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Sample records for proven chronic inflammatory

  1. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mathey, Emily K; Pollard, John D

    2013-10-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the commonest treatable neuropathy in the western world. Untreated it may result in severe disability but if diagnosed and treated early there is effective treatment for the majority of patients. Typical CIDP is readily recognised but the diagnosis of other subgroups can be more challenging. The pathology of polyradiculoneuropathies such as CIDP characteristically affects the most proximal regions of the peripheral nervous system, nerve roots and major plexuses. It is important to test these regions with electrodiagnostic studies since routine neurophysiology may not encounter regions of pathology. Although accepted as an autoimmune disorder with an underlying immunopathology involving T cell and B cell responses, there is no agreement on major target antigens; however recent studies have highlighted a role for molecules in non compact myelin which play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of the nodal structures and hence in the function of ion channels central to saltatory conduction. Controlled trials have proven the efficacy of corticosteroid, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange in the short term and intravenous immunoglobulin also in the long term. Immunosuppressive agents are widely used but their efficacy has not been proven in controlled trials. Recent trials have shown the importance of attempting treatment withdrawal in patients apparently in remission to conserve treatments that are very expensive and in short supply, since a significant proportion of patients may enter long lasting remission following short term therapy. For the relatively small group of patients who do not respond to these first line therapies new agents including monoclonal antibodies may have a role.

  2. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. Most clinical neurologists will be involved in the management of patients with these disorders, and should be familiar with available therapies for CIDP. We review the distinctive clinical, laboratory, and electro-diagnostic features that aid in diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of clinical patterns that define treatment responsiveness and the most appropriate therapies in order to improve prognosis. PMID:23564314

  3. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gorson, Kenneth C; Katz, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune disorder of the peripheral nervous system. This article highlights our current understanding of the condition along with its phenotypic variants that are encountered in clinical practice. The diagnostic evaluation of CIDP includes laboratory studies to detect associated medical conditions and electrodiagnostic studies to assess for demyelination. Current treatment options include corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immune globulin, along with alternative therapies that may be used as corticosteroid-sparing agents or for treatment-refractory cases. Approximately 85% to 90% of patients eventually improve or stabilize with treatment, and the long-term prognosis of CIDP is favorable.

  4. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs. Incorporating bodily energy regulation into evolutionary medicine builds a framework to better understand pathophysiology of CIDs by considering that genes and networks used are positively selected if they serve acute, highly energy-consuming inflammation. It is predicted that genes that protect energy stores are positively selected (as immune memory). This could explain why energy-demanding inflammatory episodes like infectious diseases must be terminated within 3–8 weeks to be adaptive, and otherwise become maladaptive. Considering energy regulation as an evolved adaptive trait explains why many known sequelae of different CIDs must be uniform. These are, e.g. sickness behavior/fatigue/depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anorexia, malnutrition, muscle wasting—cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, alterations of steroid hormone axes, disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, hypertension, bone loss and hypercoagulability. Considering evolved energy trade-offs helps us to understand how an energy imbalance can lead to the disease sequelae of CIDs. In the future, clinicians must translate this knowledge into early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in CIDs. PMID:26817483

  5. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vanasse, Michel; Rossignol, Elsa; Hadad, Elie

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized clinically by a progressive symmetrical weakness evolving over a period of at least 2 months. There is increased CSF protein and conduction block, reduced nerve conduction velocities, increased distal latencies, and/or absent F wave or prolonged F wave latency in two or more nerves. Incidence is lower in children (10 times less) than in adults, and the condition presents in an acute or subacute manner with frequent relapses. It is not associated with other systemic diseases such as neoplasia, diabetes mellitus, or monoclonal gammopathies. It appears to be immune-related as a variety of humoral and cellular autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated. Treatment is based on results obtained in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in adults as such studies are lacking in the pediatric population. The evolution of CIDP is more favorable in children than in adults, with 80-100% response rates to standard treatments (steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and/or plasmapheresis) and excellent outcome with complete functional recovery in most patients. Cases refractory to standard therapies do exist in children, for which azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil alone or more often in association with other treatments have been used. However, safety and efficacy data are still insufficient to give specific recommendations regarding the optimal choice.

