simulations, we follow the evolution of a gaseous disk passively heated by the central star, under the periodic forcing of shadows with an opening angle of ˜28°. With a lower pressure under the shadows, each crossing results in a variable azimuthal acceleration, which in time develops into spiral density waves. Their pitch angles evolve from Π ˜ 15°–22° at the onset, to ˜11°–14°, over ˜65 au to 150 au. Self-gravity enhances the density contrast of the spiral waves, as also reported previously for spirals launched by planets. Our control simulations with unshadowed irradiation do not develop structures, except for a different form of spiral waves seen at later times only in the gravitationally unstable control case. Scattered light predictions in the H-band show that such illumination spirals should be observable. We suggest that spiral arms in the case-study transition disk HD 142527 could be explained as a result of shadowing from the tilted inner disk.

  6. The average size and temperature profile of quasar accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Mediavilla, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Motta, V.; Falco, E.

    2014-03-01

    We use multi-wavelength microlensing measurements of a sample of 10 image pairs from 8 lensed quasars to study the structure of their accretion disks. By using spectroscopy or narrowband photometry, we have been able to remove contamination from the weakly microlensed broad emission lines, extinction, and any uncertainties in the large-scale macro magnification of the lens model. We determine a maximum likelihood estimate for the exponent of the size versus wavelength scaling (r{sub s} ∝λ {sup p}, corresponding to a disk temperature profile of T∝r {sup –1/p}) of p=0.75{sub −0.2}{sup +0.2} and a Bayesian estimate of p = 0.8 ± 0.2, which are significantly smaller than the prediction of the thin disk theory (p = 4/3). We have also obtained a maximum likelihood estimate for the average quasar accretion disk size of r{sub s}=4.5{sub −1.2}{sup +1.5} lt-day at a rest frame wavelength of λ = 1026 Å for microlenses with a mean mass of M = 1 M {sub ☉}, in agreement with previous results, and larger than expected from thin disk theory.

  7. Gap Clearing by Planets in a Collisional Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvold, Erika R.; Kuchner, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t coll)-0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ~1-10 M Jup. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.

  8. GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvold, Erika R.; Kuchner, Marc J. E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov

    2015-01-10

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t {sub coll} of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t {sub coll}){sup –0.04}, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M {sub Jup}. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.

  9. Spaceborne optical disk controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Thomas A.; Conway, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and potential applications of an optical-disk buffer (ODB) memory system being developed by an interagency consortium including NASA and the USAF are reviewed. The design goals for the ODB include usable capacity 1 Tb, maximum data rate 1.6 Gb/s, read error rate less than 10 to the -12th, time to initial access less than 100 ms, and unlimited read/write cycles. Present efforts focus on a brassboard ODB which employs 12 14-inch magnetooptic disks and 24 nine-diode read/write heads. A typical space application of an optical disk mass memory system (ODMMS) is discussed: as communications buffer, temporary storage, and/or multiuser I/O buffer for data management on the Space Station Earth Observing System. Environmental, operational, system-architecture, and functional-separation factors; critical design issues; and standardization questions for spaceborne ODMMSs are examined in detail.

  10. Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2014-09-01

    In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

  11. INFRARED AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A SMALL GROUP OF PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MOLECULAR CORE, L1251-C

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Bourke, Tyler L.; II, Neal J. Evans; Francesco, James Di; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2015-05-15

    We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission in the east–west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 μm with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and James Clerk Maxwell telescopes, tracing dense envelope material around L1251A. The single-dish data from the Korean VLBI Network and TRAO telescopes show inconsistencies between the intensity peaks of several molecular emission lines and that of the continuum emission, suggesting complex distributions of molecular abundances around L1251A. The Submillimeter Array interferometer data, however, show intensity peaks of CO 2–1 and {sup 13}CO 2–1 located at the position of IRS 1, which is both the brightest source in the Infrared Array Camera image and the weakest source in the 1.3 mm dust-continuum map. IRS 1 is the strongest candidate for the driving source of the newly detected compact CO 2–1 outflow. Over the entire region (14′ × 14′) of L125l-C, 3 Class I and 16 Class II sources have been detected, including three young stellar objects (YSOs) in L1251A. A comparison between the average projected distance among the 19 YSOs in L1251-C and that among the 3 YSOs in L1251A suggests that L1251-C is an example of low-mass cluster formation where protostellar objects form in a small group.

