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Sample records for protruding aorto-ostial vein

  1. Coil Protruding into the Common Femoral Vein Following Pelvic Venous Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Petra Holdstock, Judith M.; Bacon, Jennifer L.; Lopez, Anthony J.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Price, Barrie A.

    2008-03-15

    Pelvic venous embolization is performed for pelvic congestion syndrome and prior to lower limb varicose vein surgery in females with associated pelvic venous insufficiency. The procedure is analogous to varicocele embolization in males, although refluxing internal iliac vein tributaries may also be embolized. We report a case of inadvertent coil placement in the common femoral vein while embolizing the obturator vein, during pelvic vein embolization for recurrent lower limb varicose veins. There were no clinical consequences and the coil was left in situ. We advise caution when embolizing internal iliac vein tributaries where there is clinically significant communication with veins of the lower limb.

  2. [IVUS-controlled aorto-ostial directional coronary atherectomy in higher grade stenosis of the central anastomosis of a sequential triple venous bypass].

    PubMed

    Schiele, T M; Beauport, J; Niehues, R; Jacksch, R

    1998-12-01

    Following coronary artery bypass grafting repeat ischemia mandatory for reintervention occurs in 2 to 30% of cases, depending mainly on graft age. Selection of a suitable strategy for revascularisation--transcatheter angioplasty or reoperation--depends on various parameters including coronary morphology, left ventricular performance, comorbidity and availability of graft material. Catheter-based interventions on saphenous vein bypass grafts are feasible, but lower primary success rates and a higher incidence of restenosis--compared with native coronary arteries--have to be expected. Repeat coronary artery bypass graft operations are associated with a significantly higher perioperative morbidity and mortality, patency rates are lower and late clinical outcome is worse than in primary surgery. We report on a patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting 4 years ago revealing a high grade ostial stenosis in a jump-graft supplying RCA, LAD and Cx sequentially, making reintervention necessary. As a prerequisite serial balloon angioplasty of two native vessels was performed prior to ostial intervention. Intravascular-ultrasound guided directional coronary atherectomy was performed with good primary and long-term result. Our case demonstrates that, if all relevant clinical parameters and different therapeutic options are taken into account, complex transcatheter angioplasty procedures are feasible and associated with a reasonable amount of risk, thus avoiding repeat coronary artery bypass graft operations.

  3. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radermacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the characteristics of the tidal flow field around protruding beach nourishments under varying nourishment geometry and tidal conditions, based on extensive field observations and numerical flow simulations. Observations of the flow field around the Sand Motor, obtained with a ship-mounted current profiler and a set of fixed current profilers, show that a tidal eddy develops along the northern edge of the mega-nourishment every flood period. The eddy is generated around peak tidal flow and gradually gains size and strength, growing much larger than the cross-shore dimension of the coastline perturbation. Based on a 3 week measurement period, it is shown that the intensity of the eddy modulates with the spring-neap tidal cycle. Depth-averaged tidal currents around coastline perturbations are simulated and compared to the field observations. The occurrence and behavior of tidal eddies is derived for a large set of simulations with varying nourishment size and shape. Results show that several different types of behavior exist, characterized by different combinations of the nourishment aspect ratio, the size of the nourishment relative to the tidal excursion length, and the influence of bed friction.

  4. Protruding labia minora: abnormal or just uncool?

    PubMed

    Michala, Lina; Koliantzaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-09-01

    There is a wide variety in the appearance of normal female external genitalia. Nevertheless a specific prototype is promoted by the media, leading to a false sense that all other appearances are abnormal. As adolescents become sexually aware at an earlier age, most of them are worried about the appearance of their genitalia, especially when labia minora protrude beyond labia majora. This is a prospective audit of adolescents presenting for assessment of their perceived abnormal genitalia. Sixteen girls aged 10.2 to 17.8 years presented between June 2009 and December 2010 to a specialist adolescent gynecology service. Their mean labial width was 36 mm (range: 20-55 mm). In six girls, the reason for attending the service was inequality of the size of labia ranging between 6 mm and 35 mm (mean of 20 mm). Among the remaining 10 girls, the concern had arisen through comparison with a prepubescent sibling (one case), change of genitalia during puberty (four cases), looking at internet pictures (four cases), and looking at an anatomy book (one case). Risks of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS) have not been adequately documented, especially with regards to sexual function and long-term patient satisfaction. External genitalia are likely to change during puberty and therefore, any genital operation in the absence of clear pathology should be deferred until adulthood. Even then, women should have clear expectations of what will be achieved with the operation in terms of appearance and function.

  5. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A.; Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S.; Hussain, Fuad F.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Lopez, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  6. Different Occlusal Schemes in a Persistent Protruding Complete Denture Wearer

    PubMed Central

    Iegami, Carolina Mayumi; Lopes, Danilo de Melo; Nakamae, Atlas Edson Moleros; Uehara, Priscila Nakasone; Tamaki, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Different types of artificial teeth and occlusal designs can be used in complete dentures. Bilateral balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, canine guidance, and monoplane are the main occlusal designs; however there is no agreement on which tooth arrangement is ideal for achieving success in complete dentures. This report presents an alternative for persistent involuntary protruding complete denture wearers through the use of artificial teeth with higher cusps. Due to an old and worn pair of complete dentures, the patient had the habit of protruding. New dentures were made with Biotone artificial teeth and in the trial session, the patient would still protrude. A new set was made with Premium artificial teeth, which present higher cusps. With these dentures, the involuntary protrusion did not occur. From the delivery to the follow-up sessions, the patient stopped protruding. PMID:27069698

  7. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... has surface (superficial) veins that are connected to deep veins by bridging (perforator) veins. Unlike arteries, which ... the valve leaflets and can develop in the deep, perforator, or superficial veins. View this table: View ...

  8. 3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, dock no. 491. Detail of canvas gasket allowing doors to close tightly around fuselage. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Evaluation of Protruding Centerbody on the Novel Airdata Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Adrian Kok Chiang

    A novel airdata sensor was developed at the University of Kansas1. The Bio-Inspired probe was designed for high angles of attack and sideslip use, suitable for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control system and other highly maneuverable aircraft applications. The probe displayed excellent speed measurement of up to angle of attack and sideslip of +/-40°, compared to +/-25° exhibited by a conventional pitot tube at the same accuracy. With the goal of evaluating the novel probe's protruding centerbody and effects on angular sensitivity, two new sets of probe were developed, featuring elongated (L/D 1.5) and shortened (L/D 0.5) protruding centerbodies to gain deeper understanding of the Coanda effect on the blunt protruding centerbody featured on the Bio-inspired probe. The protruding centerbody uses the Coanda effect to turn air flow streamline and attach to the centerbody surface. The analysis included pressure and velocity measurement at high angle of attack wind tunnel tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations on the new and original (L/D 1.0) prototypes. As expected, the elongated ellipsoid centerbody (L/D 1.5) probe exhibited an improved flow capture. Design improvements such as centerbody optimization and direct drag measurement are suggested to improve the novel probe capabilities. Further research will be concentrated on a flight testing on a UAV with the novel airdata sensor and a conventional Pitot-static tube.

  10. LANAI OF UNIT B. NOTE THE DECORATIVE PROTRUDING CONCRETE MASONRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LANAI OF UNIT B. NOTE THE DECORATIVE PROTRUDING CONCRETE MASONRY. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Spider Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  12. Electromagnetic Detection of Fatigue Cracks under Protruding Head Ferromagnetic Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Namkung, Min

    2004-01-01

    The detection of fatigue cracks under installed fasteners has been a major goal of the aging aircraft NDE community. The Sliding Probe, Magneto-Optic Imager, Rotating Self-Nulling Probe, Low Frequency Eddy Current Array, and Eddyscan systems are among the instruments developed for this inspection. It has been verified that the detection of fatigue cracks under flush head aluminum and titanium fasteners can be accomplished with a high resolution by the above techniques. The detection of fatigue cracks under ferromagnetic and protruding head fasteners, however, has been found to be much more difficult. For the present work, the inspection for fatigue cracks under SAE 4340 Steel Hi-Lok fasteners is explored. Modifications to the Rotating Self-Nulling Eddy Current Probe System are presented which enable the detection of fatigue cracks hidden under the protruding head of the ferromagnetic fastener. Inspection results for samples with varying length EDM notches are shown, as well as a comparison between the signature from an EDM notch and an actual fatigue crack. Finite Element Modeling is used to investigate the effect of the ferromagnetic fastener on the induced eddy current distribution in order to help explain the detection characteristics of the system. This paper will also introduce a modification to the Rotating Probe System designed specifically for the detection of deeply buried flaws in multilayer conductors. The design change incorporates a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor as the pickup device to improve the low frequency performance of the probe. The flaw detection capabilities of the GMR based Self- Nulling Probe are presented along with the status of the GMR based Rotating Probe System for detection of deeply buried flaws under installed fasteners.

  13. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... varicose veins include venous lakes, reticular veins, and hemorrhoids. Venous lakes are varicose veins that appear on ... flat blue veins often seen behind the knees. Hemorrhoids are varicose veins in and around the anus. ...

  14. Protruding interfacial OH groups and 'on-water' heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yousung; Marcus, R A

    2010-07-21

    The key aspect of the remarkable organic catalysis that is observed to occur at the organic/water phase boundary, the so-called 'on-water' catalysis (Narayan et al 2005 Angew. Chem. 44 3275), was recently proposed to be the protruding OH groups of water molecules at the interface that interact with the transition state (TS) via hydrogen bonding and lower activation barriers (Jung and Marcus 2007 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 5492). In particular, the cycloaddition reaction of quadricyclane (Q) with dimethyl azodicarboxylate (DMAD) on-water was calculated to be more than 100,000 times more efficient in terms of rate constant than the neat reaction. In this paper, we review and consider a related reaction of Q with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, where nitrogen, a good H-bond acceptor, in DMAD is replaced by carbon, a poor H-bond acceptor. A very low rate acceleration of acetylenedicarboxylate on-water relative to the neat reaction is obtained theoretically, as compared to DMAD on-water, due to the relatively low H-bonding ability of acetylenedicarboxylate with water at the TS relative to the reactants. We suggest that there may also be an 'intrinsic steric effect' or orientational advantage in the on-water catalysis in general, and both electronic and steric effects may be in operation for the smaller on-water catalysis for the cycloaddition reaction of quadricyclane and acetylenedicarboxylate. A preliminary quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulation including 1264 water molecules for the on-water reaction of DMAD + Q also suggests that there are indeed approximately two-four more H-bonds between the TS and the dangling OH groups than between the reactants and the surface.

  15. Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Sclerotherapy uses injections from a very fine, ... Sclerotherapy? What is Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins? Sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment used ...

  16. Varicose Veins and Spider Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... are sold in medical supply and drugstores. Prescription-strength gradient compression hose, which offer the greatest amount ... the face. Exercise regularly to improve your leg strength, circulation, and vein strength. Focus on exercises that ...

  17. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  18. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wearing loose clothing and avoiding long periods of standing can also help. If varicose veins are painful or you don't like the way they look, your doctor may recommend procedures to remove them. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  19. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs Preventing ... Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep vein ...

  20. Fabrication of a carbon nanotube protruding electrode array for a retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Dai, Hongjie; Fishman, Harvey A.; Harris, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Implantable retinal prosthetic devices consisting of microelectrode arrays are being built in attempts to restore vision. Current retinal prostheses use metal planar electrodes. We are developing a novel electro-neural interface using carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles as flexible, protruding microelectrodes. We have synthesized vertically self-assembled, multi-walled CNT bundles by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Using conventional silicon-based micro-fabrication processes, these CNT bundles were integrated onto pre-patterned circuits. CNT protruding electrodes have significant potentials in providing safer stimulation for retinal prostheses. They could also act as recording units to sense electrical and chemical activities in neural systems for fundamental neuroscience research.

  1. A case of multiple abnormalities with eustachian tube obstruction by a protruded internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hara, Mariko; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kodama, Kozue; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of multiple abnormalities with eustachian tube obstruction by a protruded internal carotid artery. A 10-year-old male presented with multiple abnormalities including anomalous pinna, poor eyesight, facial palsy, moderate conductive deafness, and otitis media with effusion. Temporal bone computed tomography demonstrated obstruction of the right eustachian tube by a protruded internal carotid artery. Insertion of a tympanostomy tube did not improve his hearing, indicating a possible ossicular chain anomaly. Although tympanoplasty is necessary to improve the patients' hearing, the poor drainage function makes this difficult. Knowledge of this vascular anomaly is important when performing myringotomy or tympanoplasty.

  2. Drag Measurements of a Protruding .50-caliber Machine Gun with Barrel Jacket Removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luoma, Arvo A.

    1943-01-01

    Tests were made in 8-ft high-speed wind tunnel to determine the drag reduction possible by eliminating the barrel jacket of a protruding 50-caliber aircraft gun. It was found that the drag of a standard aircraft gun protruding into the air stream at right angles to the flow can be reduced by 23% by discarding the barrel jacket. At 300 mph and sea-level conditions, this amounts to a decrease in drag of from 83 to 64 pounds. A rough surface finish on the barrel was found to have no adverse effects on the drag of the barrel, the drag being actually less at high Mach Numbers.

  3. Spider Vein Removal

    MedlinePlus

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  4. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... weak or damaged, blood can back up and pool in your veins. This causes the veins to ... pressure in your veins due to overweight or obesity or pregnancy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: February ...

  5. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem in the lung, called a pulmonary embolism. Sitting still for a long time can make ...

  6. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000027.htm Deep vein thrombosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. You were treated for deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ). This is a condition in ...

  7. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... noninvasive treatment Varicose veins Venous insufficiency Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Review Date 6/6/2016 ... Interventional Radiology & Surgical Critical Care, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  8. Focus on Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... work- ing properly or have evidence of reflux. Measurement of the venous function of the leg may ... Vein stripping was the traditional treatment for bad values in the veins however it is rarely used ...

  9. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Thierry; Soltys, Remigiusz; Loarte, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community. PMID:25802795

  10. A Clinicoimmunohistopathologic Study of Anetoderma: Is Protruding Type More Advanced in Stage Than Indented Type?

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwan Ho; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Park, Chul Jong; Yu, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical and histopathologic classification of anetoderma are not well characterized. Objective. We aimed to investigate the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of anetoderma and to correlate clinical phenotypes with immunohistopathologic findings. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with anetoderma and performed immunohistochemistry for elastin, fibrillin-1, metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-12, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase- (TIMP-) 1 and TIMP-2. Results. Protruding type (n = 17) had a longer disease duration and more severe loss of elastin, without changes in fibrillin, than indented type (n = 13). MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed significantly higher expressions in the dermis compared with controls (p < 0.05). MMP-7 and MMP-12 showed little expressions in both anetoderma and control tissue. TIMP-1 was highly expressed in anetoderma lesions and controls. TIMP-2 expression was variable. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that protruding type anetoderma may represent a more advanced stage and that MMP-2 and MMP-9 could be responsible for elastic fiber degradation in anetoderma. PMID:28116317

  11. A phyllosilicate-sulfide vein in Kaidun. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brandstatter, F.; Kurat, G.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1994-01-01

    A fragment of a carbonaceous chondrite (#53.12, maximal dimension about 2 mm) containing a phyllosilicate-sulfide vein was found during an inspection of small pieces of the Kaidun meteorite. Phyllosilicate veins are apparently rare in carbonaceous chondrites and have so far only been reported from the Y82162 CI chondrite. In hand sample the vein was visible on two perpendicular faces. The polished section prepared from one side displays a complex structure. A single vein, 150 microns in width, bifurcates, and each branch narrows toward a large rounded object (RO). The section contains abundant ROs, most of them less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter. The vein has sharp contacts to the surrounding matrix, whereas the RO contacts are diffuse. The phyllosilicate in the main vein has a massive texture along the contact, which becomes platy toward the vein center where the crystals protrude into an open space. The texture of the largest RO resembles that of a barred olivine (BO) chondrule. Some of the smaller ROs also texturally resemble chondrules. The BO chondrule contains rounded sulfide-silicate objects and small metal grains covered by oxides. Phyllosilicates of the main vein consist mainly of serpentine. The phyllosilicate near the contact with the matrix has low contents of minor elements and a high Mg/Fe ratio. The composition changes in a regular manner toward the center: Al, Na, Ca, Ni, and S increase, indicating increasing amounts of sulfates admixed. The phyllosilicate vein could only have formed after a substantial rock was formed. Mechanical stress probably opened a crack that was subsequently filled by phyllosilicate, pyrrhotite, and finally by a (Fe,Mg)-sulfate. The source of the matter mobilized to form the vein could have been within the rock itself or outside. No compositional or mineralogical zoning is apparent at the vein-rock contacts. The nature of the transporting agent (liquid H2O or vapor) must also remain an enigma. M. Zolensky has

  12. Protruding knob-like proteins violate local symmetries in an icosahedral marine virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, Preeti; Baker, Matthew L.; Raytcheva, Desislava; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline; King, Jonathan A.; Chiu, Wah

    2014-07-01

    Marine viruses play crucial roles in shaping the dynamics of oceanic microbial communities and in the carbon cycle on Earth. Here we report a 4.7-Å structure of a cyanobacterial virus, Syn5, by electron cryo-microscopy and modelling. A Cα backbone trace of the major capsid protein (gp39) reveals a classic phage protein fold. In addition, two knob-like proteins protruding from the capsid surface are also observed. Using bioinformatics and structure analysis tools, these proteins are identified to correspond to gp55 and gp58 (each with two copies per asymmetric unit). The non 1:1 stoichiometric distribution of gp55/58 to gp39 breaks all expected local symmetries and leads to non-quasi-equivalence of the capsid subunits, suggesting a role in capsid stabilization. Such a structural arrangement has not yet been observed in any known virus structures.

  13. Protruding knob-like proteins violate local symmetries in an icosahedral marine virus

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Preeti; Baker, Matthew L.; Raytcheva, Desislava; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline; King, Jonathan A.; Chiu, Wah

    2014-01-01

    Marine viruses play crucial roles in shaping the dynamics of oceanic microbial communities and in the carbon cycle on Earth. Here we report a 4.7-Å structure of a cyanobacterial virus, Syn5, by electron cryo-microscopy and modelling. A Cα backbone trace of the major capsid protein (gp39) reveals a classic phage protein fold. In addition, two knob-like proteins protruding from the capsid surface are also observed. Using bioinformatics and structure analysis tools, these proteins are identified to correspond to gp55 and gp58 (each with two copies per asymmetric unit). The non 1:1 stoichiometric distribution of gp55/58 to gp39 breaks all expected local symmetries and leads to non-quasi-equivalence of the capsid subunits, suggesting a role in capsid stabilization. Such a structural arrangement has not yet been observed in any known virus structures. PMID:24985522

  14. Cloning DNA restriction endonuclease fragments with protruding single-stranded ends.

    PubMed

    Wartell, R M; Reznikoff, W S

    1980-05-01

    A new method of in vitro recombination was employed to construct plasmids containing lac promoter fragments 64 bp and 144 bp long. The 64 bp HpaII-HhaI fragment contains the binding site for the catabolite activator protein (CAP). The HpaII-HaeIII 144 bp fragment includes the binding sites for RNA polymerase, the lac repressor and CAP. The method utilizes the ability of T4 DNA polymerase to make flush-ended DNA either by filling in a recessed 3'-end or by exonucleolytic removal of a protruding 3'-end. The treated fragments were then blunt-end ligated to the filled-in EcoRI cloning sites of the plasmids pVH51 and pBR322 using T4 ligase. In this process, the EcoRI sites were regenerated on the fragment ends thus facilitating the subsequent isolation of the fragments from their cloning vectors.

  15. Regulation of Norovirus Virulence by the VP1 Protruding Domain Correlates with B Cell Infection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Watanabe, Makiko; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Murray, Akilah B.; Sok, Ryneth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis across the globe, but the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for disease are not well established. The availability of a murine norovirus model system provides the opportunity to elucidate viral and host determinants of virulence in a natural host. For example, previous studies have revealed that the protruding domain of the murine norovirus capsid protein VP1, specifically residue 296 of VP1, regulates virulent infection. We identified a panel of nonsynonymous mutations in the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) gene encoding VP1 that arose in persistently infected mice and tested whether these mutations conferred phenotypic changes to viral replication and virulence. Consistent with previous studies, we demonstrate that a glutamic acid at position 296 results in attenuation. For the first time, we also demonstrate that a lysine at this position is sufficient to confer virulence on an otherwise attenuated murine norovirus strain. Moreover, our studies reveal a direct correlation between the efficiency of viral replication in B cells and virulence. These data are especially striking because mutations causing reduced B cell replication and attenuation had minimal effects on the ability of the virus to replicate in macrophages. Thus, norovirus infection of B cells may directly contribute to disease outcome. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses are a major global cause of disease, yet we know very little about their pathogenic mechanisms. The availability of a murine norovirus model system facilitates investigation of noroviruses in a natural host organism and the identification of viral and host determinants of pathogenesis. We have identified a panel of mutations arising in the viral capsid protein VP1 during persistent infection of mice. Our data reveal that the protruding domain of VP1 regulates the ability of the virus to replicate in B cells, and this directly correlates with virulence. Importantly, mutations

  16. Vein of Galen Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamanaka, K.; Iwai, Y.; Yasui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Kitano, S.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, A.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Eleven patients with so-called “vein of Galen aneurysms ” are reported, six of whom presented with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (four with choroidal type and two with mural type malformations). The remaining five patients presented with vein of Galen aneurysmal dilatations secondarily due to an arteriovenous malformation in one patient, an arteriovenous fistula in another, dural arteriovenous fistulas in two patients, and a varix in another. Treatments for these patients were individualised with consideration given to the clinical manifestations and the angioarchitecture of their lesions. Endovascular intervention played a critical role in the treatment of these vein of Galen aneurysms. PMID:20663385

  17. A case of microdeletion of 19p13 with intellectual disability, hypertrichosis, synophrys, and protruding front teeth.

    PubMed

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Kibæk, Maria; Fagerberg, Christina R

    2012-10-01

    We present a de novo 1.4 Mb deletion of chromosome 19p13.11-p13.12 in a 16 year old boy with intellectual disability, autistic features, microcephaly, hearing impairment, hypertrichosis, synophrys, protruding front teeth, and other dysmorphic features. By comparing our patient to reported cases with overlapping deletions, we have refined the minimal critical region of hypertrichosis, synophrys, and protruding front teeth to 305 kb, a region containing seven genes. CASP14, which is considered a good candidate gene for hypertrichosis, is not included in this region, questioning the causal relationship.

  18. Support for varicose veins.

    PubMed Central

    Fentem, P H; Goddard, M; Gooden, B A

    1976-01-01

    A method has been devised to allow reliable comparison of different strengths and constructions of support hosiery. Five garments were evaluated for the compression they exerted on the leg and their ability to limit the distension of a model varicose vein. Stockings and tights which provide modest compression can achieve worthwhile control of vein distension. PMID:1247807

  19. Prepancreatic preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Lal, N S; Kuruvila, A P; Natesh, P B; Koshy, M M; Anandakumar, M

    1992-10-01

    We report a 17 year old girl with prepancreatic and preduodenal portal vein. She presented with recurrent vomiting. Barium study revealed malrotation of the gut. Laparotomy confirmed malrotation of the gut with a prepancreatic and preduodenal portal vein. The patient is asymptomatic after gastrojejunostomy and vagotomy.

  20. How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected into your veins. The dye outlines your veins on x-ray images. An angiogram can help your doctor confirm whether you have varicose veins or another condition. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  1. Protruding Features of Viral Capsids Are Clustered on Icosahedral Great Circles

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical viruses are remarkably well characterized by the Triangulation (T) number developed by Casper and Klug. The T-number specifies how many viral capsid proteins are required to cover the virus, as well as how they are further subdivided into pentamer and hexamer subunits. The T-number however does not constrain the orientations of these proteins within the subunits or dictate where the proteins should place their protruding features. These protrusions often take the form of loops, spires and helices, and are significant because they aid in stability of the capsid as well as recognition by the host organism. Until now there has be no overall understanding of the placement of protrusions for spherical viruses, other than they have icosahedral symmetry. We constructed a set of gauge points based upon the work affine extensions of Keef and Twarock, which have fixed relative angular locations with which to measure the locations of these features. This work adds a new element to our understanding of the geometric arrangement of spherical viral capsid proteins; chiefly that the locations of protruding features are not found stochastically distributed in an icosahedral manner across the viral surface, but instead these features are found only in specific locations along the 15 icosahedral great circles. We have found that this result holds true as the T number and viral capsids size increases, suggesting an underlying geometric constraint on their locations. This is in spite of the fact that the constraints on the pentamers and hexamer orientations change as a function of T-number, as you need to accommodate more hexamers in the same solid angle between pentamers. The existence of this angular constraint of viral capsids suggests that there is a fitness or energetic benefit to the virus placing its protrusions in this manner. This discovery may have profound impacts on identifying and eliminating viral pathogens, understanding evolutionary constraints as well as

  2. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,...

  3. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,...

  4. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,...

  5. An Approach to Automatic Detection and Hazard Risk Assessment of Large Protruding Rocks in Densely Forested Hilly Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatkuli, S.; Kawamura, K.; Manno, K.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    Rock-fall along highways or railways presents one of the major threats to transportation and human safety. So far, the only feasible way to detect the locations of such protruding rocks located in the densely forested hilly region is by physically visiting the site and assessing the situation. Highways or railways are stretched to hundreds of kilometres; hence, this traditional approach of determining rock-fall risk zones is not practical to assess the safety throughout the highways or railways. In this research, we have utilized a state-of-the-art airborne LiDAR technology and derived a workflow to automatically detect protruding rocks in densely forested hilly regions and analysed the level of hazard risks they pose. Moreover, we also performed a 3D dynamic simulation of rock-fall to envisage the event. We validated that our proposed technique could automatically detect most of the large protruding rocks in the densely forested hilly region. Automatic extraction of protruding rocks and proper risk zoning could be used to identify the most crucial place that needs the proper protection measures. Hence, the proposed technique would provide an invaluable support for the management and planning of highways and railways safety, especially in the forested hilly region.

  6. Foot and body control of biped robots to walk on irregularly protruded uneven surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Eung Seo

    2009-02-01

    This correspondence proposes a control method for biped robots walking on a geometrically uneven surface with irregular protrusions. The focus is to maintain robot stability in leg and foot motions in order to adapt the foot to uneven terrains. Under the assumption that contact sensors are evenly installed at the foot soles, the geometric information under the landing foot is represented by a terrain matrix, whose elements represent the height of protruded cones. The control strategy of a landing phase (LP) is to form a large polygon with the contact points between the foot and the ground, based on the current zero-moment point (ZMP) and the locations of contact points during the transition from the LP to the stable double-support phase. The center of the polygon formed by the contact points at the end of the LP is to be used as the ZMP when the trajectory for the next step is generated. The gravity-compensated inverted-pendulum-mode-based trajectory is modified based on the newly located ZMP position and is interpolated to remove any trajectory discontinuity and to ensure a smooth transition. A series of computer simulations of a 28-degree-of-freedom (DOF) biped robot with a six-DOF environment model using SimMechanics shows that a stable compliant locomotion on uneven surfaces is successfully achieved with the proposed method.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of the temperature distribution of injection molded products using protruding microprobes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Ho, Chia-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Injection molding has been one of the most important polymer processing methods for manufacturing plastic parts. In the process, the temperature is an important parameter that influences process features such as cycle times, crystallization rates, degree of crystallinity, melt flow properties, and molded product qualities. This study aims to, experimentally and numerically, examine the three-dimensional temperature distribution along the melt flow path of injection molded parts. A special experimental set-up, which includes an injection mold equipped with protruding microprobes for guiding embedded thermocouples, was designed and built to measure the temperature field along the flow path, i.e., inside the runner and the cavity, of injection molded products. The experimental results suggested that the disturbance induced by the probes remained negligible and precise temperature profiles could be measured at various positions inside the cavity. A significant increase of melt temperature was found to result from the viscous dissipation of the polymeric materials in the runner. Additionally, a commercially available code was employed to simulate and predict the temperature variation in injection molded parts. It was shown that the numerical simulation predicted better the temperature distributions inside the cavity than those along the runner.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of the temperature distribution of injection molded products using protruding microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Ho, Chia-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Injection molding has been one of the most important polymer processing methods for manufacturing plastic parts. In the process, the temperature is an important parameter that influences process features such as cycle times, crystallization rates, degree of crystallinity, melt flow properties, and molded product qualities. This study aims to, experimentally and numerically, examine the three-dimensional temperature distribution along the melt flow path of injection molded parts. A special experimental set-up, which includes an injection mold equipped with protruding microprobes for guiding embedded thermocouples, was designed and built to measure the temperature field along the flow path, i.e., inside the runner and the cavity, of injection molded products. The experimental results suggested that the disturbance induced by the probes remained negligible and precise temperature profiles could be measured at various positions inside the cavity. A significant increase of melt temperature was found to result from the viscous dissipation of the polymeric materials in the runner. Additionally, a commercially available code was employed to simulate and predict the temperature variation in injection molded parts. It was shown that the numerical simulation predicted better the temperature distributions inside the cavity than those along the runner.

  9. Spatiotemporal relationships between the cell shape and the actomyosin cortex of periodically protruding cells

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Losert, Wolfgang; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of cell shape and analyze the actin and myosin distributions of cells exhibiting cortical density traveling waves. These waves propagate by repeated cycles of cortical compression (folding) and dilation (unfolding) that lead to periodic protrusions (oscillations) of the cell boundary. The focus of our detailed analysis is the remarkable periodicity of this phenotype, in which both the overall shape transformation and distribution of actomyosin density are repeated from cycle to cycle even though the characteristics of the shape transformation vary significantly for different regions of the cell. We show, using correlation analysis, that during traveling wave propagation cortical actin and plasma membrane densities are tightly coupled at each point along the cell periphery. We also demonstrate that the major protrusion appears at the wave trailing edge just after the actin cortex density has reached a maximum. Making use of the extraordinary periodicity, we employ latrunculin to demonstrate that sequestering actin monomers can have two distinct effects: low latrunculin concentrations can trigger and enhance traveling waves but higher concentrations of this drug retard the waves. The fundamental mechanism underlying this periodically protruding phenotype, involving folding and unfolding of the cortex‐membrane couple, is likely to hold important clues for diverse phenomena including cell division and amoeboid‐type migration. © 2015 The Authors. Cytoskeleton Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26147497

  10. Protruding structures on caterpillars are controlled by ectopic Wnt1 expression.

    PubMed

    Edayoshi, Mina; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Spine-like or protruding structures, which may be aposematic for predators, are often observed in multiple segments of lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). For example, the larvae of the Chinese wheel butterfly, Byasa alcinous, display many protrusions on their backs as a warning that they are toxic. Although these protrusions are formed by an integument lined with single-layered epidermal cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation have remained unclear. In this study, we focused on a spontaneous mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, Knobbed, which shows similar protrusions to B. alcinous and demonstrates that Wnt1 plays a crucial role in the formation of protrusion structures. Using both transgene expression and RNAi-based knockdown approaches, we showed that Wnt1 designates the position where epidermal cells excessively proliferate, leading to the generation of knobbed structures. Furthermore, in the B. alcinous larvae, Wnt1 was also specifically expressed in association with the protrusions. Our results suggest that Wnt1 plays a role in the formation of protrusions on the larval body, and is conserved broadly among diverse species in Lepidoptera.

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... helps reduce the chances that your blood will pool and clot. You should wear these stockings during ... Make lifestyle changes. Lose weight and quit smoking. Obesity and smoking increase your risk of deep vein ...

  12. What Are Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment ...

  13. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Yogesh K; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion.

  14. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  15. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  16. [Puncture of the brachiocephalic vein].

    PubMed

    Schlarb, K

    1986-09-01

    A specific central vein catheter for puncture of the brachiocephalic vein has been developed which is provided with a valve by which air-embolism and unwanted bleeding from the catheter are eliminated. Typical and often serious complications, which can develop on insertion of central vein catheter, can nearly be totally avoided by the puncture technique described.

  17. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-10-29

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely.

  18. Modeling the effect of head drag reduction for a cylinder with a protruding disk at high mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Mikhalev, A. N.; Sudakov, A. G.

    2014-11-01

    Various approaches to modeling super- and hypersonic turbulent airflow past cylindrical bodies with a nontraditional nose in the form of a protruding rod-supported disk have been compared. Aeroballistic experiments on a light-gas propulsion setup were combined with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations using VP2/3 program package based on multiblock computational techniques and a model of shear stress transport with flow-line curvature corrections. The phenomenon of the head and wave drag reduction for the stepped body is analyzed at high Mach numbers (up to 10) and variation of the supporting rod length under conditions of existence of the frontal flow separation zone.

  19. A Primary Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Arising from Left Subclavian Vein and Extending along Left Brachiocephalic Vein and Superior Vena Cava into Right Atrium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Weici; Li, Yiqing; Jin, Bi; Yu, Miao; Liu, Wenqi; Yao, Shaohua; Liao, Yonggui; Ouyang, Chenxi

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is an extremely rare malignancy thought to be derived from fetal neuroectodermal precursor cells. It usually occurs in central and peripheral nervous system or soft tissue and bone, while intravenous or intracavitary PNET is considered as an extremely rare tumor. We reported a case of a 44-year-old woman who presented with the left unilateral facial and neck swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tape-shaped solid mass within left subclavian vein, left brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, and right atrium; the proximal end proportion occupied almost the entire right atrium with a pedicle flip protruded into the right ventricle. Ultrasonography revealed an irregular hypoechnoic mass arising from the left subclavian vein, which extended along the left brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava into the right atrium and up to the right ventricle. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed several hypermetabolic thyroid nodules with no evidence of intravenous hyperactive lesion. The patient underwent tumor resection under cardiopulmonary bypass. At 15 days postoperatively, total thyroidectomy and resection of the left subclavian vein were simultaneously performed. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy later. Histologically, the neoplasm displayed small, round, blue cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. The neoplastic cells showed a strong immunopositivity for CD99, synaptophysin, CD56, CD57, and friend leukemia integration 1, thus confirming a diagnosis of the PNET. Histopathological examination of the thyroid showed papillary carcinoma. Thus, this PNET had no definitive organ or tissue of origin, which primarily originated from the left subclavian vein with tumor extension along the superior vena cava to the right ventricle.

  20. Antibacterial effects of protruding and recessed shark skin micropatterned surfaces of polyacrylate plate with a shallow groove.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Akihiko; Terui, Yusuke; Horie, Chihiro; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Sugawara, Shintaro; Shigeta, Kaku; Shigeta, Tatsuo; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial effects in terms of biofilm formation and swarming motility were studied using polyacrylate plates having protruding or recessed shark skin micropatterned surfaces with a shallow groove (2 μm pattern width and spacing, 0.4 μm pattern height). It was found that biofilm formation and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were strongly inhibited by the shark skin pattern plates with a shallow (0.4 μm) pattern height. Biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus was also strongly inhibited. Live bacteria were located on the pattern rather than in the spacing. When the shape of pattern was a linear ridge instead of shark skin, the antibacterial effects were weaker than seen with the shark skin pattern. The results indicate that the pattern of shark skin is important for decreasing bacterial infection even with a shallow feature height.

  1. The economics of vein disease.

    PubMed

    Sales, Clifford M; Podnos, Joan; Levison, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The management of cosmetic vein problems requires a very different approach than that for the majority of most other vascular disorders that occur in a vascular surgery practice. This article focuses on the business aspects of a cosmetic vein practice, with particular attention to the uniqueness of these issues. Managing patient expectations is critical to the success of a cosmetic vein practice. Maneuvering within the insurance can be difficult and frustrating for both the patient and the practice. Practices should use cost accounting principles to evaluate the success of their vein work. Vein surgery--especially if performed within the office--can undergo an accurate break-even analysis to determine its profitability.

  2. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  3. Structure and assembly of P-pili: A protruding hinge region used for assembly of a bacterial adhesion filament

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiang-Qi; Bullitt, Esther

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution structures of macromolecular complexes offer unparalleled insight into the workings of biological systems and hence the interplay of these systems in health and disease. We have adopted a multifaceted approach to understanding the pathogenically important structure of P-pili, the class I adhesion pili from pyelonephritic Escherichia coli. Our approach combines electron cryomicroscopy, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modeling, and energy calculations, resulting in a high-resolution model of PapA, the major structural element of these pili. Fitting of the modeled PapA subunit into the electron cryomicroscopy data provides a detailed view of these pilins within the supramolecular architecture of the pilus filament. A structural hinge in the N-terminal region of the subunit is located at the site of a newly resolved electron density that protrudes from the P-pilus surface. The structural flexibility provided by this hinge is necessary for assembly of P-pili, illustrating one solution to construction of large macromolecular complexes from small repeating units. These data support our hypothesis that domain-swapped pilin subunits transit the outer cell membrane vertically and rotate about the hinge for final positioning into the pilus filament. Our data confirm and supply a structural basis for much previous genetic, biochemical, and structural data. This model of the P-pilus filament provides an insight into the mechanism of assembly of a macromolecular complex essential for initiation of kidney infection by these bacteria. PMID:16782819

  4. Epithelial fluid transport: protruding macromolecules and space charges can bring about electro-osmotic coupling at the tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Rubashkin, A; Iserovich, P; Hernández, J A; Fischbarg, J

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate whether the idea of epithelial fluid transport based on electro-osmotic coupling at the level of the leaky tight junction (TJ) can be further supported by a plausible theoretical model. We develop a model for fluid transport across epithelial layers based on electro-osmotic coupling at leaky tight junctions (TJ) possessing protruding macromolecules and fixed electrical charges. The model embodies systems of electro-hydrodynamic equations for the intercellular pathway, namely the Brinkman and the Poisson-Boltzmann differential equations applied to the TJ. We obtain analytical solutions for a system of these two equations, and are able to derive expressions for the fluid velocity profile and the electrostatic potential. We illustrate the model by employing geometrical parameters and experimental data from the corneal endothelium, for which we have previously reported evidence for a central role for electro-osmosis in translayer fluid transport. Our results suggest that electro-osmotic coupling at the TJ can account for fluid transport by the corneal endothelium. We conclude that electro-osmotic coupling at the tight junctions could represent one of the basic mechanisms driving fluid transport across some leaky epithelia, a process that remains unexplained.

  5. Antimicrobial surfaces containing cationic nanoparticles: how immobilized, clustered, and protruding cationic charge presentation affects killing activity and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Jiang, Ying; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rotello, Vincent M; Santore, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    This work examines how the antimicrobial (killing) activity of net-negative surfaces depends on the presentation of antimicrobial cationic functionality: distributed versus clustered, and flat clusters versus raised clusters. Specifically, the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus by sparsely distributed 10 nm cationic nanoparticles, immobilized on a negative surface and backfilled with a PEG (polyethylene glycol) brush, was compared with that for a dense layer of the same immobilized nanoparticles. Additionally, sparsely distributed 10 nm poly-L-lysine (PLL) coils, adsorbed to a surface to produce flat cationic "patches" and backfilled with a PEG brush were compared to a saturated adsorbed layer of PLL. The latter resembled classical uniformly cationic antimicrobial surfaces. The protrusion of the cationic clusters substantially influenced killing but the surface concentration of the clusters had minor impact, as long as bacteria adhered. When surfaces were functionalized at the minimum nanoparticle and patch densities needed for bacterial adhesion, killing activity was substantial within 30 min and nearly complete within 2 h. Essentially identical killing was observed on more densely functionalized surfaces. Surfaces containing protruding (by about 8 nm) nanoparticles accomplished rapid killing (at 30 min) compared with surfaces containing similarly cationic but flat features (PLL patches). Importantly, the overall surface density of cationic functionality within the clusters was lower than reported thresholds for antimicrobial action. Also surprising, the nanoparticles were far more deadly when surface-immobilized compared with free in solution. These findings support a killing mechanism involving interfacial stress.

  6. Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... that impact a person’s quality of life. Endovenous laser ablation treatment (EVLT) EVLT is a minimally invasive ... ray images ), the interventional radiologist threads a thin laser fiber into the problem vein through a tiny ...

  7. How Are Varicose Veins Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and scarring. Sclerotherapy Sclerotherapy (SKLER-o-ther-ah-pe) uses a liquid chemical to close off a ... Microsclerotherapy Microsclerotherapy (MI-kro-SKLER-o-ther-ah-pe) is used to treat spider veins and other ...

  8. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... deep vein of the leg can break off, travel to the lungs, and block blood flow. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: October 28, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT ...

  9. [Surgery of essential varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Maraval, M

    1994-03-15

    Idiopathic varicose veins of the lower limbs are a frequent but benign disorder. Surgery is only a moment in the course of the disease. Although not the only treatment of essential varicose veins, surgery by an experienced team performing crossectomy, stripping by intussusception using a stripper, and phlebectomy gives fully satisfactory results, both to patient and to physician, in over 80% of cases. New techniques were recently developed that, at present, have not confirmed early hopes.

  10. Capping protein regulatory cycle driven by CARMIL and V-1 may promote actin network assembly at protruding edges.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ikuko; Remmert, Kirsten; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Hammer, John A

    2014-05-13

    Although capping protein (CP) terminates actin filament elongation, it promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly and accelerates actin-based motility both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, capping protein Arp2/3 myosin I linker (CARMIL) antagonizes CP by reducing its affinity for the barbed end and by uncapping CP-capped filaments, whereas the protein V-1/myotrophin sequesters CP in an inactive complex. Previous work showed that CARMIL can readily retrieve CP from the CP:V-1 complex, thereby converting inactive CP into a version with moderate affinity for the barbed end. Here we further clarify the mechanism of this exchange reaction, and we demonstrate that the CP:CARMIL complex created by complex exchange slows the rate of barbed-end elongation by rapidly associating with, and dissociating from, the barbed end. Importantly, the cellular concentrations of V-1 and CP determined here argue that most CP is sequestered by V-1 at steady state in vivo. Finally, we show that CARMIL is recruited to the plasma membrane and only at cell edges undergoing active protrusion. Assuming that CARMIL is active only at this location, our data argue that a large pool of freely diffusing, inactive CP (CP:V-1) feeds, via CARMIL-driven complex exchange, the formation of weak-capping complexes (CP:CARMIL) at the plasma membrane of protruding edges. In vivo, therefore, CARMIL should promote Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly at the leading edge by promoting barbed-end capping there.

  11. Capping protein regulatory cycle driven by CARMIL and V-1 may promote actin network assembly at protruding edges

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ikuko; Remmert, Kirsten; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Hammer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Although capping protein (CP) terminates actin filament elongation, it promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly and accelerates actin-based motility both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, capping protein Arp2/3 myosin I linker (CARMIL) antagonizes CP by reducing its affinity for the barbed end and by uncapping CP-capped filaments, whereas the protein V-1/myotrophin sequesters CP in an inactive complex. Previous work showed that CARMIL can readily retrieve CP from the CP:V-1 complex, thereby converting inactive CP into a version with moderate affinity for the barbed end. Here we further clarify the mechanism of this exchange reaction, and we demonstrate that the CP:CARMIL complex created by complex exchange slows the rate of barbed-end elongation by rapidly associating with, and dissociating from, the barbed end. Importantly, the cellular concentrations of V-1 and CP determined here argue that most CP is sequestered by V-1 at steady state in vivo. Finally, we show that CARMIL is recruited to the plasma membrane and only at cell edges undergoing active protrusion. Assuming that CARMIL is active only at this location, our data argue that a large pool of freely diffusing, inactive CP (CP:V-1) feeds, via CARMIL-driven complex exchange, the formation of weak-capping complexes (CP:CARMIL) at the plasma membrane of protruding edges. In vivo, therefore, CARMIL should promote Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly at the leading edge by promoting barbed-end capping there. PMID:24778263

  12. Gypsum veins in Triassic Moenkopi mudrocks of southern Utah: Analogs to calcium sulfate veins on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B. W.; Chan, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Well-exposed gypsum veins in the Triassic Moenkopi formation in southern Utah, USA, are similar to veins at Endeavour and Gale Craters on Mars. Both Moenkopi and Mars veins are hydrated calcium sulfate, have fibrous textures, and crosscut other diagenetic features. Moenkopi veins are stratigraphically localized with strontium and sulfur isotope ratios similar to primary Moenkopi sulfate beds and are thus interpreted to be sourced from within the unit. Endeavour veins seem to be distributed by lithology and may have a local source. Gale veins cut across multiple lithologies and appear to be sourced from another stratigraphic interval. Evaluation of vein network geometries indicates that horizontal Moenkopi veins are longer and thicker than vertical veins. Moenkopi veins are also generally oriented with the modern stress field, so are interpreted to have formed in the latest stages of exhumation. Endeavour veins appear to be generally vertical and oriented parallel to the margins of Cape York and are interpreted to have formed in response to topographic collapse of the crater rim. Gale horizontal veins appear to be slightly more continuous than vertical veins and may have formed during exhumation. Abrupt changes in orientation, complex crosscutting relationships, and fibrous (antitaxial) texture in Moenkopi and Mars veins suggest emplacement via hydraulic fracture at low temperatures. Moenkopi and Mars veins are interpreted as late-stage diagenetic features that have experienced little alteration since emplacement. Moenkopi veins are useful terrestrial analogs for Mars veins because vein geometry, texture, and chemistry record information about crustal deformation and vein emplacement.

