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Sample records for prototype superfluid helium

  1. Cavitation in flowing superfluid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daney, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Flowing superfluid helium cavitates much more readily than normal liquid helium, and there is a marked difference in the cavitation behavior of the two fluids as the lambda point is traversed. Examples of cavitation in a turbine meter and centrifugal pump are given, together with measurements of the cavitation strength of flowing superfluid helium. The unusual cavitation behavior of superfluid helium is attributed to its immense thermal conductivity .

  2. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  3. Helium superfluidity. Shapes and vorticities of superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Luis F; Ferguson, Ken R; Cryan, James P; Bacellar, Camila; Tanyag, Rico Mayro P; Jones, Curtis; Schorb, Sebastian; Anielski, Denis; Belkacem, Ali; Bernando, Charles; Boll, Rebecca; Bozek, John; Carron, Sebastian; Chen, Gang; Delmas, Tjark; Englert, Lars; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Hexemer, Alexander; Huth, Martin; Kwok, Justin; Leone, Stephen R; Ma, Jonathan H S; Maia, Filipe R N C; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Neumark, Daniel M; Poon, Billy; Prell, James; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Seifrid, Martin; Siefermann, Katrin R; Sturm, Felix P; Swiggers, Michele; Ullrich, Joachim; Weise, Fabian; Zwart, Petrus; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver; Vilesov, Andrey F

    2014-08-22

    Helium nanodroplets are considered ideal model systems to explore quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, exploring the dynamic properties of individual droplets is experimentally challenging. In this work, we used single-shot femtosecond x-ray coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the rotation of single, isolated superfluid helium-4 droplets containing ~10(8) to 10(11) atoms. The formation of quantum vortex lattices inside the droplets is confirmed by observing characteristic Bragg patterns from xenon clusters trapped in the vortex cores. The vortex densities are up to five orders of magnitude larger than those observed in bulk liquid helium. The droplets exhibit large centrifugal deformations but retain axially symmetric shapes at angular velocities well beyond the stability range of viscous classical droplets. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium…

  5. Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium…

  6. Vorticity matching in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, David C.

    1991-12-01

    Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'

  7. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.; Anderson, John E.; Gille, John P.; Martin, Tim A.; Marino, John S.; Paynter, Howard L.; Traill, R. Eric; Herzl, Alfred; Gotlib, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Replenishment of superfluid helium (SFHe) offers the potential of extending the on-orbit life of observatories, satellite instruments, sensors and laboratories which operate in the 2 K temperature regime. A reference set of resupply customers was identified as representing realistic helium servicing requirements and interfaces for the first 10 years of superfluid helium tanker (SFHT) operations. These included the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (Astromag), and the Microgravity and Materials Processing Sciences Facility (MMPS)/Critical Point Phenomena Facility (CPPF). A mixed-fleet approach to SFHT utilization was considered. The tanker permits servicing from the Shuttle cargo bay, in situ when attached to the OMV and carried to the user spacecraft, and as a depot at the Space Station. A SFHT Dewar ground servicing concept was developed which uses a dedicated ground cooling heat exchanger to convert all the liquid, after initial fill as normal fluid, to superfluid for launch. This concept permits the tanker to be filled to a near full condition, and then cooled without any loss of fluid. The final load condition can be saturated superfluid with any desired ullage volume, or the tank can be totally filed and pressurized. The SFHT Dewar and helium plumbing system design has sufficient component redundancy to meet fail-operational, fail-safe requirements, and is designed structurally to meet a 50 mission life usage requirement. Technology development recommendations were made for the selected SFHT concept, and a Program Plan and cost estimate prepared for a phase C/D program spanning 72 months from initiation through first launch in 1997.

  8. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Kittel, P.

    1988-07-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  9. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  10. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The accomplishments and recommendations of the two-phase Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study are presented. During the first phase of the study, the emphasis was on defining a comprehensive set of user requirements, establishing SFHT interface parameters and design requirements, and selecting a fluid subsystem design concept. During the second phase, an overall system design concept was constructed based on appropriate analyses and more detailed definition of requirements. Modifications needed to extend the baseline for use with cryogens other than SFHT have been determined, and technology development needs related to the recommended design have been assessed.

  11. Superfluid helium leak sealant study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-one leak specimens were fabricated in the ends of stainless steel and aluminum tubes. Eighteen of these tubes were coated with a copolymer material to seal the leak. The other three specimens were left uncoated and served as control specimens. All 21 tubes were cold shocked in liquid helium 50 times and then the leak rate was measured while the tubes were submerged in superfluid helium at 1.7 K. During the cold shocks two of the coated specimens were mechanically damaged and eliminated from the test program. Of the remaining 16 coated specimens one suffered a total coating failure and resulting high leak rate. Another three of the coated specimens suffered partial coating failures. The leak rates of the uncoated specimens were also measured and reported. The significance of various leak rates is discussed in view of the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Dewar performance.

  12. Detection of charged particles in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Bandler, Simon R.

    1994-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the use of a large superfluid helium detector for the detection of solar neutrinos. A small-scale prototype of this type of detector has been constructed and tested. In this thesis the author discussed in detail the design of the apparatus, the experiments which have been carried out, and what has been learned about the important physical processes involved in this type of detector. These processes include the anisotropic generation of phonons and rotons by the recoiling particle, the propagation of the phonons and rotons in the liquid, the evaporation process at the liquid surface, and the adsorption of the helium atoms onto the wafers. In addition he discusses the generation and detection of fluorescent photons from recoiling particles. The implications of these results to the design of a full-scale detector of neutrinos are discussed.

  13. Rotons, Superfluidity, and Helium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balibar, Sebastien

    2006-09-07

    Fritz London understood that quantum mechanics could show up at the macroscopic level, and, in 1938, he proposed that superfluidity was a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation. However, Lev Landau never believed in London's ideas; instead, he introduced quasiparticles to explain the thermodynamics of superfluid 4He and a possible mechanism for its critical velocity. One of these quasiparticles, a crucial one, was his famous ''roton'' which he considered as an elementary vortex. At the LT0 conference (Cambridge, 1946), London criticized Landau and his ''theory based on the shaky grounds of imaginary rotons''. Despite their rather strong disagreement, Landau was awarded the London prize in 1960, six years after London's death. Today, we know that London and Landau had both found part of the truth: BEC takes place in 4He, and rotons exist.In my early experiments on quantum evaporation, I found direct evidence for the existence of rotons and for evaporation processes in which they play the role of photons in the photoelectric effect. But rotons are now considered as particular phonons which are nearly soft, due to some local order in superfluid 4He. Later we studied helium crystals which are model systems for the general study of crystal surfaces, but also exceptional systems with unique quantum properties. In our recent studies of nucleation, rotons show their importance again: by using acoustic techniques, we have extended the study of liquid 4He up to very high pressures where the liquid state is metastable, and we wish to demonstrate that the vanishing of the roton gap may destroy superfluidity and trigger an instability towards the crystalline state.

  14. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  15. Radioactive Ions and Atoms in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; ńystö, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W. X.

    2006-04-01

    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve the extraction. Evaporating a thin surface layer of the liquid using second-sound pulses gave an extraction efficiency of 7.2 %.

  16. Three Dimensional Particle Tracking in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megson, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Superfluid helium is a macroscopic quantum state which exhibits exotic physical properties, such as flow without friction and ballistic heat transport. Superfluid flow is irrotational except about line-like topological phase defects with quantized circulation, known as quatized vortices. The presence of these vortices and their dynamics is the dominating factor of turbulence in superfluid flows. One commonly studied regime of superfluid turbulence is thermal counterflow, where a local heat flux drives the formation and growth of a tangle of vortices. This talk will present experimental studies of counterflow turbulence performed using a multi-camera three-dimensional imaging apparatus with micron-sized ice tracer particles as well as fluorescent nanoparticles. In particular, we will discuss the measurement of three-dimensional velocties and their autocorrelations. Additionally, we are developing new techniques for optical studies of bulk superfluid helium, with particular focus on characterizing tracer particles and particle dispersal mechanisms. Funding from NSF DMR-1407472.

  17. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  18. Superfluid Helium from the Macroscopic to the Microscopic

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sciver, Steven W. (Florida State University

    2004-02-11

    Superfluid helium, first discovered in the 1930s, continues to provide scientists with a fascinating physical system rich with phenomena that challenge experimental and theoretical investigators. Moreover, much of the recent interest in superfluid helium has emanated from the wide range of technical applications for the fluid. The combination of anomalous heat transport, low viscosity and low temperature makes superfluid helium an ideal medium for cooling technologies that range from particle accelerators such as the LHC to space infrared telescopes like the recently launched SIRTF. In turn, these applications have inspired new basic investigations of the fluid dynamic behavior of superfluid helium. The presentation will review some of the macroscopic applications for superfluid helium and the relevant superfluid phenomena that support these applications. With the audience sufficiently motivated, we will turn to recent research on the transport properties of superfluid helium culminating in microscale investigations that may provide new insight into the basic physics of superfluid helium.

  19. Cosmological experiments in superfluid helium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, W. H.

    1985-10-01

    Symmetry breaking phase transitions occurring in the early Universe are expected to leave behind long-lived topologically stabel structures such as monopoles, strings or domain walls. The author discusses the analogy between cosmological strings and vortex lines in the superfluid, and suggests a cryogenic experiment which tests key elements of the cosmological scenario for string formation. In a superfluid obtained through a rapid pressure quench, the phase of the Bose condensate wavefunction - the 4He analogue of the broken symmetry of the field-theoretic vacuum - will be chosen randomly in domains of some characteristic size d. When the quench is performed in an annulus of circumference C the typical value of the phase mismatch around the loop will be ≡(C/d)1/2. The resulting phase gradient can be sufficiently large to cause the superfluid to flow with a measurable, randomly directed velocity.

  20. Fiber-Cavity Optomechanics with Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Kashkanova, Anna D.; Shkarin, Alexey B.; Hoch, Scott W.; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Harris, Jack G. E.

    2014-03-01

    In a typical optomechanical device, the resonance frequency of a cavity is coupled to mechanical motion through the radiation pressure force. To date, experimental cavities have predominately coupled to a resonant mechanical mode of a solid structure, often a lithographically-defined beam or membrane. We will describe our progress towards realizing an optomechanical device in which an optical fiber-cavity couples to the acoustic modes of superfluid helium. In this system, the optical modes and the acoustic modes of the superfluid are co-located between the mirrored ends of two fiber optic cables. Changes in the density of the superfluid change the effective length of the cavity which results in a standard, linear optomechanical coupling between the 300 MHz acoustic resonances and the 200 THz optical resonances. This type of device is motivated by the self-aligning nature of the acoustic and optical modes (which eases the difficulties of operating at cryogenic temperatures) and by the low optical and mechanical losses of superfluid helium. Although we expect the mechanical quality factor to be limited by acoustic radiation into the glass fiber, we will describe a proposal to realize a dual-band Bragg mirror to confine the optical and acoustic modes more efficiently. Supported by NSF Grant #1106110, ARO Grant #W911NF-13-1-0104, and the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  1. Substrate Effects in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Stephen Chris

    1990-01-01

    The self emptying beaker technique was used to study the superfluid properties of ^3He confined in the van der Waals film adsorbed on the surface of a metal beaker. The experimental cell was designed to minimize thermal gradients along the ^3 He film. In contrast to the results of an earlier experiment by Sachrajda et al, which suggested that film flow occurred at temperatures as high as 3.5 mK (SACH-85), no flow was observed above the bulk transition temperature T_sp{rm c}{rm B} = 0.93 mK. The transition temperatures measured using round rim beakers agreed with theory, giving the predicted normal-superfluid phase boundary 2 delta/xi(T) = pi, where delta is the film thickness and xi(T) is the temperature dependent coherence length. The ^3He film thickness was inferred from Atkins' oscillation measurements of ^4He films on the same substrate. When a ^4He monolayer was adsorbed on the surface of a copper beaker, it suppressed the diffuse scattering of ^3He quasiparticles at the copper wall, an effect first observed by Freeman et al using a mylar substrate (FRMN-88). With the ^4He monolayer in place, there was no measurable suppression of the transition temperature, even for films as thin as 100 nm. This suggests that the ^3 He quasiparticle scattering at the free liquid surface as well as the ^4He covered substrate was specular. This is the first evidence of the nature of the scattering at the free surface. After the ^3He level in the beaker had dropped between 15 and 85 mu m, the flow rate abruptly dropped by a factor to ten or more. This may be associated with the transition between the superfluid B-phase, expected in thick films, and the superfluid A-phase, expected in thin films. The observed critical currents are roughly an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by the pair breaking limit, suggesting some other dissipation mechanism is responsible for limiting the current.

  2. Tkachenko waves in rotating superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Andereck, C.D.; Chalupa, J.; Glaberson, W.I.

    1980-01-07

    The resonant response of a stack of disks driven into torsional oscillation within a container of rotating superfluid helium has been observed. It is shown that the oscillation modes excited are related to Tkachenko waves, that is, vortex displacement waves in the vortex array propagating in a direction transverse to the vortex lines. In particular, the resonances occur at peaks in the vortex wave density of states.

  3. Particle-Vortex Interaction in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2008-11-01

    The application of the classical Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in liquid helium has opened the way to better visualization of superfluid turbulence. To interpret the data, it is necessary to understand the interaction between micron-size tracer particles and vortex lines. This talk summarizes current understanding of this interaction resulting from theoretical and numerical calculations. In collaboration with Yuri A. Sergeev, Newcastle University.

  4. Growing metal nanoparticles in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M; Spence, Daniel; Feng, Cheng; Boatwright, Adrian; Latimer, Elspeth; Binns, Chris

    2013-12-07

    Helium droplets provide a cold and confined environment where atomic and/or molecular dopants can aggregate into clusters and nanoparticles. In particular, the sequential addition of different materials to helium droplets can lead to the formation of a wide range of nanoparticles, including core-shell nanoparticles, which can then be deposited onto a surface. Here we briefly discuss the fundamental properties of helium droplets and then address their implications for the formation of clusters and nanoparticles. Several key experiments on atomic and molecular clusters will be highlighted and new results obtained for nanoparticles formed in this way will be presented. Finally, the versatility, the limitations and new possibilities provided by superfluid helium droplets in nanoscience and nanotechnology will be addressed.

  5. Photochemistry of 3-hydroxyflavone inside superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnig, R.; Pentlehner, D.; Vdovin, A.; Dick, B.; Slenczka, A.

    2009-11-21

    3-hydroxyflavone is a prototype system for excited state intramolecular proton transfer which is one step of a closed loop photocycle. It was intensively studied for the bare molecule and for the influence of solvents. In the present paper this photocycle is investigated for 3-hydroxyflavone and some hydrated complexes when doped into superfluid helium droplets by the combined measurement of fluorescence excitation spectra and dispersed emission spectra. Significant discrepancies in the proton transfer behavior to gas phase experiments provide evidence for the presence of different complex configurations of the hydrated complexes in helium droplets. Moreover, for bare 3-hydroxyflavone and its hydrated complexes the proton transfer appears to be promoted by the helium environment.

  6. Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Gregory P.; Paoletti, Matthew S.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately ½, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790

  7. A superfluid helium system for an LST IR experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, R. W., Jr.; Moore, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study program directed toward evaluating the problems associated with cooling an LST instrument to 2 K for a year by using superfluid helium as the cooling means. The results include the parametric analysis of systems using helium only, and systems using helium plus a shield cryogen. A baseline system, using helium only is described. The baseline system is sized for an instrument heat leak of 50 mw. It contains 71 Kg of superfluid helium and has a total, filled weight of 217 Kg. A brief assessment of the technical problems associated with a long life, spaceborne superfluid helium storage system is also made. It is concluded that a one year life, superfluid helium cooling system is feasible, pending experimental verification of a suitable low g vent system.

  8. The influence of superfluidity on impurities condensation in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, E. B.

    2012-11-01

    All major aspects of the influence of superfluidity in He II on the processes of condensation of impurities suspended in it have been analyzed. Particular attention is given to the recently discovered phenomenon of impurities coalescence catalysis by quantized vortices in superfluid helium. The presence of quantized vortices not only tremendously accelerates the condensation process for any substance introduced into liquid helium but also gives rise to a completely new product—long and thin nanowires. The role of local overheating, which accompanies coalescence of particles inside superfluid helium, in formation of morphology and structure of impurity-helium condensates, including molecular crystals containing stabilized active atoms, is elucidated.

  9. Particle Image Velocimetry in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzier, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique has been expanded recently to the very low temperature environment to study the unique behavior of superfluid helium. Superfluid helium (He II) is a peculiar fluid with apparent zero viscosity and extraordinary heat transfer capabilities. The model that is traditionally used to explain this behavior considers He II to be made of two interpenetrating fluid components, one being viscous and the other being non-viscous. Recently, the PIV technique has been introduced to He II experimentation in an attempt to visualize the unique transport properties. As part of this effort, appropriate particles and seeding techniques have been developed for this low temperature fluid in order to measure the velocities of these internal flows. Initially, it was expected that the particles would track the viscous fluid component of He II, but several recent experiments have demonstrated their interaction with the non viscous fluid component as well. In order to fully benefit from the PIV technique to increase our knowledge and understanding of this unique fluid, the motion of the particles needs to be understood in terms of the motion of the two fluid components. An experiment combining heat transfer and forced flow allows one to independently vary these two component velocities and correlate them with the velocity of the seeded particles. In collaboration with Ernesto Bosque, Ting Xu, and Steven Van Sciver, NHMFL / Florida State University.

  10. Acquisition system testing with superfluid helium. [cryopumping for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John E.; Fester, Dale A.; Dipirro, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Minus one-g outflow tests were conducted with superfluid helium in conjunction with a thermomechanical pump setup in order to study the use of capillary acquisition systems for NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment. Results show that both fine mesh screen and porous sponge systems are capable of supplying superfluid helium to the thermomechanical pump inlet against a one-g head up to 4 cm, fulfilling the SHOOT requirements. Sponge results were found to be reproducible, while the screen results were not.

  11. Acquisition system testing with superfluid helium. [cryopumping for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John E.; Fester, Dale A.; Dipirro, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Minus one-g outflow tests were conducted with superfluid helium in conjunction with a thermomechanical pump setup in order to study the use of capillary acquisition systems for NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment. Results show that both fine mesh screen and porous sponge systems are capable of supplying superfluid helium to the thermomechanical pump inlet against a one-g head up to 4 cm, fulfilling the SHOOT requirements. Sponge results were found to be reproducible, while the screen results were not.

  12. Observation of a superfluid component within solid helium.

    PubMed

    Lauter, H; Apaja, V; Kalinin, I; Kats, E; Koza, M; Krotscheck, E; Lauter, V V; Puchkov, A V

    2011-12-23

    We demonstrate by neutron scattering that a localized superfluid component exists at high pressures within solid helium in aerogel. Its existence is deduced from the observation of two sharp phonon-roton spectra which are clearly distinguishable from modes in bulk superfluid helium. These roton excitations exhibit different roton gap parameters than the roton observed in the bulk fluid at freezing pressure. One of the roton modes disappears after annealing the samples. Comparison with theoretical calculations suggests that the model that reproduces the observed data best is that of superfluid double layers within the solid and at the helium-substrate interface.

  13. Design and construction of a prototype superfluid helium cryostat for the short straight sections of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, W.; Jenny, B.; Riddone, G.; Rohmig, P.; Weelderen, R. van

    1994-12-31

    The lattice of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will contain 384 Short Straight Section (SSS) units, one in every 51 m half-cell. A Short Straight Section is composed of a twin aperture high-field superconducting quadrupole, two combined-function corrector magnets, and quench protection diodes, all operating in pressurised helium II at 1.9 K. The SSS cryostat also contains a barrier for sectoring the insulation vacuum, and a Technical Service Module housing beam diagnostics, current feedthroughs and instrumentation capillaries, as well as cryogenic valves and pipework serving the local half-cell cooling loop. The helium vessel with its magnets, weighing about 6000 kg, stands on two low heat leak supports. Separate vacuum manifolds permit pumping the beam pipes every 51 m. Two thermal insulation systems, the radiative insulation and a gaseous helium cooled thermal shield, intercept incoming radiative and conductive heat. All these components must be arranged to perform without interference and within the tight constraints of minimum transverse and longitudinal space occupancy. The design and function of the prototype SSS and its main features, covering mechanical and thermal aspects as well a construction details, are described.

  14. Transient heat transfer in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1981-01-01

    According to the Goerter-Mellink law, the heat flux in superfluid helium is proportional to the cube root of the temperature gradient. If we use this proportionality in place of Fourier's linear law to derive an equation of heat conduction, we obtain a non-linear partial differential equation. Such equations are usually difficult to solve because we cannot superpose solutions to obtain others. In spite of this, the problem of this paper, the constant-flux problem, can be solved because its temperature profiles are self-similar. Self-similarity means that the temperature profile at one time can be obtained from that at a different time by suitable (different) stretching of the distance and temperature axes of the latter profle. The self-similarity of the temperature profiles is connected with the invariance of the non-linear partial differential equation to certain groups of transformations. We reduce the partial differential equation of heat conduction to an ordinary differential equation, the appropriate solution of which we find without extensive computation. The reduction involves the similarity variables ..delta..T/..sqrt..t and z/..sqrt..t, where ..delta..T is the temperature rise at a distance z from the heated face at a time t after the (constant) heating has begun. Use of these variables should, and does, reduce all of the experimental temperature profiles reported by van Sciver to a single, universal curve. We obtain this curve as well by solving the differential equation; agreement is excellent. In fact agreement with all the experimental data reported by van Sciver is excellent, so that the Goerter-Mellink law seems to be a very successful basis for describing transient heat transfer in superfluid helium.

  15. Robust Ferromagnetism of Chromium Nanoparticles Formed in Superfluid Helium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengfu; Feng, Cheng; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Latimer, Elspeth; Ellis, Andrew M; Binns, Chris; Peddis, Davide; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yafei; Trohidou, Kalliopi N; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Ntallis, Nikolaos; MacLaren, Ian; de Groot, Frank M F

    2017-01-01

    Chromium nanoparticles are formed using superfluid helium droplets as the nanoreactors, which are strongly ferromagnetic. The transition from antiferromagentism to ferromagnetism is attributed to atomic-scale disorder in chromium nanoparticles, leading to abundant unbalanced surface spins. Theoretical modeling confirms a frustrated aggregation process in superfluid helium due to the antiferromagnetic nature of chromium. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W. X.; Dendooven, P.; Gloos, K.; Takahashi, N.; Arutyunov, K.; Pekola, J. P.; Äystö, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyväskylä, Finland. An open 223Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling 219Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  17. Superfluid helium-4 interferometers: construction and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Aditya Ajit

    This dissertation has two main goals: to highlight some new results in the field of superfluid 4He interferometry and to provide an in-depth, "hands-on" guide to the physics, design, construction, testing and operation of a continuously operating, fluxlocked 4 He dc-SHeQUID (Superfluid Helium Quantum Interference Device). Many of these topics haven't really been addressed in writing and the hapless new experimenter seeking to develop a SHeQUID is generally forced to reinvent the wheel rather than start at the frontier and push it forward. We would like to prevent that by making this a comprehensive guide to building and operating SHeQUIDs. We have optimized the fabrication of the nanoscale aperture arrays that are the very heart of the SHeQUID and resolved long-standing issues with their durability and long-term usability. A detailed report on this should assist in avoiding the many pitfalls that await those who fabricate and use these aperture arrays. We have constructed a new, modular SHeQUID that is designed to be easily adaptable to a wide array of proposed experiments without the necessity of rebuilding and reassembling key components like the displacement transducer. We have automated its working as a continuously operating, linearized (flux-locked) interferometer by using the so-called "chemical potential battery" in conjunction with a feedback system. We have also constructed a new reorientation system that is several orders of magnitude quieter than its predecessors. Together, these developments have allowed us to measure a changing rotation field in real time, a new development for this kind of device. We have also developed a module that allows control of the reorientation stage by automated data-taking software for investigating long-term drifts (by safely sweeping the stage back and forth). We have also investigated the chemical potential battery in further detail and report some fascinating nonlinear mode locking phenomena that have important

  18. Interaction of infrared light with impurity gels in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, A. N.; Efimov, V. B.

    2011-05-01

    Rapid cooling of an impurity-helium mixture into superfluid helium produces a distinctive soft matter—impurity-helium gel, clusters of which coagulate into nanoparticles. The sizes of the particles and their mutual interaction depend on the nature of the impurity atoms and the impurity-helium coupling. Here we describe the setup of and preliminary results from an experiment to study infrared absorption by a water-helium gel. Comparisons of the infrared absorption spectra of the gel and of water and ice suggests a peculiar interaction among water molecules in a water-helium gel.

  19. Decay of Finite Temperature Superfluid Helium-4 Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivotides, Demosthenes

    2015-10-01

    A mesoscopic model of superfluid helium-4, that describes the dynamics of individual topological defects of the ground state (superfluid vortices) and their (self-consistent) interactions with its quasi-particle excitations (normal-fluid), is solved numerically in order to analyse the physics of decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The calculations predict several temporal decay regimes not present in classical turbulence decay, the corresponding superfluid and normal-fluid energy spectra, and the experimentally observed scaling for the superfluid vortex line density at large times. The results demonstrate that the origin of this scaling is the energy spent by the superfluid in order to sustain a fluctuating low Reynolds number flow in the normal-fluid, and not the locking of turbulent superfluid and normal-fluid vorticities.

  20. Design and testing of a superfluid liquid helium cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, L.M.; Green, M.A.; Levin, S.M.; Smoot, G.F.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a cryogenic cooling loop that uses a thermomechanical pump to circulate superfluid liquid helium. The cooling loop test apparatus is designed to prove forced liquid helium flow concepts that will be used on the Astromag superconducting magnet facility. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Liquid acquisition devices for superfluid helium transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    To transfer superfluid helium (He II) in the milli-g or micro-g environment in orbit, it is necessary to provide a reasonably steady supply of liquid to the inlet of the pump in the supply dewar. To accomplish this without providing an artificial gravity through acceleration requires a liquid acquisition device. Fluid swirl and electrostatic devices have been proposed to orientate the fluid. However, the simplest mechanisms appear to be the use of surface tension or the thermomechanical effect. This paper examines four concepts for providing He II to the inlet of a thermomechanical pump. The devices are a distributed thermomechanical pump, a distributed pump with a main thermomechanical pump, a screened channel system and a vane/sponge combination. Calculations on the efficiency of these types of liquid acquisition devices are made using laboratory data from tests involving small scale devices where applicable. These calculations show that the latter two types of liquid acquisition devices are the most efficient. Questions as to the probability of cavitation and the effect of the residual shuttle acceleration on their operation remain to be answered, however.

  2. Liquid acquisition devices for superfluid helium transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    To transfer superfluid helium (He II) in the milli-g or micro-g environment in orbit, it is necessary to provide a reasonably steady supply of liquid to the inlet of the pump in the supply dewar. To accomplish this without providing an artificial gravity through acceleration requires a liquid acquisition device. Fluid swirl and electrostatic devices have been proposed to orientate the fluid. However, the simplest mechanisms appear to be the use of surface tension or the thermomechanical effect. This paper examines four concepts for providing He II to the inlet of a thermomechanical pump. The devices are a distributed thermomechanical pump, a distributed pump with a main thermomechanical pump, a screened channel system and a vane/sponge combination. Calculations on the efficiency of these types of liquid acquisition devices are made using laboratory data from tests involving small scale devices where applicable. These calculations show that the latter two types of liquid acquisition devices are the most efficient. Questions as to the probability of cavitation and the effect of the residual shuttle acceleration on their operation remain to be answered, however.

  3. Superfluid helium cryogenic systems for superconducting RF cavities at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, H.; Hara, K.; Honma, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Kojima, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Kanekiyo, T.; Morita, S.

    2014-01-29

    Recent accelerator projects at KEK, such as the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) for R and D of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project and the compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), employ superconducting RF cavities made of pure niobium, which can generate high gradient acceleration field. Since the operation temperature of these cavities is selected to be 2 K, we have developed two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for stable operation of superconducting RF cavities for each of STF and cERL. These two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems are identical in principle. Since the operation mode of the cavities is different for STF and cERL, i.e. the pulse mode for STF and the continuous wave mode for cERL, the heat loads from the cavities are quite different. The 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems mainly consists of ordinary helium liquefiers/refrigerators, 2 K refrigerator cold boxes, helium gas pumping systems and high-performance transfer lines. The 2 K refrigerators and the high-performance transfer lines are designed by KEK. Some superconducting RF cavity cryomodules have been already connected to the 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for STF and cERL respectively, and cooled down to 2 K successfully.

  4. A quantitative experiment on the fountain effect in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigó, M. L.; Herrera, T.; Neñer, L.; Peralta Gavensky, L.; Turco, F.; Luzuriaga, J.

    2017-09-01

    Superfluid helium, a state of matter existing at low temperatures, shows many remarkable properties. One example is the so called fountain effect, where a heater can produce a jet of helium. This converts heat into mechanical motion; a machine with no moving parts, but working only below 2 K. Allen and Jones first demonstrated the effect in 1938, but their work was basically qualitative. We now present data of a quantitative version of the experiment. We have measured the heat supplied, the temperature and the height of the jet produced. We also develop equations, based on the two-fluid model of superfluid helium, that give a satisfactory fit to the data. The experiment has been performed by advanced undergraduate students in our home institution, and illustrates in a vivid way some of the striking properties of the superfluid state.

  5. Energy spectra of finite temperature superfluid helium-4 turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kivotides, Demosthenes

    2014-10-15

    A mesoscopic model of finite temperature superfluid helium-4 based on coupled Langevin-Navier-Stokes dynamics is proposed. Drawing upon scaling arguments and available numerical results, a numerical method for designing well resolved, mesoscopic calculations of finite temperature superfluid turbulence is developed. The application of model and numerical method to the problem of fully developed turbulence decay in helium II, indicates that the spectral structure of normal-fluid and superfluid turbulence is significantly more complex than that of turbulence in simple-fluids. Analysis based on a forced flow of helium-4 at 1.3 K, where viscous dissipation in the normal-fluid is compensated by the Lundgren force, indicate three scaling regimes in the normal-fluid, that include the inertial, low wavenumber, Kolmogorov k{sup −5/3} regime, a sub-turbulence, low Reynolds number, fluctuating k{sup −2.2} regime, and an intermediate, viscous k{sup −6} range that connects the two. The k{sup −2.2} regime is due to normal-fluid forcing by superfluid vortices at high wavenumbers. There are also three scaling regimes in the superfluid, that include a k{sup −3} range that corresponds to the growth of superfluid vortex instabilities due to mutual-friction action, and an adjacent, low wavenumber, k{sup −5/3} regime that emerges during the termination of this growth, as superfluid vortices agglomerate between intense normal-fluid vorticity regions, and weakly polarized bundles are formed. There is also evidence of a high wavenumber k{sup −1} range that corresponds to the probing of individual-vortex velocity fields. The Kelvin waves cascade (the main dynamical effect in zero temperature superfluids) appears to be damped at the intervortex space scale.

  6. Superfluid helium II as the QCD vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2017-03-01

    We study the winding number susceptibility in a superfluid system and the topological susceptibility in QCD. We argue that both correlation functions exhibit similar structures, including the generation of the contact terms. We discuss the nature of the contact term in superfluid system and argue that it has exactly the same origin as in QCD, and it is related to the long distance physics which cannot be associated with conventional microscopical degrees of freedom such as phonons and rotons. We emphasize that the conceptual similarities between superfluid system and QCD may lead, hopefully, to a deeper understanding of the topological features of a superfluid system as well as the QCD vacuum.

  7. Germanium resistance thermometer calibration at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid increase in resistance of high purity semi-conducting germanium with decreasing temperature in the superfluid helium range of temperatures makes this material highly adaptable as a very sensitive thermometer. Also, a germanium thermometer exhibits a highly reproducible resistance versus temperature characteristic curve upon cycling between liquid helium temperatures and room temperature. These two factors combine to make germanium thermometers ideally suited for measuring temperatures in many cryogenic studies at superfluid helium temperatures. One disadvantage, however, is the relatively high cost of calibrated germanium thermometers. In space helium cryogenic systems, many such thermometers are often required, leading to a high cost for calibrated thermometers. The construction of a thermometer calibration cryostat and probe which will allow for calibrating six germanium thermometers at one time, thus effecting substantial savings in the purchase of thermometers is considered.

  8. Germanium resistance thermometer calibration at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid increase in resistance of high purity semi-conducting germanium with decreasing temperature in the superfluid helium range of temperatures makes this material highly adaptable as a very sensitive thermometer. Also, a germanium thermometer exhibits a highly reproducible resistance versus temperature characteristic curve upon cycling between liquid helium temperatures and room temperature. These two factors combine to make germanium thermometers ideally suited for measuring temperatures in many cryogenic studies at superfluid helium temperatures. One disadvantage, however, is the relatively high cost of calibrated germanium thermometers. In space helium cryogenic systems, many such thermometers are often required, leading to a high cost for calibrated thermometers. The construction of a thermometer calibration cryostat and probe which will allow for calibrating six germanium thermometers at one time, thus effecting substantial savings in the purchase of thermometers is considered.

  9. Shapes of rotating superfluid helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernando, Charles; Tanyag, Rico Mayro P.; Jones, Curtis; Bacellar, Camila; Bucher, Maximilian; Ferguson, Ken R.; Rupp, Daniela; Ziemkiewicz, Michael P.; Gomez, Luis F.; Chatterley, Adam S.; Gorkhover, Tais; Müller, Maria; Bozek, John; Carron, Sebastian; Kwok, Justin; Butler, Samuel L.; Möller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver; Vilesov, Andrey F.

    2017-02-01

    Rotating superfluid He droplets of approximately 1 μm in diameter were obtained in a free nozzle beam expansion of liquid He in vacuum and were studied by single-shot coherent diffractive imaging using an x-ray free electron laser. The formation of strongly deformed droplets is evidenced by large anisotropies and intensity anomalies (streaks) in the obtained diffraction images. The analysis of the images shows that in addition to previously described axially symmetric oblate shapes, some droplets exhibit prolate shapes. Forward modeling of the diffraction images indicates that the shapes of rotating superfluid droplets are very similar to their classical counterparts, giving direct access to the droplet angular momenta and angular velocities. The analyses of the radial intensity distribution and appearance statistics of the anisotropic images confirm the existence of oblate metastable superfluid droplets with large angular momenta beyond the classical bifurcation threshold.

  10. Superfluidity of Dense ^4Helium in Vycor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairallah, Saad; Ceperley, David

    2005-03-01

    We calculate properties of a model of ^4He in Vycor using the Path Integral Monte Carlo method to understand the recent experiments of Kim and Chan. In particular we calculate both the density and the superfluid response in the layers immediately above a rough vycor surface. In the second and third layers above the vycor, there is small but not insignificant delocalization caused by the strong density gradient and resulting incommensurate lattice structure. We also find that ^3He impurities tend to populate these layers, which reduces the superfluid density as is found in the experiment. Our results are consistent with the persistent liquid layer model to explain the observations.

  11. Positive ion extraction across the superfluid-vapor helium interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, S.; Peräjärvi, K.; Ranjan, M.; Saastamoinen, A.; Gloos, K.; Takahashi, N.; Dendooven, P.

    2009-02-01

    The extraction efficiency of positive Rn ions across the superfluid-vapor helium interface above ~1.3 K indicates that extraction results from thermal activation across a barrier of about 20 K. Below ~1.3 K, the extraction efficiency is constant at about 0.7%. The evaporation of the superfluid surface by second sound pulses has a negative impact on the ion extraction, but not on the ions themselves. It takes 3.2(6) s at 1.60 K and 15(6) s at 1.15 K for the extraction process to recover from a disturbed state of yet unknown nature.

  12. Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David J.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under a contract entitled 'Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low Gravity'. This project performed verification tests, over a wide range of accelerations of two Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes of which one incorporates the two-fluid model of superfluid helium (SFHe). Helium was first liquefied in 1908 and not until the 1930s were the properties of helium below 2.2 K observed sufficiently to realize that it did not obey the ordinary physical laws of physics as applied to ordinary liquids. The term superfluidity became associated with these unique observations. The low temperature of SFHe and it's temperature unifonrmity have made it a significant cryogenic coolant for use in space applications in astronomical observations with infrared sensors and in low temperature physics. Superfluid helium has been used in instruments such as the Shuttle Infrared Astronomy Telescope (IRT), the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), the Cosmic Background Observatory (COBE), and the Infrared Satellite Observatory (ISO). It is also used in the Space Infrared Telescope (SIRTF), Relativity Mission Satellite formally called Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), and the Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) presently under development. For GP-B and STEP, the use of SFHE is used to cool Superconducting Quantum Interference Detectors (SQUIDS) among other parts of the instruments. The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment flown in the Shuttle studied the behavior of SFHE. This experiment attempted to get low-gravity slosh data, however, the main emphasis was to study the low-gravity transfer of SFHE from tank to tank. These instruments carried tanks of SFHE of a few hundred liters to 2500 liters. The capability of modeling the behavior of SFHE is important to spacecraft control engineers who must design systems that can overcome disturbances created by the movement of the fluid. In addition instruments such as GP-B and STEP are very

  13. Defects in novel superfluids: Supersolid helium and cold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasbiswas, Kinjal

    We investigate the role played by various topological defects, especially crystal dislocations and superfluid vortices, in some novel superfluids - such as the putative supersolid phase in solid helium-4 (4He) and in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in traps. The first part of this work addresses recent experimental findings in solid helium, such as the period shift in resonant oscillators that has been interpreted to be a signature of superfluidity coexisting with crystalline order in solid helium. We use Landau's phenomenological theory for phase transitions to establish that crystal defects such as dislocation lines and grain boundaries can induce local superfluid order and show that a network of dislocation lines can give rise to bulk superfluid order within a crystal. Our findings are also relevant to other phase transitions in the presence of crystal defects. The second part concerns the stability and dynamics of a single vortex in a rotating trap of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the possibility of the macroscopic quantum tunneling of such a vortex from a metastable minimum at the trap center. The complete dynamics of such a vortex is derived by integrating out the phonon modes from a hydrodynamic action, and estimates for the tunneling rate are obtained using a variety of semiclassical methods. This is analogous to the problem of tunneling of a charged particle through a potential barrier in the presence of a very high magnetic field, the Magnus force on the vortex being analogous to the Lorentz force on a charge. We conclude that the vortex action has a complicated nonlocal form and further, that the Magnus-dominated dynamics of the vortex tends to suppress tunneling.

  14. Laser cooling and control of excitations in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, G. I.; McAuslan, D. L.; Sheridan, E.; Sachkou, Y.; Baker, C.; Bowen, W. P.

    2016-08-01

    Superfluidity is a quantum state of matter that exists macroscopically in helium at low temperatures. The elementary excitations in superfluid helium have been probed with great success using techniques such as neutron and light scattering. However, measurements of phonon excitations have so far been limited to average thermodynamic properties or the driven response far out of thermal equilibrium. Here, we use cavity optomechanics to probe the thermodynamics of phonon excitations in real time. Furthermore, strong light-matter interactions allow both laser cooling and amplification. This represents a new tool to observe and control superfluid excitations that may provide insight into phonon-phonon interactions, quantized vortices and two-dimensional phenomena such as the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. The third sound modes studied here also offer a pathway towards quantum optomechanics with thin superfluid films, including the prospect of femtogram masses, high mechanical quality factors, strong phonon-phonon and phonon-vortex interactions, and self-assembly into complex geometries with sub-nanometre feature size.

  15. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) superfluid helium tank temperature control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrac, D.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    The infrared detectors on the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), which was placed into a polar orbit in January 1983, are cooled to a temperature of less than 3 K by thermal coupling to the main cryogenic tank (MCT) containing superfluid helium. A porous plug built into the vent line entrance acts as a superfluid helium liquid/vapor separator in zero gravity. A description of the IRAS MCT flight porous plug is presented, and tests of the plug in situ are discussed, taking into account submerged plug tests, a restart test, and a cold vapor flow test. Aspects of flow rate determination in the case of an unavailability of flight flow rate data are also considered.

  16. Communication: Electron diffraction of ferrocene in superfluid helium droplets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report electron diffraction of ferrocene doped in superfluid helium droplets. By taking advantage of the velocity slip in our pulsed droplet beam using a pulsed electron gun, and by doping with a high concentration of ferrocene delivered via a pulsed valve, we can obtain high quality diffraction images from singly doped droplets. Under the optimal doping conditions, 80% of the droplets sampled in the electron beam are doped with just one ferrocene molecule. Extension of this size selection method to dopant clusters has also been demonstrated. However, incomplete separation of dopant clusters might require deconvolution and modeling of the doping process. This method can be used for studies of nucleation processes in superfluid helium droplets. PMID:27305988

  17. Detectability of Light Dark Matter with Superfluid Helium.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Katelin; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2016-09-16

    We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ∼keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is 3 orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. For dark matter lighter than ∼100  keV, the kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.

  18. Experiments on the properties of superfluid helium in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, P.; Collins, D.; Petrac, D.; Yang, L.; Edeskuty, F.; Williamson, K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a research program designed to study the behavior of superfluid liquid helium in low and zero gravity in order to determine the properties which are critically important to its use as a stored cryogen for cooling scientific instruments aboard spacecraft for periods up to several months. The experiment program consists of a series of flights of an experiment package on a free-fall trajectory both on an aircraft and on a rocket. The objectives are to study thickness of thin films of helium as a function of acceleration, heat transfer in thin films, heat transfer across copper-liquid helium interfaces, fluid dynamics of bulk helium in high and low accelerations and under various conditions of rotations, alternate methods of separation of liquid and vapor phases and of efficient venting of the vapor, and undesirable thermomechanical oscillations in the vent pipes. Preliminary results from aircraft tests are discussed.

  19. Stabilization of Multi-electron Bubbles in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvera, Isaac F.; Fang, Jieping; Tempere, Jacques

    2014-12-01

    Multielectron bubbles (MEBs) in liquid helium were first observed in the late 1970s, but their properties have never been explored experimentally due to their short lifetimes and the difficulty to localize them. We report the observation of long- lived MEBs in a novel cell filled with superfluid helium at static negative pressures. MEBs were extracted from the electron filled vapor sheath of a heated filament loop embedded in the superfluid helium and observed by high-speed photography. MEBs are 2D electron gases on the 3D surface of hollow helium bubbles. Diameters can range from nanometers to millimeters, depending on the number of enclosed electrons. Electrons move in angular momentum states; deformations of the surface are called spherical ripplons. The attractive electron-ripplon interaction leads to an unusual form of superconductivity. If they can be compressed, Wigner crystallization and quantum melting can be observed, as well as a new phase for localization called the ripplo- polaron lattice. MEBs are unstable to tunneling discharge when pressed against a surface. Just as Bose gases are captured in a trap for study, MEBs must also be localized away from walls. We shall discuss methods of capturing them in an electromagnetic trap embedded in the liquid helium.

  20. Superfluid helium orbital resupply - The status of the SHOOT flight experiment and preliminary user requirements. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Kittel, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment is designed to demonstrate the components and techniques necessary to resupply superfluid helium to satellites or Space Station based facilities. A top level description as well as the development status of the critical components to be used in SHOOT are discussed. Some of these components include the thermomechanical pump, the fluid acquisition system, the normal helium and superfluid helium phase separators, Venturi flow meter, cryogenic valves, burst disks, and astronaut-compatible EVA coupler and transfer line. The requirements for the control electronics and software are given. A preliminary description of the requirements that must be met by a satellite requiring superfluid helium servicing is given. In particular, minimum and optimum plumbing arrangements are shown, transfer line flow impedance and heat input impacts are assessed, instrumentation is described, and performance parameters are considered.

  1. Helium, from He3 Superfluid to Alpha-spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah; Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-04-01

    Accompanying helium-using of ``Two Eagles'' balloon group 2015 World record pacificballoon.com@Flight-Status.php, superfluid He3 offers a unique ``testing ground'' for rapid phase transitions. Recent experiments where a rotating superfluid He3 was locally heated well above the critical temperature by absorption of neutrons [4,5] receved vortex formation under a rapid 2nd order phase transition-I.S. Aranson, et al., Physica C, ``Vortex Matter in Superconductors at Extreme SCALES and Conditions'', v 332, n 1-4, May 2000, h 129. Further for ``alpha-spin resembles the vortex formed as a consequence of the interaction of 4 vortexes'' sought the ``it will be sufficient to calculate the energy shift with the singlet & triplet m = 0-S Gasiorowics: ``Quantum Physics'',2003, h 220 Great acknowledgements to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO/Kompas-Gramedia Group.

  2. Probing the A-B interface of superfluid helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Richard

    2015-03-01

    At temperatures around 1 mK helium-3 forms a BCS spin triplet condensate. The order parameter is sufficiently complex that more than one superfluid phase exists, each exhibiting a different broken symmetry, and there is a model first order transition between the two most stable phases, labeled A and B. The Lancaster Ultra-Low Temperature Group has developed techniques to probe the properties of the A-B interface in the deep sub-mK regime where the superfluid is in the pure condensate limit. Shaped and controllable magnetic fields are used to induce the transition, and to stabilize and move the A-B phase boundary inside the experimental volume. The latent heat of the transition has been measured, and the nucleation behavior shown to be incompatible with conventional thermodynamic models. Since superfluid helium-3 is inherently pure, and the order parameter transforms continuously across the A-B interface, it is the most coherent two-dimensional structure to which we have experimental access. It has been proposed that this 2D surface in the surrounding 3D bulk volume is a good analog of a cosmological brane separating two distinct quantum vacuum states; experiments that simulate brane annihilation and the creation of topological defects have been carried out at Lancaster. Other investigations have included measurements of the surface tension and wetting behavior of the interface. During these studies it was discovered that a large, unpredicted frictional force was acting on the interface even though it is moving through a pure superfluid. Recent breakthrough work on the dynamics of the A-B interface has finally solved this puzzle. Current experiments include a setup where the interface region is probed directly using quartz tuning fork resonators that couple to the local density of broken Cooper pair quasiparticle excitations and thus give insight into the order parameter energy gap structure as A transforms to B.

  3. Formation of Au and tetrapyridyl porphyrin complexes in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cheng; Latimer, Elspeth; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Bullen, Shem; Boatwright, Adrian; Ellis, Andrew M; Yang, Shengfu

    2015-07-14

    Binary clusters containing a large organic molecule and metal atoms have been formed by the co-addition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H2TPyP) molecules and gold atoms to superfluid helium nanodroplets, and the resulting complexes were then investigated by electron impact mass spectrometry. In addition to the parent ion H2TPyP yields fragments mainly from pyrrole, pyridine and methylpyridine ions because of the stability of their ring structures. When Au is co-added to the droplets the mass spectra are dominated by H2TPyP fragment ions with one or more Au atoms attached. We also show that by switching the order in which Au and H2TPyP are added to the helium droplets, different types of H2TPyP-Au complexes are clearly evident from the mass spectra. This study suggests a new route for the control over the growth of metal-organic compounds inside superfluid helium nanodroplets.

  4. Influence of Quantum Turbulence on the Processes of Heat Transfer and Boiling in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondaurova, Luiza; Efimov, Victor; Tsoi, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate that in a wide range of heat fluxes the dynamics of heat transfer in superfluid helium is determined by the existence of remanent quantized vortices. The vortex density dynamics determines the rise of temperature near the heater and the boiling-up of superfluid helium. It permits to understand the results of the experiments of several groups.

  5. Effective Mass of an Electron Bubble in Superfluid Helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunhu; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of computer simulations of the motion of an electron bubble through superfluid helium-4 when acted upon by an electric field. The simulations are based on an extended version of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The temperature is assumed to be sufficiently low for the drag exerted on the bubble by thermal excitations to be negligible, and the calculations are made for velocities below the critical velocitie for nucleation of vortices and roton production. We calculate the effective mass m* of the bubble and obtain results in excellent agreement with the measurements of Poitrenaud and Williams, and Ellis, McClintock, and Bowley.

  6. Mechanical pumps for superfluid helium transfer in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, M. G.; Swift, W. L.

    1988-01-01

    Two alternate mechanical pump concepts have been identified for the transfer of superfluid helium in space. Both pumps provide flow at sufficient head and have operating characteristics suitable for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) refill mission. One pump operates at a relatively low speed and utilizes mechanical roller bearings, while the other operates at a higher rotational speed using either electromagnetic or tilting pad gas-dynamic bearings. The use of gas bearings requires transfer of normal helium so that the gas pressure within the pump casing is high enough to operate the bearings. The operating characteristics of both pumps are predicted, the dimensions are estimated and major technology issues are identified. The major issues for each pump design are cavitation performance and bearing development. Roller bearings require quantified reliability for operation in space while electromagnetic bearings require basic development as well as a complex control system. The low speed pump has significantly poorer hydraulic efficiency than the high speed pump.

  7. Mechanical pumps for superfluid helium transfer in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, M. G.; Swift, W. L.