  12. Infrared and Radio Observations of a Small Group of Protostellar Objects in the Molecular Core, L1251-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Minho; Bourke, Tyler L.; Evans, Neal J., II; Di Francesco, James; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Kang, Miju

    2015-05-01

    We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission in the east-west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 μm with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and James Clerk Maxwell telescopes, tracing dense envelope material around L1251A. The single-dish data from the Korean VLBI Network and TRAO telescopes show inconsistencies between the intensity peaks of several molecular emission lines and that of the continuum emission, suggesting complex distributions of molecular abundances around L1251A. The Submillimeter Array interferometer data, however, show intensity peaks of CO 2-1 and 13CO 2-1 located at the position of IRS 1, which is both the brightest source in the Infrared Array Camera image and the weakest source in the 1.3 mm dust-continuum map. IRS 1 is the strongest candidate for the driving source of the newly detected compact CO 2-1 outflow. Over the entire region (14‧ × 14‧) of L125l-C, 3 Class I and 16 Class II sources have been detected, including three young stellar objects (YSOs) in L1251A. A comparison between the average projected distance among the 19 YSOs in L1251-C and that among the 3 YSOs in L1251A suggests that L1251-C is an example of low-mass cluster formation where protostellar objects form in a small group.

  13. The characteristic blue spectra of accretion disks in quasars as uncovered in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Makoto; Antonucci, Robert; Blaes, Omer; Lawrence, Andy; Boisson, Catherine; Albrecht, Marcus; Leipski, Christian

    2008-07-24

    Quasars are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes accreting surrounding gas. Central to this picture is a putative accretion disk which is believed to be the source of the majority of the radiative output. It is well known, however, that the most extensively studied disk model-an optically thick disk which is heated locally by the dissipation of gravitational binding energy-is apparently contradicted by observations in a few major respects. In particular, the model predicts a specific blue spectral shape asymptotically from the visible to the near-infrared, but this is not generally seen in the visible wavelength region where the disk spectrum is observable. A crucial difficulty has been that, towards the infrared, the disk spectrum starts to be hidden under strong, hot dust emission from much larger but hitherto unresolved scales, and thus has essentially been impossible to observe. Here we report observations of polarized light interior to the dust-emitting region that enable us to uncover this near-infrared disk spectrum in several quasars. The revealed spectra show that the near-infrared disk spectrum is indeed as blue as predicted. This indicates that, at least for the outer near-infrared-emitting radii, the standard picture of the locally heated disk is approximately correct.

  14. ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogerheijde, Michiel

    2015-08-01

    The Universe is filled with planetary systems, as recent detections of exo-planets have shown. Such systems grow out of disks of gas and dust that surround newly formed stars. The ground work for our understanding of the structure, composition, and evolution of such disks has been laid with infrared telescopes in the 1980's, 1990's, and 2000's, as well as with millimeter interferometers operating in the United States, France, and Japan. With the construction of the Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array, a new era of studying planet-forming disks has started. The unprecedented leap in sensitivity and angular resolution that ALMA offers, has truely revolutionized our understanding of disks. No longer featureless objects consisting of gas and smalll dust, they are now seen to harbor a rich structure and chemistry. The ongoing planet-formation process sculpts many disks into systems of rings and arcs; grains grown to millimeter-sizes collect in high-pressure areas where they could grow out to asteroids or comets or further generations of planets. This wealth of new information directly addresses bottlenecks in our theoretical understanding of planet formation, such as the question how grains can grow past the 'meter-sized' barrier or overcome the 'drift barrier', and how gas and ice evolve together and ultimately determine the elemental compositions of both giant and terrestrial planets. I will review the recent ALMA results on protoplanetary disks, presenting results on individual objects and from the first populations studies. I will conclude with a forward look, on what we might expect from ALMA in this area for the years and decades to come.