  6. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard A

    2017-10-01

    As a syndrome with typical and atypical cases, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has been a difficult disorder to diagnose and treat. The pathophysiologic basis for CIDP has not been established, contributing to the challenges in dealing with these patients. However, as one of only a handful of treatable peripheral neuropathies, there has been a tendency to diagnose CIDP to attempt a therapeutic intervention. We are also aware that there has also been overtreatment of some patients. This combination of overdiagnosis and prolonged treatment has been a concern. This chapter will review these challenges and discuss recent findings that will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. The factors leading to misdiagnosis of CIDP were explored in a cohort of patients referred to a neuromuscular center. On a more positive note, the identification of two disorders with antibodies directed at paranodal constituents has excited the field. Treatment options have increased and been clarified. Pulse corticosteroids have been compared with oral prednisone and with intravenous immunoglobulin. The clinical trial of subcutaneous immunoglobulin in CIDP has shown both efficacy and a very low side effect profile adding to our therapeutic options. The current review will identify recent developments that show both the challenges and the exciting growth in our ability to diagnose and treat CIDP.

  7. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  8. Unfulfilled inflammatory resolution leads to chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Musk, Philip

    2004-06-01

    Extract: Inflammatory conditions, particularly those that involve chronic inflammation, represent an area of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Regulated as they are by a diverse array of ligand-receptor interactions, inflammatory responses are amenable to small molecule pharmaceutical intervention and a wide variety of anti-histamines and anti-inflammatory treatments. Both steroidal and non-steroidal treatments have been developed to treat pro-inflammatory conditions. In their review, Gilroy et al. (2004) present the case for developing novel anti-inflammatory drugs not by finding more effective inhibitors of the inflammatory response, but by developing small molecule drugs that positively regulate the processes and mechanisms by which inflammatory responses are attenuated (i.e., the little known process of inflammatory resolution).

  9. An Autopsy Proven Child Onset Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyuho; Kim, Seong-Ik; Lee, Yujin; Won, Jae Kyung; Park, Sung-Hye

    2017-06-01

    Here we present an autopsy case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a 36-year-old man. He had a history of febrile seizures at the age of four and was severely demented at age 10 when he was admitted to a mental hospital. He had suffered repetitive self-harm, such as frequent banging of the head on the wall in his hospital record, but he had no clear history between the ages of four and ten. Autopsy revealed global cerebral atrophy, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, mammilary bodies and lateral geniculate bodies. This case showed typical pathological features of CTE. Phosphorylated tau (p-tau)-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neuropil threads (NT) we are widely distributed in the brain, especially in the depth of the cerebral sulci. NFT and NT were also found in the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and brainstem. Scanty β-amyloid deposits were found in the motor and sensory cortices, but α-synuclein was completely negative in the brain. This example showed that CTE can occur in young ages and that even children can experience CTE dementia.

  10. Challenges in pediatric chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Haliloğlu, Göknur; Yüksel, Deniz; Temoçin, Cağri Mesut; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2016-12-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, a treatable immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system is less common in childhood compared to adults. Despite different sets of diagnostic criteria, lack of a reliable biologic marker leads to challenges in diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. Our first aim was to review clinical presentation, course, response to treatment, and prognosis in our childhood patients. We also aimed to document diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls and challenges at the bedside. Our original cohort consisted of 23 pediatric patients who were referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy. Seven patients reaching to an alternative diagnosis were excluded. In the remaining patients, diagnostic, treatment and follow-up data were compared in typical patients who satisfied both clinical and electrodiagnostic criteria and atypical patients who failed to meet minimal research chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy electrodiagnostic requirements. Eight of 16 patients (50%) met the minimal chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy research diagnostic requirements. There was only a statistically significant difference (p = 0.010) in terms of European Neuromuscular Centre childhood chronic inflammatory diagnostic mandatory clinical criteria between the two groups. Misdiagnosis due to errors in electrophysiological interpretation (100%, n = 8), cerebrospinal fluid cytoalbuminologic dissociation (100%, n = 4 and/or subjective improvement on any immunotherapy modality (80 ± 19.27%)) was frequent. Pediatric CIDP is challenging in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls at the bedside. Diagnostic errors due to electrophysiological interpretation, cerebrospinal fluid cytoalbuminologic dissociation, and/or subjective improvement on immunotherapy should be considered.

  11. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies and their variants

    PubMed

    Vallat, J.-M.; Tabaraud, F.; Magy, L.; Macian, F.