    1988-01-01

    Two alternate mechanical pump concepts have been identified for the transfer of superfluid helium in space. Both pumps provide flow at sufficient head and have operating characteristics suitable for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) refill mission. One pump operates at a relatively low speed and utilizes mechanical roller bearings, while the other operates at a higher rotational speed using either electromagnetic or tilting pad gas-dynamic bearings. The use of gas bearings requires transfer of normal helium so that the gas pressure within the pump casing is high enough to operate the bearings. The operating characteristics of both pumps are predicted, the dimensions are estimated and major technology issues are identified. The major issues for each pump design are cavitation performance and bearing development. Roller bearings require quantified reliability for operation in space while electromagnetic bearings require basic development as well as a complex control system. The low speed pump has significantly poorer hydraulic efficiency than the high speed pump.

  8. Thermal resistance at a solid/superfluid helium interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiere, Aymeric; Volz, Sebastian; Amrit, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Kapitza in 1941 discovered that heat flowing across a solid in contact with superfluid helium (<2 K) encounters a strong thermal resistance at the interface. Khalatnikov demonstrated theoretically that this constitutes a general phenomenon related to all interfaces at all temperatures, given the dependence of heat transmission on the acoustic impedance (sound velocity × density) of each medium. For the solid/superfluid interface, the measured transmission of heat is almost one hundred times stronger than the Khalatnikov prediction. This discrepancy could be intuitively attributed to diffuse scattering of phonons at the interface but, despite several attempts, a detailed quantitative comparison between theoretical and experimental findings to explain the occurrence of scattering and its contribution to heat transmission had been lacking. Here we show that when the thermal wavelength λ of phonons of the less dense medium (liquid 4He) becomes comparable to the r.m.s. surface roughness σ, the heat flux crossing the interface is amplified; in particular when σ ~ 0.33λ, a spatial resonant mechanism occurs, as proposed by Adamenko and Fuks. We used a silicon single crystal whose surface roughness was controlled and characterized. The thermal boundary resistance measurements were performed from 0.4 to 2 K at different superfluid pressures ranging from saturated vapour pressure (SVP) to above 4He solidification, to eliminate all hypothetical artefact mechanisms. Our results demonstrate the physical conditions necessary for resonant phonon scattering to occur at all interfaces, and therefore constitute a benchmark in the design of nanoscale devices for heat monitoring.

  9. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Pentlehner, D.; Slenczka, A.

    2015-01-07

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broad (Δν > 100 cm{sup −1}) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time.

  10. An Ultracold Neutron Source using Superfluid Helium at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumiya, Ryohei; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Canada-Japan UCN Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    An Ultracold Neutrons (UCN) are an extremely slow neutrons with a kinetic energy in the order of 100 neV. As a consequence, UCNs are totally reflected at surface of certain materials and can be confined in a material bottle. Using this unique property, UCNs are used for various experiments such as neutron electric dipole moment searches, neutron lifetime measurements, gravity experiments, and other. A UCN source has been developed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), in Osaka Japan. The UCN source is composed of a combination of a spallation neutron source and a superfluid helium UCN converter. Spallation neutrons are thermalized first by warm and cold D2O moderators. After that they give their kinetic energy to a phonon (single- phonon excitation) or phonons (multi-phonon excitation) in superfluid helium to result in UCNs. The UCN source achieved 26 UCN/cm3 at 1 μA proton current at RCNP. Now, the source is adapted to a new, dedicated proton beam line at TRIUMF for use at higher proton beam currents up to 40 μA. The developments at RCNP and future prospects at TRIUMF will be discussed.

  11. Acquisition and transfer of superfluid helium in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. A.; Gille, J. P.; Anderson, J. E.

    1990-03-01

    The unique physical properties of superfluid helium (SFHe) or He II strongly influence the design of a system for transfer of this fluid in space. Conventional methods of pumping, particularly pressure difference transfer and centrifugal pumping, are ineffective because of the inability to pressurize SFHe with helium vapor, either to provide the transfer force or to provide a suction head for a pump. The thermomechanical (TM) pump, however, relying on the two-fluid characteristics of SFHe, provides a viable approach for pumping the fluid. Examination of the functioning of a TM pump shows that the flow in the liquid acquistion device is unconventional. Only the superfluid component defined in the two-fluid model of SFHe flows into the pump and, therefore, from the liquid source to the pump inlet via the acquisition device. Experiments have been conducted to characterize this 'superflow' in small tubes, and results are extrapolated to show the effects of this unique flow mechanism on a typical full scale transfer system.

  12. Characterization of quantum vortex dynamics in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichle, David P.

    Liquid helium obtains superfluid properties when cooled below the Lambda transition temperature of 2.17 K. A superfluid, which is a partial Bose Einstein condensate, has many exotic properties including free flow without friction, and ballistic instead of diffusive heat transport. A superfluid is also uniquely characterized by the presence of quantized vortices, dynamical line-like topological phase defects around which all circulation in the flow is constrained. Two vortices can undergo a violent process called reconnection when they approach, cross, and retract having exchanged tails. With a numerical examination of a local, linearized solution near reconnection we discovered a dynamically unstable stationary solution to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which was relaxed to a fully non-linear solution using imaginary time propagation. This investigation explored vortex reconnection in the context of the changing topology of the order parameter, a complex field governing the superfluid dynamics at zero temperature. The dynamics of the vortices can be studied experimentally by dispersing tracer particles into a superfluid flow and recording their motions with movie cameras. The pioneering work of Bewley et al. provided the first visualization technique using frozen gases to create tracer particles. Using this technique, we experimentally observed for the first time the excitation of helical traveling waves on a vortex core called Kelvin waves. Kelvin waves are thought to be a central mechanism for dissipation in this inviscid fluid, as they provide an efficient cascade mechanism for transferring energy from large to microscopic length scales. We examined the Kelvin waves in detail, and compared their dynamics in fully self-similar non-dimensional coordinates to theoretical predictions. Additionally, two experimental advances are presented. A newly invented technique for reliably dispersing robust, nanometer-scale fluorescent tracer particles directly into the

  13. Development of a superfluid helium-4 phase slip gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, Niels

    2002-04-01

    This dissertation describes experiments with superfluid 4He diaphragm-aperture oscillators that have been configured to act as sensitive detectors of rotation. The goal of this thesis was to increase the rotational sensitivity of the newly developed superfluid 4He phase slip gyroscope in an effort to understand the intrinsic mechanisms that might ultimately limit the sensitivity of this class of device. Four separate devices were built and tested using two different methods of analysis. Two of these experimental cells demonstrated a sensitivity to rotation, culminating with a large area multi-turn device with a sensing loop area that is 2 orders of magnitude larger than our original proof-of-principle prototype. The sensitivity of this device exceeds any other superfluid 4He gyroscope by a factor of ˜25. In addition, this rotation sensor has excellent long term stability and we have found no fundamental mechanisms that will prevent even further improvements. On the other hand, the two devices that failed as gyroscopes provided useful insight into the characteristics that make certain apertures better suited than others for these phase slip experiments. Detailed numerical simulations were used to interpret and analyze our data within the framework of the thermal nucleation theory for the creation of vortices. The formulism developed here also provides a methodology for characterizing the sensitivity of future devices operating in a noisy rotational environment.

  14. Thermal performance of a five year lifetime superfluid helium dewar for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a 1 m class cryogenically cooled observatory for infrared astronomy. The SIRTF cryogenic system has to satisfy the five year mission lifetime requirement as well as to provide sufficient cooling for the science instruments and optical system. A 4000 cu dm superfluid helium dewar has been selected for the current baseline cryogenic system which represents the largest superfluid helium dewar proposed to date for a long lifetime space-borne application. This paper discusses the design and predicted performance of the current cryogenic system, as well as its comparison with IRAS and other space-borne superfluid helium dewars currently under development.

  15. Microscopic dynamics of superfluid Helium confined in mesopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisk, Timothy R.

    This dissertation reports an inelastic neutron scattering study of superfluid helium confined within FSM-16, a high surface area, porous silica glass. Its tubular pores are monodisperse, only a few nanometers in diameter, and ordered in a regular triangular lattice structure. The neutron scattering data clearly distinguishes between three different pore filling regimes. First, close to monolayer coverage, the adsorbed helium forms an amorphous, inert solid which neither displays superflow nor supports well-defined, low energy excitations. Second, when the adsorbed helium forms a thin fluid film approximately one atomic layer thick on top of the solid layer, it supports a dramatically modified phonon-roton spectrum as well as a compressed layer roton. The energies of these modified phonon-roton modes are consistent with those of a dilute, low-density film, one in which the average interatomic spacing is greater than the average interatomic spacing within the bulk liquid. These dilute layer modes correspond to the excitations of the bulk liquid under negative absolute pressure. Finally, when the pores are completely saturated with liquid, the modified phonon-roton spectrum disappears altogether. Instead, bulk-like modes coexist with the compressed layer mode. The qualitative difference between these three pore-filling regimes is reflected in their effective vibrational density of states.

  16. Effective doping of low energy ions into superfluid helium droplets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lei; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile method of doping cations from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. By decelerating and stopping the ion pulse of reserpine and substance P from an ESI source in the path of the droplet beam, about 104 ion-doped droplets (one ion per droplet) can be recorded, corresponding to a pickup efficiency of nearly 1 out of 1000 ions. We attribute the success of this simple approach to the long residence time of the cations in the droplet beam. The resulting size of the doped droplets, on the order of 105/droplet, is measured using deflection and retardation methods. Our method does not require an ion trap in the doping region, which significantly simplifies the experimental setup and procedure for future spectroscopic and diffraction studies. PMID:26298127

  17. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows. PMID:24704871

  18. Effective doping of low energy ions into superfluid helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lei; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-21

    We report a facile method of doping cations from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. By decelerating and stopping the ion pulse of reserpine and substance P from an ESI source in the path of the droplet beam, about 10(4) ion-doped droplets (one ion per droplet) can be recorded, corresponding to a pickup efficiency of nearly 1 out of 1000 ions. We attribute the success of this simple approach to the long residence time of the cations in the droplet beam. The resulting size of the doped droplets, on the order of 10(5)/droplet, is measured using deflection and retardation methods. Our method does not require an ion trap in the doping region, which significantly simplifies the experimental setup and procedure for future spectroscopic and diffraction studies.

  19. Effective doping of low energy ions into superfluid helium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lei; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-21

    We report a facile method of doping cations from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. By decelerating and stopping the ion pulse of reserpine and substance P from an ESI source in the path of the droplet beam, about 10{sup 4} ion-doped droplets (one ion per droplet) can be recorded, corresponding to a pickup efficiency of nearly 1 out of 1000 ions. We attribute the success of this simple approach to the long residence time of the cations in the droplet beam. The resulting size of the doped droplets, on the order of 10{sup 5}/droplet, is measured using deflection and retardation methods. Our method does not require an ion trap in the doping region, which significantly simplifies the experimental setup and procedure for future spectroscopic and diffraction studies.

  20. Transient heat transfer in superfluid helium. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three classical problems associated with the ordinary diffusion equation concern the temperature in: (1) a half-space with clamped heat flux at the free face, (2) a half-space with clamped temperature at the free face, and (3) an infinite medium with a pulsed plane heat source. These problems are also important for the nonlinear diffusion equation based on the Gorter-Mellink relation, which describes heat transport in superfluid helium. A similarity solution to problem (1), the clamped-flux problem, has already been found and compared, with good agreement, with experimental data of van Sciver. (A similarity solution is one in which the profiles of temperature rise ..delta..T versus distance Z at different times t can be obtained from one another by suitable (different) stretching of the temperature and distance axes.) In this paper, similarity solutions are given in analytic form to problems (2) and (3), the clamped-temperature and pulsed-source problems.

  1. New calorimetric AC loss measurement technique involving superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Baudouy, B.J.P.; Bartholomew, K.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have developed a new calorimetric AC loss measurement facility involving superfluid helium (He II). At present, the Test of AC Loss (TACL) facility performs AC loss measurements on Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICC) under development for the NHMFL 45 Tesla hybrid superconducting outsert magnet. TACL can handle large scale conductors up to one meter in length. Measurements utilize the exceptional high heat conductivity of He II, which provides an isothermal environment and is the dominant enthalpy in the system. The test conductors are placed in an independent cryostat containing He II which is inserted in a superconducting dipole magnet producing a transverse magnetic field up to 7 T. For a change of the magnetic field and associated AC loss, the temperature variation of the He II surrounding the conductor is measured and directly converted to enthalpy variation of the He II. This paper describes the measurement technique and compares its resolution to that of more conventional calorimetric AC loss measurements.

  2. Transient heat transfer in superfluid helium, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresner, L.

    Three classical problems associated with the ordinary diffusion equation concern the temperature in: (1) a half-space with clamped heat flux at the free face; (2) a half-space with clamped temperature at the free face; and (3) an infinite medium with a pulsed plane heat source. These problems are also important for the nonlinear diffusion equation based on the Gorter-Mellink relation, which describes heat transport in superfluid helium. A similarity solution to problem (1), the clamped-flux problem, was found and compared, with good agreement, with experimental data of van Sciver. (A similarity solution is one in which the profiles of temperataure rise (RADICAL)T versus distance Z at different times t can be obtained from one another by suitable (different) stretching of the temperature and distance axes.) Similarity solutions are given in analytic form to problems (2) and (3), the clamped-temperature and pulsed-source problems.

  3. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P; Van Sciver, Steven W

    2014-03-25

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows.

  4. Stability measurements on cored cables in normal and superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.; Kim, S.W.; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.R.; Wilson, M.N.

    1998-07-01

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents.

  5. STABILITY MEASUREMENTS ON CORED CABLES IN NORMAL AND SUPERFLUID HELIUM

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.K.; SAMPSON,W.B.; KIM,S.W.; LEROY,D.; OBERLI,L.R.; WILSON,M.N.

    1998-05-10

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents.

  6. Pressure drop in the SHOOT superfluid helium acquisition system. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, J. A.; Maytal, B.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    Central to the upcoming Superfield Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) demonstration is the fluid acquisition system. The main component of the system is a rectangular cross-section gallery area with one side fabricated from a fine mesh screen. He II enters through the screen and is delivered to a fountain effect pump. A model is proposed to predict the pressure drop as fluid flows through the screen and an expression is derived for the required gallery arm length as a function of flow rate demand. The model is compared with measurement of pressure drop in a full scale SHOOT gallery arm operated with flow rates of up to 850 cu dm/hr. The tests were conducted in the University of Wisconsin horizontal liquid helium flow facility to minimize gravitational effects.

  7. Superfluid helium cryostat for the SIRTF cryogenic telescope assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, Stephen M.; Schweickart, Russell B.; Heurich, Bruce

    2003-03-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the last of NASA's four great observatories, scheduled for launch in January 2003. At the heart of the SIRTF Observatory is the Cryogenic Telescope Assembly (CTA) that provides a 1.4 K heat sink for the SIRTF Science Instruments while cooling the telescope to as low as 5.5 K in order to achieve thea low photon background. This unique cryogenic/thermal system provides the necessary cooling through passive means combined with vapor cooling by the helium gas vented from a 360 liter superfluid helium cryostat. The passive cooling is made possible by the favorable thermal environment achieved in an Earth-trailing solar orbit, with the payload millions of miles from the Earth. The SIRTF Cryostat and integrated CTA have just completed an extended period of cryogenic system performance testing. This testing included mission lifetime assessment, luanch hold capability and in situ characterization and performance measurements of the porous plug liquid-vapor phase separator. We also encountered and recovered from an ice contamination incident within the cryostat. We report here the system and component test results. We also provide recommendations and lessons learned through the operations of the SIRTF system.

  8. Pressure dependent line shifts of atoms in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putlitz, Gisbert Zu; Baumann, I.; Foerste, M.; Jungmann, K.; Tabbert, B.; Wiebe, J.; Zühlke, C.

    1998-05-01

    Defect atoms and ions in superfluid helium open the possibility to study the nature of the defect with respect to its environment. Depending on the electronic structure and charge of the foreign particles two forms of defects are built: so-called "bubbles" and "snowballs"(B. Tabbert, H. Günther and G. zu Putlitz, J. Low. Temp. Phys.) 109, 653 (1997). Defect ions are produced by laser sputtering, they can recombine with electrons from a field emission tip(I. Baumann, M. Foerste, K. Layer, G. zu Putlitz, B. Tabbert and C. Zühlke, J. Low. Temp. Phys.) 110, 213 (1998). The spectral lines observed are shifted and broadened compared to the free atomic transitions. The radius and the shape of the defect structure are supposed to be pressure dependent. Consequently we employ a pressure cell which allows for the spectroscopic measurements up to external pressures of 40 bar. Since liquid helium solidifies above 25 bar a study of the phase transition from the liquid to the solid can be made.

  9. Imaging Anisotropic Nanoplasma Dynamics in Superfluid Helium Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacellar, Camila; Chatterley, Adam; Lackner, Florian; Pemmaraju, Sri; Tanyag, Rico; Bernando, Charles; Verma, Deepak; O'Connell, Sean; Osipiv, Timur; Ray, Dipanwita; Ferguson, Kenneth; Gorkhover, Tais; Swiggers, Michele; Bucher, Maximilian; Vilesov, Andrey; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of strong-field induced nanoplasmas inside superfluid helium droplets are studied using single-shot, single-particle femtosecond time-resolved X-ray coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Intense (~ 1015 W/ cm2, ~ 50 fs) 800 nm laser pulses are employed to initiate nanoplasma formation in sub-micron (200 nm - 600 nm) sized helium droplets. The dynamics of the nanoplasma formation and subsequent droplet evolution are probed by x-rays pulses (~ 100 fs, 600 eV) that are delayed with respect to the near-infrared (NIR) pulses by 10's of femtoseconds to hundreds of picoseconds. Pump-probe time-delay dependent effects in the CDI patterns reveal distinct dynamics evolving on multiple timescales. Very fast (<100 fs) appearing features are possibly indicative of electronic dynamics, while slower (>= 1 ps) dynamics are likely associated with structural changes correlated to nuclear motion including droplet disintegration. In particular, the CDI images exhibit strong indications for anisotropic dynamics governed by the NIR polarization axis, providing previously inaccessible insight into the mechanisms of nanoplasma formation and evolution.

  10. Superfluid-Helium Converter for Accumulation and Extraction of Ultracold Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, O.; Baumann, K.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Wirth, H.-F.; Mironov, S.; Plonka, C.; Rich, D.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Brandt, B. van den

    2007-09-07

    We report the first successful extraction of accumulated ultracold neutrons (UCN) from a converter of superfluid helium, in which they were produced by downscattering neutrons of a cold beam from the Munich research reactor. Windowless UCN extraction is performed in vertical direction through a mechanical cold valve. This prototype of a versatile UCN source is comprised of a novel cryostat designed to keep the source portable and to allow for rapid cooldown. We measured time constants for UCN storage and extraction into a detector at room temperature, with the converter held at various temperatures between 0.7 and 1.3 K. The UCN production rate inferred from the count rate of extracted UCN is close to the theoretical expectation.

  11. Oscillating-grid experiments in water and superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, Rose E.; Hershberger, Robert; Donnelly, Russell J.; Bolster, Diogo

    2014-05-01

    Passing a fluid through a grid is a well-known mechanism used to study the properties of turbulence. Oscillating a horizontal grid vertically in a tank has also been used extensively and is considered to be a source of almost homogenous isotropic turbulence. When the oscillating grid is turned on a turbulent flow is induced. A front translates into the experimental tank, behind which the flow is highly turbulent. Long predicted that the growth of such a front would grow diffusively as the square root of time (i.e., d ˜√t ) and Dickinson and Long presented experimental evidence for the diffusive result at a low mesh Reynolds number of 555. This paper revisits these experiments and attempts a set of two models for the advancing front in both square and round tanks. We do not observe significant differences between runs in square and round tanks. The experiments in water reach mesh Reynolds numbers of order 30000. Using some data from superfluid helium experiments we are able to explore mesh Reynolds numbers to about 43000. We find the power law for the advancing front decreases weakly with the mesh Reynolds number. Using a very long tank we find that the turbulent front stops completely at a certain depth and attempt a simple explanation for that behavior. We study the propagation of the turbulent front into tubes of different diameters inserted into the main tank. We show that these tubes exclude wavelengths much larger than the tube diameter. We explore the variation of the position of the steady-state boundary H on tube diameter D and find that H =cD with c ˜2. We suggest this may be explained by saturation of the energy-containing length scale ℓe. We also report on the effect of plugging up just one hole of the grid. Finally, we recall some earlier oscillating grid experiments in superfluid 4He in the light of the present results.

  12. Oscillating-grid experiments in water and superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Honey, Rose E; Hershberger, Robert; Donnelly, Russell J; Bolster, Diogo

    2014-05-01

    Passing a fluid through a grid is a well-known mechanism used to study the properties of turbulence. Oscillating a horizontal grid vertically in a tank has also been used extensively and is considered to be a source of almost homogenous isotropic turbulence. When the oscillating grid is turned on a turbulent flow is induced. A front translates into the experimental tank, behind which the flow is highly turbulent. Long predicted that the growth of such a front would grow diffusively as the square root of time (i.e., d ∼ sqrt[t]) and Dickinson and Long presented experimental evidence for the diffusive result at a low mesh Reynolds number of 555. This paper revisits these experiments and attempts a set of two models for the advancing front in both square and round tanks. We do not observe significant differences between runs in square and round tanks. The experiments in water reach mesh Reynolds numbers of order 30000. Using some data from superfluid helium experiments we are able to explore mesh Reynolds numbers to about 43000. We find the power law for the advancing front decreases weakly with the mesh Reynolds number. Using a very long tank we find that the turbulent front stops completely at a certain depth and attempt a simple explanation for that behavior. We study the propagation of the turbulent front into tubes of different diameters inserted into the main tank. We show that these tubes exclude wavelengths much larger than the tube diameter. We explore the variation of the position of the steady-state boundary H on tube diameter D and find that H = cD with c ∼ 2. We suggest this may be explained by saturation of the energy-containing length scale ℓ(e). We also report on the effect of plugging up just one hole of the grid. Finally, we recall some earlier oscillating grid experiments in superfluid (4)He in the light of the present results.

  13. Cold electrons in silicon and on superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Forrest Riley

    Experiments presented herein are conducted in two material systems with the single motivation of understanding how to control quantum information. After introducing quantum information, we explain why these two material systems, donor electron spins in silicon and electron spins on the surface of superfluid helium, are strong candidates to become viable qubits, the building blocks of quantum information processing. Our experiments probe the relevant physical structure and demonstrate new techniques for qubit state control. We measure the Stark shift of 121Sb donor electron spins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance at 0.35 T. Interdigitated metal gates on top of an Sb-implanted 28Si epi-layer apply electric fields at donor sites. Two quadratic Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of the hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and a decrease in electron Zeeman g-factor. The hyperfine term prevails at our X-band magnetic fields of 0.35T, while the g-factor term is expected to dominate at higher magnetic fields. A significant linear Stark effect is also observed, which we suggest arises from strain. We discuss the results in the context of the Kane model quantum computer, confirming that Stark tuning is a convenient way to change the spin resonance energy of individual electrons, and thus provide addressability using electrostatic gates. We also measure the transport of surface electrons on liquid helium at 1.5K using micro-fabricated channel devices. The channels, which are filled with superfluid 4He by capillary action, have small underlying metal gates for electron control and detection. Initial studies with simple self-fabricated devices inspired the use of silicon devices for advantages in complexity and advanced processing capabilities. Our silicon device has 120 parallel channels and an intersecting perpendicular channel with 3 microm and 2.5 microm widths, respectively. Connected as in a 3-phase charge coupled device

  14. Electronic Spectroscopy of Phthalocyanine and Porphyrin Derivatives in Superfluid Helium Nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Slenczka, Alkwin

    2017-07-25

    Phthalocyanine and porphyrin were among the first organic compounds investigated by means of electronic spectroscopy in superfluid helium nanodroplets. Superfluid helium nanodroplets serve as a very gentle host system for preparing cold and isolated molecules. The uniqueness of helium nanodroplets is with respect to the superfluid phase which warrants the vanishing viscosity and, thus, minimal perturbation of the dopant species at a temperature as low as 0.37 K. These are ideal conditions for the study of molecular spectra in order to analyze structures as well as dynamic processes. Besides the investigation of the dopant species itself, molecular spectroscopy in helium droplets provides information on the helium droplet and in particular on microsolvation. This article, as part of a special issue on phthalocyanines and porphyrins, reviews electronic spectroscopy of phthalocyanine and porphyrin compounds in superfluid helium nanodroplets. In addition to the wide variety of medical as well as technical and synthetical aspects, this article discusses electronic spectroscopy of phthalocyanines and porphyrins in helium droplets in order to learn about both the dopant and the helium environment.

  15. Design and Testing of a Superfluid Liquid Helium CoolingLoop

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, L.M.; Green, M.A.; Levin, S.M.; Smoot, George F.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-24

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a cryogenic cooling loop that uses a thermomechanical pump to circulate superfluid liquid helium. The cooling loop test apparatus is designed to prove forced liquid helium flow concepts that will be used on the Astromag superconducting magnet facility.

  16. Persistent Currents in a Rotating Superleak Partially Filled with Superfluid Helium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    inside a small nitrogen dewar. A small amount of the molecular sieve, Zeolite, was put in the bottom as a cold trap to keep the helium gas pure. In use...Study of Superfluid Helium, New Directions in Physical Acoustics, Soc. Italians di Fisica Italy, 1976 (Sen) D. Johnson, and P. Sen, Phys. Rev. B, Vol 2

  17. Cryogenic system for X-ray Compton scattering measurements of superfluid helium below 2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Koizumi, Akihisa; Kawasaki, Ikuto; Sumiyama, Akihiko; Itou, Masayoshi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu

    2017-07-01

    A cryostat was constructed for high-resolution X-ray Compton scattering measurements at temperature down to 1.7 K, in order to investigate superfluid helium-4. Compton profiles of helium were measured using synchrotron X-rays for gas and liquid phases, respectively. In the measurement of the liquid phase, we succeeded in measuring the Compton profile of the superfluid helium at 1.7 K. Comparison of the results with theoretical calculation reveals importance of many-body effects beyond the mean-field treatment of electron systems.

  18. A thermodynamic model to predict electron mobility in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Frédéric; Volino, Ferdinand; Mendoza-Luna, Luis Guillermo; Haeften, Klaus von; Eloranta, Jussi

    2017-06-21

    Electron mobility in superfluid helium is modeled between 0.1 and 2.2 K by a van der Waals-type thermodynamic equation of state, which relates the free volume of solvated electrons to temperature, density, and phase dependent internal pressure. The model is first calibrated against known electron mobility reference data along the saturated vapor pressure line and then validated to reproduce the existing mobility literature values as a function of pressure and temperature with at least 10% accuracy. Four different electron mobility regimes are identified: (1) Landau critical velocity limit (T ≈ 0), (2) mobility limited by thermal phonons (T < 0.6 K), (3) thermal phonon and discrete roton scattering ("roton gas") limited mobility (0.6 K < T < 1.2 K), and (4) the viscous liquid ("roton continuum") limit (T > 1.2 K) where the ion solvation structure directly determines the mobility. In the latter regime, the Stokes equation can be used to estimate the hydrodynamic radius of the solvated electron based on its mobility and fluid viscosity. To account for the non-continuum behavior appearing below 1.2 K, the temperature and density dependent Millikan-Cunningham factor is introduced. The hydrodynamic electron bubble radii predicted by the present model appear generally larger than the solvation cavity interface barycenter values obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Based on the classical Stokes law, this difference can arise from the variation of viscosity and flow characteristics around the electron. The calculated DFT liquid density profiles show distinct oscillations at the vacuum/liquid interface, which increase the interface rigidity.

  19. Putting in operation a full-scale ultracold-neutron source model with superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Keshishev, K. O.; Boldarev, S. T.; Vasil'ev, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A project of the source of ultracold neutrons for the WWR-M reactor based on superfluid helium for ultracold-neutron production has been developed. The full-scale source model, including all required cryogenic and vacuum equipment, the cryostat, and the ultracold-neutron source model has been created. The superfluid helium temperature T = 1.08 K without a heat load and T = 1.371 K with a heat load on the simulator of P = 60 W has been achieved in experiments at a technological complex of the ultracold-neutron source. The result proves the feasibility of implementing the ultracold-neutron source at the WWR-M reactor and the possibility of applying superfluid helium in nuclear engineering.

  20. Particle Detection in Superfluid Helium: R&D for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, Robert E., Jr.

    2006-03-31

    This report presents a summary of the results from R&D conducted as a feasibility study in the Department of Physics of Brown University for detection of low energy solar neutrinos utilizing a superfluid helium target. The report outlines the results in several areas: 1) development of experimental facilities, 2) energy deposition by electrons and alphas in superfluid helium, 3) development of wafer and metallic magnetic calorimeters, 4) background studies, 5) coded apertures and conceptual design, 6) Detection of single electrons and 7) a simulation of expected performance of a full scale device. Recommendations for possible future work are also presented. A bibliography of published papers and unpublished doctoral theses is included.

  1. On the mechanism of electromagnetic microwave absorption in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Pashitskii, E. A. Pentegov, V. I.

    2012-08-15

    In experiments on electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption in the microwave range in superfluid (SF) helium [1-3], a narrow EM field absorption line with a width on the order of (20-200) kHz was observed against the background of a wide absorption band with a width of 30-40 GHz at frequencies f{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 110-180 GHz corresponding to the roton gap energy {Delta}{sub r}(T) in the temperature range 1.4-2.2 K. Using the so-called flexoelectric mechanism of polarization of helium atoms ({sup 4}He) in the presence of density gradients in SF helium (HeII), we show that nonresonance microwave absorption in the frequency range 170-200 GHz can be due to the existence of time-varying local density gradients produced by roton excitations in the bulk HeII. The absorption bandwidth is determined by the roton-roton scattering time in an equilibrium Boltzmann gas of rotons, which is t{sub r-r} Almost-Equal-To 3.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} s at T = 1.4 K and decreases upon heating. We propose that the anomalously narrow microwave resonance absorption line in HeII at the roton frequency f{sub 0}(T) = {Delta}r(T)/2{pi}h appears due to the following two factors: (i) the discrete structure of the spectrum of the surface EM resonator modes in the form of a periodic sequence of narrow peaks and (ii) the presence of a stationary dipole layer in HeII near the resonator surface, which forms due to polarization of {sup 4}He atoms under the action of the density gradient associated with the vanishing of the density of the SF component at the solid wall. For this reason, the relaxation of nonequilibrium rotons generated in such a surface dipole layer is strongly suppressed, and the shape and width of the microwave resonance absorption line are determined by the roton density of states, which has a sharp peak at the edge of the roton gap in the case of weak dissipation. The effective dipole moments of rotons in the dipole layer can be directed either along or across the normal to

  2. Flow visualization in superfluid helium-4 using He2 molecular tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei

    Flow visualization in superfluid helium is challenging, yet crucial for attaining a detailed understanding of quantum turbulence. Two problems have impeded progress: finding and introducing suitable tracers that are small yet visible; and unambiguous interpretation of the tracer motion. We show that metastable He2 triplet molecules are outstanding tracers compared with other particles used in helium. These molecular tracers have small size and relatively simple behavior in superfluid helium: they follow the normal fluid motion at above 1 K and will bind to quantized vortex lines below about 0.6 K. A laser-induced fluorescence technique has been developed for imaging the He2 tracers. We will present our recent experimental work on studying the normal-fluid motion by tracking thin lines of He2 tracers created via femtosecond laser-field ionization in helium. We will also discuss a newly launched experiment on visualizing vortex lines in a magnetically levitated superfluid helium drop by imaging the He2 tracers trapped on the vortex cores. This experiment will enable unprecedented insight into the behavior of a rotating superfluid drop and will untangle several key issues in quantum turbulence research. We acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1507386 and the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02 96ER40952.

  3. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams.

    PubMed

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2(+) and He4(+), which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)(n)C(+), (He)(n)Cl(+), and (He)(n)CCl(+). Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  4. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-15

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 4}{sup +}, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl{sub 4} doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He){sub n}C{sup +}, (He){sub n}Cl{sup +}, and (He){sub n}CCl{sup +}. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  5. Microsolvation of molecules in superfluid helium nanodroplets revealed by means of electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Premke, Tobias; Wirths, Eva-Maria; Pentlehner, Dominik; Riechers, Ricarda; Lehnig, Rudolf; Vdovin, Alexander; Slenczka, Alkwin

    2014-01-01

    The empirical model explaining microsolvation of molecules in superfluid helium droplets proposes a non-superfluid helium solvation layer enclosing the dopant molecule. This model warrants an empirical explanation of any helium induced substructure resolved for electronic transitions of molecules in helium droplets. Despite a wealth of such experimental data, quantitative modeling of spectra is still in its infancy. The theoretical treatment of such many-particle systems dissolved into a quantum fluid is a challenge. Moreover, the success of theoretical activities relies also on the accuracy and self-critical communication of experimental data. This will be elucidated by a critical resume of our own experimental work done within the last ten years. We come to the conclusion that spectroscopic data and among others in particular the spectral resolution depend strongly on experimental conditions. Moreover, despite the fact that none of the helium induced fine structure speaks against the empirical model for solvation in helium droplets, in many cases an unequivocal assignment of the spectroscopic details is not possible. This ambiguity needs to be considered and a careful and critical communication of experimental results is essential in order to promote success in quantitatively understanding microsolvation in superfluid helium nanodroplets.

  6. Microsolvation of molecules in superfluid helium nanodroplets revealed by means of electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Premke, Tobias; Wirths, Eva-Maria; Pentlehner, Dominik; Riechers, Ricarda; Lehnig, Rudolf; Vdovin, Alexander; Slenczka, Alkwin

    2014-01-01

    The empirical model explaining microsolvation of molecules in superfluid helium droplets proposes a non-superfluid helium solvation layer enclosing the dopant molecule. This model warrants an empirical explanation of any helium induced substructure resolved for electronic transitions of molecules in helium droplets. Despite a wealth of such experimental data, quantitative modeling of spectra is still in its infancy. The theoretical treatment of such many-particle systems dissolved into a quantum fluid is a challenge. Moreover, the success of theoretical activities relies also on the accuracy and self-critical communication of experimental data. This will be elucidated by a critical resume of our own experimental work done within the last ten years. We come to the conclusion that spectroscopic data and among others in particular the spectral resolution depend strongly on experimental conditions. Moreover, despite the fact that none of the helium induced fine structure speaks against the empirical model for solvation in helium droplets, in many cases an unequivocal assignment of the spectroscopic details is not possible. This ambiguity needs to be considered and a careful and critical communication of experimental results is essential in order to promote success in quantitatively understanding microsolvation in superfluid helium nanodroplets. PMID:25077143

  7. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2+ and He4+, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)nC+, (He)nCl+, and (He)nCCl+. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets. PMID:26329210

  8. Electron impact ionization and multiphoton ionization of doped superfluid helium droplets: A comparison.

    PubMed

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2016-02-28

    We compare characteristics of electron impact ionization (EI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI) of doped superfluid helium droplets using the same droplet source. Selected dopant ion fragments from the two ionization schemes demonstrate different dependence on the doping pressure, which could be attributed to the different ionization mechanisms. While EI directly ionizes helium atoms in a droplet therefore has higher yields for bigger droplets (within a limited size range), MPI is insensitive to the helium in a droplet and is only dependent on the number of dopant molecules. The optimal timing of the ionization pulse also varies with the doping pressure, implying a velocity slip among different sized droplets. Calculations of the doping statistics and ionization probabilities qualitatively agree with the experimental data. Our results offer a word of caution in interpreting the pressure and timing dependence of superfluid helium droplets, and we also devise a scheme in achieving a high degree of doping while limiting the contribution of dopant clusters.

  9. Electron impact ionization and multiphoton ionization of doped superfluid helium droplets: A comparison

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We compare characteristics of electron impact ionization (EI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI) of doped superfluid helium droplets using the same droplet source. Selected dopant ion fragments from the two ionization schemes demonstrate different dependence on the doping pressure, which could be attributed to the different ionization mechanisms. While EI directly ionizes helium atoms in a droplet therefore has higher yields for bigger droplets (within a limited size range), MPI is insensitive to the helium in a droplet and is only dependent on the number of dopant molecules. The optimal timing of the ionization pulse also varies with the doping pressure, implying a velocity slip among different sized droplets. Calculations of the doping statistics and ionization probabilities qualitatively agree with the experimental data. Our results offer a word of caution in interpreting the pressure and timing dependence of superfluid helium droplets, and we also devise a scheme in achieving a high degree of doping while limiting the contribution of dopant clusters. PMID:26931697

  10. Light dark matter in superfluid helium: Detection with multi-excitation production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Simon; Lin, Tongyan; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-03-01

    We examine in depth a recent proposal to utilize superfluid helium for direct detection of sub-MeV mass dark matter. For sub-keV recoil energies, nuclear scattering events in liquid helium primarily deposit energy into long-lived phonon and roton quasiparticle excitations. If the energy thresholds of the detector can be reduced to the meV scale, then dark matter as light as ˜MeV can be reached with ordinary nuclear recoils. If, on the other hand, two or more quasiparticle excitations are directly produced in the dark matter interaction, the kinematics of the scattering allows sensitivity to dark matter as light as ˜keV at the same energy resolution. We present in detail the theoretical framework for describing excitations in superfluid helium, using it to calculate the rate for the leading dark matter scattering interaction, where an off-shell phonon splits into two or more higher-momentum excitations. We validate our analytic results against the measured and simulated dynamic response of superfluid helium. Finally, we apply this formalism to the case of a kinetically mixed hidden photon in the superfluid, both with and without an external electric field to catalyze the processes.

  11. Optical and mechanical properties of electron bubbles in superfluid helium-4

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.; Wei, W.; Yang, Y.; Maris, H. J.

    2014-12-15

    A series of experiments has revealed the existence of a large number (about 18) of different types of negative ions in superfluid helium-4. Despite much effort, the physical nature of these “exotic ions” has still not been determined. We discuss possible experiments which may be able to help determine the structure of these objects.

  12. Taylor cone and electrospraying at a free surface of superfluid helium charged from below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroshkin, P.; Leiderer, P.; Möller, Th. B.; Kono, K.

    2017-05-01

    Electrically charged metallic micro- and nanoparticles are trapped under a free surface of superfluid He in a vertical static electric field. We observe a static deformation of the charged liquid surface in the form of a Taylor cone and the emission of a charged liquid helium jet (electrospray). Our numeric calculations reproduce the static shape of the cone.

  13. Magnetic trapping of superconducting submicron particles produced by laser ablation in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Suzuki, Junpei; Yoneyama, Naoya; Tokawa, Yurina; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Kumakura, Mitsutaka; Ashida, Masaaki; Moriwaki, Yoshiki

    2017-02-01

    We produced spherical superconducting submicron particles by laser ablation of their base metal tips in superfluid helium, and trapped them using a quadrupole magnetic field owing to the diamagnetism caused by the Meissner effect. We also measured their critical temperatures of superconductivity, by observing the threshold temperatures for the confinement of superconducting submicron particles in the trap.

  14. Ordinary SQUID interferometers and superfluid helium matter wave interferometers: The role of quantum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, A. I.; Zherikhina, L. N. Tskhovrebov, A. M.; Izmailov, G. N.; Ozolin, V. V.

    2010-08-15

    When comparing the operation of a superfluid helium matter wave quantum interferometer (He SQUID) with that of an ordinary direct-current quantum interferometer (dc SQUID), we estimate their resolution limitation that correspond to quantum fluctuations. An alternative mode of operation of the interferometer as a unified macroquantum system is considered.

  15. The Creation of Long-Lived Multielectron Bubbles in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jieping; Tempere, J.; Silvera, Isaac F.

    2017-04-01

    Multielectron bubbles (MEBs) in liquid helium were first observed in the late 1970s, but their properties have never been explored experimentally due to their short lifetimes. MEBs in liquid helium are predicted to have dynamic instabilities for zero or positive pressures, and stability for negative pressures. We report the production of long-lived MEBs in a novel cell filled with helium at static negative pressures. MEBs were extracted from the vapor sheath of a heated filament loop embedded in the superfluid helium and were observed by high-speed photography as they rose in the helium under buoyant forces. In earlier studies we found that MEBs created in this way had large amplitude oscillations and were unstable to decay. By creating MEBs at temperatures just under the lambda point, these oscillations are rapidly damped and the MEBs relax toward a spherical shape and stability as they rise in the helium.

  16. Catalysis of impurities coalescence by quantized vortices in superfluid helium with nanofilament formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, E. B.; Okuda, Y.

    2009-03-01

    A dramatic effect of quantized vortices in superfluid helium on the rate of coalescence of suspended impurities has been predicted; such a catalytic process should result in the formation of fiber-like structures having primarily nanothickness. That should be valid for any impurity and it may be used as a basis for a universal method of producing nanowires and nanotubes. Experiments on the imbedding of molecular hydrogen into liquid helium have supported these conclusions. They showed that: (i) in normal liquid He the coalescence led to the formation of spherical microparticles carried by turbulent motion of the liquid; (ii) in the superfluid only very long filaments were observed, which behaved as quantized vortices should do. These filaments are fiber-like hydrogen crystals and survive the transition of the liquid helium to the normal state. The promises for using this phenomenon in basic and applied sciences are outlined.

  17. Knowledge based and interactive control for the Superfluid Helium On-orbit Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Raymond, Eric A.; Shapiro, Jeff C.; Robinson, Frank A.; Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a Shuttle-based experiment designed to acquire data on the properties of superfluid helium in micro-gravity. Aft Flight Deck Computer Software for the SHOOT experiment is comprised of several monitoring programs which give the astronaut crew visibility into SHOOT systems and a rule based system which will provide process control, diagnosis and error recovery for a helium transfer without ground intervention. Given present Shuttle manifests, this software will become the first expert system to be used in space. The SHOOT Command and Monitoring System (CMS) software will provide a near real time highly interactive interface for the SHOOT principal investigator to control the experiment and to analyze and display its telemetry. The CMS software is targeted for all phases of the SHOOT project: hardware development, pre-flight pad servicing, in-flight operations, and post-flight data analysis.

  18. Study of an all SFHE SIRTF cryogenic system. [SuperFluid HElium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbach, A. R.; Kelly, T. K.; Poley, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a superfluid helium cooled, 85-cm telescope with three infrared instruments at the focal plane. SIRTF will establish in space a long-term-maintainable infrared observatory for the region of 2-700 microns. The cryogenic system can be designed to last up to six years with 1280 kg of superfluid, and can function in either a 28.5 deg or 98 deg inclination orbit by exchanging the sunshade. The lifetime is primarily a function of instrument heat load rather than parasitic heat to the cryogen system.

  19. Helium mass flow through a solid-superfluid-solid junction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi Gang; Beamish, John; Fefferman, Andrew D; Souris, Fabien; Balibar, Sébastien; Dauvois, Vincent

    2015-04-24

    We report the results of flow experiments in which two chambers containing solid ^{4}He are connected by a superfluid Vycor channel. At low temperatures and pressures, mechanically squeezing the solid in one chamber produced a pressure increase in the second chamber, a measure of mass transport through our solid-superfluid-solid junction. This pressure response is very similar to the flow seen in recent experiments at the University of Massachusetts: it began around 600 mK, increased as the temperature was reduced, then decreased dramatically at a temperature, T_{d}, which depended on the ^{3}He impurity concentration. Our experiments indicate that the flow is limited by mass transfer across the solid-liquid interface near the Vycor ends, where the ^{3}He collects at low temperature, rather than by flow paths within the solid ^{4}He.

  20. Production of Zero-Energy Radioactive Nuclear Beams through Extraction from the Liquid-Vapour Interface of Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Huang, W. X.; Dendooven, P.; Gloos, K.; Pekola, J. P.; ńystö, J.

    2004-04-01

    A new approach has been investigated to create an ultra-cold radioactive beam from high-energy ions. A 223Ra alpha-decay recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling 219Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface has been possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactive ion detection. An efficiency of 36 % has been obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  1. Lab tests of a thermomechanical pump for shoot. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Boyle, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory tests of a thermomechanical (TM) pump utilizing a commercially available porous disk have been conducted. Various size disks, heater configurations, and outlet flow impedances have been used to characterize scale models of the pump proposed for the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) Flight Experiment. The results yield the scalability of the TM pump to larger diameters, and hence larger pumping rates, the dependence of flow rate on back pressure and heater power, and the limits of pumping speed due to internal losses within the porous disk due to mutual and superfluid friction. Analysis indicates that for low back pressures the flow rate is limited by the superfluid friction rather than the mutual friction. For the porous plug used in the early tests this amounts to a practical limit of 4.4 liters per hour per square centimeter. For a baselined flight plug area of 180 sq cm this yields 790 liters per hour.

  2. Superfluid helium testing of a stainless steel to titanium piping transition joint

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Budagov, J.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Klebaner, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sabirov, B.; Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    Stainless steel-to-titanium bimetallic transitions have been fabricated with an explosively bonded joint. This novel joining technique was conducted by the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, working under contract for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These bimetallic transitions are being considered for use in future superconducting radio-frequency cavity cryomodule assemblies. This application requires cryogenic testing to demonstrate that this transition joint remains leak-tight when sealing superfluid helium. To simulate a titanium cavity vessel connection to a stainless steel service pipe, bimetallic transition joints were paired together to fabricate piping assemblies. These piping assemblies were then tested in superfluid helium conditions at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory test facilities. The transition joint test program will be described. Fabrication experience and test results will be presented.

  3. An ETF TF-coil concept employing NbTi alloy, bath cooled with superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y.-H.; Purcell, J. R.; Alcorn, J. S.; Homeyer, W.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary study has been performed to assess the feasibility and engineering consideration of employing NbTi alloy conductor, bath cooled with superfluid helium (He II), in an Engineering Test Facility (ETF) toroidal field (TF) coil. This study indicates that saturated superfluid helium (He II) merits serious consideration as an alternative to the use of He I for high field (11-12 tesla) NbTi alloy TF-coils, which require bath temperatures below 4 K. The primary advantages of He II over reduced temperature (2.5-3 K) He I are two: (1) Due to the extremely high thermal conductivity of He II, almost all of the sub-lambda enthalpy is available to absorb local or transient heat loads; and (2) the relatively high surface heat transfer results in substantially improved conductor stability characteristics. The disadvantages of He II relative to reduced temperature He I are increased refrigeration power and pumping requirements, and some additional system complexity.

  4. Production of zero energy radioactive beams through extraction across superfluid helium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Huang, W. X.; Gloos, K.; Dendooven, P.; Pekola, J. P.; Äystö, J.

    2003-05-01

    A radioactive 223Ra source was immersed in superfluid helium at 1.2- 1.7 K. Electric fields transported recoiled 219Rn ions in the form of snowballs to the surface and further extracted them across the surface. The ions were focussed onto an aluminium foil and alpha particle spectra were taken with a surface barrier spectrometer. This enabled us to determine the efficiency for each process unambiguously. The pulsed second sound wave proved effective in enhancing the extraction of positive ions from the surface. Thus we offer a novel method for study of impurities in superfluid helium and propose this method for production of zero energy nuclear beams for use at radioactive ion beam facilities.

  5. Using polycrystalline bismuth filter in an ultracold neutron source with superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Runov, V. V.; Ivanov, S. A.; Onegin, M. S.; Fomin, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Placing polycrystalline bismuth filter in front of an ultracold neutron (UCN) source with superfluid helium at 1 K is shown to be effective. The use of this filter ensures a 30-fold decrease (down to 0.5 W) in the level of heat load in the UCN source, while reducing by 30% the flux of neutrons with 9-Å wavelength (which are converted into UCNs). The phenomenon of small-angle scattering on polycrystalline bismuth has been studied and shown to be insignificant. Cooling of the filter to liquid nitrogen temperature increases the transmission of 9-Å neutrons by only 8%; hence, creation of this cooling system is inexpedient. A project of a technological complex designed for the UCN source at the PIK reactor is presented, which ensures the removal of 1-W heat load from the UCN source with superfluid helium at a 1-K temperature level.

  6. Semiclassical dynamics of vortices in superfluid helium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Cheng, Ran; Niu, Qian

    2011-03-01

    Based on the Berry phase theory, we consider the case of two vortices in Bosonic superfluids and try to extract the interaction between them. Under the adiabatic approximation, we use semiclassical Lagrangian formalism to describe the system and found that in addition to the universal background ``magnetic field'' which results in the Magnus force, there exists a new interaction mediated by the density profile of the background fluid due to its finite compressibility. Finally, numerical solutions from the nonlinear Schrodinger equation were employed to gain better insight into this problem.

  7. Interactive remote control for an STS-based superfluid helium transfer demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Jeff C.; Robinson, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) experiment, which is a Shuttle-based demonstration of the technology required to service cryogenically cooled satellites in space, is described. The SHOOT Command and Monitoring System software, developed on Macintosh II, will provide a near-real-time highly interactive interface making it possible to control the experiment and to analyze and display its telemetry. User interface is discussed as well as conversion functions, and hardware.