  13. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979

  14. Leiomyosarcoma of the splenic vein.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Cristian; Socola, Francisco; Donet, Jean A; Gallastegui, Nicolas; Hernandez, Gabriel A

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyosarcomas arising from the wall of blood vessels are rare and aggressive neoplasm. We report a case of a previously healthy 66-year-old woman who presented with intermittent abdominal pain, progressive constipation, and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 12 cm solid heterogeneous tumor in the tail of the pancreas. The patient subsequently underwent surgical resection of the pancreatic mass. Surprisingly, histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed leiomyosarcoma arising from the smooth muscle of the splenic vein. After surgery, she received adjuvant chemotherapy. One year later, there was no evidence of local recurrence. In this paper, we discuss the available information about leiomyosarcomas of splenic vein and its management.

  15. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction and Portal Vein Thrombosis in Special Situations: Need for a New Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi

    2015-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized. PMID:26021771

  16. Repair of complete bilateral cleft lip with severely protruding premaxilla performing a premaxillary setback and vomerine ostectomy in one stage surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Marta; Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Belmonte-Caro, Rodolfo; Gonzalez-Perez, Luis-Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The authors present a technique for selected cases of CBCL. The primary repair of the CBCL with a severely protruding premaxilla in one stage surgery is very difficult, essentially because a good muscular apposition is difficult, forcing synchronously to do a premaxillary setback to facilitate subsequent bilateral lip repair and, thus, achieving satisfactory results. We achieve this by a reductive ostectomy on the vomero-premaxillary suture. Material and Methods 4 patients with CBCL and severely protruding premaxilla underwent premaxillary setback by vomerine ostectomy at the same time of lip repair in the past 24 months. The extent of premaxillary setback varied between 9 and 16 mm. The required amount of bone was removed anterior to the vomero-premaxillary suture. The authors did an additional simultaneous gingivoperiosteoplasty in all patients, achieving an enough stability of the premaxilla in its new position, to be able to close the alveolar gap bilaterally. The authors have examined the position of premaxilla and dental arch between 6 and 24 months. We did not do the primary nose correction, because this increased the risk of impairment of the already compromised vascularity of the philtrum and premaxilla. Results The follow-up period ranged between 6 and 24 months. None of the patients had any major complication. During follow-up, the premaxilla was minimally mobile. We achieved a good lip repair in all cases: adequate muscle repair, symmetry of the lip, prolabium and Cupid’s bow, as well as good scars. Conclusions To our knowledge, there are few reports of one stage surgery with vomerine ostectomy to repair CBCL with severely protruding premaxilla. Doing this vomerine ostectomy, we don’t know how it will affect the subsequent growth of the premaxila and restrict the natural maxillary growth. Applying this alternative treatment for children with CBCL and protruded premaxilla without any preoperative orthopedic, we can successfully perform, in

  17. Angiosarcoma of common iliac vein

    PubMed Central

    Ibis, Kamuran; Usta, Ufuk; Cosar, Rusen; Ibis, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of endothelial cells. Primary angiosarcoma of venous origin is extremely rare, and has a very poor prognosis. A 63-year-old woman with retroperitoneal mass underwent en bloc resection on a part of iliac vein followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25596292

  18. How Is Deep Vein Thrombosis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vein Thrombosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. He or she will identify your risk factors and rule out other causes of your symptoms. ...

  19. What Are Varicose Veins? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... X-ray What Are Varicose Veins? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Are Varicose Veins? Print A A A ...

  20. phenoVein-A Tool for Leaf Vein Segmentation and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Jonas; Rishmawi, Louai; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-12-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. The most important traits being calculated are total vein length, vein density, piecewise vein lengths and widths, areole area, and skeleton graph statistics, like the number of branching or ending points. For the determination of vein widths, a model-based vein edge estimation approach has been implemented. Validation was performed for the measurement of vein length, vein width, and vein density of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), proving the reliability of phenoVein. We demonstrate the power of phenoVein on a set of previously described vein structure mutants of Arabidopsis (hemivenata, ondulata3, and asymmetric leaves2-101) compared with wild-type accessions Columbia-0 and Landsberg erecta-0. phenoVein is freely available as open-source software.

  1. Common femoral vein reconstruction using internal jugular vein after blast injury.

    PubMed

    Holt, Andrew M; West, Charles A; Davis, James A; Gilani, Ramyar; Askenasy, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Common femoral vein traumatic injuries are rare. Surgical management is controversial and by nature case specific. In this report, we present an unusual case of an isolated common femoral vein injury from a gunshot blast repaired with an interposition internal jugular vein bypass. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated common femoral vein reconstructed in this manner.

  2. Varicose veins; a practical approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    ELLENBURG, R

    1958-05-01

    Adequate treatment of varicose veins requires thorough mapping of perforating veins, communicating veins and "blow out" areas. Combined ligations, stripping and injection of sclerotic substances after operation is the most effective regimen of therapy. The technique of stripping is facilitated by isolating the saphenous vein at the ankle, inserting the stripper from below upward, then making a transverse groin incision over the palpable stripper. The tip of the stripper should be twice the diameter of the vein to be removed. Stripping should be done with the patient in the Trendelenburg position. All patients must be examined at regular intervals after operation and injection of sclerosing material carried out as necessary.

  3. Preduodenal portal vein: surgery and radiographic appearance.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, E T; Burton, E M; Hixson, S D; Hollabaugh, R S

    1990-12-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is rare, with 63 cases reported in the literature. In general, this anomaly occurs in children with associated small bowel obstruction. We report a newborn infant who presented with duodenal stenosis, mongolism, and preduodenal portal vein. Treatment consisted of a duodenoduodenal anastomosis without mobilizing the portal vein. The correlation between imaging techniques and the operative findings is discussed. Because identification of preduodenal portal vein at surgery is important, preoperative sonography may be useful in selected cases to define the position of the vein.

  4. The epidermal cell structure of the secondary pollen presenter in Vangueria infausta (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) suggests a functional association with protruding onci in pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Tilney, Patricia M; van Wyk, Abraham E; van der Merwe, Chris F

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation is a well-known phenomenon in the Rubiaceae with particularly conspicuous pollen presenters occurring in the tribe Vanguerieae. These knob-like structures are formed by a modification of the upper portion of the style and stigma, together known as the stylar head complex. In the flower bud and shortly before anthesis, the anthers surrounding the stylar head complex dehisce and release pollen grains which adhere to the pollen presenter. The epidermal cells of the pollen presenter facing the anthers are radially elongated with a characteristic wall thickening encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell towards the distal end. These cells were studied in the pollen presenter of Vangueria infausta using electron and light microscopy in conjunction with histochemical tests and immunohistochemical methods. Other prominent thickenings of the cell wall were also observed on the distal and proximal walls. All these thickenings were found to be rich in pectin and possibly xyloglucan. The terms "thickenings of Igersheim" and "bands of Igersheim" are proposed to refer, respectively, to these wall structures in general and those encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell near the distal end. The epidermal cells have an intricate ultrastructure with an abundance of organelles, including smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. This indicates that these cells are likely to have an active physiological role. The pollen grains possess prominent protruding onci and observations were made on their structure and development. Walls of the protruding onci are also rich in pectin. Pectins are hydrophilic and known to be involved in the dehydration and rehydration of pollen grains. We hypothesise that the thickenings of Igersheim, as well as the protruding onci of the pollen grains, are functionally associated and part of the adaptive syndrome of secondary pollen presentation, at least in the Vanguerieae.

  5. The Epidermal Cell Structure of the Secondary Pollen Presenter in Vangueria infausta (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) Suggests a Functional Association with Protruding Onci in Pollen Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, Patricia M.; van Wyk, Abraham E.; van der Merwe, Chris F.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation is a well-known phenomenon in the Rubiaceae with particularly conspicuous pollen presenters occurring in the tribe Vanguerieae. These knob-like structures are formed by a modification of the upper portion of the style and stigma, together known as the stylar head complex. In the flower bud and shortly before anthesis, the anthers surrounding the stylar head complex dehisce and release pollen grains which adhere to the pollen presenter. The epidermal cells of the pollen presenter facing the anthers are radially elongated with a characteristic wall thickening encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell towards the distal end. These cells were studied in the pollen presenter of Vangueria infausta using electron and light microscopy in conjunction with histochemical tests and immunohistochemical methods. Other prominent thickenings of the cell wall were also observed on the distal and proximal walls. All these thickenings were found to be rich in pectin and possibly xyloglucan. The terms “thickenings of Igersheim” and “bands of Igersheim” are proposed to refer, respectively, to these wall structures in general and those encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell near the distal end. The epidermal cells have an intricate ultrastructure with an abundance of organelles, including smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. This indicates that these cells are likely to have an active physiological role. The pollen grains possess prominent protruding onci and observations were made on their structure and development. Walls of the protruding onci are also rich in pectin. Pectins are hydrophilic and known to be involved in the dehydration and rehydration of pollen grains. We hypothesise that the thickenings of Igersheim, as well as the protruding onci of the pollen grains, are functionally associated and part of the adaptive syndrome of secondary pollen presentation, at least in the

  6. Mechanical buckling of veins under internal pressure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A; Shireman, Paula K; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-04-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that the veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 +/- 5.4 and 26.4 +/- 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy, and vein grafts.

  7. Management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Allen

    2012-12-26

    Chronic venous disease, reviewed herein, is manifested by a spectrum of signs and symptoms, including cosmetic spider veins, asymptomatic varicosities, large painful varicose veins, edema, hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis of skin, and ulceration. However, there is no definitive stepwise progression from spider veins to ulcers and, in fact, severe skin complications of varicose veins, even when extensive, are not guaranteed. Treatment options range from conservative (eg, medications, compression stockings, lifestyle changes) to minimally invasive (eg, sclerotherapy or endoluminal ablation), invasive (surgical techniques), and hybrid (combination of ≥1 therapies). Ms L, a 68-year-old woman with varicose veins, is presented. She has had vein problems over the course of her life. Her varicose veins recurred after initial treatment, and she is now seeking guidance regarding her current treatment options.

  8. Mortality after portal vein embolization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eung Chang; Park, Sang-Jae; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lee, In Joon; Kim, Hyun Beom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Portal vein embolization (PVE) is increasingly performed worldwide to reduce the possibility of liver failure after extended hepatectomy, by inducing future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy and atrophy of the liver planned for resection. The procedure is known to be very safe and to have few procedure-related complications. In this study, we described 2 elderly patients with Bismuth–Corlette type IV Klatskin tumor who underwent right trisectional PVE involving the embolization of the right portal vein, the left medial sectional portal branch, and caudate portal vein. Within 1 week after PVE, patients went into sepsis combined with bile leak and died within 1 month. Sepsis can cause acute liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, the common patient characteristics other than sepsis, that is, trisectional PVE; chronic alcoholism; aged >65 years; heart-related comorbidity; and elevated serum total bilirubin (TB) level (7.0 mg/dL) at the time of the PVE procedure in 1 patient, and concurrent biliary procedure, that is, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in the other patient might have affected the outcomes of PVE. These cases highlight that PVE is not a safe procedure. Care should be taken to minimize the occurrence of infectious events because sepsis following PVE can cause acute liver failure. Additionally, prior to performing PVE, the extent of PVE, chronic alcohol consumption, age, comorbidity, long-lasting jaundice, concurrent biliary procedure, etc. should be considered for patient safety. PMID:28178122

  9. Excimer laser coronary angioplasty: clinical results and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittl, John A.

    1993-06-01

    Despite four years of intensive clinical investigation, excimer laser coronary angioplasty has not been accepted by the interventional cardiology community as the intervention of choice for any lesion type. Although the preliminary analysis presented here shows that the new technology shows promise for the treatment of saphenous vein graft lesions, aorto-ostial lesions and other lesions, these lesion types account for only about 5 - 10% of cases currently targeted for angioplasty and can frequently be treated with other interventional methods. Broader use of excimer laser angioplasty requires convincing proof that the new technology has clear superiority over other interventional techniques for a wider range of lesion types. Furthermore, the mechanisms of vessel dissection, perforation and abrupt closure need further clarification. Thus, the major challenges for excimer laser angioplasty include: (1) randomized trials to document the superiority of excimer laser over balloon angioplasty; (2) improved catheter designs, including devices for eccentric lesions and total occlusions; and (3) a better understanding of laser-tissue interactions to reduce the unpredictability of unfavorable angiographic outcome.

  10. Veins of the thoracic limb of the Van cat.

    PubMed

    Ozüdoğru, Z; Aksoy, G; Soygüder, Z; Ozmen, E

    2003-04-01

    The drainage of the thoracic limb of the Van cat was performed by the superficial and deep vein systems. The superficial system was constituted by the cephalic vein and its branches. The deep vein system was constituted by the axillary vein and its branches. The two vein systems anastomosed with each other at various points along their courses. The cephalic vein emerged from the external jugular vein together with the superficial cervical vein. The axillary vein continued the subclavian vein. It ran caudoventrally and gave off the subscapular vein, at the level of the shoulder joint, then gave off two independent branches, which were the external thoracic veins. Then the rest of the vessel continued as the brachial vein. The thoracodorsal vein was formed by the communicate ramus vein which arose between the subscapular vein and the brachial vein. The cranial circumflex humeral vein arose double from the subscapular vein. One of them anastomosed with the deep brachial vein and the other one drained the biceps and the deep pectoral muscles. The cranial interosseous vein from the caudal aspects of the brachial vein and passed the interosseous space of the antebrachium then ran to the lateral aspect of the forearm. The caudal interosseous vein arose from the ulnar vein (in two specimens) and the median vein together with the ulnar vein (in two specimens) or independently from the median vein (in one specimen). Although many similarities were found in the veins of the thoracic limb of the Van cat as compared with the domestic cat, some significant differences were noted in the origin, course, anastomosing and ramification of veins of the thoracic limb.

  11. Topographic anatomy of the fetal inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and pulmonary veins: Variations in Chiari's network.

    PubMed

    Naito, Michiko; Yu, Hee Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-07-01

    To understand anomalies in Chiari's network better, we assessed the topographical anatomy of the fetal inferior vena cava (IVC), coronary sinus, and atria. We examined sagittal serial paraffin sections of 15 human fetuses of crown-rump length 24-36 mm, corresponding to a gestational age of 8 weeks. Although their outflow tract morphologies were similar, these 15 specimens could be classified into two groups. In eight specimens, the left common cardinal vein reached the body wall, whereas in the other seven the vein was obliterated near the left pulmonary vein. Irrespective of the group in which the specimen was included, the anteroposterior arrangement of the coronary sinus, the sinus septum (septum), and the right sinus valve (right valve) could be classified into three types: the right valve-septum-coronary sinus arrangement in seven specimens; the right valve-coronary sinus-septum arrangement in five; and the coronary sinus-right valve-septum arrangement in three. Depending on differences in topographical anatomy, the sinus septum separated the coronary sinus opening from either the right or the left atrium. Likewise, the coronary sinus opening was either adjacent to or distant from the IVC terminal. Rather than the counter-side position of the right valve being at the IVC terminal, the left sinus valve protruded leftward, forming an incomplete interatrial septum. Fetal variations seemed to be closely connected with individual variations and a high frequency of Chiari's network anomalies in adults.

  12. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy.

  13. The small saphenous vein and other 'neglected' veins of the popliteal fossa: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, T F; Iafrati, M D

    2007-01-01

    The small saphenous vein (SSV) and other veins in the popliteal fossa merit little discussion in the literature or in didactic programmes regarding their role in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and, in this sense, they are neglected. The purpose of this review is to present both duplex ultrasound findings and the associated clinical characteristics of patients with SSV reflux, from several large series. Both the anatomic variations and the epidemiology of the SSV, as well as other veins of the popliteal fossa, the gastrocnemius veins, Gocamini vein, popliteal area veins and popliteal vein, will be discussed. Findings from our review of the current available literature will demonstrate the important role that these veins play in association with CVI. The implications for open and endovenous surgery will be underlined.

  14. Tissue remodeling investigation in varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderian, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein; Khodaii, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    Although the etiology of varicose veins remains unknown, recent studies have focused on endothelial cell integrity and function because the endothelium regulates vessel tone and synthesizes many pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the evidence involving the endothelium in the development of varicose vein disease. In addition, tissue remodeling was investigated in varicose veins to determine the expression of different types of collagen. Tissue specimens of superficial varicose veins and control saphenous vein were used for immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscope (TEM). α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I, III, IV antibodies were applied for immunohistochemical investigation. Findings of this study showed alterations of the intima, such as focal intimal discontinuity and denudation of endothelium; and the media, such as irregular arrangements of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibres in varicose veins. Our findings showed some changes in terms of distribution of types I, III and IV collagen in the intima and media of varicose vein walls compared with controls. These alterations to the media suggest that the pathological abnormality in varicose veins may be due to the loss of muscle tone as a result of the breakup of its regular structure by the collagen fibres. These findings only described some changes in terms of distribution of these types of collagen in the intima and media of varicose vein walls which may result in venous wall dysfunction in varicosis. PMID:24551759

  15. Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  16. Clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins at legs.

    PubMed

    Jerkic, Zoran; Karic, Alen; Karic, Amela

    2009-01-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis is a common disorder until recently it was considered as benign disorder. Also it is associated with varicose vein at legs and it was treated effectively with conservative methods, walking and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Aims of our investigation were: determine frequency of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis at legs in patient with and without superficial thrombophlebitis, determine correlation between superficial thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis regardless of localization of superficial thrombophlebitis in superficial veins of legs and determine adequacy and safety vein phlebography in early diagnosis clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis. Using flebography in prospective study was evaluated incidence of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in 92 patients with varicose veins at legs. By phlebograpy in patients with varicose veins at legs and superficial thrombophlebitis at legs and without clinical signs of DVT at legs of the 49 patients we detected DVT in 12 patients (24, 48%), in three male and nine female. We detected localization of DVT in ilijacofemoral junction in 4,08% patients, although localization of DVT in femoropopliteal region was observed in 6, 12% patients and localization in crural region was in 14.28% patients. Localization of DVT at legs was detected in iliac vein in 16.66% patients, in femoral vein in 25% patients, popliteal vein 8.33% patients, anterior tibial vein 16.66%, posterior tibial vein in 25% and crural veins 8.33% patients. Also we deduced significant difference between two group of patients (chi2 = 10, 76). Such result proves thesis that in most patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins is possibility of developing of DVT.

  17. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  18. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  19. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  20. Element transport in veins during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, E. M.; Beard, J. S.; Caddick, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks has wide ranging implications for the petrology, rheology, and petrophysical properties of the oceanic lithosphere. During hydration of the peridotite, fluid-rock ratios and temperature control mineral formation in the veins. We studied a partly serpentinized peridotite from the Santa Elena ophiolite complex in Costa Rica and tracked element mobility during water-rock interaction. Serpentinization of the studied harzburgite is around 30 to 40%, with serpentinization of olivine being more advanced than serpentinization of orthopyroxene. Element mapping and point analyses show that the veins preserve characteristic element distributions within orthopyroxene and olivine, and with distance to orthopyroxene-hosted serpentine veins. With increasing distance from the orthopyroxene the following vein assemblages were observed in olivine: pure serpentine veins, serpentine + brucite veins, serpentine + brucite + magnetite veins. Veins are enriched in SiO2 in the proximity of orthopyroxene suggesting that a net transfer of SiO2 takes place from serpentinizing orthopyroxene to olivine. The magnetite-bearing serpentine veins mostly consist of Mg-rich serpentine (Mg# = 90 - 95) and Fe-rich brucite (Mg# = 70 - 75) finely intergrown. In contrast, the center of these veins contains a thin zone of high-Mg serpentine (Mg# 97), and high-Mg brucite (Mg# 92 - 94) next to magnetite. We infer from thermodynamic calculations that these mineral assemblages are controlled by H2O activity and low SiO2 activities. Within orthopyroxene, serpentine (Mg# = 84 - 89) with an elevated Al2O3 content (< 4.14wt.%) was detected, but talc was absent, indicating net loss of SiO2 from orthopyroxene during serpentinization. CaO and Al2O3 migrate from orthopyroxene, but occur only as trace components in serpentine at > 100 μm and > 200 μm, respectively, from the orthopyroxene. We infer that brucite is not stable in close proximity to orthopyroxene due to elevated SiO2

  1. [Preduodenal portal vein (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tovar, J A; Benavent, M; Bachiller, C; Díez-Pardo, J A

    1978-01-01

    Three cases of preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) observed in newborns and young infants are reported. In two patients the diagnosis was made during operations for duodenal stenosis and in the remaining one while operating for midgut volvulus and necrosis. In no case was the PDPV responsible for the clinical picture but in all three patients it was accompanied by other causes of obstruction: annular pancreas, extrinsic adhesive bands and malrotation. In one case there was also an asplenia, and polisplenia was present in another one. Both had malrotation and some degree of abnormal visceral asimmetry. The incidence of associated malformations in 52 previously reported cases is analyzed, and the more convincing embriological explanation for this anomaly is commented upon.

  2. Assessment and management of patients with varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise

    Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins found in the legs. This article explores the anatomy and physiology of the venous system to assist nurses to assess, manage and treat patients with varicose veins.

  3. Lung Pathology in Pediatric Pulmonary Vein Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Pogoriler, Jennifer E; Kulik, Thomas J; Casey, Alicia M; Baird, Christopher W; Mullen, Mary P; Jenkins, Kathy J; Vargas, Sara O

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare progressive narrowing of the extrapulmonary pulmonary veins, presenting predominantly in infancy and virtually always lethal. It typically arises following repair of congenital heart disease, particularly anomalous pulmonary venous return. Histologic characterization of pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis, not previously well described, may provide insight into the disease pathobiology. We retrieved archival lung specimens (biopsy, explant, or autopsy) from patients with pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis. Medical records were reviewed. Microscopic examination included hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides, and for a subset of patients, elastic, trichrome, smooth-muscle actin, and D2-40. Groups with different clinical disease features were compared using Fisher's exact test. A total of 33 patients (median age, 7 months) had available tissue and 52% had congenital heart disease; 18% were premature. Within the lungs, interlobular septal veins showed thickened muscular coats (in 58%), proliferation/tortuosity (in 6%), and fibromyxoid intimal proliferation (in 3%). Associated arterial hypertensive changes were seen in 30 (91%). The one patient with intrapulmonary venous fibromyxoid intimal proliferation was the only patient with apparent primary familial disease. Lymphangiectasia and arterial medial hypertrophy were histologic features that correlated with clinical grouping. We conclude that in pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis, intrapulmonary pulmonary veins commonly show muscular thickening, best interpreted as venous hypertensive remodeling. Fibromyxoid intimal proliferation resembling that of the extrapulmonary pulmonary veins is uncommon. Awareness of intrapulmonary features in various clinical subtypes of pulmonary vein stenosis may be diagnostically and therapeutically informative considering that current catheter-based and surgical therapy is directed at the extrapulmonary component of pulmonary vein stenosis.

  4. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  5. Atypical tryptamine receptors in sheep pulmonary vein.

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, P

    1975-01-01

    Both the pulmonary artery and vein of the sheep contracted dose-dependently to histamine, carbamoylcholine, prostaglandin F2a, noradrenaline and bradykinin and relaxed in the presence of isoprenaline or prostaglandin E1. 2 The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the artery was consistently to produce dose-dependent contractions without tachyphylaxis. The effect on the vein was biphasic. 5HT 5 X 10(-10) to 5 X 10(-8) M relaxed the partially constricted vein. 5-HT 10(-7) to 10(-6) m caused brief venoconstriction followed by relaxation. 5-HT greater than 10(-6) M caused dose-related contraction of the vein. 3 Methysergide effectively blocked the contractile response of the artery to 5-HT, but only weakly inhibited the contractions of the vein (dose-ratio less than 20). 4 Each of ten antagonists tested failed to inhibit the 5-HT-induced relaxation of the vein. Sheep pulmonary vein possesses tryptamine receptors which mediate relaxation and which are not of the classicl M- or D-type. These receptors appear not to be involved directly or indirectly with responses to acetylcholine, catecholamines, histamine or prostaglandins. PMID:1203621

  6. Preduodenal portal vein in the adult.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, T; Papaziogas, B; Paraskevas, G; Lazaridis, C; Patsas, A

    2000-09-01

    We present three cases of preduodenal portal vein in adult people, which were diagnosed in our department. All of them were identified during elective operation for cholelithiasis, caused some technical difficulties to the performance of the operation, but led to no major intraoperative or postoperative complications. None of them had any preoperative symptoms, which could be related to this anomaly. The preduodenal portal vein is a rare congenital anomaly, which is usually discovered in infants or children due to the obstruction of the duodenum. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, and is usually discovered as an accidental finding during laparotomy for other reason. The postcontrast CT can set the diagnosis, when this anomaly is suspected. Despite its rarity, this anomaly is of great surgical importance, because it can predispose to intraoperative complications including hemorrhage from the abnormal vein, or damage to the biliary tract or the distented duodenum. The anterior position of the portal vein results from the persistence of the ventral anastomosis between the two vitelline veins and the distal portion of the right vitelline vein, with subsequent atrophy of the cranial part of the left vitelline and dorsal anastomotic vein.

  7. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  8. A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy. PMID:21245602

  9. Progression of Thrombus in Portal Vein, Superior Mesenteric Vein, and Splenic Vein Even on Anticoagulation in a Patient with Ascending Colonic Malignancy with Liver Metastasis: Portal Vein Thrombosis versus Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sule, Ashish; Borja, Annamarie; Chin, Tay Jam

    2016-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in a setting of liver metastasis is not easy to treat as it may be portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). A 77-year-old male patient was diagnosed as ascending colon carcinoma, underwent right hemicolectomy in 1991 with a recurrence in July 2009. In August 2009, he underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen which showed evidence of superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with no liver metastasis. He was started with anticoagulation and decision was to treat long term. He was admitted with mesenteric artery ischemic symptoms in February 2012 on anticoagulation. CT scan abdomen and pelvis in February 2012 showed tumor thrombus involving the superior mesenteric vein, portal vein, and splenic vein with hepatic metastasis. His tumor marker chorioembryonic antigen was 34 µg/L. He was continued on anticoagulation. A repeat CT scan abdomen after 2 years (in January 2014) showed, increase in size of hepatic metastasis, extensive thrombus involving the superior mesenteric vein, portal vein, and splenic vein with collaterals. Mesentery was congested due to extensive superior mesenteric vein thrombus. He finally succumbed in June 2014. It is very important to differentiate PVT from PVTT as the prognosis is different. PVTT progresses despite of long-term anticoagulation with poor prognosis.

  10. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... better within 3 to 12 months of delivery. Overweight or Obesity Being overweight or obese can put extra pressure on your ... lead to varicose veins. For more information about overweight and obesity, go to the Health Topics Overweight ...

  11. Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... what to ask your doctor References Goldman MP, Weiss RA. Phleblogy and treatment of leg veins. In: ... and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  12. [Retinal vein occlusion in a young patient].

    PubMed

    Zemba, Mihail; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Sarbu, Laura; Avram, Corina; Camburu, Raluca; Stamate, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 27 years old pacient with central retinal vein occlussion and macular edema. The pacient has a significant reduction of the macular aedema with complete recovery of vision after the treatment.

  13. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread.

  14. Renal Vein Injury During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Toffeq, Hewa Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is an important approach for removing kidney stones. Puncturing and dilatation are two mandatory steps in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Uncommonly, during dilatation, the dilators can cause direct injury to the main renal vein or to their tributaries. Case Presentation: A 75-year-old female underwent PCNL for partial staghorn stone in the left kidney. During puncturing and dilatation, renal vein tributary was injured, and the nephroscope entered the renal vein and inferior vena cava, which was clearly recognized. Injection of contrast material through the nephroscope confirms the false pathway to the great veins (renal vein and inferior vena cava). Bleeding was controlled intraoperatively by applying Amplatz sheath over the abnormal tract, the procedure was continued and stones were removed. At the end of the procedure, a Foley catheter was used as a nephrostomy tube and its balloon was inflated inside the renal pelvis and pulled back with light pressure to the lower calix, which was the site of injury to the renal vein tributaries, then the nephrostomy tube was closed; by this we effectively controlled the bleeding. The patient remained hemodynamically stable; antegrade pyelography was done on the second postoperative day, there was distally patent ureter with no extravasation, neither contrast leak to renal vein, and was discharged home at third postoperative day. After 2 weeks, the nephrostomy tube was gradually removed in the operative room, without bleeding, on the next day, Double-J stent was removed. Conclusion: Direct injury and false tract to the renal vein tributaries during PCNL can result in massive hemorrhage, and can be treated conservatively in hemodynamically stable patients, using a nephrostomy catheter as a tamponade. PMID:27704054

  15. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G. Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric – inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up. PMID:23798814

  16. Improvements of deep vein reflux following radiofrequency ablation for saphenous vein incompetence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suh Min; Jung, In Mok; Chung, Jung Kee

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the changes of deep vein reflux after radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence. Method The data on 139 limbs which were treated with radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence were prospectively collected and reviewed. Results Deep vein reflux was present in 43 of 139 limbs (30.9%). There were no significant differences in the rate of successful closure, the incidence of procedure-related complications, and the improvements of symptoms and quality of life between the limbs with or without deep vein reflux. With a mean follow-up of 5.9 months, the peak reflux velocity and duration of reflux were improved in all limbs with deep vein reflux and it was completely corrected in 13 limbs (30.2%) after radiofrequency ablation. Conclusions The presence of deep vein reflux does not affect the treatment outcomes of radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence and is improved in all patients. Deep vein reflux is not a barrier to performing radiofrequency ablation.

  17. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  18. Subclavian vein thrombosis: A continuing challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.; Berry, R.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Subclavian vein thrombosis is a relatively uncommon but potentially morbid disease entity. To determine the frequency, cause, and best mode of treatment of this problem, we performed a chart review of all patients with a diagnosis of subclavian vein thrombosis at two major metropolitan hospitals during a 6-year period. A total of 40 patients were identified with subclavian vein thrombosis, which represented 3.5% of all venous thromboses detected during the 6-year period. No side or sex predilection was noted and the majority of patients were outpatients. The cause was fairly evenly divided among intravenous catheters (32%), anatomic abnormalities (45%), and carcinoma with postoperative radiation (22.5%). Despite the increasing use of the subclavian veins for pacemaker leads, hyperalimentation, and permanent intravenous access for chemotherapy, there has not been an increase in diagnosed subclavian vein thrombosis. Anatomic abnormalities with compression of the vein respond well to either heparinization or lytic therapy but require surgery if the venous abnormality persists. Treatment consisted of lytic therapy in 20%, heparinization in 55%, and elevation with removal of the central line in 25% of patients. All patients responded well to treatment, with a decrease in swelling and symptoms; no patient progressed to venous gangrene and only one (2.5%) had a documented pulmonary embolus. Medical treatment provides excellent long-term benefit in most cases unless complicated by an anatomic abnormality.

  19. Blending of the eyelid-cheek junction and removal of protruding fat: an intraoral approach to blepharoplasty of the lower eyelid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haizhong; Liu, Chunming; Peng, Chen; Zhu, Kai; Bu, Rongfa; Liu, Hongchen

    2009-10-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most common aesthetic procedures done today. The protruding fat and lid-cheek junction are the most conspicuous signs of aging that need attention. During zygomatic reduction by an intraoral approach we found occasionally that the orbital fat can be exposed through the perforated periosteum at the inferior obital rim. We therefore developed a new blepharoplasty procedure using an oral approach. Seventeen patients aged from 26 to 38 years, of whom six had had a previous unsuccessful blepharoplasty and one had a history of injury to the lower lid, were studied. The operation was done under an infraorbital nerve block and local anaesthesia through an intraoral incision at the upper vestibular groove. The periosteum was raised on the surface of the maxilla to the infraorbital rim, and the infraorbital nerve preserved. The periosteum and the orbital septum were incised along the whole length of the infraorbital rim. The fat that was exposed through the incision was either removed or preserved and fixed to the outer soft tissue with sutures. Cosmetic results were good and the oral incision healed without infection. Six patients developed numbness in the infraorbital region, five of whom recovered within 3 months; the other recovered by 6 months postoperatively.

  20. Ag-nanoparticle-decorated Ge nanocap arrays protruding from porous anodic aluminum oxide as sensitive and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Meng, Guowen; Li, Xiangdong; Huang, Zhulin

    2014-11-25

    We report on the fabrication of Ag nanoparticle (Ag NP) decorated germanium (Ge) nanocap (Ag-NPs@Ge-nanocap) arrays protruding from highly ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as highly sensitive and uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The hybrid SERS substrates are fabricated via a combinatorial process of AAO template-assisted growth of Ge nanotubes with each tube having a hemispherical nanocap on the AAO pore bottom, wet chemical etching of the remaining aluminum and the AAO barrier layer to expose the Ge nanocaps, and sputtering Ag NPs on the Ge nanocap arrays. Because sufficient SERS "hot spots" are created from the electromagnetic coupling among the Ag NPs on the Ge nanocap and the highly ordered Ge nanocap arrays also have semiconducting chemical supporting enhancement, the hybrid SERS substrates have high SERS sensitivity and good signal reproducibility. Using the hybrid SERS substrates, Rhodamine 6G with a concentration down to 10(-11) M is identified, and one congener of highly toxic polychlorinated biphenyls with a concentration as low as 10(-6) M is also recognized, showing great potential for SERS-based rapid detection of organic pollutants in the environment.

  1. Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy.

  2. An effective preprocessing method for finger vein recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, JiaLiang; Li, Qiong; Wang, Ning; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2013-07-01

    The image preprocessing plays an important role in finger vein recognition system. However, previous preprocessing schemes remind weakness to be resolved for the high finger vein recongtion performance. In this paper, we propose a new finger vein preprocessing that includes finger region localization, alignment, finger vein ROI segmentation and enhancement. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is capable of enhancing the quality of finger vein image effectively and reliably.

  3. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    PubMed

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  4. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Chun, Ho Jong; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Kim, Ji Il; Kim, Sang Dong; Park, Sun-Cheol; Moon, In Sung

    2016-07-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  5. Giacomini vein: thigh extension of the small saphenous vein - report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Natsis, K; Paraskevas, G; Lazaridis, N; Sofidis, G; Piagkou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Varicose vein surgery is very commonly performed. Also, it is very frequently employed for recurrent disease. The recognition of the normal or variant veins, inducing incompetency, is a prerequisite for effective treatment. The thigh extension of the small saphenous vein, the so-called Giacomini vein, was extensively described in 1873 by Carlo Giacomini in an incidence of 72%. However, such a vein is usually underestimated in classic surgical textbooks. Description of cases We present two cases of Giacomini vein found in two cadavers, dissected for academic purposes in the Department of Anatomy, where the small saphenous vein displayed a thigh extension without terminating into the popliteal vein. In one case Giacomini vein drained into the large saphenous vein, while in the other case the vein divided into two branches, separately draining into the large saphenous vein and the subcutaneous tissue of the gluteal region. Conclusion Due to the fact that Giacomini vein could be incompetent, associated with or without varicose saphenous vein trunks, the vascular surgeon should keep in mind that anatomical entity, to include it in preoperative ultrasound scanning control. Moreover, this vein could be utilized as an autologous graft, when the large saphenous is not available. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 263-265. PMID:27418788

  6. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  7. Portal vein aneurysm: What to know.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, Andrea; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Lionetti, Raffaella; Meniconi, Roberto Luca; Colasanti, Marco; Vennarecci, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Portal vein aneurysm is an unusual vascular dilatation of the portal vein, which was first described by Barzilai and Kleckner in 1956 and since then less than 200 cases have been reported. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the international literature to better clarify various aspects of this rare nosological entity and provide clear evidence-based summary, when available, of the clinical and surgical management. A systematic literature search of the Pubmed database was performed for all articles related to portal vein aneurysm. All articles published from 1956 to 2014 were examined for a total of 96 reports, including 190 patients. Portal vein aneurysm is defined as a portal vein diameter exceeding 1.9 cm in cirrhotic patients and 1.5 cm in normal livers. It can be congenital or acquired and portal hypertension represents the main cause of the acquired version. Surgical indication is considered in case of rupture, thrombosis or symptomatic aneurysms. Aneurysmectomy and aneurysmorrhaphy are considered in patients with normal liver, while shunt procedures or liver transplantation are the treatment of choice in case of portal hypertension. Being such a rare vascular entity its management should be reserved to high-volume tertiary hepato-biliary centres.

  8. Robotic Assisted Cannulation of Occluded Retinal Veins

    PubMed Central

    Meenink, Thijs C. M.; Janssens, Tom; Vanheukelom, Valerie; Naus, Gerrit J. L.; Beelen, Maarten J.; Meers, Caroline; Jonckx, Bart; Stassen, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a methodology for cannulating porcine retinal venules using a robotic assistive arm after inducing a retinal vein occlusion using the photosensitizer rose bengal. Methodology Retinal vein occlusions proximal to the first vascular branch point were induced following intravenous injection of rose bengal by exposure to 532nm laser light delivered by slit-lamp or endolaser probe. Retinal veins were cannulated by positioning a glass catheter tip using a robotically controlled micromanipulator above venules with an outer diameter of 80μm or more and performing a preset piercing maneuver, controlled robotically. The ability of a balanced salt (BSS) solution to remove an occlusion by repeat distention of the retinal vein was also assessed. Results Cannulation using the preset piercing program was successful in 9 of 9 eyes. Piercing using the micromanipulator under manual control was successful in only 24 of 52 attempts, with several attempts leading to double piercing. The best location for cannulation was directly proximal to the occlusion. Infusion of BSS did not result in the resolution of the occlusion. Conclusion Cannulation of venules using a robotic microassistive arm can be achieved with consistency, provided the piercing is robotically driven. The model appears robust enough to allow testing of therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating a retinal vein thrombus and its evolution over time. PMID:27676261

  9. A new approach for sclera vein recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N. L.; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2010-04-01

    The vein structure in the sclera is stable over time, unique to each person, and well suited for human identification. A few researchers have performed sclera vein pattern recognition and reported promising initial results. Sclera recognition poses several challenges: the vein structure moves and deforms with the movement of the eye; images of sclera patterns are often defocused and/or saturated; and, most importantly, the vein structure in the sclera is multi-layered and has complex non-linear deformation. In this paper, we proposed a new method for sclera recognition: First, we developed a color-based sclera region estimation scheme for sclera segmentation. Second, we designed a Gabor wavelet-based sclera pattern enhancement method, and an adaptive thresholding method to emphasize and binarize the sclera vein patterns. Third, we proposed a line descriptor-based feature extraction, registration, and matching method that is illumination-, scale-, orientation-, and deformation-invariant, and can mitigate the multi-layered deformation effects exhibited in the sclera and tolerate segmentation error. It is empirically verified using the UBIRIS database that the proposed method can perform accurate sclera recognition.

  10. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  11. Domain B protruding at the third beta strand of the alpha/beta barrel in barley alpha-amylase confers distinct isozyme-specific properties.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, K W; Juge, N; Guo, X J; Søgaard, M; Chaix, J C; Svensson, B

    1994-04-01

    alpha-Amylases belong to the alpha/beta-barrel protein family in which the active site is created by residues located at the C-terminus of the beta strands and in the helix-connecting loops extending from these ends. In the alpha-amylase family, a small separate domain B protrudes at the C-terminus of the third beta strand of the (beta/alpha)8-barrel framework. The 80% identical barley alpha-amylase isozymes 1 and 2 (AMY1 and AMY2, respectively) differ in substrate affinity and turnover rate, CaCl2 stimulation of activity, sensitivity to the endogenous 21-kDa alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor, and stability at low pH. To identify regions that confer these isozyme-specific variations, AMY1-AMY2 hybrid cDNAs were generated by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast. The hybrids AMY1-(1-90)-AMY2-(90-403) and AMY1-(1-161)-AMY2-(161-403) characterized in this study contain the 90-residue and 161-residue N-terminal sequences, respectively, of AMY1 and complementary C-terminal regions of AMY2. AMY1-(1-90)-AMY2-(90-403) comprises the 60-amino-acid domain B of AMY2 and resembles this isozyme in sensitivity to alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor and its low affinity for the substrates p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoheptaoside, amylose and the inhibitor acarbose. Only AMY1-(1-161)-AMY2-(161-403) and AMY1, which both share domain B, are stable at low pH. However, AMY2 and both hybrid AMY species, but not AMY1, show maximum enzyme activity on insoluble blue starch at approximately 10 mM CaCl2. Domain B thus determines several functional and stability properties that distinguish the barley alpha-amylase isozymes.

  12. A Nonlinear Thin-Wall Model for Vein Buckling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Avione Y; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-12-01

    Tortuous or twisted veins are often seen in the retina, cerebrum, and legs (varicose veins) of one-third of the aged population, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. While the collapse of veins under external pressure has been well documented, the bent buckling of long vein segments has not been studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a biomechanical model of vein buckling under internal pressure and to predict the critical pressure. Veins were modeled as thin-walled nonlinear elastic tubes with the Fung exponential strain energy function. Our results demonstrated that veins buckle due to high blood pressure or low axial tension. High axial tension stabilized veins under internal pressure. Our buckling model estimated the critical pressure accurately compared to the experimental measurements. The buckling equation provides a useful tool for studying the development of tortuous veins.

  13. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy), and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation) intima-media thickness was 712 μm (276 μm) versus 204 μm (74 μm) in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P < .01). Advanced atherosclerotic plaques were found in three of four oversized vein grafts (diameter of graft > diameter of artery). No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P < .05). Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome. PMID:22463679

  14. Cholestasis in children with portal vein obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Franchi, Stéphanie; Gauthier, Frédéric; Fabre, Monique; Pariente, Danièle; Bernard, Olivier

    2005-04-01

    We describe cholestasis as a result of bile duct abnormalities in 8 children with portal vein obstruction. In a clinical, biochemical and radiological investigation of 121 children with cavernous transformation of the portal vein seen between 1986 and 2000, 8 presented with jaundice, pruritus, and/or raised serum aminotransferases and/or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma GT) activities. Each displayed dilation and narrowing of intra- and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. Surgical decompression of the portal system (portal-systemic or Rex anastomosis) resulted in the regression of the signs of cholestasis in all children. We conclude that children with portal vein obstruction may exhibit clinically significant cholestasis as a result of external compression of the bile duct by the cavernoma.

  15. Can tuffisite veins help dictate eruption styles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Heap, M. J.; Lavallee, Y.; Russell, J. K.; Meredith, P. G.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of magmas to degas during ascent may affect eruption style. The permeability of the magma and/or the conduit wall rocks may therefore dictate whether an eruption will be explosive or effusive. Fractures increase permeability. Fractures filled by veins of autoclastic, cataclastic and tuffisitic glass shards and crystal fragments are common in shallow conduit systems. These veins have the potential to dramatically increase permeability and provide pathways for gas loss. Here we present the first study on the porosity, permeability, strength, P-and S-wave and dynamic elastic moduli of andesite containing tuffisite veins at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. Porosity was measured via pycnometry. The strength and mechanisms of deformation were investigated on tuffisite-bearing and tuffisite-free samples in a uniaxial press at 940°C by loading at 2 MPa/min until failure. The permeability, P- and S-wave velocity, and dynamic elastic moduli were measured in a high-pressure permeameter/pore volumometer up to effective confining pressures of 50 MPa (ca. 2km depth). Measurements were made on cylindrical samples prepared as: (1) without tuffisite veins and with tuffisite veins (2) perpendicular and (3) sub-parallel to flow (i.e., the samples’ axial direction). Petrographic analysis reveals that the tuffisites are comprised almost exclusively of micron-size crystal fragments. Dilatometric measurements of tuffisite (10°C/min up to 1000°C), failed to reveal a Tg, indicating the absence of interstitial glass. In contrast, the dome rocks exhibits viscous relaxation between 770 and 885 °C, indicating glass. The high-temperature (940°C) deformation experiments on samples containing tuffisite veins showed an absence of ductile deformation and a uniaxial strength of 116 MPa; i.e, slightly weaker than tuffisite-free rock (~130 MPa) and stronger than erupted dome lavas (~30 MPa). The presence of tuffisite increases the porosity. Permeability measurements show that tuffisite

  16. Pathogenesis of varicose veins - lessons from biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Pfisterer, Larissa; König, Gerd; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The development of varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency is preceded by and associated with the pathophysiological remodelling of the venous wall. Recent work suggests that an increase in venous filling pressure is sufficient to promote varicose remodelling of veins by augmenting wall stress and activating venous endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In line with this, known risk factors such as prolonged standing or an obesity-induced increase in venous filling pressure may contribute to varicosis. This review focuses on biomechanically mediated mechanisms such as an increase in wall stress caused by venous hypertension or alterations in blood flow, which may be involved in the onset of varicose vein development. Finally, possible therapeutic options to counteract or delay the progress of this venous disease are discussed.