  15. CLINICAL AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS OF THORACOLUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISK EXTRUSIONS AND PROTRUSIONS IN LARGE BREED DOGS.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sergio A; Volk, Holger A; Packer, Rowena Ma; Kenny, Patrick J; Beltran, Elsa; De Decker, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Treatment recommendations differ for dogs with intervertebral disk extrusion vs. intervertebral disk protrusion. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine whether clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables could be used to predict a diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion in dogs. Dogs were included if they were large breed dogs, had an MRI study of the thoracolumbar or lumbar vertebral column, had undergone spinal surgery, and had the type of intervertebral disk herniation (intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion) clearly stated in surgical reports. A veterinary neurologist unaware of surgical findings reviewed MRI studies and recorded number, location, degree of degeneration and morphology of intervertebral disks, presence of nuclear clefts, disk space narrowing, extent, localization and lateralization of herniated disk material, degree of spinal cord compression, intraparenchymal intensity changes, spondylosis deformans, spinal cord swelling, spinal cord atrophy, vertebral endplate changes, and presence of extradural hemorrhage. Ninety-five dogs were included in the sample. Multivariable statistical models indicated that longer duration of clinical signs (P = 0.01), midline instead of lateralized disk herniation (P = 0.007), and partial instead of complete disk degeneration (P = 0.01) were associated with a diagnosis of intervertebral disk protrusion. The presence of a single intervertebral herniation (P = 0.023) and dispersed intervertebral disk material not confined to the disk space (P = 0.06) made a diagnosis of intervertebral disk extrusion more likely. Findings from this study identified one clinical and four MRI variables that could potentially facilitate differentiating intervertebral disk extrusions from protrusions in dogs. PMID:27038182

  16. The Kozai-Lidov mechanism in hydrodynamical disks. II. Effects of binary and disk parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Wen; Lubow, Stephen H.; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2015-07-01

    Martin et al. (2014b) showed that a substantially misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai–Lidov (KL) oscillations. During these oscillations, the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are periodically exchanged. However, the robustness of this mechanism and its dependence on the system parameters were unexplored. In this paper, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to analyze how various binary and disk parameters affect the KL mechanism in hydrodynamical disks. The simulations include the effect of gas pressure and viscosity, but ignore the effects of disk self-gravity. We describe results for different numerical resolutions, binary mass ratios and orbital eccentricities, initial disk sizes, initial disk surface density profiles, disk sound speeds, and disk viscosities. We show that the KL mechanism can operate for a wide range of binary-disk parameters. We discuss the applications of our results to astrophysical disks in various accreting systems.

  17. THE KOZAI–LIDOV MECHANISM IN HYDRODYNAMICAL DISKS. II. EFFECTS OF BINARY AND DISK PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Wen; Lubow, Stephen H.; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2015-07-01

    Martin et al. showed that a substantially misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai–Lidov (KL) oscillations. During these oscillations, the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are periodically exchanged. However, the robustness of this mechanism and its dependence on the system parameters were unexplored. In this paper, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to analyze how various binary and disk parameters affect the KL mechanism in hydrodynamical disks. The simulations include the effect of gas pressure and viscosity, but ignore the effects of disk self-gravity. We describe results for different numerical resolutions, binary mass ratios and orbital eccentricities, initial disk sizes, initial disk surface density profiles, disk sound speeds, and disk viscosities. We show that the KL mechanism can operate for a wide range of binary-disk parameters. We discuss the applications of our results to astrophysical disks in various accreting systems.

  18. The Kozai–Lidov Mechanism in Hydrodynamical Disks. II. Effects of Binary and Disk Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wen; Lubow, Stephen H.; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2015-07-01

    Martin et al. showed that a substantially misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai–Lidov (KL) oscillations. During these oscillations, the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are periodically exchanged. However, the robustness of this mechanism and its dependence on the system parameters were unexplored. In this paper, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to analyze how various binary and disk parameters affect the KL mechanism in hydrodynamical disks. The simulations include the effect of gas pressure and viscosity, but ignore the effects of disk self-gravity. We describe results for different numerical resolutions, binary mass ratios and orbital eccentricities, initial disk sizes, initial disk surface density profiles, disk sound speeds, and disk viscosities. We show that the KL mechanism can operate for a wide range of binary-disk parameters. We discuss the applications of our results to astrophysical disks in various accreting systems.

  19. A spectral line survey of the starless and proto-stellar cores detected by BLAST toward the Vela-D molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ortiz, J. L.; Olmi, L.; Burton, M.; De Luca, M.; Elia, D.; Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Massi, F.; Strafella, F.