  8. Verification testing of the superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, S.; Conaty, C.; Weintz, K.

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a secondary shuttle crossbay payload which flew on the STS-57/Endeavour mission. It was designed to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to resupply liquid helium containers in space, and to develop new technologies that may be used in other future space cryogenic systems. The SHOOT payload consists of two superfluid helium Dewars with helium management cryostats connected by a transfer line, and six avionics boxes for valve and heater control, temperature, pressure and fluid position monitoring and data processing and telemetry. The cryostats contain numerous specialized helium management components; including high and low flow phase separators, liquid/vapour discriminators, flowmeters, liquid level detectors, cryogenic mechanical valves and cryogenic relief valves and burst discs, and two varieties of fluid acquisition systems. To prepare the SHOOT payload for launch a series of functional, structural, thermal and reliability tests were conducted at every level of hardware assembly, from materials tests to system level thermal, structural and functional performance tests. We present here the verification tests and analyses developed and completed at each level of assembly. We discuss the trade-offs considered for, and the success (or failure) of, models and analyses to predict performance results. Finally, we present some lessons learned of potential interest to future cryogenic missions, whether on the Space Shuttle or on expendable launch vehicles.

  9. Coupling an Ensemble of Electrons on Superfluid Helium to a Superconducting Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ge; Fragner, A.; Koolstra, G.; Ocola, L.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Schuster, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    The quantized lateral motional states and the spin states of electrons trapped on the surface of superfluid helium have been proposed as basic building blocks of a scalable quantum computer. Circuit quantum electrodynamics allows strong dipole coupling between electrons and a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator, enabling such sensitive detection and manipulation of electron degrees of freedom. Here, we present the first realization of a hybrid circuit in which a large number of electrons are trapped on the surface of superfluid helium inside a coplanar waveguide resonator. The high finesse of the resonator allows us to observe large dispersive shifts that are many times the linewidth and make fast and sensitive measurements on the collective vibrational modes of the electron ensemble, as well as the superfluid helium film underneath. Furthermore, a large ensemble coupling is observed in the dispersive regime during experiment, and it shows excellent agreement with our numeric model. The coupling strength of the ensemble to the cavity is found to be ≈1 MHz per electron, indicating the feasibility of achieving single electron strong coupling.

  10. Coupling an Ensemble of Electrons on Superfluid Helium to a Superconducting Circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ge; Fragner, Andreas; Koolstra, Gerwin; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Czaplewski, David A.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Schuster, David I.

    2016-03-21

    The quantized lateral motional states and the spin states of electrons trapped on the surface of superfluid helium have been proposed as basic building blocks of a scalable quantum computer. Circuit quantum electrodynamics allows strong dipole coupling between electrons and a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator, enabling such sensitive detection and manipulation of electron degrees of freedom. Here, we present the first realization of a hybrid circuit in which a large number of electrons are trapped on the surface of superfluid helium inside a coplanar waveguide resonator. The high finesse of the resonator allows us to observe large dispersive shifts that are many times the linewidth and make fast and sensitive measurements on the collective vibrational modes of the electron ensemble, as well as the superfluid helium film underneath. Furthermore, a large ensemble coupling is observed in the dispersive regime during experiment, and it shows excellent agreement with our numeric model. The coupling strength of the ensemble to the cavity is found to be approximate to 1 MHz per electron, indicating the feasibility of achieving single electron strong coupling.

  11. Energy spectrum of thermal counterflow turbulence in superfluid helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Varga, E.; Guo, W.; Vinen, W. F.

    2017-09-01

    Recent preliminary experiments [A. Marakov et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 094503 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.094503] using triplet-state He2 excimer molecules as tracers of the motion of the normal fluid have shown that, in thermal counterflow turbulence in superfluid 4He, small-scale turbulence in the superfluid component is accompanied, above a critical heat flux, by partially coupled large-scale turbulence in both fluids, with an energy spectrum proportional to k-m, where m is greater than the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Here we report the results of a more detailed study of this spectrum over a range of temperatures and heat fluxes using the same experimental technique. We show that the exponent m varies systematically with heat flux but is always greater than 5/3. We interpret this as arising from the steady counterflow, which causes large-scale eddies in the two fluids to be pulled in opposite directions, giving rise to dissipation by mutual friction at all wave numbers, mutual friction tending also to oppose the effect of the counterflow. Comparison of the experimental results with a simple theory suggests that this process may be more complicated than we might have hoped, but experiments covering a wider range of heat fluxes, which are technically very difficult, will probably be required before we can arrive at a convincing theory.

  12. Laser ionization and spectroscopy of Cu in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    Lindebner, Friedrich; Kautsch, Andreas; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2014-01-01

    Mass and optical spectroscopic methods are used for the analysis of copper (Cu) atoms and clusters doped to helium nanodroplets (HeN). A two-color resonant two-photon ionization scheme is applied to study the Cu 2P1/2,3/2∘←2S1/2 ground state transition. The absorption is strongly broadened for Cu atoms submerged inside helium nanodroplets and a comparison with computed literature values is provided. An observed ejection of the dopant from the droplet is triggered upon excitation, populating energetically lower states. The formation of Cun clusters up to Cu7 inside helium nanodroplets was observed by means of electron impact ionization mass spectroscopy. PMID:25844053

  13. Characterisation of Aerogel Inner Structure with Superfluid Helium Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2006-09-07

    We have developed a numerical technique that firstly obtains the shape of an adsorbed film on a fractal structure via minimisation of the grand potential functional of the system. This film shape is then used to define the geometry of a potential flow problem, which models the flow of the superfluid film due to an external pressure gradient, with the assumption that the flow velocities are so small so as not to alter the shape of the film. Using a microscopic definition of tortuosity, it is found that in 2D, tortuosity scales with the amount of fluid condensed on the substrate, with an exponent {epsilon} = -1.5. These results are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental results using aerogel as the substrate. Our results also show that {epsilon} is a function of the fractal dimension, Df, and the random walk dimension, Dw of the aerogel, in contrast with previous theories.

  14. Rydberg States of Alkali Metal Atoms on Superfluid Helium Droplets - Theoretical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pototschnig, Johann V.; Lackner, Florian; Hauser, Andreas W.; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2017-06-01

    The bound states of electrons on the surface of superfluid helium have been a research topic for several decades. One of the first systems treated was an electron bound to an ionized helium cluster. Here, a similar system is considered, which consists of a helium droplet with an ionized dopant inside and an orbiting electron on the outside. In our theoretical investigation we select alkali metal atoms (AK) as central ions, stimulated by recent experimental studies of Rydberg states for Na, Rb, and Cs attached to superfluid helium nanodroplets. Experimental spectra , obtained by electronic excitation and subsequent ionization, showed blueshifts for low lying electronic states and redshifts for Rydberg states. In our theoretical treatment the diatomic AK^+-He potential energy curves are first computed with ab initio methods. These potentials are then used to calculate the solvation energy of the ion in a helium droplet as a function of the number of atoms. Additional potential terms, derived from the obtained helium density distribution, are added to the undisturbed atomic pseudopotential in order to simulate a 'modified' potential felt by the outermost electron. This allows us to compute a new set of eigenstates and eigenenergies, which we compare to the experimentally observed energy shifts for highly excited alkali metal atoms on helium nanodroplets. A. Golov and S. Sekatskii, Physica B, 1994, 194, 555-556 E. Loginov, C. Callegari, F. Ancilotto, and M. Drabbels, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011, 115, 6779-6788 F. Lackner, G. Krois, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2012, 3, 1404-1408 F. Lackner, G. Krois, M. Theisen, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 18781-18788

  15. Observation of superfluidity in solid helium and solid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Anthony

    2006-03-01

    A torsional oscillator technique is used to search for non-classical rotational inertia of solid helium^1 and solid hydrogen. Several important experimental details already observed will be reviewed for both systems. Some of these include the transition temperature, supersolid fraction, and dependencies on oscillation speed and impurities. Comparisons will be made in order to demonstrate the similarities and/or differences between helium and hydrogen. With further work currently underway, we will also report on recent experimental progress. This work is done in collaboration with Eunseong Kim, Xi Lin and Moses Chan and is supported by the NSF under grant 0207071. [1] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004); Science 305, 1941(2004); J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 859 (2005).

  16. UCN source with superfluid helium at WWR-M reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Fomin, A. K.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Samodurov, O. Yu; Kanin, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The WWR-M reactor at PNPI is going to be equipped with an ultracold neutron source of high density. Method of UCN production is based on their accumulation in the super fluid helium due to particular qualities of that quantum liquid. The satisfying storage time of UCN at WWR-M reactor in the super fluid helium exists at a temperature below 1.2 K. Our source aims at obtaining a density of UCN equals to 104 n/cm3, two orders of magnitude exceeding that in existing sources presently available in the world. Increase in the density of UCN will raise the accuracy of the measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) of an order of magnitude, which is fundamentally important for the problem of CP violation. The most intense sources of UCN allows PNPI become the centre of fundamental researches with ultracold neutrons.

  17. Study of Cryogenic Plasma in Superfluid Liquid Helium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-23

    Virial coefficient will be calculated. And the equation of state will give us a clue to the study of the critical phenomenon in the complex plasma...is satisfied by the presence of electrons, ions, and the charged fine particles. With the explicit formulation of the interaction energy, the second ...on the order of micro seconds in an X-band mode cylindrical cavity filled with Liquid helium. Although the transmission signals through the cavity

  18. Electron diffraction of CBr4 in superfluid helium droplets: A step towards single molecule diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the practicality of electron diffraction of single molecules inside superfluid helium droplets using CBr4 as a testing case. By reducing the background from pure undoped droplets via multiple doping, with small corrections for dimers and trimers, clearly resolved diffraction rings of CBr4 similar to those of gas phase molecules can be observed. The experimental data from CBr4 doped droplets are in agreement with both theoretical calculations and with experimental results of gaseous species. The abundance of monomers and clusters in the droplet beam also qualitatively agrees with the Poisson statistics. Possible extensions of this approach to macromolecular ions will also be discussed. This result marks the first step in building a molecular goniometer using superfluid helium droplet cooling and field induced orientation. The superior cooling effect of helium droplets is ideal for field induced orientation, but the diffraction background from helium is a concern. This work addresses this background issue and identifies a possible solution. Accumulation of diffraction images only becomes meaningful when all images are produced from molecules oriented in the same direction, and hence a molecular goniometer is a crucial technology for serial diffraction of single molecules.

  19. Electron diffraction of CBr4 in superfluid helium droplets: A step towards single molecule diffraction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the practicality of electron diffraction of single molecules inside superfluid helium droplets using CBr4 as a testing case. By reducing the background from pure undoped droplets via multiple doping, with small corrections for dimers and trimers, clearly resolved diffraction rings of CBr4 similar to those of gas phase molecules can be observed. The experimental data from CBr4 doped droplets are in agreement with both theoretical calculations and with experimental results of gaseous species. The abundance of monomers and clusters in the droplet beam also qualitatively agrees with the Poisson statistics. Possible extensions of this approach to macromolecular ions will also be discussed. This result marks the first step in building a molecular goniometer using superfluid helium droplet cooling and field induced orientation. The superior cooling effect of helium droplets is ideal for field induced orientation, but the diffraction background from helium is a concern. This work addresses this background issue and identifies a possible solution. Accumulation of diffraction images only becomes meaningful when all images are produced from molecules oriented in the same direction, and hence a molecular goniometer is a crucial technology for serial diffraction of single molecules. PMID:27448887

  20. Electron diffraction of CBr4 in superfluid helium droplets: A step towards single molecule diffraction.

    PubMed

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Kong, Wei

    2016-07-21

    We demonstrate the practicality of electron diffraction of single molecules inside superfluid helium droplets using CBr4 as a testing case. By reducing the background from pure undoped droplets via multiple doping, with small corrections for dimers and trimers, clearly resolved diffraction rings of CBr4 similar to those of gas phase molecules can be observed. The experimental data from CBr4 doped droplets are in agreement with both theoretical calculations and with experimental results of gaseous species. The abundance of monomers and clusters in the droplet beam also qualitatively agrees with the Poisson statistics. Possible extensions of this approach to macromolecular ions will also be discussed. This result marks the first step in building a molecular goniometer using superfluid helium droplet cooling and field induced orientation. The superior cooling effect of helium droplets is ideal for field induced orientation, but the diffraction background from helium is a concern. This work addresses this background issue and identifies a possible solution. Accumulation of diffraction images only becomes meaningful when all images are produced from molecules oriented in the same direction, and hence a molecular goniometer is a crucial technology for serial diffraction of single molecules.

  1. High-resolution electronic spectroscopy of the BODIPY chromophore in supersonic beam and superfluid helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Stromeck-Faderl, Anja; Pentlehner, Dominik; Kensy, Uwe; Dick, Bernhard

    2011-07-11

    We present the fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra of the parent compound of the boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye class measured in a supersonic beam and isolated in superfluid helium nanodroplets. The gas-phase spectrum of the isolated molecules displays many low-frequency transitions that are assigned to a symmetry-breaking mode with a strongly nonharmonic potential, presumably the out-of-plane wagging mode of the BF(2) group. The data are in good agreement with transition energies and Franck-Condon factors calculated for a double minimum potential in the upper electronic state. The corresponding transitions do not appear in the helium droplet. This is explained with the quasi-rigid first layer of helium atoms attached to the dopant molecule by van der Waals forces. The spectral characteristics are those of a cyanine dye rather than that of an aromatic chromophore. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Formation of cold ion-neutral clusters using superfluid helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, Travis M.; Lewis, William K.; Bemish, Raymond J.; Miller, Roger E.; Glish, Gary L.

    2010-05-01

    A strategy for forming and detecting cold ion-neutral clusters using superfluid helium nanodroplets is described. Sodium cations generated via thermionic emission are directed toward a beam of helium droplets that can also pick up neutral molecules and form a cluster with the captured Na+. The composition of the clusters is determined by mass spectrometric analysis following a desolvation step. It is shown that the polar molecules H2O and HCN are picked up and form ion-neutral clusters with sizes and relative abundances that are in good agreement with those predicted by the statistics used to describe neutral cluster formation in helium droplets. [Na(H2O)n]+ clusters containing six to 43 water molecules were observed, a size range of sodiated water clusters difficult to access in the gas phase. Clusters containing N2 were in lower abundance than expected, suggesting that the desolvation process heats the clusters sufficiently to dissociate those containing nonpolar molecules.

  3. Performance of all-metal demountable cryogenic seals at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Spivak, Alan L.

    1989-01-01

    Two all-metal demountable cryogenic seals with an outside diameter of 36.6 mm, inside diameter of 27.2 mm, and thickness of 0.51 mm were leak-tested at room temperature (300 K), liquid nitrogen temperature (21 cycles at 77 K), liquid helium temperature (9 cycles at 4.2 K), and superfluid helium temperature (4 cycles at 1.6 K). Each seal was mounted and demounted for 13 cycles. Thickness measurements at 90 deg intervals along the circumference showed a maximum seal compression of 0.038 mm. Leak-rate measurements at all temperatures showed no detectable leak above the helium background level, typically 0.1 x 10(-9) std-cc/sec, during testing.

  4. Performance of all-metal demountable cryogenic seals at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P. L.; Spivak, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Two all-metal demountable cryogenic seals with an outside diameter of 36.6 mm, inside diameter of 27.2 mm and thickness of 0.51 mm were leak-tested at room temperature (300 K), liquid nitrogen temperature (21 cycles at 77 K), liquid helium temperature (nine cycles at 4.2K) and superfluid helium temperature (four cycles at 1.6 K). Each seal was mounted and demounted for 13 cycles. Thickness measurements at 90 deg intervals along the circumference showed a maximum seal compression of 0.038 mm. Leak rate measurements at all temperatures showed no detectable leak above the helium background level, typically 0.1 x 10 exp -9 std cu cm/s, during testing.

  5. The A-B transition in superfluid helium-3 under confinement in a thin slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelev, N.; Abhilash, T. S.; Smith, E. N.; Bennett, R. G.; Rojas, X.; Levitin, L.; Saunders, J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    The influence of confinement on the phases of superfluid helium-3 is studied using the torsional pendulum method. We focus on the transition between the A and B phases, where the A phase is stabilized by confinement and a spatially modulated stripe phase is predicted at the A-B phase boundary. Here we discuss results from superfluid helium-3 contained in a single 1.08-μm-thick nanofluidic cavity incorporated into a high-precision torsion pendulum, and map the phase diagram between 0.1 and 5.6 bar. We observe only small supercooling of the A phase, in comparison to bulk or when confined in aerogel, with evidence for a non-monotonic pressure dependence. This suggests that an intrinsic B-phase nucleation mechanism operates under confinement. Both the phase diagram and the relative superfluid fraction of the A and B phases, show that strong coupling is present at all pressures, with implications for the stability of the stripe phase.

  6. The A-B transition in superfluid helium-3 under confinement in a thin slab geometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhelev, N.; Abhilash, T. S.; Smith, E. N.; Bennett, R. G.; Rojas, X.; Levitin, L.; Saunders, J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of confinement on the phases of superfluid helium-3 is studied using the torsional pendulum method. We focus on the transition between the A and B phases, where the A phase is stabilized by confinement and a spatially modulated stripe phase is predicted at the A–B phase boundary. Here we discuss results from superfluid helium-3 contained in a single 1.08-μm-thick nanofluidic cavity incorporated into a high-precision torsion pendulum, and map the phase diagram between 0.1 and 5.6 bar. We observe only small supercooling of the A phase, in comparison to bulk or when confined in aerogel, with evidence for a non-monotonic pressure dependence. This suggests that an intrinsic B-phase nucleation mechanism operates under confinement. Both the phase diagram and the relative superfluid fraction of the A and B phases, show that strong coupling is present at all pressures, with implications for the stability of the stripe phase. PMID:28671184

  7. Crystals, liquid crystals and superfluid helium on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    In this thesis we study the ground state of ordered phases grown as thin layers on substrates with smooth spatially varying Gaussian curvature. The Gaussian curvature acts as a source for a one body potential of purely geometrical origin that controls the equilibrium distribution of the defects in liquid crystal layers, thin films of He4 and two dimensional crystals on a frozen curved surface. For superfluids, all defects are repelled (attracted) by regions of positive (negative) Gaussian curvature. For liquid crystals, charges between 0 and 4pi are attracted by regions of positive curvature while all other charges are repelled. As the thickness of the liquid crystal film increases, transitions between two and three dimensional defect structures are triggered in the ground state of the system. Thin spherical shells of nematic molecules with planar anchoring possess four short 12 disclination lines but, as the thickness increases, a three dimensional escaped configuration composed of two pairs of half-hedgehogs becomes energetically favorable. Finally, we examine the static and dynamical properties that distinguish two dimensional crystals constrained to lie on a curved substrate from their flat space counterparts. A generic mechanism of dislocation unbinding in the presence of varying Gaussian curvature is presented. We explore how the geometric potential affects the energetics and dynamics of dislocations and point defects such as vacancies and interstitials.

  8. Turbulent Flow Around an Oscillating Body in Superfluid Helium: Dissipation Characteristics of the Nonlinear Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemma, E.; Luzuriaga, J.

    2013-08-01

    By examining the resonance curves of an oscillator submerged in superfluid liquid helium, it is found that their shape is affected by two distinct dissipation regimes when the amplitude is large enough to generate turbulence in the liquid. In a resonance curve, the central part close to resonance, may be in a turbulent regime, but the response is of much lower amplitude away from the resonance frequency, so that the oscillation can still be in the linear regime for frequencies not exactly at resonance. This introduces an ambiguity in estimating the inverse quality factor Q -1 of the oscillator. By analyzing experimental data we consider a way of matching the two ways of estimating Q -1 and use the information to evaluate the frictional force as a function of velocity in a silicon paddle oscillator generating turbulence in the superfluid.

  9. Towards the in-situ detection of a single He2 * excimer in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Faustin; Hertel, Scott; Rooks, Michael; Prober, Daniel; McKinsey, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Incident radiation can excite superfluid helium into a diatomic He2* excimer, which decays through the emission of a 15 eV photon. Such excimers have been used as tracers to measure the superfluid's quantum turbulence, thanks partly to the long half-life of the He2* triplet state (13 seconds). However, the efficient detection of these excimers remains a challenge. We present a detector capable of in-situ detection of the He2* excimers either directly (the excimer collides with the detector), or by collecting the 15 eV photon emission upon decay. This detector is based on a tungsten superconducting transition edge sensor and is designed to operate near 100 mK in a dilution refrigerator. We will discuss operating characteristics and present preliminary data with an aim towards the detection of a single excimer.

  10. Single-Photon-Sensitive Superconducting TES Sensors for EUV Photons in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Faustin; Hertel, Scott; Prober, Daniel; McKinsey, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Incident radiation can excite superfluid helium into a diatomic He2* excimer, which decays through the emission of a 15 eV photon. Such excimers have been used as tracers to measure the superfluid's quantum turbulence, thanks partly to the long half-life of the He2* triplet state (~13 seconds). However, the efficient detection of these excimers remains a challenge. This work presents two different detector designs capable of in-situ detection of the He2* excimers either directly, or by collecting the 15 eV emission upon decay. Both detectors are based on the superconducting transition edge sensor. One is designed to operate near 2 K, while the other is designed for ~100 mK operation in a dilution refrigerator. We will discuss operating characteristics of both, and present preliminary data from the 2 K detector.

  11. Superfluid helium 2 liquid-vapor phase separation: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature survey of helium 2 liquid vapor phase separation is presented. Currently, two types of He 2 phase separators are being investigated: porous, sintered metal plugs and the active phase separator. The permeability K(P) shows consistency in porous plug geometric characterization. Both the heat and mass fluxes increase with K(P). Downstream pressure regulation to adjust for varying heat loads and both temperatures is possible. For large dynamic heat loads, the active phase separator shows a maximum heat rejection rate of up to 2 W and bath temperature stability of 0.1 mK. Porous plug phase separation performance should be investigated for application to SIRTF and, in particular, that plugs of from 10 to the minus ninth square centimeters to 10 to the minus eighth square centimeters in conjunction with downstream pressure regulation be studied.

  12. Thermodynamics and Zero Sound Properties of Superfluid HELIUM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelsson, Ulf Egil

    The phase diagram of the A(,1) phase of superfluid ('3)He was deter- mined using zero sound as a detector. Measurements were done for pressures between 0 bar and 33 bar, and in magnetic fields up to 3 Tesla. From these measurements we obtain new information about certain parameters in the Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion. The up splitting (T(,1)-T(,c))/H is found to decrease from a value of 40.7 (mu)K/T at 33 bar to 7.1 (mu)K/T at 0 bar. The up/down ratio -(T(,1)-T(,c))/(T(,2)-T(,c)), which is solely determined by strong coupling corrections, is found to decrease from 1.74 at 33 bar to the weak coupling value 1.0 at zero bar. Measurements of the clapping mode frequency (omega)(,cL ) in the A(,1) and A(,2) phases were performed at pressures from 11 bar to 33 bar using a sound frequency of 21.3 MHz. The ratio (omega)(,cL)/(DELTA)(,0), where (DELTA)(,0) is the maximum amplitude of the energy gap, is found to be substantially smaller than the value 1.23 expected for the pure p-wave axial state. We show that this ratio is lowered by finite f-wave pair interactions and obtain agreement with our experiment if the ratio of the f-wave to p-wave coupling strength is V(,3)/V(,1) (DBLTURN) 0.8. Experimental attenuation versus temperature line shapes are compared to the p-wave theory of Wolfle and Koch, which includes the effects of collisions. We find that the experiment shows progres- sively more excess attenuation as the pressure is reduced. It is not clear if allowing for a finite f-wave interaction into the theory of Wolfle and Koch will bring it closer to experiment. We also see more excess attenuation in the A(,1) phase than in the A(,2) phase. A possible expla- nation for this could be that there exists a small interaction between the up and down spin Cooper pairs. (Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089 -0182.).

  13. A PISO-like algorithm to simulate superfluid helium flow with the two-fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulaine, Cyprien; Quintard, Michel; Allain, Hervé; Baudouy, Bertrand; Van Weelderen, Rob

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a segregated algorithm to solve numerically the superfluid helium (He II) equations using the two-fluid model. In order to validate the resulting code and illustrate its potential, different simulations have been performed. First, the flow through a capillary filled with He II with a heated area on one side is simulated and results are compared to analytical solutions in both Landau and Gorter-Mellink flow regimes. Then, transient heat transfer of a forced flow of He II is investigated. Finally, some two-dimensional simulations in a porous medium model are carried out.

  14. Superfluid-helium-cooled rocket-borne far-infrared radiometer.

    PubMed

    Blair, A G; Edeskuty, F; Hiebert, R D; Jones, D M; Shipley, J P; Williamson, K D

    1971-05-01

    A far-infrared radiometer, cooled to 1.6 K by superfluid helium, has been flown in a Terrier-Sandhawk rocket. The instrument was designed to measure night-sky radiation in three wavelength passbands between 6 mm and 0.1 mm at altitudes between 120 km and 350 km. A failure in the rocket nose cone separation system prevented the measurement of this radiation, but the performance of the instrument during flight was generally satisfactory. Design features and operational characteristics of the cryogenic, optical, detection, and electronic systems are presented.

  15. Applicability of the Atkins model to the ion behavior in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiderer, P.; Shikin, V.

    2009-02-01

    The properties of ion clusters in superfluid helium are usually treated within the model proposed by Atkins (the snowball model). However, although a solid sphere of radius Ra around the seed ion can actually exist, it is vitally important to which extent it really governs the scattering mechanisms of various thermal excitations at the cluster. Detailed analysis of available data on the phonon as well as the impurity and Stokes mobilities reveals that the true unifying factor in the discussed picture is a power-law density enhancement in the vicinity of the seed charged particle caused by the polarization forces rather than the radius Ra

  16. Parametric self-enhancement of the spontaneous decay of sound in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.S.; Putterman, S.

    1985-04-22

    The spontaneous decay of coherent monochromatic sound is dramatically self-enhanced by parametric amplification. We observed this effect for the first time with 3.25-GHz sound in superfluid helium at 85 mK. Starting with a typical intensity of 10 W/m/sup 2/ the sound beam is depleted by more than 99.9% over just 1 mm of propagation distance. In addition we observed, in contrast to Landau-Rumer processes, an exponential decay coefficient proportional to the square root of the initial intensity.

  17. SHOOT flowmeter and pressure transducers. [for Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashani, A.; Wilcox, R. A.; Spivak, A. L.; Daney, D. E.; Woodhouse, C. E.

    1990-01-01

    A venturi flowmeter has been designed and constructed for the Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment. The calibration results obtained from the SHOOT venturi demonstrate the ability of the flowmeter to meet the requirements of the SHOOT experiment. Flow rates as low as 20 cu dm/h and as high as 800 cu dm/h have been measured. Performances of the SHOOT differential and absolute pressure transducers, which have undergone calibration and vibration tests, are also included. Throughout the tests, the responses of the transducers remained linear and repeatable to within + or - 1 percent of the full scales of the transducers.

  18. Modelling of helium-mediated quench propagation in the LHC prototype test string-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Grzegory, P.; Serio, L.; van Weelderen, R.

    2000-08-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype test string-1, hereafter referred to as the string, is composed of three 10-m long prototype dipole magnets and one 6-m long prototype quadrupole magnet. The magnets are immersed in a pressurized static bath of superfluid helium that is maintained at a pressure of about 1 bar and at a temperature of about 1.9 K. This helium bath constitutes one single hydraulic unit, extending along 42.5 m of the string length. We have measured the triggering of quenches of the string magnets due to the quenching of a single dipole magnet located at the string's extremity, i.e., "quench propagation". Previously reported measurements enabled to establish that in this configuration the quench propagation is mediated by the helium and not by the inter-magnet bus bar connections [L. Coull, D. Hagedorn, G. Krainz, F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, Quench propagation tests on the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: S. Myers, A. Pacheco, R. Pascual, C. Petit-Jean-Genaz, J. Poole (Eds.), Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference - EPAC '96, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, 10-14 June 1996, IOP, Bristol, 1996; F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, L. Serio, Thermo-hydraulic quench propagation at the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: D. Dew-Hughes, R.G. Scurlock, J.H.P. Watson (Eds), 17th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC-17), Bournemouth, UK, 14-17 July 1998, IOP, Bristol, 1998]. We present a model of helium-mediated quench propagation based on the qualitative conclusions of these two previous papers, and on additional information gained from a dedicated series of quench propagation measurements that were not previously reported. We will discuss the specific mechanisms and their main parameters involved at different timescales of the propagation process, and apply the model to make quantitative predictions.

  19. Extraction of radioactive positive ions across the surface of superfluid helium: A new method to produce cold radioactive nuclear beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W. X.; Dendooven, P.; Gloos, K.; Takahashi, N.; Pekola, J. P.; Äystö, J.

    2003-09-01

    Alpha-decay recoils 219Rn were stopped in superfluid helium and positive ions were extracted by electric field into the vapour phase. This first quantitative observation of extraction was successfully conducted using highly sensitive radioactivity detection. The efficiency for extraction across the liquid surface was 23 ± 4% at 1.60 K, the release time was 90 ± 10 ms at 1.50 K and the barrier for positive ions through a free superfluid-helium surface was 19.4 ± 4.5 K. The pulsed second sound proved to be effective in enhancing the extraction.

  20. A study of the thermal conductivity of composite material Cu-epoxide resin at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. L.; Wu, T. H.; Guo, F. Z.

    1994-02-01

    The influence of Kapitza thermal resistance of the composite material at superfluid helium temperatures is studied from the point of view of the heat transfer theory of cryogenics. A numerical model is developed for calculating the effective thermal conductivity coefficient of Cu-epoxide resin with the wires arranged in a square or crosswise. Experimental investigations have also been made at superfluid helium temperatures. The effective thermal conductivity coefficient of this kind of composite material measured by experiment is λ e=0.5929W/m·K.

  1. Optomechanics in superfluid helium coupled to a fiber-based cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-03-01

    Presented in this paper are measurements of an optomechanical device in which various acoustic modes of a sample of superfluid helium couple to a fiber-based optical cavity. In contrast with recent work on the paraxial acoustic mode confined by the cavity mirrors (Kashkanova et al Nat. Phys. 2016 (https://doi.org/10.1038/NPHYS3900)), we focus specifically on the acoustic modes associated with the helium surrounding the cavity. This paper provides a framework for understanding how the acoustic modes depend on device geometry. The acoustic modes are observed using the technique of optomechanically induced transparency/amplification. The optomechanical coupling to these modes is found to be predominantly photothermal.

  2. A Report on Superfluid Helium Flow Through Porous Plugs for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    As a background for the study of the nature of superfluid helium flow through porous plugs for other space science uses, preliminary tests on various plugs of a given material, diameter, height, and filtration grade have been performed. Two characteristics of the plugs, pore size and number of channels, have been determined by the bubble test and warm flow test of helium gas through the plugs, respectively. Tests on the flow of He II through the plugs have also been performed. An obvious feature of the results of these tests is that for isothermal measurements of pressure versus mass flow rate below approximately 2.10 K, the flow is separated into two different regimes, indicative of the occurrence of a critical phenomenon.

  3. A Report on Superfluid Helium Flow Through Porous Plugs for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    As a background for the study of the nature of superfluid helium flow through porous plugs for other space science uses, preliminary tests on various plugs of a given material, diameter, height, and filtration grade have been performed. Two characteristics of the plugs, pore size and number of channels, have been determined by the bubble test and warm flow test of helium gas through the plugs, respectively. Tests on the flow of He II through the plugs have also been performed. An obvious feature of the results of these tests is that for isothermal measurements of pressure versus mass flow rate below approximately 2.10 K, the flow is separated into two different regimes, indicative of the occurrence of a critical phenomenon.

  4. Hyperfine structure measurement of 87Rb atoms injected into superfluid helium as highly energetic ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Kei; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaofei; Fujita, Tomomi; Wakui, Takashi; Mitsuya, Yousuke; Hayasaka, Miki; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Odashima, Hitoshi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Orochi Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a new nuclear laser spectroscopy technique that is called OROCHI (Optical RI-atoms Observation in Condensed Helium as Ioncatcher). In OROCHI, highly energetic ion beam is injected into superfluid helium (He II) and is trapped as atoms. Hyperfine structure (HFS) and Zeeman splitting of trapped atoms is measured using laser-microwave (MW)/radiofrequency (RF) double resonance method. We deduce nuclear moments and spin values from the measured splittings, respectively So far, we measured Zeeman splitting of 84-87Rb atoms To evaluate the validity of the OROCHI method, it is necessary to investigate the following two points not only for Zeeman but also for HFS splitings. (i) What is the accuracy in frequency in our measurement? (ii) How high beam intensity is necessary to observe resonance spectra? For this purpose we conducted online experiment using 87Rb beam and measured the HFS splitting of injected 87Rb atoms in He II.

  5. Molecular rotation and dynamics in superfluid helium-4 nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced laser radiation, coupled to molecular- beam bolometric detection has been used to study the spectroscopy of acetylenic molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets. The 2ν1 transition (CH stretch overtone) of HCN, DCCH, NCCCH, CH3CCH, CF3CCH, (CH 3)3CCCH, (CH3)3SiCCH, has been investigated in the 1.5 μm spectral region by means of a color center laser coupled to a resonant build-up cavity, which enhances the laser power experienced by the molecules in the beam by up to a factor of 400, thus overcoming the weakness of the (dipole forbidden) transitions. All molecules are observed to rotate freely in the liquid cluster environment, with strongly enhanced moments of inertia, but with negligible matrix induced shifts (less than 1 cm-1). We show that this enhancement is largely accounted for by hydrodynamic effects, which we have modeled and numerically calculated. While in the gas phase the rotational lines have instrument-limited widths (a few MHZ), in the droplets we have observed linewidths ranging from 600 MHz for (CH3)3SiCCH to 2.8GHz for (CH3) 3CCCH. To investigate the nature of the broadening (which was widely believed to be homogeneous), we have performed a series of infrared (IR) saturation experiments on the 2ν1 transition. We have also thoroughly investigated NCCCH by means of microwave (MW) single-resonance experiments (on rotational transitions) and double-resonance (MW-MW and MW-IR) experiments. The results demonstrate that the spectral features of molecules in He droplets are inhomogeneously broadened, and allow an estimate of the importance of the different broadening contributions. In particular, MW-IR measurements show that the size of the cluster greatly affects the way rotational energy is relaxed. Large clusters seem to follow a ``strong collision model'' where memory of the initial rotational state is completely lost after each ``relaxation'' event, while for smaller clusters relaxation rates are probably affected by the lower

  6. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Prize Lecture: Quantum Mechanics meets Fluid Dynamics: Visualization of Vortex Reconnection in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena including superfluidity, superconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensation. While superfluidity in helium-4 was one of the earliest discovered, it is not the best understood, owing to the strong interactions present (making theoretical progress difficult) and the lack of local experimental probes. Quantum fluids, such as superfluid helium-4, are typically described as a mixture of two interpenetrating fluids with distinct velocity fields: a viscous normal fluid akin to water and an inviscid superfluid exhibiting long-range quantum order. In this "two-fluid model," there is no conventional viscous dissipation in the superfluid component and vorticity is confined to atomically-thin vortices with quantized circulation. Turbulence may occur in either fluid component with turbulence in the superfluid exhibiting a complex tangle of quantized vortices, as first envisioned by Feynman. Approximately five years ago, our group discovered that micron-sized hydrogen particles may be used for flow visualization in superfluid helium-4. The particles can trace the motions of the normal fluid or be trapped by the quantized vortices, which enables one to characterize the dynamics of both the normal fluid and superfluid components for the first time. By directly observing and tracking these particles, we have directly confirmed the two-fluid model, observed vortex rings and quantized vortex reconnection, characterized thermal counterflows, and observed the very peculiar nature of quantum turbulence. One of many surprising observations is the existence of power-law tails in the probability distribution of velocities in quantum turbulence, which are in stark contrast to the Gaussian distributions typical of classical fluid turbulence.

  7. Dynamics and Morphology of Superfluid Helium Drops in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, George M.; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an apparatus that makes it possible to observe and study magnetically levitated drops of superfluid helium. The force on a diamagnetic substance in a magnetic field is proportional to the gradient of the square of the magnetic field B. For the magnetic force on helium to be equal to the gravitational force on Earth, it is necessary for the product of B with the field gradient dB/d z to be 21.5 T(exp 2)/cm. In addition, in order for the magnetic field to provide a stable trap, the value of B(exp 2) must increase in all directions in the horizontal plane that passes through the point where the field/field gradient product in the vertical direction has the critical value of 21.5 T(exp 2)/cm. A specially designed superconducting magnet that meets these specifications has been installed in a large helium dewar with optical access. Helium drops levitated by the magnet can be viewed along the axis of the solenoid. The sample chamber within the bore of the magnet is thermally isolated from the magnet and helium reservoir. Its temperature can be varied between 4 and 0.5 K, the lower part of the range being reached using a He-3 refrigerator. Liquid helium can be injected into the magnetic trap using a small capillary. Once a drop is contained in the trap it can be held there indefinitely. With this apparatus we have conducted a number of different types of experiments on helium drops so as to gain information necessary for performing experiments in space. With magnetically levitated drops we are limited to working with drops of 1 cm. or less in diameter. The shape of the drops larger than a few mm diameter can be distorted by the profile of the magnetic field. The study of phenomena such as the initial motion of the surfaces of two drops as they just make contact, requires the use large drops to resolve the behavior of interest. We have performed a detailed investigation of the shape oscillations of superfluid drops.

  8. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-07-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs+ is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs+-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 106 helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.

  9. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-07-28

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs{sup +} is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs{sup +}-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 10{sup 6} helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.

  10. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei

    2015-07-28

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs(+) is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs(+)-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 10(6) helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.

  11. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs+ is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs+-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 106 helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K. PMID:26233132

  12. Stability and structure of nanowires grown from silver, copper and their alloys by laser ablation into superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Eugene; Karabulin, Alexander; Matyushenko, Vladimir; Sizov, Vyacheslav; Khodos, Igor

    2014-12-14

    Nanowires with 5 nm diameter made of silver, copper, and their alloys were grown in superfluid helium. The silver nanowires being heated to 300 K disintegrated into individual clusters. In contrast, copper nanowires were stable at room temperature, and nanowires made of alloys were also stable despite their low melting temperature.

  13. Scintillation and quantum evaporation generated by single monoenergetic electrons stopped in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.S.; Kim, Y.H.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1998-12-01

    For several years the authors have been studying the energy deposition in liquid helium at low temperatures by energetic charged particles. This work is motivated by interest in developing a detector for neutrinos emanating from the p-p reaction in the sun. An electron stopped in superfluid helium generates phonons and rotons in the liquid as well as uv photons via scintillation. They report recent measurements with single 364 keV electrons. A sapphire wafer with a superconducting transition-edge sensor is mounted above the liquid and can measure energy and timing information of individual events. The authors observe both uv photons and the quantum evaporation of helium atoms resulting from phonons and rotons generated by the ionizing particle in the liquid. The production of photons and rotons is strikingly different for an electron and for an alpha particle. The origin of the differences is associated with the different density of excitations along the tracks of an alpha particle and an electron.

  14. Thermoluminescence Dynamics During Destructions of Porous Structures Formed by Nitrogen Nanoclusters in Bulk Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meraki, Adil; Mao, Shun; McColgan, Patrick T.; Boltnev, Roman E.; Lee, David M.; Khmelenko, Vladimir V.

    2016-11-01

    We studied the dynamics of thermoluminescence during destruction of porous structures formed by nanoclusters of nitrogen molecules containing high concentrations of stabilized nitrogen atoms. The porous structures were formed in bulk superfluid helium by injection of the products of discharges in nitrogen-helium gas mixtures through the liquid helium surface. Fast recombination of nitrogen atoms during warming-up led to explosive destruction of the porous structures accompanied by bright flashes. Intense emissions from the α -group of nitrogen atoms, the β -group of oxygen atoms and the Vegard-Kaplan bands of N_2 molecules were observed at the beginning of destruction. At the end of destruction the M- and β -bands of NO molecules as well as bands of O_2 molecules were also observed. Observation of the emissions from NO molecules at the end of destruction was explained by processes of accumulation of NO molecules in the system due to the large van der Waals interaction of NO molecules. For the first time, we observed the emission of the O_2 molecules at the end of destruction of the porous nitrogen structures as a result of the (NO)_2 dimer formation in solid nitrogen and subsequent processes leading to the appearance of excited O_2 molecules.

  15. Analysis of dewar and transfer line cooldown in Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT) is designed to demonstrate the techniques and components required for orbital superfluid (He II) replenishment of observatories and satellites. One of the tasks planned in the experiment is to cool a warm cryogen tank and a warm transfer line to liquid helium temperature. A math model, based on single-phase vapor flow heat transfer, has been developed to predict the cooldown time, component temperature histories, and helium consumption rate, for various initial conditions of the components and for the thermomechanical pump heater powers of 2 W and 0.5 W. This paper discusses the model and the analytical results, which can be used for planning the experiment operations and determining the pump heater power required for the cooldown operation.

  16. Analysis of dewar and transfer line cooldown in Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT) is designed to demonstrate the techniques and components required for orbital superfluid (He II) replenishment of observatories and satellites. One of the tasks planned in the experiment is to cool a warm cryogen tank and a warm transfer line to liquid helium temperature. A math model, based on single-phase vapor flow heat transfer, has been developed to predict the cooldown time, component temperature histories, and helium consumption rate, for various initial conditions of the components and for the thermomechanical pump heater powers of 2 W and 0.5 W. This paper discusses the model and the analytical results, which can be used for planning the experiment operations and determining the pump heater power required for the cooldown operation.

  17. Pressure driven flows of superfluid helium-4 through a single nanopipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Angel; Siwy, Zuzanna; Taborek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We have measured flow rates of helium-4 through a single etched nanopore of 31 nm diameter in mica with a mass spectrometer. Flow rates were measured as a function of pressure at constant temperature and at saturated vapor pressures along the coexistence curve between 0.5 K and 3.5 K. Due to the constraint of the mass spectrometer the low pressure side was maintained at P =0 creating an intrinsic superfluid/vapor interface which forms inside the pipe or at its exit. We observed two flow regimes at low temperatures with velocities in the range of 6 and 11 m/s consistent with Feynman's vortex critical velocity and a thermal vortex nucleation model respectively. The velocity in a laminar, viscous flow is proportional to the pressure drop while in superfluid flows to zeroth order the velocity is independent of the pressure. A first order correction shows a linear dependence on the pressure with the slope continuously varying from a positive to a negative value near the lambda point. We have also measured flow rates in the normal state and found rates in exact agreement with conventional viscous theory that incorporates the Laplace pressure and a zero slip length. Supported by NSF DMR-0907495.

  18. Ultracold neutron accumulation in a superfluid-helium converter with magnetic multipole reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, O.; Golub, R.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the accumulation of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in a superfluid-helium converter vessel surrounded by a magnetic multipole reflector. We solved the spin-dependent rate equation, employing formulas valid for adiabatic spin transport of trapped UCNs in mechanical equilibrium. Results for saturation UCN densities are obtained in dependence of order and strength of the multipolar field. The addition of magnetic storage to neutron optical potentials can increase the density and energy of the low-field-seeking UCNs produced and serves to mitigate the effects of wall losses on the source performance. It also can provide a highly polarized sample of UCNs without need to polarize the neutron beam incident on the converter. This work was performed in preparation of the UCN source project SuperSUN at the Institut Laue-Langevin.

  19. Effective mass of a charged carrier in a nonpolar liquid: Snowball effect in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chikina, I.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasiparticle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He{sup 4} in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called ''snowball'' model). Moreover, in addition to the generalization of Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal-fluid contribution divergency and the way of the corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  20. Motion of metallic microparticles in superfluid helium in the presence of space charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroshkin, P.; Leiderer, P.; Kono, K.

    2017-04-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical study of the motion of metallic micro- and nanoparticles in cryogenic superfluid helium in the presence of a static electric field. Depending on the polarity of the applied field, the system is charged with a large number of positive ions or free electrons. For the electrons, we observe the formation of a negative charge layer above the free surface of liquid He and a shuttle-like motion of metallic particles between this layer and the positively charged bottom electrode. For the positive ions, the positive space charge is created in the liquid and the particle motion resembles bouncing off the (negatively charged) bottom electrode. The observations are explained by a theoretical model based on classical electrostatics and hydrodynamics.

  1. Argon Nanoclusters with Fivefold Symmetry in Supersonic Gas Jets and Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylchenko, O. G.; Boltnev, R. E.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Kiryukhin, V.; Konotop, O. P.; Lee, D. M.; Krainyukova, N. V.

    2017-04-01

    In this study argon nanoclusters (800 to ˜ 6500 atoms) formed in supersonic gas jets are compared to the nanoclusters stabilized in superfluid helium. High-energy electron and X-ray diffraction methods are utilized. Both techniques allow investigation of isolated clusters. It is shown that the theoretical prediction of the so-called multiply twinned particles with fivefold symmetry, such as icosahedra (ico) and decahedra (dec) is valid in the investigated cluster size interval. Around the point of the expected ico-to-dec size-dependent transformation at a cluster size of ˜ 2000 atoms, hexagonal ico and the statistical distribution of structures with a tendency for dec to replace ico are observed. Kinetic reasons, as well as temperature-related effects, could be responsible for the latter observations.

  2. The Effective Mass of a Charged Carrier in a Nonpolar Liquid:. Applications to Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Andrei; Chikina, Ioulia; Shikin, Valeriy

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasi-particle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called “snowball” model). Moreover, in addition to generalization of the Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal fluid contribution divergency and the way of corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  3. Effective mass of a charged carrier in a nonpolar liquid: Snowball effect in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasiparticle can be introduced without Atkins’s idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called “snowball” model). Moreover, in addition to the generalization of Atkins’s model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal-fluid contribution divergency and the way of the corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  4. The Effective Mass of a Charged Carrier in a Nonpolar Liquid:. Applications to Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Andrei; Chikina, Ioulia; Shikin, Valeriy

    2009-12-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasi-particle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called "snowball" model). Moreover, in addition to generalization of the Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal fluid contribution divergency and the way of corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  5. Formation of bimetallic clusters in superfluid helium nanodroplets analysed by atomic resolution electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials. PMID:26508471

  6. Structure and Properties of Platinum, Gold and Mercury Nanowires Grown in Superfluid Helium.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Eugene B; Karabulin, Alexander V; Morozov, Andrey A; Matyushenko, Vladimir I; Sizov, Vyacheslav D; Khodos, Igor I

    2014-04-03

    Webs consisting of nanowires made of gold, platinum and mercury were produced by the technique based on laser ablation of metals inside superfluid helium. Their morphology and structure as well as their electrical conductivity have been studied. Diameters of gold and platinum nanowires are 4.5 and 3 nm, respectively. Fortunately, they are close to diameters of nanospheres made of these metals, which, as known from the literature, possess anomalous catalytic activity. Web resistivities for all metals up to room temperature are controlled by conductive electron scattering on a wire surface, thus they are almost independent of T. Nanowires in the webs are electrically interconnected, and therefore the web can be used as a catalyst without any support. Possible advantages of this type of nanocatalyst are outlined.

  7. Formation of bimetallic clusters in superfluid helium nanodroplets analysed by atomic resolution electron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2015-10-01

    Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials.

  8. Design considerations for a micro-g superfluid helium fluid acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The general description, the operation, and the design of a superfluid helium (SFHe) fluid acquisition system (FAS) for use under microgravity conditions is presented. For the type of FAS considered here, where fine-mesh woven screens are used to retain flowing SFHe within a gallery arm (flow) channel, those forces which determine the flow dynamics are the micro-g accelerations, liquid surface tension, and tensile strength and cumulative pressure drops along a flow path that begins at the bulk liquid and ends at the entrance to a pump. For this case, the dimensionless number, N(T) is written as the ratio between the pressure drop across the screen and the surface tension forces at the screen for low fluid velocities. Static Bond number measurements have bene taken for SFHe using 325 x 2300 twilled Dutch screen and have indicated a screen pore hydraulic radius of 0.00031 cm.

  9. Temperature dependent mobility measurements of alkali earth ions in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putlitz, Gisbert Zu; Baumann, I.; Foerste, M.; Jungmann, K.; Riediger, O.; Tabbert, B.; Wiebe, J.; Zühlke, C.

    1998-05-01

    Mobility measurements of impurity ions in superfluid helium are reported. Alkali earth ions were produced with a laser sputtering technique and were drawn inside the liquid by an electric field. The experiments were carried out in the temperature region from 1.27 up to 1.66 K. The temperature dependence of the mobility of Be^+-ions (measured here for the first time) differs from that of the other alkali earth ions Mg^+, Ca^+, Sr^+ and Ba^+, but behaves similar to that of He^+ (M. Foerste, H. Günther, O. Riediger, J. Wiebe, G. zu Putlitz, Z. Phys. B) 104, 317 (1997). Theories of Atkins (A. Atkins, Phys. Rev.) 116, 1339 (1959) and Cole (M.W. Cole, R.A. Bachmann Phys. Rev. B) 15, 1388 (1977) predict a different defect structure for He^+ and the alkali earth ions: the helium ion is assumed to form a snowball like structure whereas for the alkali earth ions a bubble structure is assumed. If the temperature dependence is a characteristic feature for the different structures, then it seems likely that the Be^+ ion builds a snowball like structure.