  17. Isolated Cortical Vein Thrombosis - The Cord Sign

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay K.; Teoh, Hock L

    2009-01-01

    Isolated cortical vein thrombosis is an uncommon condition and often difficult to diagnose, both clinically and radiologically. We report a case of a 38 years old man who presented with headache of new onset and clinical examination was unremarkable. The unenhanced brain CT did not reveal any abnormality. In view of unrelenting headache and partial seizures, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (with axial T1, T2 and gradient echo sequences, coronal FLAIR, diffusion weighted imaging as well as Gadolinium contrast-enhanced images) and magnetic resonance venography of the brain that revealed an isolated parietal cortical vein thrombosis with the rarely reported 'cord sign'. We report the clinical and radiological findings in our patient with isolated parietal cortical vein thrombosis. PMID:22470649

  18. Successful liver allograft inflow reconstruction with the right gastroepiploic vein.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rafael S; Cruz, Ruy J; Nacif, Lucas S; Vane, Matheus F; D'Albuquerque, Luiz A C

    2016-02-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a common complication in cirrhotic patients. When portal vein thrombectomy is not a suitable option, a large collateral vessel can be used for allograft venous inflow reconstruction. We describe an unusual case of successful portal revascularization using the right gastroepiploic vein. The patient underwent a cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation with end-to-end anastomosis of the portal vein to the right gastroepiploic vein. Six months after liver transplantation the patient is well with good liver function. The use of the right gastroepiploic vein for allograft venous reconstruction is feasible and safe, with a great advantage of avoiding the need of venous jump graft.

  19. How Vein Sealing Boosts Fracture Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Veins from from cracks. As such, a stage of brittle failure and fracturing is to be set apart from a stage of opening and sealing. The process of fracture opening requires distortion of the host rocks to create space for the evolving vein. To keep a crack arrested and, at the same time, to widen or stabilize the cavity, the stress intensity factor K_I=(P-S3)(πa) must remain below the fracture toughness K_IC of the host rock, and P-S3 >0 (P and S3 denote pore fluid pressure and absolute minimum principal stress, respectively and 'a' refers to the half-length of the fracture). For purely elastic distortion of the host rocks, maximum aperture W0=K_IC (1-ν^2)/(E(π/8)^1/2))(2a)^1/2 depends on on K_IC, Poisson's ratio ν, and Young's modulus E of the host rocks. Owing to the low values for rock K_IC typically ranging between 0.1 and 1 MPa m^1/2, veins formed by purely elastic distortion of the host rocks are restricted to high aspect ratios 2a/W. In metamorphic rocks, veins with low aspect ratios are common; inelastic deformation and viscous creep in the host rocks must have contributed to final vein shapes. In the present study, I use finite element models to simulate fracture opening and cavity formation supported by viscous creep distributed in the host rock. Simulations are carried out on 2D plate models containing elliptical fractures. The walls of the fractures are coated by thin layers simulating incipient sealing; a residual cavity prevails in the centre of the model veins. Constant displacement is applied to the plate boundaries oriented normal to the cracks. I run a series of models with various viscosity contrasts between the rocks and the sealing. The results of these models indicate the following. (1) Fracture opening is most effective when the viscosity of the sealing ηs exceeds the viscosity of the host rocks ηr (2) The rate of fracture opening increases with increasing values for ηs/ηr . (3) An increase in the thickness of the sealing layer causes

  20. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Vein Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Emily A

    2012-01-01

    The saphenous vein has been the principal conduit for coronary bypass grafting from the beginning, circa 1970. This report briefly traces this history and concomitantly presents one surgeons experience and personal views on use of the vein graft. As such it is not exhaustive but meant to be practical with a modest number of references. The focus is that of providing guidance and perspective which may be at variance with that of others and recognizing that there may be many ways to accomplish the task at hand. Hopefully the surgeon in training/early career may find this instructive on the journey to surgical maturity. PMID:23130300

  1. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  2. Infraclavicular access to the axillary vein - new possibilities for the catheterization of the central veins in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Ryszard; Czarnik, Tomasz; Łysenko, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Central vein cannulation is one of the most commonly performed procedures in intensive care. Traditionally, the jugular and subclavian vein are recommended as the first choice option. Nevertheless, these attempts are not always obtainable for critically ill patients. For this reason, the axillary vein seems to be a rational alternative approach. In this narrative review, we evaluate the usefulness of the infraclavicular access to the axillary vein. The existing evidence suggests that infraclavicular approach to the axillary vein is a reliable method of central vein catheterization, especially when performed with ultrasound guidance.

  3. [Anatomicosurgical study of the superior mesenteric vein].

    PubMed

    Dell'Isola, C; Tucci, G F

    1991-01-01

    Results of an autoptic study of the superior mesenteric vein in thirty cadavers are reported. The anatomo-surgical patterns of the venous axis are emphasized. In fact, a better knowledge of this vessel allows an easier and safer surgical approach during pancreatic resections.

  4. Duodenal web with preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Golombek, S; Bilgi, J; Ukabiala, O

    1995-06-01

    This article described an unusual case of an infant with duodenal atresia and preduodenal portal vein without Down's syndrome or other anatomical anomalies associated with this condition. Duodenoduodenostomy was effective. Enteral feeding was re-established 72 hours post-operatively and the patient was discharged home one day later.

  5. 21 CFR 880.6980 - Vein stabilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vein stabilizer. 880.6980 Section 880.6980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous...

  6. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology.

  7. Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider if: You have symptoms of hepatic vein obstruction You are being treated for this condition and you develop new symptoms Alternative Names Budd-Chiari syndrome; Hepatic veno-occlusive disease Images Digestive system Digestive system organs Blood clot formation ...

  8. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the varicose vein. Signs of telangiectasias are clusters of red veins that you can see just under the surface of your skin. These clusters usually are found on the upper body, including ...

  9. Omental vein catheter thrombolysis for acute porto-mesenteric vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Annabelle L; Cleary, Muriel A; Cholewczynski, Walter; Sumpio, Bauer E; Atweh, Nabil A

    2013-05-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon clinical condition with potential high morbidity. We report here a patient who presented with acute-onset MVT and bowel infarction, which was successfully ameliorated with intramesenteric vein thrombolytic therapy.

  10. A Finger Vein Identification Method Based on Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Tao, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    New methods for extracting vein features from finger vein image and generating templates for matching are proposed. In the algorithm for generating templates, we proposed a parameter-templates quality factor (TQF) - to measure the quality of generated templates. So that we can use fewer finger vein samples to generate templates that meet the quality requirement of identification. The recognition accuracy of using proposed methods of finger vein feature extraction and template generation strategy for identification is 97.14%.

  11. An unusual complication of femoral vein catheterisation: pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Yildizdas, D; Tepe, T; Parlak, M; Akcali, M

    2007-12-01

    A 2-month-old girl with severe pneumonia required a central venous line. Femoral vein catheterisation was attempted but insertion was difficult. Pneumoperitoneum developed, which is a rare complication of femoral vein catheterisation. It is important when undertaking femoral vein catheterisation to use the correct landmarks in the femoral triangle below the inguinal ligament and an appropriate size of catheter.

  12. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  13. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  14. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  15. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  16. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  17. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) include: A history of DVT. Conditions or factors that make your blood thicker or more likely to clot than normal. Some inherited ... to a deep vein from surgery, a broken bone, or other trauma. ...

  18. Preduodenal portal vein in an adult--angiography and CT.

    PubMed

    Sasai, K; Sano, A; Nishizawa, S; Imanaka, K; Kuroda, Y

    1985-01-01

    We report on an adult case of preduodenal portal vein illustrated by computed tomography (CT) and angiography. These diagnostic modalities were initially performed to evaluate a coexisting pancreatic cancer. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated unusual positioning of the portal vein ventral to the duodenum. The superior mesenteric-portal vein, which was L-shaped and convexly caudad, strongly suggested this anomalous condition.

  19. Venous thrombosis in subclavian, axillary, brachial veins with extension to internal jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tamizifar, Babak; Beigi, Arash; Rismankarzadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of Venous Thrombosis in Subclavian, Axillary, Brachial Veins with extension to Internal Jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous Pulmonary embolism during the treatment with low molecular weight heparin. PMID:23901341

  20. Segmentation and reconstruction of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein based on the coronal sectional anatomic dataset.

    PubMed

    Lou, Li; Liu, Shu Wei; Zhao, Zhen Mei; Heng, Pheng Ann; Tang, Yu Chun; Li, Zheng Ping; Xie, Yong Ming; Chui, Yim Pan

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of intrahepatic vessels is very useful in visualizing the complex anatomy of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein. It also provides a 3D anatomic basis for diagnostic imaging and surgical operation on the liver. In the present study, we built a 3D digitized model of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein based on the coronal sectional anatomic dataset of the liver. The dataset was obtained using the digital freezing milling technique. The pre-reconstructed structures were identified and extracted, and then were segmented by the method of manual intervention. The digitized model of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein was established using 3D medical visualization software. This model facilitated a continuous and dynamic displaying of the hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein at different orientations, which demonstrated the complicated relationship of adjacent hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein realistically in the 3D space. This study indicated that high-quality 2D images, precise data segmentation, and suitable 3D reconstruction methods ensured the reality and accuracy of the digital visualized model of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein.

  1. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  2. Aorto-coronary vein graft 'Y' anastomosis made easy.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Martin Amadee

    2011-10-01

    Vein graft-to-vein graft anastomosis, creating a 'Y' graft, is a useful technique when there is a lack of good-quality autologous vein to perform individual aorto-coronary bypass grafts or when the ascending aorta is short or atheromatous, limiting the space for proximal graft anastomosis. Unlike artery-to-artery composite grafts, which are resistant to flow-limiting technique-based distortions, the accurate construction of vein-to-vein anastomoses is critical. A technique is described that facilitates accurate placement of the anastomosis that prevents kinking, twisting or displacement.

  3. [Clinical estimation of the central vein catheterization in phthysiosurgical patients].

    PubMed

    Opanasenko, M S; Levanda, L I; Kononenko, V A; Klymenko, V I; Tereshkovych, O V; Kalenychenko, M I; Konik, B M; Obrems'ka, O K; Demus, R S; Kshanovs'kyĭ, O E

    2013-04-01

    The issue of actuality of the central veins catheterization application was studied in phthysiosurgical patients. The author's view, concerning indications and choosing of the central vein catheterization side, was presented. The data, concerning frequency of the certain veins catheterization, were adduced. General succeeding in performing central veins catheterization have had constituted 96%. While having complications rate of 11.8%, this included mechanical--8.2%, thrombotic--2.3%, infective--1.3%. There was substantiated one of the most optimal and secure procedure among central accesses--the internal jugular vein catheterization.

  4. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-07-01

    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the

  5. Successful Portal Vein Stent Placement in a Child with Cavernomatous Replacement of the Portal Vein After Partial Liver Transplantation: The Importance of a Recognizable Portal Vein Remnant.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Ricotta, Calogero; Riva, Silvia; Burgio, Gaetano; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Late portal vein thrombosis with cavernomatous replacement has been reported in 4.5% of pediatric patients who have undergone partial liver transplantation. In such cases, minimally invasive radiological treatments have a high failure rate. We report a successful case of percutaneous recanalization of the portal vein remnant, and subsequent stent placement, in a pediatric patient who underwent left lateral split liver transplantation with cavernomatous replacement of the portal vein.

  6. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  7. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  8. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  9. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-26

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS.

  10. Leuprolide acetate and central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Federici, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    A 63-year-old man suffered a central retinal vein occlusion 2 months after he began taking leuprolide acetate for prostate cancer. Despite control for possible systemic hypertension (126/90 mm Hg) and mild hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol level =246 mg/dL [range: 16 to 200 mg/dL], high-density lipoprotein level =67 mg/dL [range: 40 to 59 mg/dL], and low-density lipoprotein level =144 mg/dL [range: 0 to 130 mg/dL]), progression of the venous occlusive disease occurred. Leuprolide acetate, which is associated with thromboembolic events and diffuse intravascular coagulation, may be implicated in central retinal vein occlusion.

  11. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  12. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad

  13. Varicose vein therapy and nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Treating varicose veins using endovenous thermal techniques - especially laser and radio frequency ablation - has emerged as an effective alternative to open surgery with stripping and high ligation. Even though these methods are very gentle and patient-friendly, they are nevertheless accompanied by risks and side effects. Compared to open surgical therapy, the risk of damage to peripheral and motor nerves is reduced; however, it still exists as a result of heat exposure and tumescent anaesthesia. Non-thermal methods that can be applied without tumescent anaesthesia have been introduced to the market. They pose a considerably lower risk of nerve lesions while proving to be much more effective. This paper investigates data on postoperative nerve damage and paraesthesia using internet research (PubMed). It analyses the current state of knowledge regarding non-thermal treatment methods and takes into account the latest developments in the use of cyanoacrylate to close insufficient saphenous veins.

  14. The great brain versus vein debate.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ravi S

    2012-08-15

    From the earliest fMRI experiments, it was quickly appreciated by those working with BOLD at high field that the signal change originated from visible veins whose spatial localization was relatively coarse ("the macrovasculature"), and smaller vessels ("the microvasculature") that were not individually visible in BOLD images. It was expected that a functional brain imaging technique that was predominantly sensitive to the macrovasculature would not have the same effective resolution as one sensitive to the microvasculature. Elimination of the venous signal and enhancement of the microvascular one offered the tantalizing ability to image columnar and lamellar structures in the brain and distinguished fMRI from its predecessor techniques. This article reviews a brief history of how these signal sources were first identified and separated and some of the controversy associated with the "brain versus vein" debate.

  15. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS. PMID:26839659

  16. A pilot/introducer needle for central vein cannulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Kanazawa, M; Kinefuchi, Y; Fukuyama, H; Takiguchi, M; Yamamoto, M; Abe, K; Okuda, Y

    1995-12-01

    A kit for safe and easy insertion of a central vein cannula was devised. A small gauge (22 gauge) metal pilot needle was equipped with a Y-shaped hub which had a side-port to accept a small gauge (0.46 mm) Seldinger guide wire. Once the needle reached the vein, guidewire was threaded in through the side-port. There was no need to remove the pilot needle and no need to repeat vein puncture with a larger-bore needle. Three puncture methods were used with the kit: (1) the central approach via the internal jugular vein, (2) the supraclavicular approach via the junction of the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein, and (3) the infraclavicular approach via the subclavian vein. Each method was used on 20 patients, for total of 60 patients, with a high success rate. Less than 3 minutes were required from puncture to catheter insertion. No serious complications were encountered.

  17. Asymptomatic Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Hemodynamic Adaptation and Successful Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis is a well-established possible complication following an atrial fibrillation ablation of pulmonary veins. Symptoms of pulmonary vein stenosis range from asymptomatic to severe exertional dyspnea. The number of asymptomatic patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is greater than originally estimated; moreover, only about 22% of severe pulmonary vein stenosis requires intervention. We present a patient with severe postatrial fibrillation (AF) ablation pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, which was seen on multiple imaging modalities including cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiogram, lung perfusion scan, and pulmonary angiogram. This patient did not have any pulmonary symptoms. Hemodynamic changes within a stenosed pulmonary vein might not reflect the clinical severity of the obstruction if redistribution of pulmonary artery flow occurs. Our patient had an abnormal lung perfusion and ventilation (V/Q) scan, suggesting pulmonary artery blood flow redistribution. The patient ultimately underwent safe repeat atrial fibrillation ablation with successful elimination of arrhythmia. PMID:28105376

  18. Spontaneous thrombosis of vein of Galen malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kariyappa, Kalpana Devi; Krishnaswami, Murali; Gnanaprakasam, Francis; Ramachandran, Madan; Krishnaswamy, Visvanathan

    2016-01-01

    Vein of Galen malformation (VOGM) is a rare intracranial vascular malformation. Before the advent and advancement of various endovascular techniques, there was dismal prognosis. Rarely, this condition may spontaneously thrombose without the need for surgical or endovascular treatment with good prognosis. We report a case of an 8-month-old infant who had serial imaging, suggestive of VOGM and presented to us for further management, wherein the imaging revealed spontaneous thrombosis. PMID:27857804

  19. Percutaneous Transumbilical Portal Vein Embolization in a Patient with a Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Chin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by the portal vein that was successfully treated with portal vein embolization via a percutaneous transumbilical approach. A contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed the presence of a large hypervascular tumor on portal venous phase as well as right hepatic vein thrombosis and hemoperitoneum that prevented portal vein embolization by the use of the percutaneous and transjugular transhepatic approach. The use of percutaneous transumbilical portal vein embolization can be an alternative option in this situation.

  20. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  1. Varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H

    2009-11-01

    Varicose veins are a very frequent disorder with prevalence in our adult population between 14% for large varices and 59% for small teleangiectasias. Subjective symptoms may be very non-specific. The term "chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)" defines functional abnormalities of the venous system producing advanced symptoms like oedema, skin changes or leg ulcers. Both entities, varicose veins and CVI, may be summarized under the term "chronic venous disorders" which includes the full spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system. A classification system to describe chronic venous disorders regarding clinical appearance, etiology, anatomical distribution and pathophysiology has been proposed under the acronym of CEAP. The revised version of the CEAP classification contains also definitions of clinical signs and suggests three levels of apparative investigations adjusted to the clinical stage. Concerning the etiology of venous disorders controversial theories exist leading to different therapeutic concepts. As a matter of fact there is a vicious circle between structural changes in valves and venous wall and hemodynamic forces leading to reflux and venous hypertension. Different methods for treating varicose veins are available producing satisfactory early outcome in most cases, but followed by a high recurrence rate after years. Chronic venous insufficiency requires "chronic management". Compression therapy by bandages for initial treatment of severe stages and maintenance therapy using medical compression stockings is essential. In addition correction of venous refluxes by surgery or endovenous procedures including echo-guided foam sclerotherapy should be considered in every single case.

  2. Patterning of leaf vein networks by convergent auxin transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Megan G; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

  3. Surgical Marking Pen Dye Inhibits Saphenous Vein Cell Proliferation and Migration in Saphenous Vein Graft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Kenagy, Richard D; Gao, Lu; Wight, Thomas N; Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Sobel, Michael; Clowes, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Markers containing dyes such as crystal violet (CAS 548-62-9) are routinely used on the adventitia of vein bypass grafts to avoid twisting during placement. Since little is known about how these dyes affect vein graft healing and function, we determined the effect of crystal violet on cell migration and proliferation, which are responses to injury after grafting. Methods Fresh human saphenous veins were obtained as residual specimens from leg bypass surgeries. Portions of the vein that had been surgically marked with crystal violet were analyzed separately from those that had no dye marking. In the laboratory, they were split into easily dissected inner and outer layers after removal of endothelium. This f cleavage plane was within the circular muscle layer of the media. Cell migration from explants was measured daily as either 1) % migration positive explants, which exclusively measures migration, or 2) the number of cells on the plastic surrounding each explant, which measures migration plus proliferation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively) were determined in dye-marked and unmarked areas of cultured vein rings. The dose-dependent effects of crystal violet were measured for cell migration from explants as well as proliferation, migration, and death of cultured outer layer cells. Dye was extracted from explants with ethanol and quantified by spectrophotometry. Results There was significantly less cell migration from visibly blue, compared to unstained, outer layer explants by both methods. There was no significant difference in migration from inner layer explants adjacent to blue-stained or unstained sections of vein, because dye did not penetrate to the inner layer. Ki67 staining of vein in organ culture, which is a measure of proliferation, progressively increased up to 6 days in non-blue outer layer and was abolished in the blue outer layer. Evidence of apoptosis (TUNEL staining) was present throughout the wall

  4. Absence of Middle Hepatic Vein Combined with Retro-Aortic Left Renal Vein: a Very Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Turamanlar, Ozan; Kırpıko, Oğuz; Özen, Oğuz Aslan; Değirmenci, Bumin; Akçer, Sezer; Uygur, Ramazan

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic and renal veins drain into the inferior vena cava. The upper group of hepatic veins consists of three veins which extend to the posterior face of the liver to join the inferior cava. The left renal vein passes anterior to the aorta just below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. We detected a variation in the hepatic and renal veins in a multislice CT angiogram of a nine-year-old male patient in the Radiology Department of Afyon Kocatepe University Medical School. The upper group hepatic veins normally drains into the inferior vena cava as three separate trunks, namely the right, left and middle. In our case, we found that only the right and left hepatic veins existed and the middle hepatic vein was absent. Furthermore, the left renal vein, which normally passes anterior to the abdominal aorta, was retro-aortic. Left renal vein variations are of great importance in planning retroperitoneal surgery and vascular interventions. Knowledge of a patient’s hepatic vein and renovascular anatomy and determining their variations and anomalies are of critical importance to abdominal operations, transplantations and preoperative evaluation of endovascular interventions. PMID:25206997

  5. [Endovascular laser ablation of the greater saphenous vein for varicose veins: our initial experience].

    PubMed

    Bronzino, P; Abbo, L; Bagnasco, F; Barisone, P; Dezzani, C; Genovese, A M; Iannucci, P; Ippoliti, M; Sacchi, M; Aimo, I

    2005-01-01

    Laser treatment of primary varicose veins of the legs is a new mini-invasive technique which represent an alternative to the safenectomy. Endovascular laser treatment is based on the employ of laser to destroying the vascular wall and inducing fibrosis. This technique is not without complications: burns, paraesthesias, haematomas, but most of all disappear in few days. Encouraged by the promising results reported in literature, we have performed 18 laser ablation of greater saphenous vein since 2003 till today. Our patients had a good post-operative course and a follow up without troubles (3-17 months). We think that laser treatment is effective in the treatment of the primary varicose veins of the legs. It requests attention and experience in dosing the laser energy for minimizing the complications. Today there isn't long term follow up in literature.

  6. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Ryuhei; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm2, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist® was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10-5. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  7. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  8. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as

  9. Chemical gradients and progressive veining in a partly serpentinized harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther; Caddick, Mark; Beard, James; Bodnar, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks constitute a major part of the oceanic lithosphere. They form when water interacts with olivine and pyroxene to produce a dense network of veins comprised of secondary minerals: Serpentine + brucite ± magnetite veins occur in olivine, Al-rich serpentine + talc veins occur in orthopyroxene, and Al-rich serpentine ± talc ± brucite veins occur at the boundary between orthopyroxene and olivine. Here, we present a detailed study on a harzburgite from the Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica that is ~30% serpentinized in order to provide new constraints on the effect of variable water (H2O) and silica (SiO2) activities on vein formation in peridotites. The studied sample records 1) mineralogical and chemical zonations in olivine-hosted veins that show a distinct pattern with increasing width of the veins (consumption of olivine), 2) varying brucite composition depending on whether or not it is associated with magnetite, and 3) chemical gradients in Si, Al, Cr, and Ca at the boundary between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. These observed chemical variations suggest fluid mediated mass transport within and between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. We use thermodynamic models to show that an increase in vein width and progressive evolution of olivine-hosted veins is accompanied by an increase in water-rock ratios. This is associated with the development of chemical gradients (e.g. gradients in water and silica activity) between the fluid-rich center of serpentine veins and the olivine grain boundaries as typically expressed by the abundance of brucite in the vein center and a dominance of serpentine at the boundary with olivine. The increase in water-rock ratios within the vein center also leads to the formation of magnetite from Fe-rich brucite ± Fe-rich serpentine. Mass transfer between vein core and vein rim may exist on the submicron-scale along grain boundaries of the finely intergrown serpentine-brucite mixture. We

  10. Reproducibility of dorsal hand vein responses to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha using the dorsal hand vein compliance method.

    PubMed

    Schindler, C; Grossmann, M; Dobrev, D; Francke, K; Ravens, U; Kirch, W

    2003-03-01

    Assessment of drug-induced venodilation by the dorsal hand vein compliance method requires stable constriction of the vein. This study was designed to investigate intra- and intersubject reproducibility of the venous preconstriction technique in response to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha and to determine the influence of basal vein size. Twelve healthy male nonsmokers participated in a prospective cross-over study. Inter- and intrasubject variability was tested in response to phenylephrine and PGF2 alpha on different study days in the same hand vein. The dose of the respective constrictor causing approximately 80% constriction of the vein (ED80) was determined and infused for another 100 minutes. Actual vein size was measured every 5 minutes. Coefficient of variation and regression analyses were performed to analyze influence of vessel size on ED80 of the respective constrictor. Adjusted constriction levels were stable and well reproducible in all subjects. The intersubject coefficient of variation of ED80 ranged from 0.9% to 6.7% for phenylephrine and from 0.9% to 6.9% for PGF2 alpha. Whereas responses to phenylephrine were independent of basal vein diameter, there was a positive correlation between ED80 of PGF2 alpha and basal vein size. Thus, the hand vein compliance method is a suitable method to study dilatory responses in phenylephrine- or PGF2 alpha-constricted veins with considerable interindividual but small intraindividual variability. However, in such studies, phenylephrine appears to be a more reliable tool than PGF2 alpha.

  11. Preduodenal portal vein in the adult.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, I; Maruyama, T; Ootsuki, K; Ozaki, M

    1998-01-01

    Preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) is a rare developmental anomaly. We recently encountered this anomaly in a 73-year-old woman who had gastric cancer and colonic cancer with liver metastasis. The PDPV was diagnosed preoperatively by computed tomography and angiography. To the best of our knowledge, there are only 19 adult cases reported in the world literature, with this additional case being reported here. In infants the anomaly has often been associated with duodenal obstruction, but in adults it is often symptomless. We discuss the disease process, embryology, diagnosis, association with other anomalies, and surgical treatment.

  12. Science Linking Pulmonary Veins and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Saagar; Sacher, Frederic; Derval, Nicolas; Berte, Benjamin; Yamashita, Seigo; Hooks, Darren; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanistic basis of atrial fibrillation (AF). One of the most important discoveries in this context has been that pulmonary veins (PV) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AF. PV isolation has since become the most widely used technique for treatment of paroxysmal AF. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the electrophysiological and anatomical characteristics of PVs create a proarrhythmogenic substrate. The following review discusses the mechanistic links between PVs and AF. PMID:26835098

  13. Massive hydrothorax following subclavian vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of central venous catheterization for monitoring of the venous pressure, fluid infusion and hyperalimentation, the literature has been full of serious life-threatening complications. Of these complications is the false positioning of the central venous catheter and subsequent development of pleural effusion. In this report we are describing a case of iatrogenic massive pleural effusion following subclavian vein catheterization necessitating intercostal tube drainage and mechanical ventilation. The case highlights the importance of ensuring adequate positioning of the catheter after insertion through aspiration of venous blood, immediate post insertion X-ray and the utilization of ultrasound guidance in cases with expected difficult catheterization. PMID:21073758

  14. Azygous Vein Aneurysm (AVA): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tujo, Charles Albert

    2017-01-01

    Azygous Vein Aneurysm (AVAs) is an uncommon cause of mediastinal mass. They are typically asymptomatic and do not commonly require treatment. They may mimic mediastinal adenopathy on chest radiographs. We present a case of AVAs found during evaluation of chest pain in a patient who was also found to have pulmonary thromboembolism. The mass was worked up with cross-sectional imaging techniques using both Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ultimately Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Due to recurrent symptomatology, the aneurysm was coiled.

  15. Use of the radial groove view intra-operatively to prevent damage to the extensor pollicis longus tendon by protruding screws during volar plating of a distal radial fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Bae, K W; Choy, W S

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of a newly designed radiological technique (the radial groove view) for the detection of protrusion of screws in the groove for the extensor pollicis longus tendon (EPL) during plating of distal radial fractures. We also aimed to determine the optimum position of the forearm to obtain this view. We initially analysed the anatomy of the EPL groove by performing three-dimensional CT on 51 normal forearms. The mean horizontal angle of the groove was 17.8° (14° to 23°). We found that the ideal position of the fluoroscopic beam to obtain this view was 20° in the horizontal plane and 5° in the sagittal plane. We then intra-operatively assessed the use of the radial groove view for detecting protrusion of screws in the EPL groove in 93 fractures that were treated by volar plating. A total of 13 protruding screws were detected. They were changed to shorter screws and these patients underwent CT scans of the wrist immediately post-operatively. There remained one screw that was protruding. These findings suggest that the use of the radial groove view intra-operatively is a good method of assessing the possible protrusion of screws into the groove of EPL when plating a fracture of the distal radius.

  16. Preduodenal portal vein: a cause of prenatally diagnosed duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Choi, S O; Park, W H

    1995-10-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare congenital anomaly that causes high intestinal obstruction. The authors report on a newborn who was diagnosed as having duodenal obstruction at 30 weeks' gestation. During surgery the patient was found to have duodenal obstruction caused by a preduodenal portal vein. Malrotation was an associated finding. Treatment consisted of Ladd's procedure and a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy performed anterior to the portal vein.

  17. Treatment of Primary Varicose Veins in Japan: Japanese Vein Study XVII

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, Takashi; Iwata, Hirohide; Sakata, Masahiro; Sugano, Norihide; Nishibe, Toshiya; Mo, Makoto; Yamada, Norikazu; Iwai, Takehisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at clarifying the changes in treatments for primary varicose veins in Japan. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to the members of the Japanese Society of Phlebology. The contents of the survey covered the treatment and treatment strategy of varicose vein cases in 2013. The results were examined and compared with the results of previous surveys conducted by the aforesaid society in 1998, 2004 and 2009. Results: Of 36078 patients, 43958 limbs were reported from 201 institutions. Saphenous type was the most common type of varicose veins that developed in patients aged 70–79 years. The C4–6 cases according to the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification occurred significantly more in males than in females (p <0.01). For the treatments of saphenous type and of segment type (dilatation of peripheral branch), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) was performed most frequently (51%), while the frequency of stripping and of high ligation decreased. EVLA was performed with tumescent local anesthesia, which required one day of hospitalization. Conclusion: In our study, the number of patients with varicose veins increased especially in the elderly. Surgical treatments were selected for a number of patients, and EVLA was the most commonly adopted method of treatment in Japan. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2016: 27; 249-57.) PMID:27738459

  18. Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.

    PubMed

    Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs.

  19. [Idiopathic palmar vein thrombosis of the fingers - rare but relevant].

    PubMed

    Spies, C K; Schwarz-Furlan, S; Hahn, P; Oppermann, J; Unglaub, F

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic thrombosis of palmar finger veins is rare and women suffer from it almost exclusively. Synovial cysts, epidermoid inclusion cysts, giant cell tumours and haemangiomatous lesions should be considered in the process of diagnosis. We present a 56-year-old woman with idiopathic and symptomatic thrombosis of palmar finger veins. Using the palmar approach the painful veins were identified and excised completely. An uncomplicated wound healing has followed with completely unrestricted and painless range of motion. Surgical excision of the finger vein thrombosis should be considered if there is continuing pain.

  20. Evaluation of different systems for clinical quantification of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Cornu-Thénard, A; De Vincenzi, I; Maraval, M

    1991-04-01

    One hundred twenty-five lower limbs with varicose veins were studied clinically, essentially by palpation. Two specialists in venous pathology scored the severity of the varicose veins from 0 to 20. Comparison between the different clinical parameters and the scores of the specialists showed that two systems of clinical quantification gave good results and were easy to use. One system is the maximum diameter of the largest varicose vein; the other system is the sum of maximum diameters over 7 sections (3 for thigh, 3 for leg, 1 for foot). This latter system gives a more precise evaluation of the clinical severity of the varicose veins.

  1. Architecture of the pulmonary veins: relevance to radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S; Cabrera, J; Tran, V; Farre, J; Anderson, R; Sanchez-Quintana, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Radiofrequency ablation of tissues in pulmonary veins can eliminate paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
OBJECTIVE—To explore the characteristics of normal pulmonary veins so as to provide more information relevant to radiofrequency ablation.
METHODS—20 structurally normal heart specimens were examined grossly. Histological sections were made from 65 pulmonary veins.
RESULTS—The longest myocardial sleeves were found in the superior veins. The sleeves were thickest at the venoatrial junction in the left superior pulmonary veins. For the superior veins, the sleeves were thickest along the inferior walls and thinnest superiorly. The sleeves were composed mainly of circularly or spirally oriented bundles of myocytes with additional bundles that were longitudinally or obliquely oriented, sometimes forming mesh-like arrangements. Fibrotic changes estimated at between 5% and 70% across three transverse sections were seen in 17 veins that were from individuals aged 30 to 72 years.
CONCLUSIONS—The myocardial architecture in normal pulmonary veins is highly variable. The complex arrangement, stretch, and increase in fibrosis may produce greater non-uniform anisotropic properties.


Keywords: arrhythmias; catheter ablation; fibrillation; cardiac veins PMID:11514476

  2. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  3. Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis: A Recent Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vishnubhotla, Priya

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary veins (PVs) are the most proximal source of arterial thromboembolism. Pulmonary vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but potentially lethal disease; its incidence is unclear, as most of the literature includes case reports. It most commonly occurs as a complica­tion of malignancy, post lung surgery, or atrial fibrillation and can be idiopathic in some cases. Most patients with PVT are commonly asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms such as cough, hemoptysis, and dyspnea from pulmonary edema or infarction. The thrombi are typically detected using a variety of imaging modalities including transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), computed tomography (CT) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or pulmonary angiog­raphy. Treatment should be determined by the obstructing pathological finding and can include antibiotic therapy, anticoagulation, thrombectomy, and/or pulmonary resection. The delay in diagnosing this medical entity can lead to complications including pulmonary infarction, pulmonary edema, right ventricular failure, allograft failure, and peripheral embolism resulting in limb ischemia, stroke, and renal infarction (RI). PMID:28265529

  4. Biomolecular mechanisms in varicose veins development.

    PubMed

    Segiet, Oliwia Anna; Brzozowa-Zasada, Marlena; Piecuch, Adam; Dudek, Damian; Reichman-Warmusz, Edyta; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2015-02-01

    Varicose veins (VVs) can be described as tortuous and dilated palpable veins, which are more than 3 mm in diameter. They are one of the clinical presentations of chronic venous disorders, which are a significant cause of morbidity. The prevalence of VVs has been estimated at 25-33% in women and 10-20% in men and is still increasing at an alarming rate. Family history, older age, female, pregnancy, obesity, standing occupations, and a history of deep venous thrombosis are the predominant risk factors. A great amount of factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VVs, including changes in hydrostatic pressure, valvular incompetence, deep venous obstruction, ineffective function of calf muscle pump, biochemical and structural alterations of the vessel wall, extracellular matrix abnormalities, impaired balance between growth factors or cytokines, genetic alterations, and several other mechanisms. Nevertheless, the issue of pathogenesis in VVs is still not completely known, even if a great progress has been made in understanding their molecular basis. This kind of studies appears promising and should be encouraged, and perhaps the new insight in this matter may result in targeted therapy or possibly prevention.

  5. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  6. Possible roles of 5-HT in vein graft failure due to intimal hyperplasia 5-HT, nitric oxide and vein graft.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Akio; Itoh, Takeo; Komori, Kimihiro

    2014-02-01

    For vascular occlusive disease, an autologous vein graft is the most suitable conduit for arterial reconstruction. Intimal hyperplasia, resulting from the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, is a major obstacle to patency after vein grafting. The degree to which the function of nitric oxide (NO) in the vein graft is preserved has been reported to be associated with the magnitude of intimal hyperplasia. Serotonin (5-HT) is released from platelets in the vascular system and plays physiological roles in controlling the vascular tone. The subtype receptors contributing to the 5-HT-induced mechanical responses vary by vessel type (artery and vein) and among species (dogs, rabbits, rats, and so on). Recent studies have demonstrated that 5-HT induces vasoconstriction through the activation of 5-HT2A receptors in smooth muscle cells or vasodilatation through the activation of endothelial 5-HT1B receptors in arteries from various animals. However, the effects of 5-HT have not been clarified in grafted veins. We herein demonstrate the responses to 5-HT in un-operated veins and then autogenous vein grafts. Next, we describe the effects of chronic in vivo administration of Rho-kinase inhibitors and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, both of which reduce the 5-HT-induced contraction and intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts. Further studies targeting 5-HT are required to evaluate its possible benefits for autologous vein grafts with respect to vasospasm, function, and patency.

  7. Overview of Research on the Origin of Syntectonic Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltschko, D.

    2005-12-01

    The making of a syntectonic vein requires placing the vein components in a mobile form, transporting them to the vein site and then precipitating them accompanying dilation. The commingling in space and time of dissolution features such as pressure solution cleavage and veins suggest a genetic link. Dissolution has received considerable attention in the literature with regard to cleavage formation. Transport is generally held to be by diffusion; the alternative, advection, leads to mass balance problems in that the amount of fluid needed to precipitate observed vein volumes is huge, with little ancillary evidence of large flow. Coupled dilation and precipitation in veins has received relatively little analytical scrutiny. Competing models include the action of elevated fluid pressure to crack and hold open the rock during precipitation, force of crystallization dilating the rock as the vein grows, and a variety of processes having to do with location in a particular larger structure (e.g., outer arc of a fold hinge). All of these may play a role to one extent or another, depending upon the stage of vein growth. Field evidence from syntectonic vein the Benton Uplift, Ouachitas Mtns, for instance, shows that boundinage in the semi-brittle regime resulted in organized, repeated dilation that scales with the thickness of the competent bed. Several orders of boundinage are present, analogous to orders of folding in layered km-scale folds, leading to a spectrum of vein spacings and lengths. Vein width is controlled by the extent to which beds extended after the individual pinched regions were broken and separated by subsequent deformation of the larger structure.

  8. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Community-Based Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Frederick A.; Emery, Cathy; Lessard, Darleen; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the magnitude, risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes in a population-based investigation of patients with upper, as compared to lower, extremity deep vein thrombosis diagnosed in 1999. Methods The medical records of all residents from Worcester, Massachusetts (2000 census=478,000) diagnosed with ICD-9 codes consistent with possible deep vein thrombosis at all Worcester hospitals during 1999 were reviewed and validated. Results The age-adjusted attack rate (per 100,000 population) of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis was 16 (95% CI 13, 20) compared to 91 (83,100) for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis were significantly more likely to have undergone recent central line placement, a cardiac procedure, or an intensive care unit admission than patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Although short and 1-year recurrence rates of venous thromboembolism and all-cause mortality were not significantly different between patients with upper, versus lower, extremity deep vein thrombosis, patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis were less likely to have pulmonary embolism at presentation or in follow-up. Conclusions Patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis represent a clinically important patient population in the community setting. Risk factors, occurrence of pulmonary embolism, and timing and location of venous thromboembolism recurrence differ between patients with upper as compared to lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. These data suggest that strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis need further study and refinement. PMID:17679126

  9. Veins in the northern part of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinckney, D.M.

    1965-01-01

    About 20 miles north of Butte and extending nearly to Helena, is an area of 350 square miles containing hundreds of veins and altered zones. The bedrock of the area is 1) late Cretaceous volcanic rocks, forerunners of the Boulder batholith, 2) the Boulder batholith of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age and 3) two groups of Tertiary volcanic rocks lying on the eroded batholith. The veins are post-batholith and pre-Tertiary in age. The veins are largely either quartz-sulfide veins of mesothermal type or chalcedony veins of epithermal type. The relations of these two types of veins have been the subject of conflicting ideas for 60 years. Three workers have proposed three different genetic classifications. This report shows that the quartz veins and the chalcedony veins are closely related parts of a strongly zoned hypogene vein system. Strong zonal patterns were established using the grain size of quartz (or pyrite vs. carbonate in one district) as well as features of the altered rocks. The scale of the zoning ranges from single veins through groups of veins or mining districts to the entire mineralized area. Single veins are zoned around a core of coarse-grained quartz; the quartz outward from the core becoming progressively finer-grained. The cores are zoned around eight major centers and several lesser ones. The centers and their nearby related veins are assigned to central, intermediate, and peripheral zones. Nearly all of the veins around the edge of the mineralized area are chalcedony. Envelopes of altered rocks consist of seven major bands representing three major groups of constituents, aluminum silicates, iron-bearing minerals, and silica. Plagioclase altered successively to montomorillite, kaolinite, and sericite; potassium feldspar altered to sericite (aluminum silicate group). Biotite released iron which formed successively, iron oxides, iron-bearing carbonate, and pyrite (iron-bearing minerals). Excess silica formed silicified bands. Constituents for

  10. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  11. Subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis: successful treatment with streptokinase.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. J.; Lesk, D.; Newman, H.

    1984-01-01

    Proximal vein thrombosis has been associated with residual disability from the postphlebetic syndrome in patients receiving symptomatic therapy or heparin and sodium warfarin. This paper describes a man with painless swelling of the right arm secondary to subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis that was successfully treated with streptokinase and conventional anticoagulant therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6704841

  12. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  13. Portal Vein Stenting for Portal Biliopathy with Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dongho; Park, Kwang Bo; Lim, Seong Joo; Hwang, Jin Ho; Sinn, Dong Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Portal biliopathy refers to obstruction of the bile duct by dilated peri- or para-ductal collateral channels following the main portal vein occlusion from various causes. Surgical shunt operation or endoscopic treatment has been reported. Herein, we report a case of portal biliopathy that was successfully treated by interventional portal vein recanalization.

  14. Congenital duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Pathak, D; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Only about 80 cases of pre-duodenal portal vein (PDPV), a rare congenital anomaly of portal vein development that was first described by Knight in 1921, have been reported till date.[1] We report a neonate with duodenal obstruction caused by PDPV and briefly review the available literature.

  15. The anatomy of the iliolumbar vein. A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jasani, Vinay; Jaffray, David

    2002-09-01

    We carried out a cadaver study of 16 iliolumbar veins in order to define the surgical anatomy. Two variants were found; a single vein at a mean distance of 3.74 cm from the inferior vena cava (11 of 16) and two separate draining veins at a mean distance from the vena cava of 2.98 cm for the proximal and 6.24 cm for the distal stem (5 of 16). Consistently, the proximal vein tore on attempted medial retraction of the great vessels. The mean length of the vein was 1.6 cm and its mean width 1.07 cm. Three stems were shorter than 0.5 cm. Two or more tributaries usually drained the iliacus and psoas muscles, and the fifth lumbar vertebral body. The obturator nerve crossed all veins superficially at a mean of 2.76 cm lateral to the mouth. In four of these, this distance was less than 1.5 cm. Usually, the lumbosacral trunk crossed deep, at a mean distance of 2.5 cm lateral to the mouth, but in three veins, this distance was 1 cm or less. Our findings emphasise the need for proper dissection of the iliolumbar vein before ligature during exposure of the anterior lumbar spine.

  16. Finger-vein image separation algorithms and realization with MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Junshan; Wu, Jiajie

    2010-10-01

    According to the characteristics of the finger-vein image, we adopted a series of methods to enhance the contrast of the image in order to separate the finger-vein areas from the background areas, and made prepare for the subsequent research such as feature extraction and recognition processing . The method consists of three steps: denoising, contrast enhancement and image binarization. In denoising, considering the relationship between gray levels in the adjacent areas of the finger-vein image, we adopted the Gradient Inverse Weighted Smoothing method. In contrast enhancement, we improved the conventional High Frequency Stress Filtering method and adopted a method which combined the traditional High Frequency Stress Filtering algorithm together with the Histogram Equalization. With this method, the contrast of the finger-vein area and the background area has been enhanced significantly. During the binarization process, after taking the differences of the gray levels between the different areas of the finger-vein image into consideration, we proposed a method which combined the binarization by dividing the image into several segments and the Morphological Image Processing means. Our experiment results show that after a series of processing mentioned above by using MATLAB, the finger-vein areas can be separated from the background areas obviously. We can get a vivid figure of the finger-vein which provided some references for the following research such as finger-vein image feature extraction, matching and identification.

  17. Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Yi-Feng; Yang, Peng; Gao, Yan-Sha; Zhao, Gui-Ru; Ren, Shi-Yan; Li, Xian-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein, which is often accompanied by high complication rate. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique. Methods: A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly. Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded. Results: The overall success rate (95.7% vs. 96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs. 66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups. In the subclavian vein group, pneumothorax occurred in three patients. The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead. In contrast, there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group. In the patient follow-ups, two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement. The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122), respectively (χ2 = 5.813, P = 0.016). Conclusion: Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement. Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02358551; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02358551?term=NCT02358551& rank=1. PMID:27823994

  18. Aging techniques for deep vein thrombosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajah, B; Sounderajah, V; Rowland, S P; Leen, E L S; Davies, A H

    2015-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is common with an incidence of 1 in 1000. Acute thrombus removal for extensive proximal deep vein thrombosis using catheter-directed techniques highlights the need for accurate assessment of thrombus age. This systematic review summarises experimental and clinical evidence of imaging techniques for aging deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance imaging were highlighted as the most studied imaging modalities. Elastography was shown to distinguish between acute and chronic clots, despite demonstrating difficulty in accurate aging of clots older than 10 days in rat models. Elastography is noted as a feasible adjunct to current first-line imaging for deep vein thrombosis using duplex ultrasonography. Combinations of magnetic resonance imaging techniques can identify acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi using endogenous contrast agents and provide objective standardisation of the diagnostic process, with reduced onus upon operator dependency. Further validation is required of these novel imaging techniques prior to clinical implementation for deep vein thrombosis aging.