    2002-12-01

    The Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDP) constitute a syndrome whose incidence is difficult to evaluate, and is probably underestimated. In the course of this presentation, we deliberately restricted discussion to issues raised in recent years concerning the extent of this syndrome. We discuss diagnostic criteria, especially electrophysiological ones. As the criteria proposed by the ad hoc committee of the American Academy of Neurology in 1991 have been questioned due to lack of sensitivity, new ones have been proposed recently. We briefly discuss the different types of chronic dysimmune demyelinating neuropathy: not only the CIDP, but also the Lewis and Sumner syndrome or multifocal inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and the multiple conduction block neuropathies. At last, we point out the consistent finding of axonal involvement in the course of a chronic demyelinating neuropathy; over time, it can become predominant, which may make diagnosis difficult by suggesting a chronic axonal neuropathy that may be assumed to be primary. Consideration of these points may help clinicians recognize more chronic dysimmune neuropathies, for which immunosuppressive therapy has been found to be effective.

  12. Chronic inflammatory gingival overgrowths: laser gingivectomy & gingivoplasty.

    PubMed

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-02-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LASERS are becoming more promising both in patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction. How to cite this article: Shankar BS, Ramadevi T, Neetha M S, Reddy P S K, Saritha G, Reddy J M. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):83-87.

  13. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-01-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LASERS are becoming more promising both in patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction. How to cite this article: Shankar BS, Ramadevi T, Neetha M S, Reddy P S K, Saritha G, Reddy J M. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):83-87. PMID:24155582

  14. [Treatment's initiation in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP)].

    PubMed

    Uzenot, D; Azulay, J-P; Pouget, J

    2007-09-01

    Treatment's initiation in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP) remains a difficult medical decision. Only plasma exchanges, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) and corticosteroids are proven effective treatments. Immunosuppressors are actually not first-line treatments in CIDP. Particular CIDP forms are associated with different response to treatments: pure motor CIDP should be treated by IVIg, and corticosteroids should only carefully be used in Lewis-Sumner syndrome. Otherwise, IVIg are first-line treatment in diabetic patients. Patients must be informed of side's effects and expected clinical effects. Early treatment was actually not proved to prevent axonal damages in CIDP patients, and waiting seems to be the best therapeutic option in poorly symptomatic patients. Recently, clinical guidelines were proposed to help clinician in this treatment choice, but there is no consensus about the best dose, duration or administration way to CIDP treatments. Further studies should be performed to clarify these points and to determine immunosuppressor agents place in treatment strategy.

  15. Pancreatic function in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Angelini, G; Cavallini, G; Bovo, P; Brocco, G; Castagnini, A; Lavarini, E; Merigo, F; Tallon, N; Scuro, L A

    1988-03-01

    This study was prospectively carried out to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of pancreatic impairment in the course of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). Twenty-seven patients affected by ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease were submitted to a secretin-cerulein test, oral glucose test (OGT) and to indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) for detection of autoantibodies against exocrine and endocrine tissue. A bicarbonate plus enzyme or only an enzyme insufficiency was found in 11/27 patients, whereas isolated lipase decrease was observed in 18 subjects. In the results of the OGT and the indirect IFL test there was no difference between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that pancreatic impairment is a far more frequent occurrence than generally recognized in clinical practice. The decrease of lipase secretion could worsen the consequences of malabsorption in Crohn's disease of the small intestine. Therefore we think that a pancreatic assessment is advisable, at least in Crohn's disease patients with steatorrhea.

  16. [Pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Aranami, Toshimasa; Yamamura, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is considered to be a demyelinating autoimmune disorder in the peripheral nervous system. Concerning cellular immune response, activity of IFN-gamma producing Th1 and IL-17 producing Th17 cells might be accelerated in patients with CIDP, while regulatory function of CD4+ CD25(high) Foxp3+ regulatory T cells might be diminished. Humoral immune responses against several myelin components such as myelin protein zero and gangliosides such as GM1 might be also induced in a part of patients with CIDP. Besides, growing body of evidences suggest that immune response against several molecules expressed in the noncompact myelin might be involved in the pathogenesis of CIDP.

  17. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with cholesterol deposits in a dog.