  10. Effect of an electric field on superfluid helium scintillation produced by α-particle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, T. M.; Clayton, S. M.; Ramsey, J.; Karcz, M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Long, J. C.; Reddy, T. G.; Seidel, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    We report a study of the intensity and time dependence of scintillation produced by weak α-particle sources in superfluid helium in the presence of an electric field (0-45 kV/cm) in the temperature range of 0.2 to 1.1 K at the saturated vapor pressure. Both the prompt and the delayed components of the scintillation exhibit a reduction in intensity with the application of an electric field. The reduction in the intensity of the prompt component is well approximated by a linear dependence on the electric field strength with a reduction of 15% at 45 kV/cm. When analyzed using the Kramers theory of columnar recombination, this electric field dependence leads to the conclusion that roughly 40% of the scintillation results from species formed from atoms originally promoted to excited states and 60% from excimers created by ionization and subsequent recombination with the charges initially having a cylindrical Gaussian distribution about the α track of 60 nm radius. The intensity of the delayed component of the scintillation has a stronger dependence on the electric field strength and on temperature. The implications of these data on the mechanisms affecting scintillation in liquid helium are discussed.

  11. On the electric activity of superfluid helium at the excitation of first and second sound waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pashitskii, E. A. Gurin, A. A.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the electric activity of superfluid helium (HeII) observed in the experiments [3] during the excitation of standing second sound waves in an acoustic resonator can be described in terms of the phenomenological mechanism of the inertial polarization of atoms in a dielectric, in particular, in HeII, when the polarization field induced in the medium is proportional to the mechanical acceleration, by analogy with the Stewart-Tolman effect. The variable relative velocity w = v{sub n} - v{sub s} of the normal and superfluid HeII components that emerges in the second sound wave determines the mean group velocity of rotons, V{sub g} Almost-Equal-To w, with the density of the normal component related to their equilibrium number density in the temperature range 1.3 K {<=} T {<=} 2 K. Therefore, the acceleration of the 4He atoms involved in the formation of a roton excitation is proportional to the time derivative of the relative velocity.w. In this case, the linear local relations between the variable values of the electric induction, electric field strength, and polarization vector should be taken into account. As a result, the variable displacement current induced in the bulk of HeII and the corresponding potential difference do not depend on the anomalously low polarizability of liquid helium. This allows the ratio of the amplitudes of the temperature and potential oscillations in the second sound wave, which is almost independent of T in the above temperature range, consistent with experimental data to be obtained. At the same time, the absence of an electric response during the excitation of first sound waves in the linear regime is related to an insufficient power of the sound oscillations. Based on the experimental data on the excitation of first and second sounds, we have obtained estimates for the phenomenological coefficient of proportionality between the polarization vector and acceleration and for the drag coefficient of helium atoms by rotons in the

  12. Quantum turbulence—from superfluid helium to atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Makoto

    2009-04-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the physics of quantum turbulence (QT). QT was discovered in superfluid 4He in the 1950s, while the research has taken a new direction since the middle of the 1990s. QT is comprised of quantized vortices that are definite topological defects and expected to give a prototype of turbulence much simpler than usual classical turbulence. We give a general introduction and brief review of classical turbulence followed by a description of the dynamics of quantized vortices. After mentioning the modern research trends in QT, we discuss the energy spectra, the energy cascade and the possible dissipation mechanism of QT at very low temperatures. The last part is devoted to QT in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates.

  13. Controlled evaporation of superfluid helium in a porous plug phase separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, Christopher R.

    1998-12-01

    New cryogenic propulsion system technology to be used on the Relativity Mission (GP-B) and MiniSTEP satellites requires the porous plug to operate in a dynamic environment with variable vent line impedance due to the use of the evaporated vapor as the propellant for the attitude and translational control system (ATCS). Ranges of ATCS thrust requirements for the satellite missions translate into a range of evaporative mass flow which must be provided by the porous plug. The mass flow profile of a porous plug defines its evaporative mass flow behavior during operation. As a porous plug can exhibit an evaporative mass flow profile reducing the overall performance of a cryogenic propulsion system, selection of a flight plug with the correct mass flow profile is of critical importance in system design. Currently, approximate but still incomplete theory in conjunction with experimental iteration provides a means for selecting a porous plug with repeatable flow behavior adequate for flight. An alternate technique of porous plug operation based on the ideal behavior and thermomechanical effect of superfluid helium provides the required mass flow rates, maintains the performance of the cryogenic propulsion system, and reduces iterative testing for flight porous plugs. Heating of the downstream surface of a porous plug while controlling the vent line impedance augments the mass flow through the plug. This technique greatly increases the operational range of the plug while providing the ability to maintain thermodynamic conditions at its downstream surface. Thus, a porous plug can meet extended ranges of mass flow and simultaneously maintain the highest performance of the propulsion system. In this thesis, we have extended this technique by performing experiments with controlled heating of the downstream surface of a porous plug while operating it in its repeatable flow regime. Our results demonstrate the evaporative mass flow rate can be increased in the repeatable flow

  14. Solvation of molecules in superfluid helium enhances the “interaction induced localization” effect

    SciTech Connect

    Walewski, Łukasz Forbert, Harald; Marx, Dominik

    2014-04-14

    Atomic nuclei become delocalized at low temperatures as a result of quantum effects, whereas they are point-like in the high temperature (classical) limit. For non-interacting nuclei, the delocalization upon lowering the temperature is quantitatively described in terms of the thermal de Broglie wavelength of free particles. Clearly, light non-interacting nuclei – the proton being a prominent one – are much more delocalized at low temperatures compared to heavy nuclei, such as non-interacting oxygen having water in mind. However, strong interactions due to chemical bonding in conjunction with ultra-low temperatures characteristic to superfluid helium nanodroplets change this common picture substantially for nuclei in molecules or clusters. It turns out that protons shared in hydrogen bonds undergo an extreme “interaction induced localization” at temperatures on the order of 1 K, which compresses the protonic spatial distributions to the size of the much heavier donor or acceptor atoms, such as O or Cl nuclei, corresponding to about 0.1% of the volume occupied by a non-interacting proton at the same temperature. Moreover, applying our recently developed hybrid ab initio path integral molecular dynamics/bosonic path integral Monte Carlo quantum simulation technique to a HCl/water cluster, HCl(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}, we find that helium solvation has a significant additional localizing effect of up to about 30% in volume. In particular, the solvent-induced excess localization is the stronger the lesser the given nucleus is already localized in the gas phase reference situation.

  15. Interaction-induced localisation of protons in hydrogen bonds at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walewski, Łukasz; Forbert, Harald; Marx, Dominik

    2013-09-01

    It is common wisdom to expect that protons are more delocalised than much heavier nuclei due to quantum effects, for instance, in hydrogen bonds D-H⋆ ṡ ṡ ṡ A, where the shared proton H⋆ is suspended in between the donor and acceptor heavy sites. Here, we demonstrate that this simple quasi-classical perspective fails at sufficiently low temperatures as a result of intramolecular covalent bonding accompanied by the non-covalent intermolecular interactions which induce strong localisation in the deep quantum regime. Using the water dimer as well as H2O ṡ ṡ ṡ HCl as generic models, path integral simulations at temperatures characteristic to superfluid helium conditions (about 1 K) reveal that the shared proton in such hydrogen bonds gets extremely confined to a spatial region that is comparable to - or even smaller than - that of the heavy atoms. This counter-intuitive so-called interaction-induced localisation phenomenon is also effective for the heavier nuclei, although to a much lesser extent. It is the elevated temperature (about 100 K) that restores the familiar quasi-classical picture, in which atomic spread follows the usual mass dependence of de Broglie wavelength.

  16. TFCX-S toroidal field coil design using a superfluid helium-cooled winding

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, S.S.; Coffman, L.; Hooper, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of the toroidal field (TF) coils for one of the possible options for the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX). TFCX is a proposed long-pulse, ignited next-step tokamak to follow the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). In the TFCX option considered here, designated TFCX-S, there are 16 superconducting TF coils which produce 4.3 T at a plasma major radius of 3.75 m. Each of the TF coils is rated at 5.06 MAT, and operates at a peak field of 9.8 T at the winding. Several winding/cooling approaches have been considered for the TFCX-S TF coils. A NbTi winding, cooled by superfluid helium (He/sub II/) at 1.8 K, is discussed here. The conductor is similar to that being developed by GA Technologies as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) 12 T conductor development program. Use of either sub-cooled atmospheric pressure He/sub II/ or saturated sub-atmospheric pressure He/sub II/ has been considered; both cooling schemes appear feasible.

  17. Flow visualization in superfluid helium-4 using a thin line of He2 excimer tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakov, Alex; Gao, Jian; Guo, Wei; van Sciver, Steven; Ihas, Gary; McKinsey, Daniel; Vinen, William

    2014-03-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proven in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study turbulence in superfluid helium-4 (He II). In order to extract quantitative information of the flow field, we developed a new technique based on the generation of a thin line of He2 excimer tracers via femtosecond-laser field ionization. These tracers move solely with the normal-fluid component in He II and can be imaged using a laser-induce fluorescence technique. Studying the drift and distortion of the tracer line in a turbulent flow shall allow us to measure the instantaneous flow velocity field and hence determine the structure functions and the energy spectrum of the turbulence. We discuss the preliminary results obtained that for the first time visually reveal the existence of a laminar-to-turbulent transition in the normal fluid in thermal counterflow. W.G. acknowledges the startup support from Florida State University and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

  18. Solvation of triplet Rydberg states of molecular hydrogen in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiljunen, Toni; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Kunttu, Henrik; Eloranta, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    We report ab initio interaction potentials, transition dipole moments, and radiative lifetimes for the four lowest triplet states of H2: b 3Σ+u, c 3Πu, a 3Σ+g, and e 3Σ+u, and their response to the perturbation due to approaching ground state He atom. Hybrid density functional quantum Monte Carlo calculations employing the ab initio interaction potentials are then used for calculating the liquid structure around the molecular excimers in bulk superfluid 4He. Calculations demonstrate a wide variety of possible solvation structures, both spherical and highly anisotropic in geometry, depending on the electronic state of H2. The experimentally observed H2 (3e3a) emission bands [Trottier et al., Phys. Rev. A 61, 052504 (2000)] are simulated and the origins of the line shifts discussed. Absorption spectra of the same system are predicted to be broader and more blue shifted compared to the gas phase. Feasibility of the metastable 3c state for absorption experiments in liquid helium is proposed.

  19. Design and Testing of a 2K Superfluid Helium Heat Station

    SciTech Connect

    William Hicks; Edward Daly; Joseph Preble; Mark Wiseman; Claus Rode

    2005-08-29

    Three transitional cryomodules (SL21, FEL03, Renascence) have been constructed as part of an energy upgrade effort at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Each transitional cryomodule contains eight superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Within the vacuum vessel, waveguides transmit up to 13 kW of RF power to the superconducting niobium cavities. The waveguides also provide the thermal transition between the room temperature ceramic RF window and the niobium fundamental power coupler (FPC), a 300K temperature gradient across {approx}20cm. The thermal performance of the waveguides is determined in part by the placement of heat stations and bellows. The original 13 kW waveguide design incorporated a single 60 K heat station and two bellows resulting in a total heat load (static + dynamic) to the FPC of {approx}3W per waveguide. To minimize this heat load and stabilize the FPC temperatures, a 2K superfluid helium heat station design was incorporated into the second transitional cryomodule, FEL03, installed in the JLab Free Electron Laser (FEL). The designed heat station is capable of removing up to 1.12W, with a bath temperature of 2.05K, while remaining sub-lambda. This paper describes the design, analysis and testing of the heat station.

  20. A method for the three-dimensional simulation of superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Bottura, L.; Darve, C.; Patankar, N.A.; Van Sciver, S.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in superfluid helium can be described using the two-fluid Landau-Khalatnikov model and the Gorter-Mellink mutual friction. Here we discuss a mathematical formulation of the two-fluid model that uses macroscopic conservation balances of mass, momentum and energy of each species, and assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium. A particularity of this model is that it describes the state of He II as well as that of each of the two-fluid components in terms of pressure p and temperature T, which is convenient for stable numerical solution. The equations of the model form a system of partial differential equations (PDE) that can be written in matrix form for convenience. On this base, a three-dimensional numerical model using a complete and consistent, while still practical, system of PDEs was developed. In the form described, the PDE can be solved using three-dimensional Lagrangian finite element in space supplemented by a Beam-Warming time-2marching algorithm. Once validated, this solver will allow to simulate He II thermal counterflow applied to arbitrary geometry.

  1. Charge collection in Si detectors irradiated in situ at superfluid helium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Zabrodskii, Andrei; Dehning, Bernd; Kurfürst, Christoph; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R.; Egorov, Nicolai; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2015-10-01

    Silicon and diamond detectors operated in a superfluid helium bath are currently being considered for the upgrade of the LHC beam loss monitoring system. The detectors would be installed in immediate proximity of the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. We present here the results of the in situ irradiation test for silicon detectors using 23 GeV protons while keeping the detectors at a temperature of 1.9 K. Red laser (630 nm) Transient Current Technique and DC current measurements were used to study the pulse response and collected charge for silicon detectors irradiated to a maximum radiation fluence of 1×1016 p/cm2. The dependence between collected charge and irradiation fluence was parameterized using the Hecht equation and assumption of a uniform electric field distribution. The collected charge was found to degrade with particle fluence for both bias polarities. We observed that the main factor responsible for this degradation was related to trapping of holes on the donor-type radiation-induced defects. In contrast to expectations, along with formation of donors, acceptor-type defects (electron traps) are introduced into the silicon bulk. This suggests that the current models describing charge collection in irradiated silicon detectors require an extension for taking into account trapping at low temperatures with a contribution of shallow levels. New in situ irradiation tests are needed and planned now to extend statistics of the results and gain a deeper insight into the physics of low temperature detector operation in harsh radiation environment.

  2. Particle dynamics in wall-bounded thermal counterflow of superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mantia, M.

    2017-06-01

    The motions of relatively small particles in wall-bounded thermal counterflow of superfluid helium are experimentally investigated, above 1 K, by using the particle tracking velocimetry technique. The effect of a solid boundary on this quantum flow has received little attention to date, and the focus here is on the corresponding flow-induced particle dynamics. The velocity and velocity difference statistical distributions of the particles are computed at length scales straddling two orders of magnitude across the mean distance between quantized vortices, the quantum length scale of the flow. The imposed counterflow velocity ranges between about 2 and 7 mm/s, resulting in suitably defined Reynolds numbers up to 20 000. The distributions are found to be wider in the bulk than close to the solid boundary, at small enough scales, and this suggests that the mean distance between the vortices increases with the distance from the wall. The outcome reinforces the view, supported to date solely by numerical simulations, that in thermal counterflow quantized vortices are not homogenously distributed in the channel and that they preferentially concentrate close to its walls. Boundary layers might therefore also exist in quantum flows, although some of their features appear to be significantly different from those attributed to wall-bounded flows of viscous fluids, due to the presence of quantized vortices.

  3. Particle trajectories in thermal counterflow of superfluid helium in a wide channel of square cross section

    SciTech Connect

    La Mantia, Marco

    2016-02-15

    The motion of micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles in thermal counterflow of superfluid helium is studied experimentally by using the particle tracking velocimetry technique. The investigated quantum flow occurs in a square channel of 25 mm sides and 100 mm length, appreciably wider than those employed in previous related experiments. Flow velocities up to 10 mm/s are obtained, corresponding to temperatures between about 1.3 K and 2.1 K, and applied heat fluxes between ca. 50 W/m{sup 2} and 500 W/m{sup 2}. The character of the obtained particle trajectories changes significantly as the imposed mean flow velocity increases. At thermal counterflow velocities lower than approximately 1 mm/s, the particle tracks appear straighter than at larger velocities. On the basis of the current understanding of the underlying physics, it is argued that the outcome is most likely due to the transition to the turbulent state of the investigated flow as, for narrower channels, this transition was reported to occur at larger velocities. The present results confirm that, at least in the parameter ranges investigated to date, the transition to turbulence in thermal counterflow depends on the geometry of the channel where this quantum flow develops.

  4. Microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets studied by the electronic spectra of six porphyrin derivatives and one chlorine compound.

    PubMed

    Riechers, R; Pentlehner, D; Slenczka, A

    2013-06-28

    After almost two decades of high resolution molecular spectroscopy in superfluid helium droplets, the understanding of microsolvation is still the subject of intense experimental and theoretical research. According to the published spectroscopic work including microwave, infrared, and electronic spectroscopy, the latter appears to be particularly promising to study microsolvation because of the appearance of pure molecular transitions and spectrally separated phonon wings. Instead of studying the very details of the influence of the helium environment for one particular dopant molecule as previously done for phthalocyanine, the present study compares electronic spectra of a series of non-polar porphyrin derivatives when doped into helium droplets consisting of 10(4)-10(5) helium atoms. Thereby, we focus on the helium-induced fine structure, as revealed most clearly at the corresponding electronic origin. The interpretation and the assignment of particular features obtained in the fluorescence excitation spectra are based on additional investigations of dispersed emission spectra and of the saturation behavior. Besides many dopant-specific results, the experimental study provides strong evidence for a particular triple peak feature representing the characteristic signature of helium solvation for all seven related dopant species.

  5. Measurements of Thermal Conductivity of Superfluid Helium Near its Transition Temperature T(sub lambda) in a 2D Confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerebets, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    We report our recent experiments on thermal conductivity measurements of superfluid He-4 near its phase transition in a two-dimensional (2D) confinement under saturated vapor pressure. A 2D confinement is created by 2-mm- and 1-mm-thick glass capillary plates, consisting of densely populated parallel microchannels with cross-sections of 5 x 50 and 1 x 10 microns, correspondingly. A heat current (2 < Q < 400 nW/sq cm) was applied along the channels long direction. High-resolution measurements were provided by DC SQUID-based high-resolution paramagnetic salt thermometers (HRTs) with a nanokelvin resolution. We might find that thermal conductivity of confined helium is finite at the bulk superfluid transition temperature. Our 2D results will be compared with those in a bulk and 1D confinement.

  6. Linear dichroism spectroscopy of gas phase biological molecules embedded in superfluid helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Wei; Pei, Linsen; Zhang, Jie

    This article presents the current status of gas phase linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy, including the theoretical background, the experimental technique, and a few examples in the UV/VIS and IR. Orientation and alignment of gas phase samples are achieved using a DC electric field. To reach the necessary degree of alignment, biological molecules vaporized from a heated oven need to be embedded in superfluid helium droplets. Excitation under different polarization directions of the light source relative to the alignment field can then be used to derive the direction of the transition dipole, or the size of the permanent dipole, or both. For biological molecules that have no resonance lines or too many resonance lines, LD offers an additional parameter for spectroscopic assignment and tautomeric and conformational identification. The direction of the vibrational transition dipole is proven more reliable for vibrational and tautomeric assignment than the energy or frequency information, which is often problematic because of its sensitivity to basis sets and calculation methods. Several examples of vibrational LD of nucleic acid bases will be discussed. On the other hand, if a chromophore with a known electronic transition dipole is attached to a biological molecule, as demonstrated in the case of tryptamine, the permanent dipole determined from LD is then representative of the molecular conformation. This method of conformational determination does not rely on detailed spectroscopic assignment, thus it is applicable to molecules that do not have resolvable vibronic bands. However, its application is currently limited to the availability of an effective chromophore, and the search for such a chromophore is an on-going effort.

  7. The superfluid helium flow in the channel with porous insert at the presence of longitudinal heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolyov, P. V.; Kryukov, A. P.; Puzina, Yu Yu

    2016-10-01

    The processes of heat and mass transfer during the flow of helium-II (He-II) in a channel with porous backfilling placed in a particular section of its length are studied. Heat flux is directed along the axis of the channel in such a way that on one side of the backfilling vapor plug is formed. Calculation of steady-state transport processes at vapor-He-II interfaces is carried out using methods of molecular-kinetic theory. The normal fluid flow in the pores in laminar and turbulent regimes is described by equations taking into account features of heat and mass transfer in superfluid helium. The relationships between the length of the porous insert and the velocities of fluids for different flow regimes are formulated. The results of the calculations are analyzed by comparison with previous data for the flow of He-II in the individual capillary.

  8. Development of Toroidal Magnetic Thermometry to Study New Phenomena Associated with the Superfluid Transition in Liquid HELIUM-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Robert Vance

    A new type of paramagnetic susceptibility thermometry called toroidal magnetic thermometry (TMT) has been developed. These TMT thermometers have a thermal resolution of five nanoKelvin near the ^4He superfluid transition temperature T_lambda = 2.172K, making TMT roughly a factor of fifty times better in resolution than conventional germanium resistance thermometry which is commercially available. The dramatic improvement in thermal resolution provided by TMT has been used to observe new phenomena associated with the superfluid transition in pure liquid ^4He. Such phenomena include a component of the thermal boundary (Kapitza) resistance R_{rm K} which is singular at the superfluid transition temperature T_lambda. In addition to the singularity, measurements of R _{rm K} exhibit a strong dependence on the heat current Q used to make the measurements for reduced temperature t equiv 1 - T/T_lambda<=ss than t_{rm c}(Q). This t_{rm c} was observed to be approximately proportional to Q. For t < t_{rm c} the initial value of the derivative dR_ {rm K}/dQ was observed to be approximately proportional to 1/t. In addition to the boundary effects described above, these TMT thermometers have been used to detect the depression of T_lambda by a heat current Q flowing through the liquid helium. Due to the ultrahigh resolution of the TMT thermometers this effect has been studied using values of Q < 10 muW/cm^2 where superfluid thermal gradients have been observed to be very small. When these values of Delta T_lambda(Q) were used to calculate the depression of the superfluid density Deltarho_{ rm s}(Q) the results agreed well with a prediction based on the theory of Ginzburg and Pitaevskii. The calibration of the TMT thermometers provide high-resolution measurements of the a.c. paramagnetic susceptibility of their magnetic salt: Copper ammonium bromide (CAB). These calibration parameters, together with power dissipation data near the CAB Curie temperature T_{rm c} = 1.795K, provide

  9. Progress on Study of Electric Breakdown in Superfluid Liquid Helium for the SNS nEDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wanchun; Beck, Douglas; Bouman, Nathaniel; Cianciolo, Vince; Clayton, Steven; Crawford, Christopher; Currie, Scott; Griffith, William; Ito, Takeyasu; Ramsey, John; Schmid, Richardo; Seidel, George; Stanislaus, Shirvel; Tang, Zhaowen; Wagner, Daniel; Williamson, Steven; Yao, Weijun; SNS nEDM Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The SNS nEDM collaboration is developing an experiment to search for the neutron's electric dipole moment (EDM) to be run at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As the experimental sensitivity depends linearly on the strength of applied electric field, it is of critical importance to achieve a strong and stable electric field in the storage region of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in superfluid helium. However, the phenomenon of electric breakdown in liquid helium is poorly understood, and as such a major R&D effort is under way. We have developed an apparatus to test various coating materials on electrodes of 12 cm diameter and study breakdown in liquid helium at temperatures as low as 0.4 K and pressures between saturated vapor pressure and 1 atm. Meanwhile, a small test apparatus has been used to study various aspects of breakdown phenomenon. In this talk, the present status of our effort, implication of findings on the SNS nEDM experiment and future plans will be presented.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Immersed in Superfluid Helium: The Impact of Quantum Confinement on Wetting and Capillary Action.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Andreas W; de Lara-Castells, María Pilar

    2016-12-01

    A recent experimental study [ Ohba, Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 28992 ] of gas adsorption on single-walled carbon nanotubes at temperatures between 2 and 5 K reported a quenched propagation of helium through carbon nanotubes with diameters below 7 Å despite the small kinetic diameter of helium atoms. After assessing the performance of a potential model for the He-nanotube interaction via ab initio calculations with density functional theory-based symmetry adapted perturbation theory, we apply orbital-free helium density functional theory to show that the counterintuitive experimental result is a consequence of the exceptionally high zero-point energy of helium and its tendency to form spatially separated layers of helium upon adsorption at the lowest temperatures. Helium filling factors are derived for a series of carbon nanotubes and compared to the available experimental data.

  11. A titanium transition-edge sensor for the in-situ detection of individual He2 excimers in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Faustin; Hertel, Scott; Matulis, Catherine; Rooks, Michael; McKinsey, Daniel; Prober, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Incident radiation can excite superfluid helium into a diatomic He2* excimer, which decays through the emission of a 15 eV photon. Such excimers have been used as tracers to measure the superfluid's quantum turbulence, thanks in part to the long half-life of the He2* triplet state (~ 13 seconds). However, the efficient detection of single or a few excimers remains a challenge. We present a detector capable of in-situ detection of the He2* excimers either directly (the excimer collides with the detector), or by collecting the 15 eV photon emission upon decay. This detector is based on a titanium superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES), with an energy resolution of 1.5 eV fwhm, coupled to an aluminum absorber. The TES is designed to operate from 20-300 mK in a dilution refrigerator. We will discuss operating characteristics of the detector and present preliminary data for detection of individual excimers. We acknowledge support from YINQE, NSF MRSEC DMR-1119826, and NSF DMR-1007974.

  12. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    DOE PAGES

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; ...

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features ofmore » the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.« less

  13. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features of the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.

  14. A 3-D model of superfluid helium suitable for numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Darve, C.; Patankar, N.A.; Van Sciver, S.W.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.

    2008-01-01

    The two-fluid description is a very successful phenomenological representation of the properties of Helium II. A 3-D model suitable for numerical analysis based on the Landau-Khalatnikov description of Helium II is proposed. In this paper we introduce a system of partial differential equations that is both complete and consistent as well as practical, to be used for a 3-D solution of the flow of Helium II. The development of a 3-D numerical model for Helium II is motivated by the need to validate experimental results obtained by observing the normal component velocity distribution in a Helium II thermal counter-flow using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique.

  15. Quantum interferences in the photodissociation of Cl2(B) in superfluid helium nanodroplets ((4)He)N.

    PubMed

    Vilà, Arnau; González, Miguel; Mayol, Ricardo

    2015-12-28

    Quantum interferences are probably one of the most fascinating phenomena in chemical physics and, particularly, in reaction dynamics, where they are often very elusive from an experimental perspective. Here, we have theoretically investigated, using a hybrid method recently proposed by us, the dynamics of the formation of confinement quantum interferences in the photodissociation of a Cl2 molecule (B ← X electronic excitation) embedded in a superfluid helium nanodroplet of different sizes (50-500 (4)He atoms), which is to the best of our knowledge the first time that this type of interference is described in reaction dynamics. Thus, we have widely extended a recent contribution of our group, where interferences were not the main target, identifying the way they are formed and lead to the production of strongly oscillating velocity distributions in the Cl dissociating atoms, and also paying attention to the energy transfer processes involved. This probably corresponds to a rather general behavior in the photodissociation of molecules in helium nanodroplets. We hope that the present study will encourage the experimentalists to investigate this captivating phenomenon, although the technical difficulties involved are very high.

  16. Renormalization-group study of superfluidity and phase separation of helium mixtures immersed in a nonrandom aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatnikova, A.; Berker, A.N.

    1997-02-01

    Superfluidity and phase separation in {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixtures immersed in a jungle-gym (nonrandom) aerogel are studied by renormalization-group theory. Phase diagrams are calculated for a variety of aerogel concentrations. Superfluidity at very low {sup 4}He concentrations and a depressed tricritical temperature are found at the onset of superfluidity. A superfluid-superfluid phase separation, terminating at an isolated critical point, is found entirely within the superfluid phase. These phenomena and trends with respect to aerogel concentration are explained by the connectivity and tenuousness of a jungle-gym aerogel. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Renormalization-group study of superfluidity and phase separation of helium mixtures immersed in a nonrandom aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatnikova, Anna; Nihat Berker, A.

    1997-02-01

    Superfluidity and phase separation in 3-4He mixtures immersed in a jungle-gym (nonrandom) aerogel are studied by renormalization-group theory. Phase diagrams are calculated for a variety of aerogel concentrations. Superfluidity at very low 4He concentrations and a depressed tricritical temperature are found at the onset of superfluidity. A superfluid-superfluid phase separation, terminating at an isolated critical point, is found entirely within the superfluid phase. These phenomena and trends with respect to aerogel concentration are explained by the connectivity and tenuousness of a jungle-gym aerogel.

  18. Renormalization-Group Theory Study of Superfluidity and Phase Separation of Helium Mixtures Immersed in Jungle-Gym Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatnikova, Anna; Berker, A. Nihat

    1997-03-01

    Superfluidity and phase separation in ^3He-^4He mixtures immersed in jungle-gym (non-random) aerogel are studied by renormalization-group theory.(Phys. Rev. B, in press (1996)) Phase diagrams are calculated for a variety of aerogel concentrations. Superfluidity at very low ^4He concentrations and a depressed tricritical temperature are found at the onset of superfluidity. A superfluid-superfluid phase separation, terminating at an isolated critical point, is found entirely within the superfluid phase. These phenomena, and trends with respect to aerogel concentration, are explained by the connectivity and tenuousness of jungle-gym aerogel.

  19. Surface Region of Superfluid Helium as an Inhomogeneous Bose-Condensed Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, A.; Stringari, S.

    1996-01-01

    We present arguments that the low density surface region of self-bounded superfluid 4He systems is an inhomogeneous dilute Bose gas, with almost all of the atoms occupying the same single-particle state at T = 0. Numerical evidence for this complete Bose-Einstein condensation was first given by the many-body variational calculations of 4He droplets by Lewart, Pandharipande, and Pieper in 1988 [Phys. Rev. B 37, 4950 (1988)]. We show that the low density surface region can be treated rigorously using a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the Bose order parameter.

  20. Nonlinear Interaction of Zero Sound with the Order Parameter Collective Modes in Superfluid HELIUM-3-BORON.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Ross Hugh

    A brief overview of past experimental and theoretical investigations of the linear and nonlinear interaction of zero sound with the order parameter collective modes in superfluid ^3He-B is given before introducing the quasiclassical (QC) theory of superfluid ^3He. A new approach to calculating the linear and nonlinear response is presented. The QC propagator is calculated by expanding the low energy Dyson's equation in powers of the nonequilibrium self energy. The expression given for the expansion coefficients, involving products of pairs of equilibrium Green's functions, has a simple diagrammatic representation, and establishes a connection between the QC theory and other theoretical formalisms which have been used to investigate the collective modes. It is shown that the expansion coefficients satisfy Onsager-like relations and some identities required by gauge and galilean invariance. Consequently, this new approach to deriving dynamical equations for the collective modes is more efficient and transparent than solving the QC transport equations. This new approach is used to investigate the linear coupling of zero sound to the order parameter collective modes in weakly inhomogeneous superfluid ^3 He. It makes tractable the treatment of (nonlinear) parametric processes involving zero sound and the collective modes. It is shown that the approximate particle-hole symmetry of the ^3He Fermi liquid determines important selection rules for nonlinear acoustic processes, just as it is well known to do for linear processes. Analogues with nonlinear optics guide the derivation, solution and interpretation of the dynamical equations for a three-wave resonance between two zero sound waves and the J = 2 ^+ order parameter collective mode. It is shown that stimulated Raman scattering and two phonon absorption of zero sound by the J = 2^+ collective mode should be observable when the pump sound wave has energy density larger than about one percent of the superfluid

  1. GIRL cryotechnics and preparation of a TEXUS experiment on superfluid helium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, Hans-Dietrich; Gradt, Thomas; Klipping, Gustav; Klipping, Ingrid; Ruppert, Udo; Szuecs, Zsolt; Walter, Harry

    1987-11-01

    Technological requirements for the handling of superfluid He2 at zero-g in the German infrared telescope GIRL (Refrigerated Infrared Laboratory) are analyzed. The separation of gas and liquid phase, temperature control, and heat transfer during the continuous evaporation of the coolant are studied. An active phase separator together with the necessary cryocomponents, displacement transducer, actuator, and penetration cables are developed. The system is tested under critical laboratory conditions and on zero-g flights under variation of the acceleration between 2g and 0g. By integrating different safety circuits the reliability of the system is achieved.

  2. Performance of all-metal demountable cryogenic seals at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Spivak, Alan L.; Kittel, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Two all-metal demountable cryogenic seals with an outside diameter of 36.6 mm, inside diameter of 27.2 mm, and thickness of 0.51 mm were leak-tested at room temperature (300 K), liquid nitrogen temperature (21 cycles at 77 K), liquid helium temperature (9 cycles at 4.2 K), and susperfluid helium temperature (4 cycles at 1.6 K). Each seal was mounted and demounted for 13 cycles. Thickness measurements at 90 deg intervals along the circumference showed a maximum seal compression of 0.038 mm. Leak-rate measurements at all temperatures showed no detectable leak above the helium background level, typically 0.1 x 10(-9) std-cc/sec, during testing.

  3. Heat transfer through cyanate ester epoxy mix and epoxy TGPAP - DETDA electrical insulations at superfluid helium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrowicz, Slawomir; Four, Aurelian; Canfer, Simon; Jones, Stephanie; Baudouy, Bertrand

    2012-06-01

    A high magnetic field accelerator magnet of 13 T is being developed in Work Package 7 of the European Union FP7 project EuCARD. The application is to enable higher luminosities and energies for accelerators such as the LHC. The high magnetic field demands superconductors that require a heat treatment step such as Nb3Sn. This paper reports thermal tests on conventional composite electrical insulation with pressurized superfluid helium at atmospheric pressure as a coolant. Two composite insulation systems composed of cyanate ester epoxy mix or a tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with Sglass fiber, have been chosen as candidate materials. The knowledge of their thermal properties is necessary for the thermal design and therefore samples have been tested in pressurized He II where heat is applied perpendicularly to the fibers between 1.6 K and 2.0 K. Overall thermal resistance is determined as a function of temperature and the results are compared with other electrical insulation systems used for accelerator magnets.

  4. High resolution electron microscopy of Ag-clusters in crystalline and non-crystalline morphologies grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Fisslthaler, Evelin; Grogger, Werner

    2013-06-07

    We present a first investigation of structural properties of Ag clusters with a diameter of up to 5.5 nm grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets (He{sub N}) and deposited on an amorphous C surface. With high resolution transmission electron microscope images we are able to show that in addition to the crystalline face centered cubic (fcc) structure, noncrystalline icosahedral (Ih), and decahedral (Dh) morphologies are grown. Relative abundances (56% fcc, 31% Dh, and 13% Ih) as well as the size distribution of each morphology (mean diameters d{sub fcc}=2.62(5) nm, d{sub Dh}=3.34(7) nm, and d{sub Ih}=3.93(2) nm) do not reflect the situation expected from pure energetic considerations, where small Ihs should be followed by medium sized Dhs and large fccs. Instead, kinetic factors seem to play an important role in the formation of these structures, as it appears to be the case for clusters formed by inert gas aggregation. Considering the low temperatures (0.37 K) and extremely high cooling rates, we discuss basic ideas that might lead to a qualitative picture of the cluster formation process inside He{sub N}.

  5. High resolution electron microscopy of Ag-clusters in crystalline and non-crystalline morphologies grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Koch, Markus; Fisslthaler, Evelin; Grogger, Werner; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2013-06-07

    We present a first investigation of structural properties of Ag clusters with a diameter of up to 5.5 nm grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets (He(N)) and deposited on an amorphous C surface. With high resolution transmission electron microscope images we are able to show that in addition to the crystalline face centered cubic (fcc) structure, noncrystalline icosahedral (Ih), and decahedral (Dh) morphologies are grown. Relative abundances (56% fcc, 31% Dh, and 13% Ih) as well as the size distribution of each morphology (mean diameters d(fcc)=2.62(5) nm, d(Dh)=3.34(7) nm, and d(Ih)=3.93(2) nm) do not reflect the situation expected from pure energetic considerations, where small Ihs should be followed by medium sized Dhs and large fccs. Instead, kinetic factors seem to play an important role in the formation of these structures, as it appears to be the case for clusters formed by inert gas aggregation. Considering the low temperatures (0.37 K) and extremely high cooling rates, we discuss basic ideas that might lead to a qualitative picture of the cluster formation process inside He(N).

  6. Production of ultrathin nanowires from refractory metals (Nb, Re, W, Mo) by laser ablation in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, E. B.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Sizov, V. D.; Khodos, I. I.

    2015-09-01

    The ablation of targets in superfluid helium with a short-pulse laser allows introducing into liquid the atoms and small clusters of any metal. The metal is then concentrated in the core of 1D quantized vortices nucleating in the laser focus and expanding into the liquid. Subsequent metal coagulation within the vortex results in the formation of thin nanowires with perfect shape and structure. For refractory metals these wires are expected to be especially thin. The diameters of nanowires grown from niobium, molybdenum and tungsten are indeed 4.0, 2.0 and 2.5 nm, respectively. Unfortunately, under ablation of unannealed rhenium the main product is flat ‘flakes’ having irregular shape and 20-50 nm size. Short nanowires (with a 1.5 nm diameter) were present in small amounts. The wires produced by this method contain no additional impurities and have a free lateral surface. By using a diode-pumped Nd:LSB microlaser (1.06 μm wavelength, 0.4 ns pulse duration, 100 μJ pulse energy and 4 kHz repetition rate) the amounts of nanoweb sufficient for many physical and chemical applications could be produced in a single low-temperature experiment. Ultrathin wires of molybdenum and tungsten show promise for creating ‘cold’ cathodes whereas a niobium nanoweb should be an excellent catalyst.

  7. Measurement of the charge transfer efficiency of electrons clocked on superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Sabouret, G.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-06-19

    Electrons floating on the surface of liquid helium are possible qubits for quantum information processing. Varying electric potentials do not modify spin states, which allows their transport on helium using a charge-coupled device (CCD)-like array of underlying gates. This scheme depends on an efficient intergate electron transfer and on the absence of electron traps. We will present a measurement of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of electrons clocked back and forth above a short CCD-like structure. The CTE obtained at low clocking frequencies is 0.999 with an electron density of about 4 electrons/{mu}m{sup 2}. We find no evidence for deep electron trapping.

  8. Top-off procedure for space-bound superfluid helium cryostats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrac, D.

    1982-01-01

    Tests have been carried out on the transfer of pressurized liquid helium, slightly above the lambda temperature, in order to determine the optimum transfer parameters for a ground-based top-off just prior to launch. It is shown that the maximum mass fill of a spaceborne cryostat can be accomplished with the low-pressure top-off after initial fill with normal helium. The realistic maximum fill at temperatures below the lambda temperature can be expected to be at least 90 percent, which results in about 40 to 50 percent more mass at launch than without the top-off. In each case, specific ground support equipment is required to satisfy the individual cryostat requirements and extreme care is necessary during the transfer procedure.

  9. Subharmonic phonon-ripplon coupling in the 2D Wigner solid on superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monarkha, Yuriy

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear response of the liquid-helium surface to the oscillating motion of a two-dimensional electron solid is analyzed. In the nonlinear regime, we found that the effective mass of surface dimples formed under electrons behaves as a singular odd function near subharmonics of the frequency of a ripplon whose wave vector coincides with a reciprocal-lattice vector. This unexpected behavior of the dimple mass is shown to lead to the appearance of new longitudinal phonon-ripplon coupled modes. It also affects in a nontrivial way positions of conventional phonon-ripplon coupled modes. Both these theoretical results explain experimental observations reported previously.

  10. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  11. Single and double resonance spectroscopy of methanol embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul L.; Douberly, Gary E.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Methanol is one of the simplest molecules that undergo torsional oscillations, and so it has been extensively studied in the gas phase by various spectroscopic techniques. At 300 K, a large number of rotational, torsional, and vibrational energy levels is populated, and this makes for a rather complicated spectrum, which is still not fully understood. It is expected that in going from 300 K to 0.4 K (the temperature of helium nanodroplets) the population distribution of methanol will mainly collapse into two states; the JK = 00 state for the A1 nuclear spin symmetry species (with ICH3 = 3/2), and the JK = 1-1 state for the E species (ICH3 = 1/2). This results in a simplified spectrum that consists of narrow a-type (ΔK = 0) lines and broader b- and c-type (ΔK = ±1) lines. We have recorded the rotovibrational spectrum of CH3OH in the OH stretching, CH3 stretching and bending, CH3 rocking, and CO stretching regions, and have firmly assigned five bands (v1, v2, v3, v7, and v8), and tentatively assigned five others (v9, 2v4, v4 + v10, 2v10, and v4 + v5). To our knowledge, the transitions we have assigned within the v4 + v10, 2v10, and v4 + v5 bands have not yet been assigned in the gas phase, and we hope that considering the very small "matrix" shift in helium nanodroplets (<1 cm-1 for most subband origins of CH3OH), those made here can aid in their gas phase identification. Microwave-infrared double resonance spectroscopy was used to confirm the initially tentative a-type infrared assignments in the OH stretching (v1) band of A1 species methanol, in addition to revealing "warm" b-type lines. From a rotovibrational analysis, the B rotational constant is found to be reduced quite significantly (56%) with respect to the gas phase, and the torsional tunneling splittings are relatively unaffected and are at most reduced by 16%. While most rovibrational peaks are Lorentzian shaped, and those which are significantly perturbed by vibrational coupling in the gas phase are

  12. Development of a motorized cryovalve for the control of superfluid liquid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Aubrun, J-N.; Zacharie, D. F.; Frank, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of infrared detectors have made possible a wide range of scientific measurements and investigations. One of the requirements for the use of sensitive IR detectors is that the entire instrument be cooled to temperatures approaching absolute zero. The cryogenic cooling system for these instruments is commonly designed as a large dewar containing liquid helium which completely surrounds the apparatus. Thus, there is a need for a remotely controlled, motorized cryovalve that is simple, reliable, and compact and can operate over extended periods of time in cryo-vac conditions. The design, development, and test of a motorized cryovalve with application to a variety of cryogenic systems currently under development is described.

  13. Pressure driven flow studies of superfluid helium-4 through single, high aspect ratio nanopipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey; Taborek, Peter

    We have measured flow rates of helium-4 through high aspect ratio (>10,000) single glass nanopipes and etched nanopores under the influence of a pressure drop. The initial diameter of the glass pipes is 200nm while the initial diameter of the nanopores is approximately 80nm; the diameter of both types of nanopipe were reduced using atomic layer deposition(ALD) of Al2O3. Flow rates were measured for a wide range of temperatures (0.8K to 3.0K), pressures (up to 40 atm), and pipe lengths (0.8 mm to 30 mm). We observed flow velocities in the range of 1-6 m/s which has a power law dependence on pressure. Flow appears to be governed by turbulence at low temperatures. We have found evidence for a critical pressure above which turbulent flow is eliminated. This critical pressure appears to depend on temperature.

  14. Optical and Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Destruction of Porous Structures Formed by Nitrogen-Rare Gas Nanoclusters in Bulk Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColgan, Patrick T.; Meraki, Adil; Boltnev, Roman E.; Lee, David M.; Khmelenko, Vladimir V.

    2016-11-01

    We studied optical and electron spin resonance spectra during destruction of porous structures formed by nitrogen-rare gas (RG) nanoclusters in bulk superfluid helium containing high concentrations of stabilized nitrogen atoms. Samples were created by injecting products of a radio frequency discharge of nitrogen-rare gas-helium gas mixtures into bulk superfluid helium. These samples have a high energy density allowing the study of energy release in chemical processes inside of nanocluster aggregates. The rare gases used in the studies were neon, argon, and krypton. We also studied the effects of changing the relative concentrations between nitrogen and rare gas on thermoluminescence spectra during destruction of the samples. At the beginning of the destructions, α -group of nitrogen atoms, Vegard-Kaplan bands of N_2 molecules, and β -group of O atoms were observed. The final destruction of the samples were characterized by a series bright flashes. Spectra obtained during these flashes contain M- and β -bands of NO molecules, the intensities of which depend on the concentration of molecular nitrogen in the gas mixture as well as the type of rare gas present in the gas mixture.

  15. Does one need a 4.5 K screen in cryostats of superconducting accelerator devices operating in superfluid helium? lessons from the LHL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, Philippe; Parma, Vittorio; Tavian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large projects confronted with this issue, i.e. CEBAF, SPL, ESS, LHC, TESLA, European X-FEL, ILC.

  16. Optical and Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Destruction of Porous Structures Formed by Nitrogen-Rare Gas Nanoclusters in Bulk Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColgan, Patrick T.; Meraki, Adil; Boltnev, Roman E.; Lee, David M.; Khmelenko, Vladimir V.

    2017-04-01

    We studied optical and electron spin resonance spectra during destruction of porous structures formed by nitrogen-rare gas (RG) nanoclusters in bulk superfluid helium containing high concentrations of stabilized nitrogen atoms. Samples were created by injecting products of a radio frequency discharge of nitrogen-rare gas-helium gas mixtures into bulk superfluid helium. These samples have a high energy density allowing the study of energy release in chemical processes inside of nanocluster aggregates. The rare gases used in the studies were neon, argon, and krypton. We also studied the effects of changing the relative concentrations between nitrogen and rare gas on thermoluminescence spectra during destruction of the samples. At the beginning of the destructions, α -group of nitrogen atoms, Vegard-Kaplan bands of N_2 molecules, and β -group of O atoms were observed. The final destruction of the samples were characterized by a series bright flashes. Spectra obtained during these flashes contain M- and β -bands of NO molecules, the intensities of which depend on the concentration of molecular nitrogen in the gas mixture as well as the type of rare gas present in the gas mixture.

  17. Does one need a 4.5 K screen in cryostats of superconducting accelerator devices operating in superfluid helium? lessons from the LHL

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Philippe; Parma, Vittorio; Tavian, Laurent

    2014-01-29

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large projects confronted with this issue, i.e. CEBAF, SPL, ESS, LHC, TESLA, European X-FEL, ILC.

  18. Single and double resonance spectroscopy of methanol embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Raston, Paul L.; Douberly, Gary E.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2014-07-28

    Methanol is one of the simplest molecules that undergo torsional oscillations, and so it has been extensively studied in the gas phase by various spectroscopic techniques. At 300 K, a large number of rotational, torsional, and vibrational energy levels is populated, and this makes for a rather complicated spectrum, which is still not fully understood. It is expected that in going from 300 K to 0.4 K (the temperature of helium nanodroplets) the population distribution of methanol will mainly collapse into two states; the J{sub K} = 0{sub 0} state for the A{sub 1} nuclear spin symmetry species (with I{sub CH{sub 3}} = 3/2), and the J{sub K} = 1{sub −1} state for the E species (I{sub CH{sub 3}} = 1/2). This results in a simplified spectrum that consists of narrow a-type (ΔK = 0) lines and broader b- and c-type (ΔK = ±1) lines. We have recorded the rotovibrational spectrum of CH{sub 3}OH in the OH stretching, CH{sub 3} stretching and bending, CH{sub 3} rocking, and CO stretching regions, and have firmly assigned five bands (v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}, v{sub 3}, v{sub 7}, and v{sub 8}), and tentatively assigned five others (v{sub 9}, 2v{sub 4}, v{sub 4} + v{sub 10}, 2v{sub 10}, and v{sub 4} + v{sub 5}). To our knowledge, the transitions we have assigned within the v{sub 4} + v{sub 10}, 2v{sub 10}, and v{sub 4} + v{sub 5} bands have not yet been assigned in the gas phase, and we hope that considering the very small “matrix” shift in helium nanodroplets (<1 cm{sup −1} for most subband origins of CH{sub 3}OH), those made here can aid in their gas phase identification. Microwave-infrared double resonance spectroscopy was used to confirm the initially tentative a-type infrared assignments in the OH stretching (v{sub 1}) band of A{sub 1} species methanol, in addition to revealing “warm” b-type lines. From a rotovibrational analysis, the B rotational constant is found to be reduced quite significantly (56%) with respect to the gas phase, and the torsional tunneling

  19. The Ethyl Radical in Superfluid Helium Nanodroplets: Rovibrational Spectroscopy and AB Initio Calcluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul L.; Moradi, Christopher P.; Agarwal, Jay; Turney, Justin. M.; Schaefer, Henry F. Schaefer, Iii; Douberly, Gary E.

    2013-06-01

    The ethyl radical has been isolated and spectroscopically characterized in ^4He nanodroplets. The five fundamental CH stretch bands are observed near 3 μm and have band origins shifted < 1 wn from those reported for the gas phase species. The symmetric CH_2 stretching band (ν_1) is rotationally resolved, revealing nuclear spin statistical weights predicted by G_{12} permutation-inversion group theory. A permanent electric dipole moment of 0.28 (2) D is obtained via the Stark spectrum of the ν_1 band. The four other CH stretch fundamental bands are broadened in helium droplets and lack rotational fine structure. The approximately 1-2 wn line widths for these bands are attributed to the homogeneous broadening associated with solvent-mediated rovibrational relaxation dynamics. In addition to these five fundamentals, three A_1' overtone/combination bands are observed and have resolved rotational substructure. These are assigned to the 2ν_{12}, ν_4+ν_6, and 2ν_6 bands through comparisons to anharmonic frequency computations at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory. S. Davis, D. Uy, D. J. Nesbitt. J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1823-1834 (2000). T. Haber, A. C. Blair, D. J. Nesbitt, M. D. Schuder. J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054316 (2006).