  19. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  20. IVC agenesis: a rare cause of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Man, Louise; Hendricks, Nicholas; Maitland, Hillary

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a healthy, young Caucasian female who presented to an outside hospital with phlegmasia cerulea dolens of both lower extremities. Computed tomography angiography revealed inferior vena cava (IVC) occlusion. She was initiated on heparin infusion and transferred to University of Virginia Medical Center. Our evaluation revealed aplasia of the IVC from the infrahepatic segment to the confluence of the common iliac veins and acute bilateral iliac vein thromboses. An extensive network of collateral veins was noted. These findings were consistent with IVC agenesis. She was not pregnant or using contraception. Primary thrombophilia workup was negative. She underwent bilateral iliac vein thrombolysis and was started on anticoagulation. While IVC agenesis is rare, it carries risk for development of thrombotic sequelae and bears consideration when evaluating young patients with unexplained deep vein thrombosis, especially if extensive and bilateral.

  1. Design of a clinical vein contrast enhancing projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2001-06-01

    A clinical study has been initiated to compare an experimental IR device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE), with standard techniques for finding veins for venipuncture. The aims of this proposal are (1) to evaluate the performance of the VCE in a clinical setting, specifically by comparing its sensitivity of detection with existing vein-finding techniques used by experienced nurses or phlebotomists, (2) to study its usefulness in subjects who are obese, who have difficult venous access or thrombosed veins, or whose veins are not visible or difficult to palpate, and (3) to show that it performs as well on subjects with darkly pigmented skin as on subjects with lightly pigmented skin. The VCE will first be studied in adult subjects, and then in pediatric subjects.

  2. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc; Déglise, Sébastien; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment.

  3. Disastrous Portal Vein Embolization Turned into a Successful Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrocky, Tomas; Kettenbach, Joachim; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben Kara, Levent

    2015-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) may be performed before hemihepatectomy to increase the volume of future liver remnant (FLR) and to reduce the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing PVE with access from the right portal vein using a mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodized oil. During the procedure, nontarget embolization of the left portal vein occurred. An aspiration maneuver of the polymerized plug failed; however, the embolus obstructing portal venous flow in the FLR was successfully relocated into the right portal vein while carefully bypassing the plug with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon, and pulling the plug into the main right portal vein.

  4. Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-02-01

    In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

  5. [Ultrasound study before surgery of varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Wuppermann, T; Dittrich, O

    2001-02-01

    Ultrasonographic investigation of the various forms of chronic venous insufficiency has substantial advantages compared to diagnosis with the competing phlebogram, particularly preoperatively. Important details such as side branches in the region of the groin, course variations of the small saphenous vein and insufficiency of the perforators in the lower leg are sometimes missed in the antegrade phlebogram. However, it is absolutely necessary to take these into consideration in order to attain a substained good result of surgery. With adequate qualification of the investigator and using all ultrasound techniques, diagnosis by sonography is better than by means of antegrade phlebogram. There are clear specifications for the documentation. With regard to costs and time required, ultrasonographic investigation of chronic venous insufficiency is superior to the antegrade phlebogram and can be repeated at any time.

  6. [Intermittent compression of the subclavian vein].

    PubMed

    Maraval, M

    1980-01-01

    The pathology of the cervico-thoracic channel is now well understood. Intermittent venous compression in the costo-clavicular space by the subclavian muscle can lead to acute occlusion of the venous trunk. It is important to make an early diagnosis of such compression before the stage of occlusive phlebitis. Clinical examination and dynamic phlebography allow the diagnosis to be made. Resection of the first rib is the ideal treatment. The mode of approach to the first rib is debatable since it seems that when venous symptomatology is dominant, the axillary method of Roos is not the best approach. A combined sub- and supra-clavicular approach permits a wide decompression of the vein and a more complete excision of the rib.

  7. Development of HIFU Treatment for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Naohiko; Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has recently been developed as a noninvasive therapeutic method. In our study, a novel noninvasive therapy with HIFU was proposed for occlusion of lower extremity varicose veins. The temperature increase caused by HIFU is used to occlude varicose veins. Occluded veins became fibrotic, resulting in complete recovery. Our final goal is the medical application of HIFU treatment for varicose veins. In this study, we attempted to occlude the veins of rabbits. Prior to venous occlusion experiments, the area heated by HIFU was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) gel, which denatures at >70 °C. The results indicate that the size of the heated area mainly depends on intensity at the focal point and the exposure time. A tendency was also seen for the heated area to extend toward the transducer with increasing exposure time. In animal experiments, skin burns during HIFU exposure represented a critical problem. We therefore examined the safe range of HIFU intensities in abdominal exposure experiments before conducting venous occlusion experiments. The ultrasound frequency was 1.7 MHz. Intensity at the focal point was 900 W/cm2, and the exposure time was 20 s. Rabbits underwent chemical depilation and echo gel was applied to the exposed skin to fill the boundary gap. Target veins were compressed during HIFU exposure to avoid thermal dissipation, and hyaluronan water solution was injected between the veins and skin to maintain the distance between the skin and veins at ≥5 mm. Veins were then exposed to HIFU and occluded. The capability of HIFU treatment to occlude lower extremity varicose veins was verified by the present study.

  8. Non-cuffed dual lumen catheters in the external jugular veins versus other central veins for hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moini, Majid; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Kenari, Mohammad Mahmoodzadeh; Mahmoodi, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    To compare prospective between insertion of non-cuffed dual lumen catheter in the external jugular vein and other central veins for hemodialysis (HD), we studied 68 chronic dialysis patients randomly allocated into two groups: one with external jugular vein catheterization as access for HD and another with other central venous catheterization, internal jugular or subclavian vein. Our results showed there were no significant differences regarding successful cannulation, com-plications, total numbers of dialysis, development of pain and infection at the site of cannulation, patency rate of the catheters, and efficacy of hemodialysis between both groups. In addition, the patency of the catheter in the external jugular vein was not affected by previous cannulation of other central veins. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between numbers of attempts for cannulation in both groups and development of hematoma and infection, (p< 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the external jugular vein may be an alternative for other central veins for insertion of temporary non-cuffed hemodialysis catheter.

  9. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    PubMed

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf .

  10. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  11. Artery and vein diameter ratio measurement based on improvement of arteries and veins segmentation on retinal images.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Tachiki, Hirokazu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Okumura, Susumu; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Retinal arteriolar narrowing is decided based on the artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR). Previous methods segmented blood vessels and classified arteries and veins by color pixels in the centerlines of blood vessels. AVR was definitively determined through measurement of artery and vein diameters. However, this approach was not sufficient for cases with close contact between the artery of interest and an imposing vein. Here, an algorithm for AVR measurement via new classification of arteries and veins is proposed. In this algorithm, additional steps for an accurate segmentation of arteries and veins, which were not identified using the previous method, have been added to better identify major veins in the red channel of a color image. To identify major arteries, a decision tree with three features was used. As a result, all major veins and 90.9% of major arteries were correctly identified, and the absolute mean error in AVRs was 0.12. The proposed method will require further testing with a greater number of images of arteriolar narrowing before clinical application.

  12. Portal Vein Recanalization and Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation for Chronic Portal Vein Thrombosis: Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Bartley; Desai, Kush; Hickey, Ryan; Kulik, Laura; Ganger, Daniel; Baker, Talia; Abecassis, Michael; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2016-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is common in cirrhotic patients and presents a challenge at the time of transplant. Owing to the increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality associated with complete PVT, the presence of PVT is a relative contraindication to liver transplantation at many centers. Our group began performing portal vein (PV) recanalization and transjugular intrahepatic portostystemic shunt placement (PVR-TIPS) several years ago to optimize the transplant candidacy of patients with PVT. The procedure has evolved to include transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, which is now our preferred method due to its technical success without significant added morbidity. Here, we describe in detail our approach to PVR-TIPS with a focus on the transsplenic method. The procedure was attempted in 61 patients and was technically successful in 60 patients (98%). After transitioning to transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, the technical success rate has improved to 100%. The recanalized portal vein and TIPS have maintained patency during follow-up, or to the time of transplant, in 55 patients (92%) with a mean follow-up of 16.7 months. In total, 23 patients (38%) have undergone transplant, all of whom received a physiologic anastomosis (end-to-end anastomosis in 22 of 23 patients, 96%). PVR-TIPS placement should be considered as an option for patients with chronic PVT in need of transplantation. Transsplenic access makes the procedure technically straightforward and should be considered as the primary method for recanalization.

  13. Portal Vein Inflow From Enlarged Coronary Vein in Liver Transplantation: Surgical Approach and Technical Tips: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Safwan, M; Nagai, S; Abouljoud, M S

    2016-11-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is common in patients with end-stage liver disease, with an incidence as high as 26% in liver transplant candidates. It is known to be associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality posttransplantation, and its management can be challenging. The management options range from a simple thrombendvenectomy to multivisceral transplantation in cases with diffuse portomesenteric thrombosis. We report a case of liver transplantation in which we performed a rare reconstruction of the portal vein. Briefly, the patient had diffuse portomesenteric thrombosis, calcified aneurysmosis, and a large collateral coronary vein, to which we directly anastomosed the donor portal vein in an end-to-side fashion. This report describes a unique surgical approach for similar cases of severe portal vein thrombosis in liver transplant candidates.

  14. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via

  15. Improved Quantification of Cerebral Vein Oxygenation Using Partial Volume Correction.

    PubMed

    Ward, Phillip G D; Fan, Audrey P; Raniga, Parnesh; Barnes, David G; Dowe, David L; Ng, Amanda C L; Egan, Gary F

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) enables cerebral venous characterization and physiological measurements, such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The exquisite sensitivity of QSM to deoxygenated blood makes it possible to image small veins; however partial volume effects must be addressed for accurate quantification. We present a new method, Iterative Cylindrical Fitting (ICF), to estimate voxel-based partial volume effects for susceptibility maps and use it to improve OEF quantification of small veins with diameters between 1.5 and 4 voxels. Materials and Methods: Simulated QSM maps were generated to assess the performance of the ICF method over a range of vein geometries with varying echo times and noise levels. The ICF method was also applied to in vivo human brain data to assess the feasibility and behavior of OEF measurements compared to the maximum intensity voxel (MIV) method. Results: Improved quantification of OEF measurements was achieved for vessels with contrast to noise greater than 3.0 and vein radii greater than 0.75 voxels. The ICF method produced improved quantitative accuracy of OEF measurement compared to the MIV approach (mean OEF error 7.7 vs. 12.4%). The ICF method provided estimates of vein radius (mean error <27%) and partial volume maps (root mean-squared error <13%). In vivo results demonstrated consistent estimates of OEF along vein segments. Conclusion: OEF quantification in small veins (1.5-4 voxels in diameter) had lower error when using partial volume estimates from the ICF method.

  16. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative.

    PubMed

    Boyce, C Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2009-05-22

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm(2) of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm(-2), whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm(-2) throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms.

  17. Dynamic multiplanar real time ultrasound guided infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Hamill, Mark; Collier, Bryan; Bradburn, Eric; Ferrara, John

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound guided vascular access has been well-characterized as a safe and effective technique for internal jugular and femoral vein catheterization. However, there is limited experience with the use of ultrasound to access the infraclavicular subclavian vein. Multiple ultrasound techniques do exist to identify the subclavian vein, but real time access is limited by vessel identification in a single planar view. To overcome this limitation, a novel technique of ultrasound guided infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization using a real time multiplanar approach has been developed. The initial experience with this approach is described. A single surgeon used combined oblique, transverse, and longitudinal views along with Doppler color flow images to both define the infraclavicular anatomy and to obtain subclavian vein access in 42 adult patients (20 M/22 F and 22 L/20 R) with a mean body mass index of 29.2 (range = 18.9-55.4). Chest x-ray was obtained to confirm position and to rule out pneumothorax. Subclavian vein cannulation was achieved in 100 per cent of patients; subsequent catheterization was successful in 92.9 per cent. The number of attempts required for cannulation averaged 1.3 (range = 1-5), and decreased after a five patient learning curve. No patient developed a pneumothorax, hematoma, or cannula malposition. Ultrasound guided multiplanar infraclavicular subclavian vein access appears to be a safe and effective adjunct for central line placement.

  18. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-01-01

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  19. Finger vein verification system based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Finger vein verification is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification in terms of security and convenience. The recognition performance of this technology heavily relies on the quality of finger vein images and on the recognition algorithm. To achieve efficient recognition performance, a special finger vein imaging device is developed, and a finger vein recognition method based on sparse representation is proposed. The motivation for the proposed method is that finger vein images exhibit a sparse property. In the proposed system, the regions of interest (ROIs) in the finger vein images are segmented and enhanced. Sparse representation and sparsity preserving projection on ROIs are performed to obtain the features. Finally, the features are measured for recognition. An equal error rate of 0.017% was achieved based on the finger vein image database, which contains images that were captured by using the near-IR imaging device that was developed in this study. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more robust than previous methods.

  20. Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  1. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J.; Feild, Taylor S.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2009-01-01

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm2 of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm−2, whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm−2 throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms. PMID:19324775

  2. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-02-07

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  3. Life without the vein of Galen: Clinical and radiographic sequelae.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A Samy; Downes, Angela E; Agazzi, Siviero; Van Loveren, Harry R

    2011-09-01

    A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the pineal region, particularly venous drainage, is critical for gaining open surgical access to the pineal gland. The adverse sequelae after intraoperative venous occlusion are assumed to be catastrophic but have been scarcely reported. We report a case of pineocytoma in which the vein of Galen was ligated without postoperative adverse sequelae. Pineal region anatomy with emphasis on deep veins was reviewed in large anatomical studies. There are tremendous anatomical variations in the vein of Galen and its tributaries. Several confounding factors can be encountered during surgery and may lead to accidental sacrifice of the vein of Galen. Survival after focal occlusion of a major deep vein depends on the development of collateral circulation as shown in our case report. Venous drainage remains the cornerstone in the surgical planning of the pineal region. Anatomical variations and venous collaterals undoubtedly contributed to the mixed reports of adverse sequelae after venous sacrifice. Vein of Galen ligation may be survivable but consequences cannot be predicted without a thorough pre-ligation assessment of regional venous collateral drainage. Thorough understanding of the venous anatomy, meticulous planning of the surgical approach and avoidance of the occlusion of the vein of Galen and its major tributaries are key factors to successful pineal region surgery.

  4. Improved Quantification of Cerebral Vein Oxygenation Using Partial Volume Correction

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Phillip G. D.; Fan, Audrey P.; Raniga, Parnesh; Barnes, David G.; Dowe, David L.; Ng, Amanda C. L.; Egan, Gary F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) enables cerebral venous characterization and physiological measurements, such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The exquisite sensitivity of QSM to deoxygenated blood makes it possible to image small veins; however partial volume effects must be addressed for accurate quantification. We present a new method, Iterative Cylindrical Fitting (ICF), to estimate voxel-based partial volume effects for susceptibility maps and use it to improve OEF quantification of small veins with diameters between 1.5 and 4 voxels. Materials and Methods: Simulated QSM maps were generated to assess the performance of the ICF method over a range of vein geometries with varying echo times and noise levels. The ICF method was also applied to in vivo human brain data to assess the feasibility and behavior of OEF measurements compared to the maximum intensity voxel (MIV) method. Results: Improved quantification of OEF measurements was achieved for vessels with contrast to noise greater than 3.0 and vein radii greater than 0.75 voxels. The ICF method produced improved quantitative accuracy of OEF measurement compared to the MIV approach (mean OEF error 7.7 vs. 12.4%). The ICF method provided estimates of vein radius (mean error <27%) and partial volume maps (root mean-squared error <13%). In vivo results demonstrated consistent estimates of OEF along vein segments. Conclusion: OEF quantification in small veins (1.5–4 voxels in diameter) had lower error when using partial volume estimates from the ICF method. PMID:28289372

  5. Genetic therapy for vein bypass graft disease: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Simosa, Hector F; Conte, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    Although continued progress in endovascular technology holds promise for less invasive approaches to arterial diseases, surgical bypass grafting remains the mainstay of therapy for patients with advanced coronary and peripheral ischemia. In the United States, nearly 400,000 coronary and 100,000 lower extremity bypass procedures are performed annually. The autogenous vein, particularly the greater saphenous vein, has proven to be a durable and versatile arterial substitute, with secondary patency rates at 5 years of 70 to 80% in the extremity. However, vein graft failure is a common occurrence that incurs significant morbidity and mortality, and, to date, pharmacologic approaches to prolong vein graft patency have produced limited results. Dramatic advances in genetics, coupled with a rapidly expanding knowledge of the molecular basis of vascular diseases, have set the stage for genetic interventions. The attraction of a genetic approach to vein graft failure is based on the notion that the tissue at risk is readily accessible to the clinician prior to the onset of the pathologic process and the premise that genetic reprogramming of cells in the wall of the vein can lead to an improved healing response. Although the pathophysiology of vein graft failure is incompletely understood, numerous relevant molecular targets have been elucidated. Interventions designed to influence cell proliferation, thrombosis, inflammation, and matrix remodeling at the genetic level have been described, and many have been tested in animal models. Both gene delivery and gene blockade strategies have been investigated, with the latter reaching the stage of advanced clinical trials.

  6. The inferior mesenteric vein to the left gonadal vein shunt for gastroesophageal varices and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis after living donor liver transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Sato, Y; Yamamoto, S; Oya, H; Kokai, H; Hatakeyama, K

    2012-03-01

    This 59-year-old woman underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft as an aid for autoimmune hepatitis in 2003. Splenectomy was also performed because of blood type incompatibility. Follow-up endoscopic and computed tomography examinations showed gastroesophageal varices with extra hepatic portal vein thrombosis in 2007 that increased (esophageal varices [EV]: locus superior [Ls], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], Blue varices [Cb], presence of small in number and localized red color sign [RC1] and telangiectasia [TE+], gastric varices [GV]: extension from the cardiac orifice to the fornix [Lg-cf], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], white varices [Cw], absence of red color sign [RC-]). Portal venous flow to the gastroesophageal varices was also confirmed from a large right gastric vein. The splenic vein was thrombosed. Blood flow to the liver graft was totally supplied from the hepatic artery. The graft was functioning well. Because these gastroesophageal varices had a high risk of variceal bleeding, we decided to proceed with a portal reconstruction of a surgical portosystemic shunt in 2008. Severe adhesions were observed around the portal vein. It was impossible to perform portal reconstruction. There were relatively fewes adhesious in the left lower side of the abdominal cavity. We decided to create an inferior mesenteric vein to left gonadal vein shunt. The portal vein pressure decreased from 31.0 to 21.5 cm H2O thereafter. The postoperative course was smooth without any complication. This patient was discharged on the postoperative day 15. Follow-up endoscopic study showed the improvement in the gastroesophageal varices (EV: Ls, F2, Cb, RC(-), GV: Lg-c, F2, Cw, RC-) at 3 months after the operation. We also comfirmed the patency of the shunt by serial computed tomography examinations.

  7. Use of bovine mesenteric vein in rescue vascular access surgery.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Filippo; Carella, Giuseppe; Lentini, Salvatore; Barillà, David; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Spinelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We describe a technique for rescue surgery of autologous arterovenous fistula (AVF), using bovine mesenteric vein (BMV), which may be used in patients with autologous AVF malfunction caused by steno-occlusion on the arterial side or by fibrosis of the first portion of the vein. To preserve the autologous AVF, we replaced the diseased portion of the artery, or the first centimeters of the vein, by a segment of BMV, with the aim of saving the patency and functionality of the access. We used this technique in 16 cases. All patients underwent hemodialysis treatment immediately after the procedure. Infection or aneurismal dilatation of the graft in implanted BMV was never observed.

  8. Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis after cesarean delivery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Pedro; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; García-Manero, Manuel; Lecumberri, Ramón; Alcázar, Juan Luis

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is an uncommon complication; incidence varies between 0.002% and 0.05%. It most often occurs during the 2–15 days following delivery. Case presentation A 22-year-old pregnant woman at term presented to hospital with uterine contractions, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. After delivery an ovarian vein thrombosis was diagnosed. Conclusion Low-molecular weight heparin with broad-spectrum antibiotics are the accepted therapy in non-complicated cases of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis. PMID:18400095

  9. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Associated With Severe Vitamin D Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Talcott, Katherine E; Eliott, Dean

    2016-04-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is thought to occur due to thrombotic occlusion of the central retinal vein at or just posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Studies have shown that the incidence of CRVO may be higher in winter to early spring, suggesting that low vitamin D levels may play a role; however, no studies have measured vitamin D levels in patients with CRVO. In addition, there is mounting evidence that patients with vitamin D deficiency may be predisposed to thrombotic events. The authors report a case of central retinal vein occlusion associated with marked vitamin D deficiency.

  10. Ovarian Vein Thrombosis as a Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anu; Gupta, Natasha; Blankstein, Josef; Trester, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication of the postpartum period. It has never been reported as a complication of laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of right ovarian vein thrombosis that occurred in the postoperative period after patient underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy for a right side ectopic pregnancy. She presented with 1-week history of abdominal pain and fever. A complete workup for fever was performed and was found negative. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis. The patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy and responded well.

  11. Ovarian Vein Thrombosis as a Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anu; Gupta, Natasha; Blankstein, Josef; Trester, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication of the postpartum period. It has never been reported as a complication of laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of right ovarian vein thrombosis that occurred in the postoperative period after patient underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy for a right side ectopic pregnancy. She presented with 1-week history of abdominal pain and fever. A complete workup for fever was performed and was found negative. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis. The patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy and responded well. PMID:26788386

  12. Prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masafumi; Taenaka, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Aki, Toshihiko; Yamaki, Kenichiro; Enomoto, Hitoshi; Kosaka, Kinshi; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein (PPPV), incidentally discovered during total gastrectomy. If it had not been noticed, this portal vein might have been ligated and divided with disastrous consequences. This anomaly was not diagnosed preoperatively, but it could have been. Although embryological anomalies of the portal venous system, such as PPPV and preduodenal portal vein, are rarely encountered in abdominal surgery, surgeons must be aware of their possibility and be able to recognize them to avoid major intraoperative injury.

  13. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein detected in adults

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyung-Il; Jeon, Tae Yong; Sim, Mun Sup; Kim, Suk

    2008-01-01

    Polysplenia syndrome, defined as the presence of multiple spleens of almost equal volume, is a rare condition involving congenital anomalies in multiple organ systems. We report this anomaly in a 41-year-old female who underwent a left lateral sectionectomy due to recurrent cholangitis and impacted left lateral duct stones. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal vein was diagnosed preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) and surgery was done safely. Although the polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) in adult is rarely encountered, surgeons need to understand the course of the portal vein and exercise caution in approaching the biliary tract. PMID:19009663

  14. Duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Vilakazi, Mnc; Ismail, F; Swanepoel, H M; Muller, E W; Lockhat, Z I

    2014-01-01

    An infant presented with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of a pyloric stenosis. On abdominal ultrasound, pyloric stenosis was excluded, and other causes for proximal duodenal obstruction, such as a duodenal web or annular pancreas, were suspected. At surgery, the cause was found to be due to an anterior portal vein or preduodenal portal vein, compressing the duodenum. There were no associated findings such as midgut malrotation, duodenal web and congenital anomalies. The treatment was a diamond-shaped duodeno-duodenostomy anterior to the portal vein. The patient improved after surgery.

  15. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein detected in adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Il; Jeon, Tae Yong; Sim, Mun Sup; Kim, Suk

    2008-11-07

    Polysplenia syndrome, defined as the presence of multiple spleens of almost equal volume, is a rare condition involving congenital anomalies in multiple organ systems. We report this anomaly in a 41-year-old female who underwent a left lateral sectionectomy due to recurrent cholangitis and impacted left lateral duct stones. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal vein was diagnosed preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) and surgery was done safely. Although the polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) in adult is rarely encountered, surgeons need to understand the course of the portal vein and exercise caution in approaching the biliary tract.

  16. [Oclusion of upper ophthalmic vein--a case report].

    PubMed

    Kácerik, M; Alexík, M; Lipková, B

    2009-07-01

    Thrombosis of upper ophthalmic vein is both rare and serious pathologic event. Authors present a case of isolated unilateral upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis in 76-year-old woman, who despite treatment ended with amaurosis and secondary neovascular glaucoma. In differential diagnosis authors focused on searching for inflammatory process of orbit with adjacent structures as well as local and general causes leading to venous thrombosis. None of these were proven; it was a rare case of a patient with isolated upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis.

  17. Novel treatment of an 11-cm saphenous vein graft aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joshua W; Swartz, Michael F; Fink, Gregory W

    2009-04-01

    Saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysms are rare and potentially fatal complications after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Here we present an 11-cm saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm from a 20-year-old vein graft to the obtuse marginal artery. The pseudoaneurysm was directly located beneath the sternum and adjacent to two patent grafts. Therefore, we used a novel approach to access the aorta through a right thoracotomy, and using a pericardial patch, we closed the ostia to the pseudoaneurysm. Postoperatively there was no longer flow into the aneurysm, and at 1-year follow-up the patient is doing well.

  18. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  19. VEIN WALL REMODELING AFTER DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS: DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN AND DOXYCYCLINE

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Vikram; Luke, Cathy; Miller, Erin; Mitsuya, Mayo; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Wakefield, Thomas W.; Myers, Dan D.; Henke, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Venous thrombus resolution sets up an early intense inflammatory reaction, from which vein wall damage results. Tissue response to injury includes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and extracellular matrix protein turnover. This study sought to determine the effect of exogenous MMP inhibition and its potential attenuation of early vein wall injury. METHODS Rats received treatment beginning 24 hours after a stasis venous thrombosis by near occlusive ligation, and until harvest at day 7. Three groups were evaluated: 1). Vehicle saline controls (NaCl); 2). LMWH (Lovenox, 3 mg/Kg per day SQ); 3). Doxycycline (DOXY; 30 mg/Kg per day PO). Thrombus size (mg/mm), levels of TNFα and d-Dimer by colorimetric assay, and ED-1 counts by immunohistochemistry were assessed. Vein wall assessment included stiffness by tensiometry, ILβ protein levels by ELISA, MMP2 and -9 by zymography, and histological analysis of intimal thickness (IT). Comparisons were by t-Test to control. A P < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS Thrombi sizes were similar at both days 2 and 7 for all three groups, while thrombus TNFα was increased in 2d LMWH and DOXY treated groups (NaCl = 1.0±.8, LWMH = 9 ±3*, DOXY = 27±5*, pg/mg protein, N = 6 - 8, P < .05); and at 7d in the DOXY group (NaCl = 3.0±2.5, DOXY = 23±4.2*, pg/mg protein, N = 5, P < .05). Vein wall stiffness was less with LMWH treatment at 7d, but not with DOXY, as compared with controls (NaCl = .33±.05, LMWH =.17±.03*, DOXY = .43±.09 N/mm, N = 5-7, P < .05). Vessel-wall IL-1β was reduced only in the DOXY group at 7d (NaCl = 26±3, LMWH = 38±17, DOXY = 6±3* pg/mg protein, N = 4 - 6, P < .05) as was the IT score versus controls (NaCl = 2.2±.6, LMWH =1.7±.3, DOXY = 0.8 ± .20*, IT score, N = 4 -6, P < .05). Zymographic MMP9 activity was significantly reduced at 2 days in the LMWH and DOXY groups (NaCl = 85±24, LMWH = 23±7*, DOXY = 13±5* U/mg protein, N = 6 - 8, P < .05). MMP2 zymographic activity, thrombi

  20. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Serdar; Hak, David J.; Morgan, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. PMID:22084663

  1. [Pseudoaneurysm of saphenous vein graft after CABG].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Shimamoto, M; Yamazaki, F; Fujita, S; Yoshimura, T; Ueno, T; Shinozaki, T

    1995-04-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted because of angina pectoris and thoracic descending aorta aneurysm. Staged operations were planned. First, he underwent CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) with SVGs (saphenous vein grafts) to #4 PD, #7 and #12. Aprotinin was administrated to reduce blood loss. The routine postoperative graft angiography and enhanced CT showed a pseudoaneurysm in the SVG to #4 PD. We planned an elective operation of pseudoaneurysm repair and graft replacement of thoracic descending aorta. Also in this second operation, continuous infusion of aprotinin was started after the induction of anesthesia. About 30 minutes later, he suddenly fell in shock and cardiac arrest. Partial cardiopulmonary bypass was established and median sternotomy was performed. In the mediastinum, no bleeding was found. We found out a bleeding point of the SVG to #4 PD and a hemostatic clip on the right ventricule, and closed the bleeding point with suture. The cause of the pseudoaneurysm seemed to be defluxion of the hemostatic clip for a side brunch of the SVG. The cause of the preoperative shock may be an anaphylaxis to readministrated aprotinin.

  2. The Aristotelian account of "heart and veins".

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2008-04-25

    The exploration of the cardiovascular (CV) system has a history of at least five millennia. The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the CV system. With his own specific metaphysical approach, Aristotle discussed why there might be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also why these vessels must extend throughout the entire body. Herein, the authors present a history of the original account of the CV system based on the studies and teachings of Aristotle who made detailed observations and experimented upon animals and human corpses to explore the anatomy of the heart and vessels and thus provided the basis for modern CV medicine. The Aristotelian CV model consisted of two related but slightly dissimilar passages based on experimentation and tradition, which could be perceived as the morphology and metaphysical accounts of physiology, respectively. Restricted by his own methodology of dissecting dead animals, Aristotle was the first to describe the anatomy of the heart and blood vessels. A thorough reading of his Historia Animalium showed that he was able to morphologically delineate the right atrium in addition to three distinct heart cavities corresponding to the left atrium and right and left ventricles. The authors conclude that when interpreting Aristotelian doctrine, the methodology and terminology should be taken into account in order to prevent potential misconceptions. It is the early work of such scientists as Aristotle on which we base our current understanding of the CV system.

  3. Clinical Trials in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Panakanti, Tandava Krishnan; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular) of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26957837

  4. Pulmonary Vein Remodeling Following Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: Implications For The Radiographic Diagnosis Of Pulmonary Vein Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Merchant Md, Faisal M; Levy Bs, Mathew R; Iravanian Md, Shahriar; Weragoda Md, Ramal M; Clermont Md, Edward C; Kelli Md, Heval M; Eisner PhD, Robert L; Vadnais Md, David; El-Chami Md, Mikhael F; Leon Md, Angel R; Delurgio Md, David B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary vein (PV) reverse remodeling has been recognized following atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. However, the extent of physiologic reverse remodeling after AF ablation and the potential impact of reverse remodeling on the radiographic diagnosis of PV stenosis have not been well characterized. Methods: From January 2004 to February 2014, 186 patients underwent paired cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to delineate PV orifice dimensions before and after (mean 109 ± 61 days) an initial AF ablation. Results: Negative remodeling of the PV orifice cross sectional area occurred in 67.8% of veins with a mean reduction in area of 21.0 ± 14.1%, and positive remodeling was seen in the remaining PVs with an increase in area of 22.1 ± 23.4% compared to baseline. No PVs demonstrated a reduction in cross-sectional area of > 75% (maximum reduction observed was 58%). Negative remodeling of the PV long axis dimension was observed in 55.2% of veins with a mean reduction of 14.6 ± 9.2% compared to pre-ablation and positive remodeling was observed in 25.3% of PVs with a mean increase in diameter of 14.7 ± 12.6%. Only 1 PV demonstrated a reduction in orifice diameter of > 50%. There were no clinically evident or suspected cases of PV stenosis in this cohort. Conclusions: Negative remodeling of the PV orifice area was noted in the majority of PVs following AF ablation. However, in almost all cases, the extent of negative remodeling was well below commonly used thresholds for the radiographic diagnosis of PV stenosis.

  5. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  6. Subclavian artery- internal jugular vein fistula and heart failure: complication of internal jugular vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Takhellambam, Brojen; Ghosh, Biplab; Choudhury, Tauhidul Alam; Singh, Shivendra; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2013-02-01

    Hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requires vascular access which can be either temporary or permanent. However, these procedures are not without complications. Arterial puncture is the most common immediate complication and pseudoaneurysm formation is the most common late sequel of internal jugular venous catheterization (IJVC). However, arterio-venous fistula (AVF) formatiorn following IJVC is rare. We are reporting a case of AVF formation between subclavian artery (SCA) and internal jugular vein (IJV) following IJVC which later on leads to the development of cardiac failure.

  7. Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the legs, genital area, and rectum ( hemorrhoids are just a type of varicose veins). Varicose ... Recovering From Delivery How Do You Treat Pregnancy Hemorrhoids and Constipation? Medical Care During Pregnancy 10 Things ...

  8. Ovarian vein thrombosis in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, Justina Wei Lynn; Howe, Hwee Siew; Chng, Hiok Hee

    2012-03-01

    We describe a 35-year-old Chinese woman with Behçet disease complicated by recurrent gastrointestinal flares. During admission for acute lower abdominal pain, a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen showed thrombosis of the left ovarian vein. She was treated with increased immunosuppressant and oral anticoagulant. Although she was not compliant to oral anticoagulant with her international normalized ratio frequently subtherapeutic, her symptoms abated and the thrombosis resolved. There has been only 1 reported case of a patient with Behçet disease presenting with postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and no reported case of Behçet disease with ovarian vein thrombosis occurring outside pregnancy and the puerperium. Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare cause of abdominal pain that should be considered in patients with Behçet disease.

  9. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  10. Finger vein recognition based on local directional code.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-11-05

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP.

  11. Personal authentication using hand vein triangulation and knuckle shape.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Prathyusha, K Venkata

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to authenticate individuals using triangulation of hand vein images and simultaneous extraction of knuckle shape information. The proposed method is fully automated and employs palm dorsal hand vein images acquired from the low-cost, near infrared, contactless imaging. The knuckle tips are used as key points for the image normalization and extraction of region of interest. The matching scores are generated in two parallel stages: (i) hierarchical matching score from the four topologies of triangulation in the binarized vein structures and (ii) from the geometrical features consisting of knuckle point perimeter distances in the acquired images. The weighted score level combination from these two matching scores are used to authenticate the individuals. The achieved experimental results from the proposed system using contactless palm dorsal-hand vein images are promising (equal error rate of 1.14%) and suggest more user friendly alternative for user identification.

  12. Bypass surgery for lower extremity limb salvage: vein bypass.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Hosam F

    2012-01-01

    Bypass surgery for limb salvage in cases of chronic limb ischemia is a well-established treatment modality. Use of an autogenous vein provides the best conduit for infrainguinal arterial bypass procedures, particularly for bypass to the infrapopliteal arteries. In this article, we discuss infrainguinal vein bypass surgery including indications, perioperative care, and long-term follow up. We also discuss the outcomes of the procedure with regard to patient survival and limb salvage. The autogenous vein continues to be the best available conduit with the highest patency rate and the best treatment option. Compared to all other revascularization options for infrainguinal disease, the vein bypass has the best limb salvage and long-term survival in patients appropriately selected for the procedure.

  13. Stent Recanalization of Chronic Portal Vein Occlusion in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Solvig, Jan; Schroder, Henrik

    2000-07-15

    An 8-year-old boy with a 21/2 year history of portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from esophageal varices, was referred for treatment. The 3.5-cm-long occlusion of the portal vein was passed and the channel created was stabilized with a balloon-expandable stent; a portosystemic stent-shunt was also created. The portosystemic shunt closed spontaneously within 1 month, while the recanalized segment of the portal vein remained open. The pressure gradient between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal vein branches dropped from 17 mmHg to 0 mmHg. The pressure in the portal vein dropped from 30 mmHg to 17 mmHg and the bleedings stopped. The next dilation of the stent was performed 12 months later due to an increased pressure gradient; the gastroesophageal varices disappeared completely. Further dilation of the stent was planned after 2, 4, and 6 years.

  14. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Local Directional Code

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

  15. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the jugular vein in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Pierini, Alessio; Cinti, Filippo; Binanti, Diana; Pisani, Guido

    2017-01-01

    A four-year-old, male, Labrador retriever was referred for removal of a spindle cell sarcoma involving the right jugular vein. A post-contrast CT scan showed a seven-centimeter subcutaneous mass originated from the right external jugular vein, which was partially obstructed and showing contrast stasis, suggested a primary intravascular tumor of the jugular vein. The mass was resected, and histological evaluation was consistent with grade II intravenous spindle cell sarcoma of the jugular vein. Immunohistochemical positivity for vimentin, desmin, and αSMA antibody and negativity for S-100 protein confirmed venous leiomyosarcoma. The dog received five doses of intravenous doxorubicin, and there was no recurrence of the tumor 30 months post treatment. In dogs, primary intravascular sarcomas are rare and primary venous leiomyosarcoma has not been described. A venous tumor may be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with ventral neck swelling. PMID:28331835

  16. Finger vein recognition based on finger crease location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiying; Ding, Shumeng; Yin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Finger vein recognition technology has significant advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, uniqueness, and stability, and it has wide promising applications in the field of biometric recognition. We propose using finger creases to locate and extract an object region. Then we use linear fitting to overcome the problem of finger rotation in the plane. The method of modular adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE) is presented to enhance image contrast and reduce computational cost. To extract the finger vein features, we use a fusion method, which can obtain clear and distinguishable vein patterns under different conditions. We used the Hausdorff average distance algorithm to examine the recognition performance of the system. The experimental results demonstrate that MAHE can better balance the recognition accuracy and the expenditure of time compared with three other methods. Our resulting equal error rate throughout the total procedure was 3.268% in a database of 153 finger vein images.

  17. Haematuria and the retro-aortic left renal vein.

    PubMed

    Sillo, Toritseju Oluwafunmilayo; Jones, Katherine E; Willetts, Ian E

    2012-08-27

    The authors present the case of a 10-year-old boy with a 2-year history of intermittent macroscopic haematuria. After exclusion of other causes of haematuria through history, examination and a number of investigations, MRI revealed the finding of a retro-aortic left renal vein, which appeared to be compressed between the aorta and the L3 vertebral body. The retro-aortic left renal vein or 'posterior nutcracker syndrome" is a rare but important cause of haematuria and other manifestations of left renal vein hypertension. A discussion about the implications of this finding in children with symptoms consistent with left renal vein hypertension, and the potential options for management is undertaken.

  18. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment. PMID:21867521

  19. The persistent embryonic vein in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oduber, Charlène E U; Young-Afat, Danny A; van der Wal, Allard C; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Hennekam, Raoul C M; van der Horst, Chantal M A M

    2013-08-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a congenital malformation syndrome with prominent vascular anomalies. A persistent embryonic vein (PEV) may be located on the affected leg(s) of patients with KTS. Our understanding of PEVs of the legs is limited and their nomenclature is confusing. The objective of this study was to obtain further insight in the prevalence, nomenclature and etiology of PEVs of the legs in KTS and to propose a standardized description of anomalous leg veins in KTS. We investigated 70 KTS patients for the presence of PEVs (lateral marginal vein, LMV) of the legs by duplex ultrasonography. We performed histopathological analysis of a surgically excised PEV (LMV) of a typical KTS patient, and we conducted an extensive literature study. Duplex ultrasonography showed LMVs in 12/70 (17.1%) patients. The terms used to describe PEVs in the leg are quite variable, while indicating only two types: lateral marginal vein (LMV) and persistent sciatic vein (PSV). The histology of the excised LMV showed remarkable similarity with that of varicose veins found in the general population. In conclusion, the prevalence of LMVs in our KTS cohort is 17.1%. Two PEVs can be found in the legs and we propose nomenclature based on anatomical criteria, thereby using only the terms persistent lateral marginal vein and persistent sciatic vein, combined with the patency of the deep venous system. We hypothesize that PEVs are most likely caused by a genetic defect leading to abnormal venous pattern formation, which is further supported by our histopathological findings.

  20. Preduodenal Portal Vein with Situs Inversus Totalis causing Duodenal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Flavia; Bendre, Pradnya

    2016-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction sometimes may be secondary to unusual entities like preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) the identification of which is very important to avoid inadvertent injury or incorrect surgery. A 6-day old neonate presented with congenital duodenal obstruction. Investigations revealed situs inversus totalis with many congenital cardiovascular anomalies. At operation preduodenal portal vein and malrotation were found. Correction of malrotation and bypass duodeno-duodenostomy were done. PMID:27398325

  1. Preduodenal portal vein--a cause of intestinal obstruction?

    PubMed

    Esscher, T

    1980-10-01

    A preduodenal position of the portal vein is a rare anomaly reported in 52 cases in the literature. Two additional cases are reported here. In 54% of the cases of preduodenal portal vein (PPV) was combined with high intestinal obstruction and in one half of these cases PPV was considered obstructive. A critical review of these cases given the impression that obstructive PPV could well be a misinterpretation of the obstructive situation and the existence of obstructive PPV is doubted.

  2. Preduodenal Portal Vein with Situs Inversus Totalis causing Duodenal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Flavia; Nage, Amol; Bendre, Pradnya

    2016-01-01

    Congenital duodenal obstruction sometimes may be secondary to unusual entities like preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) the identification of which is very important to avoid inadvertent injury or incorrect surgery. A 6-day old neonate presented with congenital duodenal obstruction. Investigations revealed situs inversus totalis with many congenital cardiovascular anomalies. At operation preduodenal portal vein and malrotation were found. Correction of malrotation and bypass duodeno-duodenostomy were done.

  3. [Ultrasound examination for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kosaku

    2014-09-01

    Surgery is known to be a major risk factor of vein thrombosis. Progression from lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to pulmonary embolism can lead to catastrophic outcome, although the incidence ratio is low. The ability to rule in or rule out DVT is becoming essential for anesthesiologists. Non-invasive technique of ultrasonography is a sensitive and specific tool for the assessment of lower extremity DVT. This article introduces the basics and practical methods of ultrasound examination for lower extremity DVT.

  4. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: anatomy and basic approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography. PMID:28260355

  5. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Via the Pericardiacophrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimatsu, Rika Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kotaro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a case of gastric varix without a gastrorenal shunt that drained through the left pericardiacophrenic vein, which entered the left brachiocephalic vein. For this case we successfully performed balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, in which sclerotic agents were infused via the left pericardiacophrenic vein approached from the left subclavian vein.

  6. The mechanics of intersecting echelon veins and pressure solution seams in limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyum, Solomon; Pollard, David D.

    2016-08-01

    Many studies that describe the formation of echelon vein arrays relate the causative stresses implicitly to the deformation, reliant on simple shear kinematics, such that the vein-to-array angle and the array width are the primary physical quantities. In contrast, we identify twelve physical quantities to describe echelon veins in two dimensions, including coeval, vein-intersecting, pressure solution seams. A finite element method is used to reproduce vein shapes in linear elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic model limestone. Model vein geometries are designed using values within the range of geometries measured from echelon veins at Raplee Anticline and Comb Monocline, Utah. Four physical quantities are significant for describing echelon vein shapes: vein spacing, vein-array angle, limestone elastic stiffness, and closing of orthogonal pressure solution seams. Pressure solution seam closing influences the mechanical interaction between adjacent veins, and for a range of conditions, causes a nearly linear vein opening distribution (triangular shapes) and encourages straight vein propagation, both of which approximate field measurements. Model results show that small spacing of veins with seams and large vein-array angles promote straight vein traces in limestone with stiffness typical of laboratory measurements, given the physical geologic conditions inferred from the burial history of the limestone strata.

  7. Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-10-24

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system.

  8. Giant Intrahepatic Portal Vein Aneurysm: Leave it or Treat it?

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Amit; Rampal, Jagdeesh S; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2017-03-01

    Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare vascular dilatation of the portal vein. It is a rare vascular anomaly representing less than 3% of all visceral aneurysms and is not well understood. Usually, PVA are incidental findings, are asymptomatic, and clinical symptoms are proportionally related to size. Patients present with nonspecific epigastric pain or gastrointestinal bleeding with underlying portal hypertension. PVA may be associated with various complications such as biliary tract compression, portal vein thrombosis/rupture, duodenal compression, gastrointestinal bleeding, and inferior vena cava obstruction. Differential diagnoses of portal vein aneurysms are solid, cystic, and hypervascular abdominal masses, and it is important that the radiologists be aware of their multi-modality appearance; hence, the aim of this article was to provide an overview of the available literature to better simplify various aspects of this rare entity and diagnostic appearance on different modality with available treatment options. In our case, a 55-year-old male patient came to the gastroenterology OPD for further management of pancreatitis with portal hypertension and biliary obstruction with plastic stents in CBD and PD for the same. In this article, we have reported a case of largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and its management by endovascular technique. As per our knowledge, this is the largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and first case where the endovascular technique was used for the treatment of the same.