    PubMed

    Piñeyro, Pablo; Sponenberg, D Philip; Pancotto, Theresa; King, Rosalind H M; Jortner, Bernard S

    2015-11-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy occurred in an 11-year-old Labrador Retriever dog. Spinal cord compression resulted from massive radiculitis with prominent cholesterol granulomas. Cholesterol deposition and associated granuloma formation is unique in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, in both its human and canine expressions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kleyman, Inna; Brannagan, Thomas H

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is one of the acquired demyelinating neuropathies and is considered to be immune mediated. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical history, neurologic examination, electrophysiologic studies, CSF studies, and pathologic examination. Early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent irreversible axonal loss and optimize improvement in function. The first-line agents for treatment are intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), corticosteroids, and plasmapheresis, which have all been demonstrated to be effective in controlled studies. Studies have not shown a significant difference between these three treatments, and the initial choice of therapy is often based on availability, cost, ease of administration, and side effect profile. If patients do not respond to one of these agents, they may respond to one of the others and sometimes in combination. If the first-line agents are not effective, chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive agents may be considered. There are limited controlled studies of these modalities, and they are often used in conjunction with a first-line treatment. The majority of patients require long-term therapy to maintain a response and to prevent relapse.

  19. Therapeutic options for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a rare acquired immune-mediated progressive or relapsing disorder causing peripheral neuropathic disease of duration more than two months. Many individuals with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy fail to make a long-term recovery with current treatment regimes. The aim of this study was to prospectively review the literature to determine the effectiveness of therapies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Methods Articles published from January 1990 to December 2012 were searched for studies to treat adults with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Peer-reviewed full-text articles published in English were included. Results Nine placebo-controlled double-blinded randomised trials were reviewed to treat subjects with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy exhibiting various degrees of effectiveness. The most effect treatments were; three randomised controlled trials using intravenous immunoglobulin, a study comparing pulsed dexamethasone and short term prednisolone and rituximab all showed promising results and were well tolerated. Conclusion IVIg and corticosteroids remain first line treatments for CIDP. Therapies using monoclonal antibodies, such as Rituximab and Natalizumab offer the most promise for treatment of Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy however they also need further research, as does the use of stem cell therapy for treating Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Large randomised controlled trials and better patient selection are required to address responsiveness of CIDP patients to conventional treatments to elucidate mechanisms of action and future directions for therapeutic improvement. PMID:24507546

  20. Challenge-proven aspirin hypersensitivity in children with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Arik Yilmaz, Ebru; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Sekerel, Bulent E; Sackesen, Cansin; Soyer, Ozge U

    2015-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated cutaneous disease is defined as the exacerbation of wheals and/or angioedema in patients with a history of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). The objective of this study was to define 'aspirin-hypersensitive' children and adolescents in a clearly defined group of patients with CSU and to describe their clinical features. Eighty-one children with a history of CSU were enrolled over a 3-year period. The daily or almost daily (>4 days a week) presence of urticaria was defined as 'chronic persistent urticaria' (CPU), while the presence of urticaria for 2-4 days a week was defined as 'chronic recurrent urticaria' (CRU). Single-blind, placebo-controlled provocation tests (SBPCPTs) with aspirin were performed for children with CSU. Patients with CRU had a longer duration of cutaneous symptoms [1.6 (0.5-4) vs 0.6 (0.3-1.5) years], and stress was less frequently experienced as an eliciting factor in patients with CRU compared with the patients with CPU (P < 0.016, P = 0.024, respectively). SBPCPTs with aspirin revealed that 14 of 58 patients (24%) with CPU and one of 10 patients with CRU (10%) were aspirin hypersensitive. Aspirin hypersensitivity rate was 26.5% in patients <12 years of age. All of the 15 aspirin-hypersensitive patients (aged between 6.6 and 17.4 years), except for three, experienced an unequivocal angioedema of the lips as a positive reaction in SBPCPT. Nearly a quarter of children and adolescents with CSU were hypersensitive to aspirin. For children with chronic urticaria, determination of NSAID hypersensitivity in a well-controlled clinical setting will help to avoid severe drug hypersensitivity reactions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  2. Corneal sensitivity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Surbhi; Myneni, Ajay A; Mu, Lina; Myers, Bennett H; Patel, Sangita P