  20. Electronic Relaxation after Resonant Laser Excitation of Cr in Superfluid Helium Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) atoms embedded into helium nanodroplets (HeN) are ejected from the droplets upon photoexcitation. During ejection they undergo electronic relaxation resulting in bare Cr atoms in various excited states. In a study of the relaxation process we present absorption spectra observed via laser induced fluorescence and beam depletion as well as dispersed fluorescence spectra and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Broad and shifted absorption structures were found for the strong z7P° ← a7S3 and y7P° ← a7S3 excitations from the ground state. Emission lines are, in contrast, very narrow, which indicates that fluorescence is obtained from bare excited Cr atoms after ejection. Upon excitation into the y7P2,3,4° states we observed fluorescence from y7P2°, z5P1,2,3°, and z7P2,3,4°, indicating that these states are populated by electronic relaxation during the ejection processes. Relative population ratios are obtained from the intensities of individual spectral lines. Excitation into the z7P2,3,4° states resulted in fluorescence only from z7P2°. Estimates of the time duration of the ejection process are obtained from time-resolved measurements. PMID:23410146

  1. Development of a Novel Method for the Exploration of the Thermal Response of Superfluid Helium Cooled Superconducting Cables to Pulse Heat Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, T.; Koettig, T.; van Weelderen, R.; Bremer, J.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    Management of transient heat deposition in superconducting magnets and its extraction from the aforementioned is becoming increasingly important to bring high energy particle accelerator performance to higher beam energies and intensities. Precise knowledge of transient heat deposition phenomena in the magnet cables will permit to push the operation of these magnets as close as possible to their current sharing limit, without unduly provoking magnet quenches. With the prospect of operating the Large Hadron Collider at CERN at higher beam energies and intensities an investigation into the response to transient heat loads of LHC magnets, operating in pressurized superfluid helium, is being performed. The more frequently used approach mimics the cable geometry by resistive wires and uses Joule-heating to deposit energy. Instead, to approximate as closely as possible the real magnet conditions, a novel method for depositing heat in cable stacks made out of superconducting magnet-cables has been developed. The goal is to measure the temperature difference as a function of time between the cable stack and the superfluid helium bath depending on heat load and heat pulse length. The heat generation in the superconducting cable and precise measurement of small temperature differences are major challenges. The functional principle and experimental set-up are presented together with proof of principle measurements.

  2. Superfluid Brillouin optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-01-01

    Optomechanical systems couple an electromagnetic cavity to a mechanical resonator which typically is a solid object. The range of phenomena accessible in these systems depends on the properties of the mechanical resonator and on the manner in which it couples to the cavity fields. In both respects, a mechanical resonator formed from superfluid liquid helium offers several appealing features: low electromagnetic absorption, high thermal conductivity, vanishing viscosity, well-understood mechanical loss, and in situ alignment with cryogenic cavities. In addition, it offers degrees of freedom that differ qualitatively from those of a solid. Here, we describe an optomechanical system consisting of a miniature optical cavity filled with superfluid helium. The cavity mirrors define optical and mechanical modes with near-perfect overlap, resulting in an optomechanical coupling rate ~3 kHz. This coupling is used to drive the superfluid and is also used to observe the thermal motion of the superfluid, resolving a mean phonon number as low as eleven.

  3. Implementation of the superfluid helium phase transition using finite element modeling: Simulation of transient heat transfer and He-I/He-II phase front movement in cooling channels of superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielert, E. R.; Verweij, A. P.; Ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2013-01-01

    In the thermal design of high magnetic field superconducting accelerator magnets, the emphasis is on the use of superfluid helium as a coolant and stabilizing medium. The very high effective thermal conductivity of helium below the lambda transition temperature significantly helps to extract heat from the coil windings during steady state and transient heat deposition. The layout and size of the helium channels have a strong effect on the maximum amount of heat that can be extracted from the porously insulated superconducting cables. To better understand the behavior of superfluid helium penetrating the magnet structure and coil windings, simulation based on a three dimensional finite element model can give valuable insight. The 3D geometries of interest can be regarded as a complex network of coupled 1D geometries. The governing physics is thus similar for both geometries and therefore validation of several and different 1D models is performed. Numerically obtained results and published experimental data are compared. Once the viability of the applied methods is proven, they can be incorporated into the 3D geometries. Not only the transport properties in the bulk of the helium are of interest, but also the strong non-linear behavior at the interfaces between solids and superfluid helium (Kapitza conductance) is important from an engineering point of view, since relatively large temperature jumps may occur here. In this work it is shown how He-II behavior in magnet windings can be simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. 1D models are validated by experimental results taken from literature in order to improve existing 2D and 3D models with more complete physics. The examples discussed include transient heat transfer in 1D channels, Kapitza conductance and sub-cooling of normal liquid helium to temperatures below the lambda transition in long channels (phase front movement).

  4. Creation evidence of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave by helium atomic beams in superfluid helium-II at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, A. A.

    2007-10-01

    In this work, the experimental results of the creation of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave (C_{ph}=C_{g} ≠ 0) in the negative roton branch (the so-called second sound) of the bulk elementary excitations (BEEs) energy spectra are introduced. Several BEE signals detected by a bolometer situated in the isotopically pure liquid helium-II at low temperatures ˜100 mK are shown, which give evidence of negative roton creation in the liquid by helium atomic beams striking the liquid surface. The negative roton signals were clearly distinguished by the following ways: the negative roton signal created by helium atomic beams appeared earlier than the positive roton signal created by the beams, and presence of both positive and negative roton signals together. It is natural that the negative roton creation by the beams requires the ^{4}He-atom energies ˜12 K, while the positive roton creation by the atomic beams requires energies ˜35 K. Therefore, successive increase in the heater power resulting in an increase in the ^{4}He-atom energies gives solid evidence that the negative rotons are first created in the liquid by the helium atomic beams.

  5. Superfluid helium sloshing dynamics induced oscillations and fluctuations of angular momentum, force and moment actuated on spacecraft driven by gravity gradient or jitter acceleration associated with slew motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The generalized mathematical formulation of sloshing dynamics for partially filled liquid of cryogenic superfluid helium II in dewar containers driven by the gravity gradient and jitter accelerations associated with slew motion for the purpose to perform scientific observation during the normal spacecraft operation are investigated. An example is given with the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility-Spectroscopy (AXAF-S) for slew motion which is responsible for the sloshing dynamics. The jitter accelerations include slew motion, spinning motion, atmospheric drag on the spacecraft, spacecraft attitude motions arising from machinery vibrations, thruster firing, pointing control of spacecraft, crew motion, etc. Explicit mathematical expressions to cover these forces acting on the spacecraft fluid systems are derived. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the non-inertia frame spacecraft bound coordinate, and solve time-dependent, three-dimensional formulations of partial differential equations subject to initial and boundary conditions. The explicit mathematical expressions of boundary conditions to cover capillary force effect on the liquid-vapor interface in microgravity environments are also derived. The formulations of fluid moment and angular moment fluctuations in fluid profiles induced by the sloshing dynamics, together with fluid stress and moment fluctuations exerted on the spacecraft dewar containers have also been derived. Examples are also given for cases applicable to the AXAF-S spacecraft sloshing dynamics associated with slew motion.

  6. Construction of an ultra low temperature cryostat and transverse acoustic spectroscopy in superfluid helium-3 in compressed aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhupathi, Pradeep

    An ultra low temperature cryostat is designed and implemented in this work to perform experiments at sub-millikelvin temperatures, specifically aimed at understanding the superfluid phases of 3He in various scenarios. The cryostat is a combination of a dilution refrigerator (Oxford Kelvinox 400) with a base temperature of 5.2 mK and a 48 mole copper block as the adiabatic nuclear demagnetization stage with a lowest temperature of ≈ 200 muK. With the various techniques implemented for limiting the ambient heat leak to the cryostat, we were able to stay below 1 mK for longer than 5 weeks. The details of design, construction and performance of the cryostat are presented. We measured high frequency shear acoustic impedance in superfluid 3He in 98% porosity aerogel at pressures of 29 bar and 32 bar in magnetic fields upto 3 kG with the aerogel cylinder compressed along the symmetry axis to generate global anisotropy. With 5% compression, there is an indication of a supercooled A-like to B-like transition in aerogel in a wider temperature width than the A phase in the bulk, while at 10% axial compression, the A-like to B-like transition is absent on cooling down to ≈ 300 muK in zero magnetic field and in magnetic fields up to 3 kG. This behavior is in contrast to that in 3He in uncompressed aerogels, in which the supercooled A-like to B-like transitions have been identified by various experimental techniques. Our result is consistent with theoretical predictions. To characterize the anisotropy in compressed aerogels, optical birefringence is measured in 98% porosity silica aerogel samples subjected to various degrees of uniaxial compression up to 15% strain, with wavelengths between 200 to 800 nm. Uncompressed aerogels exhibit no or a minimal degree of birefringence, indicating the isotropic nature of the material over the length scale of the wavelength. Uniaxial compression of aerogel introduces global anisotropy, which produces birefringence in the material. We

  7. Microscopic Superfluidity of Small 4He and Para-He2 Clusters Inside Helium Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. P.

    The present review describes recent molecular beam experiments in which large 4He or 3He liquid droplets consisting typically of 103 to 104 atoms are produced and doped by pick-up of single atomic or molecular chromophores. The spectroscopy of these single particles has led to new detailed insight into the elementary microscopic interactions of the probe particles with their environment. In the visible the spectral features are unusually sharp with line widths comparable to those of the free molecules. The phonon wings of vibronic transitions give direct evidence that the droplets are supernuid. In the infra-red well defined rotational lines appear that indicate that the molecules rotate freely inside the Uquid. From the intensities of the sharp lines temperatures of 0.37 K and about 0.14 K are determined for 4He and 3He droplets, respectively. These experiments demonstrate that supernuid 4He droplets provide a new ultra cold uniquely gentle matrix for high resolution spectroscopy. At the same time the molecular spectra contribute new microscopic insight into the intriguing phenomenon of superfluidity. This last aspect will be emphasized in this review. Several reviews which emphasize more the new opportunities for high resolution spectroscopy, 1 - 4 an introductory overview 5 and a special issue of the Journal of Chemical Physics have recently been published. 6 - 8

  8. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  9. Cryogenic filter method produces super-pure helium and helium isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1964-01-01

    Helium is purified when cooled in a low pressure environment until it becomes superfluid. The liquid helium is then filtered through iron oxide particles. Heating, cooling and filtering processes continue until the purified liquid helium is heated to a gas.

  10. Pump performance requirement for the liquid helium orbital resupply tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ng, Y. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Liquid Helium Orbital Resupply Tanker (currently renamed to Superfluid Helium Tanker) will greatly enhance the lifetime of the space missions which require superfluid helium. The Superfluid Helium Tanker pump performance requirement is driven by the superfluid helium replenishment needs of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF is one of the space missions which will require on-orbit superfluid helium resupply in the 1990s. The Superfluid Helium Tanker will carry at least 10,000 L of superfluid helium and provide a minimum pump head of 170 torr (0 to 200 L/h) to cool SIRTF from 150 to 2 K. When the SIRTF tank starts to collect liquid, a minimum flow rate of 300 L/h with a pump head of 60 torr is required to fill the 4000-liter tank.

  11. Development and demonstration of a supercritical helium-cooled cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for the iter vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael; Edgemon, Timothy; Barbier, Charlotte; Pearce, Robert; Kersevan, Roberto; Dremel, Matthias; Boissin, Jean-Claude

    2012-06-01

    As part of the vacuum system for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscouscompressor (CVC) is being developed to collect hydrogenic exhaust gases from the toruscryopumps and compress them to a high enough pressure by regeneration for pumping tothe tritium reprocessing facility. Helium impurities that are a byproduct of the fusionreactions pass through the CVC and are pumped by conventional vacuum pumps andexhausted to the atmosphere. Before the development of a full-scale CVC, a representative,small-scale test prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. With cooling provided bycold helium gas, hydrogen gas was introduced into the central column of the test prototypepump at flow rates between 0.001 g/s and 0.008 g/s. Based on the temperatures and flowrates of the cold helium gas, different percentages of hydrogen gas were frozen to the column surface wall as the hydrogen gas flow rate increased. Results from the measured temperatures and pressures will form a benchmark that will be used to judge future heattransfer enhancements to the prototype CVC and to develop a computational fluid dynamicmodel that will help develop design parameters for the full-scale CVC.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A SUPERCRITICAL HELIUM-COOLED CRYOGENIC VISCOUS COMPRESSOR PROTOTYPE FOR THE ITER VACUUM SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Baylor, Larry R; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Rasmussen, David A; Edgemon, Timothy D; Hechler, Michael P; Barbier, Charlotte N; Pearce, R.J.H.; Kersevan, R.; Dremel, M.; Boissin, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    As part of the vacuum system for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscouscompressor (CVC) is being developed to collect hydrogenic exhaust gases from the toruscryopumps and compress them to a high enough pressure by regeneration for pumping tothe tritium reprocessing facility. Helium impurities that are a byproduct of the fusionreactions pass through the CVC and are pumped by conventional vacuum pumps andexhausted to the atmosphere. Before the development of a full-scale CVC, a representative,small-scale test prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. With cooling provided bycold helium gas, hydrogen gas was introduced into the central column of the test prototypepump at flow rates between 0.001 g/s and 0.008 g/s. Based on the temperatures and flowrates of the cold helium gas, different percentages of hydrogen gas were frozen to the column surface wall as the hydrogen gas flow rate increased. Results from the measured temperatures and pressures will form a benchmark that will be used to judge future heattransfer enhancements to the prototype CVC and to develop a computational fluid dynamicmodel that will help develop design parameters for the full-scale CVC.

  13. Measurements of the Critical Casimir Effect and Superfluid Density in Saturated Helium-4 Films near T(lambda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, John Bishoy Sam

    Saturated thick films of 4Helium adsorbed on a copper substrate are studied experimentally. The film thickness is measured with an ultra-sensitive capacitance bridge capable of resolving sub-Angstrom changes in film thickness. Through the use of this capacitance bridge, the critical Casimir effect in the films is studied in the vicinity of the lambda transition. Additionally, the copper substrate assembly is used to generate and detect third sound in the film. Measurements are made of the third sound speed and attenuation in thick film from 1.6 K to the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the films. The position of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition relative to the critical Casimir effect in the films is identifieded. It is discovered that the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition occurs at the beginning of the dip in film thickness due to the critical Casimir effect. When the temperature of the system is swept extremely slowly across the lambda transition, a step in film thickness is observed. This step is possibly a non-universal critical Casimir effect. A model of thermal second sound excitations is developed to describe this new observation.

  14. Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, Richard

    2006-09-07

    This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He.

  15. Hydrodynamic boundary condition for superfluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeau, Yves; Roberts, David C.

    2008-04-01

    We discuss the hydrodynamic boundary condition for a superfluid moving tangentially to a rough surface. Specifically, we argue that the scattering of quantum fluctuations off surface roughness affects the nature of the boundary condition, and that this has important consequences including a theorized critical speed and the presence of normal fluid at any nonzero speed, even if the boundary is held at zero temperature (i.e., a moving superfluid flow creates a sustained temperature difference between the superfluid and the boundary). This hydrodynamic boundary condition is relevant not only for superfluid helium experiments but also for experiments with trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, in particular, those involving atomic waveguides near surfaces.

  16. Optomechanics with superfluid He4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Christopher; Harris, Glen; McAuslan, David; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Sheridan, Eoin; Bowen, Warwick

    Cavity optomechanics focuses on the interaction between confined light and a mechanical degree of freedom. Vibrational modes of superfluid helium-4 have recently been identified as an attractive mechanical element for cavity optomechanics, thanks to their ultra-low dissipation arising from superfluid's viscosity free flow. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach to superfluid optomechanics based on femtogram thin films of superfluid helium condensed on the surface of a microscale microtoroid optical whispering gallery mode resonator. Excitations within the film, known as third sound, manifest as surface waves with a restoring force provided by the van der Waals interaction. We experimentally probe the thermodynamics of these superfluid excitations in real-time, and demonstrate both laser cooling and amplification of the thermal motion. In addition, we propose and demonstrate an entirely new approach to optical forcing based on the atomic recoil of superfluid helium-4. This technique utilizes the thermomechanical effect of superfluids, whereby frictionless fluid flow is generated in response to a local heat source. Using this technique, we achieve superfluid forces on a microtoroid mechanical mode an order of magnitude greater than the equivalent radiation pressure force.

  17. A Superfluid Clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    The performance of clocks is limited by the characteristics of the underlying oscillator. Both the quality factor of the oscillator and the signal-to-noise ratio for the resonator state measurement are important. A superfluid helium Helmholtz resonator operating at approx.100mK temperatures has the potential of maintaining frequency stability of 5x10(exp -15)/t(exp 1/2) on the time scale of a few months. The high dynamic range of lossless SQUID position displacement measurement, and low losses associated with the superfluid flow, combined with high mechanical stability of cryogenic assemblies, contribute to the projected stability. Low overall mass of the assembly allows for multiple stages of vibration isolation.

  18. Fermion Superfluidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, Kevin; Truscott, Andrew; Partridge, Guthrie; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Dual evaporation gives 50 million fermions at T = 0.1 T(sub F). Demonstrated suppression of interactions by coherent superposition - applicable to atomic clocks. Looking for evidence of Cooper pairing and superfluidity.

  19. Stability of precessing superfluid neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Glampedakis, K; Andersson, N; Jones, D I

    2008-02-29

    We discuss a new superfluid instability occurring in the interior of mature neutron stars with implications for free precession. This instability is similar to the instability which is responsible for the formation of turbulence in superfluid helium. We demonstrate that the instability is unlikely to affect slowly precessing systems with weak superfluid coupling. In contrast, fast precession in systems with strong coupling appears to be generically unstable. This raises serious questions about our understanding of neutron star precession and complicates attempts to constrain neutron star interiors using such observations.

  20. O the Use of a Gas-Cavitation Model to Generate Prototypal Air and Helium Decompression Schedules for Divers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Donald Clinton

    During the last several years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the bubble-nucleation phenomenon in aqueous media. According to the varying-permeability model, cavitation nuclei consist of spherical gas phases that are small enough to remain in solution, yet strong enough to resist collapse, their stability being provided by elastic skins or membranes consisting of surface-active molecules. By tracking the radial size of bubble nuclei during changes in ambient pressure, the model has provided precise quantitative descriptions of bubble-counting experiments in gelatin. It has also been used to trace levels of incidence for decompression sickness in several animal species, including fingerling salmon, rats, and humans. More recently, bubble nuclei have been observed directly in distilled water, gelatin, and blood using a variety of microscopic techniques. This work details the application of the varying -permeability model to the problem of decompression sickness through the construction of a prototypal set of decompression schedules. These schedules were generated by a short computer program based on the model equations. Once initialized with a group of tissue half-times and four free parameters selected to optimize decompression safety and speed, the program was used to calculate air diving tables for depths ranging from 30-300 fsw, requiring only the corresponding depth excursions and bottom times as input. Following the reevaluation and readjustment of the program and the model parameters, a similar set of decompression schedules for helium dives was produced.

  1. Helium Leak Detection of Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N. G.

    2012-11-01

    Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam (BHAVINI) is engaged in construction of 500MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpak am, Chennai. In this very important and prestigious national programme Special Product Division (SPD) of M/s Kay Bouvet Engg.pvt. ltd. (M/s KBEPL) Satara is contributing in a major way by supplying many important sub-assemblies like- Under Water trolley (UWT), Airlocks (PAL, EAL) Container and Storage Rack (CSR) Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) etc for PFBR. SPD of KBEPL caters to the requirements of Government departments like - Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), BARC, Defense, and Government undertakings like NPCIL, BHAVINI, BHEL etc. and other precision Heavy Engg. Industries. SPD is equipped with large size Horizontal Boring Machines, Vertical Boring Machines, Planno milling, Vertical Turret Lathe (VTL) & Radial drilling Machine, different types of welding machines etc. PFBR is 500 MWE sodium cooled pool type reactor in which energy is produced by fissions of mixed oxides of Uranium and Plutonium pellets by fast neutrons and it also breeds uranium by conversion of thorium, put along with fuel rod in the reactor. In the long run, the breeder reactor produces more fuel then it consumes. India has taken the lead to go ahead with Fast Breeder Reactor Programme to produce electricity primarily because India has large reserve of Thorium. To use Thorium as further fuel in future, thorium has to be converted in Uranium by PFBR Technology.

  2. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  3. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  4. Superfluid Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagg, G. W.; Parker, N. G.; Barenghi, C. F.

    2017-03-01

    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  5. Superfluidity of Bose—Einstein condensates in ultracold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi-Zhong; Wu, Biao

    2015-05-01

    Liquid helium 4 had been the only bosonic superfluid available in experiments for a long time. This situation was changed in 1995, when a new superfluid was born with the realization of the Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold atomic gases. The liquid helium 4 is strongly interacting and has no spin; there is almost no way to change its parameters, such as interaction strength and density. The new superfluid, Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), offers various advantages over liquid helium. On the one hand, BEC is weakly interacting and has spin degrees of freedom. On the other hand, it is convenient to tune almost all the parameters of a BEC, for example, the kinetic energy by spin-orbit coupling, the density by the external potential, and the interaction by Feshbach resonance. Great efforts have been devoted to studying these new aspects, and the results have greatly enriched our understanding of superfluidity. Here we review these developments by focusing on the stability and critical velocity of various superfluids. The BEC systems considered include a uniform superfluid in free space, a superfluid with its density periodically modulated, a superfluid with artificially engineered spin-orbit coupling, and a superfluid of pure spin current. Due to the weak interaction, these BEC systems can be well described by the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii theory and their superfluidity, in particular critical velocities, can be examined with the aid of Bogoliubov excitations. Experimental proposals to observe these new aspects of superfluidity are discussed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB921903 and 2012CB921300) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274024, 11334001, and 11429402).

  6. Design of 12-T Yin-Yang magnets operating in subcooled, superfluid helium. [Nb-Ti and Nb/sub 3/Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.; Hoard, R.W.; Baldi, R.

    1981-10-09

    A conceptual design study of a large 12-T yin-yang pair of coils, typical of the plug coils envisioned for a tandem-mirror facility to follow MFTF, has been completed. Because of its larger size and field strength, the magnetic forces are much greater than those experienced on MFTF. The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the feasibility of such a device, paying particular attention to mechanical stress and conductor strain. The conductor proposed operates at 15.6 kA and consists of a rectangular half-hard copper stabilizer with a Nb-Ti insert in the low-field regions and Nb/sub 3/Sn in the high field. The coil is divided into four sections in the longitudinal direction, with steel substructure to limit the winding stress to an acceptable level. The conductor is cryostatically stabilized in superfluid He at 1.8K and 1.2 atm, with an operating heat flux of 0.8 W.cm/sup -2/.

  7. Superfluidity in ultracold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Gretchen

    2016-05-01

    The study of superfluidity has a long and rich history. In Bose-Einstein condensate, superfluidity gives rise to a number of interesting effects, including quantized vortices and persistent currents. In this seminar I will give an introduction to superfluidity in ultracold atoms, including a discussion of the critical velocity and the spectrum of elementary excitations in superfluid systems.

  8. On charged impurity structures in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The thermoluminescence spectra of impurity-helium condensates (IHC) submerged in superfluid helium have been observed for the first time. Thermoluminescence of impurity-helium condensates submerged in superfluid helium is explained by neutralization reactions occurring in impurity nanoclusters. Optical spectra of excited products of neutralization reactions between nitrogen cations and thermoactivated electrons were rather different from the spectra observed at higher temperatures, when the luminescence due to nitrogen atom recombination dominates. New results on current detection during the IHC destruction are presented. Two different mechanisms of nanocluster charging are proposed to describe the phenomena observed during preparation and warm-up of IHC samples in bulk superfluid helium, and destruction of IHC samples out of liquid helium.

  9. Nucleation of Quantized Vortices from Rotating Superfluid Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    The long-term goal of this project is to study the nucleation of quantized vortices in helium II by investigating the behavior of rotating droplets of helium II in a reduced gravity environment. The objective of this ground-based research grant was to develop new experimental techniques to aid in accomplishing that goal. The development of an electrostatic levitator for superfluid helium, described below, and the successful suspension of charged superfluid drops in modest electric fields was the primary focus of this work. Other key technologies of general low temperature use were developed and are also discussed.

  10. Theoretical Studies of Liquid He-4 Near the Superfluid Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2002-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies of liquid helium by applying state of the art simulation and finite-size scaling techniques. We calculated universal scaling functions for the specific heat and superfluid density for various confining geometries relevant for experiments such as the confined helium experiment and other ground based studies. We also studied microscopically how the substrate imposes a boundary condition on the superfluid order parameter as the superfluid film grows layer by layer. Using path-integral Monte Carlo, a quantum Monte Carlo simulation method, we investigated the rich phase diagram of helium monolayer, bilayer and multilayer on a substrate such as graphite. We find excellent agreement with the experimental results using no free parameters. Finally, we carried out preliminary calculations of transport coefficients such as the thermal conductivity for bulk or confined helium systems and of their scaling properties. All our studies provide theoretical support for various experimental studies in microgravity.

  11. Microscopic molecular superfluid response: theory and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Since its discovery in 1938, superfluidity has been the subject of much investigation because it provides a unique example of a macroscopic manifestation of quantum mechanics. About 60 years later, scientists successfully observed this phenomenon in the microscopic world though the spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in helium nano-droplets. This reduction of scale suggests that not only helium but also para-H2 (pH2) can be a candidate for superfluidity. This expectation is based on the fact that the smaller number of neighbours and surface effects of a finite-size cluster may hinder solidification and promote a liquid-like phase. The first prediction of superfluidity in pH2 clusters was reported in 1991 based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The possible superfluidity of pH2 was later indirectly observed in a spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in 2000. Since then, a growing number of studies have appeared, and theoretical simulations have been playing a special role because they help guide and interpret experiments. In this review, we go over the theoretical studies of pH2 superfluid clusters since the experiment of 2000. We provide a historical perspective and introduce the basic theoretical formalism along with key experimental advances. We then present illustrative results of the theoretical studies and comment on the possible future developments in the field. We include sufficient theoretical details such that the review can serve as a guide for newcomers to the field.

  12. 14 kA HTS Current Leads with one 4.8 K Helium Stream for the Prototype Test Facility at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raach, Henning; Schroeder, Claus H.; Floch, Eric; Bleile, Alexander; Schnizer, Pierre; Andersen, Torben P.

    The key part of the international FAIR project in Darmstadt, Germany, is the synchrotron SIS100, for which superconducting mag- nets are employed. For the First of Series Dipole a pair of HTS current leads with a nominal current of 14 kA DC were specified, manufactured and successfully tested. The motivation for these current leads was a high operation current and the liquefaction limit of 1 g/s of the cooling plant. In the design it has to be taken into account that per lead only one helium stream is available for the entirely inner cooling. For I=0 (8 kA DC) only 0.25 g/s/lead (0.38) were necessary to be compared to 0.365 (0.51) specified. Slow ramping with 50 A/s up to 17 kA was accomplished. Triangular cycles with 27 kA/s up to 14 kA were achieved. The current leads withstood the test voltage of 3 kV between two leads and between lead and ground. The one stream helium flow is regulated by the temperature at the warm end of the HTS to be 50 K. The reliability of the first pair, especially of the cold terminal, is a clear go for the series of HTS current leads needed for the Series Test Facility, the String Test and the SIS100 ring. There is a separate 50 K helium gas supply which allows a significant reduction of cooling requirements. These 19 pairs in total shall have a common design which will be slightly different to that of the first pair for the Prototype Test Facility.

  13. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K

    2014-02-13

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  14. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid `atomtronic' circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W.; Lobb, Christopher J.; Phillips, William D.; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2014-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits--it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  15. Study of the single cluster response of a helium-isobutane drift chamber prototype using 8 keV X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoto, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Ripiccini, E.; Voena, C.; Zullo, A.

    2015-03-01

    The identification of single clusters in the electronic signals produced by ionizing particles within a drift chamber is expected to significantly improve the performances of this kind of detectors in terms of particle identification capabilities and space resolution. In order to develop refined cluster recognition algorithms, it is essential to measure the response of the chamber and its electronics to single ionization clusters. This can be done by irradiating the chamber with X-rays. We report here on the studies performed on a drift chamber prototype for the MEG-II experiment at the X-ray facility of the INFN Frascati's National Laboratories ``XLab Frascati''. The prototype is operated with a helium-isobutane mixture and instrumented with high bandwidth custom pre-amplifiers. The results of this study have been used to develop an innovative method for cluster recognition, based on the Wiener filter technique, which has been tested on data collected at the Frascati's Beam Test Facility. As a side measurement, we also performed a study of the gas gain in a configuration which is similar to that of the MEG-II experiment.

  16. Heat Capacity of Superfluid (sup 4)He in the Presence of a Heat Current Near T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso C. P.; Goodstein, David L.; Harter, Alexa W.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic theory of superfluid helium in the presence of a heat current is presented. We show that there is a thermodynamic relation between the heat capacity and the expression ps(W), which describes the depression of the superfluid density with the counterflow velocity W. Using this relation we show that the heat capacity of superfluid super4He in the presence of a heat current diverges at a depressed lambda transition temperature, suggesting the possibility of a new second order phase transition where the superfluid wave function is not the order parameter.

  17. Heat Capacity of Superfluid (sup 4)He in the Presence of a Heat Current Near T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso C. P.; Goodstein, David L.; Harter, Alexa W.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic theory of superfluid helium in the presence of a heat current is presented. We show that there is a thermodynamic relation between the heat capacity and the expression ps(W), which describes the depression of the superfluid density with the counterflow velocity W. Using this relation we show that the heat capacity of superfluid super4He in the presence of a heat current diverges at a depressed lambda transition temperature, suggesting the possibility of a new second order phase transition where the superfluid wave function is not the order parameter.

  18. Introduction à l'interférométrie à l'hélium superfluide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varoquaux, Éric

    2001-04-01

    This article describes, at an introductory level, how superfluids can be used to measure absolute rotations. To make it self-contained to some degree, I first introduce briefly the two-fluid model for superfluid helium and the concept of superfluid order parameter. These ideas, which were put forward for the superfluid heliums, are now widely used, in particular for the BEC gases which are the main topic of this volume. They are presented in the somewhat different perspective of helium physics. The second part will deal with the Josephson effects, the real engine behind superfluid interferometry. These effects were predicted in the early sixties for superconductors and were promptly observed in the laboratory. It was quickly realised that they would also exist in superfluids but the search took longer and conclusive experiments were performed in the eighties only in the B-phase of superfluid 3He. How these experiments are done, and how they can be used to measure the rotation of the Earth by superfluid interferometry is surveyed in the last two sections.

  19. Test program, helium II orbital resupply coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, William S.

    1991-01-01

    The full scope of this program was to have included development tests, design and production of custom test equipment and acceptance and qualification testing of prototype and protoflight coupling hardware. This program was performed by Ball Aerospace Systems Division, Boulder, Colorado until its premature termination in May 1991. Development tests were performed on cryogenic face seals and flow control devices at superfluid helium (He II) conditions. Special equipment was developed to allow quantified leak detection at large leak rates up to 8.4 x 10(exp -4) SCCS. Two major fixtures were developed and characterized: The Cryogenic Test Fixture (CTF) and the Thermal Mismatch Fixture (Glovebox). The CTF allows the coupling hardware to be filled with liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid helium (LHe) or sub-cooled liquid helium when hardware flow control valves are either open or closed. Heat leak measurements, internal and external helium leakage measurements, cryogenic proof pressure tests and external load applications are performed in this fixture. Special reusable MLI closures were developed to provide repeatable installations in the CTF. The Thermal Mismatch Fixture allows all design configurations of coupling hardware to be engaged and disengaged while measuring applied forces and torques. Any two hardware components may be individually thermally preconditioned within the range of 117 deg K to 350 deg K prior to engage/disengage cycling. This verifies dimensional compatibility and operation when thermally mismatched. A clean, dry GN2 atmosphere is maintained in the fixture at all times. The first shipset of hardware was received, inspected and cycled at room temperature just prior to program termination.

  20. Superfluid Reynolds number and the transition from potential flow to turbulence in superfluid 4He at millikelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepe, W.

    2015-07-01

    This comment is on Phys. Rev. Lett. 144, 155302 (2015) by M.T. Reeves, T.P. Billam, B.P. Anderson, and A.S. Bradley "Identifying a superfluid Reynolds number via dynamical similarity" where a new superfluid Reynolds number is introduced. This definition is shown to be useful in the data analysis of the finite lifetime of turbulence observed with an oscillating sphere in superfluid helium at mK temperatures in a small velocity interval Δ v = ( v-v c ) just above the critical velocity v c . The very rapid increase in the lifetime with increasing superfluid Reynolds number is compared with the "supertransient" turbulence observed in classical pipe flow.

  1. Hot-wire anemometry for superfluid turbulent coflows.

    PubMed

    Durì, Davide; Baudet, Christophe; Moro, Jean-Paul; Roche, Philippe-Emmanuel; Diribarne, Pantxo

    2015-02-01

    We report the first evidence of an enhancement of the heat transfer from a heated wire to an external turbulent coflow of superfluid helium. We used a standard Pt-Rh hot-wire anemometer and overheat it up to 21 K in a pressurized liquid helium turbulent round jet at temperatures between 1.9 K and 2.12 K. The null-velocity response of the sensor can be satisfactorily modeled by the counterflow mechanism, while the extra cooling produced by the forced convection is found to scale similarly as the corresponding extra cooling in classical fluids. We propose a preliminary analysis of the response of the sensor and show that-contrary to a common assumption-such sensor can be used to probe local velocity in turbulent superfluid helium.

  2. Hot-wire anemometry for superfluid turbulent coflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durı, Davide; Baudet, Christophe; Moro, Jean-Paul; Roche, Philippe-Emmanuel; Diribarne, Pantxo

    2015-02-01

    We report the first evidence of an enhancement of the heat transfer from a heated wire to an external turbulent coflow of superfluid helium. We used a standard Pt-Rh hot-wire anemometer and overheat it up to 21 K in a pressurized liquid helium turbulent round jet at temperatures between 1.9 K and 2.12 K. The null-velocity response of the sensor can be satisfactorily modeled by the counterflow mechanism, while the extra cooling produced by the forced convection is found to scale similarly as the corresponding extra cooling in classical fluids. We propose a preliminary analysis of the response of the sensor and show that—contrary to a common assumption—such sensor can be used to probe local velocity in turbulent superfluid helium.

  3. Electrical breakdown in helium cells at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethumadhavan, Bhaskar

    2007-05-01

    We have encountered a new phenomenon in the development of a prototype detector of solar neutrinos using liquid helium in which recoil electrons from neutrino scattering are to be detected by extracting them from the liquid and accelerating them in the vacuum by an electric field. In order to understand the possible constraints on such a particle detector using superfluid helium, we have studied the currents produced by a radioactive source in a helium cell having a liquid/vacuum interface at 100 mK. A number of phenomena have been observed that have not been described in the literature. These include the following. (1) The current at very low voltages, V ˜ 0, in a cell having a free surface can be up to 100 times greater than in a filled cell. (2) There is a large amplification of current in modest electric fields with a free surface present in the cell. (3) The amplification becomes sufficiently large such that a breakdown occurs at potential differences across the vacuum on the order of 1000 V. The results for a partially filled cell can be understood in terms of Penning ionization of excimers on the surface of the helium and the subsequent acceleration of electrons across the vacuum. Triplet excimers are created in the liquid by the radioactive source. These excimers propagate with a mean free path that is determined by scattering from 3He atoms and quasiparticles in the superfluid He. If an excimer reaches the surface, it is bound there but is free to move in the plane of the surface. Once bound to the surface these mobile excimers become distributed uniformly over all surfaces (bulk liquid and the film). They move about and annihilate in pairs through the Penning ionization process to create electrons and positive helium ions in the vacuum. An electron in the vacuum in the presence of an electric field is always destined to hit liquid helium, either the bulk liquid or the film on the top surface of the cell. If the energy of the electron is sufficient to

  4. Negative ions in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrapak, A. G.; Schmidt, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of negative ions in liquid 4He is analyzed. The possibility of cluster or bubble formation around impurity ions of both signs is discussed. It is shown that in superfluid helium, bubbles form around negative alkaline earth metal ions and clusters form around halogen ions. The nature of "fast" and "exotic" negative ions is also discussed. It is assumed that "fast" ions are negative ions of helium excimer molecules localized inside bubbles. "Exotic" ions are stable negative impurity ions, which are always present in small amounts in gas discharge plasmas. Bubbles or clusters with radii smaller the radius of electron bubbles develop around these ions.

  5. Classical Vs. Superfluid Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, P.-E.

    2008-11-01

    Thanks to a zero-viscosity, superfluids offer a unique testing ground for hydrodynamic models, in particular for turbulence ones. In Kolmogorov's turbulence model, viscosity is well known to damp the kinetic energy of the smallest eddies, and thus to introduce a cut-off at one end of the turbulent cascade. Significant differences between this ``classical'' turbulence and the turbulence of a superfluid are therefore expected, but --surprisingly- most experiments rather evidenced strong similarities. We will give an overview of a set of experiments designed to compare in details the classical versus superfluid turbulences, up to a record mass flow of superfluid (700g/s of He @ 1.6K). Then, we will focus on some unexpected vorticity measurements, which can be interpreted assuming that the superfluid vortices are passively advected by the largest scales of the flow, in contrast with the ``classical'' turbulence counterpart. Numerical simulations -based on regular DNS- will be presented to complete this interpretation. In collaboration with C. Barenghi, University of Newcastle; B. Castaing and E. Levèque, ENSL, Lyon; S. David, IEF, CNRS, Orsay; B. Rousset, SBT/CEA, Grenoble; and P. Tabeling, H. Willaime MMN, ESPCI, Paris.

  6. Relativistic superfluidity and vorticity from the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chi; Good, Michael R. R.; Guo, Yulong; Liu, Xiaopei; Huang, Kerson

    2014-12-01

    We investigate superfluidity, and the mechanism for creation of quantized vortices, in the relativistic regime. The general framework is a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime for a complex scalar field, whose phase dynamics gives rise to superfluidity. The mechanisms discussed are local inertial forces (Coriolis and centrifugal), and current-current interaction with an external source. The primary application is to cosmology, but we also discuss the reduction to the nonrelativistic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is widely used in describing superfluidity and vorticity in liquid helium and cold-trapped atomic gases.

  7. Transport in superfluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geracie, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We present a general method for constructing effective field theories for nonrelativistic superfluids, generalizing the previous approaches of Greiter, Witten, and Wilczek, and Son and Wingate to the case of several superfluids in solution. We investigate transport in mixtures with broken parity and find a parity-odd "Hall drag" in the presence of independent motion as well as a pinning of mass, charge, and energy to sites of nonzero relative velocity. Both effects have a simple geometric interpretation in terms of the signed volumes and directed areas of various subcomplexes of a "velocity polyhedron": the convex hull formed by the end points of the velocity vectors of a superfluid mixture. We also provide a simple quasi-one-dimensional model that exhibits nonzero Hall drag.

  8. Squeezing superfluid from a stone: Coupling superfluidity and elasticity in a supersolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, Alan

    2007-03-01

    Superfluidity---the ability of liquid ^4He, when cooled below 2.176 K, to flow without resistance through narrow pores---has long served as a paradigm for the phenomenon of ``off-diagonal long-range order'' (ODLRO) in quantum liquids and superconductors. Supersolidity---the coexistence of ODLRO with the crystalline order of a solid---was proposed theoretically over 35 years ago as an even more exotic phase of solid ^4He, but it has eluded detection. Recently, Kim and Chan [1,2] have reported an anomalous decoupling transition of solid ^4He in a torsional oscillator measurement, and interpret their results as evidence for non-classical rotational inertia and a possible supersolid phase of ^4He. In this talk I will give brief historical review of the theory of and experimental searches for supersolidity. I will then discuss a phenomenological Landau theory of the normal solid to supersolid (NS-SS) transition in which superfluidity is coupled to the elasticity of the crystalline ^4He lattice, and underscore the implications of this theory for experimental searches for supersolidity [3]. I will also discuss a hydrodynamic model for supersolids, in which the additional broken gauge symmetry in the supersolid phase produces a collective mode that is analogous to second sound in superfluid helium. [1] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature (London) 427, 225 (2004). [2] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004). [3] A. T. Dorsey, P. M. Goldbart, and J. Toner, ``Squeezing superfluid from a stone: Coupling superfluidity and elasticity in a supersolid,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 055301 (2006).

  9. Inelastic scattering of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichnyuk, I. A.; Berloff, N. G.

    2016-11-01

    We study inelastic interactions of particles with quantized vortices in superfluids by using a semiclassical matter wave theory that is analogous to the Landau two-fluid equations, but allows for the vortex dynamics. The research is motivated by recent experiments on xenon-doped helium nanodroplets that show clustering of the impurities along the vortex cores. We numerically simulate the dynamics of trapping and interactions of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluid helium and the obtained results can be extended to scattering of other impurities by quantized vortices. Different energies and impact parameters of incident particles are considered. We show that inelastic scattering is closely linked to the generation of Kelvin waves along a quantized vortex during the interaction even if there is no capture. The capture criterion of an impurity is formulated in terms of the binding energy.

  10. Ultrabaric relativistic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, G.; Weiss, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ultrabaric superfluid solutions are obtained for Einstein's equations to examine the possibility of the existence of superluminal sound speeds. The discussion is restricted only by requiring the energy-momentum tensor and the equation of state of matter to be represented by full relativistic equations. Only a few universes are known to satisfy the conditions, and those exhibit tension and are inflationary. Superluminal sound velocities are shown, therefore, to be possible for the interior Schwarzchild metric, which has been used to explain the red shift of quasars, and the Stephiani solution (1967). The latter indicates repeated transitions between superluminal and subliminal sound velocities in the hyperbaric superfluid of the early universe.

  11. Evidence of Bose-Einstein Condensation in solid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Moses H. W.

    2005-03-01

    The onset of superfluidity in liquid He-4 below 2.176K is associated with Bose-Einstein condensation where He-4 atoms condensed into a single momentum state and acquire quantum mechanical coherence over macroscopic length scales. Bose- Einstein condensation of alkali atoms in the vapor phase was achieved in 1995 and there is strong evidence for superfluidity in these systems. Perhaps counter to intuition, superfluid-like behavior is thought possible even in solid helium. Recent high Q torsional oscillator measurements found evidence of superflow in solid helium confined in porous media (1) and in bulk solid helium (2), indicating Bose-Einstein condensation very likely occurs in all three phases of matter. (1) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004) (2) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004).

  12. Sound modes in holographic superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos

    2009-11-15

    Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.

  13. Superfluidity in Millisecond Pulsars (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pines, D.; Alpar, A.

    The authors review the evidence for superfluidity in the Vela pulsar, the Crab pulsar and PSR 0525+21, and examine the prospects for observing similar consequences of superfluidity in the already-discovered millisec pulsars. They consider, inter alia, the likelihood of observing glitches, the expected post-glitch behavior, and pulsar heating by energy dissipation due to the creep of neutron vortex lines in pinned superfluid regions of the crust.

  14. Liquid Helium 3 and Solid Helium at Yale and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. M.

    2006-03-01

    Many of the foundations of low temperature physics in the latter half of the twentieth century were built at Yale University under the leadership of Professor Cecil T. Lane who came to Yale in 1932 and Henry A. Fairbank who obtained his Ph.D. at Yale in 1944 under Lane's guidance. This discussion will mainly treat the contributions of Henry Fairbank and his students during the period between 1954 and 1963, when Henry Fairbank left Yale to become chairman of the Physics Dept. at Duke University. Following World War II small amounts of helium three became available to low temperature experimenters. Henry Fairbank’s graduate students were provided with the opportunity to investigate second sound in dilute and later concentrated mixtures of helium three in superfluid helium four. These measurements showed strong effects of the phase separation in helium 3 - helium 4 mixtures previously discovered in the laboratory of William Fairbank (a student of Lane and a brother of Henry Fairbank). As more helium three became available, studies of pure helium three were performed, including measurements of the thermal conductivity, the density and the specific heat. Early evidence for the melting curve minimum was found. The main emphasis in this work was to search for Fermi liquid behavior. Much of the later work in this area was performed by the group of John Wheatley at the University of Illinois. In studies of solid helium four at Yale, a surprising observation was made. Hitherto it had been thought that hcp was the stable phase throughout the low temperature part of the phase diagram. It was found via ultrasound experiments that a small silver of bcc solid existed at the lowest pressures. While this author was a graduate student at Yale, Henry Fairbank pointed out to him the possibility of cooling helium three via adiabatic compression from the liquid into the solid phase. (Pomeranchuk Cooling). A brief discussion is given of the use of this technique in the discovery of

  15. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  16. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  17. When superfluids are a drag

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David C

    2008-01-01

    The article considers the dramatic phenomenon of seemingly frictionless flow of slow-moving superfluids. Specifically the question of whether an object in a superfluid flow experiences any drag force is addressed. A brief account is given of the history of this problem and it is argued that recent advances in ultracold atomic physics can shed much new light on this problem. The article presents the commonly held notion that sufficiently slow-moving superfluids can flow without drag and also discusses research suggesting that scattering quantum fluctuations might cause drag in a superfluid moving at any speed.

  18. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He

    PubMed Central

    Lounasmaa, Olli V.; Thuneberg, Erkki

    1999-01-01

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895

  19. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E

    1999-07-06

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe.

  20. Observation of Crossover from Ballistic to Diffusion Regime for Excimer Molecules in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmeev, D. E.; Papkour, F.; Walmsley, P. M.; Golov, A. I.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Fisher, S. N.; Guo, W.; McKinsey, D. N.; Ihas, G. G.; Vinen, W. F.

    2013-05-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of the time of flight of helium excimer molecules {He}2^{*}(a3Σ +u) in superfluid 4He and find that the molecules behave ballistically below ˜100 mK and exhibit Brownian motion above ˜200 mK. In the intermediate temperature range the transport cannot be described by either of the models.

  1. Superfluidity of grain boundaries and supersolid behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balibar, Sebastien

    2007-03-01

    We have found that, at the liquid-solid equilibrium pressure Pm, supersolid behavior is due to the superfluidity of grain boundaries in solid helium [1]. After describing this experiment and reviewing some of the related theoretical work [2], we discuss the possibility that , at larger pressure (P > Pm), grain boundaries could also explain the supersolid behavior which was observed with torsional oscillators [3-6]. [1] S. Sasaki, R. Ishiguro, F. Caupin, H.J. Maris, and S. Balibar, Science 313, 1098 (2006)[2] E. Burovski, E. Kozik, A. Kuklov, N. Prokof'ev, and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 165301 (2005)[3] E. Kim and M.H. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004)[4] E. Kim and M.H. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004)[5] A.S.C. Rittner and J.D. Reppy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 165301 (2006)[6] K. Shirahama, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 51, 302 (2006)

  2. Superfluid Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigar, Robie A.; Mann, Robert B.; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ -line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid 4He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  3. From Confinement to Superfluidity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. I.

    2011-04-01

    We describe a unified picture of confining and deconfined phases of Yang-Mills theories in terms of nonperturbative vacuum defects. The confinement is related to condensation of (magnetic) strings. The phase transition at T = Tc is viewed as change of dimensions, 4d → 3d. Namely, all the defects become time oriented. As a result, percolation of strings becomes percolation of 3d trajectories or, in field theoretic language, condensation of a 3d scalar field. The condensation, in turn, might signal superfluidity of the quark-gluon plasma. The notes are mostly a mini-review. A remark on entanglement and confinement is added.

  4. Superfluid Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  5. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  6. Vortex Loops at the Superfluid Lambda Transition: An Exact Theory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    A vortex-loop theory of the superfluid lambda transition has been developed over the last decade, with many results in agreement with experiments. It is a very simple theory, consisting of just three basic equations. When it was first proposed the main uncertainty in the theory was the use Flory scaling to find the fractal dimension of the random-walking vortex loops. Recent developments in high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations have now made it possible to verify the accuracy of this Flory-scaling assumption. Although the loop theory is not yet rigorously proven to be exact, the Monte Carlo results show at the least that it is an extremely good approximation. Recent loop calculations of the critical Casimir effect in helium films in the superfluid phase T < Tc will be compared with similar perturbative RG calculations in the normal phase T > Tc; the two calculations are found to match very nicely right at Tc.

  7. Chiral symmetry breaking in superfluid 3He-A.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, H; Tsutsumi, Y; Kono, K

    2013-07-05

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept in many branches of physics. In helium-3 ((3)He), the breaking of symmetry leads to the orbital chirality in the superfluid phase known as (3)He-A. Chirality is a fundamental property of (3)He-A, but its direct detection has been challenging. We report direct detection of chirality by transport measurements of electrons trapped below a free surface of (3)He-A. In particular, we observed the so-called intrinsic Magnus force experienced by a moving electron; the direction of the force directly reflected the chirality. We further showed that, at the superfluid transition, the system selected either right- or left-handed chirality. The observation of such selection directly demonstrates chiral symmetry breaking.

  8. Vortex Loops at the Superfluid Lambda Transition: An Exact Theory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    A vortex-loop theory of the superfluid lambda transition has been developed over the last decade, with many results in agreement with experiments. It is a very simple theory, consisting of just three basic equations. When it was first proposed the main uncertainty in the theory was the use Flory scaling to find the fractal dimension of the random-walking vortex loops. Recent developments in high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations have now made it possible to verify the accuracy of this Flory-scaling assumption. Although the loop theory is not yet rigorously proven to be exact, the Monte Carlo results show at the least that it is an extremely good approximation. Recent loop calculations of the critical Casimir effect in helium films in the superfluid phase T < Tc will be compared with similar perturbative RG calculations in the normal phase T > Tc; the two calculations are found to match very nicely right at Tc.