  9. Vein graft adaptation and fistula maturation in the arterial environment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Daniel Y; Chen, Elizabeth Y; Wong, Daniel J; Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D; Williams, Willis T; Assi, Roland; Hall, Michael R; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Dardik, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Veins are exposed to the arterial environment during two common surgical procedures, creation of vein grafts and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). In both cases, veins adapt to the arterial environment that is characterized by different hemodynamic conditions and increased oxygen tension compared with the venous environment. Successful venous adaptation to the arterial environment is critical for long-term success of the vein graft or AVF and, in both cases, is generally characterized by venous dilation and wall thickening. However, AVF are exposed to a high flow, high shear stress, low-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via outward dilation with less intimal thickening. Vein grafts are exposed to a moderate flow, moderate shear stress, high-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via increased wall thickening with less outward dilation. We review the data that describe these differences, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these processes. Despite extensive research, there are few differences in the molecular pathways that regulate cell proliferation and migration or matrix synthesis, secretion, or degradation currently identified between vein graft adaptation and AVF maturation that account for the different types of venous adaptation to arterial environments.

  10. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options.

    PubMed

    MacKay, D

    2001-04-01

    Hemorrhoids and varicose veins are common conditions seen by general practitioners. Both conditions have several treatment modalities for the physician to choose from. Varicose veins are treated with mechanical compression stockings. There are several over-the-counter topical agents available for hemorrhoids. Conservative therapies for both conditions include diet, lifestyle changes, and hydrotherapy which require a high degree of patient compliance to be effective. When conservative hemorrhoid therapy is ineffective, many physicians may choose other non-surgical modalities: injection sclerotherapy, cryotherapy, manual dilation of the anus, infrared photocoagulation, bipolar diathermy, direct current electrocoagulation, or rubber band ligation. Injection sclerotherapy is the non-surgical treatment for primary varicose veins. Non-surgical modalities require physicians to be specially trained, own specialized equipment, and assume associated risks. If a non-surgical approach fails, the patient is often referred to a surgeon. The costly and uncomfortable nature of treatment options often lead a patient to postpone evaluation until aggressive intervention is necessary. Oral dietary supplementation is an attractive addition to the traditional treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins. The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of both hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Several botanical extracts have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow, and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate. Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

  11. [Treatment of nontumoral portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Bañares, Rafael; Catalina, María-Vega

    2014-07-01

    Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis is a relatively common complication associated with the presence of an accompanying prothrombotic phenotype of advanced cirrhosis. The consequences of portal vein thrombosis are relevant because it can be associated with impaired hepatic function, might contraindicate hepatic transplantation and could increase morbidity in the surgical procedure. There is controversy concerning the most effective treatment of portal vein thrombosis, which is based on information that is seldom robust and whose primary objective is to achieve a return to vessel patency. Various studies have suggested that starting anticoagulation therapy early is associated with portal vein repatency more frequently than without treatment and has a low rate of complications. There are no proven data on the type of anticoagulant (low-molecular-weight heparins or dicoumarin agents) and the treatment duration. The implementation of TIPS is technically feasible in thrombosis without cavernous transformation and is associated with portal vein recanalization in a significant proportion of cases. Thrombolytic therapy does not appear to present an adequate balance between efficacy and safety; its use is therefore not supported for this indication. The proper definition of treatment for portal vein thrombosis requires properly designed studies to delimit the efficacy and safety of the various alternatives.

  12. Sublingual vein extraction algorithm based on hyperspectral tongue imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Guan, Yana; Xu, Liang

    2011-04-01

    Among the parts of the human tongue surface, the sublingual vein is one of the most important ones which may have pathological relationship with some diseases. To analyze this information quantitatively, one primitive work is to extract sublingual veins accurately from tongue body. In this paper, a hyperspectral tongue imaging system instead of a digital camera is used to capture sublingual images. A hidden Markov model approach is presented to extract the sublingual veins from the hyperspectral sublingual images. This approach characterizes the spectral correlation and the band-to-band variability using a hidden Markov process, where the model parameters are estimated by the spectra of the pixel vectors forming the observation sequences. The proposed algorithm, the pixel-based sublingual vein segmentation algorithm, and the spectral angle mapper algorithm are tested on a total of 150 scenes of hyperspectral sublingual veins images to evaluate the performance of the new method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can extract the sublingual veins more accurately than the traditional algorithms and can perform well even in a noisy environment.

  13. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients.

  14. [Research on optimization of imaging system of the hand vein optical properties].

    PubMed

    Lan, Huiying; Shi, Yan; Wang, Longwu

    2013-10-01

    Due to the difficulties of the copying, vein identification has developed rapidly in recent years. The light source selection directly affects the image quality. This paper acquired by experiment the reflectivities of vein and non-vein irradiation with different wavelengths of near infra-red. Comparing the strength of reflectivities of various wave lengths, we found that there were the strongest contrasts between vein and non-vein in the 810 nm, and 810 nm near infra-red was suitable to a vein imaging light source. Finally, clear hand vein images were obtained with the selected light source.

  15. The anatomical variations of sylvian veins and cisterns.

    PubMed

    Aydin, I H; Tüzün, Y; Takçi, E; Kadioğlu, H H; Kayaoğlu, C R; Barlas, E

    1997-06-01

    The anatomical variations of sylvian vein and cistern were investigated during the pterional approach in 750 operative cases with different pathologies. All patients were operated on at the Neurosurgical Department of Ataturk University Medical School, Erzurum, Turkiye. The patients underwent surgery for the lesions necessitating the right or left pterional approach. The findings were recorded during surgical intervention and observed through the operative sketches of the pathologies, the slides, and videotapes of the operations. In our study, we surgically classified the variations of sylvian vein, according to its branching and draining patterns. Type I: The fronto-orbital (frontosylvian), fronto-parietal (parietosylvian) and anterior temporal (temporosylvian) veins drain into one sylvian vein. Type II: Two superficial sylvian veins with separated basal vein draining into the sphenoparietal and Rosenthal's basal vein. Type III: Two superficial sylvian veins draining into the sphenoparietal and the superior petrosal veins. Type IV: Hypoplastic superficial sylvian vein and the deep one. Four types of sylvian vein variations were defined as follows. The type I was seen in 52.8% (n = 396), the type II was found in 19.2% (n = 144), type III was recorded in 18.2% (n = 137), and type IV, or hypoplastic and deep form was discovered in 9.8% (n = 73) of patients. The coursing of sylvian vein was in the temporal side (Temporal Coursing) in 62.4 percent of the cases (n = 469), in the frontal side (Frontal Coursing) in 25 % of the patients (n = 187) and in 9 percent of the cases (n = 67) in the deep localization (Deep Coursing). Only 3.6% of the cases (n = 27) showed Mixed Coursing. The variations of the sylvian cisterns were classified into three types, according to the relationships between the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. In Sylvian type, the frontal and temporal lobes are loosely (Sylvian Type A, wide and large) or tightly (Sylvian Type B

  16. [About the tributaries of the arch of great saphenous vein. Concerning 40 dissections].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Ass; Ndiaye, Ab; Diop, M; Ndoye, J M; Ciss, G; Dia, A; Ndiaye, M; Sow, M L

    2005-01-01

    The arch of the great saphenous vein cross receives numerous tributaries from the abdominal wall, male external genitalia and pelvic limbs. These collaterals present many variations relating to their number and mode of anastomosis. Their misappreciation may lead to post operative recurrences after surgical treatment of varices. For a last study of these variations, we dissected 40 inguinofemoral regions in fresh black african corpes. The conventional type in a "vein strar" shape was present in 4 cases. An abdominal common vein produced through the merging of the superficial epigastric and superficial circumflex iliac veins was found in 5 cases. A genital common vein summarising the external pudendal veins was present in 19 cases. In 8 cases the abdominal and genital common vein was simultaneously present. An anterior saphenous vein was found in 15 cases, and a posterior saphenous vein in 5 cases. These results, confirm the importance of anatomic variations. Their knowledge is necessary to avoid recurrences after surgery of varicose veins.

  17. Dual Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Draining into the Left Adrenal Vein and Left Inferior Phrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Norifumi Ninoi, Teruhisa; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Akira; Sakai, Yukimasa; Sato, Kimihiko; Hamuro, Masao; Nakamura, Kenji; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2004-09-15

    A 66-year-old woman with a gastric varix, draining into a dilated left adrenal vein and a left inferior phrenic vein, was treated with dual balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Under balloon occlusion of the left adrenal vein and the left inferior phrenic vein, retrograde injection of a sclerosant (5% ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix was performed. Two weeks later, disappearance of flow in the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic ultrasound examination.

  18. Proposition of a new classification of the cerebral veins based on their termination.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2012-03-01

    The existing classifications of cerebral veins have certain problems, including limited adequacy to uniquely describe neurovascular networks in three dimensions (3D), mixture of deep and superficial veins, and ambiguity of territories-based parcellations as veins may course on multiple territories. Classification discrepancies exist in subdivision, region drained, and parcellation criteria. Recent developments in diagnostic imaging and computers enable to acquire, create, and manipulate complete vascular networks, which also call for a new classification of cerebral veins. We propose a new classification suitable for the description of the complete cerebral veins, providing a clear separation of the superficial cortical veins from deep veins, and facilitating presentation and exploration of cerebral veins in 3D with respect to surrounding neuroanatomy. It is based on terminating vascular subsystems (rather than draining regions). It divides the cerebral veins into cortical, deep, and posterior fossa veins. The cortical veins are subdivided into two groups: terminating in dural sinuses and terminating in deep veins. The posterior fossa veins are subdivided also into two groups: terminating in dural sinuses and terminating in deep veins. This classification was illustrated with a cerebrovascular model containing over 1,300 vessels. This new classification has many advantages. It is simple, clear and didactically useful; avoids mixture of superficial and deep veins; shows overall hierarchical structure and topographical relationships including tributaries; is useful in analysis of 3D vascular trees extracted from imaging; and may be used in conjunction with the existing parcellations.

  19. Huebnerite veins near Round Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shawe, D.R.; Foord, E.E.; Conklin, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Small huebnerite-bearing quartz veins occur in and near Cretaceous (about 95 m.y. old) granite east and south of Round Mountain. The veins are short, lenticular, and strike mostly northeast and northwest in several narrow east-trending belts. The quartz veins were formed about 80 m.y. ago near the end of an episode of doming and metamorphism of the granite and emplacement of aplite and pegmatite dikes in and near the granite. An initial hydrothermal stage involved deposition of muscovite, quartz, huebnerite, fluorite, and barite in the veins. Veins were then sheared, broken, and recrystallized. A second hydrothermal stage, possibly associated with emplacement of a rhyolite dike swarm and granodiorite stock about 35 m.y. ago, saw deposition of more muscovite, quartz, fluorite, and barite, and addition of scheelite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, several sulfide minerals, and chalcedony. Finally, as a result of near-surface weathering, secondary sulfide and numerous oxide, tungstate, carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, and silicate minerals formed in the veins. Depth of burial at the time of formation of the veins, based on geologic reconstruction, was about 3-3.5 km. The initial hydrothermal stage ended with deposition of quartz at a temperature of about 210/sup 0/C and pressures of about 240 to 280 bars from fluids with salinity of about 5 wt % sodium chloride. Fluorite then was deposited at about 250/sup 0/ to 280/sup 0/C from solutions of similar salinity and containing a small amount of carbon dioxide. During shearing that followed initial mineralization, quartz was recrystallized at a temperature of 270/sup 0/ to 290/sup 0/C and in association with fluids of about 5 wt % sodium chloride equivalent and containing carbon dioxide. Late-stage fluorite was deposited from fluids with similar salinity but devoid of carbon dioxide at a temperature of about 210/sup 0/C. 76 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Fluid overpressure estimates from the aspect ratios of mineral veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Sonja L.

    2012-12-01

    Several hundred calcite veins and (mostly) normal faults were studied in limestone and shale layers of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin next to the village of Kilve at the Bristol Channel (SW-England). The veins strike mostly E-W (239 measurements), that is, parallel with the associated normal faults. The mean vein dip is 73°N (44 measurements). Field observations indicate that these faults transported the fluids up into the limestone layers. The vein outcrop (trace) length (0.025-10.3 m) and thickness (0.1-28 mm) size distributions are log-normal. Taking the thickness as the dependent variable and the outcrop length as the independent variable, linear regression gives a coefficient of determination (goodness of fit) of R2 = 0.74 (significant with 99% confidence), but natural logarithmic transformation of the thickness-length data increases the coefficient of determination to R2 = 0.98, indicating that nearly all the variation in thickness can be explained in terms of variation in trace length. The geometric mean of the aspect (length/thickness) ratio, 451, gives the best representation of the data set. With 95% confidence, the true geometric mean of the aspect ratios of the veins lies in the interval 409-497. Using elastic crack theory, appropriate elastic properties of the host rock, and the mean aspect ratio, the fluid overpressure (that is, the total fluid pressure minus the normal stress on the fracture plane) at the time of vein formation is estimated at around 18 MPa. From these results, and using the average host rock and water densities, the depth to the sources of the fluids (below the present exposures) forming the veins is estimated at between around 300 m and 1200 m. These results are in agreement to those obtained by independent isotopic studies and indicate that the fluids were of rather local origin, probably injected from sill-like sources (water sills) inside the sedimentary basin.

  1. "Spiral stenting"-creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around a massively calcified ostial chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery in a patient with recurrent ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Kambis; Valuckiene, Zivile; Neuser, Hans; Walter, Marlon; Gappmaier, Wolfgang; Kaiser, Thomas; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Akin, Ibrahim; Behnes, Michael

    2016-11-01

    This case report describes a successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a severely calcified aorto-ostial chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery (RCA). The lesion was treated by a retrograde approach implementing long spiral subintimal wire tracking and final coronary stenting creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around the natively occluded RCA. After 6 months of follow-up valuable angiographic results were proven.

  2. “Spiral stenting”—creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around a massively calcified ostial chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery in a patient with recurrent ventricular tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Neuser, Hans; Walter, Marlon; Gappmaier, Wolfgang; Kaiser, Thomas; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Akin, Ibrahim; Behnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a severely calcified aorto-ostial chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery (RCA). The lesion was treated by a retrograde approach implementing long spiral subintimal wire tracking and final coronary stenting creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around the natively occluded RCA. After 6 months of follow-up valuable angiographic results were proven. PMID:28066662

  3. ClariVein® – Early results from a large single-centre series of mechanochemical endovenous ablation for varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Kam, JW; Gaunt, ME

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the effectiveness and patient experience of the ClariVein® endovenous occlusion catheter for varicose veins from a large single-centre series in the UK. Methods A total of 300 patients (371 legs) underwent ClariVein® treatment for their varicose veins; 184 for great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence, 62 bilateral GSV, 23 short saphenous vein (SSV), 6 bilateral SSV and 25 combined unilateral great saphenous vein and SSV. Patients were reviewed at an interval of two months post procedure and underwent Duplex ultrasound assessment. Postoperative complications were recorded along with patient satisfaction. Results All 393 procedures were completed successfully under local anaesthetic. Complete occlusion of the treated vein was initially achieved in all the patients, but at eight weeks’ follow-up, there was only partial obliteration in 13/393 (3.3%) veins. These were all successfully treated with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy. Procedures were well tolerated with a mean pain score of 0.8 (0–10). No significant complications were reported. Conclusions ClariVein® can be used to ablate long and short saphenous varicose veins on a walk-in–walk-out basis. Bilateral procedures can be successfully performed, and these are well tolerated as can multiple veins in the same leg. Early results are promising but further evaluation and longer term follow-up are required. PMID:26908638

  4. Impact of misplaced subclavian vein catheter into jugular vein on transpulmonary thermodilution measurement variables*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-qiao; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shao-yang; Liang, Zhong-yan; Fu, Shui-qiao; Xu, Jia; Liang, Ting-bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The subclavian vein (SCV) is usually used to inject the indicator of cold saline for a transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) measurement. The SCV catheter being misplaced into the internal jugular (IJV) vein is a common occurrence. The present study explores the influence of a misplaced SCV catheter on TPTD variables. Methods: Thirteen severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients with malposition of the SCV catheter were enrolled in this study. TPTD variables including cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI), and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) were obtained after injection of cold saline via the misplaced SCV catheter. Then, the misplaced SCV catheter was removed and IJV access was constructed for a further set of TPTD variables. Comparisons were made between the TPTD results measured through the IJV and misplaced SCV accesses. Results: A total of 104 measurements were made from TPTD curves after injection of cold saline via the IJV and misplaced SCV accesses. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated an overestimation of +111.40 ml/m2 (limits of agreement: 6.13 and 216.70 ml/m2) for GEDVI and ITBVI after a misplaced SCV injection. There were no significant influences on CI and EVLWI. The biases of +0.17 L/(min·m2) for CI and +0.17 ml/kg for EVLWI were revealed by Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusions: The malposition of an SCV catheter does influence the accuracy of TPTD variables, especially GEDVI and ITBVI. The position of the SCV catheter should be confirmed by chest X-ray in order to make good use of the TPTD measurements. PMID:26739527

  5. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  6. Late occlusion of microvascular vein grafts in replantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, W A; Mitchell, G M; Hickey, M J

    1998-11-01

    Two cases are described in which patients presented 16 and 17 years, respectively, after complete or incomplete amputation/replantation of the arm. In case 1, the patient complained of coldness, pain, and tingling in the replanted arm in the previous 24 hours and noticed that his fingers had gone white. Arteriography and subsequent surgery revealed obliteration of the vein graft (inserted in the distal brachial artery) by neointimal thickening and atherosclerotic plaque, which was confirmed in a subsequent morphologic examination. In case 2, the patient presented with discomfort and a pulsatile swelling on the inner aspect of his upper arm. Arteriography and surgery revealed an aneurysm in the previously inserted vein graft in the brachial artery, with some atherosclerotic degeneration. Both vein grafts were successfully replaced with a fresh autologous vein graft and the patients remain well several years later. The 2 cases suggest that as part of replantation surgery of a limb, it is essential to maintain postoperative clinical monitoring for signs of graft degeneration in all patients with long-term vein graft insertion.

  7. Coronary magnetic resonance vein imaging: imaging contrast, sequence, and timing.

    PubMed

    Nezafat, Reza; Han, Yuchi; Peters, Dana C; Herzka, Daniel A; Wylie, John V; Goddu, Beth; Kissinger, Kraig K; Yeon, Susan B; Zimetbaum, Peter J; Manning, Warren J

    2007-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in imaging the coronary vein anatomy to guide interventional cardiovascular procedures such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), a device therapy for congestive heart failure (CHF). With CRT the lateral wall of the left ventricle is electrically paced using a transvenous coronary sinus lead or surgically placed epicardial lead. Proper transvenous lead placement is facilitated by the knowledge of the coronary vein anatomy. Cardiovascular MR (CMR) has the potential to image the coronary veins. In this study we propose and test CMR techniques and protocols for imaging the coronary venous anatomy. Three aspects of design of imaging sequence were studied: magnetization preparation schemes (T(2) preparation and magnetization transfer), imaging sequences (gradient-echo (GRE) and steady-state free precession (SSFP)), and imaging time during the cardiac cycle. Numerical and in vivo studies both in healthy and CHF subjects were performed to optimize and demonstrate the utility of CMR for coronary vein imaging. Magnetization transfer was superior to T(2) preparation for contrast enhancement. Both GRE and SSFP were viable imaging sequences, although GRE provided more robust results with better contrast. Imaging during the end-systolic quiescent period was preferable as it coincided with the maximum size of the coronary veins.

  8. Pantaloon femoral vein graft as "neoaorta" in infected aortic disease.

    PubMed

    Verma, Himanshu; Mohan, Satish; Tripathi, Ramesh K

    2015-10-01

    Infected abdominal aortic disease and graft infections pose a significant challenge for the vascular surgeon. Thorough radical débridement, either preceded by extra-anatomic bypass or followed by in situ aortic replacement, is the mainstay of treatment. The role of endovascular repair by stent grafts is being increasingly described but is limited to relatively less virulent mycotic aneurysms or as a "bridging" option in sick patients with florid sepsis that necessitates eventual delayed definitive surgical management. Autologous femoral vein has been an excellent conduit for aortic bifurcation reconstruction in this setting. Although various configurations of femoral vein conduit have been described for aortobi-iliac reconstruction, an in-depth knowledge of the venous anatomy, physiology, mechanisms of "profundization," and techniques of harvest and graft preparation is essential for efficient conduct of the operation and its optimal outcomes. We review in detail these aspects of "pantaloon" femoral vein graft creation as a "neoaorta".

  9. [Deep vein thrombosis revealing myeloproliferative syndrome in two adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Heissat, S; Caron, N; Viremouneix, L; Pracros, J-P; Javouhey, E; Lachaux, A; Mialou, V

    2014-05-01

    Deep vein thrombosis occurs in 30% of patients with essential thrombocythemia, but rarely at initial diagnosis. We report two pediatric patients with essential thrombocythemia revealed by atypical deep vein thrombosis. First, a 16-year-old girl presented Budd-Chiari syndrome revealed by a hemorrhagic shock. Clinical exam revealed isolated splenomegaly. A search for thrombophilia found a factor V Leiden homozygous mutation and a Jak2 mutation. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a myeloproliferative disorder. The second case, a 17-year-old girl, had a routine examination by her physician that revealed splenomegaly. Ultrasonography displayed thrombus in the splenic and portal vein. An isolated Jak2 mutation was found and a myeloproliferative disorder was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. The diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorder was made in both patients presenting atypical venous thrombosis with a Jak2 mutation and confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. These initial presentations of myeloproliferative disorders are rare in childhood and possibly underdiagnosed.

  10. Finger vein recognition based on a personalized best bit map.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition.

  11. Intraosseous anomalous drainage: a rare case of pretibial varicose vein.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Frederico Barra de; Camelo, Carolina Parreira Ribeiro; Brandão, Marcelo Luiz; Fávaro, Pedro Ivo; Barbosa, Tercília Almeida; Barbosa, Raul Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Valve failure with reflux and post-thrombotic syndrome are the factors most commonly correlated with varicose disease. Other rare etiologies can be put forward when these two main causes are ruled out. We report a case in which a young man presented chronic pain in the left tibia, varicose veins in the lower limbs and frequent occurrences of erysipelas. During investigation of the etiology of the varicose veins, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg were requested. These showed images suggestive of an osteolytic lesion in the tibia, but led us to the diagnosis of an intraosseous vein with anomalous drainage. This was confirmed through vascular examinations comprising Doppler venous flow measurement and phlebography. Recognition of this rare intraosseous anomaly is fundamental for proper patient management, but an intraosseous surgical approach is unnecessary.

  12. Hemodynamically Driven Vein Graft Remodeling: A Systems Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berceli, Scott A.; Tran-Son-Tay, Roger; Garbey, Marc; Jiang, Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Despite intense investigation over several decades to understand the mechanisms of vein graft failure, few therapeutic modalities have emerged. Emphasis using standard reductionist approaches has been focused on cataloging the components involved in the early events following vein graft implantation, but limited insight has been gained in understanding the dynamic interaction of these components. We propose that the application of systems theory offers the opportunity for significant advances in this area. Focused on modeling the dynamic relationships that define living organisms, systems biology provides the necessary tools to further our understanding of the complex series of overlapping biologic events on surgical implantation of the vein graft. Through the use of ordinary differential equation and agent-based modeling techniques, we present our ongoing efforts to define the nonlinear interactions between hemodynamics and vascular adaptation. PMID:19426605

  13. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with renal vein involvement.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Hatsuko; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Megumi; Nagata, Masao; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi

    2015-02-01

    The common sites of breast cancer metastases include bones, lung, brain, and liver. Renal metastasis from the breast is rare. We report a case of breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with extension into the renal vein. A 40-year-old woman had undergone left mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 38. A gastric tumor, which was later proved to be metastasis from breast cancer, was detected by endoscopy. Computed tomography performed for further examination of the gastric tumor revealed a large left renal tumor with extension into the left renal vein. It mimicked a primary renal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal tumor confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. Surgical intervention of the stomach and the kidney was avoided, and she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney may present a solitary renal mass with extension into the renal vein, which mimics a primary renal tumor.

  14. Preduodenal portal vein: Two cases with differing presentation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J C; Morton, D; McElwee, R; Hamit, H F

    1978-03-01

    Preduodenal or precholedochal veins are rare developmental anomalies of considerable surgical importance. Injury to these structures because of failure to recognize them during operations for unrelated diseases may result in thrombosis or hemorrhage. We recently encountered this anomaly twice, once in a newborn infant with duodenal obstruction and once in a 54-year-old woman undergoing cholecystectomy. The preduodenal vein was not the primary cause of obstruction in the infant, but injury to the previously unrecognized percholedochal vein in the woman resulted in a considerable loss of blood. Besides describing and illustrating these two cases, we also discuss the anatomy and the embryology of these structures and briefly review the patterns of 44 previously reported cases that we found.

  15. Preduodenal portal vein with situs inversus and duodenal atresia.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Y; Lombrozo, R; Dintsman, M

    1986-02-01

    In a 7-day-old infant referred because of bile-stained vomiting, jaundice and lack of meconium, radiological examination revealed the 'double-bubble' sign of duodenal atresia as well as dextrocardia. This infant also had a strawberry haemangioma on the right shoulder. Operation disclosed situs inversus and a preduodenal portal vein as well as duodenal atresia. A side-to-side duodeno-jejunostomy was performed successfully without damage to the anomalous vein. The history of polyhydramnion during gestation, the presence of other anomalies, the rapid onset of bile-stained vomiting and the classic 'double-bubble' sign, together appeared to indicate that the duodenal atresia was intrinsic and not due to the external pressure of the anomalous vein on the duodenum.

  16. A Moyamoya Patient with Bilateral Consecutive Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Güçlü, Hande; Gurlu, Vuslat Pelitli; Ozal, Sadık Altan; Esgin, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe a moyamoya (MMD) patient with bilateral consecutive branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). The patient had a medical history of severe headache, cranial haemorrhage, bilateral supraclinoid carotid artery occlusion, and “puff of smoke” collaterals on cerebral angiography and an encephalomyosynangiosis operation. On ophthalmic examination, he had superior temporal branch vein occlusion with intraretinal haemorrhage and visual acuity of 20/25 in the right eye. Twelve years later, he presented with superior temporal branch vein occlusion in the left eye and visual acuity of 20/60. The patient was initially treated with a dexamethasone intravitreal implant, and later intravitreal ranibizumab injections. We describe the first reported case of bilateral consecutive BRVO and management in MMD. PMID:27928391

  17. Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:22438735

  18. Selection and Outcome of Portal Vein Resection in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Akimasa

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Five-year survival of pancreatic cancer after pancreatectomy is very low, and surgical resection is the only option to cure this dismal disease. The standard surgical procedure is pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic head cancer. The morbidity and especially the mortality of PD have been greatly reduced. Portal vein resection in pancreatic cancer surgery is one attempt to increase resectability and radicality, and the procedure has become safe to perform. Clinicohistopathological studies have shown that the most important indication for portal vein resection in patients with pancreatic cancer is the ability to obtain cancer-free surgical margins. Otherwise, portal vein resection is contraindicated. PMID:24281213

  19. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  20. Palm-Vein Classification Based on Principal Orientation Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujia; Liu, Yaqin; Feng, Qianjin; Yang, Feng; Huang, Jing; Nie, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Personal recognition using palm–vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm–vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm–vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm–vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm–vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm–vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database. PMID:25383715

  1. Relationship between amorphous silica and precious metal in quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Rowe, C. D.; Board, W. S.; Greig, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Super-saturation of silica is common in fault fluids, due to pressure changes associated with fracture, fault slip, or temperature gradients in hydrothermal systems. These mechanisms lead to precipitation of amorphous silica, which will recrystallize to quartz under typical geologic conditions. These conditions may also promote the saturation of precious metals, such as gold, and the precipitation of nanoparticles. Previous experiments show that charged nanoparticles of gold can attach to the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles. Thus, gold and silica may be transported as a colloid influencing mineralization textures during amorphous silica recrystallization to quartz. This may enrich quartz vein hosted gold deposits, but the instability of hydrous silica during subsequent deformation means that the microstructural record of precipitation of gold is lost. We investigate a recent, shallow auriferous hydrothermal system at Dixie Valley, Nevada to reveal the nano- to micro-scale relationships between gold and silica in fresh veins. Fault slip surfaces at Dixie Valley exhibit layers of amorphous silica with partial recrystallization to quartz. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show amorphous silica can contain a few wt. % gold while areas recrystallized to quartz are barren. At the Jurassic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia, Canada we observe the cryptocrystalline quartz textures that may indicate recrystallization from amorphous silica within quartz-carbonate veins containing high grade gold. Comb quartz within syntaxial veins, vugs, and coating breccia clasts indicate structural dilation. Vein geometry is investigated to determine relative importance of fault slip in creating dilational sites. By comparing quartz-carbonate veins from the Dixie Valley to Brucejack, we can determine whether amorphous silica formed in different environments show similar potential to affect precious metal mineralization.

  2. Absent portal vein bifurcation: a rare variant and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Panda, Sitansu; Bahinipati, Pravakar

    2014-01-01

    Portal vein branching anomaly occurs due to aberration of normal anastomotic patterns and involution of vitelline veins during development of portal vein. Anatomical knowledge of portal vein and its branching pattern is important for hepatobiliary surgeon and gastrointestinal intervention radiologist. We are reporting a case of absence of portal vein bifurcation showing single main intrahepatic portal vein with gradual decreasing caliber distally, in a young female patient on contrast-enhanced computed tomography study of abdomen. Few cases of absence of portal bifurcation have been reported in literature so far. PMID:25276482

  3. [A technique for the vein extraction from the susceptibility weighted imaging of the brain].

    PubMed

    Suo, Shi; Dou, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Jianrong; Huang, Xin; Qian, Lijun; Xu, Xiu

    2011-03-01

    This paper studies the vein extraction technique based on the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and introduced an improved self-adaptive threshold method based on the vessel enhancing diffusion. The approach employs the combination indicator of the local gray character, the global gray character and the tubular information of the vein. It first applies the vessel enhancing diffusion filter to enhance the continuity of the vein, increases the detection rate of tiny vein and suppresses the nucleus areas. And then it uses the improved self-adaptive threshold method to extract the vein. The results demonstrate that this approach can solve the problem above and extract the vein from the SWI image accurately.

  4. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Eun; Chae, Kwon Mook

    2011-12-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease.

  5. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Eun

    2011-01-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease. PMID:22319743

  6. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  7. Finger vein recognition using local line binary pattern.

    PubMed

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP).

  8. Early mobilization versus bed rest for deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Izcovich, Ariel; Popoff, Federico; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-06-28

    Aiming to prevent thromboembolic events, bed rest was historically considered in the management of patient with deep vein thrombosis. Nevertheless early ambulation could have beneficial effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified seven systematic reviews including 10 randomized trials answering this question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded early ambulation is probably effective in reducing deep vein thrombosis progression and improving limb pain, and might not increase the risk of thromboembolism.

  9. Surgical Management of Ectopic Kidney with Bilateral Iliac Vein Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Harshwardhan V; Fernandes, Gwendolyn; Patil, Bhushan; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a very rare phenomenon in an ectopic kidney. We come across a 61-year-old gentleman with a history of 2 months of gross, painless haematuria and palpable pelvic mass on examination. CT scan showed 6.5cm X 5.1cm X 5.8cm mass in pelvic kidney with bilateral iliac vein invasion. With the help of intra-operative ultra-sound, tumour thrombus was extracted from both iliac veins with en mass removal of tumour. Patient was well intraoperatively as well as in postoperatively. We also presented an elegant imaging for the case. PMID:27134940

  10. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    PubMed Central

    du Breuil, Anne L.; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses. PMID:27800207

  11. How vein sealing boosts fracture widening rates - The buckling-enhanced aperture growth mechanism for syn-tectonic veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The paper introduces the mechanism of buckling-enhanced aperture growth for syn-tectonic veins that formed in simple-shear dominated kinematic frameworks in the middle or lower crust. Apart from the well understood concepts of fracture widening driven by effective tensile stresses, buckling-enhanced fracture aperture growth relates widening to active outward buckling of more viscous incipient cement layers precipitated as hydrothermal minerals for the pore fluid on the walls of juvenile syn-tectonic veins, driven by fracture-parallel compressive creep strain in the host rocks. Thus, the mechanism proposed here follows similar principles as tectonic folding, although important differences exist. Inspired by the structural record of low-aspect ratio veins exposed in HP/LT metamorphic rocks cropping out on south Evia island, Greece, generic numerical models are calculated to study development of buckling instabilities in such incompletely cemented veins and their impact on aperture growth rates. The models indicate (1) that aperture growth rates increase with increasing viscosity contrast between the host rocks and the cement layers, (2) an increase in the thickness of the cement layers cause acceleration of aperture growth, (3) that support of restraining forces at the vein tips offered by the host rocks against buckling of the cement layers cause fully compressive states of stress ahead the fracture tips, and (4) that fracture aperture growth is possible against fully compressive fracture-normal stresses. The buckling-enhanced vein aperture growth mechanism yields important implications for the maintenance and decay of fracture-bound permeability and for the mechanical state of the middle and lower crust in seismically active regions.

  12. The Distant Morphological and Petrological Features of Shock Melt Veins in the Suizhou L6 Condrite

    SciTech Connect

    X Xie; Z Sun; M Chen

    2011-12-31

    The morphology and petrology of distinct melt veins in the Suizhou L6 chondrite have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the melt veins in the Suizhou meteorite morphologically are the simplest, straightest, and thinnest among all shock veins known from meteorites. At first glance, these veins look like fine fractures, but petrologically they are solid melt veins of chondritic composition and consist of fully crystalline materials of two distinct lithological assemblages, with no glassy material remaining. The Suizhou melt veins contain the most abundant high-pressure mineral species when compared with all other veins known in chondrites. Thus, these veins in Suizhou are classified as shock veins. All rock-forming and almost all accessory minerals in the Suizhou shock veins have been transformed to their high-pressure polymorphs, and no fragments of the precursor minerals remain in the veins. Among the 11 high-pressure mineral phases identified in the Suizhou veins, three are new high-pressure minerals, namely, tuite after whitlockite, xieite, and the CF phase after chromite. On the basis of transformation of plagioclase into maskelynite, it is estimated that the Suizhou meteorite experienced shock pressures and shock temperatures up to 22 GPa and 1000 C, respectively. Shearing and friction along shock veins raised the temperature up to 1900-2000 C and the pressure up to 24 GPa within the veins. Hence, phase transition and crystallization of high-pressure minerals took place only in the Suizhou shock veins. Fast cooling of the extremely thin shock veins is regarded as the main reason that up to 11 shock-induced high-pressure mineral phases could be preserved in these veins.

  13. Geometry and texture of quartz veins in Wadi Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akawy, Ahmed

    2007-02-01

    Several quartz vein sets with varying orientation, geometry and internal structure were recognized in the Atalla area. The veins were associated with the deformation phases affecting the area. En echelon and extensional veins are the main geometrical types. Syn-kinematic veins associated with the major northeast-over-southwest thrust faults were later boudinaged, folded and re-folded. En echelon veins, fibrous veins, and extensional veins are associated with the NNW-SSE faults. Other veins are associated with the NW-SE, N-S, NE-SW and E-W faults. Veins are concentrated at the intersection zones between faults. The internal structure of the veins comprises syntaxial, antitaxial, and composite types and reflects a change from a compressive stress regime to an extensional one. Chocolate-tablet structures and synchronous and co-genetic vein networks indicate later multi-directional extension of the area. Interaction between cracking and sealing of fractures is a common feature in the study area indicating that it was easy for the pore pressure to open pre-existing fractures instead of creating new ones. The reopening of pre-existing fractures rather than creating new ones is also indicated by the scattering of vein data around σ3. There is an alteration and change in characteristics of the wall rock due to increase in fluid flow rate. Fault-valving probably is also a cause of the complex geometry of some veins.

  14. Diodia vein chlorosis virus is a group-1 crinivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Closteroviridae have emerged as a major problem in agricultural crops in the past two decades. Diodia vein chlorosis virus (DVCV) is an understudied whitefly-transmitted closterovirus. Given the presence of the primary host for the virus in major agricultural production areas in the U...

  15. Persistent right umbilical vein associated with complex congenital cardiac malformation.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Thomas; Lueder, Michael; Schmidt, Klaus G; Schaper, Joerg; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2006-04-01

    Umbilical venous catheterization is frequently used for vascular access during neonatal resuscitation. The differentiation between umbilical artery and vein, specifically during the resuscitation procedure, is clinically neither always easy nor unambiguous. A preterm infant of 35 weeks of gestational age was born after an uneventful course of his mother's pregnancy. Severe postnatal cyanosis led to the placement of presumed arterial and venous umbilical catheters. Chest x-ray was suggestive of the presence of a persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV). Echocardiography showed a double outlet right ventricle with mitral atresia and a levo-atrial cardinal vein draining the left atrium into the azygos vein. The foramen ovale was firmly closed and conventional balloon atrioseptostomy failed. Several attempts of transseptal puncture and subsequent creation of an atrial septal defect were unsuccessful and the infant eventually died. There is an association of PRUV and congenital cardiac malformation. PRUV can be diagnosed prenatally if specifically looked for. The presence of PRUV can be the only clue prenatally alerting to the presence of congenital heart disease. Postnatal diagnosis of PRUV may justify echocardiography and cardiologic assessment even in the absence of clinical cyanosis.

  16. Physiological effects of Squash vein yellowing virus infection on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, watermelon plants of different ages were inoculated with SqVYV to characterize the physiological response to infection and provide new insights into watermelon vine decline. Physiological responses to...

  17. Sharp Recanalization for Chronic Left Iliac Vein Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Nobutake Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Mahnken, Andreas

    2012-08-15

    Endovascular treatment has emerged as a first-line treatment for venous occlusions, but is sometimes challenging with conventional approaches. This article describes a helpful technique using a Roesch-Uchida needle to cross a chronic occlusion of the iliac vein when conventional techniques have failed.

  18. [Infrequent digestive pathology associated with a preduodenal portal vein].

    PubMed

    Blanco Domínguez, J A; Roqués Serradilla, J L; Gutiérrez Cantó, M A

    1984-04-15

    We report two cases of preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) has with two different clinical pictures. The first case has an intestinal obstruction in infancy caused by PDPV. In the second child, the PDPV was only an operative finding in the newborn. We report for the first time PDPV associated with Hirschsprung disease.

  19. Deep vein thrombosis and euvolemic hyponatremia in a hypothyroid patient.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, V; Rajesh, J; Kumar, S Suresh Saravana; Shakir, R Mohammed; Vijayashankar, C; Prasad, C Vijay

    2011-11-01

    Hypothyroidism is a procoagulant state; hypothyroid females have greater risk of DVT than hypothyroid males. We present a case of primary hypothyroidism who presented with euvolemic hyponatremia and DVT that required thyroxine replacement and correction of hyponatremia. This highlights that hypothyroidism can present as euvolemic hyponatremia and deep vein thrombosis.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Young; Kwak, Byung Kook

    2014-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional mathematical model for the study of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with blood flow for varicose vein. The model designed to analyze temperature distribution heated by radiofrequency energy and cooled by blood flow includes a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel with a homogeneous vein wall. The simulated blood velocity conditions are U = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mm/s. The lower the blood velocity, the higher the temperature in the vein wall and the greater the tissue damage. The region that is influenced by temperature in the case of the stagnant flow occupies approximately 28.5% of the whole geometry, while the region that is influenced by temperature in the case of continuously moving electrode against the flow direction is about 50%. The generated RF energy induces a temperature rise of the blood in the lumen and leads to an occlusion of the blood vessel. The result of the study demonstrated that higher blood velocity led to smaller thermal region and lower ablation efficiency. Since the peak temperature along the venous wall depends on the blood velocity and pullback velocity, the temperature distribution in the model influences ablation efficiency. The vein wall absorbs more energy in the low pullback velocity than in the high one. PMID:25587351

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  2. Deep vein thrombosis and airline travel--the deadly duo.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2003-02-01

    A number of deaths from pulmonary embolism caused by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) have been attributed to long-distance airplane travel. Although airplanes provide the most convenient means of long-distance travel, the aircraft environment can take a physical toll on passengers. This article describes the causes and risk factors for discusses preventive strategies, and offers recommendations for making air travel safer.

  3. Systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in young patients

    PubMed Central

    Sinawat, Suthasinee; Bunyavee, Chavisa; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Supat; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada; Yospaiboon, Yosanan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To study the systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in patients aged ≤50 years with a particular emphasis on atherosclerotic diseases and thrombophilic disorders. Methods Medical charts of patients, aged ≤50 years whose diagnoses were retinal vein occlusions during the period 1995–2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the number of systemic abnormalities associated with these patients. Secondary outcomes included types of retinal vein occlusion and sites of occlusion. Results Atherosclerotic diseases were the most common systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion and accounted for 55.1% of the patients in the study. Hypertension in 27.55%, diabetes mellitus in 16.33%, and 5.1% with dyslipidemia were noted. The number of thrombophilic disorders seemed to be less than expected and were noted in only 5.1%. Other systemic abnormalities included viral hepatitis infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Oral contraceptives were used by some patients. Conclusion Atherosclerotic diseases remained the most commonly associated systemic diseases in the majority of these patients. Approach to these patients should include a screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities. Thrombophilia should also be considered where no obvious atherosclerotic diseases are found or if the patient is <40 years old, a history of thrombosis or a family history of thrombosis is possible. PMID:28260858

  4. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  5. [Micronized purified flavonoid fraction in treatment of pelvic varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, S G; Karalkin, A V; Moskalenko, E P; Beliaeva, E S; Ianina, A M; Kirienko, A I

    2012-01-01

    Presented herein are the results of studying efficacy of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) in treatment of pelvic varicose veins (PVV) using reference ray-tracing methods of study. We examined a total of 85 patients with PVV. Of these, 65 subjects were found to have isolated dilatation of pelvic venous plexuses (study group), and 20 were diagnosed as having combined dilation of gonadal veins and venous plexuses of the pelvis (control group). Besides clinical examination, the patients were subjected to ultrasonographic angioscanning (USAS) and emission computed tomography (ECT) of pelvic veins before treatment and 2, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months after the beginning of phlebotrophic therapy. Based on the findings of the clinical and instrumental studies, it was determined that MPFF was most efficient in patients with isolated dilatation of uterine and parametrial veins. In this group of patients, pelvic pain and other symptoms of the disease disappeared completely and the clinical effect persisted for a long time (up to 6-9 months). In the control group, venotonic therapy had a positive effect which was less pronounced as compared to the control group, and pelvic pain reappeared in the nearest time (up to 3 weeks) after withdrawal of MPFF.

  6. NSCT-based fusion enhancement for multispectral finger-vein images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dongdong; Yang, Jinfeng

    2014-04-01

    Personal identification based on single-spectral finger-vein image has been widely investigated recently. However, in finger-vein imaging, finger-vein image degradation is the main factor causing lower recognition accuracy. So, to improve the finger-vein image quality, in this paper, multispectral finger-vein images (760nm and 850nm) are fused together for contrast enhancement using NSCT transformation. The proposed method can preserve the completeness and sharpness of finger-vein. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is certainly powerful in enhancing finger-vein image contrast and achieves lower equal error rates in finger-vein recognition even if original images have poor contrast.

  7. Classical varicose vein surgery in a diverse ethnic community.

    PubMed

    Murli, N L; Navin, I D

    2008-08-01

    Chronic venous disorders range from telangiactasia or spider veins to varicose veins, venous swellings, skin changes and venous ulcerations. The aim of this study is to assess outcome of varicose vein surgery in the ethnically diverse population of Penang, Malaysia. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients seen from 1999 to 2004. All patients who presented to the outpatient clinic of our surgical department with saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) and/or saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) reflux associated with incompetence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) respectively underwent classical varicose varicose vein surgery. A single surgeon at a single institution performed the surgeries. Data from pre-operative, post-operative and follow-up procedures were recorded in case report forms. A total of 202 cases were treated. Of these, 200 were qualified by the inclusion criteria and follow-ups, with 23 who were treated bilaterally. Of those treated, Chinese comprised 47.5%, Indians 27.0%, Malays 12.5% and foreigners 13.0% (largely Indonesian Chinese, British and Americans). The average age was 52.1 years. Indians had the highest average BMI of 29.2, compared to the Chinese who had the lowest of 24.6. Based on occupation, housewives (43.0%), blue collar workers (19.0%), salespersons (12.0%) and factory workers (9.5%) were among those afflicted with varicose veins. While local Chinese predominated in the business groups (salespersons and food-related workers), the Indians and Malays in this study were mainly factory workers and/or blue collar workers. Symptomatology in descending order of severity included pain in 80.0% of cases, swelling in 65.5%, heaviness in 53.5%, cramps in 53.0%, lipodermatosclerosis in 39.0%, superficial thrombophlebitis in 33.5%, venous ulceration in 32.0%, eczema 22.0% and cellulitis in 12.5% of patients. Post surgery pains dropped to 9.9%, cramps 6.4%, heaviness 5.5% and swelling 5.3% (p<0.0001 in all groups

  8. A Comparison of the Performance of 2D Square and Rectangular Dielectric Vein Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-27

    dielectric vein structure to approximate these photonic crystals. In this case, the numerical model is improved. A rectangular vein structure is...square dielectric vein structure to approximate these photonic crystals. In this case, the numerical model is improved. A rectangular vein...34 REFERENCES 1. Kawano, K. and Kitoh, T., Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis : Solving Maxwell’s Equations and the Schrödinger

  9. Automatic determination of the artery vein ratio in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    A lower ratio between the width of the arteries and veins (Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter Ratio, AVR) on the retina, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as an increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents an automatic method that detects the location of the optic disc, determines the appropriate region of interest (ROI), classifies the vessels in the ROI into arteries and veins, measures their widths and calculates the AVR. After vessel segmentation and vessel width determination the optic disc is located and the system eliminates all vessels outside the AVR measurement ROI. The remaining vessels are thinned, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. Features are extracted from each centerline pixel that are used to assign them a soft label indicating the likelihood the pixel is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type, the median soft label is assigned to each centerline pixel in the segment. Next artery vein pairs are matched using an iterative algorithm and the widths of the vessels is used to calculate the AVR. We train and test the algorithm using a set of 25 high resolution digital color fundus photographs a reference standard that indicates for the major vessels in the images whether they are an artery or a vein. We compared the AVR values produced by our system with those determined using a computer assisted method in 15 high resolution digital color fundus photographs and obtained a correlation coefficient of 0.881.