    2012-07-01

    Context. Starless cores represent a very early stage of the star formation process, before collapse results in the formation of a central protostar or a multiple system of protostars. Aims: We use spectral line observations of a sample of cold dust cores, previously detected with the BLAST telescope in the Vela-D molecular cloud, to perform a more accurate physical and kinematical analysis of the sources. Methods: We present a 3-mm and 1.3-cm survey conducted with the Mopra 22-m and Parkes 64-m radio telescopes of a sample of 40 cold dust cores, including both starless and proto-stellar sources. 20 objects were also mapped using molecular tracers of dense gas. To trace the dense gas we used the molecular species NH3, N2H+, HNC, HCO+, H13CO+, HCN and H13CN, where some of them trace the more quiescent gas, while others are sensitive to more dynamical processes. Results: The selected cores have a wide variety of morphological types and also show physical and chemical variations, which may be associated to different evolutionary phases. We find evidence of systematic motions in both starless and proto-stellar cores and we detect line wings in many of the proto-stellar cores. Our observations probe linear distances in the sources ≳ 0.1 pc, and are thus sensitive mainly to molecular gas in the envelope of the cores. In this region we do find that, for example, the radial profile of the N2H+(1-0) emission falls off more quickly than that of C-bearing molecules such as HNC(1-0), HCO+(1-0) and HCN(1-0). We also analyze the correlation between several physical and chemical parameters and the dynamics of the cores. Conclusions: Depending on the assumptions made to estimate the virial mass, we find that many starless cores have masses below the self-gravitating threshold, whereas most of the proto-stellar cores have masses which are near or above the self-gravitating critical value. An analysis of the median properties of the starless and proto-stellar cores suggests that

  20. THICK-DISK EVOLUTION INDUCED BY THE GROWTH OF AN EMBEDDED THIN DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos, Alvaro; Helmi, Amina; Kazantzidis, Stelios E-mail: ahelmi@astro.rug.n E-mail: villalobos@oats.inaf.i

    2010-07-20

    We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the structural and kinematical properties of simulated thick disks induced by the growth of an embedded thin disk. The thick disks used in the present study originate from cosmologically common 5:1 encounters between initially thin primary disk galaxies and infalling satellites. The growing thin disks are modeled as static gravitational potentials and we explore a variety of growing-disk parameters that are likely to influence the response of thick disks. We find that the final thick-disk properties depend strongly on the total mass and radial scale length of the growing thin disk, and much less sensitively on its growth timescale and vertical scale height as well as the initial sense of thick-disk rotation. Overall, the growth of an embedded thin disk can cause a substantial contraction in both the radial and vertical direction, resulting in a significant decrease in the scale lengths and scale heights of thick disks. Kinematically, a growing thin disk can induce a notable increase in the mean rotation and velocity dispersions of thick-disk stars. We conclude that the reformation of a thin disk via gas accretion may play a significant role in setting the structure and kinematics of thick disks, and thus it is an important ingredient in models of thick-disk formation.

  1. THE PARKER INSTABILITY IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, L. F. S.; Sarson, G. R.; Shukurov, A.; Bushby, P. J.; Fletcher, A. E-mail: graeme.sarson@newcastle.ac.uk E-mail: paul.bushby@newcastle.ac.uk

    2016-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the Parker instability in galactic disks using 3D numerical simulations. We consider a local Cartesian box section of a galactic disk, where gas, magnetic fields, and cosmic rays are all initially in a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. This is done for different choices of initial cosmic-ray density and magnetic field. The growth rates and characteristic scales obtained from the models, as well as their dependences on the density of cosmic rays and magnetic fields, are in broad agreement with previous (linearized, ideal) analytical work. However, this nonideal instability develops a multimodal 3D structure, which cannot be quantitatively predicted from the earlier linearized studies. This 3D signature of the instability will be of importance in interpreting observations. As a preliminary step toward such interpretations, we calculate synthetic polarized intensity and Faraday rotation measure (RM) maps, and the associated structure functions of the latter, from our simulations; these suggest that the correlation scales inferred from RM maps are a possible probe for the cosmic-ray content of a given galaxy. Our calculations highlight the importance of cosmic rays in these measures, making them an essential ingredient of realistic models of the interstellar medium.