  9. Investigating Superfluid ^4He Using Commercially Available Quartz Tuning Forks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiman, Joshua; Deserio, Robert; Sullivan, Neil; Lee, Yoonseok

    2010-03-01

    Mechanical oscillators such as vibrating wire oscillators, torsional oscillators, and acoustic transducers have been widely used to measure the properties of cryogenic liquids. Commercial quartz tuning forks, which can be found in almost every electronic device, have shown promise as viscometers and thermometers for low temperature experiments. These devices are inexpensive, easy to install, and insensitive to magnetic fields. Before a fork can be used, it must be calibrated against a hydrodynamic model. We measured changes in the frequency and width of the fork's resonance response in superfluid ^4He down to 1.5 K. Analysis of the tuning fork's response as a function of temperature shows that its behavior is well-described by the hydrodynamic model for superfluid helium. We will also discuss our future plans.

  10. The superfluid diffusion equation S(T)(@T/@t) = nabla ter dot (K(T)( nabla T) sup 1/3 )

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1990-06-01

    This report deals with the superfluid diffusion equation, S(T)({partial derivative}T/{partial derivative}t) = {nabla}{center dot}(K(T)({nabla}T){sup 1/3}), which describes heat transport in turbulent helium-II (superfluid helium). Three methods of solution -- the method of similarity, the variational method, and the method of maximum/minimum principles -- are applied to this equation. The solutions discovered are helpful in addressing the use of helium-II in superconducting magnets and other applications. 22 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. A cosmic superfluid phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    The universe may have undergone a superfluid-like phase during its evolution, resulting from the injection of nontopological charge into the spontaneously broken vacuum. In the presence of vortices this charge is identified with angular momentum. This leads to turbulent domains on the scale of the correlation length. By restoring the symmetry at low temperatures, the vortices dissociate and push the charges to the boundaries of these domains. The model can be scaled (phenomenologically) to very low energies, it can be incorporated in a late time phase transition and form large scale structure in the boundary layers of the correlation volumes. The novel feature of the model lies in the fact that the dark matter is endowed with coherent motion. The possibilities of identifying this flow around superfluid vortices with the observed large scale bulk motion is discussed. If this identification is possible, then the definite prediction can be made that a more extended map of peculiar velocities would have to reveal large scale circulations in the flow pattern.

  12. Glass-to-Metal Seal Against Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Gatewood, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Simple compression joint with indium gasket forms demountable seal for superfluids. Seal developed for metal lid on glass jar used in experiments on liquid helium. Glass container allows contents to be viewed for such purposes as calibration of liquid-level detectors and adjustments of displacement plungers. Seal contains liquid helium even when temperature drops below 2.19K. Made from inexpensive, commercially available materials and parts.

  13. Coherence and Relaxation in Potassium-Doped Helium Droplets Studied by Femtosecond Pump-Probe Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stienkemeier, F.; Meier, F.; Hägele, A.; Lutz, H. O.; Schreiber, E.; Schulz, C. P.; Hertel, I. V.

    1999-09-01

    Superfluid helium droplets are doped with potassium atoms to form complexes in which the metal atom is weakly bound to the cluster surface. The dynamics of these systems upon electronic excitation of the metal atom is probed by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Alignment of the excited potassium p orbital parallel to the cluster surface leads to quantum interferences, the decay of which gives information on the ultrafast perturbation of the induced atomic coherence by the superfluid environment; exciting the p state aligned perpendicularly, the strong repulsive interaction with the helium surface comes into play and the response of the helium environment is followed in time.

  14. The role of vortices in the process of impurity nanoparticles coalescence in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, E. B.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Sizov, V. D.; Khodos, I. I.

    2012-01-01

    The process of condensation of metal atoms in superfluid helium was shown to occur mainly in the quantized vortices. Firstly the spherical nanocrystals were grown there. At low metal content in liquid they fused then into long cylindrical nanowires. At higher metal content the spherical microparticles were formed instead with their size terminated by mutual repulsion arisen in vortex core. Small number of zigzag-shaped nanowires was found to be formed in usual vortices of normal liquid helium as well. The production of ideal 1-D structures such as long polymer chains was predicted for non-metallic material condensation in superfluid helium.

  15. Global strings and superfluid vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.L. ); Shellard, E.P.S. )

    1989-11-06

    We explain the relationship between global strings of the Abelian Higgs model and vortices in a superfluid. We show that the nonrelativistic Magnus force law for vortices can be derived from global-string dynamics, but only when an external background field has a special Lorentz-noninvariant configuration {ital H}{sup {ital ijk}}{proportional to}{epsilon}{sup ijk}. We present a self-consistent classical theory for relativistic Higgs vortices in a superfluid, and show that superfluid vortices can be described as a system of spinning global strings.

  16. Superfluidity and spin superfluidity in spinor Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaitis, J.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-05-01

    We show that spinor Bose gases subject to a quadratic Zeeman effect exhibit coexisting superfluidity and spin superfluidity, and study the interplay between these two distinct types of superfluidity. To illustrate that the basic principles governing these two types of superfluidity are the same, we describe the magnetization and particle-density dynamics in a single hydrodynamic framework. In this description spin and mass supercurrents are driven by their respective chemical potential gradients. As an application, we propose an experimentally accessible stationary state, where the two types of supercurrents counterflow and cancel each other, thus resulting in no mass transport. Furthermore, we propose a straightforward setup to probe spin superfluidity by measuring the in-plane magnetization angle of the whole cloud of atoms. We verify the robustness of these findings by evaluating the four-magnon collision time, and find that the time scale for coherent (superfluid) dynamics is separated from that of the slower incoherent dynamics by one order of magnitude. Comparing the atom and magnon kinetics reveals that while the former can be hydrodynamic, the latter is typically collisionless under most experimental conditions. This implies that, while our zero-temperature hydrodynamic equations are a valid description of spin transport in Bose gases, a hydrodynamic description that treats both mass and spin transport at finite temperatures may not be readily feasible.

  17. Liquid helium pumps for in-orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1986-01-01

    Both mechanical and fountain-effect pumps are being considered for use in the in-orbit resupply of superfluid helium to a number of scientific instrument systems. This paper presents a review of the operating characteristics of these pumps. Particular emphasis will be given to the different methods of evaluating the efficiency of these pumps and their effectiveness in a transfer system.

  18. Paramagnetic Attraction of Impurity-Helium Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, E. P.; Boltnev, R. E.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Impurity-helium solids are formed when a mixture of impurity and helium gases enters a volume of superfluid helium. Typical choices of impurity gas are hydrogen deuteride, deuterium, nitrogen, neon and argon, or a mixture of these. These solids consist of individual impurity atoms and molecules as well as clusters of impurity atoms and molecules covered with layers of solidified helium. The clusters have an imperfect crystalline structure and diameters ranging up to 90 angstroms, depending somewhat on the choice of impurity. Immediately following formation the clusters aggregate into loosely connected porous solids that are submerged in and completely permeated by the liquid helium. Im-He solids are extremely effective at stabilizing high concentrations of free radicals, which can be introduced by applying a high power RF dis- charge to the impurity gas mixture just before it strikes the super fluid helium. Average concentrations of 10(exp 19) nitrogen atoms/cc and 5 x 10(exp 18) deuterium atoms/cc can be achieved this way. It shows a typical sample formed from a mixture of atomic and molecular hydrogen and deuterium. It shows typical sample formed from atomic and molecular nitrogen. Much of the stability of Im-He solids is attributed to their very large surface area to volume ratio and their permeation by super fluid helium. Heat resulting from a chance meeting and recombination of free radicals is quickly dissipated by the super fluid helium instead of thermally promoting the diffusion of other nearby free radicals.

  19. Superfluidity in asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakian, A.; Alm, T.; Lombardo, U.

    1997-02-01

    The onset of superfluidity in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the BCS theory. A neutron-proton superfluid state in the channel {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} comes about from the interplay between thermal excitations and separation {delta}{mu} of the two Fermi surfaces. The superfluid state disappears above the threshold value of the density-asymmetry parameter {alpha}=(n{sub n}{minus}n{sub p})/n{approx_equal}0.35. For large enough shift between the two Fermi surfaces {delta}{mu}=(1)/(2)({mu}{sub n}{minus}{mu}{sub p}) the transition to the normal state becomes a first-order transition and a second gap solution develops. This solution, however, corresponds to a metastable superfluid state which is unstable with respect to the transition to the normal state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Superfluid interfaces in quantum solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2005-03-01

    One scenario for the non-classical moment of inertia of solid ^4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Science, 305, 1941 (2004)] is the superfluidity of micro-crystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal---the checkerboard lattice solid---we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough inter-particle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in d=3 , while in d=2 the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.

  1. Superfluid Interfaces in Quantum Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kozik, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2005-04-01

    One scenario for the nonclassical moment of inertia of solid 4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Nature (London), NATUAS, 0028-0836 427, 225 (2004), 10.1038/nature02220] is the superfluidity of microcrystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal—the checkerboard lattice solid—we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough interparticle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in 3D, while in 2D the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.

  2. Superconductivity, superfluidity and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvio, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This is a concise review of holographic superconductors and superfluids. We highlight some predictions of the holographic models and the emphasis is given to physical aspects rather than to the technical details, although some references to understand the latter are systematically provided. We include gapped systems in the discussion, motivated by the physics of high-temperature superconductivity. In order to do so we consider a compactified extra dimension (with radius R), or, alternatively, a dilatonic field. The first setup can also be used to model cylindrical superconductors; when these are probed by an axial magnetic field a universal property of holography emerges: while for large R (compared to the other scales in the problem) non-local operators are suppressed, leading to the so called Little-Parks periodicity, the opposite limit shows non-local effects, e.g. the uplifting of the Little-Parks periodicity. This difference corresponds in the gravity side to a Hawking-Page phase transition.

  3. First order Galilean superfluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2017-09-01

    We study dynamics of an (anomalous) Galilean superfluid up to first order in derivative expansion, both in parity-even and parity-odd sectors. We construct a relativistic system—null superfluid, which is a null fluid (introduced in N. Banerjee, S. Dutta, and A. Jain Akash, [Phys. Rev. D 93, 105020 (2016)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.105020]) with a spontaneously broken global U(1) symmetry. A null superfluid is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean superfluid in one lower dimension; i.e., they have the same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations and are related to each other by a mere choice of basis. The correspondence is based on null reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean symmetry in one lower dimension. To perform this analysis, we use off-shell formalism of (super)fluid dynamics, adopting it appropriately to null (super)fluids. We also verify these results via c →∞ limit of a parent relativistic system.

  4. Pulsar rotation with superfluid entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Marco; Pizzochero, Pierre M.

    2017-06-01

    Large pulsar glitches (like the ones detected in the Vela) are though to be a consequence of the superfluid component present in the interior of mature neutron stars: this component can rotate differentially with respect to the normal part of the star, storing the angular momentum needed to produce the observed sudden decrease of the pulsar rotational period. However strong entrainment (a non-dissipative effect that couples the superfluid component with the non-superfluid component inside the star) challenges this picture. Here we study the impact of entrainment on the angular momentum that can be exchanged between the normal component and the superfluid during a glitch by means of a consistent global model. This allows to estimate the maximum angular momentum reservoir stored into the superfluid component of the star: the essential ingredient are newly calculated mesoscopic pinning forces that block the superfluid vorticity in the crust of the neutron star. This method can also provide a quantitative test for global models of rotating neutron stars, as well as for microphysical inputs present in literature (like entrainment parameters and pinning forces).

  5. Unconventional Superfluidity in Yttrium Iron Garnet Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2016-06-01

    We argue that the magnon condensate in yttrium iron garnet may display experimentally observable superfluidity at room temperature despite the 100 times dominance of the normal density over superfluid ones. The superfluidity has a more complicated nature than in known superfluids since the U(1) symmetry of the global phase shift is violated by the dipolar interaction leading to the exchange of spin moment between the condensate and the crystal lattice. It produces periodic inhomogeneity in the stationary superfluid flow. We discuss the manner of observation and possible applications of magnon superfluidity. It may strongly enhance the spin-torque effects and reduce the energy consumption of the magnonic devices.

  6. Metastable Aluminum Atoms Floating on the Surface of Helium Nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Jay; Besley, Nicholas A; Stace, Anthony J; Sarma, Gautam; Cunningham, Ethan M; Boatwright, Adrian; Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M

    2015-06-12

    Metal atoms have proved to be sensitive probes of the properties of superfluid helium nanodroplets. To date, all experiments on the doping of helium droplets have concentrated on the attachment of metal atoms in their ground electronic states. Here we report the first examples of metal atoms in excited states becoming attached to helium nanodroplets. The atoms in question are aluminum, and they have been generated by laser ablation in a metastable quartet state, which attaches to and remains on the surface of helium droplets. Evidence for a surface location comes from electronic spectra, which consist of very narrow absorption profiles that show very small spectral shifts. Supporting ab initio calculations show there to be an energy incentive for a metastable Al atom to remain on the surface of a helium droplet rather than move to the interior. The results suggest that helium droplets may provide a method for the capture and transport of metastable excited atomic and molecular species.

  7. On the surface of superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Jain, Akash; Kundu, Nilay

    2017-06-01

    Developing on a recent work on localized bubbles of ordinary relativistic fluids, we study the comparatively richer leading order surface physics of relativistic superfluids, coupled to an arbitrary stationary background metric and gauge field in 3 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions. The analysis is performed with the help of a Euclidean effective action in one lower dimension, written in terms of the superfluid Goldstone mode, the shape-field (characterizing the surface of the superfluid bubble) and the background fields. We find new terms in the ideal order constitutive relations of the superfluid surface, in both the parity-even and parity-odd sectors, with the corresponding transport coefficients entirely fixed in terms of the first order bulk transport coefficients. Some bulk transport coefficients even enter and modify the surface thermodynamics. In the process, we also evaluate the stationary first order parity-odd bulk currents in 2 + 1 dimensions, which follows from four independent terms in the superfluid effective action in that sector. In the second part of the paper, we extend our analysis to stationary surfaces in 3 + 1 dimensional Galilean superfluids via the null reduction of null superfluids in 4 + 1 dimensions. The ideal order constitutive relations in the Galilean case also exhibit some new terms similar to their relativistic counterparts. Finally, in the relativistic context, we turn on slow but arbitrary time dependence and answer some of the key questions regarding the time-dependent dynamics of the shape-field using the second law of thermodynamics. A linearized fluctuation analysis in 2 + 1 dimensions about a toy equilibrium configuration reveals some new surface modes, including parity-odd ones. Our framework can be easily applied to model more general interfaces between distinct fluid-phases.

  8. Room-temperature superfluidity in a polariton condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerario, Giovanni; Fieramosca, Antonio; Barachati, Fábio; Ballarini, Dario; Daskalakis, Konstantinos S.; Dominici, Lorenzo; de Giorgi, Milena; Maier, Stefan A.; Gigli, Giuseppe; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    Superfluidity--the suppression of scattering in a quantum fluid at velocities below a critical value--is one of the most striking manifestations of the collective behaviour typical of Bose-Einstein condensates. This phenomenon, akin to superconductivity in metals, has until now been observed only at prohibitively low cryogenic temperatures. For atoms, this limit is imposed by the small thermal de Broglie wavelength, which is inversely related to the particle mass. Even in the case of ultralight quasiparticles such as exciton-polaritons, superfluidity has been demonstrated only at liquid helium temperatures. In this case, the limit is not imposed by the mass, but instead by the small binding energy of Wannier-Mott excitons, which sets the upper temperature limit. Here we demonstrate a transition from supersonic to superfluid flow in a polariton condensate under ambient conditions. This is achieved by using an organic microcavity supporting stable Frenkel exciton-polaritons at room temperature. This result paves the way not only for tabletop studies of quantum hydrodynamics, but also for room-temperature polariton devices that can be robustly protected from scattering.

  9. Effect of Helium Elasticity on Torsional Oscillator Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Balibar, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Kim and Chan performed a torsional oscillator measurement of the rotational inertia of solid helium-4. They found frequency changes which were interpreted in terms of a non-classical rotational inertia, that is a partial superfluidity or "supersolidity" of solid helium-4. Since then there have been many further studies using various versions of this technique. One important question that arises in these experiments is the possible effect on the oscillator frequency of changes in the elasticity of the solid helium; this can produce a change in frequency that adds to any effect due to superfluidity. In this paper we give a general discussion of the effect of changes in elasticity on the oscillator frequency and consider how the magnitude of the effect is influenced by the oscillator design. Our results should help make it possible to discriminate between frequency changes due to changes in elasticity and changes due to supersolidity.

  10. Superfluid stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    SciTech Connect

    Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the {sup 3}He solute in a superfluid {sup 3}He--{sup 4}He solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid {sup 4}He is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the {sup 3}He solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the {sup 3}He solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the {sup 3}He solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Superfluid Stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G. W.

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the (sup 3)He solute in a superfluid He(3) - He(4) solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid He(4) is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the He(3) solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the He(3) solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the He(3) solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration.

  12. Decoupling of first sound from second sound in dilute 3He-superfluid 4He mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekki, T. S.; Manninen, M. S.; Tuoriniemi, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Bulk superfluid helium supports two sound modes: first sound is an ordinary pressure wave, while second sound is a temperature wave, unique to superfluid systems. These sound modes do not usually exist independently, but rather variations in pressure are accompanied by variations in temperature, and vice versa. We studied the coupling between first and second sound in dilute 3He -superfluid 4He mixtures, between 1.6 and 2.2 K, at 3He concentrations ranging from 0% to 11%, under saturated vapor pressure, using a quartz tuning fork oscillator. Second sound coupled to first sound can create anomalies in the resonance response of the fork, which disappear only at very specific temperatures and concentrations, where two terms governing the coupling cancel each other, and second sound and first sound become decoupled.

  13. Study of Flow of Superfluid He-II Very Near Tau(sub lambda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukharsky, Yury; Sukhatme, Kalyani; Pearson, David; Chui, Talso

    1999-01-01

    We report here, preliminary data from an experiment studying flow of superfluid helium through a slit orifice (of sub-micron width) very close to T(sub lambda). Critical supercurrent (I(sub c)) data is obtained from a step function drive to the diaphragm in a Helmholtz resonator cell. The superfluid density (rho(sub s)) data can be obtained from the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz oscillator, as determined by transfer function of the resonator or from the free ringing after the step function excitation. Preliminary data shows that I(sub c) is proportional to (rho(sub s))(exp 1.27) and rho(sub s)) is proportional to tau(exp 0.73), where tau is the reduced temperature. However, the magnitude of I(sub c) is much larger than expected, indicating a possible parallel flow path. Further investigations are in progress. Keywords: superfluid; hydrodynamics; critical exponent

  14. Helium cryogenics

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sciver, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this work is to bridge the gap between physics and engineering aspects of helium fluids to encourage their use and enhance their usefulness in low-temperature systems. Topics covered include thermodynamic laws, electrical and thermal conductivities, spin systems, virial expansion, liquid He I, transport properties, density of helium as a quantum fluid, vortices and turbulence in He II, Kapitza conductance, acoustic mismatch theory, nucleate boiling heta transfer, surface effects, general considerations of internal flow, ideal liquefaction, stirling cycle, and the helium-3 isotope.

  15. Dynamical vortices in superfluid films

    SciTech Connect

    Arovas, D.P.; Freire, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The coupling of superfluid film to a moving vortex is a gauge coupling entirely dictated by topology. From the definition of a linking number, one can define a gauge field scr(A){sup {mu}}, whose (2+1)-dimensional curl is the vortex three-current J{sup {mu}}, and to which the superfluid is minimally coupled. We compute the superfluid density and current response to a moving vortex. Exploiting the analogy to (2+1)-dimensional electrodynamics, we compute the effective vortex mass M({omega}) and find that it is logarithmically divergent in the {omega}{r_arrow}0 limit, with a constant imaginary part, yielding a super-Ohmic dissipation in the presence of an oscillating superflow. Numerical integration of the nonlinear Schr{umlt o}dinger equation supports these conclusions. The interaction of vortices with impurities coupling to the density also is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Optical investigation of impurities in superfluid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Tabbert, B.; Guenther, H.; Putlitz, G. zu

    1997-12-01

    This review is devoted to optical studies of foreign particles in superfluid {sup 4}He. Starting with single excess electrons, helium ions and metastable helium atoms, various methods for the implantation of these species into the quantum fluid are summarized. Continuing with neutral and charged atoms, molecules, and clusters implantation techniques like laser ablation, gas discharges, or atomic beams are discussed. The implanted particles act as micro-probes for the liquid helium and form complex defect structures-known as bubbles and snowballs. The behavior of the impurities, their defect structures in the liquid, and their optical spectra are discussed. The treatment is mainly focused on the manifold of atoms and ions from nearly all groups of the periodic table of elements which became available for optical experiments in liquid {sup 4}He in the recent ten years. It includes theoretical description of the impurities by the standard bubble model (SBM). Extensions and limitations of the SBM are discussed regarding non-radiative transitions and the dynamic Jahn-Teller effect. The review is concluded by a discussion of applications of `the presented experimental methods such as spin physics and motion studies in liquid helium.

  17. Exchange Frequencies in Helium-4 Crystals with Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard

    2005-03-01

    The torsional oscillator experiments by Kim and Chan indicate the presence of a superfluid flow in solid helium-4 [Science 305 (2004) 1941], which cannot be explained with the properties of a perfect h.c.p. lattice [Ceperley, Bernu, PRL 93 (2004) 155303]. Using path integral Monte Carlohttp://militzer.gl.ciw.edu simulations, we study different types of defects and stacking faults in the crystal by analyzing the frequency of ring-exchanges along the defect lines. This focus lies on identifying a mechanism that could explain the observed 1% superfluid fraction.

  18. Search for supercooling and possible superfluidity of molecular hydrogen in a Vycor matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, M.; Thomson, A.L.

    1981-07-01

    We have made preliminary flow explorations of molecular hydrogen within a Vycor glass rod between 5 and 35 K and between 2 and 20 atm of differential pressure. An enhanced flow, indicative of the theoretically expected superfluid hydrogen phase, was sought down to 9.5 K but not found. These studies are an obvious extension of a recent helium-saturated Vycor experiment which surprisingly finds no solidification at temperatures and pressures far into the bulk solid phase.

  19. Superfluid State of 4He on Graphane and Graphene-Fluoride: Anisotropic Roton States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, M.; Galli, D. E.; Cole, M. W.; Reatto, L.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the phase behavior of Helium films on two variants of graphene: graphane (graphene coated with H, denoted GH) and graphene-fluoride (GF). A semiempirical interaction with these substrates is used in T=0 K Path Integral Ground State and finite temperature Path Integral Monte Carlo simulations. We predict that 4He forms anisotropic fluid states at low coverage. This behavior differs qualitatively from that on graphite because of the different surface composition, symmetry and spacing of the adsorption sites. The 4He ground state on both substrates is thus a self-bound anisotropic superfluid with a superfluid fraction ρ s / ρ lower than 1 due to the corrugation of the adsorption potential. In the case of GF such corrugation is so large that ρ s / ρ=0.6 at T=0 K and the superfluid is essentially restricted to move in a multiconnected space, along the bonds of a honeycomb lattice. We predict a superfluid transition temperature T≃ 0.25 (1.1) K for 4He on GF (GH). We have studied the elementary excitation spectrum of 4He on GF at equilibrium density finding a phonon-maxon-roton dispersion relation that is strongly anisotropic in the roton region. We conclude that these new platforms for adsorption studies offer the possibility of studying novel superfluid phases of quantum condensed matter.

  20. Blow-down analysis of helium from a cryogenic dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, H. J.; Zhang, Q. Q.; Rhee, M.; Figueroa, O.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Space Shuttle-based refilling of helium using superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT). All the critical components of SHOOT need to be developed through ground-based tests. The helium dewar is one of these components. The Dewar consists of a vacuum vessel enclosing a superinsulated tank. The space between the vacuum vessel and the liquid tank is considered a common vacuum space. In the event that the vacuum is lost, the heat transfers to the dewar and the pressure inside the dewar increases rapidly, resulting in rupture of the dewar due to excessive pressure. Therefore, an emergency vent line is required for release of helium to prevent the dewar from rupturing. The study describes a numerical model for blow-down analysis in an emergency. This qualifies the design of the emergency vent line to be adequate for the assumed heat loads to the helium dewar.

  1. Blow-down analysis of helium from a cryogenic dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, H. J.; Zhang, Q. Q.; Rhee, M.; Figueroa, O.

    NASA is currently developing Space Shuttle-based refilling of helium using superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT). All the critical components of SHOOT need to be developed through ground-based tests. The helium dewar is one of these components. The Dewar consists of a vacuum vessel enclosing a superinsulated tank. The space between the vacuum vessel and the liquid tank is considered a common vacuum space. In the event that the vacuum is lost, the heat transfers to the dewar and the pressure inside the dewar increases rapidly, resulting in rupture of the dewar due to excessive pressure. Therefore, an emergency vent line is required for release of helium to prevent the dewar from rupturing. The study describes a numerical model for blow-down analysis in an emergency. This qualifies the design of the emergency vent line to be adequate for the assumed heat loads to the helium dewar.

  2. Energy Release Channels During Destruction of Impurity-Helium Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelenko, V. V.; Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.; Lee, D. M.

    2013-05-01

    Injection of an impurity-helium gas jet passed through a radiofrequency discharge into a volume of superfluid helium leads to the growth of nanoclusters of impurity species which form impurity-helium condensates (IHCs). IHCs are porous materials with very low impurity density (˜1020 cm-3). High average concentrations of stabilized free radicals can be achieved on the large total surface (˜100 m2/cm3) of impurity nanoclusters. Warming of the IHCs leads to the destruction of the samples and formation of excited atoms and molecules as a consequence of the recombination of stabilized free radicals. We studied the influence of the nitrogen content in neon-helium and krypton-helium gas mixtures on the thermoluminescence spectra accompanying the destruction of the IHC samples, which were formed by using these gas mixtures. The energy release channels in the IHC samples were revealed from analysis of the thermoluminescence spectra.

  3. Blow-down analysis of helium from a cryogenic dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, H. J.; Zhang, Q. Q.; Rhee, M.; Figueroa, O.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Space Shuttle-based refilling of helium using superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT). All the critical components of SHOOT need to be developed through ground-based tests. The helium dewar is one of these components. The Dewar consists of a vacuum vessel enclosing a superinsulated tank. The space between the vacuum vessel and the liquid tank is considered a common vacuum space. In the event that the vacuum is lost, the heat transfers to the dewar and the pressure inside the dewar increases rapidly, resulting in rupture of the dewar due to excessive pressure. Therefore, an emergency vent line is required for release of helium to prevent the dewar from rupturing. The study describes a numerical model for blow-down analysis in an emergency. This qualifies the design of the emergency vent line to be adequate for the assumed heat loads to the helium dewar.

  4. A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an

  5. Cantilever anemometer based on a superconducting micro-resonator: application to superfluid turbulence.

    PubMed

    Salort, J; Monfardini, A; Roche, P-E

    2012-12-01

    We present a new type of cryogenic local velocity probe that operates in liquid helium (1 K < T < 4.2 K) and achieves a spatial resolution of ≈ 0.1 mm. The operating principle is based on the deflection of a micro-machined silicon cantilever which reflects the local fluid velocity. Deflection is probed using a superconducting niobium micro-resonator sputtered on the sensor and used as a strain gauge. We present the working principle and the design of the probe, as well as calibration measurements and velocity spectra obtained in a turbulent helium flow above and below the superfluid transition.

  6. The Hydraulic Jump in Liquid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Rolley, Etienne; Guthmann, Claude; Chevallier, Christophe; Pettersen, Michael S.

    2006-09-07

    We present the results of some experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in normal and superfluid liquid helium. The radius of the jump and the depth of the liquid outside the jump are measured through optical means. Although the scale of the apparatus is rather small, the location of the jump is found to be consistent with the assumption that the jump can be treated as a shock, if the surface tension is taken into account. The radius of the jump does not change when going down in temperature through the lambda point; we think that the flow is supercritical. A remarkable feature of the experiment is the observation of stationary ripples within the jump when the liquid is superfluid.

  7. A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-07-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.

  8. Holographic Superfluid and STU Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, H.; Pourhassan, B.

    2013-03-01

    In this study we consider STU model as dual picture of superfluid. By using AdS/CFT correspondence we obtain sound modes as a function of black hole charge and temperature. We find that the second sound has linear behavior with charge and fourth sound yields to one by increasing black hole charge.

  9. The development of high cooling power and low ultimate temperature superfluid Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashok B.

    The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) is a recuperative Stirling cycle refrigerator which provides cooling to below 2 K by using a liquid 3He-4He mixture as the working fluid. In 1990, Kotsubo and Swift demonstrated the first SSR, and by 1995, Brisson and Swift had developed an experimental prototype capable of reaching a low temperature of 296 mK. The goal of this thesis was to improve these capabilities by developing a better understanding of the SSR and building SSR's with higher cooling powers and lower ultimate temperatures. This thesis contains four main parts. In the first part, a numerical analysis demonstrates that the optimal design and ultimate performance of a recuperative Stirling refrigerator is fundamentally different from that of a standard regenerative Stirling refrigerator due to a mass flow imbalance within the recuperator. The analysis also shows that high efficiency recuperators remain a key to SSR performance. Due to a quantum effect called Kapitza resistance, the only realistic and economical method of creating higher efficiency recuperators for use with an SSR is to construct the heat exchangers from very thin (12 μm - 25 μm thick) plastic films. The second part of this thesis involves the design and construction of these recuperators. This research resulted in Kapton heat exchangers which are leaktight to superfluid helium and capable of surviving repeated thermal cycling. In the third part of this thesis, two different single stage SSR's are operated to test whether the plastic recuperators would actually improve SSR performance. Operating from a high temperature of 1.0 K and with 1.5% and 3.0% 3He-4He mixtures, these SSR's achieved a low temperature of 291 mK and delivered net cooling powers of 3705 μW at 750 mK, 977 μW at 500 mK, and 409 μW at 400 mK. Finally, this thesis describes the operation of three versions of a two stage SSR. Unfortunately, due to experimental difficulties, the merits of a two stage SSR were not

  10. A transition-edge-sensor-based instrument for the measurement of individual He2* excimers in a superfluid 4He bath at 100 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Faustin Wirkus

    This dissertation is an account of the first calorimetric detection of individual He*2 excimers within a bath of superfluid 4He. When superfluid helium is subject to ionizing radiation, diatomic He molecules are created in both the singlet and triplet states. The singlet He molecules decay within nanoseconds, but due to a forbidden spin-flip the triplet molecules have a relatively long lifetime of 13 seconds in superfluid He. When He* 2 molecules decay, they emit a ~15 eV photon. Nearly all matter is opaque to these vacuum-UV photons, although they do propagate through liquid helium. The triplet state excimers propagate ballistically through the superfluid until they quench upon a surface; this process deposits a large amount of energy into the surface. The prospect of detecting both excimer states is the motivation for building a detector immersed directly in the superfluid bath. The detector used in this work is a single superconducting titanium transition edge sensor (TES). The TES is mounted inside a hermetically sealed chamber at the baseplate of a dilution refrigerator. The chamber contains superfluid helium at 100 mK. Excimers are created during the relaxation of high-energy electrons, which are introduced into the superfluid bath either in situ via a sharp tungsten tip held above the field-emission voltage, or by using an external gamma-ray source to ionize He atoms. These excimers either propagate through the LHe bath and quench on a surface, or decay and emit vacuum-ultraviolet photons that can be collected by the detector. This dissertation discusses the design, construction, and calibration of the TES-based excimer detecting instrument. It also presents the first spectra resulting from the direct detection of individual singlet and triplet helium excimers.

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation in solid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuah, Richard; Diallo, Souleymane; Kirichek, Oleg; Taylor, Jon; Glyde, Henry

    2009-03-01

    We report new measurements of the Bose-Einstein condensate fraction in solid helium. The goal is to reveal whether there is BEC associated with the superfluid fractions that have been observed in solid helium [1,2]. The condensate fraction, n0, is obtained from neutron scattering measurements of the momentum distribution, n(k), of the atoms in the solid. We use commercial grade helium (^3He concentration of 0.3 %) where the Tc for superflow is Tc = 200 mK and have measured the n(k) at 3 temperatures, 500 mK, 150 mK and 65 mK. We use a sample cell that has a large surface to volume ratio (S/V) = 40 cm-1 where large superfluid fractions have recently been reported[2]. We use a large sample volume (100 cm^3) and high instrument resolution to improve precision beyond that of previous measurements [3]. No clear sign of BEC has been observed but the data is being analyzed so that specific values of n0 can be reported. [1] E. Kim and M.H.W. Chan. Science, 305:1941 (2004); Nature, 427:225, 2004. [2]A. S. C. Rittner, and J. D. Reppy, Phys. Rev. Lett., 98:175302, 2007. [3] Diallo et al. Phys. Rev Lett. 98, 205301 (2007).

  12. Superfluidity and vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, Satyanarayana Kumar

    This dissertation will elucidate specific features of superfluid behavior in dense quark matter, It will start with issues regarding spontaneous decay of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter. This will be followed by topics that explain superfluid phenomena from field theoretical viewpoint. In particular the first part of the dissertation will talk about superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter which are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of "semi-superfluid" color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars. In the field theoretic formulation of a zero-temperature superfluid one connects the superfluid four-velocity which is a macroscopic observable with a microscopic field variable namely the gradient of the phase of a Bose-Condensed scalar field. On the other hand, a superfluid at nonzero temperatures is usually described in terms of a two-fluid model: the superfluid and the normal fluid. In the later part of the dissertation we offer a deeper understanding of the two-fluid model by deriving it from an underlying microscopic field theory. In particular, we shall obtain the macroscopic properties of a uniform, dissipationless superfluid at low temperatures and weak coupling within the framework of a ϕ 4 model. Though our study is very general, it may also be viewed as a step towards understanding the superfluid properties of various phases of dense nuclear and quark matter in the interior of compact star.

  13. Textural domain walls in superfluid 3He-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Takeshi

    Owing to the richness of symmetry, the superfluid 3He serves as a rich repository of topological quantum phenomena. This includes the emergence of surface Majorana fermions and their quantum mass acquisition at the topological critical point. Furthermore, the marriage of the prototype topological superfluid with nanofabrication techniques brings about a rich variety of spontaneous symmetry breaking, such as the formation of the stripe order and nontrivial domain walls. In this work, we examine the possible formation of textural domain walls in the superfluid 3He-B confined to a thin slab with a sub-micron thickness. When an applied magnetic field is much higher than the dipolar field, two nearly degenerate ground states appear, which are characterized by the Ising order associated with the spontaneous breaking of a magnetic order-two symmetry, lcirc;z = + 1 and - 1 . We here discuss the structure of the textural domain wall formed by the spatial modulation of the Ising order, such as low-lying quasiparticle excitations and spontaneous spin current. We also report bosonic modes bound to the textural domain wall.

  14. Symmetry protected topological superfluid (3)He-B.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Sato, Masatoshi; Machida, Kazushige

    2015-03-25

    Owing to the richness of symmetry and well-established knowledge of bulk superfluidity, the superfluid (3)He has offered a prototypical system to study intertwining of topology and symmetry. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the topological superfluidity of (3)He in a multifaceted manner, including symmetry considerations, the Jackiw-Rebbi's index theorem, and the quasiclassical theory. Special focus is placed on the symmetry protected topological superfuidity of the (3)He-B confined in a slab geometry. The (3)He-B under a magnetic field is separated to two different sub-phases: the symmetry protected topological phase and non-topological phase. The former phase is characterized by the existence of symmetry protected Majorana fermions. The topological phase transition between them is triggered by the spontaneous breaking of a hidden discrete symmetry. The critical field is quantitatively determined from the microscopic calculation that takes account of magnetic dipole interaction of the (3)He nucleus. It is also demonstrated that odd-frequency even-parity Cooper pair amplitudes are emergent in low-lying quasiparticles. The key ingredients, symmetry protected Majorana fermions and odd-frequency pairing, bring an important consequence that the coupling of the surface states to an applied field is prohibited by the hidden discrete symmetry, while the topological phase transition with the spontaneous symmetry breaking is accompanied by anomalous enhancement and anisotropic quantum criticality of surface spin susceptibility. We also illustrate common topological features between topological crystalline superconductors and symmetry protected topological superfluids, taking UPt3 and Rashba superconductors as examples.

  15. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-01-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721

  16. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-09-08

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid.

  17. Research and development of a helium-4 based solar neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1990-12-01

    We report on work accomplished in the first 30 months of a research and development program to investigate the feasibility of a new technique to detect solar neutrinos in superfluid helium. Accomplishments include the successful completion of design, construction and operation of the entire cryogenic, mechanical and electronic apparatus. During the last several months we have begun a series of experiments in superfluid helium to test the method. Experimental results include the first observation of the combined physical processes essential to the detection technique: ballistic roton generation by energetic charged particles, quantum evaporation of helium at a free surface and bolometric detection of the evaporated helium by physisorption on a cold silicon wafer. Additional results are also presented.

  18. Research and development of a helium-4 based solar neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1992-06-30

    In this report we describe results of experiments to detect low energy radiation in superfluid helium. The ultimate aim of this research is to establish the feasibility of this technique for use in detecting neutrinos from the p-p and Be-7 reactions in the sun. In these experiments we have seen the first detection of 5.5 MeV {alpha} particles via evaporation from a bath of superfluid helium. An {alpha} particle excites phonons and rotons in the liquid helium, and these excitations are sufficiently energetic to evaporate helium atoms when they reach the free surface of the liquid. The evaporated atoms are detected calorimetrically by a thin wafer suspended above the liquid. The approximate overall efficiency of this process has been determined and we compare the experimental results with expectations. We have also been able to detect evaporation induced by a flux of gamma rays from a Cs-137 source. Preparations made for new experiments are also discussed.

  19. Helium tables.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havill, Clinton H

    1928-01-01

    These tables are intended to provide a standard method and to facilitate the calculation of the quantity of "Standard Helium" in high pressure containers. The research data and the formulas used in the preparation of the tables were furnished by the Research Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  20. Observation of thermal fluctuations in a superfluid optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Garcia, S.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-02-01

    In cavity optomechanics the state of a mechanical element can be manipulated by interfacing it with light via radiation pressure, electrostriction, or related phenomena. The majority of mechanical elements employed in optomechanical systems to date are solid objects (membranes, nanowires, mirrors, etc); however fluids can also be used as a mechanical element. Compared to solids, fluids have an advantage: they readily achieve precise alignment with the optical cavity, as the fluid can conformally fill or coat the optical cavity. However, almost all optomechanical systems need to be cooled to sub-Kelvin temperatures in order for quantum effects to be observed. Liquid helium is the only fluid that doesn't solidify under its own pressure at these temperatures. Additionally, helium has almost no optical absorption, high thermal conductivity and very low acoustic loss at cryogenic temperatures. We have developed an optomechanical system in which the mechanical mode is a standing density wave in superfluid helium inside a 70 μm long Fabry-Perot cavity. The optical mode is also a mode of the same cavity. Thus, the system is completely self-aligned. In this system, we used electrostriction to drive the mechanical mode with light by modulating the optical intensity. We also observed the mode's undriven Brownian motion and from that extracted it mean phonon number. We measured phonon number as low as nac=11. The optomechanical effects of optical spring and optical damping were observed, and agreed well with the predictions of conventional optomechanical theory.

  1. Microphotonic Forces from Superfluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuslan, D. L.; Harris, G. I.; Baker, C.; Sachkou, Y.; He, X.; Sheridan, E.; Bowen, W. P.

    2016-04-01

    In cavity optomechanics, radiation pressure and photothermal forces are widely utilized to cool and control micromechanical motion, with applications ranging from precision sensing and quantum information to fundamental science. Here, we realize an alternative approach to optical forcing based on superfluid flow and evaporation in response to optical heating. We demonstrate optical forcing of the motion of a cryogenic microtoroidal resonator at a level of 1.46 nN, roughly 1 order of magnitude larger than the radiation pressure force. We use this force to feedback cool the motion of a microtoroid mechanical mode to 137 mK. The photoconvective forces we demonstrate here provide a new tool for high bandwidth control of mechanical motion in cryogenic conditions, while the ability to apply forces remotely, combined with the persistence of flow in superfluids, offers the prospect for new applications.

  2. Superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Alford, Mark; Windisch, Andreas; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-03-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of ``semi-superfluid'' color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars.

  3. Bulk viscosity of superfluid hyperon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Kantor, Elena M.

    2008-10-15

    We calculate the bulk viscosity due to nonequilibrium weak processes in superfluid nucleon-hyperon matter of neutron stars. For that, the dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics, formulated eariler [M. E. Gusakov, Phys. Rev. D 76, 083001 (2007).] for superfluid mixtures, is extended to the case when both nucleons and hyperons are superfluid. It is demonstrated that in the most general case (when neutrons, protons, {lambda}, and {sigma}{sup -} hyperons are superfluid), nonequilibrium weak processes generate 16 bulk viscosity coefficients, with only three of them being independent. In addition, we correct an inaccuracy in a widely used formula for the bulk viscosity of nonsuperfluid nucleon-hyperon matter.

  4. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  5. Critical flow and dissipation in a quasi–one-dimensional superfluid

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Pierre-François; Savard, Michel; Petrescu, Matei; Rosenow, Bernd; Del Maestro, Adrian; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In one of the most celebrated examples of the theory of universal critical phenomena, the phase transition to the superfluid state of 4He belongs to the same three-dimensional (3D) O(2) universality class as the onset of ferromagnetism in a lattice of classical spins with XY symmetry. Below the transition, the superfluid density ρs and superfluid velocity vs increase as a power law of temperature described by a universal critical exponent that is constrained to be identical by scale invariance. As the dimensionality is reduced toward 1D, it is expected that enhanced thermal and quantum fluctuations preclude long-range order, thereby inhibiting superfluidity. We have measured the flow rate of liquid helium and deduced its superfluid velocity in a capillary flow experiment occurring in single 30-nm-long nanopores with radii ranging down from 20 to 3 nm. As the pore size is reduced toward the 1D limit, we observe the following: (i) a suppression of the pressure dependence of the superfluid velocity; (ii) a temperature dependence of vs that surprisingly can be well-fitted by a power law with a single exponent over a broad range of temperatures; and (iii) decreasing critical velocities as a function of decreasing radius for channel sizes below R ≃ 20 nm, in stark contrast with what is observed in micrometer-sized channels. We interpret these deviations from bulk behavior as signaling the crossover to a quasi-1D state, whereby the size of a critical topological defect is cut off by the channel radius. PMID:26601177

  6. Large-scale normal fluid circulation in helium superflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galantucci, Luca; Sciacca, Michele; Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2017-01-01

    We perform fully coupled numerical simulations of helium II pure superflows in a channel, with vortex-line density typical of experiments. Peculiar to our model is the computation of the back-reaction of the superfluid vortex motion on the normal fluid and the presence of solid boundaries. We recover the uniform vortex-line density experimentally measured employing second sound resonators and we show that pure superflow in helium II is associated with a large-scale circulation of the normal fluid which can be detected using existing particle-tracking visualization techniques.

  7. Formation and properties of metal clusters isolated in helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2007-09-14

    The unique conditions forming atomic and molecular complexes and clusters using superfluid helium nanodroplets have opened up an innovative route for studying the physical and chemical properties of matter on the nanoscale. This review summarizes the specific characteristics of the formation of atomic clusters partly generated far from equilibrium in the helium environment. Special emphasis is on the optical response, electronic properties as well as dynamical processes which are mostly affected by the surrounding quantum matrix. Experiments include the optical induced response of isolated cluster systems in helium under quite different excitation conditions ranging from the linear regime up to the violent interaction with a strong laser field leading to Coulomb explosion and the generation of highly charged atomic fragments. The variety of results on the outstanding properties in the quantum size regime highlights the peculiar capabilities of helium nanodroplet isolation spectroscopy.

  8. Characterization of gaseous helium jet dispersion to atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, H. J.; Figueroa, O.; Rhee, M.

    A major ground-based experiment to be performed for the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) program is the accidental loss of the vacuum guard of the super-insulated dewar. The design of the dewar vent-path requires adequate mass removal after a preset pressure is reached due to external heat transfer. The existing helium creates a turbulent buoyant jet, expanding in air with entrainment of the jet interface to the surrounding. Transient analysis is performed for axial and radial jet temperature prediction using the self-similarity assumption applied to mass, momentum, and the energy-balance equations of helium. The predicted jet temperature profiles with vertical and radial expansion up to 1.6 and 1.0 m, respectively, demonstrate the low temperature core established by gaseous helium. For all time steps, the axial and radial temperature predictions are observed to be within 8 and 20 percent, respectively.

  9. Absence of Supersolidity in Solid Helium in Porous Vycor Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Chan, Moses H. W.

    2012-10-01

    In 2004, Kim and Chan carried out torsional oscillator measurements of solid helium confined in porous Vycor glass and found an abrupt drop in the resonant period below 200 mK. The period drop was interpreted as probable experimental evidence of nonclassical rotational inertia. This experiment sparked considerable activities in the studies of superfluidity in solid helium. More recent ultrasound and torsional oscillator studies, however, found evidence that shear modulus stiffening is responsible for at least a fraction of the period drop found in bulk solid helium samples. The experimental configuration of Kim and Chan makes it unavoidable to have a small amount of bulk solid inside the torsion cell containing the Vycor disk. We report here the results of a new helium in Vycor experiment with a design that is completely free from any bulk solid shear modulus stiffening effect. We found no measurable period drop that can be attributed to nonclassical rotational inertia.

  10. Absence of supersolidity in solid helium in porous Vycor glass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Y; Chan, Moses H W

    2012-10-12

    In 2004, Kim and Chan carried out torsional oscillator measurements of solid helium confined in porous Vycor glass and found an abrupt drop in the resonant period below 200 mK. The period drop was interpreted as probable experimental evidence of nonclassical rotational inertia. This experiment sparked considerable activities in the studies of superfluidity in solid helium. More recent ultrasound and torsional oscillator studies, however, found evidence that shear modulus stiffening is responsible for at least a fraction of the period drop found in bulk solid helium samples. The experimental configuration of Kim and Chan makes it unavoidable to have a small amount of bulk solid inside the torsion cell containing the Vycor disk. We report here the results of a new helium in Vycor experiment with a design that is completely free from any bulk solid shear modulus stiffening effect. We found no measurable period drop that can be attributed to nonclassical rotational inertia.

  11. Aspects regarding decay of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Alford, Mark

    2015-04-01

    It has been mentioned in current literature that the so called superfluid vortices/strings in high density color flavor locked phase of dense quark matter might be unstable. A regular superfluid string could decay into more fundamental strings known as semi-superfluid strings. Each semi-superfluid string has a non-zero color flux. It has been calculated that a combination of three such semi-superfluid strings which have zero net color flux is more stable than a single superfluid string, so long as the separation between the semi-superfluid strings is much larger than the size of each one. Is the semi-superfluid string configuration more stable than the superfluid string even for small separations? Does the single superfluid string spontaneously break into semi-superfluid strings? In this talk we offer results and insight that would help us answer these questions.

  12. Pressure driven flow of superfluid 4He through a nanopipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey; Taborek, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Pressure driven flow of superfluid helium through single high-aspect-ratio glass nanopipes into a vacuum has been studied for a wide range of pressure drop (0-30 bars), reservoir temperature (0.8-2.5 K), pipe lengths (1-30 mm), and pipe radii (131 and 230 nm). As a function of pressure drop we observe two distinct flow regimes above and below a critical pressure drop Pc. For P

  13. Shock compression of liquid helium and helium-hydrogen mixtures : development of a cryogenic capability for shock compression of liquid helium on Z, final report for LDRD Project 141536.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Andrew J.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Shelton, Keegan P.; Hanson, David Lester

    2010-10-01

    This final report on SNL/NM LDRD Project 141536 summarizes progress made toward the development of a cryogenic capability to generate liquid helium (LHe) samples for high accuracy equation-of-state (EOS) measurements on the Z current drive. Accurate data on He properties at Mbar pressures are critical to understanding giant planetary interiors and for validating first principles density functional simulations, but it is difficult to condense LHe samples at very low temperatures (<3.5 K) for experimental studies on gas guns, magnetic and explosive compression devices, and lasers. We have developed a conceptual design for a cryogenic LHe sample system to generate quiescent superfluid LHe samples at 1.5-1.8 K. This cryogenic system adapts the basic elements of a continuously operating, self-regulating {sup 4}He evaporation refrigerator to the constraints of shock compression experiments on Z. To minimize heat load, the sample holder is surrounded by a double layer of thermal radiation shields cooled with LHe to 5 K. Delivery of LHe to the pumped-He evaporator bath is controlled by a flow impedance. The LHe sample holder assembly features modular components and simplified fabrication techniques to reduce cost and complexity to levels required of an expendable device. Prototypes have been fabricated, assembled, and instrumented for initial testing.