  10. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Anthony James

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  11. Local SIFT analysis for hand vein pattern verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The newly emerging hand vein recognition technology has attracted remarkable attention for its uniqueness, noninvasion, friendliness and high reliability. It is unavoidable to produce small location deviation of human hand in the practical application; however, the existing recognition methods are sensitive to the hand shift or rotation. The test sample is matched with a series of registered images after affine transformation including the shift or rotation by most of researches, this affine transform method can remedy the location deviation to some extent, but the limited range for hand shift and rotation brings users much inconvenience and the computational cost also increases greatly. Aiming at this issue, a hand vein recognition algorithm based on local SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) analysis is developed in this contribution, which has practical significance due to its translation and rotation invariance. First, the hand vein image is preprocessed to remove the background and reduce image noises, and then SIFT features are extracted to describe the gradient information of hand vein. Many one-to-more matching pairs are produced by the common matching method of SIFT features, thus the matching rule is improved by appending a constrained condition to ensure the one-to-one matching, which is achieved by selecting feature point with the nearest distance as the optimal match. Finally the match ratio of features between the registered and test images is calculated as the similarity measurement to verify the personal identification. The experiment results show that FRR (False Rejection Rate) is only 0.93% when FAR (False Acceptance Rate) is 0.002%, and EER (Equal Error Rate) is low to 0.12%, which demonstrate the proposed approach is valid and effective for hand vein authentication.

  12. The role of stem cells in vein graft remodelling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q

    2007-11-01

    The vessel wall is a dynamic tissue that undergoes positive remodelling in response to altered mechanical stress. A typical example is vein graft remodelling, because veins do not develop arteriosclerosis until a vein segment is grafted on to arteries. In this process, it was observed that vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells of vein grafts die due to suddenly elevated blood pressure. This cell death is followed by endothelial regeneration. Central to this theme is the essential role played by EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) in regenerating the lost endothelium. The mechanisms by which EPCs attach to the vessel wall and differentiate into mature endothelial cells involve increased chemokine production and laminar shear flow stimulation on the vessel wall. It seems that neo-endothelial cells derived from EPCs lack mature cell functions and express high levels of adhesion molecules resulting in LDL (low-density lipoprotein) penetration and mononuclear cell infiltration into the sub-endothelial space. Among infiltrated mononuclear cells, there are smooth muscle progenitors that proliferate and differentiate into smooth muscle cells. Meanwhile, stem cells present in the media and adventitia may also migrate into arteriosclerotic lesions via the vasa vasorum that are abundant in the diseased vessels. However, the molecular events leading to the homing, differentiation and maturation of stem/progenitor cells still needs elucidation. The present review attempts to update the progress in stem cell research related to the pathogenesis of vein graft arteriosclerosis or remodelling, focusing on the mechanisms by which stem/progenitor cells participate in the development of lesions, and to discuss the controversial issues and the future perspectives surrounding this research area.

  13. Water supply and demand remain coordinated during breakdown of the global scaling relationship between leaf size and major vein density.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Julio V; Habersetzer, Jörg; Rabenstein, Renate; Wesenberg, Jens; Wesche, Karsten; Zizka, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Vein networks that disobey the global scaling of major vein density with leaf size shed light on functional constraints of vein network formation in dicotyledons. Understanding their evolution, distribution and impact on vein-stomata-climate associations is an important contribution to our global view of vein network organization. Based on vein traits of 55 species of pantropical Ochnaceae, stomata and climatic niche data, and a dated molecular phylogeny, we unveil major structural shifts in vein networks through deep time, relationships between leaf size, vein and stomata traits, and their interplay with climate. Dense 2° veins, reduction of minor veins and the associated breakdown of vein-leaf size scaling evolved multiple times independently in Ochnaceae. In spite of the drastic changes in vein architecture in this venation type, vein and stomatal densities remain correlated. Our study demonstrates that shortening the major vein-stomata distance is economically not less advantageous than by increasing minor vein density, as illustrated by the same degree of coordination between vein and stomatal densities and the similar construction costs across networks with dense 2° veins and those with 'normally' spaced 2° veins.

  14. Vein replacement with fresh vital veins: a comparison of transplantation in RT-1-different rat strain combinations.

    PubMed

    Thiede, A; Engemann, R; Korner, H H; Deltz, E; Muller-Ruchholtz, W

    1981-03-01

    Transplantation of the intrathoracic inferior vena cava into the abdominal inferior vena cava of the recipient was performed in inbred rat strains of the following combinations: Syngeneic F344 leads to F344, RT-1-identical allogeneic LEW leads to F344, and RT-1-different allogeneic CAP leads to F344. In the RT-1-different combination subgroups with presensitization (blood, skin) were formed. The transplanted veins were evaluated at different times, macro- and microscopically. To test humoral immunology reactivity, we used a modified hemagglutination test, to analyse cell-mediated reactivity, subsequent skin grafts. The following results were obtained: 1) Aside from sporadic mononuclear cells caused by the operation technique, syngeneic vein grafts do not show any macroscopically visible and microscopically detectable changes. 2) Weakly allogeneic vein grafts do not lead to microscopically detectable changes in the graft. Strongly allogeneic vein grafts cause temporary mononuclear cell infiltration, which subsides within 21 days, without influencing the morphologic structure of the vessel wall. 3) In the RT-1-identical allogeneic strain combination, only accelerated skin graft rejection time indicates systemic sensitization, in the strongly allogeneic system, the increase of hemagglutinating antibodies also does this. 4) In both the RT-1-identical allogeneic strain combination and the RT-1-different allogeneic one, a proven sensitization does not lead to a permanent morphologic alteration. 5) Only presensitization with strong antigens (skin) leads to a macroscopically visible, as well as microscopically detectable, rejection reaction.

  15. Preduodenal Portal Vein Associated with Duodenal Obstruction of other Etiology: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Punit; Shaikh, Mishraz; Mirza, Bilal; Jaiman, Richa; Arshad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    DuodenalPreduodenal portal vein is a rare and interesting entity which often causes duodenal obstruction. It is also associated with other congenital anomalies. We report here three cases of preduodenal portal vein associated with other anomalies causing duodenal obstruction not related to direct compression by portal vein itself. PMID:27896162

  16. Preduodenal Portal Vein Associated with Duodenal Obstruction of other Etiology: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Punit; Shaikh, Mishraz; Mirza, Bilal; Jaiman, Richa; Arshad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    DuodenalPreduodenal portal vein is a rare and interesting entity which often causes duodenal obstruction. It is also associated with other congenital anomalies. We report here three cases of preduodenal portal vein associated with other anomalies causing duodenal obstruction not related to direct compression by portal vein itself.

  17. Tip to midpoint observations on syntectonic veins, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas: Trading space for time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Pablo; Wiltschko, David V.

    2010-08-01

    By examining a vein from its tip to center, we have established the transition from a single filled fracture at the vein tip to typical 'crack-seal' textures observed in fibered, laminated veins. The vein is contained in the boudin neck of a sandstone layer within the Lower Ordovician Mazarn Formation, Benton Uplift, Ouachita orogen. The tip of the vein is composed of one or more isolated veinlets, defined as quartz-filled narrow (5-25 μm) fractures parallel to the larger vein's long dimension. Scanned SEM-based cathodoluminescence shows that quartz laminae of the same orientation and thickness are found throughout the vein. Wall-normal fibers first appear in the vein where detrital grains are cut by multiple veinlets, each veinlet mimicking the crystallographic orientation of the detrital grain, whereas later veinlets reflect the established crystallographic orientation of the fiber. Fibers throughout the vein retain evidence of having been formed by repeated fracturing and filling of a pre-existing grain (at the vein walls) or fiber. However, recrystallization later modified the fibers by obliterating some evidence of the veinlets and moving fiber walls. Boudin formation provided the extension site that localized fracturing and vein filling. The vein grows by the repeated addition of veinlets in the neck region. Recrystallization altered the shape of previously formed fibers.

  18. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  19. [Lesion of pelvic organs in secondary varicose veins of the small pelvis].

    PubMed

    Tsukanov, Yu T; Tsukanov, A Yu; Levdansky, E G

    2015-01-01

    The authors studied peculiarities of pelvic organs lesions in patients presenting with secondary small pelvic varicose veins (SPVV) induced by endured thrombosis of iliac veins. The study included a total of 70 patients after endured thrombosis of iliac veins verified by radiodiagnostic methods. The average duration of thrombosis amounted to 3.8 years. The patients were subdivided into two groups. The Study Group comprised 48 patients presenting with small pelvic varicose veins revealed by duplex scanning; the Control Group was composed of 22 patients with no varicose pelvic veins. It was determined that characteristic features of patients with secondary SPVV having developed after iliac veins thrombosis included chronic pelvic pain, dilatation of cavernous veins of the rectum, inguinal vein varicosity and varicose veins of the groin and anterior abdominal wall. Formation of secondary SPVV after endured iliac vein thrombosis leads to disorders of pelvic organs, similar to those in primary varicosity, but more often being functional. Endured iliac veins thrombosis in formation of secondary SPVV leads to urination impairments with prevalence of moderately pronounced symptomatology. Small pelvic organs dysfunction in women with secondary SPVV due to endured iliac veins thrombosis manifests itself in dyspareunia, leukorrhea, and dysmenorrhea.

  20. It's not a cervical lymph node, it's a vein: CT and MR imaging findings in the veins of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Escott, Edward J; Branstetter, Barton F

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy and imaging appearances of the veins of the head and neck can vary considerably, and normal veins may mimic disease processes at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. On unenhanced CT scans, aberrant veins may be difficult to differentiate from lymph nodes or other pathologic conditions. Even at contrast material-enhanced CT, differences in venous enhancement or the mixing of opacified with nonopacified blood can lead to confusion, particularly if the vein is focally dilated. Similarly, the size and signal intensity of head and neck veins may vary at MR imaging due to slow or turbulent flow or variable enhancement, resulting in misdiagnosis. A thorough understanding of the normal venous anatomy and common variants is necessary to properly differentiate an unopacified or focally dilated vein from lymphadenopathy or some other disease entity and can help the radiologist avoid the erroneous interpretation of findings.

  1. Palliative Portal Vein Stent Placement in Malignant and Symptomatic Extrinsic Portal Vein Stenosis or Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Novellas, Sebastien; Denys, Alban Bize, Pierre; Brunner, Philippe; Motamedi, Jean Paul; Gugenheim, Jean; Caroli, Francois-Xavier; Chevallier, Patrick

    2009-05-15

    This article evaluates the results of portal vein (PV) stent placement in patients with malignant extrinsic lesions stenosing or obstructing the PV and causing symptomatic PV hypertension (PVHT). Fourteen patients with bile duct cancer (n = 7), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 4), or another cancer (n = 3) underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placement because of gastroesophageal or jejunal varices (n = 9), ascites (n = 7), and/or thrombocytopenia (n = 2). Concurrent tumoral obstruction of the main bile duct was treated via the transhepatic route in the same session in four patients. Changes in portal venous pressure, complications, stent patency, and survival were evaluated. Mean {+-} standard deviation (SD) gradient of portal venous pressure decreased significantly immediately after stent placement from 11.2 mmHg {+-} 4.6 to 1.1 mmHg {+-} 1.0 (P < 0.00001). Three patients had minor complications, and one developed a liver abscess. During a mean {+-} SD follow-up of 134.4 {+-} 123.3 days, portal stents remained patent in 11 patients (78.6%); stent occlusion occurred in 3 patients, 2 of whom had undergone previous major hepatectomy. After stent placement, PVHT symptoms were relieved in four (57.1%) of seven patients who died (mean survival, 97 {+-} 71.2 days), and relieved in six (85.7%) of seven patients still alive at the end of follow-up (mean follow-up, 171.7 {+-} 153.5 days). Stent placement in the PV is feasible and relatively safe. It helped to relieve PVHT symptoms in a single session.

  2. Comparison of internal jugular vein dilation between Valsalva maneuver and proximal internal jugular vein compression

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Hyeonjoo; Kang, Bora; Kim, Giwoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Valsalva maneuver is recognized as an effective method to dilate the internal jugular vein (IJV). However, this maneuver cannot be performed in many cases, such as children and unconscious patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of proximal IJV compression, which can easily be performed, regardless of patient cooperation. Methods Healthy adult volunteers were recruited from tertiary hospital employees. Basic anatomic and physiologic data were collected. The subjects lay down as if they were undergoing IJV catheter insertion, in the supine position with their necks turned 30 degrees to the left. The main outcome was the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the distal IJV as measured by ultrasound in four stages. The first stage was sham without any maneuver. The second was Valsalva maneuver, the third was digital IJV compression, and the fourth was digital compression accompanied by simultaneous Valsalva maneuver. Results A total of 41 volunteers were enrolled. Twenty-six (63.41%) were male with an average age of 28.15±2.85 years. Mean height was 170.74±8.66 cm and mean neck circumference was 35.28±3.87 cm. The mean CSA-IJV was 1.06±0.36 cm2 without any maneuver. It increased to 1.34±0.45 cm2 with Valsalva maneuver (P<0.001), to 1.26±0.41 cm2 with digital compression (P<0.001), and to 1.41±0.47 cm2 with the two maneuvers combined (P=0.01). Conclusion Digital proximal IJV compression effectively dilates the distal IJV. When performed simultaneously with the Valsalva maneuver, the effect was enhanced. PMID:28168225

  3. An investigation of several NACA 1-series nose inlets with and without protruding central bodies at high-subsonic Mach numbers and at a Mach number of 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, Robert E; Robinson, Harold L

    1950-01-01

    An investigation of three NACA 1-series nose inlets, two of which were fitted with protruded central bodies, was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. An elliptical-nose body, which had a critical Mach number approximately equal to that of one of the nose inlets, was also tested. Tests were made near zero angle of attack for a Mach number range from 0.4 to 0.925 and for the supersonic Mach number of 1.2. The inlet-velocity-ratio range extended from zero to a maximum value of 1.34. Measurements included pressure distribution, external drag, and total-pressure loss of the internal flow near the inlet. Drag was not measured for the tests at the supersonic Mach number. Over the range of inlet-velocity ratio investigated, the calculated external pressure-drag coefficient at a Mach number of 1.2 was consecutively lower for the nose inlets of higher critical Mach number, and the pressure-drag coefficient of the longest nose inlet was in the range of pressure-drag coefficient for two solid noses of fineness ratio 2.4 and 6.0. For Mach numbers below the Mach number of the supercritical drag rise, extrapolation of the test data indicated that the external drag of the nose inlets was little affected by the addition of central bodies at or slightly below the minimum inlet-velocity ratio for unseparated central-body flow. The addition of central bodies to the nose inlets also led to no appreciable effects on either the Mach number of the supercritical drag rise, or, for inlet-velocity ratios high enough to avoid a pressure peak at the inlet lip, on the critical Mach number. The total-pressure recovery of the inlets tested, which were of a subsonic type, was sensibly unimpaired at the supersonic Mach number of 1.2 Low-speed measurements of the minimum inlet-velocity ratio for unseparated central-body flow appear to be applicable for Mach numbers extending to 1.2.

  4. Outcome of Endovenous Laser Ablation of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Rustempasic, Nedzad; Cvorak, Alemko; Agincic, Alija

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In Bosnia and Herzegovina according to available data, treatment of incompetent superficial lower extremity varicose veins by endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) has been introduced two years ago and so far no paper has been published regarding results of EVLA treatment of patients from our country. We wanted to present our results with EVLA treatment. Aim of study: to evaluate and compare primary posttreatment outcomes of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) with classical surgical method of varicose vein treatment. Patients and methods: The study was clinical and prospective. It was carried out at Clinic for vascular surgery in Sarajevo where fifty-eight (58) patients received surgical treatment for varicose veins and in Aesthetic Surgery Center “Nasa mala klinika” in Sarajevo were sixty-one (61) patients with varicose veins were treated by endovenous laser ablation. Total 119 patients (limbs) with pathologic reflux only in great saphenous vein were evaluated between 1st of January 2013 and 31st of April 2014. Following primary outcome endpoints were evaluated smean day of return to normal everyday activities, patient subjective quantification of pain during first seven days after intervention, incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), incidence of wound bleeding requiring surgical intervention, incidence of peri-saphenous vein hematoma and infection rate. Results: Mean of return to normal activities (expressed in days after intervention); EVLA vs. stripping (surgery) =1.21vs12.24, T test 13,619; p=0, 000, p<0,05. T test was used for comparing Mean value of visual pain analog scale for the first 7 days between groups, for all seven days pain was significantly higher in surgical group of patients as compared to EVLA group; p<0,05. Incidence of hematoma greater than 1% of total body surface area was significantly higher in patients receiving surgical treatment; Pearson Chi Square=23,830, p<0,05; odds ratio:10,453. Incidences of infection, deep

  5. Protective constriction of coronary vein grafts with knitted nitinol

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Loven; Franz, Thomas; Human, Paul; Wolf, Michael F.; Bezuidenhout, Deon; Scherman, Jacques; Zilla, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Different flow patterns and shear forces were shown to cause significantly more luminal narrowing and neointimal tissue proliferation in coronary than in infrainguinal vein grafts. As constrictive external mesh support of vein grafts led to the complete suppression of intimal hyperplasia (IH) in infrainguinal grafts, we investigated whether mesh constriction is equally effective in the coronary position. METHODS Eighteen senescent Chacma baboons (28.8 ± 3.6 kg) received aorto-coronary bypass grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Three groups of saphenous vein grafts were compared: untreated controls (CO); fibrin sealant-sprayed controls (CO + FS) and nitinol mesh-constricted grafts (ME + FS). Meshes consisted of pulse-compliant, knitted nitinol (eight needles; 50 μm wire thickness; 3.4 mm resting inner diameter, ID) spray attached to the vein grafts with FS. After 180 days of implantation, luminal dimensions and IH were analysed using post-explant angiography and macroscopic and histological image analysis. RESULTS At implantation, the calibre mismatch between control grafts and the LAD expressed as cross-sectional quotient (Qc) was pronounced [Qc = 0.21 ± 0.07 (CO) and 0.18 ± 0.05 (CO + FS)]. Mesh constriction resulted in a 29 ± 7% reduction of the outer diameter of the vein grafts from 5.23 ± 0.51 to 3.68 ± 0 mm, significantly reducing the calibre discrepancy to a Qc of 0.41 ± 0.17 (P < 0.02). After 6 months of implantation, explant angiography showed distinct luminal irregularities in control grafts (ID difference between widest and narrowest segment 74 ± 45%), while diameter variations were mild in mesh-constricted grafts. In all control grafts, thick neointimal tissue was present [600 ± 63 μm (CO); 627 ± 204 μm (CO + FS)] as opposed to thin, eccentric layers of 249 ± 83 μm in mesh-constricted grafts (ME + FS; P < 0.002). The total wall thickness had increased by 363 ± 39% (P < 0.00001) in CO and 312 ± 61% (P < 0

  6. A Case Study of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a Healthy 21-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Geri

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a case of a healthy 21-year-old male, with no significant past medical history, who was found to have an incidental nonocclusive deep vein thrombosis in the right internal jugular vein detected on a head MRI previously ordered for work-up of headaches. A follow-up upper extremity venous Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a partially occlusive deep vein thrombosis in the right jugular vein. The case presented is unique for the reason that the patient is young and has no prior risk factor, personal or familial, for venous thrombosis except for associated polycythemia on clinical presentation. PMID:27725891

  7. External Jugular Vein Thrombosis as a Sign of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalaza, Metin; Kafadar, Mehmet Tolga; Çıvgın, Esra Yurduseven; Düzgün, Arife Polat

    2017-01-01

    External jugular vein thrombosis is a rare vascular event which may lead fatal complication such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Its relation to the visceral solid tumor as an etiologic factor has been established well. Although external jugular vein thrombosis may be seen in malignancy, it is unusual to see as a sign of breast cancer. Most of the external jugular vein thrombosis occurs secondary to compression of the vein. Vascular thrombosis due to hypercoagulability is known as Trousseau syndrome. Herein, we present a case of metastatic breast cancer which presented with external jugular vein thrombosis; Trousseau syndrome. PMID:28331768

  8. Papilloedema and Increased Intracranial Pressure as a Result of Unilateral Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Thandra, Abhishek; Jun, Bokkwan; Chuquilin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intracranial hypertension and papilloedema are known to develop secondary to cerebral sinus or bilateral jugular vein thrombosis. However, in rare cases, unilateral jugular vein thrombosis may lead to increased intracranial pressure and papilloedema with resultant headache and vision changes. We describe a 45-year-old patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx that developed right jugular vein thrombosis after chemoradiation therapy with cetuximab. This was later complicated by intracranial hypertension and papilloedema. The normal cerebral venous drainage, the potential role of chemoradiation therapy on the aetiology of jugular vein thrombosis, and the mechanism of increased intracranial pressure secondary to unilateral jugular vein occlusion are discussed. PMID:27928352

  9. Autogenous vein graft thrombosis following exposure to calcium-free solutions (calcium paradox).

    PubMed

    Nozick, J H; Farnsworth, P; Montefusco, C M; Parsonnet, V; Ruigrok, T J; Zimmerman, A N

    1981-01-01

    The morphological and functional effects of calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions on canine jugular vein intima were examined under conditions which closely resemble those techniques currently employed in peripheral vascular and aortocoronary bypass surgery. Veins that had been exposed only to calcium-containing solutions remained patent for the duration of the experimental period. Vein perfusion with a calcium-free solution, however, resulted in disruption of the jugular vein intima once calcium ions were reintroduced. Autogenous as a femoral arterial graft became thrombosed within 60 minutes. It is therefore suggested that vein grafts of autogenous origin be irrigated with calcium-containing solutions to prevent intimal damage and thrombosis.

  10. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  11. Effect of Elastic Compression Stocking (ECS) on Leg Veins During 2G Centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Kaspransky, R.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: evaluate the calf vein response to hypergravity, and check the efficiency of elastic compression stocking (ECS) in preventing their distension. Method: Tibial (Tib csa) and Gastrocnemius (Gast csa) vein cross section area were investigated by echography. The subject was submitted to (a) 10 min stand test (ST), (b) 2G centrifugation for 2 min, (c) 10 min ST, with and without ECS. Results: Centrifugation at 2G induced a higher vein distension for both Gast and Tib vein compare to ST. At 2G centrifugation, ECS reduced the amplitude of the csa increase and limited the max vein csa to the ST value without ECS.

  12. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  13. Preoperative CT-Angiography Predicts Ex Vivo Vein Length for Right Kidneys After Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Özdemir-van Brunschot, Denise M D; Rottier, Simone J; den Ouden, Judith E; van der Jagt, Michel F; d'Ancona, Frank C; Kloke, Heinrich; van der Vliet, Daan J A; Schultze Kool, Leo J; Warlé, Michiel C

    2015-09-10

    BACKGROUND Implantation of a kidney with a short renal vein is technically more challenging and therefore prone for technique-related complications. It remains unclear whether pre-operative computed tomography angiography (CTA), to assess vascular anatomy of the donor kidney, can be used to predict renal vein length. MATERIAL AND METHODS Right and left renal vein lengths of 100 consecutive kidney donors were measured in an oblique-coronal plane multiplanar reconstruction image of 100 consecutive kidney donors in whom ex vivo vein length was measured after recovery. In a second retrospective cohort of 100 consecutive kidney donors donating a right kidney, preoperative CTA vein length measurements were correlated to anastomosis time and early graft outcome. RESULTS Left and right renal vein lengths, measured on CTA, were 43.2 mm and 30.0 mm, respectively. No correlation was found between CTA and ex vivo measurements for the left renal vein (p=.610), whereas a significant correlation was found for the right renal vein (p=.021). In the retrospective cohort, right renal vein length was significantly correlated with the anastomosis time but not with early graft outcome. CONCLUSIONS The length of the right, but not the left, renal vein can be predicted by preoperative CTA, but this does not hold true for the left renal vein.

  14. An examination of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in human saphenous vein.

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, J. R.; Hyland, L.

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the effects of antagonists on the isometric contraction of the human saphenous vein produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The 5-HT2-antagonist ketanserin (1 microM) had little effect on the lower part of the concentration-response curve to 5-HT, but markedly shifted the upper part of the curve. Yohimbine caused an approximately parallel shift of the concentration-response curve to 5-HT, with a pA2 of 5.48, much lower than its pA2 against noradrenaline in the absence (6.36) or presence (7.06) of cocaine. It is concluded that there are two components to the contractile response to 5-HT in human saphenous vein: at low concentrations 5-HT activates a yohimbine-sensitive receptor, and at higher concentrations 5-HT activates a 5-HT2-receptor. PMID:3801780

  15. [NHG guideline 'Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus'].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jip; Lucassen, Wim A M; Geersing, Geert-Jan; Burgers, Jako S; Wiersma, Tjerk

    2015-01-01

    The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners (Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap [NHG]) guideline 'Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus' includes recommendations for the treatment of patients with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and thrombophlebitis, and for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE). The general practitioner (GP) can exclude the presence of DVT or PE in some patients by using a decision rule and a D-dimer test. When using D-dimer test as a point-of-care test, meticulous care is essential during the test procedure and storage of blood. The GP can treat many patients with DVT; the NHG guideline does not advise use of direct oral anticoagulants. In the case of an isolated DVT in the calf, treatment with anticoagulants or ultrasound follow-up can be chosen in consultation with the patient or on the basis of regional agreements. In the case of patients with superficial thrombophlebitis, a wait-and-see approach is usually sufficient.

  16. Cilio-retinal arterial circulation in central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, D

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that an occlusion of the central retinal artery is an essential prerequisite for haemorrhage formation after central retinal vein obstruction has been investigated by examining the fundus changes in patients with a cilio-retinal arterial circulation; the findings are at variance with the 'combined occlusion hypothesis'. Comparisons were made between the pathological features in two retinal capillary beds with independent sources of arterial supply--namely, the central retinal and cilio-retinal arteries--but with an obstructed venous drainage channel common to both--namely, the central retinal vein. The importance of intraluminal pressure changes (as distinct from perfusion changes) in the causation of haemorrhages and oedema after venous occlusion is stressed, and the role of arterial disease in the pathogenesis of venous occlusions is distinguished from its role in determining the sequelae of such occlusions. Images PMID:1203235

  17. A pharmacological approach in newly established retinal vein occlusion model

    PubMed Central

    Fuma, Shinichiro; Nishinaka, Anri; Inoue, Yuki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kondo, Mineo; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody in retinal vein occlusion (RVO) treatment is poorly understood, partly due to the lack of RVO animal models that mimic clinical pathology. The aims of this study were to establish a suitable RVO model, clarify the pathogenic mechanisms, and evaluate the effects of anti-VEGF antibody in the model. Mouse retinal veins were occluded by laser photocoagulation after rose bengal injection. Reduction of the b/a wave amplitude ratio, retinal nonperfusion, cystoid edema, and hard exudates were observed after occlusion, and expression of RVO-related genes was altered. Administration of anti-VEGF antibody immediately, or 7 days, after occlusion resulted in reduction and increase of the nonperfused area, respectively. We conclude that the present model will be useful for clarification of the pathogenic mechanisms, and that the timing of anti-VEGF antibody administration is important for the successful amelioration of retinal nonperfusion. PMID:28252108

  18. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Following Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew J.; Garafalo, Thomas; Ko, Tak-ming; Place, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the second case of a superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis following an uneventful laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The patient presented on postoperative day 10 with acute onset of abdominal pain and inability to tolerate oral food. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed superior mesenteric and portal venous thrombosis with questionable viability of the proximal small bowel. He was heparinized and taken for emergent exploratory laparotomy. At surgery and at a planned re-exploration the following day, the bowel was viable and no resection was needed. Despite continuation on anticoagulation therapy, he developed a pulmonary embolism. A hypercoagulable workup was normal. After continued anticoagulation therapy and supportive care, a duplex ultrasound 2 months after the event showed normal flow in both the superior mesenteric and portal veins. Possible mechanisms are discussed along with a review of the pertinent literature. PMID:12856849

  19. [Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein secondary to acute pharyngotonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Lijdens, Yesica; Demarchi, María Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Acute pharyngotonsillitis is one of the most common diseases in children and adolescents. The most frequent etiology is virus, followed by bacteria. The main bacterial agent is beta hemolytic Streptococcus group A. A rare complication of pharyngeal infectious processes is septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of an inflammatory unilateral neck swelling. The diagnosis is confirmed by contrast computed tomography. Treatment consists of prolonged administration of antibiotics, being the use of anticoagulants controversial. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent persistent vascular occlusion and progression of the thrombus, which can cause pulmonary emboli. In the present study, we present a teenager with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein secondary to acute streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. Clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of this rare vascular complication are described herein.

  20. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in a military patient.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Charlotte; Johnston, A McD

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old serviceman on overseas deployment who presented with a painful, swollen arm. Investigations showed an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) of the right arm with an associated asymptomatic pulmonary embolism, which was treated with warfarin anticoagulation. Further investigation identified positional obstruction at the thoracic outlet, and the patient was diagnosed with Paget-Schroetter syndrome. He underwent elective resection of the first rib, and has now returned to normal duties. After review of the literature on UEDVT, it is suggested that in this military patient, the occurrence of an anatomical variant put him at risk of upper limb venous thrombosis, which was probably potentiated by the occupational factor of carrying a rifle. The external compression of the subclavian vein from the rifle butt and hypertrophied muscles, in addition to the anatomical variation, caused repetitive microtrauma of the vessel intima, which precipitated venous thrombosis.

  1. 3D and multispectral imaging for subcutaneous veins detection.

    PubMed

    Paquit, Vincent C; Tobin, Kenneth W; Price, Jeffery R; Mèriaudeau, Fabrice

    2009-07-06

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. Experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface are presented. For illumination our system is composed of a mercury arc lamp coupled to a 10nm band-pass spectrometer. A structured lighting system is also coupled to our multispectral system in order to provide 3D information of the patient arm orientation. Images of each patient arm are captured under every possible combinations of illuminants and the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis is determined.

  2. Duodeno-Jejunal Varicosities Following Extrahepatic Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Varsamidakis, Nick; Hobbs, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    A 31 year old man, under investigation for melena, was found at endoscopy to have varicosities at the site of a duodeno-jejunostomy which had been performed for duodenal atresia when he was three days old. Angiography revealed an occluded portal vein with an extensive collateral circulation. At laparotomy some of the collateral vessels were found to pass through the anastomotic site and directly into the left lobe of the liver. The portal pressure was found to be minimally elevated. Resection of the anastomotic segment was performed with reconstruction using a Roux en Y jejunal loop. Bleeding from collateral vessels passing through an anastomosis site in a patient with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis has not previously been reported. PMID:1610726

  3. Management of Retinal Vein Occlusion, Who Is Responsible?

    PubMed

    Aghamirsalim, Mohamadreza; Sorbi, Reza; Naderian, Mohammadreza; Cugati, Sudha; Shahsuvaryan, Marianne Levon; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Maryam

    2016-11-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal vascular occlusive disorder and is associated with a variety of systemic risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the underlying diseases were evaluated and managed appropriately by ophthalmologists. We performed a study of 1344 patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Patients were evaluated with a questionnaire including ten closed questions to determine whether ophthalmologists evaluated and informed their patients about the underlying systemic diseases. None of the patients' homocysteine levels were measured. Only a small percentage of the patients were asked about the history of thrombotic diseases or family history of thrombotic diseases. We believe that most ophthalmologists are still not entirely convinced of their responsibility of managing the underlying predisposing factors of RVO. Ophthalmologists should either manage or engage other healthcare providers in the management of RVO to guarantee the patient the best care.

  4. Asymptomatic anomalous pulmonary veins in a Siberian Husky.

    PubMed

    Abraham, L A; Slocombe, R F

    2003-07-01

    A 2-year-old, neutered male Siberian Husky presented with depression, weight loss and an inability to prehend food and water. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected under general anaesthesia prior to euthanasia. The elevated white cell count comprised mostly mononuclear cells. Histological changes within the brain were variable and multifocal. Non-suppurative meningitis secondary to lymphoma was diagnosed. At necropsy, abnormal venous drainage of the right cranial and middle lung lobes was found. A dilated major pulmonary vein from these lobes passed across the lateral aspect of the right caudal lung lobe prior to entering the heart, and subpleural veins from the affected lobes were enlarged and tortuous. These vascular abnormalities were considered incidental. There were no apparent congenital abnormalities of the heart and the animal's clinical signs were related to lymphoma of the brain.

  5. Novel Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus: Safety and Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Mizandari, Malkhaz; Ao, Guokun; Zhang Yaojun; Feng Xi; Shen Qiang; Chen Minshan; Lau, Wan Yee; Nicholls, Joanna; Jiao Long; Habib, Nagy

    2013-02-15

    We report our experience of the safety of partial recanalization of the portal vein using a novel endovascular radiofrequency (RF) catheter for portal vein tumor thrombosis. Six patients with liver cancer and tumor thrombus in the portal vein underwent percutaneous intravascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using an endovascular bipolar RF device. A 0.035-inch guidewire was introduced into a tributary of the portal vein and through which a 5G guide catheter was introduced into the main portal vein. After manipulation of the guide catheter over the thrombus under digital subtraction angiography, the endovascular RF device was inserted and activated around the thrombus. There were no observed technique specific complications, such as hemorrhage, vessel perforation, or infection. Post-RFA portography showed partial recanalization of portal vein. RFA of portal vein tumor thrombus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is technically feasible and warrants further investigation to assess efficacy compared with current recanalization techniques.

  6. Bilateral Central Vein Occlusion in a Case of Diaphragmatic Eventration

    PubMed Central

    STER, Anda-Maria; STAN, Cristina; GHERVAN, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a severe retinal pathology, which causes visual impairment usually after the age of 40. Mostly unilateral, less than 10% of cases are bilateral. Affected young adults (under the age of 40), usually exhibit a hidden, underlying systemic disease. Thorough testing has to be done in order to spot the pathogenic agent. We present the case of a 25 years old woman with bilateral CRVO caused by Diaphragmatic Eventration and Chronic Respiratory Failure. PMID:25705293

  7. [The central vein catheterization. 2. Procedure, step by step].

    PubMed

    Schmalz-Ott, Stéphane; Monti, Matteo; Vollenweider, Peter

    2008-10-29

    Several approaches exist for central vein catheterization. Mastery of the various steps of this procedure and understanding of the basics of asepsis are critical to prevent any complication. They also built the basis for an exhaustive communication with the patient, to obtain an informed consent. This article can in addition be used to develop a checklist in order to (self-)assess competence in procedural skills.

  8. Preduodenal portal vein: a potential laparoscopic cholecystectomy nightmare.

    PubMed

    Bhorat, N; Thomson, S R; Anderson, F

    2009-02-01

    Variations of biliary anatomy are well described. Those of most relevance to the operative surgeon are the variations of the extrahepatic ducts and their relationships to the right hepatic artery and its branches. We describe another even rarer congenital anomaly of a preduodenal portal vein. Its embryological derivation and presentation are discussed to heighten awareness of its recognition and reduce the potential of a serious operative misadventure.

  9. Origin of pegmatitic segregation veins within flood basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Puffer, J.H.; Horter, D.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Subhorizontal veins and lenses of coarse-grained rock composed of plagioclase, augite, and Fe-Ti oxides in a glassy and vesicular mesostasis occur within several thick subaerial basalt flows in the Columbia River Basalt province of Washington and in the eastern North American Mesozoic basalt province. The veins and lenses, referred to as pegmatitic segregation veins, are typically 1-10 cm thick and are enriched in Fe, Ti, K, P, Cu, Zr, Ba, and REE by a factor of about 1.1 to 3 over the host basalt; Al, Ca, Sr, Mg, Ni, and Cr are lower, and Si and Na are typically unchanged. We interpret the pegmatitic segregation veins as the product of residual melt carried in vapor bubbles from the lower crystallization front of partially crystallized flows to the crystal mush within the upper crystallization front. Movement through the elevated temperatures of flow interiors fused any crystal nuclei in the segregation melt. Diminished nucleation density during crystallization may partially account for coarse grain sizes. In addition, diffusion of ions to large, rapidly growing skeletal crystals was probably enhanced by the viscosity-reduction effect of water enrichment. The water content of accumulated segregation melt may have increased whenever the escape of volatiles from partially crystallized flows was temporarily sealed off under a rigid barrier of solidified basalt. Rupture of the barrier by downward propagation of columnar joints would allow the resumption of effervescence and any remaining partially crystallized segregation melt-phase would be degassed and quenched into a glassy and vesicular mesostasis. 59 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  11. Supraclavicular Subclavian Vein Catheterization: The Forgotten Central Line

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Shannon P.; Tijunelis, Marius A.; Johnson, Sonia; Herbert, Mel E.

    2009-01-01

    While the supraclavicular approach to the subclavian vein has been described since 1965, it is generally employed much less often than the “traditional” infraclavicular approach. Although randomized trials are lacking, the best evidence suggests that the supraclavicular approach has a number of important advantages to the infraclavicular approach. The landmarks and relative merits of the procedure are described in this paper. PMID:19561831

  12. MR of superior mesenteric artery--renal vein fistula.

    PubMed

    Conces, D J; Kreipke, D L; Tarver, R D

    1986-01-01

    Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the superior mesenteric artery are rare. Diagnosis is most commonly made shortly after the injury. Symptoms, when present, are usually related to intestinal ischemia. Angiography has been the conventional modality used in diagnosing arteriovenous fistulas. We report a patient with a superior mesenteric artery to left renal vein fistula who presented in overt heart failure five years after a gun shot wound. The fistula was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. A Dynamical System that Describes Vein Graft Adaptation and Failure

    PubMed Central

    Garbey, Marc; Berceli, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation of vein bypass grafts to the mechanical stresses imposed by the arterial circulation is thought to be the primary determinant for lesion development, yet an understanding of how the various forces dictate local wall remodeling is lacking. We develop a dynamical system that summarizes the complex interplay between the mechanical environment and cell/matrix kinetics, ultimately dictating changes in the vein graft architecture. Based on a systematic mapping of the parameter space, three general remodeling response patterns are observed: 1) shear stabilized intimal thickening, 2) tension induced wall thinning and lumen expansion, and 3) tension stabilized wall thickening. Notable is our observation that the integration of multiple feedback mechanisms leads to a variety of non-linear responses that would be unanticipated by an analysis of each system component independently. This dynamic analysis supports the clinical observation that the majority of vein grafts proceed along an adaptive trajectory, where grafts dilate and mildly thicken in response to the increased tension and shear, but a small portion of the grafts demonstrate a maladaptive phenotype, where progressive inward remodeling and accentuated wall thickening lead to graft failure. PMID:23871714

  14. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively.

  15. Natural fracking and the genesis of five-element veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Gregor; Burisch, Mathias; Neumann, Udo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrothermal Ag-Co-Ni-Bi-As (five-element vein type) ore deposits show very conspicuous textures of the native elements silver, bismuth, and arsenic indicating formation from a rapid, far-from-equilibrium process. Such textures include up to dm-large tree- and wire-like aggregates overgrown by Co-Ni-Fe arsenides and mostly carbonates. Despite the historical and contemporary importance of five-element vein type deposits as sources of silver, bismuth, and cobalt, and despite of spectacular museum specimens, their process of formation is not yet understood and has been a matter of debate since centuries. We propose, based on observations from a number of classical European five-element vein deposits and carbon isotope analyses, that "natural fracking," i.e., liberation of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon-bearing fluids during break up of rocks in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal system and mixing between these hydrocarbons (e.g., methane and/or methane-bearing fluids) and a metal-rich hydrothermal fluid is responsible for ore precipitation and the formation of the unusual ore textures and assemblages. Thermodynamic and isotope mixing calculations show that the textural, chemical, and isotopic features of the investigated deposits can entirely be explained by this mechanism.

  16. Fabrication of subcutaneous veins phantom for vessel visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Narita, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-09-01

    The technique of subcutaneous veins imaging by using NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) is widely used in medical applications, such as the intravenous injection and the blood sampling. In the previous study, an automatic 3D blood vessel search and automatic blood sampling system was newly developed. In order to validate this NIR imaging system, we adopted the subcutaneous vein in the human arm and its artificial phantom, which imitate the human fat and blood vessel. The human skin and subcutaneous vein is characterized as the uncertainty object, which has the individual specificity, non-accurate depth information, non-steady state and hardly to be fixed in the examination apparatus. On the other hand, the conventional phantom was quite distinct from the human's characteristics, such as the non-multilayer structure, disagreement of optical property. In this study, we develop a multilayer phantom, which is quite similar with human skin, for improvement of NIR detection system evaluation. The phantom consists of three layers, such as the epidermis layer, the dermis layer and the subcutaneous fat layer. In subcutaneous fat layer, we built a blood vessel. We use the intralipid to imitate the optical scattering characteristics of human skin, and the hemoglobin and melanin for the optical absorption characteristics. In this study, we did two subjects. First, we decide the fabrication process of the phantom. Second, we compared newly developed phantoms with human skin by using our NIR detecting system, and confirm the availability of these phantoms.

  17. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution.

    PubMed

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A R; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-05-17

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO(2) for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (D(V)) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein D(V) that overlapped the D(V) range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in D(V). During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm D(V) first surpassed the upper bound of D(V) limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of D(V) typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased D(V) during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.

  18. Finger vein recognition based on the hyperinformation feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The finger vein is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification due to its advantages over other existing biometrics. In finger vein recognition, feature extraction is a critical step, and many feature extraction methods have been proposed to extract the gray, texture, or shape of the finger vein. We treat them as low-level features and present a high-level feature extraction framework. Under this framework, base attribute is first defined to represent the characteristics of a certain subcategory of a subject. Then, for an image, the correlation coefficient is used for constructing the high-level feature, which reflects the correlation between this image and all base attributes. Since the high-level feature can reveal characteristics of more subcategories and contain more discriminative information, we call it hyperinformation feature (HIF). Compared with low-level features, which only represent the characteristics of one subcategory, HIF is more powerful and robust. In order to demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework, we provide a case study to extract HIF. We conduct comprehensive experiments to show the generality of the proposed framework and the efficiency of HIF on our databases, respectively. Experimental results show that HIF significantly outperforms the low-level features.

  19. Analysis of the hand vein pattern for people recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Cristóbal, G.; Marcos, J. Victor; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Hurtado Pérez, R.

    2015-09-01

    The shape of the hand vascular pattern contains useful and unique features that can be used for identifying and authenticating people, with applications in access control, medicine and financial services. In this work, an optical system for the image acquisition of the hand vascular pattern is implemented. It consists of a CCD camera with sensitivity in the IR and a light source with emission in the 880 nm. The IR radiation interacts with the desoxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin and water present in the blood of the veins, making possible to see the vein pattern underneath skin. The segmentation of the Region Of Interest (ROI) is achieved using geometrical moments locating the centroid of an image. For enhancement of the vein pattern we use the technique of Histogram Equalization and Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE). In order to remove unnecessary information such as body hair and skinfolds, a low pass filter is implemented. A method based on geometric moments is used to obtain the invariant descriptors of the input images. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and K-Nearest Neighbors (K-nn) algorithms. Experimental results using our database show a percentage of correct classification, higher of 86.36% with ANN for 912 images of 38 people with 12 versions each one.