  2. The Parker Instability in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, L. F. S.; Sarson, G. R.; Shukurov, A.; Bushby, P. J.; Fletcher, A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the Parker instability in galactic disks using 3D numerical simulations. We consider a local Cartesian box section of a galactic disk, where gas, magnetic fields, and cosmic rays are all initially in a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. This is done for different choices of initial cosmic-ray density and magnetic field. The growth rates and characteristic scales obtained from the models, as well as their dependences on the density of cosmic rays and magnetic fields, are in broad agreement with previous (linearized, ideal) analytical work. However, this nonideal instability develops a multimodal 3D structure, which cannot be quantitatively predicted from the earlier linearized studies. This 3D signature of the instability will be of importance in interpreting observations. As a preliminary step toward such interpretations, we calculate synthetic polarized intensity and Faraday rotation measure (RM) maps, and the associated structure functions of the latter, from our simulations; these suggest that the correlation scales inferred from RM maps are a possible probe for the cosmic-ray content of a given galaxy. Our calculations highlight the importance of cosmic rays in these measures, making them an essential ingredient of realistic models of the interstellar medium.

  3. THE COSMIC BATTERY IN ASTROPHYSICAL ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Nathanail, Antonios; Katsanikas, Matthaios

    2015-06-01

    The aberrated radiation pressure at the inner edge of the accretion disk around an astrophysical black hole imparts a relative azimuthal velocity on the electrons with respect to the ions which gives rise to a ring electric current that generates large-scale poloidal magnetic field loops. This is the Cosmic Battery established by Contopoulos and Kazanas in 1998. In the present work we perform realistic numerical simulations of this important astrophysical mechanism in advection-dominated accretion flows, ADAFs. We confirm the original prediction that the inner parts of the loops are continuously advected toward the central black hole and contribute to the growth of the large-scale magnetic field, whereas the outer parts of the loops are continuously diffusing outward through the turbulent accretion flow. This process of inward advection of the axial field and outward diffusion of the return field proceeds all the way to equipartition, thus generating astrophysically significant magnetic fields on astrophysically relevant timescales. We confirm that there exists a critical value of the magnetic Prandtl number between unity and 10 in the outer disk above which the Cosmic Battery mechanism is suppressed.

  4. ICE LINES IN CIRCUMBINARY PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Clanton, Christian

    2013-05-01

    I examine the position of the ice line in circumbinary disks heated by steady mass accretion and stellar irradiation and compare with the critical semimajor axis, interior to which planetary orbits are unstable. There is a critical binary separation, dependent on the binary parameters and disk properties, for which binaries with separations larger than this critical value have ice lines that lie interior to the boundary of stability. For an equal-mass binary comprised of 1 M{sub Sun} components, this critical separation is Almost-Equal-To 1.04 AU, and scales weakly with mass accretion rate and Rosseland mean opacity ({proportional_to}[ M-dot {kappa}{sub R}]{sup 2/9}). Assuming a steady mass accretion rate of M-dot {approx}10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a Rosseland mean opacity of {kappa}{sub R} {approx} 1 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}, I show that {approx}> 80% of all binary systems with component masses M{sub *} {approx}< 2.0 M{sub Sun} have ice lines that lie interior to the critical semimajor axis. This suggests that rocky planets should not form in these systems, a prediction which can be tested by looking for planets around binaries with separations larger than the critical separation with Kepler (difficult) and with microlensing.

  5. Streaming potential near a rotating porous disk.

    PubMed

    Prieve, Dennis C; Sides, Paul J

    2014-09-23

    Theory and experimental results for the streaming potential measured in the vicinity of a rotating porous disk-shaped sample are described. Rotation of the sample on its axis draws liquid into its face and casts it from the periphery. Advection within the sample engenders streaming current and streaming potential that are proportional to the zeta potential and the disk's major dimensions. When Darcy's law applies, the streaming potential is proportional to the square of the rotation at low rate but becomes invariant with rotation at high rate. The streaming potential is invariant with the sample's permeability at low rate and is proportional to the inverse square of the permeability at high rate. These predictions were tested by determining the zeta potential and permeability of the loop side of Velcro, a sample otherwise difficult to characterize; reasonable values of -56 mV for zeta and 8.7 × 10(-9) m(2) for the permeability were obtained. This approach offers the ability to determine both the zeta potential and the permeability of materials having open structures. Compressing them into a porous plug is unnecessary. As part of the development of the theory, a convenient formula for a flow-weighted volume-averaged space-charge density of the porous medium, -εζ/k, was obtained, where ε is the permittivity, ζ is the zeta potential, and k is the Darcy permeability. The formula is correct when Smoluchowski's equation and Darcy's law are both valid.