  14. A demountable nonmagnetic multiconductor feedthrough suitable for use in liquid helium applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Christopher D.

    2008-05-01

    A superfluid-helium-tight nonmagnetic electrical feedthrough has been developed by using brass pins embedded within an epoxy resin plug and mounted on a beryllium copper Conflat flange. A method for building these feedthroughs is discussed, and their performance history is described.

  15. Quasinormal modes of superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, L.; Kantor, E. M.; Gusakov, M. E.; Chugunov, A. I.

    2014-07-01

    We study nonradial oscillations of neutron stars with superfluid baryons, in a general relativistic framework, including finite temperature effects. Using a perturbative approach, we derive the equations describing stellar oscillations, which we solve by numerical integration, employing different models of nucleon superfluidity, and determining frequencies and gravitational damping times of the quasinormal modes. As expected by previous results, we find two classes of modes, associated to superfluid and non-superfluid degrees of freedom, respectively. We study the temperature dependence of the modes, finding that at specific values of the temperature, the frequencies of the two classes of quasinormal modes show avoided crossings, and their damping times become comparable. We also show that, when the temperature is not close to the avoided crossings, the frequencies of the modes can be accurately computed by neglecting the coupling between normal and superfluid degrees of freedom. Our results have potential implications on the gravitational wave emission from neutron stars.

  16. Quantized Vortices in Superfluids and Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouless, D. J.; Ao, Ping; Niu, Qian; Geller, M. R.; Wexler, C.

    We give a general review of recent developments in the theory of vortices in superfluids and superconductors, discussing why the dynamics of vortices is important, and why some key results are still controversial. We discuss work that we have done on the dynamics of quantized vortices in a superfluid. Despite the fact that this problem has been recognized as important for forty years, there is still a lot of controversy about the forces on and masses of quantized vortices. We think that one can get unambiguous answers by considering a broken symmetry state that consists of one vortex in an infinite ideal system. We argue for a Magnus force that is proportional to the superfluid density, and we find that the effective mass density of a vortex in a neutral superfluid is divergent at low frequencies. We have generalized some of the results for a neutral superfluid to a charged system.

  17. Dark matter superfluidity and galactic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin

    2016-02-01

    We propose a unified framework that reconciles the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the ΛCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the physics of superfluidity. Dark matter consists of self-interacting axion-like particles that thermalize and condense to form a superfluid in galaxies, with ∼mK critical temperature. The superfluid phonons mediate a MOND acceleration on baryonic matter. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not): dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures.

  18. Producing and imaging a thin line of He*₂ molecular tracers in helium-4.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Marakov, A; Guo, W; Pawlowski, B T; Van Sciver, S W; Ihas, G G; McKinsey, D N; Vinen, W F

    2015-09-01

    Cryogenic helium-4 has long been recognized as a useful material in fluids research. The unique properties of helium-4 in the gaseous phase and the normal liquid phase allow for the generation of turbulent flows with exceptionally high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. In the superfluid phase, helium-4 exhibits two-fluid hydrodynamics and possesses fascinating properties due to its quantum nature. However, studying the flows in helium-4 has been very challenging largely due to the lack of effective visualization and velocimetry techniques. In this article, we discuss the development of novel instrumentation for flow-visualization in helium based on the generation and imaging of thin lines of metastable He*₂ tracer molecules. These molecular tracers are created via femtosecond-laser field-ionization of helium atoms and can be imaged using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. By observing the displacement and distortion of the tracer lines in helium, quantitative information about the flow field can be extracted. We present experimental results in the study of thermal counterflow in superfluid helium that validate the concept of this technique. We also discuss anticipated future developments of this powerful visualization technique.

  19. Numerical Studies of Properties of Confined Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2003-01-01

    We carry out state of the art simulations of properties of confined liquid helium near the superfluid transition to a degree of accuracy which allows to make predictions for the outcome of fundamental physics experiments in microgravity. First we report our results for the finite-size scaling behavior of heat capacity of superfluids for cubic and parallel-plate geometry. This allows us to study the crossover from zero and two dimensions to three dimensions. Our calculated scaling functions are in good agreement with recently measured specific heat scaling functions for the above mentioned geometries. We also present our results of a quantum simulation of submonolayer of molecular hydrogen deposited on an ideal graphite substrate using path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We find that the monolayer phase diagram is rich and very similar to that of helium monolayer. We are able to uncover the main features of the complex monolayer phase diagram, such as the commensurate solid phases and the commensurate to incommensurate transition, in agreement with the experiments and to find some features which are missing from the experimental analysis.

  20. Spin superfluid Josephson quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Mohseni, Masoud

    2017-04-01

    A macroscopic spintronic qubit based on spin superfluidity and spin Hall phenomena is proposed. This magnetic quantum information processing device realizes the spin-supercurrent analog of the superconducting phase qubit and allows for full electrical control and readout. We also show that an array of interacting magnetic phase qubits can realize a quantum annealer. These devices can be built through standard solid-state fabrication technology, allowing for scalability. However, the upper bound for the operational temperature can, in principle, be higher than the superconducting counterpart, as it is ultimately governed by the magnetic ordering temperatures, which could be much higher than the critical temperatures of the conventional superconducting devices.

  1. Ions in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Tao

    1988-08-01

    A quantum model is proposed to describe the motion of ions in the 4He superfluid. The interaction between the ions and 4He atoms is expressed in terms of the structure factor and quasiparticle operators of the quantum liquid. This model Hamiltonian is solved by a variational scheme. On the basis of the nonparabolic energy-momentum spectum of the dressed ions, an explanation is given for the linear temperature dependence of the ion effective mass observed in the experiments. The study reveals some interesting aspects of the interaction between classical particles and quantum fields.

  2. Long and high conductance helium heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of two superfluid helium heat pipes. They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The copper braid is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film which is essential in the heat transfer. The extremely low thickness of the liquid film allows for a low filling pressure, making the technology very simple without the need for any external hot reservoir and with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of two heat pipes tested for several filling pressures, adverse tilt angles and in 1.4-2.0 K temperature range. A minimum filling pressure (0.6 MPa) is needed to get significant transport capacity. A 12 mW transport capacity is achieved for 3.0 MPa filling pressure. It is shown that the long heat pipe (1.2 m) and the short one (0.25 m) have similar thermal performance in adverse tilt. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a transport capacity of 5.7 mW/4.2 mW for a tilt angle of 0 / 60° and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. When the condenser reaches the super-fluid transition temperature, the Rollin film accelerates the cool down of the evaporator down to 1.7 K with a heating power applied to the evaporator.

  3. Low gravity thermal stratification of liquid helium on SHOOT. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, P. J.; Dipirro, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates of the extent and impact of thermal stratification are presented as well as predictions of the behavior of the HeI/HeII boundary. Although thermal stratification of cryogens can be problematic and lead to their inefficient use in low gravity, for SHOOT the occurrence is beneficial both during ground hold and in orbit and presents no hazards. On the ground the parasitic heat load is both reduced and more efficiently removed. In orbit the pumpdown proceeds at a much more rapid rate, allowing orbital operations to begin earlier. The thermal conductivity of the aluminum tank and the normal liquid plus cooling at the liquid/vapor interface as the vapor bubble grows are sufficient to prevent undesirably high vapor pressures in the tank.

  4. Theoretical framework for thin film superfluid optomechanics: towards the quantum regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Christopher G.; Harris, Glen I.; McAuslan, David L.; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-12-01

    Excitations in superfluid helium represent attractive mechanical degrees of freedom for cavity optomechanics schemes. Here we numerically and analytically investigate the properties of optomechanical resonators formed by thin films of superfluid 4He covering micrometer-scale whispering gallery mode cavities. We predict that through proper optimization of the interaction between film and optical field, large optomechanical coupling rates {g}0> 2π × 100 {kHz} and single photon cooperativities {C}0> 10 are achievable. Our analytical model reveals the unconventional behaviour of these thin films, such as thicker and heavier films exhibiting smaller effective mass and larger zero point motion. The optomechanical system outlined here provides access to unusual regimes such as {g}0> {{{Ω }}}M and opens the prospect of laser cooling a liquid into its quantum ground state.

  5. Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.

    PubMed

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-18

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  6. Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-01

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  7. Energetics of pure and doped helium droplets - application to interpreting pick-up experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Matthew; Hinde, Robert

    2017-09-01

    We use helium density functional theory to calculate the energies of spherically symmetric 4He helium droplets both with and without heteroatom dopants. Self-consistent calculations using an imaginary time propagation method are used to compute structural and energetic properties of these droplets ranging in size from 50 to 9500 atoms. Particular attention is given to the solvation energies of the resident dopant atoms, as these values play an important role in experimental superfluid helium calorimetry techniques. We also suggest a method of predicting new droplet size distributions following dopant pickup using the chemical potential values obtained from our calculations.

  8. Discharge characteristics in liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and pure water preparatory to fabrication of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Shigematsu, Toshinobu; Imasaka, Kiminobu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2012-12-01

    Discharge characteristics and emission spectra of the discharges in low-temperature liquid such as liquid helium have been measured to investigate the conditions for fabrication of carbon nanomaterial by arc discharge in low-temperature liquid. Measurements of the discharge characteristics of the resulting plasma and observation of the associated optical emission spectra show that the behaviour of discharge current over time and the associated spectra depend strongly on discharge voltage and both may be related to the temperature of the carbon target. However, discharge voltage and current with time are almost the same regardless of whether the liquid is pure water, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and superfluid liquid helium

  9. Detecting continuous gravitational waves with superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; De Lorenzo, L. A.; Pikovski, I.; Schwab, K. C.

    2017-07-01

    Direct detection of gravitational waves is opening a new window onto our universe. Here, we study the sensitivity to continuous-wave strain fields of a kg-scale optomechanical system formed by the acoustic motion of superfluid helium-4 parametrically coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity. This narrowband detection scheme can operate at very high Q-factors, while the resonant frequency is tunable through pressurization of the helium in the 0.1-1.5 kHz range. The detector can therefore be tuned to a variety of astrophysical sources and can remain sensitive to a particular source over a long period of time. For thermal noise limited sensitivity, we find that strain fields on the order of h˜ {10}-23/\\sqrt{{Hz}} are detectable. Measuring such strains is possible by implementing state of the art microwave transducer technology. We show that the proposed system can compete with interferometric detectors and potentially surpass the gravitational strain limits set by them for certain pulsar sources within a few months of integration time.

  10. Spin Superfluidity in Biaxial Antiferromagnetic Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiumzadeh, Alireza; Skarsvâg, Hans; Holmqvist, Cecilia; Brataas, Arne

    2017-03-01

    Antiferromagnets may exhibit spin superfluidity since the dipole interaction is weak. We seek to establish that this phenomenon occurs in insulators such as NiO, which is a good spin conductor according to previous studies. We investigate nonlocal spin transport in a planar antiferromagnetic insulator with a weak uniaxial anisotropy. The anisotropy hinders spin superfluidity by creating a substantial threshold that the current must overcome. Nevertheless, we show that applying a high magnetic field removes this obstacle near the spin-flop transition of the antiferromagnet. Importantly, the spin superfluidity can then persist across many micrometers, even in dirty samples.

  11. High-Tc spin superfluidity in antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yu M; Alakshin, E M; Gazizulin, R R; Klochkov, A V; Kuzmin, V V; L'vov, V S; Tagirov, M S

    2012-04-27

    We report the observation of the unusual behavior of induction decay signals in antiferromagnetic monocrystals with Suhl-Nakamura interactions. The signals show the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons and the existence of spin supercurrent, in complete analogy with the spin superfluidity in the superfluid (3)He and the atomic BEC of quantum gases. In the experiments described here, the temperature of the magnon BEC is a thousand times larger than in the superfluid (3)He. It opens a possibility to apply the spin supercurrent for various magnetic spintronics applications.

  12. Research and development of a helium-4 based solar neutrino detector. Progress report, 1 January 1991--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1992-06-30

    In this report we describe results of experiments to detect low energy radiation in superfluid helium. The ultimate aim of this research is to establish the feasibility of this technique for use in detecting neutrinos from the p-p and Be-7 reactions in the sun. In these experiments we have seen the first detection of 5.5 MeV {alpha} particles via evaporation from a bath of superfluid helium. An {alpha} particle excites phonons and rotons in the liquid helium, and these excitations are sufficiently energetic to evaporate helium atoms when they reach the free surface of the liquid. The evaporated atoms are detected calorimetrically by a thin wafer suspended above the liquid. The approximate overall efficiency of this process has been determined and we compare the experimental results with expectations. We have also been able to detect evaporation induced by a flux of gamma rays from a Cs-137 source. Preparations made for new experiments are also discussed.

  13. Superfluid vortex formation at rough boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnov, Y.K.

    1980-10-01

    It is shown that roughness of a superfluid boundary lowers the surface energy barrier, which prevents the detachment of quantized vortices from the boundary under the action of the Magnus force exerted by the external flow past the roughness.

  14. Superfluidity and Superconductivity in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, N.

    2017-09-01

    Neutron stars, the compact stellar remnants of core-collapse supernova explosions, are unique cosmic laboratories for exploring novel phases of matter under extreme conditions. In particular, the occurrence of superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars will be briefly reviewed.

  15. Band geometry, Berry curvature, and superfluid weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Long; Vanhala, Tuomas I.; Peotta, Sebastiano; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari; Törmä, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    We present a theory of the superfluid weight in multiband attractive Hubbard models within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) mean-field framework. We show how to separate the geometric contribution to the superfluid weight from the conventional one, and that the geometric contribution is associated with the interband matrix elements of the current operator. Our theory can be applied to systems with or without time-reversal symmetry. In both cases the geometric superfluid weight can be related to the quantum metric of the corresponding noninteracting systems. This leads to a lower bound on the superfluid weight given by the absolute value of the Berry curvature. We apply our theory to the attractive Kane-Mele-Hubbard and Haldane-Hubbard models, which can be realized in ultracold atom gases. Quantitative comparisons are made to state of the art dynamical mean-field theory and exact diagonalization results.

  16. Statistics of Quantum Turbulence in Superfluid He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'vov, V. S.; Pomyalov, A.

    2016-11-01

    Based on our current understanding of statistics of quantum turbulence as well as on results of intensive ongoing analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we overview here the following problems in the large-scale, space-homogeneous, steady-state turbulence of superfluid ^4 He and ^3 He: (1) energy spectra of normal and superfluid velocity components; (2) cross-correlation function of normal and superfluid velocities; (3) energy dissipation by mutual friction and viscosity; (4) energy exchange between normal and superfluid components; (5) high-order statistics and intermittency effects. The statistical properties are discussed for turbulence in different types of flows: coflow of ^4 He; turbulent ^3 He with the laminar normal fluid; pure superflow and counterflow in ^4 He.

  17. Step Prototype Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehls, C.; Bayart, C.; Bower, J.; Clarke, B.; Cox, C.; Gill, D.; Stricker, D.; Vora, N.; Wang, S.; Zhou, P.; Torii, R.; Worden, P.; Debra, D.; Dittus, H.; Loeffler, F.

    2008-09-01

    STEP, the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle [1], proposes to test the Equivalence Principle to a part in 1018 by comparing the free-fall acceleration of cylindrical shaped test masses [2] in Earth orbit. Magnetic bearings constrain the test mass motion to their axis of symmetry [3]. The displacement of the test masses is measured using a DC SQUID and superconducting coils [4], enabling a displacement sensitivity as small as 10-15 m. In combination with a small spring stiffness a differential acceleration sensitivity of 10-18 g is achievable. Residual satellite acceleration is reduced to better than 10-14 g by compensating satellite drag forces with thrust provided by helium gas. We report on recent progress in the development of STEP prototype flight accelerometers, in particular the development of the high precision quartz housing for the engineering inner accelerometer and the testing of SQUID and capacitive readout systems using 'brass board' accelerometer prototypes.

  18. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  19. Head-on Collisions of Xe Atoms Against Superfluid ^4 He Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppens, François; Leal, Antonio; Barranco, Manuel; Halberstadt, Nadine; Pi, Marti

    2016-11-01

    We study the head-on collision of a heliophilic xenon atom with a superfluid ^4 He droplet made of 1000 atoms. At variance with the findings for a heliophobic cesium atom of a similar atomic weight, it is found that the xenon atom has to hit the droplet with a large kinetic energy in order to get across it without being captured. When it is not captured, the xenon impurity does not emerge as a bare atom; instead, due to its heliophilic character it carries away some helium atoms.

  20. Head-on Collisions of Xe Atoms Against Superfluid (4) 4 He Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppens, François; Leal, Antonio; Barranco, Manuel; Halberstadt, Nadine; Pi, Marti

    2017-06-01

    We study the head-on collision of a heliophilic xenon atom with a superfluid ^4He droplet made of 1000 atoms. At variance with the findings for a heliophobic cesium atom of a similar atomic weight, it is found that the xenon atom has to hit the droplet with a large kinetic energy in order to get across it without being captured. When it is not captured, the xenon impurity does not emerge as a bare atom; instead, due to its heliophilic character it carries away some helium atoms.

  1. Structure, rotational dynamics, and superfluidity of small OCS-doped He clusters.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Saverio; Sarsa, Antonio; Fantoni, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E; Baroni, Stefano

    2003-04-11

    The structural and dynamical properties of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) molecules solvated in helium clusters are studied using reptation quantum Monte Carlo, for cluster sizes n=3-20 He atoms. Computer simulations allow us to establish a relation between the rotational spectrum of the solvated molecule and the structure of the He solvent, and of both with the onset of superfluidity. Our results agree with a recent spectroscopic study of this system and provide a more complex and detailed microscopic picture of this system than inferred from experiments.

  2. Experimental Studies of the Growth Kinetics of Methane Clathrate Hydrates & Superfluid Hydrodynamics on the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey David

    This thesis details the experimental findings of three distinct research projects. The first studies the growth kinetics of methane clathrate hydrates grown under the influence of multiple factors including surfactants, porous media, substrate wetting properties, and salt content. The second investigates the flow behaviors of superfluid helium through single, high aspect ratio nanopipes. The third models the frequency response of a quartz tuning fork in high pressure normal and superfluid helium and demonstrates how quartz tuning forks can be used as cheap, small, in situ, cryogenic pressure gauges. The first project reports studies of the kinetics of growth of methane hydrates from liquid water containing small amounts of surfactant (<500 ppm of sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). The kinetics are monitored using simultaneous measurements of the uptake of methane detected by a pressure drop in the gas phase, and either visual observations of the amount of liquid water and solid phase in the reaction vessel, or in situ micro-Raman measurements or in situ NMR measurements. These diagnostics show that the uptake of methane and the conversion of liquid water to a solid phase do not occur simultaneously; the uptake of gas always lags the visual and spectroscopic signatures of the disappearance of liquid water and the formation of solid. The evidence suggests that the SDS causes water to form an intermediate immobile solid-like state before combining with the methane to form hydrate. The growth mechanism is related to the surfactant and disappears for low SDS concentrations (<25 ppm). Also reported are studies of the growth rates of methane hydrates as a function of substrate wetting properties, driving force, and growth media. The second project studies pressure driven flow of superfluid helium through single high aspect ratio glass nanopipes into a vacuum has been studied for a wide range of pressure drop (0--30 atm), reservoir temperature (0.8--2.5K), pipe lengths (1-30mm

  3. Study of helium transfer technology for STICCR: Fluid management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D. J.; Yuan, S. W. K.; Grove, R. K.; Lheureux, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a long life cryogenically cooled space based telescope for infrared astronomy from 2 to 700 microns currently under study and planned for launch in the mid 90's. SIRTF will operate as a multi-user facility, initially carrying 3 instruments at the focal plane. It will be cooled to below 2 K by superfluid liquid helium to achieve radiometric sensitivity limited only by the statistical fluctuations in the natural infrared background radiation over most of its spectral range. The lifetime of the mission will be limited by the lifetime of the liquid helium supply, and is currently baselined to be 2 years. Candidates are reviewed for a liquid management device to be used in the resupply of liquid helium, and for the selection of an appropriate candidate.

  4. Inhomogeneous state of few-fermion superfluids.

    PubMed

    Bugnion, P O; Lofthouse, J A; Conduit, G J

    2013-07-26

    The few-fermion atomic gas is an ideal setting to explore inhomogeneous superfluid pairing analogous to the Larkin-Ovchinnikov state. Two up and one down-spin atom is the minimal configuration that displays an inhomogeneous pairing density, whereas imbalanced systems containing more fermions present a more complex pairing topology. With more than eight atoms trapped the system approaches the macroscopic superfluid limit. An oblate trap with a central barrier offers a direct experimental probe of pairing inhomogeneity.

  5. Spin superfluidity and coherent spin precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkov, Yuriy M.

    2009-04-01

    The spontaneous phase coherent precession of the magnetization in superfluid 3He-B was discovered experimentally in 1984 at the Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow by Borovik-Romanov, Bunkov, Dmitriev and Mukharsky and simultaneously explained theoretically by Fomin (Institut Landau, Moscow). Its formation is a direct manifestation of spin superfluidity. The latter is the magnetic counterpart of mass superfluidity and superconductivity. It is also an example of the Bose-Einstein condensation of spin-wave excitations (magnons). The coherent spin precession opened the way for investigations of spin supercurrent magnetization transport and other related phenomena, such as spin-current Josephson effect, process of phase slippage at a critical value of spin supercurrent, spin-current vortices, non-topological solitons (analogous to Q-balls in high energy physics) etc. New measuring techniques based on coherent spin precession made the investigation of mass counterflow and mass vortices possible owing to the spin-mass interaction. New phenomena were observed: mass-spin vortices, the Goldstone mode of the mass vortex with non-axisymmetric core, superfluid density anisotropy etc. Different types of coherent spin precession were later found in superfluid 3He-A and 3He-B confined in anisotropic aerogel, in the states with counterflow and in 3He with reduced magnetization. Finally, spin superfluidity investigations developed the basis for a modern investigation of electron spin supercurrent and spintronics.

  6. Temperature effects in pulsating superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, Elena M.; Gusakov, Mikhail E.

    2011-05-15

    We study the effects of finite stellar temperatures on the oscillations of superfluid neutron stars. The importance of these effects is illustrated with a simple example of a radially pulsating general relativistic star. Two main effects are taken into account: (i) temperature dependence of the entrainment matrix and (ii) the variation of the size of superfluid region with temperature. Four models are considered, which include either one or both of these two effects. Pulsation spectra are calculated for these models, and asymptotes for eigenfrequencies at temperatures close to critical temperature of neutron superfluidity are derived. It is demonstrated that models that allow for the temperature effect (ii) but disregard the effect (i), yield unrealistic results. Eigenfunctions for the normal- and superfluid-type pulsations are analyzed. It is shown that superfluid pulsation modes practically do not appear at the neutron-star surface and, therefore, can hardly be observed by measuring the modulation of the electromagnetic radiation from the star. The e-folding times for damping of pulsations due to the shear viscosity and nonequilibrium modified Urca processes are calculated and their asymptotes at temperatures close to the neutron critical temperature, are obtained. It is demonstrated that superfluid pulsation modes are damped by 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than normal modes.

  7. Andreev-Majorana bound states in superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Silaev, M. A. Volovik, G. E.

    2014-12-15

    We consider Andreev-Majorana (AM) bound states with zero energy on surfaces, interfaces, and vortices in different phases of the p-wave superfluids. We discuss the chiral superfluid {sup 3}He-A and time reversal invariant phases: superfluid {sup 3}He-B, planar and polar phases. The AM zero modes are determined by topology in the bulk and disappear at the quantum phase transition from the topological to nontopological state of the superfluid. The topology demonstrates the interplay of dimensions. In particular, the zero-dimensional Weyl points in chiral superfluids (the Berry phase monopoles in momentum space) give rise to the one-dimensional Fermi arc of AM bound states on the surface and to the one-dimensional flat band of AM modes in the vortex core. The one-dimensional nodal line in the polar phase produces a two-dimensional flat band of AM modes on the surface. The interplay of dimensions also connects the AM states in superfluids with different dimensions. For example, the topological properties of the spectrum of bound states in three-dimensional {sup 3}He-B are connected to the properties of the spectrum in the two-dimensional planar phase (thin film)

  8. Optimization of Helium Vessel Design for ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fratangelo, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    The ILC (International Linear Collider) is a proposed new major particle accelerator. It consists of two 20 km long linear accelerators colliding electrons and positrons at an energy exceeding 500 GeV, Achieving this collision energy while keeping reasonable accelerator dimensions requires the use of high electric field superconducting cavities as the main acceleration element. These cavities are operated at l.3 GHz inside an appropriate container (He vessel) at temperatures as low as 1.4 K using superfluid Helium as the refrigerating medium. The purpose of this thesis, in the context of the ILC R&D activities currently in progress at Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), is the mechanical study of an ILC superconducting cavity and Helium vessel prototype. The main goals of these studies are the determination of the limiting working conditions of the whole He vessel assembly, the simulation of the manufacturing process of the cavity end-caps and the assessment of the Helium vessel's efficiency. In addition this thesis studies the requirements to certify the compliance with the ASME Code of the whole cavity/vessel assembly. Several Finite Elements Analyses were performed by the candidate himself in order to perform the studies listed above and described in detail in Chapters 4 through 8. ln particular the candidate has developed an improved procedure to obtain more accurate results with lower computational times. These procedures will be accurately described in the following chapters. After an introduction that briefly describes the Fennilab and in particular the Technical Division (where all the activities concerning with this thesis were developed), the first part of this thesis (Chapters 2 and 3) explains some of the main aspects of modem particle accelerators. Moreover it describes the most important particle accelerators working at the moment and the basic features of the ILC project. Chapter 4 describes all the activities that were done to certify

  9. Motion of a helical vortex filament in superfluid 4He under the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2013-08-01

    Very recently, Shivamoggi ["Vortex motion in superfluid 4He: Reformulation in the extrinsic vortex-filament coordinate space," Phys. Rev. B 84, 012506 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.012506 studied the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a Kelvin wave on a vortex filament in superfluid 4He, and obtained some results in a cubic approximation. Presently, we study the motion of helical vortex filaments in superfluid 4He under the exact fully nonlinear LIA considered in potential form by Van Gorder ["Fully nonlinear local induction equation describing the motion of a vortex filament in superfluid 4He," J. Fluid Mech. 707, 585 (2012)], 10.1017/jfm.2012.308 and obtained from the Biot-Savart law through the equations of Hall and Vinen ["The rotation of liquid helium II. I. Experiments on the propagation of second sound in uniformly rotating helium II," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 204 (1956)], 10.1098/rspa.1956.0214 including superfluid friction terms. Nonlinear dispersion relations governing the helical Kelvin wave on such a vortex filament are derived in exact form, from which we may exactly calculate the phase and group velocity of the Kelvin wave. With this, we classify the motion of a helical Kelvin wave on a vortex filament under the LIA. The dispersion relations and results, which follow are exact in nature, in contrast to most results in the literature, which are usually numerical approximations. As such, our results accurately capture the qualitative behavior of the Kelvin waves under the LIA. Extensions to other frameworks are discussed.

  10. Superfluid Density and Phase Relaxation in Superconductors with Strong Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, G.; Benfatto, L.; Castellani, C.; Lorenzana, J.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the attractive Hubbard model with on-site disorder as a prototype of a disordered superconductor. We solve the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations on two-dimensional finite clusters at zero temperature and evaluate the electromagnetic response to a vector potential. We find that the standard decoupling between transverse and longitudinal response does not apply in the presence of disorder. Moreover, the superfluid density is strongly reduced by the relaxation of the phase of the order parameter already at mean-field level when disorder is large. We also find that the anharmonicity of the phase fluctuations is strongly enhanced by disorder. Beyond mean field, this provides an enhancement of quantum fluctuations inducing a zero-temperature transition to a nonsuperconducting phase of disordered preformed pairs. Finally, the connection of our findings with the glassy physics for extreme dirty superconductors is discussed.

  11. Atomically resolved phase transition of fullerene cations solvated in helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, M.; Renzler, M.; Postler, J.; Ralser, S.; Spieler, S.; Simpson, M.; Linnartz, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cami, J.; Mauracher, A.; Wang, Y.; Alcamí, M.; Martín, F.; Beyer, M. K.; Wester, R.; Lindinger, A.; Scheier, P.

    2016-11-01

    Helium has a unique phase diagram and below 25 bar it does not form a solid even at the lowest temperatures. Electrostriction leads to the formation of a solid layer of helium around charged impurities at much lower pressures in liquid and superfluid helium. These so-called `Atkins snowballs' have been investigated for several simple ions. Here we form HenC60+ complexes with n exceeding 100 via electron ionization of helium nanodroplets doped with C60. Photofragmentation of these complexes is measured by merging a tunable narrow-bandwidth laser beam with the ions. A switch from red- to blueshift of the absorption frequency of HenC60+ on addition of He atoms at n=32 is associated with a phase transition in the attached helium layer from solid to partly liquid (melting of the Atkins snowball). Elaborate molecular dynamics simulations using a realistic force field and including quantum effects support this interpretation.

  12. Atomically resolved phase transition of fullerene cations solvated in helium droplets

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, M.; Renzler, M.; Postler, J.; Ralser, S.; Spieler, S.; Simpson, M.; Linnartz, H; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cami, J.; Mauracher, A.; Wang, Y.; Alcamí, M.; Martín, F.; Beyer, M. K.; Wester, R.; Lindinger, A.; Scheier, P.

    2016-01-01

    Helium has a unique phase diagram and below 25 bar it does not form a solid even at the lowest temperatures. Electrostriction leads to the formation of a solid layer of helium around charged impurities at much lower pressures in liquid and superfluid helium. These so-called ‘Atkins snowballs' have been investigated for several simple ions. Here we form HenC60+ complexes with n exceeding 100 via electron ionization of helium nanodroplets doped with C60. Photofragmentation of these complexes is measured by merging a tunable narrow-bandwidth laser beam with the ions. A switch from red- to blueshift of the absorption frequency of HenC60+ on addition of He atoms at n=32 is associated with a phase transition in the attached helium layer from solid to partly liquid (melting of the Atkins snowball). Elaborate molecular dynamics simulations using a realistic force field and including quantum effects support this interpretation. PMID:27874002

  13. Ultrafast X-ray Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Pure and Doped Helium Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacellar, C.; Gomez, L.; Cryan, J.; Ferguson, K.; Schorb, S.; Tanyag, R.; Jones, C.; Kwok, J.; Seifrid, M.; Poon, B.; Malmerberg, E.; Sturm, F.; Siefermann, K.; Weise, F.; Marchesini, S.; Anielski, D.; Rudenko, A.; Epp, S.; Foucar, L.; Rolles, D.; Englert, L.; Huth, M.; Bostedt, C.; Vilesov, A.; Gessner, O.

    2013-05-01

    Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) experiments were performed on pure and doped helium droplets using femtosecond X-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source. The superfluid nature of helium droplets presents a rare opportunity to study the onset of macroscopic quantum phenomena in finite, sub-micron scale systems. Despite the small X-ray scattering cross sections of atomic helium, high-quality single-shot CDI data were obtained that give direct access to droplet size- and shape-distributions, which have only been determined indirectly in the past. The diffraction patterns from droplets doped with xenon atoms differ starkly from the patterns from pure droplets. Strong indications for the formation of complex xenon structures inside the superfluid helium environment are observed, giving access to information about the structure and aggregation dynamics of the dopant species. The reconstruction of real-space images from the diffraction patterns is ongoing. The results will provide new information on the dynamics of finite superfluid systems and of nanostructure formation in the extreme environment of a cryogenic nanomatrix. Work supported by DOE contract no. DEAC02-05CH11231.

  14. Superfluidity in the Core of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany

    2013-04-01

    The year (1958) after the publication of the BCS theory, Bohr, Mottelson & Pines showed that nuclei should also contain superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons. In 1959, A. Migdal proposed that neutron superfluidity should also occur in the interior of neutron stars. Pairing in nuclei forms Cooper pairs with zero spin, but the relevant component of the nuclear interaction becomes repulsive at densities larger than the nuclear matter density. It has been proposed that neutron-neutron interaction in the spin-triplet state, and L=1 orbital angular momentum, that is known to be attractive from laboratory experiments, may result in a new form of neutron superfluidity in the neutron star interior. I will review our present understanding of the structure of neutron stars and describe how superfluidity strongly affects their thermal evolution. I will show how a ``Minimal Model'' that excludes the presence of ``exotic'' matter (Bose condensates, quarks, etc.) is compatible with most observations of the surface temperatures of young isolated neutron stars in the case this neutron superfluid exists. Compared to the case of isotropic spin-zero Cooper pairs, the formation of anisotropic spin-one Cooper pairs results in a strong neutrino emission that leads to an enhanced cooling of neutron stars after the onset of the pairing phase transition and allows the Minimal Cooling scenario to be compatible with most observations. In the case the pairing critical temperature Tc is less than about 6 x10^8 K, the resulting rapid cooling of the neutron star may be observable. It was recently reported that 10 years of Chandra observations of the 333 year young neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant revealed that its temperature has dropped by about 5%. This result indicates that neutrons in this star are presently becoming superfluid and, if confirmed, provides us with the first direct observational evidence for neutron superfluidity at supra-nuclear densities.

  15. Neutron-induced helium implantation in GCFR cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Poeppel, R. B.; Sevy, R. H.

    1980-10-01

    The neutron-induced implantation of helium atoms on the exterior surfaces of the cladding of a prototypic gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) has been investigated analytically. A flux of recoil helium particles as high as 4.2 x 10/sup 10/ He/cm/sup 2/.s at the cladding surface has been calculated at the peak power location in the core of a 300-MWe GCFR. The calculated profile of the helium implantation rates indicates that although some helium is implanted as deep as 20 ..mu..m, more than 99% of helium particles are implanted in the first 2-..mu..m-deep layer below the cladding surface. Therefore, the implanted helium particles should mainly affect surface properties of the GCFR cladding.

  16. Development and testing of superfluid-cooled 900 MHz NMR magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hideo; Sato, Akio; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Fumiaki; Wada, Hitoshi; Ito, Satoshi; Miki, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Kawate, Yoshio; Fukui, Shigeo

    2001-09-01

    As the preliminary step for the 1 GHz NMR spectrometer, a 900 MHz class NMR magnet was fabricated and was successfully operated in December 1999. The magnet is made of 15% Sn-bronze-processed (Nb,Ti) 3Sn, Ta-reinforced (Nb,Ti) 3Sn, and NbTi conductors. All the coils are cooled with pressurized superfluid helium. The magnet generated a field of 21.20 T in a driven mode and then operated in a persistent mode at 21.17 T corresponding to a proton NMR frequency of 901.2 MHz. During the magnet excitation for 24 h, the superfluid bath temperature was kept constant to below 1.6 K using an automatic control system. After several excitation tests, the magnet was quenched and the rupture disk of the magnet vessel was broken. The size of the cold safety valve and the structure of the rupture disk have been checked and modified. Before the reassembly of the magnet cryostat, the modified superfluid cooler for cooling the magnet bath was tested.

  17. Analysis of motion of solid hydrogen tracer particles in oscillating superfluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemma, E.; Luzuriaga, J.; Babuin, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a relatively simple cryostat which allows us to image turbulent flows in superfluid helium at temperatures below 2 K, using frozen H2 particles. We analyze the statistics of the velocities of these solid tracers, which follow the turbulent flow generated by oscillating bodies. We have also studied one of the oscillators working in air at room temperature, and traced the flow with solid talcum particles for comparison. Images were recorded by a digital camera at 240 frames per second, while frequencies of the oscillators are between 20 to 45 Hz. The flow is characterized by a modified Reynolds number Reδ based on the viscous penetration depth δ. Software in a dedicated particle tracking velocimetry code allows us to compute the trajectories and velocities of tens of thousands of particles. We have obtained the number of particles for equally spaced intervals of the velocity modulus. For the oscillators in the superfluid, the probability of finding particles at higher velocities has an exponential decay. Within our resolution the statistics in the superfluid for oscillating objects with sharp borders is largely independent of Reδ, while the logarithmic decay at low velocities seems faster than for high velocities for rounded objects. On the other hand, for data taken in air the result is closer to a classical Gaussian distribution of velocities.

  18. Hydrodynamic Lagrangian of relativistic superfluids with crystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletminskii, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    We propose a relativistic Lagrangian formulation of macroscopic dynamics of superfluid systems. The constructed Lagrangian provides the description of ordinary superfluids and superfluids with a crystalline ordering, where both phase and translational symmetries are simultaneously broken (e.g., supersolids or crystalline superfluids in neutron stars). The covariant conservation laws and equations of motion for the field variables associated with the broken symmetries are obtained. The connection to Khalatnikov-Lebedev relativistic hydrodynamic theory is discussed.

  19. (abstract) Production and Levitation of Free Drops of Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, C. G.; Petrac, D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in the nucleation and behavior of quantized vorticies and surface excitations in free drops of superfluid helium. We have constructed an apparatus to maintain liquid helium drops isolated from any material container in the Earth's gravitational field, and have investigated two techniques for generating and introducing liquid drops into the region of confinement. The levitation apparatus utilizes the electrostatic force acting upon a charged liquid drop to counteract the gravitational force, with drop position stability provided by a static magnetic field acting upon the helium diamagnetic moment. Electrically neutral superfluid drops have been produced with a miniature thermomechanical pump; for a given configuration the liquid initial velocity has been varied up to several centimeters per second. Liquid drops carrying either net positive or negative charge are produced by an electrode which generates a flow of ionized liquid from the bulk liquid surface. Potentials of less than one thousand volts to several thousand volts are required. The mass flow is controlled by varying duration of the ionizing voltage pulse; drops as small as 30 micrometers diameter, charged to near the Rayleigh limit, have been observed.

  20. Dynamical properties of superfluid turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenson, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    Despite all the experimental work done in recent years to study superfluid turbulence, the understanding of the dynamical properties of this system is still poor. The author designed a new cryogenic probe to perform a series of experiments to study the dynamical response of the vortex line density in turbulent thermal counterflow. The apparatus uses a small glass flow tube to probe the fluctuations in the line density around the two turbulent states (TI, TII) present in this system. A chemical potential gradiometer is used that measures the chemical potential across the flow tube. This quantity is directly related to the vortex line density. The gradiometer also enabled both the steady state and the dynamical properties of the turbulence to be studied. These experiments have established the existence of fluctuations in the chemical potential in turbulent counterflow. For the first time fluctuations in the dissipation were observed in the TI/TII transition region. The fluctuations are characteristic of broad-band noise showing no evidence of fluctuations at preferred frequency. The TI/TII transition is characterized by a sharp increase in the noise power amplitude and its variation with heat current reveals a complex structure.

  1. Superfluid plasmas: Multivelocity nonlinear hydrodynamics of superfluid solutions with charged condensates coupled electromagnetically

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, B.A.

    1987-10-15

    Four levels of nonlinear hydrodynamic description are presented for a nondissipative multicondensate solution of superfluids with vorticity. First, the multivelocity superfluid (MVSF) theory is extended to the case of a multivelocity superfluid plasma (MVSP), in which some of the superfluid condensates (protons, say) are charged and coupled electromagnetically to an additional, normal, charged fluid (electrons). The resulting drag-current density is derived due to the electromagnetic coupling of the condensates with the normal fluids. For the case of one charged condensate, the MVSP equations simplify to what we call superfluid Hall magnetohydrodynamics (SHMHD) in the approximation that displacement current and electron inertia are negligible, and local charge neutrality is imposed. The contribution of the charged condensate to the Hall drift force is determined. In turn, neglecting the Hall effect in SHMHD gives the equations of superfluid magnetohydrodynamics (SMHD). Each set of equations (MVSF, MVSP, SHMHD, and SMHD) is shown to be Hamiltonian and to possess a Poisson bracket associated with the dual space of a corresponding semidirect-product Lie algebra with a generalized two-cocycle defined on it. Topological conservation laws (helicities) associated with the kernels of these Lie algebras are also discussed as well as those associated physically with generalized Kelvin theorems for conservation of superfluid circulation around closed loops moving with the normal fluid.

  2. Supersolidity of helium-4: Disordered scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svistunov, Boris

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon of supersolidity in helium, a non-dissipative transport of 4He-atoms through 4He-crystals, is an amazing achievement in the low-temperature physics. A microscopic interpretation of the phenomenon of non-classical rotational inertia originally discovered by Kim and Chan remains highly controversial. The only direct observation of a superflow through solid 4He is the one reported recently by Ray and Hallock. First-principle simulations by Amherst-ETH-Alberta-CUNY collaboration, while unquestionably showing that a perfect hcp 4He crystal is not a supersolid, reveal disordered mechanisms of supersolidity: superfluid dislocations, grain boundaries, and ridges. Also possible is a metastable amorphous supersolid, the so-called superglass.

  3. Copper dimer interactions on a thermomechanical superfluid {sup 4}He fountain

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi

    2015-05-28

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging and frequency domain excitation spectroscopy of the copper dimer (B{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}←X{sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}) in thermomechanical helium fountain at 1.7 K are demonstrated. The dimers penetrate into the fountain provided that their average propagation velocity is ca. 15 m/s. This energy threshold is interpreted in terms of an imperfect fountain liquid-gas interface, which acts as a trap for low velocity dimers. Orsay-Trento density functional theory calculations for superfluid {sup 4}He are used to characterize the dynamics of the dimer solvation process into the fountain. The dimers first accelerate towards the fountain surface and once the surface layer is crossed, they penetrate into the liquid and further slow down to Landau critical velocity by creating a vortex ring. Theoretical lineshape calculations support the assignment of the experimentally observed bands to Cu{sub 2} solvated in the bulk liquid. The vibronic progressions are decomposed of a zero-phonon line and two types of phonon bands, which correlate with solvent cavity interface compression (t < 200 fs) and expansion (200 < t < 500 fs) driven by the electronic excitation. The presented experimental method allows to perform molecular spectroscopy in bulk superfluid helium where the temperature and pressure can be varied.

  4. Research and development of a helium-4 based solar neutrino detector. Progress report, November 1, 1991--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Superfluid helium possesses unique properties that enable it to be used as the major component of a very sensitive calorimetric detector: it is extremely pure, and the energy deposited in it is carried out by elementary excitations of the liquid which can produce quantum evaporation of He atoms at a free surface. It has a major advantage of being able to achieve very low background levels. Experimental results presented on the development of helium-4 detector include sensitivity, heat capacity of wafer-calorimeters, coincidence measurements, spectrum of alpha particles in helium, and quantum evaporation: angular dependence and efficiency. 29 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Quenched bond randomness: Superfluidity in porous media and the strong violation of universality

    SciTech Connect

    Falicov, A.; Berker, A.N.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of quenched bond randomness are most readily studied with superfluidity immersed in a porous medium. A lattice model for {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixtures and incomplete {sup 4}He fillings in aerogel yields the signature effect of bond randomness, namely the conversion of symmetry-breaking first-order phase transitions into second-order phase transitions, the A-line reaching zero temperature, and the elimination of non-symmetry-breaking first-order phase transitions. The model recognizes the importance of the connected nature of aerogel randomness and thereby yields superfluidity at very low {sup 4}He concentrations, a phase separation entirely within the superfluid phase, and the order-parameter contrast between mixtures and incomplete fillings, all in agreement with experiments. The special properties of the helium mixture/aerogel system are distinctly linked to the aerogel properties of connectivity, randomness, and tenuousness, via the additional study of a regularized {open_quote}jungle-gym{close_quotes} aerogel. Renormalization-group calculations indicate that a strong violation of the empirical universality principle of critical phenomena occurs under quenched bond randomness. It is argued that helium/aerogel critical properties reflect this violation and further experiments are suggested. Renormalization-group analysis also shows that, adjoiningly to the strong universality violation (which hinges on the occurrence or non-occurrence of asymptotic strong coupling-strong randomness under resealing), there is a new {open_quotes}hyperuniversality{close_quotes} at phase transitions with asymptotic strong coupling-strong randomness behavior, for example assigning the same critical exponents to random-bond tricriticality and random-field criticality.

  6. Quenched bond randomness: Superfluidity in porous media and the strong violation of universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falicov, Alexis; Berker, A. Nihat

    1997-04-01

    The effects of quenched bond randomness are most readily studied with superfluidity immersed in a porous medium. A lattice model for3He-4He mixtures and incomplete4He fillings in aerogel yields the signature effect of bond randomness, namely the conversion of symmetry-breaking first-order phase transitions into second-order phase transitions, the λ-line reaching zero temperature, and the elimination of non-symmetry-breaking first-order phase transitions. The model recognizes the importance of the connected nature of aerogel randomness and thereby yields superfluidity at very low4He concentrations, a phase separation entirely within the superfluid phase, and the order-parameter contrast between mixtures and incomplete fillings, all in agreement with experiments. The special properties of the helium mixture/aerogel system are distinctly linked to the aerogel properties of connectivity, randomness, and tenuousness, via the additional study of a regularized “jungle-gym” aerogel. Renormalization-group calculations indicate that a strong violation of the empirical universality principle of critical phenomena occurs under quenched bond randomness. It is argued that helium/aerogel critical properties reflect this violation and further experiments are suggested. Renormalization-group analysis also shows that, adjoiningly to the strong universality violation (which hinges on the occurrence or non-occurrence of asymptotic strong coupling—strong randomness under rescaling), there is a new “hyperuniversality” at phase transitions with asymptotic strong coupling—strong randomness behavior, for example assigning the same critical exponents to random- bond tricriticality and random- field criticality.

  7. Flight model performance test results of a helium dewar for the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Kanao, Ken'ichi; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Hoshika, Shunji; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Yoichi; DiPirro, Mike; Shirron, Peter

    2016-03-01

    ASTRO-H is a Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite, scheduled to be launched in fiscal year 2015. The mission includes a soft X-ray spectrometer instrument (SXS), which contains an X-ray micro calorimeter operating at 50 mK by using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The heat sink of the ADR is superfluid liquid helium below 1.3 K. The required lifetime of the superfluid helium is 3 years or more. In order to realize this lifetime, we have improved the thermal performance from the engineering model (EM) while maintaining the mechanical performance. Then, we have performed a thermal test of the flight model (FM). The results were that the heat load to the helium tank was reduced to below 0.8 mW in the FM from 1.2 mW in the EM. Therefore, the lifetime of the superfluid helium is more than 3 years with 30 L of liquid helium. In this paper, the thermal design and thermal test results are described.

  8. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Tolos, Laura; Manuel, Cristina; Sarkar, Sreemoyee; Tarrus, Jaume

    2016-01-22

    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  9. Note on zero temperature holographic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Minyong; Lan, Shanquan; Niu, Chao; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2016-06-01

    In this note, we have addressed various issues on zero temperature holographic superfluids. First, inspired by our numerical evidence for the equality between the superfluid density and particle density, we provide an elegant analytic proof for this equality by a boost trick. Second, using not only the frequency domain analysis but also the time domain analysis from numerical relativity, we identify the hydrodynamic normal modes and calculate out the sound speed, which is shown to increase with the chemical potential and saturate to the value predicted by the conformal field theory in the large chemical potential limit. Third, the generic non-thermalization is demonstrated by the fully nonlinear time evolution from a non-equilibrium state for our zero temperature holographic superfluid. Furthermore, a conserved Noether charge is proposed in support of this behavior.

  10. Holographic thermal relaxation in superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yiqiang; Niu, Chao; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2015-12-01

    Holographic duality provides a first-principles approach to investigate real time processes in quantum many-body systems, in particular at finite temperature and far-from-equilibrium. We use this approach to study the dynamical evolution of vortex number in a two-dimensional (2D) turbulent superfluid through numerically solving its gravity dual. We find that the temporal evolution of the vortex number can be well fit statistically by two-body decay due to the vortex pair annihilation featured relaxation process, thus confirm the previous suspicion based on the experimental data for turbulent superfluid in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates. Furthermore, the decay rate near the critical temperature is in good agreement with the recently developed effective theory of 2D superfluid turbulence.

  11. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  12. Superfluid light in bulk nonlinear media

    PubMed Central

    Carusotto, Iacopo

    2014-01-01

    We review how the paraxial approximation naturally leads to a hydrodynamic description of light propagation in a bulk Kerr nonlinear medium in terms of a wave equation analogous to the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for the order parameter of a superfluid. The main features of the many-body collective dynamics of the fluid of light in this propagating geometry are discussed: generation and observation of Bogoliubov sound waves in the fluid of light is first described. Experimentally accessible manifestations of superfluidity are then highlighted. Perspectives in view of realizing analogue models of gravity are finally given. PMID:25197252

  13. Superfluid-like turbulence in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    A network of vortices in a superfluid system exhibits turbulent behavior. It is argued that the universe may have experienced such a phase of superfluid-like turbulence due to the existence of a coherent state with non-topological charge and a network of global strings. The unique feature of a distribution of turbulent domains is that it can yield non-gravitationally induced large-scale coherent velocities. It may be difficult, however, to relate these velocities to the observed large-scale bulk motion.

  14. Dark solitons in a superfluid Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Antezza, Mauro; Dalfovo, Franco; Stringari, Sandro; Pitaevskii, Lev P.