  20. Reconstruction of isolated caudate portal vein in left liver graft.

    PubMed

    Kokudo, Norihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kaneko, Junichi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Sano, Keiji; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2004-09-01

    The addition of the caudate lobe to a left liver graft is known to increase graft volume by 9% and has been shown to be useful for overcoming borderline graft-recipient size mismatch in adult living donor liver transplantation. To assure full graft viability and regeneration, all of the feeding vessels for the caudate lobe should be preserved or reconstructed. However, more knowledge is needed about portal vein reconstruction for the caudate lobe. From January 1996 to August 2003, 238 living donor liver transplantations were performed at our institution. Of these, 67 donors underwent left hepatectomy with the caudate lobe and the middle hepatic vein. An isolated caudate portal vein originating from the left sidewall of the portal branches for the Spiegelian lobe (P1) was encountered in 9 donors (13.4%). The isolated P1 was reconstructed in 3 of the 9 cases using the pantaloon technique or interposition of an autovein graft. There were no complications related to P1 reconstruction and patency was confirmed by computerized tomography (CT) 1 month after transplantation. In the remaining 6 cases, the isolated P1 was very small (less than .5 mm) and did not require reconstruction. Isolated P1s are relatively rare, but when they are both present and large, it is advisable to undertake reconstruction that assures full graft function of the caudate lobe.

  1. Force-Sensing Microneedle for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation*

    PubMed

    Gonenc, Berk; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell H; Iordachita, Iulian

    2014-11-01

    Retinal vein cannulation (RVC) is a challenging procedure proposed for drug delivery into the very small retinal veins. The available glass cannulas for this procedure are both hard to visualize and fragile thereby limiting the feasibility of both robot-assisted and manual RVC approaches. In this study, we develop and test a new force-sensing RVC instrument that can be easily integrated with the existing manual and robotic devices. The tool enables (1) the measurement of the forces required for puncturing retinal veins in vivo and (2) an assistive method to inform the operator of the needle piercing the vessel wall. The fiber Bragg grating based sensor can be inserted into the eye through a small (∅ 0.9 mm) opening and provides a quantitative assessment at the tool tip with a resolution smaller than 0.25 mN. Assessment of forces during vessel penetration in the chorioallantoic membranes of chicken embryos have revealed a consistent sharp drop in tool tip force upon vessel puncture that has been used as a signature to provide auditory feedback to the user to stop needle advancement and begin drug delivery.

  2. Force-Sensing Microneedle for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation*

    PubMed Central

    Gonenc, Berk; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Retinal vein cannulation (RVC) is a challenging procedure proposed for drug delivery into the very small retinal veins. The available glass cannulas for this procedure are both hard to visualize and fragile thereby limiting the feasibility of both robot-assisted and manual RVC approaches. In this study, we develop and test a new force-sensing RVC instrument that can be easily integrated with the existing manual and robotic devices. The tool enables (1) the measurement of the forces required for puncturing retinal veins in vivo and (2) an assistive method to inform the operator of the needle piercing the vessel wall. The fiber Bragg grating based sensor can be inserted into the eye through a small (∅ 0.9 mm) opening and provides a quantitative assessment at the tool tip with a resolution smaller than 0.25 mN. Assessment of forces during vessel penetration in the chorioallantoic membranes of chicken embryos have revealed a consistent sharp drop in tool tip force upon vessel puncture that has been used as a signature to provide auditory feedback to the user to stop needle advancement and begin drug delivery. PMID:25580178

  3. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  4. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution

    PubMed Central

    Feild, Taylor S.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S.; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R.; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A. R.; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO2 for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (DV) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein DV that overlapped the DV range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in DV. During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm DV first surpassed the upper bound of DV limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of DV typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased DV during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms. PMID:21536892

  5. The clinical anatomy of the cephalic vein in the deltopectoral triangle.

    PubMed

    Loukas, M; Myers, C S; Wartmann, Ch T; Tubbs, R S; Judge, T; Curry, B; Jordan, R

    2008-02-01

    Identification and recognition of the cephalic vein in the deltopectoral triangle is of critical importance when considering emergency catheterization procedures. The aim of our study was to conduct a cadaveric study to access data regarding the topography and the distribution patterns of the cephalic vein as it relates to the deltopectoral triangle. One hundred formalin fixed cadavers were examined. The cephalic vein was found in 95% (190 right and left) specimens, while in the remaining 5% (10) the cephalic vein was absent. In 80% (152) of cases the cephalic vein was found emerging superficially in the lateral portion of the deltopectoral triangle. In 30% (52) of these 152 cases the cephalic vein received one tributary within the deltopectoral triangle, while in 70% (100) of the specimens it received two. In the remaining 20% (38) of cases the cephalic vein was located deep to the deltopectoral fascia and fat and did not emerge through the deltopectoral triangle but was identified medially to the coracobrachialis and inferior to the medial border of the deltoid. In addition, in 4 (0.2%) of the specimens the cephalic vein, after crossing the deltopectoral triangle, ascended anterior and superior to the clavicle to drain into the subclavian vein. In these specimens a collateral branch was observed to communicate between the cephalic and external jugular veins. In 65.2% (124) of the cases the cephalic vein traveled with the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial trunk. The length of the cephalic vein within the deltopectoral triangle ranged from 3.5 cm to 8.2 cm with a mean of 4.8+/-0.7 cm. The morphometric analysis revealed a mean cephalic vein diameter of 0.8+/-0.1 cm with a range of 0.1 cm to 1.2 cm. The cephalic vein is relatively large and constant, usually allowing for easy cannulation.

  6. Reoperative lower extremity revascularization with cadaver vein for limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Bannazadeh, Mohsen; Sarac, Timur P; Bena, James; Srivastava, Sunita; Ouriel, Kenneth; Clair, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated our experience using cryopreserved cadaver vein allografts (CVGs) for infrageniculate revascularization in patients with a history of failed bypass or no suitable autogenous vein. Records of all patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization with CVG for critical limb ischemia were reviewed. Patient demographics, vessel treated, and postoperative course were analyzed. Patients who had a redo cadaver vein bypass were compared to those with a first-time cadaver vein bypass. Cumulative patency rates, limb salvage, mortality, and factors associated with outcomes were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method with Cox proportional hazards. Between January 2000 and December 2006, 66 CVGs were done in 56 patients out of 1,726 total bypasses. There were 36 men and 20 women, and the mean age was 71.67 +/- 10.50 years. Mean follow-up was 12.12 +/- 14.16 months. Seventy-eight percent of patients had previous bypasses, and 50% of all failed bypasses were failed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypasses. Operative indications were tissue loss (73%) and ischemic rest pain (27%). The mean preoperative ankle-brachial index was 0.43 +/- 0.16, and this increased to 0.89 +/- 0.18 at 30 days (p = 0.001). Procedure-related complications included graft infection (3, 4%), graft thrombosis (3, 4%), pseudoaneurysm (3, 4%), and bleeding (2, 3%). Cumulative 1-year primary, primary assisted, secondary patencies, limb salvage, and survival rates with confidence intervals were 0.19 (0.10-0.36), 0.29 (0.18-0.47), 0.42 (0.29-0.60), 0.73 (0.62-0.86), and 0.77 (0.65-0.90). Reoperative procedures fared the same as primary procedures. Multivariable analysis showed that predictors for increased risk of secondary patency loss were age >70 (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.13, p = 0.009) and patients with secondary revascularization (HR = 3.36, p = 0.015). Older patients (HR = 2.92, p = 0.042) and those with renal insufficiency (HR = 2.92, p = 0.019) were at increased risk of mortality. CVG

  7. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Meneses, Luis Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo; Uribe, Sergio

    2013-02-15

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  8. Serratus anterior venous tributary as a second outflow vein in latissimus dorsi free flaps.

    PubMed

    Goh, Terence; Tan, Bien-Keem; Ong, Yee-Siang; Chew, Winston

    2011-10-01

    The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is a large and reliable myocutaneous flap with a consistently long vascular pedicle. However, the limitation of the thoracodorsal pedicle is that it has only one draining vein for anastomosis. We describe a simple technique of recruiting the tributary vein to the serratus anterior and using it as a second draining vein to alleviate congestion in lower limb reconstruction. The serratus anterior venous tributary segment is cut back to an avalvular segment which averages 5 mm in length. Provision of an additional venous outflow to the flap enabled a second venous anastomosis to the short saphenous vein (N = 1), the long saphenous vein (N = 2), a deep vein (N= 1), and to a deep vein via a vein graft (N = 1), respectively. Five patients with degloving injury of the lower extremity of sizes 150 cm(2) (10 × 15 cm) to 260 cm(2) (10 × 26 cm) underwent successful reconstruction using the LD muscle flap with the serratus anterior tributary vein as a second outflow vein. This serratus anterior venous tributary serves as a useful second outflow channel for alleviating venous congestion during lower limb reconstructive surgery and should be routinely preserved as a lifeboat.

  9. The Role of Pulmonary Veins in Cancer Progression from a Computed Tomography Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung; Liao, Tzu-Yao; Wen, Ming-Sheng; Yu, Chih-Teng

    2016-01-01

    Background. We studied the role of pulmonary veins in cancer progression using computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods. We obtained data from 260 patients with pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome (PVOS). We used CT scans to investigate pulmonary lesions in relation to pulmonary veins. We divided the lesions into central and peripheral lesions by their anatomical location: in the lung parenchymal tissue or pulmonary vein; in the superior or inferior pulmonary vein; and by unilateral or bilateral presence in the lungs. Results. Of the 260 PVOS patients, 226 (87%) had central lesions, 231 (89%) had peripheral lesions, and 190 (75%) had mixed central and peripheral lesions. Among the 226 central lesions, 93% had lesions within the superior pulmonary vein, either bilaterally or unilaterally. Among the 231 peripheral lesions, 65% involved bilateral lungs, 70% involved lesions within the inferior pulmonary veins, and 23% had obvious metastatic extensions into the left atrium. All patients exhibited nodules within their pulmonary veins. The predeath status included respiratory failure (40%) and loss of consciousness (60%). Conclusion. CT scans play an important role in following tumor progression within pulmonary veins. Besides respiratory distress, PVOS cancer cells entering centrally can result in cardiac and cerebral events and loss of consciousness or can metastasize peripherally from the pulmonary veins to the lungs. PMID:27746816

  10. Surgical Implications of Portal Vein Variations and Liver Segmentations: A Recent Update.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Showkathali; Iqbal, Raiz; Iqbal, Faiz

    2017-02-01

    The Couinaud's liver segmentation is based on the identification of portal vein bifurcation and origin of hepatic veins. It is widely used clinically, because it is better suited for surgery and is more accurate in localizing and monitoring various intra parenchymal lesions. According to standard anatomy, the portal vein bifurcates into right and left branches; the left vein drains segment II, III and IV and the right vein divides into two secondary branches - the anterior portal vein drains segments V and VIII, and the posterior drains segments VI and VII. The portal vein variants such as portal trifurcation, with division of the main portal vein into the left, right anterior, and posterior branches, and the early origin of the right posterior branch directly from the main portal vein were found to be more frequent and was seen in about 20 - 35% of the population. Accurate knowledge of the portal variants and consequent variations in vascular segments are essential for intervention radiologists and transplant surgeons in the proper diagnosis during radiological investigations and in therapeutic applications such as preparation for biopsy, Portal Vein Embolization (PVE), Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt (TIPS), tumour resection and partial hepatectomy for split or living donor transplantations. The advances in the knowledge will reduce intra and postoperative complications and avoid major catastrophic events. The purpose of the present review is to update the normal and variant portal venous anatomy and their implications in the liver segmentations, complex liver surgeries and various radiological intervention procedures.

  11. Ore mineralogy and textural zonation in the world-class epithermal Waihi Vein System, Hauraki Goldfield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Skinner, Erin G; Fyfe, Sarah J; Menzies, Andrew H; Lowers, Heather A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    The Waihi district in the Hauraki Goldfield of New Zealand contains adularia-sericite epithermal gold-silver veins that have produced more than 7.7 Moz gold. The outermost veins of the district (Martha, Favona, Moonlight, and Cowshed) contain abundant colloform, cherty, and black quartz fill textures, with minor crustiform and massive quartz. The central veins (Amaranth, Trio, and Union) contain predominantly massive and crustiform textures, and these veins are also commonly coarser grained than outermost veins. Pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, electrum, and acanthite occur in both outermost and central veins; base metal sulfide minerals typically increase in abundance in deeper samples. Antimony-, arsenic-, and selenium-bearing minerals are most abundant in the Favona and Moonlight veins, whereas base metal sulfide minerals are more abundant in the central veins at Correnso. Throughout the Waihi vein system, electrum is by far the most widespread, abundant, and significant gold-bearing mineral, but LA-ICP-MS analyses show that arsenian pyrite also contains some gold. Mineralogical and textural data are consistent with the central veins forming at a deeper structural level, or from hydrothermal fluids with different chemistry, or both.

  12. Computer-assisted diagnostic tool to quantify the pulmonary veins in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Pamulapati, Vivek; Alam, Shoaib; Mehari, Alem; Kato, Gregory J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common cause of death among patients with sickle cell disease. This study investigates the use of pulmonary vein analysis to assist the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension non-invasively with CT-Angiography images. The characterization of the pulmonary veins from CT presents two main challenges. Firstly, the number of pulmonary veins is unknown a priori and secondly, the contrast material is degraded when reaching the pulmonary veins, making the edges of these vessels to appear faint. Each image is first denoised and a fast marching approach is used to segment the left atrium and pulmonary veins. Afterward, a geodesic active contour is employed to isolate the left atrium. A thinning technique is then used to extract the skeleton of the atrium and the veins. The locations of the pulmonary veins ostia are determined by the intersection of the skeleton and the contour of the atrium. The diameters of the pulmonary veins are measured in each vein at fixed distances from the corresponding ostium, and for each distance, the sum of the diameters of all the veins is computed. These indicators are shown to be significantly larger in sickle-cell patients with pulmonary hypertension as compared to controls (p-values < 0.01).

  13. Surgical Implications of Portal Vein Variations and Liver Segmentations: A Recent Update

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Raiz; Iqbal, Faiz

    2017-01-01

    The Couinaud’s liver segmentation is based on the identification of portal vein bifurcation and origin of hepatic veins. It is widely used clinically, because it is better suited for surgery and is more accurate in localizing and monitoring various intra parenchymal lesions. According to standard anatomy, the portal vein bifurcates into right and left branches; the left vein drains segment II, III and IV and the right vein divides into two secondary branches - the anterior portal vein drains segments V and VIII, and the posterior drains segments VI and VII. The portal vein variants such as portal trifurcation, with division of the main portal vein into the left, right anterior, and posterior branches, and the early origin of the right posterior branch directly from the main portal vein were found to be more frequent and was seen in about 20 - 35% of the population. Accurate knowledge of the portal variants and consequent variations in vascular segments are essential for intervention radiologists and transplant surgeons in the proper diagnosis during radiological investigations and in therapeutic applications such as preparation for biopsy, Portal Vein Embolization (PVE), Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt (TIPS), tumour resection and partial hepatectomy for split or living donor transplantations. The advances in the knowledge will reduce intra and postoperative complications and avoid major catastrophic events. The purpose of the present review is to update the normal and variant portal venous anatomy and their implications in the liver segmentations, complex liver surgeries and various radiological intervention procedures. PMID:28384848

  14. Portal flow into the liver through veins at the site of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; Heianna, J; Yasuda, K; Tate, E; Watarai, J; Shibata, S; Sato, T; Yamamoto, Y

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the role played by jejunal veins in hepatopetal flow after biliary-enteric anastomosis and to evaluate the helical CT features of hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis. We retrospectively analyzed helical CT images of the liver in 31 patients with biliary-enteric anastomosis who underwent hepatic angiography with (n=13) or without (n=18) CT arterial portography within 2 weeks of the CT examination during the last 4 years. Arterial portography showed hepatopetal flow through small vessels located (communicating veins) between the elevated jejunal veins and the intrahepatic portal branches in two (9%) of 22 patients with a normal portal system. Helical CT showed focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis in these two patients. All nine patients with extrahepatic portal vein occlusion (100%) had hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis, and four of the nine had decreased portal flow. CT revealed small communicating veins in two of these four patients. In five patients with normal portal perfusion despite extrahepatic portal vein occlusion, CT detected dilated communicating veins and elevated jejunal veins. The presence of communicating veins and/or focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis indicates hepatopetal flow through the elevated jejunal veins.

  15. Management of superficial vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis: status and expert opinion document.

    PubMed

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Agus, G; Georgiev, M; Errichi, B M; Marinucci, R; Errichi, S; Filippini, A; Pellegrini, L; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Cipollone, G; Lania, M; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Bavera, P; Fano, F; Dugall, M; Adovasio, R; Gallione, L; Del Boccio, G; Cornelli, U; Steigerwalt, R; Acerbi, G; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Hosoi, M; Stuard, S; Corsi, M; Di Ciano, L; Simeone, E; Collevecchio, G; Grossi, M G; Di Giambattista, F; Carestia, F; Zukowski, A

    2007-01-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis is characterized by clotting of superficial veins (ie, following direct trauma) with minimal inflammatory components. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a minimally thrombotic process of superficial veins associated with inflammatory changes and/or infection. Treatments generally include analgesics, elastic compression, anti-inflammatory agents, exercise and ambulation, and, in some cases, local or systemic anticoagulants. It is better to avoid bed rest and reduced mobility. Topical analgesia with nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory creams applied locally to the superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis area controls symptoms. Hirudoid cream (heparinoid) shortens the duration of signs/symptoms. Locally acting anticoagulants/antithrombotics (Viatromb, Lipohep, spray Na-heparin) have positive effects on pain and on the reduction in thrombus size. Intravenous catheters should be changed every 24 to 48 hours (depending on venous flow and clinical parameters) to prevent superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis and removed in case of events. Low molecular weight heparin prophylaxis and nitroglycerin patches distal to peripheral lines may reduce the incidence of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis in patients with vein catheters. In case of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis, vein lines should be removed. In neoplastic diseases and hematological disorders, anticoagulants may be necessary. Exercise reduces pain and the possibility of deep vein thrombosis. Only in cases in which pain is very severe is bed rest necessary. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis should be established in patients with reduced mobility. Antibiotics usually do not have a place in superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis unless there are documented infections. Prevention of superficial vein thrombosis should be considered on the basis of patient's history and clinical evaluation.

  16. Inferior vena cava filter insertion through the popliteal vein: enabling the percutaneous endovenous intervention of deep vein thrombosis with a single venous access approach in a single session

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kang, Yang Jun; Jung, Hye Doo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placing an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter through the same popliteal vein access site used for percutaneous endovenous intervention in patients with extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. METHODS This retrospective study included 21 patients who underwent IVC filter insertion through the popliteal vein over a three-year period. Patient medical records were reviewed for the location of the deep vein thrombosis, result of filter removal, and total number of endovascular procedures needed for filter insertion and recanalization of the lower extremity venous system. Follow-up lower extremity computed tomography (CT) venography was also reviewed in each patient to assess the degree of filter tilt in the IVC. RESULTS All patients had extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis involving the iliac vein and/or femoral vein. Seventeen patients showed deep vein thrombosis of the calf veins. In all patients, IVC filter insertion and the recanalization procedure were performed during a single procedure through the single popliteal vein access site. In the 17 patients undergoing follow-up CT, the mean tilt angle of the filter was 7.14°±4.48° in the coronal plane and 8.77°±5.49° in the sagittal plane. Filter retrieval was successful in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%) in whom filter retrieval was attempted. CONCLUSION Transpopliteal IVC filter insertion is an efficient technique that results in low rates of significant filter tilt and enables a single session procedure using a single venous access site for filter insertion and percutaneous endovenous intervention. PMID:27559713

  17. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    PubMed

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  18. A rare case of persistent jugulocephalic vein and its clinical implication

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; Thangarajan, Rajesh; D'Souza, Melanie Rose

    2016-01-01

    Persistence of jugulocephalic vein is one of the extremely rare variations of the cephalic vein. Knowledge of such a variation is of utmost importance to orthopedic surgeons while treating the fractures of the clavicle, head and neck surgeons, during surgery of the lower part of neck, for cardiothoracic surgeons and radiologists during catheterization and cardiac device placement. We report the persistent jugulocephalic vein in an adult male cadaver, observed during the routine dissection classes. The right cephalic vein ascended upwards, superficial to the lateral part of the clavicle and terminated into the external jugular vein. It also gave a communicating branch to the axillary vein below the clavicle. We discuss the embryological and clinical importance of this rare variation. PMID:27722015

  19. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shan Juan; Lu, Yu; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2015-07-14

    Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc.) vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs). In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV) normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR) is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy.

  20. Force-Based Puncture Detection and Active Position Holding for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation*

    PubMed Central

    Gonenc, Berk; Tran, Nhat; Riviere, Cameron N.; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure proposed to treat retinal vein occlusion by direct therapeutic agent delivery methods. Challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining cannulation during drug delivery currently limit the feasibility of the procedure. In this study, we respond to these problems with an assistive system combining a handheld micromanipulator, Micron, with a force-sensing microneedle. The integrated system senses the instant of vein puncture based on measured forces and the position of the needle tip. The system actively holds the cannulation device securely in the vein following cannulation and during drug delivery. Preliminary testing of the system in a dry phantom, stretched vinyl membranes, demonstrates a significant improvement in the total time the needle could be maintained stably inside of the vein. This was especially evident in smaller veins and is attributed to decreased movement of the positioned cannula following venous cannulation. PMID:27127804

  1. Stenting of vertical vein in an infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, WK; Leong, MC; Samion, H

    2016-01-01

    A 1.7 kg infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) presented with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to vertical vein obstruction. The child, in addition, had a large omphalocele that was being managed conservatively. The combination of low weight, unoperated omphalocele, and severe pulmonary hypertension made corrective cardiac surgery very high-risk. Therefore, transcatheter stenting of the stenotic vertical vein, as a bridge to corrective surgery was carried out. The procedure was carried out through the right internal jugular vein (RIJ). The stenotic segment of the vertical vein was stented using a coronary stent. After procedure, the child was discharged well to the referred hospital for weight gain and spontaneous epithelialization of the omphalocele. Stenting of the vertical vein through the internal jugular vein can be considered in very small neonates as a bridge to repair obstructed supracardiac total anomalous venous drainage. PMID:27212859

  2. Force-Based Puncture Detection and Active Position Holding for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation.

    PubMed

    Gonenc, Berk; Tran, Nhat; Riviere, Cameron N; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H; Iordachita, Iulian

    2015-09-01

    Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure proposed to treat retinal vein occlusion by direct therapeutic agent delivery methods. Challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining cannulation during drug delivery currently limit the feasibility of the procedure. In this study, we respond to these problems with an assistive system combining a handheld micromanipulator, Micron, with a force-sensing microneedle. The integrated system senses the instant of vein puncture based on measured forces and the position of the needle tip. The system actively holds the cannulation device securely in the vein following cannulation and during drug delivery. Preliminary testing of the system in a dry phantom, stretched vinyl membranes, demonstrates a significant improvement in the total time the needle could be maintained stably inside of the vein. This was especially evident in smaller veins and is attributed to decreased movement of the positioned cannula following venous cannulation.

  3. Palm vein for efficient person recognition based on 2D Gabor filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jixing; He, Yuqing; Zhu, Jiadan; Gao, Xinru; Cui, Yongsheng

    2013-05-01

    Palm vein recognition is a relatively new method in biometrics. This paper presents an effective palm vein feature extraction approach for improving the efficiency of palm vein identification. In this paper, relevant preprocessing steps as rotation and extraction of the Region of Interest are presented. In feature extraction, multiple 2D Gabor filters with 4 orientations are employed to extract the phase information on a palm vein image, which is then merged into unique feature according to an encoding rule. Hamming distance is used for vein recognition. Experiments are carried on a selfmade palm vein database. Experimental results show that the method in this paper achieved a higher correct recognition rate and a faster speed.

  4. Finger-vein image recognition combining modified Hausdorff distance with minutiae feature matching.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Bo; Qin, Hua-Feng; Cui, Yan-Zhe; Hu, Xiao-Qian

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for finger-vein recognition. We extract the features of the vein patterns for recognition. Then, the minutiae features included bifurcation points and ending points are extracted from these vein patterns. These feature points are used as a geometric representation of the vein patterns shape. Finally, the modified Hausdorff distance algorithm is provided to evaluate the identification ability among all possible relative positions of the vein patterns shape. This algorithm has been widely used for comparing point sets or edge maps since it does not require point correspondence. Experimental results show that these minutiae feature points can be used to perform personal verification tasks as a geometric representation of the vein patterns shape. Furthermore, by this developed method, we can achieve robust image matching under different lighting conditions.

  5. An Unusual Course and Termination of Small Saphenous Vein: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; D’Souza, Melanie Rose

    2016-01-01

    The superficial veins of the lower limb can vary in their course and termination. We report a relatively rare type of variation in the course and termination of small saphenous vein. The small saphenous vein had normal origin and course in the leg. However, instead of terminating into the popliteal vein, it continued up in the posterior compartment of the thigh and terminated into the femoral vein after piercing the fleshy part of the adductor magnus muscle. This course might lead to varicosity of the small saphenous vein due to the compression by the fleshy fibres of adductor magus near its termination. The case may be of interest to general and plastic surgeons and even cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:27134850

  6. Intrahepatic portal-vein gas associated with rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Esposito, F; Senese, R; Salvatore, P; Vallone, G

    2011-03-01

    Rotavirus enteritis is an infectious disease of the small bowel caused by an RNA reovirus. It is manifested by cytotoxic diarrhea [1]. Rotavirus is the most common viral cause of enteritis (incidence 15-35%) [2]. In infants and children with abdominal pain and diarrhea, ultrasonography is the diagnostic study of choice, and its use has increased significantly in young patients. We describe two cases in which portal-vein gas was detected on abdominal ultrasound scans in children with severe dehydration secondary to rotavirus gastroenteritis, which resolved rapidly after treatment.

  7. [Does trunk varicosity precede insufficiency of the perforating veins?].

    PubMed

    Bernink, B P

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical question of precedence of trunk, or perforator, incompetency. Whatever the case, the treatment is always the same. Drawing attention to the laws published in 1970 determining the opening and closing of small vessels, the author mainly discusses the so-called "balloon effect": of which the "physiological valvule" is a derivation, concluding that trunk varicosity precedes perforating vein incompetence. When the deep system is intact, the author prefers to use the term "blow down", reserving the term "blow out" for secondary varices, the deep system being damaged.

  8. Alteration and vein mineralization, Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1983-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, in the Front Range west of Denver, Colorado, is the largest vein-type uranium deposit in the United States. The deposit is situated in a steeply dipping fault system that cuts Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The host rocks represent a submarine volcanic system with associated chert and iron- and sulfide-rich pelitic rocks. Where faulted, the more competent garnetiferous and quartzitic units behaved brittlely and created a deep, narrow conduit. The ores formed 70-72 m.y. ago beneath 3 km of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Mineralization included two episodes of alteration and three stages of vein-mineralization. Early carbonate-sericite alteration pseudomorphically replaced mafic minerals, whereas the ensuing hematite-adularia episode replaced only the earlier alteration assemblage. Early vein mineralization produced a minor sulfide-adularia-carbonate assemblage. Later vein mineralization generated the uranium ores in two successive stages. Carbonates, sulfides, and adularia filled the remaining voids. Clastic dikes composed of fault gouge and, locally, ore were injected into new and existing fractures. Geologic and chemical evidence suggest that virtually all components of the deposit were derived from major hornblende gneiss units and related rocks. The initial fluids were evolved connate/metamorphic water that infiltrated and resided along the extensive fault zones. Complex fault movements in the frontal zone of the eastern Front Range caused the fluids to migrate to the most permeable segments of the fault zones. Heat was supplied by increased crustal heat flow related to igneous activity in the nearby Colorado mineral belt. Temperatures decreased from 225?C to 125?C during later mineralization, and the pressure episodically dropped from 1000 bars. The CO2 fugacity was initially near 100 bars, and uranium was carried as a dicarbonate complex. Sudden decreases in confining pressure during fault movement caused evolution of CO2

  9. Catheter directed interventions for acute deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Kolli, Kanti P.; Lehrman, Evan; Taylor, Andrew G.; Fidelman, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an extremely common form of vascular disease and impacts a great number of patients worldwide. Acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a subset of VTE and is traditionally been treated with anticoagulation. There is good quality data which suggests the use of catheter directed interventions for the treatment of acute DVT with the aim of reducing post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). The present review will discuss the various therapies available for acute DVT, focusing on catheter directed interventions, ranging from traditional anticoagulation to the most novel forms of aspiration thrombectomy. PMID:28123980

  10. Proximal lower limb vein thrombosis following vipera berus hand bite.

    PubMed

    Gary, T; Prüller, F; Froehlich, H; Werner, S; Hafner, F; Brodmann, M

    2010-05-01

    Vipera berus has a wide geographical distribution throughout Central and Northern Europe. The symptoms after a bite usually are mild, life threatening symptoms are mainly described in children. We describe a case of popliteal vein thrombosis of the right leg after systemic envenoming with Vipera berus venom after a bite in the right hand by a female Vipera berus in the alpine region of Styria, Austria. Changes of the plasmatic coagulation system were obvious in our patient. These changes were due to an activation of the coagulation system and might be the reason for the thrombotic event in this usually healthy young male person.

  11. Selection of Endovascular Approach of Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, O.; Goto, K.; Ogata, N.; Utsunomiya, H.; Sato, S.; Fukumura, A.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is one of the most difficult intracranial vascular lesions because this disease consists of extremely high flow shunts and affects infants and small children. Thanks to the development of various diagnostic modalities, early diagnosis became possible allowing us to prepare appropriately according to the patients' general and neurological conditions. Recent improvements of endovascular techniques and materials enabled both transarterial and transvenous approaches even to the newborn infants, widening therapeutic windows. In this article, we discuss the selection of endovascular approaches based upon angioarchitecture of VGAM presenting four representative cases from our file. PMID:20663400

  12. Facial vein thrombophlebitis: an uncommon complication of sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Cotes, Claudia; Riascos, Roy; Swischuk, Leonard E

    2015-07-01

    Facial vein thrombophlebitis is an uncommon complication of sinusitis. In cases where periorbital swelling complicating sinusitis is diagnosed, clinical findings of swelling and erythema extending beyond the orbital region into the cheek should alert the physician about this unusual complication and the need for further contrast-enhanced imaging and venography. The radiologist must be particularly careful in the evaluation of vascular structures of the face and neck in these children. CT and MRI with contrast material and MR venography are studies that clearly demonstrate the vascular anatomy and possible complications. However, MR venography confirms flow abnormalities within the venous system with the advantage of avoiding radiation exposure to the pediatric patient.

  13. Incidence and diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), diagnosed by ascending phlebography, has been calculated retrospectively in a group of 14 869 obstetrical patients. The incidence was calculated to 0.13 per thousand antepartum and 0.61 per thousand postpartum. The study revealed that clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis are very unreliable in pregnant women but more reliable in puerperal women. It is concluded that objective diagnosis of thrombosis is important in pregnant women, and ascending phlebography is a rewarding objective method to use in pregnant women.

  14. OCT imaging of myocardium extending to pulmonary vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Dickfeld, Timm; Tang, Qinggong; Wang, Bohan; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography to enable a direct visualization of myocardium extending into the pulmonary vein (PV). The results showed that there are obvious differences in the morphology of myocardium and fibrous tissue in the transition region of myocardial sleeve, which is in agreement with the histological analysis. In addition, the myocardial area in transition point has three layers in the depth of 1 mm, and the depth-resolved myocardial fiber show different orientation in the different layers. This characteristic was applied for segmentation of the structures of myocardium extending into PV.

  15. Transcutaneous Puncture of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein for Embolization of Dural Carotid-Ophthalmic Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsai, I-Chen; Huang, Hou-Chi; Lin, Chun-Han; Hung, Hao-Chun; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chi-Chang Chen, Clayton

    2008-01-01

    Summary Carotid-ophthalmic fistula is a rare disease, which can be treated by transvenous endovascular embolization. Here, we report a unique case with draining vein thrombosed, making a transvenous approach impossible. An old but valuable technique, direct transcutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, was used to save the patient's right eye. The old technique, direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, retains its irreplaceable usefulness in this special situation. Thus, interventional neuroradiologists should equip themselves with this essential technique. PMID:20557794

  16. Inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in Crohn`s disease: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Coralnick, J.R.; Budin, J.A.; Sedarat, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis has been described in association with such risk factors as coagulation disorders, postoperative dehydration, sepsis, and trauma. CT and ultrasound have greatly facilitated early diagnosis, and the features of superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis are well recognized. We present a case of inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in a patient with Crohn`s disease. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported in the radiologic literature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Congenital internal jugular vein aneurysm in an infant: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Khandelwal, Nidhi; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-05-01

    A 1-month old baby boy presented with a mass at the root of the neck. On investigation, a saccular aneurysm arising from the internal jugular vein was diagnosed. The aneurysm was excised after ligating the patent internal jugular vein above and below the origin of the aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a vascular malformation. Vascular malformation of the internal jugular vein, presenting as neck mass, is extremely rare with no case described in neonates. We present one such interesting case.

  18. Portal hypertensive hemorrhage from a left gastroepiploic vein caput medusa in an adhesed umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Sze, Daniel Y; Magsamen, Karl E; McClenathan, James H; Keeffe, Emmet B; Dake, Michael D

    2005-02-01

    Caput medusa is a frequent incidental finding in patients with portal hypertension that usually represents paraumbilical vein portosystemic collateral vessels draining into body wall systemic veins. A symptomatic caput medusa was seen in a morbidly obese patient after an umbilical hernia repair, which was fed not by the left portal vein but by the left gastroepiploic vein, in a recurrent adhesed umbilical hernia that likely contained herniated omentum. Refractory hemorrhage from this caput medusa was successfully treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation and balloon-occluded variceal sclerosis.

  19. Hydraulic tuning of vein cell microstructure in the evolution of angiosperm venation networks.

    PubMed

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2013-08-01

    High vein density (D(V)) evolution in angiosperms represented a key functional transition. Yet, a mechanistic account on how this hydraulic transformation evolved remains lacking. We demonstrate that a consequence of producing high D(V is that veins must become very small to fit inside the leaf, and that angiosperms are the only clade that evolved the specific type of vessel required to yield sufficiently conductive miniature leaf veins. From 111 species spanning key divergences in vascular plant evolution, we show, using analyses of vein conduit evolution in relation to vein packing, that a key xylem innovation associated with high D(V) evolution is a strong reduction in vein thickness and simplification of the perforation plates of primary xylem vessels. Simple perforation plates in the leaf xylem occurred only in derived angiosperm clades exhibiting high D(V) (> 12 mm mm(-2)). Perforation plates in the vessels of other species, including extant basal angiosperms, consisted of resistive scalariform types that were associated with thicker veins and much lower D(V). We conclude that a reduction in within-vein conduit resistance allowed vein size to decrease. We suggest that this adaptation may have been a critical evolutionary step that enabled dramatic D(V) elaboration in angiosperms.

  20. Acute thigh compartment syndrome post femoral vein catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Mark W

    2008-08-01

    This case report presents a previously unreported etiology of acute thigh compartment syndrome following ipsilateral femoral vein catheterization, including clinical results and a brief review of the literature.

  1. Interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos termination associated with congenital absence of portal vein.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, J; Paineau, J; Hamy, A; Dupas, B; Lerat, F; Raoul, S; Hamel, A; Robert, R; Armstrong, O; Rogez, J M

    2000-01-01

    The authors report an exceptional and well-documented case of interruption of the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava with an "azygos continuation", combined with absence of the portal vein. The only known combination of congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava and the portal vein was that of an "azygos continuation" and a preduodenal portal vein. The double interruption, portal and inferior caval, may be associated with a disturbance of preferential flows induced by the left umbilical thrust. According to hemodynamic theory, the left umbilical flow is the determining factor in organogenesis of the portal vein and the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava.

  2. Novel Image Guidance Techniques for Portal Vein Targeting During Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Khashayar; Kaufman, John A

    2016-03-01

    The most challenging part of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is arguably the transvenous access from the hepatic vein to the portal vein. As experience and technology have evolved, the image guidance aspect of this critical step in the procedure has become more robust. Improved means to target the portal vein include both direct and indirect methods of portal vein opacification, cross-sectional imaging for both targeting and access, and novel use of transabdominal and intravascular ultrasound guidance. These techniques are described herein.

  3. [Vein Scanning Projection Instrument Based on Two-Dimensional Scanning Mirror].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ya; Wu, Zhichao; Xu, Changping; Qian, Yinbo

    2015-09-01

    With the development of science and technology, new medical equipments is toward the direction of intelligent and portable. In order to assist medical personnel to patients with blood, developing from previous devices, a new kind of vein locating projection instrument based on two-dimensional scanning mirror is put forward. It can scan and project vein image using a scanning mirror. The related algorithm is also be improved, make vein scan projection more practical. The system finally set up can perform well in vein scan projection.

  4. Rare Vascular Anomalies in the Femoral Triangle During Varicose Vein Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk Sil; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Hyun Seok; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Choe, Michael SungPil

    2017-01-01

    Background We observed several cases of rare vascular anomalies within the femoral triangle during varicose vein operations. Methods From among 2,093 patients who underwent stripping operations of the great saphenous vein between January 2002 and June 2016, 14 cases of rare vascular anomalies were enrolled in this study. Results Twelve cases of femoral artery and vein transposition (0.57%), 1 case of separate entrance of the great saphenous vein trunk and its tributaries (0.05%), and 1 case of separate entrance with femoral artery and vein transposition (0.05%) were observed. The preoperative diagnosis rate was 71% (10 of 14) using duplex ultrasound. In all cases of femoral artery and vein transposition, the saphenofemoral junction was located at the lateral or posterolateral side of the superficial femoral artery, corresponding to complete or incomplete transposition, respectively. Among the 12 cases of femoral artery and vein transposition, 5 cases were complete transposition and 7 cases were incomplete transposition. In 2 cases of separate entrance of the great saphenous vein trunk and its tributaries, the separated tributaries formed a common trunk before connecting to the femoral vein. Conclusion The anatomy of the saphenofemoral junction may infrequently be altered in some individuals. Detailed preoperative sonographic examinations and meticulous groin dissection during the operation are necessary to prepare for unexpected anatomical variations. PMID:28382268

  5. The Role of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator and Plasmin Activator Inhibitor-1 on Vein Wall Remodeling in Experimental Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Joe F.; Sood, Vikram; Elfline, Megan A.; Luke, Cathy E.; Dewyer, Nicholas A.; Diaz, Jose A.; Myers, Dan D.; Wakefield, Thomas; Henke, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution instigates an inflammatory response, resulting in vessel wall damage and scarring. Urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are integral components of the fibrinolytic system, essential for VT resolution. This study determined the vein wall response when exposed to increased and decreased plasmin activity. Methods A mouse inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation model in uPA −/− or PAI-1 −/− and their genetic wild types (B6/SvEv and C57/BL6, respectively) was used to create stasis thrombi, with tissue harvest at either 8 or 21d. Tissue analysis included gene expression of vascular smooth muscle cells (alpha SMA [αSMA], SM22) and endothelial marker (CD31), by real time PCR, ELISA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and 9 activity by zymography and vein wall collagen by picrosirius red histological analysis. A P < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS Thrombi were significantly larger in both 8d and 21d uPA −/− as compared to WT, and were significantly smaller in both 8 and 21d PAI-1 −/− as compared to WT. Correspondingly, 8d plasmin levels were reduced in half in uPA −/− and increased 3 fold in PAI-1 −/− when compared to respective WT thrombi (P < .05, N = 5 – 6). The endothelial marker CD31 was elevated 2 fold in PAI-1 −/− mice at 8d, but reduced 2.5 fold at 21d in uPA −/− as compared with WT (P = .02, N = 5 – 6), suggesting less endothelial preservation. Vein wall VSMC gene expression showed that 8d and 21d PAI-1 −/− mice had 2.3 and 3.8 fold more SM22 and 1.8 and 2.3 fold more αSMA expression than respective WT (P < .05, N = 5 – 7), as well as 1.8 fold increased αSMA (+) cells (N = 3 – 5, P ≤ .05). No significant difference in MMP2 or 9 activity was found in the PAI-1 −/− mice compared with WT, while 5.4 fold more MMP9 was present in 21d WT than 21d uPA −/− (P = .03, N = 5). Lastly, collagen was ~2 fold

  6. Catheter venography for the assessment of internal jugular veins and azygous vein: position statement by expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Simka, Marian; Hubbard, David; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Dake, Michael D; Sclafani, Salvatore J A; Al-Omari, Mamoon; Eisele, Carlos G; Haskal, Ziv J; Ludyga, Tomasz; Miloševič, Zoran V; Sievert, Horst; Stehling, Michael K; Zapf, Stefan; Zorc, Marjeta

    2013-05-01

    This document by an expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease is aimed at presenting current technique and interpretation of catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, azygous vein and other veins draining the central nervous system. Although interventionalists agree on general rules, significant differences exist in terms of details of venographic technique and interpretations of angiographic pictures. It is also suggested that debatable findings should be investigated using multimodal diagnostics. Finally, the authors recommend that any publication on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency should include detailed description of venographic technique used, to facilitate a comparison of published results in this area.

  7. Inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission in canine saphenous veins

    SciTech Connect

    Edoute, Y.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Shepherd, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate has been proposed as the initiator of metabolic vasodilatation in active skeletal muscle. The present study was primarily designed to determine if this substance has an inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission. Rings of canine saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in organ chambers. A comparison was made of the ability of inorganic phosphate (3 to 14 mM) to relax rings contracted to the same degree by electrical stimulation, exogenous norepinephrine, and prostaglandin F/sub 2..cap alpha../. The relaxation during electrical stimulation was significantly greater at all concentrations of phosphate. In strips of saphenous veins previously incubated with (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine, the depression of the contractile response caused by phosphate during electrical stimulated was accompanied by a significant reduction in the overflow of labeled neurotransmitter. Thus inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission and hence may have a key role in the sympatholysis in the active skeletal muscles during exercise. By contrast, in this preparation, it has a modest direct relaxing action on the vascular smooth muscle.

  8. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F; Pitulescu, Mara E; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H; Siekmann, Arndt F

    2014-12-15

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation.

  9. Infrared image acquisition system for vein pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Solís-Villarreal, J.

    2016-09-01

    The physical shape of the hand vascular distribution contains useful information that can be used for identifying and authenticating purposes; which provide a high level of security as a biometric. Furthermore, this pattern can be used widely in health field such as venography and venipuncture. In this paper, we analyze different IR imaging systems in order to obtain high visibility images of the hand vein pattern. The images are acquired in the range of 400 nm to 1300 nm, using infrared and thermal cameras. For the first image acquisition system, we use a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm obtaining the images by reflection. A second system consists only of a ThermaCAM P65 camera acquiring the naturally emanating infrared light from the hand. A method of digital image analysis is implemented using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) to remove noise. Subsequently, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are implemented to get the vein pattern distribution.

  10. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of right innominate vein mimics a teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qi; Zhou, Jiaxuan; Yu, Yudong; Sun, Qingyu; Bao, Yingying; Lei, Qiang; Zou, Qiao; Deng, Yingshi; Li, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rational: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare neoplasm commonly known to arise from the soft tissue, lung, and liver. EHE arising from right innominate vein (RIV) has scarcely been reported in English literature. Patient concerns: Herein, we present a rare case of EHE of RIV in a 51-year-old woman with right-lower chest pain for 4 days. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a spherical mass with calcification and fatty foci located in the anterior mediastinum, thus a presumptive diagnosis of teratoma was made. Diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes: Video-assisted thoracoscopic explorations and resection of mediastinal tumor were then performed. The pathological examination showed that the tumor was EHE. Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to the patient. Pulmonary metastases were found by chest CT a year after surgery. Lessons: A diagnosis of EHE might be considered, when a mediastinal tumor closely related to veins showing intratumoral calcification and obvious enhancement, despite the presence of a clear boundary and visible fat content. PMID:28248868

  11. Preoperative portal vein embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Consensus and controversy

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Taku; Kubota, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since the first report of portal vein embolization (PVE), and this procedure is widely adopted as a preoperative treatment procedure for patients with a small future liver remnant (FLR). PVE has been shown to be useful in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. However, special caution is needed when PVE is applied prior to subsequent major hepatic resection in cases with cirrhotic livers, and volumetric analysis of the liver segments in addition to evaluation of the liver functional reserve before PVE is mandatory in such cases. Advances in the embolic material and selection of the treatment approach, and combined use of PVE and transcatheter arterial embolization/chemoembolization have yielded improved outcomes after PVE and major hepatic resections. A novel procedure termed the associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy has been gaining attention because of the rapid hypertrophy of the FLR observed in patients undergoing this procedure, however, application of this technique in HCC patients requires special caution, as it has been shown to be associated with a high morbidity and mortality even in cases with essentially healthy livers. PMID:27028706

  12. [Surgical treatment of acute deep leg and pelvic vein trombosis].