  6. Disk storage management for LHCb based on Data Popularity estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hushchyn, Mikhail; Charpentier, Philippe; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an algorithm providing recommendations for optimizing the LHCb data storage. The LHCb data storage system is a hybrid system. All datasets are kept as archives on magnetic tapes. The most popular datasets are kept on disks. The algorithm takes the dataset usage history and metadata (size, type, configuration etc.) to generate a recommendation report. This article presents how we use machine learning algorithms to predict future data popularity. Using these predictions it is possible to estimate which datasets should be removed from disk. We use regression algorithms and time series analysis to find the optimal number of replicas for datasets that are kept on disk. Based on the data popularity and the number of replicas optimization, the algorithm minimizes a loss function to find the optimal data distribution. The loss function represents all requirements for data distribution in the data storage system. We demonstrate how our algorithm helps to save disk space and to reduce waiting times for jobs using this data.

  7. Constraining Collisional Models of Planetesimals in Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Steele, Amy; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Tahli Maddison, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Debris disks around main-sequence stars are produced by the ongoing collisional erosion of planetesimals, analogous to Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) or comets in our own Solar System. Observations of these dusty belts offer a window into the physical and dynamical properties of planetesimals in extrasolar systems through the size distribution of dust grains. In particular, the millimeter/radio spectral index of thermal dust emission encodes information on the grain size distribution that can be used to test proposed collisional models of planetesimals. We have made sensitive Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) observations of a sample of 7 nearby debris disks at 9 mm and combine these with archival Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 8 additional debris disks at 7 mm. Using measurements at (sub)millimeter wavelengths from the literature, we place tight constraints on the millimeter spectral indices and thus grain size distributions of this sample of debris disks. Our analysis gives a weighted mean for the slope of the power-law grain distribution that is close to the classical prediction for a steady-state collisional cascade (q=3.5), but not consistent with the steeper distributions predicted by recent models that include more complex fragmentation processes. To interpret this result, we explore the effects of material strengths, velocity distributions, and small-size cutoffs on the steady-state grain size distribution.

  8. The chemical history of molecules in circumstellar disks. I. Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Doty, S. D.; Dullemond, C. P.

    2009-03-01

    Context: Many chemical changes occur during the collapse of a molecular cloud to form a low-mass star and the surrounding disk. One-dimensional models have been used so far to analyse these chemical processes, but they cannot properly describe the incorporation of material into disks. Aims: The goal of this work is to understand how material changes chemically as it is transported from the cloud to the star and the disk. Of special interest is the chemical history of the material in the disk at the end of the collapse. Methods: A two-dimensional, semi-analytical model is presented that, for the first time, follows the chemical evolution from the pre-stellar core to the protostar and circumstellar disk. The model computes infall trajectories from any point in the cloud and tracks the radial and vertical motion of material in the viscously evolving disk. It includes a full time-dependent radiative transfer treatment of the dust temperature, which controls much of the chemistry. A small parameter grid is explored to understand the effects of the sound speed and the mass and rotation of the cloud. The freeze-out and evaporation of carbon monoxide (CO) and water (H2O), as well as the potential for forming complex organic molecules in ices, are considered as important first steps towards illustrating the full chemistry. Results: Both species freeze out towards the centre before the collapse begins. Pure CO ice evaporates during the infall phase and re-adsorbs in those parts of the disk that cool below the CO desorption temperature of ~18 K. Water remains solid almost everywhere during the infall and disk formation phases and evaporates within ~10 AU of the star. Mixed CO-H2O ices are important in keeping some solid CO above 18 K and in explaining the presence of CO in comets. Material that ends up in the planet- and comet-forming zones of the disk (~5-30 AU from the star) is predicted to spend enough time in a warm zone (several 104 yr at a dust temperature of 20-40 K