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the behavior of dark solitons in a superfluid Fermi gas along the BCS-BEC crossover by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and looking for real and odd solutions for the order parameter. We show that in the resonance unitary region, where the scattering length is large, the density profile of the soliton has a deep minimum, differently from what happens in the BCS regime. The superfluid gap is found to be significantly quenched by the presence of the soliton due to the occurrence of Andreev fermionic bound states localized near the nodal plane of the order parameter.

  15. Quantum Gravity as Theory of ``Superfluidity''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbashov, B. M.; Pervushin, V. N.; Zakharov, A. F.; Zinchuk, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    A version of the cosmological perturbation theory in general relativity (GR) is developed, where the cosmological scale factor is identified with spatial averaging of the metric determinant logarithm and the cosmic evolution acquires the pattern of a superfluid motion: the absence of ``friction-type'' interaction, the London-type wave function, and the Bogoliubov condensation of quantum universes. This identification keeps the number of variables of GR and leads to a new type of potential perturbations. A set of arguments is given in favor of that this ``superfluid'' version of GR is in agreement with the observational data.

  16. Novel boron-10-based detectors for neutron scattering science. Helium-3-free detectors for large- and small-area applications: The Multi-Grid and the Multi-Blade prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscitelli, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays neutron scattering science is increasing its instrumental power. Most of the neutron sources in the world are pushing the development of their technologies to be more performing. The neutron scattering development is also pushed by the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Sweden, a neutron facility which has just started construction. Concerning small-area detectors (˜ 1 m2), the 3He technology, which is today cutting edge, is reaching fundamental limits in its development. Counting rate capability, spatial resolution and cost effectiveness, are only a few examples of the features that must be improved to fulfill the new requirements. On the other hand, 3He technology could still satisfy the detector requirements for large-area applications (˜50 m2), however, because of the present 3He shortage that the world is experiencing, this is not practical anymore. The recent detector advances (the Multi-Grid and the Multi-Blade prototypes) developed in the framework of the collaboration between the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) and ESS are presented in this paper. In particular two novel 10B-based detectors are described; one for large-area applications (the Multi-Grid prototype) and one for application in neutron reflectometry (small-area applications, the Multi-Blade prototype).

  17. How superfluid vortex knots untie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Kauffman, Louis H.; Irvine, William T. M.

    2016-07-01

    Knots and links often occur in physical systems, including shaken strands of rope and DNA (ref. ), as well as the more subtle structure of vortices in fluids and magnetic fields in plasmas. Theories of fluid flows without dissipation predict these tangled structures persist, constraining the evolution of the flow much like a knot tied in a shoelace. This constraint gives rise to a conserved quantity known as helicity, offering both fundamental insights and enticing possibilities for controlling complex flows. However, even small amounts of dissipation allow knots to untie by means of `cut-and-splice’ operations known as reconnections. Despite the potentially fundamental role of these reconnections in understanding helicity--and the stability of knotted fields more generally--their effect is known only for a handful of simple knots. Here we study the evolution of 322 elemental knots and links in the Gross-Pitaevskii model for a superfluid, and find that they universally untie. We observe that the centreline helicity is partially preserved even as the knots untie, a remnant of the perfect helicity conservation predicted for idealized fluids. Moreover, we find that the topological pathways of untying knots have simple descriptions in terms of minimal two-dimensional knot diagrams, and tend to concentrate in states which are twisted in only one direction. These results have direct analogies to previous studies of simple knots in several systems, including DNA recombination and classical fluids. This similarity in the geometric and topological evolution suggests there are universal aspects in the behaviour of knots in dissipative fields.

  18. Rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shijun; Eriguchi, Yoshiharu

    2004-01-01

    We develop a formulation for constructing and examining rapidly rotating Newtonian neutron star models that contain two superfluids, taking account of the effect of the rotation velocity difference between two superfluids. We assume neutron stars to be composed of the superfluid neutrons and a mixture of the superfluid protons and the normal fluid electrons. To describe Newtonian dynamics of the two superfluids, the Newtonian version of the so-called two-fluid formalism is employed. The effect of the rotation velocity difference on the structure of equilibrium state is treated as a small perturbation to rapidly rotating superfluid stars whose angular velocities of two superfluids are assumed to be exactly the same. We derive basic equations for the perturbed structures of rapidly rotating superfluid stars due to the rotation velocity difference between two superfluids. Assuming the superfluids to obey a simple analytical equation of state proposed by Prix, Comer and Andersson, we obtain numerical solutions for the perturbations and find that the density distributions of the superfluids are strongly dependent on the parameter σ, which appears in the analytical equation of state and characterizes the so-called symmetry energy. It is also found that if the analytical equation of state of Prix et al. is assumed, the perturbations can be represented in terms of the universal functions that are independent of the parameters of the equation of state.

  19. Squeezing Superfluid from a Stone: Coupling Superfluidity and Elasticity in a Supersolid

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, Alan T.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Toner, John

    2006-02-10

    Starting from the assumption that the normal solid to supersolid (NS-SS) phase transition is continuous, we develop a phenomenological Landau theory of the transition in which superfluidity is coupled to the elasticity of the crystalline {sup 4}He lattice. We find that the elasticity does not affect the universal properties of the superfluid transition, so that in an unstressed crystal the well-known {lambda} anomaly in the heat capacity of the superfluid transition should also appear at the NS-SS transition. We also find that the onset of supersolidity leads to anomalies in the elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients near the transition and, conversely, that inhomogeneous lattice strains can induce local variations of the superfluid transition temperature, leading to a broadened transition.

  20. Electric breakdown and ionization detection in normal liquid and superfluid 4He for the SNA nEDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcz, Maciej

    Helium throughout the pressure-temperature phase space, between 1 bar and the saturation curve and between 4.2 K and 1.7 K. A new breakdown hysteresis in liquid helium was discovered and is attributed to the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation sites inside the liquid. A phenomenological model involving the Townsend breakdown mechanism and Paschen's Law in liquid helium is proposed. In addition, the many challenges faced by efficient scintillation detection in the cryogenic environment of the nEDM experiment motivated additional studies at CEEM. To test the effect of an electric field on scintillation in superfluid, a SF test cell was constructed inside a dilution refrigerator and it was found that the scintil- lation intensity from a 241Am source in the cell, is reduced at high electric fields. Alternatives to scintillation detection for the nEDM experiment were also explored and the test cell was reconfigured to operate as a superfluid ionization chamber. The superfluid ionization chamber was tested with 241Am in pulse mode and current mode configurations. While the pulse mode in superfluid, which relies on the drift velocity of charges, is hindered by quasi-particle excitations in superfluid, results of current mode measurements appear promising. To further explore the prospect of cryogenic ionization detection, a detector cryo-stat capable of detecting neutrons using a 10B converter was also constructed at CEEM and tested at the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS). The neutron detector cryostat has the benefit of being able to modulate the ioniza- tion source which was not possible with the superfluid ionization chamber. Tests with argon gas led to the development of more efficient boron targets. The cryogenic test of ionization detection in current mode will be discussed.

  1. Excitations of Superfluid He4 Beyond the Roton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, Asaad; Glyde, Henry

    2001-03-01

    Excitations of Superfluid ^4He Beyond the Roton. A. R. SAKHEL and H. R. GLYDE, University of Delaware - We present a Quantum Field Theoretical Model that reproduces the basic features of the temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) as observed in the inelastic-neutron scattering results at IRIS, (J.V. Pierce, R.T. Azuah, B.Fåk, A.R. Sakhel, H.R. Glyde, and W.G. Stirling, to be published.) UK. The range of the wavevector Q beyond the roton (Q > 2.0Åis considered. The model is able to simulate the decay of the excitations into two rotons when the excitation energy exceeds 2Δ, where Δ is the roton energy. The model is based on the formulation of S(Q,ω) of Gavoret and Nozières.(J. Gavoret and Nozières, Ann. Phys.), 28, 349-399 (1964). The component of dynamic susceptibility involving the condensate is modelled by an equation of the form: \\chis = n n_0(T) Λ G Λ where Λ is a vertex, G the renormalized single particle Green's function, n the density of ^4He at SVP and n_0(T) the condensate fraction as a function of temperature. The dynamic susceptibility involving states above the condensate is modelled by a damped harmonic oscillator function.(H. R. Glyde, Excitation in Liquid and Solid Helium), Oxford, Clarendron Press (1994).

  2. Soft or hard ionization of molecules in helium nanodroplets? An electron impact investigation of alcohols and ethers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengfu; Brereton, Scott M; Wheeler, Martyn D; Ellis, Andrew M

    2005-12-21

    Electron impact (70 eV) mass spectra of a series of C1-C6 alcohols encased in large superfluid liquid helium nanodroplets (approximately 60,000 helium atoms) have been recorded. The presence of helium alters the fragmentation patterns when compared with the gas phase, with some ion product channels being more strongly affected than others, most notably cleavage of the C(alpha)-H bond in the parent ion to form the corresponding oxonium ion. Parent ion intensities are also enhanced by the helium, but only for the two cyclic alcohols studied, cyclopentanol and cyclohexanol, is this effect large enough to transform the parent ion from a minor product (in the gas phase) into the most abundant ion in the helium droplet experiments. To demonstrate that these findings are not unique to alcohols, we have also investigated several ethers. The results obtained for both alcohols and ethers are difficult to explain solely by rapid cooling of the excited parent ions by the surrounding superfluid helium, although this undoubtedly takes place. A second factor also seems to be involved, a cage effect which favors hydrogen atom loss over other fragmentation channels. The set of molecules explored in this work suggest that electron impact ionization of doped helium nanodroplets does not provide a sufficiently large softening effect to be useful in analytical mass spectrometry.

  3. Quantum Halo States in Helium Tetramers.

    PubMed

    Stipanović, Petar; Vranješ Markić, Leandra; Boronat, Jordi

    2017-01-12

    The universality of quantum halo states enables a comparison of systems from different fields of physics, as demonstrated in two- and three-body clusters. In the present work, we studied weakly bound helium tetramers in order to test whether some of these four-body realistic systems qualify as halos. Their ground-state binding energies and structural properties were thoroughly estimated using the diffusion Monte Carlo method with pure estimators. Helium tetramer properties proved to be less sensitive on the potential model than previously evaluated trimer properties. We predict the existence of realistic four-body halo (4)He2(3)He2, whereas (4)He4 and (4)He3(3)He are close to the border and thus can be used as prototypes of quasi-halo systems. Our results could be tested by the experimental determination of the tetramers' structural properties using a setup similar to the one developed for the study of helium trimers.

  4. Greenbrier Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-18

    This case study describes a prototype home that is the model home for the Homes at Greenbrier in Oakdale, Connecticut, and demonstrates the builder's concept of “attainable sustainable” of offering high performance homes at mid-market prices.

  5. Formation of K*He Exciplexes on the Surface of Helium Nanodroplets Studied in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C. P.; Claas, P.; Stienkemeier, F.

    2001-10-01

    Superfluid helium nanodroplets are doped with potassium atoms to form complexes with the alkali atom residing on the surface of the droplets. Dispersed laser-induced fluorescence spectra of such systems already revealed the formation of M*He ( M = Na,K) exciplexes upon electronic excitation [Reho et al., Faraday Discuss. 108, 161 (1997)]. By means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, this formation process now is followed in real time. We find K*Hen = 1 to be formed within 180 fs. Furthermore, the existence of exciplexes with n>1 is quantified suggesting that the first ring around the potassium atom contains four helium atoms.

  6. Formation of K*He exciplexes on the surface of helium nanodroplets studied in real time.

    PubMed

    Schulz, C P; Claas, P; Stienkemeier, F

    2001-10-08

    Superfluid helium nanodroplets are doped with potassium atoms to form complexes with the alkali atom residing on the surface of the droplets. Dispersed laser-induced fluorescence spectra of such systems already revealed the formation of M(*)He ( M = Na,K) exciplexes upon electronic excitation [Reho et al., Faraday Discuss. 108, 161 (1997)]. By means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, this formation process now is followed in real time. We find K(*)He(n = 1) to be formed within 180 fs. Furthermore, the existence of exciplexes with n>1 is quantified suggesting that the first ring around the potassium atom contains four helium atoms.

  7. CW ESR studies of impurity-helium condensates containing krypton and hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, J.; Bernard, E. P.; Boltnev, R. E.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2009-02-01

    Impurity-Helium condensates (IHCs) containing krypton and hydrogen atoms have been studied in superfluid helium-4 via CW ESR techniques. The IHCs studied in this work are gel-like aggregates of nanoclusters composed of krypton and hydrogen atoms. We have found that such samples contain very high average concentrations of hydrogen atoms (~1018cm-3) as obtained by integration of the microwave absorption signal. Local concentrations (~1019cm-3) of H atoms were calculated from the ESR line width. Detailed studies of the ESR line shapes lead to the conclusion that a large fraction of the H atoms lies on the krypton cluster surfaces.

  8. Self-trapping of electrons in vortex rings in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrapak, A. G.; Bronin, S. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    A model according to which "fast" and "exotic" negative ions in superfluid helium are the localized states of electrons in vortex rings has been presented. The quantization of radial and longitudinal motions of electrons inside the vortex core and the quantization of the vortex motion of liquid helium lead to the existence of a whole family of excited states of electron vortices, in qualitative agreement with the experiments on the mobility of exotic ions. The possibility of the verification of conclusions of the model in optical experiments has been considered.

  9. Measurements with a recuperative superfluid Stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.; Swift, G.W.; Brisson, J.G.

    1995-08-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator cooled to 168 mK using a 4.9% {sup 3}He- {sup 4}He mixture and exhausting its waste heat at 383 mK. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for 4.9%, 17%, and 36% mixtures. At the highest concentration, a dissipation mechanism of unknown origin is observed.

  10. Superfluid 3He—the Early Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. M.; Leggett, A. J.

    2011-08-01

    A history is given of liquid 3He research from the time when 3He first became available following World War II through 1972 when the discovery of the superfluid phases was made. The Fermi liquid nature was established early on, and the Landau Fermi liquid theory provided a framework for understanding the interactions between the Fermions (quasiparticles). The theory's main triumph was to predict zero sound, which was soon discovered experimentally. Experimental techniques are treated, including adiabatic demagnetization, dilution refrigerator technology, and Pomeranchuk cooling. A description of the superfluid 3He discovery experiments using the latter two of these techniques is given. While existing theories provided a basis for understanding the newly discovered superfluid phases in terms of ℓ>0 Cooper pairs, the unexpected stability of the A phase in the high- P, high- T region of the phase diagram needed for its explanation a creative leap beyond the BCS paradigm. The use of sum rules to interpret some of the unusual magnetic resonance in liquid 3He is discussed. Eventually a complete theory of the spin dynamics of superfluid 3He was developed, which predicted many of the exciting phenomena subsequently discovered.

  11. Dissipation in relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakov, M. E.; Kantor, E. M.; Chugunov, A. I.; Gualtieri, L.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse damping of oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. To this aim we extend the method of decoupling of superfluid and normal oscillation modes first suggested in Gusakov & Kantor. All calculations are made self-consistently within the finite temperature superfluid hydrodynamics. The general analytic formulas are derived for damping times due to the shear and bulk viscosities. These formulas describe both normal and superfluid neutron stars and are valid for oscillation modes of arbitrary multipolarity. We show that (i) use of the ordinary one-fluid hydrodynamics is a good approximation, for most of the stellar temperatures, if one is interested in calculation of the damping times of normal f modes, (ii) for radial and p modes such an approximation is poor and (iii) the temperature dependence of damping times undergoes a set of rapid changes associated with resonance coupling of neighbouring oscillation modes. The latter effect can substantially accelerate viscous damping of normal modes in certain stages of neutron-star thermal evolution.

  12. Excitations in Topological Superfluids and Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao

    In this thesis I present the theoretical work on Fermionic surface states, and %the bulk Bosonic collective excitations in topological superfluids and superconductors. Broken symmetries %Bulk-edge correspondence in topological condensed matter systems have implications for the spectrum of Fermionic excitations confined on surfaces or topological defects. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Nonlocal Magnetoresistance Mediated by Spin Superfluidity.

    PubMed

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2015-10-09

    The electrical response of two diffusive metals is studied when they are linked by a magnetic insulator hosting a topologically stable (superfluid) spin current. We discuss how charge currents in the metals induce a spin supercurrent state, which in turn generates a magnetoresistance that depends on the topology of the electrical circuit. This magnetoresistance relies on phase coherence over the entire magnet and gives direct evidence for spin superfluidity. We show that driving the magnet with an ac current allows coherent spin transport even in the presence of U(1)-breaking magnetic anisotropy that can preclude dc superfluid transport. Spin transmission in the ac regime shows a series of resonance peaks as a function of frequency. The peak locations, heights, and widths can be used to extract static interfacial properties, e.g., the spin-mixing conductance and effective spin Hall angle, and to probe dynamic properties such as the spin-wave dispersion. Thus, ac transport may provide a simpler route to realizing nonequilbrium coherent spin transport and a useful way to characterize the magnetic system, serving as a precursor to the realization of dc superfluid spin transport.

  14. Internal Magnus effects in superfluid 3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmelin, R. H.; Salomaa, M. M.; Mineev, V. P.

    1989-08-01

    Orbital angular momentum of the coherently aligned Cooper pairs in superfluid 3A is encountered by an object immersed in the condensate. We evaluate the associated quasiparticle-scattering asymmetry experienced by a negative ion; this leads to a measureable, purely quantum-mechanical reactive force deflecting the ion's trajectory. Possible hydrodynamic Magnus effects are also discussed.

  15. Magnus force in superfluids and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonin, E. B.

    1997-01-01

    The forces on the vortex, transverse to its velocity, are considered. In addition to the superfluid Magnus force from the condensate (superfluid component), there are transverse forces from thermal quasiparticles and external fields violating the Galilean invariance. The forces between quasiparticles and the vortex originate from interference of quasiparticles with trajectories on the left and on the right from the vortex like similar forces for electrons interacting with the thin magnetic-flux tube (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). These forces are derived for phonons from the equations of superfluid hydrodynamics, and for BCS quasiparticles from the Bogolyubov-de Gennes equations. The effect of external fields breaking Galilean invariance is analyzed for vortices in the two-dimensional Josephson junction array. The symmetry analysis of the classical equations for the array shows that the total transverse force on the vortex vanishes. Therefore the Hall effect which is linear in the transverse force is absent also. This means that the Magnus force from the superfluid component exactly cancels with the transverse force from the external fields. The results of other approaches are also brought together for discussion.

  16. Magnus force in superfluids and superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B. |

    1997-01-01

    The forces on the vortex, transverse to its velocity, are considered. In addition to the superfluid Magnus force from the condensate (superfluid component), there are transverse forces from thermal quasiparticles and external fields violating the Galilean invariance. The forces between quasiparticles and the vortex originate from interference of quasiparticles with trajectories on the left and on the right from the vortex like similar forces for electrons interacting with the thin magnetic-flux tube (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). These forces are derived for phonons from the equations of superfluid hydrodynamics, and for BCS quasiparticles from the Bogolyubov{endash}de Gennes equations. The effect of external fields breaking Galilean invariance is analyzed for vortices in the two-dimensional Josephson junction array. The symmetry analysis of the classical equations for the array shows that the total transverse force on the vortex vanishes. Therefore the Hall effect which is linear in the transverse force is absent also. This means that the Magnus force from the superfluid component {ital exactly} cancels with the transverse force from the external fields. The results of other approaches are also brought together for discussion. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Superfluidity and Chaos in low dimensional circuits

    PubMed Central

    Arwas, Geva; Vardi, Amichay; Cohen, Doron

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of superfluidity is the appearance of “vortex states” carrying a quantized metastable circulating current. Considering a unidirectional flow of particles in a ring, at first it appears that any amount of scattering will randomize the velocity, as in the Drude model, and eventually the ergodic steady state will be characterized by a vanishingly small fluctuating current. However, Landau and followers have shown that this is not always the case. If elementary excitations (e.g. phonons) have higher velocity than that of the flow, simple kinematic considerations imply metastability of the vortex state: the energy of the motion cannot dissipate into phonons. On the other hand if this Landau criterion is violated the circulating current can decay. Below we show that the standard Landau and Bogoliubov superfluidity criteria fail in low-dimensional circuits. Proper determination of the superfluidity regime-diagram must account for the crucial role of chaos, an ingredient missing from the conventional stability analysis. Accordingly, we find novel types of superfluidity, associated with irregular or chaotic or breathing vortex states. PMID:26315272

  18. Frequency dependence of sound propagation in superfluid-filled porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Kevin; Beamish, J. R.

    1994-12-01

    We have studied the acoustics of fluid-filled porous media by measuring the velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic (4 to 31 MHz) shear waves in several different ceramic materials. We used liquid helium as the pore fluid and made measurements down to low temperatures where the helium was superfluid. This allowed us to completely eliminate the effects of viscosity and thus to unambiguously determine the velocity changes and attenuation due to the Biot mechanism (fluid ``sloshing'' in the pores). By using ceramics with different pore sizes and a corresponding wide range of permeabilities (from 2.6×10-14 to 3.5×10-11 cm2) we were able to make measurements in both the low-frequency regime (where the fluid is viscously locked to the porous frame) and in the high-frequency regime (where most of the fluid is decoupled from the frame). One of the samples had an extremely high porosity (92%), allowing us to study the fluid motion in a very open geometry. In all cases, we found that the Biot model could quantitatively describe the temperature and frequency dependence of our results. This allowed us to determine the structural parameters of the porous media (pore tortuosity c, permeability κa and effective pore size Λ), something which has previously required measurements of the Biot slow wave (fourth sound and second sound in superfluid helium). The acoustically determined parameters were compared to the independently measured static permeability, κ0, and to previous experimental and theoretical work on model porous media. Our results indicate that, even in materials with irregular pores and a range of length scales, acoustic measurements made in either the low- or high-frequency regime can be used to estimate the permeability.

  19. Helium Droplets Doped with Sulfur and C60

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of sulfur are grown by passing superfluid helium nanodroplets through a pickup cell filled with sulfur vapor. In some experiments the droplets are codoped with C60. The doped droplets are collided with energetic electrons and the abundance distributions of positively and negatively charged cluster ions are recorded. We report, specifically, distributions of Sm+, Sm–, and C60Sm– containing up to 41 sulfur atoms. We also observe complexes of sulfur cluster anions with helium; distributions are presented for HenSm– with n ≤ 31 and m ≤ 3. The similarity between anionic and cationic C60Sm± spectra is in striking contrast to the large differences between spectra of Sm+ and Sm–. PMID:26045732

  20. Helium and Hydrogen Adsorbed on Spheres and Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, E. S.; Szybisz, L.

    2014-07-01

    We examine the metastable and unstable regimes of condensation of superfluid helium and parahydrogen on spheres and cylinders at finite temperatures, employing finite range density functionals. The goal is to compare calculations of sizes and spreads of films at the onset of metastability and of instability with the predictions of a simple phenomenological model that contemplates the curvature of the substrate. We have focused on two cases, helium on nanospheres and nanocylinders of different materials, and hydrogen on fullerenes. We are able to locate the onset of metastability and of spinodal instability in the adsorption isotherms of every sample and to extract the width of the condensed fluid. It is shown that the predictions of the so-called simple model agree surprisingly well with the more elaborate calculations.

  1. Software Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  2. Investigation Development Plan for Reflight of the Small Helium-cooled Infrared Telescope Experiment. Volume 1: Investigation and Technical/management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope (IRT) is designed to survey extended celestial sources of infrared radiation between 4 and 120 micrometers wavelength. It will provide data regarding Space Shuttle induced environmental contamination and the zodical light. And, it will provide experience in the management of large volumes of superfluid helium in the space environment.

  3. Experiments on Rogue Waves in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Viktor; McClintock, Peter; Ganshin, Andrei; Kolmakov, German; Mezhov-Deglin, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    We describe an experimental and theoretical study of nonlinear wave interactions in superfluid helium and report the observation of rogue waves. Rogue waves (or freak waves, or killer waves, or extreme waves) have long been recognized by sailors as a menace to shipping and are believed to have been responsible for the unexplained losses of vessels of all sizes, including e.g. 22 super-carriers between 1968 and 1994 [1, 2]. Rogue waves on the ocean are rare, and are much higher (and steeper) than all the other waves around them. They seem to appear from nowhere and subsequently to disappear without trace [3]. Following the famous 'New Year wave' measured by instruments on the Draupner North Sea oil rig at the beginning of 1995, the existence of oceanic rogue waves is no longer in doubt. There have been several suggestions about possible mechanisms for the creation of rogue waves. These include the combined effects of wind and currents, and the focusing effects associated with the profile of the ocean floor and nearby shorelines. Where rogue waves appear in deep water far from any shore, which they sometimes do, it seems likely that they must evolve through nonlinear interactions within the 'noisy background" of smaller wind-blown waves [4]. Rogue waves have been modeled theoretically, especially by exploiting the special properties of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. They have been sought experimentally and/or studied in large wave tanks [5], optical systems [6, 7], and superfluid 4He [8]. Our experimental system consists of high intensity second sound (temperature-entropy) waves within a resonant cavity filled with superfluid 4He at 2.1 K. Under steady state conditions, with a constant oscillatory driving force at the resonant frequency, the second sound waves are turbulent and fluxes of energy flow towards both high and low frequencies. It is found that rogue waves appear under the nonequilibrium conditions that prevail shortly after the drive has been

  4. The tensile strength of liquid helium four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Joel Alan

    1988-08-01

    It is well known that most liquids exhibit a tensile strength which is much smaller in magnitude than the tensile strength predicted by homogeneous nucleation theory. Liquid helium occupies a unique place among liquids for tensile strength measurements because all foreign gases are frozen out at liquid temperatures. Moreover, superfluid He-4 should fill all crevises on solid surfaces, eliminating the chance of heterogeneous nucleation on helium vapor pockets. A piezoelectric transducer in the form of a hemispherical shell was used to focus high intensity ultrasound into a small volume of He-4. The transducer was gated at its resonant frequency of 566 kHz with gate widths of less than 1 msec in order to minimize the effects of transducer heating and acoustic streaming. The onset of nucleation was detected from the absorption of acoustic energy and the scattering of laser light from microscopic bubbles. A theory for light diffraction from the focal zone of a spherical converging sound wave was developed to confirm calculations of the acoustic pressure amplitude at the focus of the transducer, calculations based on the acoustic power radiated into the liquid and nonlinear sound absorption.

  5. The Nucleosynthesis of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, James

    2007-04-01

    The large cosmic abundance of Helium - second only to Hydrogen - is a testament to the importance of its formation in the cosmos. Both Helium-3 and Helium-4 emerge from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in considerable quantities, the synthesis of the isotopes are links in the pp chain and other stellar nucleosynthesis processes, and they are also created during the initial stages of the r-process. The importance of Helium formation in these settings provides us with valuable information upon the environments in which it occurs. We survey the role of the synthesis of Helium in nuclear astrophysics, how its manufacture is affected by many diverse factors, and what we have learnt from observations of Helium abundances.

  6. Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L

    2010-11-04

    A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane

  7. Staircase pattern in a superfluid He-II torsional-oscillator analog of the radio-frequency SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaldi, M. ); Cerdonio, M.; Dolesi, R.; Vitale, S. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Sezione di Padova, I-38050, Povo, Trento )

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a superfluid [sup 4]He analog of the rf SQUID. A thin partition with a micrometric orifice is placed inside a toroidal container filled with liquid helium; ac and dc superflows through the orifice are induced by rotating the whole torus, which is the inertial member of a torsional oscillator. The torus oscillation amplitude vs drive curve shows a small but reproducible staircase pattern, which is detectable between 1.4 and 2.05 K, but is not modulated by a superimposed steady rotation. We discuss this behavior in terms of the occurrence of multiple phase slips.

  8. Experimental study of nanofluidics and phase transitions of normal and superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Angel Enriques

    This thesis addresses the experimental results of two different research topics. The first is the experimental work of pressure driven flows in the smallest, single nanotubes ever investigated. The nanotube boundary conditions and slip lengths from argon, nitrogen, water, and helium experiments were analyzed and compared to macroscopic boundary conditions. The second research topic discusses the work on ellipsometric and quartz microbalance measurements of the 2D superfluid phase diagram of 4He on alkali substrates. Ellipsometric results of sodium on HOPG provide the first evidence of the existence of the 2D critical point on an intermediate strength substrate. Pressure driven flows through single nanopores and microtubes were measured with a calibrated mass spectrometer with pressure drops up to 30 Atm. The nanopores were between 30 nm to 600 nm in diameter and etched in mica and PET membranes of several microns thickness. Microtubes several inches long of fused quartz and nickel material were tested with diameters between 1.8 micron and 25 micron. For 4He and argon gas we observed the flow transition between the free molecular and continuum regimes at 293 K and 77 K. No discrepancy between the macroscopic theory and the 30 nm nanopore data was found. Because of the exceptionally low viscosity of gaseous helium the laminar-turbulent transition could also be observed within these submicron channels. The small viscosity of 4He was too small to dampen inertial effects at a Reynolds number of 2000. In addition to single phase gas flows, our experimental technique also allows us to investigate flows in which the nano or micro scale pipe is either partially or completely filled with liquids. The position of the intrinsic liquid/vapor interface was important for understanding this type of flow. Strong evaporation and cooling at the liquid-vapor interface can lead to freezing for conventional fluids such as nitrogen and water, which in turn leads to complex intermittent

  9. Electron occupancy of micro-structured helium-filled channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takita, Maika; Bradbury, F. R.; Lyon, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    The spins of electrons floating on the surface of superfluid helium have been suggested to be promising qubits. High charge transfer efficiency of electrons in a narrow channel clocked with underlying gates, has been previously reported.footnotetextG. Sabouret, F.R. Bradbury, S. Shankar, J.A. Bert, S.A. Lyon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 082104 (2008). We have fabricated similar devices with an array of parallel channels and small gaps between the underlying gates. These channels are filled with superfluid helium by capillary action, onto which electrons are photoemitted. Electrons are initially trapped by a gate (``door''), so that they capacitively couple to a sense gate which is the input of a cold HEMT preamplifier. An oscillatory potential applied to a third gate moves electrons on and off the sense gate to allow lock-in detection. Electrons are allowed to escape the sensing region by slowly ramping down the door barrier. Features in the electron occupancy signal correlate with the oscillatory drive voltage and preamp gain, and show evidence of discrete occupancy as the channels depopulate.

  10. Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2014-05-01

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this paper determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments. Support by the NSF is acknowledged.

  11. Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2014-06-01

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments.

  12. Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component

    PubMed Central

    Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures. PMID:24704879

  13. Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. PMID:27278711

  14. Dynamics of rotating superfluid systems with pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakyan, A.D.; Sedrakyan, D.M.

    1995-08-01

    Equations describing the dynamics of motion of superfluid systems with pinning are derived, and analytical solutions of these equations are established for the case where the difference between the angular velocities of the superfluid and normal components is small. The solutions can be used to explain the time-dependent behavior of the angular velocity of the Vela pulsar. It is shown that vortex pinning in the period between two consecutive jumps in the pulsar angular velocity can redistribute the vortex number density so as to produce both the observed jump and the after-jump relaxation of the pulsar. For one thing, the formulas obtained are shown to provide an explanation of the 1988 Christmas discontinuity in the angular velocity of the Vela pulsar. 8 refs.

  15. Sound propagation in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.; Federici, F.; Tosi, M. P.

    2006-02-15

    We use hydrodynamic equations to study sound propagation in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature inside a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap, with main attention to the transition from the BCS to the unitary regime. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of a cylindrical geometry and then evaluate numerically the effect of the axial confinement in a configuration in which a hole is present in the gas density at the center of the trap. We find that in a strongly elongated trap the speed of sound in both the BCS and the unitary regime differs by a factor {radical}(3/5) from that in a homogeneous three-dimensional superfluid. The predictions of the theory could be tested by measurements of sound-wave propagation in a setup such as that exploited by Andrews et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997)] for an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate.

  16. Knots and Coils in Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Scheeler, Martin; Irvine, William T. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that linked and knotted vortices will spontaneously unknot or untie in both classical fluids and superfluids. This effect would appear to jeopardize any notion of conservation of fluid topology (helicity), but this need not be the case: vortices can transfer their knottedness to helical coils, preserving some measure of the original topology. By simulating superfluid vortices in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we find a geometric mechanism for efficiently transferring helicity in exactly this manner. Remarkably, the same transfer of topology to geometry also appears in viscous fluid vortices, suggesting it is a generic feature of non-ideal fluids. This work was supported by the NSF MRSEC shared facilities at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and an NSF CAREER Award (DMR-1351506). W.T.M.I. further acknowledges support from the A.P. Sloan Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  17. Dynamics and nucleation of vorticity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Jose Arruda De Oliveira

    1997-11-01

    This thesis contains numerical studies on vortex dynamics and on quantum nucleation of vorticity in superfluids at zero temperature. In both cases the superfluid was described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model. In the first part of the thesis, the vortex mass problem is analyzed by a numerical integration of the condensate equation of motion, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. We were able to extract, from the observed vortex dynamics in a time-dependent superflow, the frequency dependence of the vortex effective mass. In the second part, the problem of quantum nucleation of vorticity in superflows past obstacles, in both one and two dimensions, is studied by the application of the bounce formalism of Coleman (12) to the coherent state action of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. We obtained bounce solutions and tunneling rates by directly solving the field equations for the condensate in imaginary time.

  18. Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states

    SciTech Connect

    Wreszinski, Walter F.

    2015-01-15

    We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system.

  19. Bistability in a Driven-Dissipative Superfluid.

    PubMed

    Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Ott, Herwig

    2016-06-10

    We experimentally study a driven-dissipative Josephson junction array, realized with a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Engineered losses on one site act as a local dissipative process, while tunneling from the neighboring sites constitutes the driving force. We characterize the emerging steady states of this atomtronic device. With increasing dissipation strength γ the system crosses from a superfluid state, characterized by a coherent Josephson current into the lossy site, to a resistive state, characterized by an incoherent hopping transport. For intermediate values of γ, the system exhibits bistability, where a superfluid and an incoherent branch coexist. We also study the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state, where we find a critical slowing down, indicating the presence of a nonequilibrium phase transition.

  20. Entanglement area law in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdman, C. M.; Roy, P.-N.; Melko, R. G.; Maestro, A. Del

    2017-06-01

    Area laws were first discovered by Bekenstein and Hawking, who found that the entropy of a black hole grows proportional to its surface area, and not its volume. Entropy area laws have since become a fundamental part of modern physics, from the holographic principle in quantum gravity to ground-state wavefunctions of quantum matter, where entanglement entropy is generically found to obey area law scaling. As no experiments are currently capable of directly probing the entanglement area law in naturally occurring many-body systems, evidence of its existence is based on studies of simplified qualitative theories. Using new exact microscopic numerical simulations of superfluid 4He, we demonstrate for the first time an area law scaling of entanglement entropy in a real quantum liquid in three dimensions. We validate the fundamental principle that the area law originates from correlations local to the entangling boundary, and present an entanglement equation of state showing how it depends on the density of the superfluid.

  1. Role of superfluidity in nuclear incompressibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, E.

    2009-07-15

    Nuclei are propitious tools to investigate the role of the superfluidity in the compressibility of a Fermionic system. The centroid of the Giant Monopole Resonance (GMR) in Tin isotopes is predicted using a constrained Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov approach, ensuring a full self-consistent treatment. Superfluidity is found to favour the compressibitily of nuclei. Pairing correlations explain why doubly magic nuclei such as {sup 208}Pb are stiffer compared to open-shell nuclei. Fully self-consistent predictions of the GMR on an isotopic chain should be the way to microscopically extract both the incompressibility and the density dependence of a given energy functional. The macroscopic extraction of K{sub sym}, the asymmetry incompressibility, is questioned. Investigations of the GMR in unstable nuclei are called for. Pairing gap dependence of the nuclear matter incompressibility should also be investigated.

  2. Bistability in a Driven-Dissipative Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Ott, Herwig

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally study a driven-dissipative Josephson junction array, realized with a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Engineered losses on one site act as a local dissipative process, while tunneling from the neighboring sites constitutes the driving force. We characterize the emerging steady states of this atomtronic device. With increasing dissipation strength γ the system crosses from a superfluid state, characterized by a coherent Josephson current into the lossy site, to a resistive state, characterized by an incoherent hopping transport. For intermediate values of γ , the system exhibits bistability, where a superfluid and an incoherent branch coexist. We also study the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state, where we find a critical slowing down, indicating the presence of a nonequilibrium phase transition.

  3. Anomalous Transport in the Superfluid Fluctuation Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Shun; Ueda, Masahito

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment in ultracold atoms [S. Krinner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 8144 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1601812113], we analyze transport of attractively interacting fermions through a one-dimensional wire near the superfluid transition. We show that in a ballistic regime where the conductance is quantized in the absence of interaction, the conductance is renormalized by superfluid fluctuations in reservoirs. In particular, the particle conductance is strongly enhanced, and the conductance plateau is blurred by emergent bosonic pair transport. For spin transport, in addition to the contact resistance, the wire itself is resistive, leading to a suppression of the measured spin conductance. Our results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  4. Magnus and Iordanskii Forces in Superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wexler, C.

    1997-08-01

    The transverse force acting on a quantized vortex in a superfluid is a problem that has eluded a complete understanding for more than three decades. In this Letter I calculate the {ital superfluid } velocity part of the transverse force in a way closely related to Laughlin{close_quote}s argument for the quantization of conductance in the quantum Hall effect. A combination of this result, the {ital vortex} velocity part of the transverse force found by Thouless, Ao, and Niu [Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 3758 (1996)], and Galilean invariance shows that there cannot be a transverse force proportional to the normal fluid velocity. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Interlayer Superfluidity in Bilayer Systems of Fermionic Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Pikovski, A.; Santos, L.; Klawunn, M.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2010-11-19

    We consider fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer geometry where they are oriented perpendicularly to the layers, which permits both low inelastic losses and superfluid pairing. The dipole-dipole interaction between molecules of different layers leads to the emergence of interlayer superfluids. The superfluid regimes range from BCS-like fermionic superfluidity with a high T{sub c} to Bose-Einstein (quasi-)condensation of interlayer dimers, thus exhibiting a peculiar BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover. We show that one can cover the entire crossover regime under current experimental conditions.

  6. Polarized superfluidity in the attractive hubbard model with population imbalance.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tung-Lam; Ferrero, Michel; Georges, Antoine; Capone, Massimo; Parcollet, Olivier

    2008-12-05

    We study a two-component Fermi system with attractive interactions and different populations of the two species in a cubic lattice. For an intermediate coupling, we find a uniformly polarized superfluid which is stable down to very low temperatures. The momentum distribution of this phase closely resembles that of the Sarma phase, characterized by two Fermi surfaces. This phase is shown to be stabilized by a potential energy gain, as in a BCS superfluid, in contrast with the unpolarized Bose-Einstein condensate which is stabilized by kinetic energy. We present general arguments suggesting that preformed pairs in the unpolarized superfluid favor the stabilization of a polarized superfluid phase.

  7. Decoupling of superfluid and normal modes in pulsating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Kantor, Elena M.

    2011-04-15

    We show that equations governing pulsations of superfluid neutron stars can be split into two sets of weakly coupled equations, one describing the superfluid modes and another one, the normal modes. The coupling parameter s is small, |s|{approx}0.01-0.05, for realistic equations of state. Already an approximation s=0 is sufficient to calculate the pulsation spectrum within the accuracy of a few percent. Our results indicate, in particular, that emission of gravitational waves from superfluid pulsation modes is suppressed in comparison to that from normal modes. The proposed approach allows to drastically simplify modeling of pulsations of superfluid neutron stars.

  8. Superfluid 3He in ``nematically ordered'' aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Liquid 3He immersed in aerogel allows investigation of the influence of impurities on unconventional superfluidity. In most of such experiments silica aerogels are used. These aerogels consist of thin strands which form a ``wisp.'' Although it is established that superfluid phases of 3He in silica aerogels (A-like and B-like) have the same order parameters as A and B phases of bulk 3He, many new phenomena were observed. In particular, it was found that global anisotropy of aerogel (e.g. caused by squeezing or stretching) can orient the order parameter. Depending on prehistory and on the type of the anisotropy the A-like phase may be homogeneous or in a state with random orbital part of the order parameter. Theory predicts that a large stretching anisotropy may even influence the order parameter structure: polar phase (or A phase with polar distortion), which are not realized in bulk 3He, may become more favorable than pure A phase. Large stretching anisotropy is hardly achievable in silica aerogel. Therefore in experiments described in the talk we used a new type of aerogel, consisting of Al2O3 . H2O strands which are parallel to each other, i.e. this aerogel may be considered as infinitely stretched. We found that the superfluid phase diagram of 3He in such ``nematically ordered'' aerogel is different from the case of 3He in silica aerogel and that both observed A and B phases have large polar distortion. This distortion is larger at low pressures and grows on warming. There are indications that a pure polar phase appears near the superfluid transition temperature. Recent results will be also presented.

  9. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  10. Superfluidity in Bose-Hubbard circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arwas, Geva; Cohen, Doron

    2017-02-01

    A semiclassical theory is provided for the metastability regime diagram of atomtronic superfluid circuits. Such circuits typically exhibit high-dimensional chaos, and nonlinear resonances that couple the Bogoliubov excitations manifest. Contrary to the expectation, these resonances do not originate from the familiar Beliaev and Landau damping terms. Rather, they are described by a variant of the Cherry Hamiltonian of celestial mechanics. Consequently, we study the induced decay process and its dependence on the number of sites and condensed particles.

  11. Probing quantum and classical turbulence analogy in von Kármán liquid helium, nitrogen, and water experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Michel, B.; Herbert, E.; Salort, J.; Baudet, C.; Bon Mardion, M.; Bonnay, P.; Bourgoin, M.; Castaing, B.; Chevillard, L.; Daviaud, F.; Diribarne, P.; Dubrulle, B.; Gagne, Y.; Gibert, M.; Girard, A.; Hébral, B.; Lehner, Th.; Rousset, B.

    2014-12-01

    We report measurements of the dissipation in the Superfluid helium high REynold number von Kármán flow experiment for different forcing conditions. Statistically steady flows are reached; they display a hysteretic behavior similar to what has been observed in a 1:4 scale water experiment. Our macroscopical measurements indicate no noticeable difference between classical and superfluid flows, thereby providing evidence of the same dissipation scaling laws in the two phases. A detailed study of the evolution of the hysteresis cycle with the Reynolds number supports the idea that the stability of the steady states of classical turbulence in this closed flow is partly governed by the dissipative scales. It also supports the idea that the normal and the superfluid components at these temperatures (1.6 K) are locked down to the dissipative length scale.

  12. Pairing fluctuations and an anisotropic pseudogap phenomenon in an ultracold superfluid Fermi gas with plural p -wave superfluid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inotani, Daisuke; Ohashi, Yoji

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the superfluid properties of a one-component Fermi gas with a uniaxially anisotropic p -wave pairing interaction, Ux>Uy=Uz [where Ui(i =x ,y ,z ) is a pi-wave pairing interaction]. This type of interaction is considered to be realized in a 40K Fermi gas. Including pairing fluctuations within a strong-coupling T -matrix theory, we determine the px-wave superfluid phase transition temperature Tcpx, as well as the other phase transition temperature Tcpx+i py(superfluid order parameter has the px+i py -wave symmetry. In the normal state near Tcpx, px-wave pairing fluctuations are shown to induce an anisotropic pseudogap phenomenon, where a dip structure in the angle-resolved density of states around ω =0 is the most remarkable in the px direction. In the px-wave superfluid phase (Tcpx+i pysuperfluid gap, the pseudogap in the perpendicular direction to the px axis is found to continue developing because of enhanced py-wave and pz-wave pairing fluctuations around the node of the px-wave superfluid order parameter. Since pairing fluctuations are always suppressed in the isotropic s -wave superfluid state, this phenomenon is peculiar to an unconventional Fermi superfluid with a nodal superfluid order parameter. Since the p -wave Fermi superfluid is the most promising non-s -wave pairing state in an ultracold Fermi gas, our results would contribute to understanding how the anisotropic pairing fluctuations, as well as the existence of plural superfluid phases, affect many-body properties of this unconventional Fermi superfluid.

  13. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    PubMed Central

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper–Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition. PMID:26586543

  14. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds>=|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  15. Vortex Reconnection in Normal and Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplik, Joel

    An example of vortex reconnection is shown in a time sequence in Fig. 1, wherein two distinct vortex filaments in a fluid move together, merge, and then divide into two or more filaments moving away, with part of one initial filament connected to part of the other. The physics underlying this example [1] will be presented later, but the key feature is the evident change in the topology of the vortices. In this lecture, we will discuss vortex reconnection in both normal and superfluids, emphasizing the relevance of the process to their respective turbulent flows, the similarities between the two cases, and the computational issues. The lecture is aimed at a fairly general audience: no detailed knowledge of fluid mechanics is assumed beyond a nodding acquaintance with the Navier-Stokes equation, and nothing about superfluidity beyond the idea of a two-fluid system with an quantum-mechanically condensed component, and a willingness to accept the Gross-Pitaevskii model for the latter. My emp hasis will be on the superfluid case, and the reconnection process in normal fluids is discussed in more detail in the cited literature. My original work reviewed here was done in collaboration with Herbert Levine. Related and more recent work along these lines is described in the lectures by Adams and Roberts in this volume.

  16. Ultralow-Dissipation Superfluid Micromechanical Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souris, F.; Rojas, X.; Kim, P. H.; Davis, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Micro- and nanomechanical resonators with ultralow dissipation have great potential as useful quantum resources. The superfluid micromechanical resonators presented here possess several advantageous characteristics: straightforward thermalization, dissipationless flow, and in situ tunability. We identify and quantitatively model the various dissipation mechanisms in two resonators, one fabricated from borosilicate glass and one from single-crystal quartz. As the resonators are cryogenically cooled into the superfluid state, the damping from thermal effects and from the normal-fluid component are strongly suppressed. At our lowest temperatures, damping is limited solely by internal dissipation in the substrate materials, and the resonators reach quality factors of up to 913 000 at 13 mK. By lifting this limitation through substrate-material choice and resonator design, modeling suggests that the resonators could reach quality factors as high as 108 at 100 mK, putting this architecture in an ideal position to harness mechanical quantum effects and to facilitate the study of superfluids in confined geometries.

  17. Starshade Prototype

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-09

    This image shows the bare bones of the first prototype starshade by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. The prototype was shown in technology partner Astro Aerospace/Northrup Grumman's facility in Santa Barbara, California in 2013. In order for the petals of the starshade to diffract starlight away from the camera of a space telescope, they must be deployed with accuracy once the starshade reaches space. The four petals pictured in the image are being measured for this positional accuracy with a laser. As shown by this 66-foot (20-meter) model, starshades can come in many shapes and sizes. This design shows petals that are more extreme in shape which properly diffracts starlight for smaller telescopes. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20903

  18. Generation of Dark-Bright Soliton Trains in Superfluid-Superfluid Counterflow

    SciTech Connect

    Hamner, C.; Chang, J. J.; Engels, P.; Hoefer, M. A.

    2011-02-11

    The dynamics of two penetrating superfluids exhibit an intriguing variety of nonlinear effects. Using two distinguishable components of a Bose-Einstein condensate, we investigate the counterflow of two superfluids in a narrow channel. We present the first experimental observation of trains of dark-bright solitons generated by the counterflow. Our observations are theoretically interpreted by three-dimensional numerical simulations for the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations and the analysis of a jump in the two relatively flowing components' densities. Counterflow-induced modulational instability for this miscible system is identified as the central process in the dynamics.

  19. Generation of dark-bright soliton trains in superfluid-superfluid counterflow.

    PubMed

    Hamner, C; Chang, J J; Engels, P; Hoefer, M A

    2011-02-11

    The dynamics of two penetrating superfluids exhibit an intriguing variety of nonlinear effects. Using two distinguishable components of a Bose-Einstein condensate, we investigate the counterflow of two superfluids in a narrow channel. We present the first experimental observation of trains of dark-bright solitons generated by the counterflow. Our observations are theoretically interpreted by three-dimensional numerical simulations for the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations and the analysis of a jump in the two relatively flowing components' densities. Counterflow-induced modulational instability for this miscible system is identified as the central process in the dynamics.

  20. Limited Quantum Helium Transportation through Nano-channels by Quantum Fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Tomonori

    2016-07-01

    Helium at low temperatures has unique quantum properties such as superfluidity, which causes it to behave differently from a classical fluid. Despite our deep understanding of quantum mechanics, there are many open questions concerning the properties of quantum fluids in nanoscale systems. Herein, the quantum behavior of helium transportation through one-dimensional nanopores was evaluated by measuring the adsorption of quantum helium in the nanopores of single-walled carbon nanohorns and AlPO4-5 at 2-5 K. Quantum helium was transported unimpeded through nanopores larger than 0.7 nm in diameter, whereas quantum helium transportation was significantly restricted through 0.4-nm and 0.6-nm nanopores. Conversely, nitrogen molecules diffused through the 0.4-nm nanopores at 77 K. Therefore, quantum helium behaved as a fluid comprising atoms larger than 0.4-0.6 nm. This phenomenon was remarkable, considering that helium is the smallest existing element with a (classical) size of approximately 0.27 nm. This finding revealed the presence of significant quantum fluctuations. Quantum fluctuation determined the behaviors of quantum flux and is essential to understanding unique quantum behaviors in nanoscale systems.