    PubMed

    Gall, F; Husfeldt, K J

    1977-08-25

    In the last 3 years 93 cases of iliofermoral trombosis were treated by surgery. We prefer the method used by Brunner, but under general anaesthesia and using a Bentley-Autotransfusion-System (ATS). The average age of our patients was 55 years (age ranged between 17 and 87 years). No lethal pulmonary embolism was observed. 2, 1 percent of the patients died following apoplex or acute heart failure. Of 67 patients who were operated on 6 months ago or more 70 percent have no further complaints, 28 percent still have some residual edema and only 2 patients have a severe postthrombotic syndrome. 50 percent of 40 control-phlebograms demonstrated patency of all veins. 20 percent had short segmentary occlusions with definite signs of recanalisation, while in 27 percent of the cases occlusions of the lower leg and thigh were found, the iliac veins being free. Only 2 postoperative phlebograms showed a complete iliofemoral venous occlusion. Our results prove, that the operative thrombectomy is a successful method, with which the main complications of the iliofemoral thrombosis-pulmonary embolisation and postthrombotic syndrome-can difinitely be reduced. Also because of better long term results, the operative therapy of acute ilofemoral thrombosis should be generally prefered instead of conservative treatment.

  13. Vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma contributes to portal vein invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zhisheng, Zhang; Lin, Cui; Yayun, Qian; Feng, Jin; Hao, Gu; Shintaro, Ishikawa; Hisamitsu, Tadashi; Shiyu, Guo; Yanqing, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Portal vein invasion (PVI) is common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and largely contributes to tumor recurrence after radical tumor resection or liver transplantation. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) was an independent vascular system lined with tumor cells and associated with poor prognosis of HCC. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between VM and portal vein invasion. A total of 44 HCC cases receiving anatomic liver resection were included in the study and were divided into groups with and without PVI. The prevalence of VM in each group was examined by CD34-PAS dual staining. The regulatory molecules of VM formation such as Notch1, Vimentin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Analysis was performed to explore the association of PVI, VM and the VM regulatory molecules. PVI was found in 40.91% (18/44) cases and VM was found in 38.64% (17/44) cases in total samples. The incidence of VM was 72.22% (13/18) in PVI group while it was 15.38% (4/26) in non-PVI group (P<0.001), VM formation was positively correlated with PVI (r=0.574, P<0.001). The VM forming regulatory molecules such as Notch1, Vimentin, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be correlated with PVI in HCC patients. Taken together, our results suggested that VM formation, alone with its regulatory molecules, is the promoting factor of PVI in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27793002

  14. A method for quickly and exactly extracting hepatic vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yuan, Rong; Wang, Luyao; Wang, Yanchun; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu; Xie, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    It is of vital importance that providing detailed and accurate information about hepatic vein (HV) for liver surgery planning, such as pre-operative planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Due to the different blood flow rate of intra-hepatic vascular systems and the restrictions of CT scan, it is common that HV and hepatic portal vein (HPV) are both filled with contrast medium during the scan and in high intensity in the hepatic venous phase images. As a result, the HV segmentation result obtained from the hepatic venous phase images is always contaminated by HPV which makes accurate HV modeling difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method for quick and accurate HV extraction. Based on the topological structure of intra-hepatic vessels, we analyzed the anatomical features of HV and HPV. According to the analysis, three conditions were presented to identify the nodes that connect HV with HPV in the topological structure, and thus to distinguish HV from HPV. The method costs less than one minute to extract HV and provides a correct and detailed HV model even with variations in vessels. Evaluated by two experienced radiologists, the accuracy of the HV model obtained from our method is over 97%. In the following work, we will extend our work to a comprehensive clinical evaluation and apply this method to actual LDLT surgical planning.

  15. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S.; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F.; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H.; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  16. Numerical modelling of the formation of fibrous bedding-parallel veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Bedding-parallel veins with a fibrous infill oriented orthogonal to the vein wall, are often observed in fine-grained metasedimentary sequences. Several mechanisms have been proposed for their formation, mostly with respect to effects of fluid overpressures and anisotropy of the host-rock fabric in order to explain the inferred extensional failure with sub-vertical opening. Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in Zambia. The goal of this study is to better understand the formation mechanisms of these veins and to explain their particular spatial and thickness distribution, with respect to failure of transversely isotropic rocks. The spatial distribution and thickness variation of these veins was quantified during a field campaign in thirteen line transects perpendicular to undeformed veins in underground crosscuts. The fibrous dolomite veins studied are not related to lithological contrasts, but to a strong bedding-parallel shaly fabric, typical for the black shale facies of the Copperbelt Orebody Member. The host rock can hence be considered as transversely isotropic. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. A microstructural fabric study reveals that the undeformed dolomite veins show low-tortuosity vein walls and quantifiable growth competition. Here, we use a Discrete Element Method numerical modelling approach with ESyS-Particle (http://launchpad.net/esys-particle) to simulate the observed properties of the veins. Calibrated numerical specimens with a transversely isotropic matrix are repeatedly brought to failure under constant strain rates by changing the effective strain rates at model boundaries. After each fracture event, fractures in the numerical model are filled with cohesive vein material and the experiment is repeated. By systematically varying

  17. Incidence of Central Vein Stenosis and Occlusion Following Upper Extremity PICC and Port Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Carin F. Eschelman, David J.; Sullivan, Kevin L.; DuBois, Nancy; Bonn, Joseph

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters(PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine catheter dwelltime and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154)at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p =0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access devices

  18. Norepinephrine responses in rat renal and femoral veins are reinforced by vasoconstrictor prostanoids.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rossignoli, Patrícia; Yamamoto, Fernanda Zocatelli; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) responses are larger in renal and femoral veins compared to phenylephrine (PE). These differences may be due to the subtypes of adrenoceptor involved in these responses or to the involvement of local modulatory mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated in organ bath the adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the NE and PE responses in both renal and femoral veins as well as the influence of local mechanisms related to NO and to prostanoids upon these responses. The obtained data showed that the NE responses in these veins were not significantly modified by the selective inhibition of β1 or β2-adrenoceptors as well as AT1 or AT2 receptors. However, yohimbine reduced the NE Rmax in renal veins and, in parallel, right shifted the NE concentration-response curves in femoral veins. In both veins, prazosin reduced the NE Rmax and the clonidine induced a measurable contraction. The endothelium removal attenuated the NE responses in femoral veins, thereby abolishing the differences of NE and PE responses. Furthermore, the NE responses in renal and femoral veins were attenuated by indomethacin, which suppressed the statistical difference in relation to the PE response. In conclusion, a synergism between α1- and α2-adrenoceptors is essential to assure full NE contractile responses in both renal and femoral veins. Thus, by acting simultaneously in these adrenoceptors, NE induces more pronounced contractile responses, in comparison to PE, not only in renal but also in femoral veins. Moreover, this pronounced NE response in both renal and femoral veins appears to involve endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids.

  19. Direct transhepatic assessment of hepatic vein pressure and direction of flow using a thin needle in patients with cirrhosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome. An effective alternative to hepatic vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Rector, W G; Redeker, A G

    1984-06-01

    Portal pressure can be accurately measured transhepatically with a Chiba needle. Since 1980, we have used transhepatic hepatic vein pressures as our zero reference for transhepatic portal pressure measurements. To validate the latter technique, we performed hepatic vein catheterization and transhepatic hepatic vein puncture in 11 patients undergoing portal pressure measurement. Transhepatic hepatic vein puncture was simple, providing pressures as reproducible as those obtained by hepatic vein and inferior vena cava catheterization. These pressures were minimally higher than simultaneous free hepatic vein and inferior vena caval pressures, possibly reflecting the more proximal location of the small hepatic vein radicles often entered by this technique. Transhepatic hepatic vein puncture is an accurate way to determine hepatic vein pressure and, combined with transhepatic portal vein pressure measurement, completely obviates the need for venous catheterization for portal pressure determination. Transhepatic hepatic vein pressure was also measured in 3 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome. In these patients, transhepatic hepatic vein pressure was elevated and equaled or exceeded portal vein pressure. Abnormal venous collaterals were identified in all patients. Transhepatic portal pressure studies are also an appropriate way to evaluate patients suspected of having hepatic outflow obstruction.

  20. Molecular characterization and population structure of blackberry vein banding associated virus, new Ampelovirus associated with yellow vein disease.

    PubMed

    Thekke-Veetil, Thanuja; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2013-12-26

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is the most important viral disease of blackberry in the United States. Experiments were conducted to characterize a new virus identified in symptomatic plants. Molecular analysis revealed a genome organization resembling Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, the type species of the genus Ampelovirus in the family Closteroviridae. The genome of the virus, provisionally named blackberry vein banding associated virus (BVBaV), consists of 18,643 nucleotides and contains 10 open reading frames (ORFs). These ORFs encode closterovirid signature replication-associated and quintuple gene block proteins, as well as four additional proteins of unknown function. Phylogenetic analyses of taxonomically relevant products consistently placed BVBaV in the same cluster with GLRaV-3 and other members of the subgroup I of the genus Ampelovirus. The virus population structure in the U.S. was studied using the replication associated polyprotein 1a, heat shock 70 homolog and minor coat proteins of 25 isolates. This study revealed significant intra-species variation without any clustering among isolates based on their geographic origin. Further analyses indicated that these proteins are under stringent purifying selections. High genetic variability and incongruent clustering of isolates suggested the possible involvement of recombination in the evolution of BVBaV.

  1. Cortical actin regulation modulates vascular contractility and compliance in veins

    PubMed Central

    Saphirstein, Robert J; Gao, Yuan Z; Lin, Qian Qian; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The literature on arterial mechanics is extensive, but far less is known about mechanisms controlling mechanical properties of veins. We use here a multi-scale approach to identify subcellular sources of venous stiffness. Portal vein tissue displays a severalfold decrease in passive stiffness compared to aortic tissues. The α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) increased tissue stress and stiffness, both attenuated by cytochalasin D (CytoD) and PP2, inhibitors of actin polymerization and Src activity, respectively. We quantify, for the first time, cortical cellular stiffness in freshly isolated contractile vascular smooth muscle cells using magnetic microneedle technology. Cortical stiffness is significantly increased by PE and CytoD inhibits this increase but, surprisingly, PP2 does not. No detectable change in focal adhesion size, measured by immunofluorescence of FAK and zyxin, accompanies the PE-induced changes in cortical stiffness. Probing with phospho-specific antibodies confirmed activation of FAK/Src and ERK pathways and caldesmon phosphorylation. Thus, venous tissue stiffness is regulated both at the level of the smooth muscle cell cortex, via cortical actin polymerization, and by downstream smooth muscle effectors of Src/ERK signalling pathways. These findings identify novel potential molecular targets for the modulation of venous capacitance and venous return in health and disease. Key points Most cardiovascular research focuses on arterial mechanisms of disease, largely ignoring venous mechanisms. Here we examine ex vivo venous stiffness, spanning tissue to molecular levels, using biomechanics and magnetic microneedle technology, and show for the first time that venous stiffness is regulated by a molecular actin switch within the vascular smooth muscle cell in the wall of the vein. This switch connects the contractile apparatus within the cell to adhesion structures and facilitates stiffening of the vessel wall, regulating blood flow return

  2. Fresh vein allograft survival in dogs after cyclosporine treatment.

    PubMed

    Mingoli, A; Edwards, J D; Feldhaus, R J; Hunter, W J; Naspetti, R; Cavallari, N; Sapienza, P; Kretchmar, D H; Cavallaro, A

    1996-04-01

    Synthetic grafts are widely used for peripheral arterial reconstructions when autologous veins are not available, but their results have not been satisfactory. Venous allograft may be used as an alternative to synthetic prostheses. The aim of the study was to explore the immunosuppressive efficacy of Cyclosporine A (CyA) as a means of preventing venous allograft failures and rejection. We utilized 56 mongrel dogs. Immunological incompatibility was checked with the skin graft method. Donor inferior vena cava was transplanted into the infrarenal abdominal aorta of recipient animals. One group (group 1, 10 dogs) served as a control and three groups received CyA treatment regimens. Group 2 (10 dogs) received postoperative oral CyA treatment for 30 days. Group 3 (12 dogs) received a vein graft pretreated with a CyA solution without postoperative immunosuppressive therapy. Group 4 (9 dogs) received a vein graft pretreated with a CyA solution and postoperative CyA treatment for 30 days. Allografts were examined at 30 days for patency, aneurysmal dilatation, gross structural changes, inflammatory response, and lymphocytic infiltration. Sex chromatine assessment determined the origin (donor or recipient) of the endothelial cells. The allografts from groups 1 and 3 showed significant aneurysmal dilatation and perivenous inflammation when compared to dogs treated with oral CyA therapy (P < 0.0002). Moreover allografts treated with CyA therapy had a better-developed venous neointima (P < 0.009) with less fibrin (P < 0.02) and thinner medial (P < 0.0009) with less fibrin (P < 0.02), and thinner medial (P < 0.0009) and adventitial layers (P < 0.02). No significant differences were observed in neointimal thickness among the four groups. Lymphocytic infiltration was greater in the group of animals who did not receive oral CyA therapy (P < 0.0004). Barr bodies status showed significant differences between oral CyA treated groups and nontreated groups (P < 0.0003). Oral CyA therapy

  3. Mapping of superficial extremity veins: normal diameters and trends in a vascular patient-population.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Dan E; Kelly, Patrick; Gaughan, John P; van Bemmelen, Paul S

    2012-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of superficial extremity veins is a common procedure. To establish normal values for vein-size in a population of vascular patients and to assess if measurements remain unchanged over time, we analyzed a database with results of 28,130 measurements in 2420 separate saphenous and 3206 cephalic veins. Mean size of the great saphenous vein ranges from 2.3 mm to 4.4 mm but did not follow a tapering pattern as is often assumed. The distal calf segment is smaller than the ankle segment. The mean cephalic vein size in the upper arm (2.4 mm) was smaller than at the antecubital level (2.7 mm). A decrease in vein diameter over time was noted in many locations and this reached statistical significance (p < 0.005 for the thigh segment). The clinical significance of this is a need to repeat ultrasonic vein-mapping if more than a year elapses between ultrasound and surgical vein harvest.

  4. Molecular analysis of complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were det...

  5. An unusual condition during internal jugular vein catheterisation: vertebral artery catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Ozge; Göksel, Sabahattin; Söylemez, Burçak; Durmuş, Kasim; Işbir, Ahmet Cemil; Berkan, Öcal

    Vertebral artery cannulation is an unusual complication during internal jugular vein cannulation. We report a case of vertebral artery cannulation, which occurred during an attempt to cannulate the right internal jugular vein, and we discuss the management of such a rare complication.

  6. Catheter malposition following supraclavicular approach for subclavian vein catheterisation--case reports.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prem K; Ali, Zulfiquar; Rath, Girija P; Prabhakar, Hemanshu

    2008-10-01

    The supraclavicular approach of subclavian vein catheterization is associated with the lowest incidence of malposition. We report two cases of unusual malpositions seen during central venous cathelerization of subclavian vein via supraclavicular approach. Literature search did not reveal such malpositions. The possible cause for the malposition and method to prevent it is discussed.

  7. Prevalence of central vein stenosis following catheterization in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Naroienejad, Minoo; Saedi, Dariush; Rezvani, Asieh

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence of central vein stenosis following catheterization with double-lumen temporary catheters, we performed color Doppler sonography in 100 consecutive patients. We detected central vein stenosis in 18 cases; 11 patients in subclavian vein (SCV), 4 patients in internal jugular vein (IJV) and SCV, 2 patients in SCV and brachiocephalic vein, and 2 patients in IJV stenosis. There were statistical difference between groups with and without stenosis regarding time from discontinuation of catheters and use of aspirin (ASA). We could not find any statistical difference between these two groups regarding age, sex, duration of having chronic kidney disease (CKD), and duration of catheter remaining in place. We also found that there was a high proportion of stenosis in patients who still had catheter in their veins (15 from 44 patients, 34%) in comparison with patients who had already the catheters removed from their veins (3 from 56 patients, 5%). We conclude that stenosis of central veins can result from long indwelling time of central catheter used for hemodialysis. Aspirin may have a protective role against stenosis.

  8. [Study of the veins of the foot by counter-current phlebography].

    PubMed

    Lengua, F; Herrera, J J; Florsch, C

    1988-01-01

    83 CF phlebographies of the foot veins were carried out in varicose vein sufferers of both sexes in order to better understand the return venous circulation of the foot in detail, its abnormalities, and also to attempt to explain edema of the foot suffered by many varicose vein patients to varying degrees of severity after saphenous stripping. Films were obtained by direct needle puncture at different sites on the fore-foot, after a tourniquet was placed around the ankle. The route taken by the contrast medium injected was followed on a fluoroscop screen and photographed. Images obtained were classified under 4 headings: 1) slight, 2) moderate, 3) loaded and 4) overloaded opacification. In normal or slightly pathological cases (group 1 and 2), contrast medium was evacuated via a route ranging from level 1 (superficial) to level 3 (deep), this being the "usual evacuation circuit." In frankly pathological cases (groups 3 and 4), a "subsidiary evacuation circuit" may develop. It is also possible that after a degree of stagnation (by obstruction of the main veins of the foot) the contrast medium is very slowly evacuated by a number of small collateral veins. Edema of the foot as seen in some varicose vein patients as well as that which occurs post-operatively in the majority of patients undergoing varicose vein surgery is felt to be more often due to valve incompetence and to hypotonicity of the venous walls rather than to thrombosis of a deep vein of the foot.

  9. Prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein: a rare vascular variant detected on imaging.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vishal Kumar; Rajesh, S; Bhatnagar, Shorav; Dev, Ankur; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2013-09-01

    Anomalous preduodenal portal vein is a rare abdominal vascular variant; even rarer is the prepancreatic postduodenal position. We report an anomalous portal vein positioned in between duodenum and pancreatic head detected on contrast enhanced computed tomography. Awareness and accurate radiological interpretation of this unique and rare vascular pattern can prevent inadvertent injury during surgical and radiological interventions.

  10. Expression and significance of NELIN and SM22α in varicose vein tissue

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, SHIHUI; QIN, SHIYONG; WANG, MINGHAI; ZHANG, SHUGUANG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of NELIN and SM22α in lower extremity varicose vein tissue, and their association with varicose veins. Tissue samples were collected from 18 patients with lower extremity varicose veins for the experimental group, while normal great saphenous vein tissue was reserved during coronary artery bypass surgery from 14 patients for the controls. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was applied to detect the mRNA expression levels of NELIN and SM22α, while immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect the protein expression levels in the normal and abnormal veins. RT-PCR results revealed that the mRNA expression levels of NELIN and SM22α in the experimental group decreased significantly when compared with the control group (P<0.01). In the two groups, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that NELIN and SM22α were primarily expressed in the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells, and the expression quantity decreased significantly in the experimental group when compared with the control group (P<0.05). The low expression of SM22α in the primary lower limb varicose vein tissue indicated that the vascular smooth muscle cell layer had transformed from a contractile to a secretory phenotype, which may have resulted in the remodeling of the vein walls and the occurrence of varicose veins. Therefore, NELIN and SM22α were demonstrated to play a key role in the development of varicosity. PMID:25667639

  11. Isolated thrombosis of right spermatic vein with underlying Factor V Leiden mutation

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Deniz; Gunlusoy, Bulent; Yarimoglu, Serkan; Ozsinan, Funda; Solmaz, Serife; Imamoglu, Fatma Gul

    2016-01-01

    Spermatic vein thrombosis is a very uncommon clinical entity. Most cases involve the left side. Herein, we present an unusual case of a young man who presented with spermatic vein thrombosis on the right side with an underlying Factor V Leiden mutation. To our knowledge, it is the first case in the literature. PMID:27695590

  12. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma arising in the femoral vein: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oike, Naoki; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Umezu, Hajime; Inagawa, Shoichi

    2014-10-01

    Soft tissue tumors arising in deep veins of the extremities are uncommon, although a few cases of synovial sarcoma or leiomyosarcoma arising in the femoral vein have been documented. However, to the best of our knowledge, an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) arising in the femoral vein has not been reported in the English literature. We report a case of EMC arising in the femoral vein of a 70-year-old man who presented with right leg edema and was diagnosed with a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by computed tomography (CT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the right proximal thigh that was diagnosed as myxomatous sarcoma by aspiration cytology, and anticoagulant therapy was initiated. The mass was surgically resected en bloc, including the femoral vein and surrounding soft tissue, and the femoral artery was preserved. The femoral vein was not reconstructed. The histologic diagnosis was an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. The patient received postoperative local radiation treatment, with a total dose of 60 Gy, and is currently doing well with no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis at 8 months after surgery. In summary, this case report shows that EMC can arise in the femoral vein, and that reconstruction of the femoral vein is not always necessary during surgery for soft tissue tumors.

  13. Dedolomitization in tectonic veins and stylolites: evidence for rapid fluid migration during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Jurassic through Tertiary thrust-belt deformation of the Mississippian Madison Group has introduced complex fracturing, stylolitization, and carbonate vein mineralization. Host rocks are dominantly dolostone and dolomitic limestone. Tectonic veins are mineralized first by dolomite and then by multiple calcite phases. Dolomite and some generations of calcite which line veins are highly luminescent, while host-rock dolomite have been corroded and replaced by subsequent generations of calcite mineralization. These textural relationships suggest that fluids associated with thrust-belt deformation were in part extraformational and had not equilibrated with host-rock dolomite. Because thrust-belt deformation moved from west to east with time, the isotopic composition (/sup 18/O, /sup 13/O) of vein and stylolite mineralization can be used to evaluate fluid migration during deformation. In three sections located along an east-west transect in the southern overthrust belt, calcite vein mineralization displays a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinctly depleted relative to the host-rock composition. These vein-lining exhibit systematic compositional changes with both time of deformation and with geographic position relative to major thrust faults. These isotopic changes in vein mineralization and pressure-solution products, together with the textural evidence for calcitization of host-rock and vein dolomite, suggest that these rocks were open to allochthonous fluid migration during deformation.

  14. [Endovascular treatment of persistent dysuria and chronic pelvic pain in women with pelvic varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, A I; Shelkovnikova, N V

    2012-01-01

    The results of the examination and treatment of 16 patients aged from 26 to 46 years with persistent urinary disorders and chronic pelvic pain due to severe pelvic varicose veins are presented. Using ultrasound with color Doppler mapping and venography of renal and ovarian vein for evaluation of condition of the venous system of the pelvis, the significant dilation of the internal iliac, ovarian and uterine veins with a pronounced decrease in blood flow in veins up to the stasis of blood, accompanied by flow turbulence and powerful backflow of renal blood through ovarian veins were found in all patients. According to uroflowmetry, there was a decrease in detrusor tone and a violation of evacuation capacity of the bladder. Evaluation of microcirculation using LDF allowed to diagnose congestive hemodynamic type of microcirculation. Scleroembolization for varicose ovarian vein with Gianturco coil and ethoxysclerol was performed in all patients. Positive therapeutic effect in the form of eliminating varicose pelvic veins, pain relieve, disappearance of persistent dysuria, and the remission of chronic cystitis was achieved in 86% of women. This intervention provided the normal outflow of blood from the pelvic veins, contributed to the normalization of uroflowmetry data and restoration of normal microcirculation in the urinary bladder.

  15. Calcification of Cryopreserved Arterial Graft Causing Delayed Obstruction of Portal Vein Flow After Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Cimsit, Bayindir; Yankol, Yucel; Mecit, Nesimi; Kanmaz, Turan; Acarli, Koray; Kalayoglu, Munci

    2015-10-01

    In patients with biliary atresia, portal vein problems may cause challenges for liver transplant. Interposition grafts have been used for vascular anastomoses in transplant recipients with varied success. A cryopreserved iliac artery graft was used for the reconstruction of the portal vein in a 29-month-old infant with biliary atresia. At 17 months after transplant, she developed upper gastrointestinal bleeding that was caused by portal vein occlusion because of vascular calcifications in the graft. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed esophageal varices with fresh bleeding, and the varices were band ligated. At 3 months after the bleeding episode, the patient was asymptomatic and biochemical tests were normal. In summary, liver transplant with cryopreserved iliac artery graft may be complicated by calcifications and portal vein occlusion, and caution is advised in using this graft material for portal vein anastomoses.

  16. Atresia of right pulmonary veins and anomalous left pulmonary venous drainage into portal circulation

    PubMed Central

    Šamánek, M.; Tůma, S.; Benešová, D.; Povýšilová, V.; Pražský, F.; Čápová, E.

    1974-01-01

    Šamánek, M., Tůma, S., Benešová, D., Povýšilová, V., Pražský, F., and Čápová, E. (1974).Thorax, 29, 446-450. Atresia of right pulmonary veins and anomalous left pulmonary venous drainage into portal circulation. An anomaly of pulmonary venous drainage in a male newborn infant is described whereby the left pulmonary veins entered the portal vein and the right pulmonary veins were atretic. A correct diagnosis was made by detecting high-oxygen saturation in the hepatic veins, right-to-left shunt at atrial level, and increased pulmonary artery wedge pressure in comparison with the left atrial pressure, and was confirmed by angiography. Images PMID:4850684

  17. Display of spatially-registered Doppler spectral waveforms and three-dimensional vein graft geometry.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Daniel F; Primozich, Jean F; Henderson, Sara M; Karr, Leni N; Bergelin, Robert O; Beach, Kirk W; Zierler, R Eugene

    2005-10-01

    A method has been developed to display Doppler spectral waveforms in lower extremity vein grafts in conjunction with 3-D vessel geometry. Doppler spectral waveforms and cross-sectional images of the vein graft are collected with a custom 3-D ultrasound imaging system. Computer processing generates a display of the Doppler sample volumes registered in 3-D space with a surface reconstruction of the vein graft lumen. An interactive computer interface displays spectral waveforms at user-selected sites in the graft. Summary displays combining spectral waveforms, maximum velocity and cross-sectional area provide a pictorial record of the state of the vein graft along its full length. The method is demonstrated for two patient studies, each at two time points after graft revisions. The graphic display of both hemodynamics and geometry allows rapid assessment of vein graft changes over time.

  18. [Cockett's syndrome, May-Thurner syndrome, or iliac vein compression syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gil Martín, A R; Carreras Aja, M; Arrieta Ardieta, I; Labayen Azparren, I

    2014-01-01

    Iliac vein compression syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome or Cockett's syndrome) is a rare clinical entity in which the left common iliac vein is compressed when it passes between the right common iliac artery and the spine. The sustained compression and trauma caused by the pulsatile force of the artery on the vein damage the intima and lead to the formation of membranes or bands in the vascular lumen that hinder or obstruct the flow of blood in the vein, favoring thrombus formation. The current treatment strategy of choice is endovascular vein patch angioplasty and stenting with the aim of improving the caliber of the lumen and enabling normal venous drainage. We present two cases of May-Thurner syndrome and review the clinical and CT findings.

  19. Finger-vein and fingerprint recognition based on a feature-level fusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Hong, Bofeng

    2013-07-01

    Multimodal biometrics based on the finger identification is a hot topic in recent years. In this paper, a novel fingerprint-vein based biometric method is proposed to improve the reliability and accuracy of the finger recognition system. First, the second order steerable filters are used here to enhance and extract the minutiae features of the fingerprint (FP) and finger-vein (FV). Second, the texture features of fingerprint and finger-vein are extracted by a bank of Gabor filter. Third, a new triangle-region fusion method is proposed to integrate all the fingerprint and finger-vein features in feature-level. Thus, the fusion features contain both the finger texture-information and the minutiae triangular geometry structure. Finally, experimental results performed on the self-constructed finger-vein and fingerprint databases are shown that the proposed method is reliable and precise in personal identification.

  20. Hypoplasia of the left portal vein territory of the human liver: a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Hyun; Murakami, Gen; Lee, Moo Sam; Song, Chang Ho; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Jin, Zhe-Wu; Cho, Baik-Hwan

    2003-01-01

    Although reports of hypoplasia or absence of the liver of left lobe are not few, descriptions of the intrahepatic vessels are rare but valuable for discussion of the pathogenesis. The present report demonstrates a case of the left surgical lobe hypoplasia that is characterized by 1) the scar-like lobe with few parenchymal tissue and dilated bile ducts, 2) no Spiegel's lobe with the portal vein stuck to the inferior vena cava, 3) unusual configurations of the right hepatic vein and the 8th segmental portal vein branch, 4) the hepatic groove on S8, and 5) the trifurcation pattern of the portal vein primary division. According to the macroscopic and histological observations, we hypothesized that the secondary abnormal peritoneal fusion occurred in utero and/or during the postnatal growth, and that it involved the left portal vein and other adjacent structures, resulting in severe atrophy of the left surgical lobe. PMID:14676439

  1. Successful Endovascular Treatment of Iliac Vein Compression (May-Thurner) Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Tercan, Fahri; Sener, Mesut

    2006-06-15

    A 10-year-old boy presented to our clinic with left lower extremity swelling present for 1 year with deterioration of symptoms during the prior month. Laboratory investigation for deep vein thrombosis was negative. Venography and computed tomography scan of the pelvis showed compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery. A diagnosis of iliac vein compression syndrome was made. After venography, endovascular treatment was planned. The stenosis did not respond to balloon dilatation and a 12 mm Wallstent was placed with successful outcome. The patient's symptoms improved but did not resolve completely, probably due to a chronically occluded left superficial femoral vein that did not respond to endovascular recanalization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of successful endovascular treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome with stent placement in a pediatric patient.

  2. Portal vein delivery of viral vectors for gene therapy for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Alexandra; Schlachterman, Alexander; Cooper, Mario; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Raymer, Robin A; Bellinger, Dwight A; Herzog, Roland W; Nichols, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a very complex organ with a large variety of functions, making it an attractive organ for gene replacement therapy. Many genetic disorders can be corrected by delivering gene products directly into the liver using viral vectors. In this chapter, we will describe gene delivery via portal vein administration in mice and dogs to correct the blood coagulation disorder hemophilia B. Although there are multiple delivery routes for both viral and non-viral vectors in animals, portal vein administration delivers vectors directly and efficiently into the liver. Complete correction of murine hemophilia B and multi-year near-correction of canine hemophilia B have been achieved following portal vein delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing factor IX from hepatocyte-specific promoters. Peripheral vein injection can lead to increased vector dissemination to off-target organ such as the lung and spleen. Below, we will describe portal vein injection delivery route via laparotomy.

  3. Gigantism of the lower limb in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: anatomy of the lateral marginal vein.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, N R; Mohammad, K F; Ibrahim, S

    2009-06-01

    The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a combination of venous and capillary malformations associated with soft tissue and/or bony limb hypertrophy, with or without lymphatic malformations. Although persistent foetal veins are rare, the persistence of the lateral marginal vein is a common association in this syndrome. It results in venous hypertension, which gives rise to venous varicosities, which are commonly seen in this syndrome. This is a case report of a 28-year-old man with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, with persistence of the lateral marginal vein, affecting his right lower limb. He was treated with an above-knee amputation. The amputated limb was dissected to demonstrate the anatomy of the lateral marginal vein. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the gross anatomy of the lateral marginal vein has not been previously reported.

  4. Autologous great saphenous vein tailored graft to replace an infected prosthetic graft in the groin.

    PubMed

    Barbon, Bruno; Militello, Carmelo; De Rossi, Aldo; Martella, Bruno; Ballotta, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a technique using the autologous great saphenous vein to replace an infected prosthetic limb graft at the groin. The whole great saphenous vein is incised longitudinally and divided into 2 approximately equal segments, which are sewn side to side. The longitudinal edges of the resulting great saphenous vein are then joined and anastomosed side to side to form a conduit, whose caliber is twice the original vein's diameter. The authors have used this technique to replace 1 limb of a prosthetic aortofemoral bypass infected at the groin. After 5 years, the new venous conduit is patent, with no recurrent infection, dilation, or aneurysmal degeneration. If validated by further experiences, this might be an attractive alternative to restoring flow through clean tissue planes using extra-anatomic bypass or the femoral vein in the infected fields.

  5. Strength and deformation behaviors of veined marble specimens after vacuum heat treatment under conventional triaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Haijian; Jing, Hongwen; Yin, Qian; Yu, Liyuan; Wang, Yingchao; Wu, Xingjie

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical behaviors of rocks affected by high temperature and stress are generally believed to be significant for the stability of certain projects involving rocks, such as nuclear waste storage and geothermal resource exploitation. In this paper, veined marble specimens were treated to high temperature treatment and then used in conventional triaxial compression tests to investigate the effect of temperature, confining pressure, and vein angle on strength and deformation behaviors. The results show that the strength and deformation parameters of the veined marble specimens changed with the temperature, presenting a critical temperature of 600°C. The triaxial compression strength of a horizontal vein (β = 90°) is obviously larger than that of a vertical vein (β = 0°). The triaxial compression strength, elasticity modulus, and secant modulus have an approximately linear relation to the confining pressure. Finally, Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria were respectively used to analyze the effect of confining pressure on triaxial compression strength.

  6. One orifice vein reconstruction in left liver plus caudate lobe grafts.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Tamura, Sumihito; Kaneko, Junichi; Motomura, Noboru; Takamoto, Shinichi; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2007-01-27

    For maximum use of left liver plus caudate lobe grafts, the short hepatic vein draining the caudate lobe should be reconstructed. We devised a new venoplasty technique. On the graft side, a wide venous orifice with a long cuff was formed by gathering the left, middle, and short hepatic veins using a conduit vein graft and patch vein grafts. On the recipient side, three hepatic veins were connected to make a wide orifice. The liver graft was then connected to the recipient vena cava with a wide outflow tract and a venous reservoir. This new technique was adopted in 12 patients and the short-term results of this technique were satisfactory. The present procedure should simplify venous reconstruction in the recipient and might be useful to prevent hepatic venous stenosis resulting from graft regeneration.

  7. Blood infection with Enterobacter aerogenes--an unusual cause of portal vein gas.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Afshan

    2011-01-01

    Portal vein gas was once thought of as an invariably fatal condition. Now, with the availability of better equipment and expertise, the condition is more frequently diagnosed. A case of fever with rigors is presented and on ultrasound and CT examination was found to have portal venous gas which resolved with adequate antibiotic treatment. Blood culture revealed growth of gram negative bacillus; Enterobacter aerogenes. Patient was investigated further for portal vein gas, and although no other cause for the development of portal vein gas was found, she was treated with antibiotics and showed an immediate response. The aim of this case report is to highlight the benign causes of portal vein gas as well as to discuss the causes which warrant immediate surgery. Portal vein gas may herald a more ominous condition, which if intercepted in its course may result in complete cure.

  8. Ovarian Vein Thrombosis Presenting as Acute Abdomen in Puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Luca; Aldinucci, Martina; Ghizzoni, Viola; Fambrini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombosis (POVT) is a rare, but serious condition that causes slow quadrant pain in the postpartum period. POVT must be considered in the differential diagnosis of postpartum acute abdomen. We hereby report a case on a 36-year-old Italian woman who developed an acute abdomen a week after spontaneous vaginal delivery. She had persistent fever and constipation. Diagnosis of POVT was made with an abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) and treatment with heparin and broad-spectrum antibiotics were started. After 72 hours, the patient was switched from low molecular weight heparin to oral anticoagulant treatment. After 5 months a complete recanalization was demonstrated by abdomen CT and the treatment was stopped 6 months after diagnosis. POVT is a diagnosis of exclusion in the puerperium. This case illustrated that POVT may also occur in low risk patient. PMID:27042537

  9. Treatment of Isolated Below the Knee Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Palareti, Gualtiero; Sartori, Michelangelo

    2016-07-01

    The natural history of isolated distal deep-vein thrombosis (IDDVT) is still uncertain, as well as the real clinical risks associated with the disease and the need for its diagnosis and treatment. While more and more IDDVTs are diagnosed in everyday clinical practice, their appropriate therapeutic management is, unfortunately, far from straightforward, and different recommendations on how patients with diagnosed IDDVT should be treated are present between expert professionals and even among international guidelines. The present article aims at briefly reviewing the issue of IDDVT therapy in general, particularly focusing on the different approaches to the treatment of the disease that have been suggested by recent guidelines, those that are currently adopted in clinical practice, and necessary future directions.

  10. [New approaches in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Nieto Rodríguez, José Antonio

    2012-10-01

    In the last few years, several phase III clinical trials of new drug treatments for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) have been carried out or are about to finish. These drugs have a predictable and reliable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response and do not require monitoring and are consequently an attractive alternative for the treatment of a high proportion of patients with DVT. Dabigatran, edoxaban and idrabiotaparinux have been developed as an alternative to warfarin, and apixaban and rivaroxaban as one-drug only treatment for this disease, with a 1- or 3-week intensified phase of initial treatment, respectively. So far, the reported results show non-inferior efficacy and safety to warfarin or to conventional treatment. Therefore, the new anticoagulants will be particularly useful in patients with unstable INRs, warfarin incompatible pharmacologic interactions, and in those without access to regular coagulation monitoring.

  11. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) impact on deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tobias A; Brill, Alexander; Wagner, Denisa D

    2012-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem that requires improved prophylaxis and treatment. Inflammatory conditions such as infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for DVT. We and others have recently shown that extracellular DNA fibers produced in inflammation and known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to experimental DVT. NETs stimulate thrombus formation and coagulation and are abundant in thrombi in animal models of DVT. It appears that, in addition to fibrin and von Willebrand factor, NETs represent a third thrombus scaffold. Here, we review how NETs stimulate thrombosis and discuss known and potential interactions of NETs with endothelium, platelets, red blood cells, and coagulation factors and how NETs could influence thrombolysis. We propose that drugs that inhibit NET formation or facilitate NET degradation may prevent or treat DVT.

  12. Advanced imaging in acute and chronic deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karande, Gita Yashwantrao; Sanchez, Yadiel; Baliyan, Vinit; Mishra, Vishala; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) affecting the extremities is a common clinical problem. Prompt imaging aids in rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment. While ultrasound (US) remains the workhorse of detection of extremity venous thrombosis, CT and MRI are commonly used as the problem-solving tools either to visualize the thrombosis in central veins like superior or inferior vena cava (IVC) or to test for the presence of complications like pulmonary embolism (PE). The cross-sectional modalities also offer improved visualization of venous collaterals. The purpose of this article is to review the established modalities used for characterization and diagnosis of DVT, and further explore promising innovations and recent advances in this field. PMID:28123971

  13. Deep vein thrombosis in the disabled pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Radecki, R T; Gaebler-Spira, D

    1994-03-01

    The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the disabled pediatric population has rarely been studied. The purpose of our retrospective study was to define the incidence in patients younger than 18 years of age who were in a rehabilitation center. We reviewed the charts of 532 children admitted to the center from 1983 through 1987, and found a 2.2% overall incidence of DVT. The largest group of children under 18 of age with documented or suspected DVT was the group with spinal cord injuries (SCI). There were 87 SCI children, 67 of whom were between the ages of 15 and 18. Of the 67, 7 (10%) had DVT: 1 of the 20 SCI children under age 15 had DVT. There were single cases of DVT documented in children with: meningoencephalitis, arteriovenous malformation, closed head injuries, and Guillian-Barré syndrome. We studied the risk involved in treating DVT with heparin and formulated recommendations based on our findings.

  14. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortoiliac vein fistula.

    PubMed

    Gyoten, Takayuki; Doi, Toshio; Yamashita, Akio; Fukahara, Kazuaki; Kotoh, Keiju; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted with severe abdominal pain and back pain. Computed tomography showed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (8.4 × 8.3 cm) and a large retroperitoneal hematoma. Immediately afterwards, the patient suffered circulatory collapse and was rushed to the operating theater. A fistula communicating with the left iliac vein was found. It was repaired with a Dacron patch while balloon-tipped catheters controlled the bleeding. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced with a bifurcated graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. There have been few reports of successful repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with aortoiliac arteriovenous fistula.

  15. A Case of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Intracranial Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Gathwala, Geeta; Dalal, Poonam; Gehlawat, Virender; Singh, Jasbir; Arya, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Severe pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) complicated by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in adults has been reported previously in the medical literature; however, childhood extrapulmonary TB complicated by DVT is rare. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented to the Department of Pediatrics at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences in Rohtak, India, in 2012 with abdominal TB complicated by DVT and intracranial sinus thrombosis. She was treated with a course of four antitubercular drugs and short-term anticoagulation therapy with a positive outcome over the next six months. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous reports have yet suggested a possible association between childhood TB and intracranial sinus thrombosis. PMID:28003904

  16. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Associated with Hormonal Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Nobuatsu

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was admitted with a 7-day history of lower abdominal pain and nausea. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the lower abdomen without signs of peritonitis. There were no specific findings in the laboratory evaluation. She had a history of dysmenorrhea for 15 years and was taking a combined hormonal contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone for 19 months. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT). Systemic anticoagulant infusion was immediately administered and the symptoms disappeared within 2 days. The thrombus disappeared after 3 months. This case report suggests that early diagnosis of SMVT and immediate systemic anticoagulant therapy may reduce the rate of intestinal infarction. PMID:27462195

  17. An ectopic hamartomatous thymoma compressing left jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Zhao, L; Chai, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. It is usually found at the root of the neck (frequently on the left) and does not usually impact adjacent tissues in clinically significant ways. While EHT manifests distinct pathological features, the lesion is either asymptomatic or may show nonspecific clinical features. We report one case of EHT which was assumed to be of low malignant potential since it severely compressed the inlet of left internal jugular vein as seen by computed tomography scan. To the best of our knowledge, this clinical finding of EHT is very rare. After the diagnosis and treatment of this patient, we believe that EHT or suspected EHT should be treated less invasively.

  18. How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie J.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Stoffell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We determined the composition of ~30-m.y.-old solutions extracted from fluid inclusions in one of the world's largest and richest silver ore deposits at Fresnillo, Mexico. Silver concentrations average 14 ppm and have a maximum of 27 ppm. The highest silver, lead and zinc concentrations correlate with salinity, consistent with transport by chloro-complexes and confirming the importance of brines in ore formation. The temporal distribution of these fluids within the veins suggests mineralization occurred episodically when they were injected into a fracture system dominated by low salinity, metal-poor fluids. Mass balance shows that a modest volume of brine, most likely of magmatic origin, is sufficient to supply the metal found in large Mexican silver deposits. The results suggest that ancient epithermal ore-forming events may involve fluid packets not captured in modern geothermal sampling and that giant ore deposits can form rapidly from small volumes of metal-rich fluid. PMID:23792776

  19. Spontaneous thrombosis of a vein of galen malformation

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Chandan B.; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Sampath, Somanna

    2016-01-01

    Vein of Galen malformation (VOGM) is a rare congenital vascular anomaly, comprising about 1% of all intracranial vascular anomalies, predominantly affecting the children less than 1 year of age. A 6-month-old infant presented with complaints of increasing head size of 3 months duration and multiple episodes of vomiting associated with refusal to feed since 7 days. He was a known case of VOGM who had initially refused treatment. Investigations revealed a spontaneously thrombosed VOGM with obstructive hydrocephalous. Child improved uneventfully with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Spontaneous thrombosis of a VOGM is a rare occurrence and carries a better prognosis. The relevant literature is discussed with emphasis on etiopathogenesis, mechanism, and management of spontaneous thrombosis of the malformation. PMID:26889287

  20. Deep Vein Thrombosis as Initial Manifestation of Whipple Disease

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Mônica Souza de Miranda; da Paz, Alexandre Rolim; Gaertner, Ana Beatriz Person; Melo, Cibelle Ingrid Stephen; Filgueiras, Priscyanne Lins; Jerome, Rafaella Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wipple disease (WD) is a rare chronic disease caused by the bacillus Tropheryma whipplei. Constitutive, rheumatologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, cerebral, lymphatic, cutaneous, and ophthalmological signs are possible systemic symptoms. However, thrombotic manifestations are rarely described as “stroke-like syndrome” or arterial thrombosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and pathological examination. Laboratory findings may include anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis. Objective We report a case of venous thrombosis as initial manifestation of WD. Case Report We describe the case of a 53-year-old male with iliofemoral vein thrombosis followed by intermittent diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal distension, and bloating. A mild malnutrition state with a weight loss of 13 kg, pallor (+/4 +), presence of lower-limb edema (+/4 +), and hypertympanic distended abdomen occurred. Laboratory tests on admission revealed anemia, positive inflammatory activity tests, and normal coagulation. Endoscopic examination showed villous edema with white dotted infiltrates in the second duodenal portion and intestinal lymphangiectasia in the terminal ileum. Pathological examination revealed numerous macrophages with positive periodic acid-Schiff inclusions. Venous Doppler ultrasound showed extensive deep thrombosis on the left lower limb and recanalization of the femoral vein in the right lower limb. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and enoxaparin sodium, which led to an improvement of gastrointestinal and thrombosis symptoms. Comments Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, vasculitis, and blood stasis are present in T. whipplei infection, which are associated with the activation of inflammatory mechanisms as well as procoagulant and thromboembolic events. WD should be part of the differential diagnosis of diseases that cause venous thrombosis of unknown origin. PMID:27920655