    2014-07-01

    Neurotrophic keratitis may result from a variety of ocular or systemic diseases. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune neuropathy that affects any nerve plexus but with no known association with corneal disease. We observed 2 patients with CIDP and visually compromising neurotrophic corneal ulcers. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of neurotrophic corneas in patients with CIDP to identify a subpopulation of asymptomatic patients who are at risk for vision loss. This is an observational case series of 2 patients with CIDP with visually compromising neurotrophic corneal ulcers and a prospective clinical study comparing corneal sensitivity in 9 patients with CIDP versus 9 age- and sex-matched controls. Corneal sensitivity was tested with an esthesiometer. Statistical analyses were performed to determine patterns or significances in relation to the subject's age, gender, and duration and severity of the disease. The overall median corneal sensitivity was 5.7 for patients with CIDP and 6.0 for controls (P = 0.09). The mean corneal sensitivity was 5.6 ± 0.4 in patients with CIDP compared with 5.8 ± 0.3 in controls. No specific pattern was found with age, gender, or duration and severity of the disease among patients with CIDP. Although the case series demonstrated decreased corneal sensitivity in both patients with CIDP, the prospective study detected reduced corneal sensitivity in patients with CIDP when compared with controls, but did not reach statistical significance. Ophthalmic examinations with measurement of corneal sensitivity should be considered in the management of patients with CIDP.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01379833.

  3. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van Schaik, I N; Winer, J B; De Haan, R; Vermeulen, M

    2002-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is an immune mediated disorder characterised by progressive or relapsing symmetrical motor or sensory symptoms and signs in more than one limb, developing over at least two months. It may cause prolonged periods of disability and even death. Several uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. We used the Search Strategy of the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Review Group to search the Disease Group register and other databases for randomised controlled trials from 1985 onwards. Randomised controlled studies examining the effects of any dose of intravenous immunoglobulin versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in patients with definite or probable chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Outcome measures had to include one of the following: a disability score, the Medical Research Council sum score, electrophysiological data or walking distance. Studies which reported the frequency of adverse effects were used to assess the safety of treatment. Two reviewers independently reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, scored their quality and extracted data independently. For dichotomous data, we calculated relative risks, and for continuous data, effect sizes (for definition see statistical analysis section) and weighted pooled effect sizes. Statistical uncertainty was expressed in 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis excluding studies with quality scores below A 0.50 and below B 0.75 was planned but not performed as all studies had quality scores above 0.75. Six randomised controlled trials were considered eligible including 170 patients. Four studies on 113 patients compared intravenous immunoglobulin against

  4. Chronic Inflammatory Disease, Lifestyle and Treatment Response

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-30

    Autoimmune Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Crohn Disease (CD); Colitis, Ulcerative (UC); Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA); Spondylarthropathies; Arthritis, Psoriatic (PsA); Psoriasis; Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS); Uveitis

  5. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N

    2009-01-21

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the efficacy and safety of IVIg in CIDP. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI from January 1985 to May 2008. Randomised controlled studies testing any dose of IVIg versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in definite or probable CIDP. Two authors reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, scored their quality and extracted data independently. We contacted authors for additional information. Seven randomised controlled trials were considered eligible including 287 participants. These trials were homogeneous and overall quality was high. Five studies on 235 participants compared IVIg against placebo. One trial with 20 participants compared IVIg with plasma exchange and one trial compared IVIg with prednisolone in 32 participants. A significantly higher proportion of participants improved in disability within one month after IVIg treatment as compared with placebo (relative risk 2.40, 95% confidence interval 1.72 to 3.36). Whether all these improvements are equally clinically relevant cannot be deduced from this analysis because each trial used different disability scales and definitions of significant improvement. In three trials including 84 participants the disability could be transformed to the modified Rankin score, on which significantly more patients improved one point after IVIg treatment compared to placebo (relative risk 2.40, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 5.83). Only one study included in this review had a long-term follow-up. The results of this study suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin improves disability more than placebo over 24 and 48 weeks. The

  6. Enhanced Gamma Oscillatory Activity in Rats with Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Xing, Guo-Gang; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, You

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that oscillatory gamma activity participates in brief acute pain and tonic ongoing pain. It is of great interest to determine whether the gamma activity is involved in chronic pain since chronic pain is a more severe pathological condition characterized by pain persistency. To investigate the oscillatory gamma activity in chronic pain, in the present study, we recorded spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals during chronic pain development in rats with chronic inflammatory pain induced by monoarthritis. Power spectrum analysis of ECoG data showed that gamma power increased significantly at the late stage of chronic inflammatory pain. The increased gamma activity occurred mainly at electrodes over primary somatosensory cortices. In rats with chronic pain, the gamma power was positively correlated with the hyperalgesia measured by laser energy that elicited hindpaw withdrawal response. Furthermore, an increased coupling between the amplitude of gamma power and the phase of theta oscillations was observed in chronic inflammatory pain condition. These results indicate an enhanced spontaneous gamma activity in chronic pain and suggest a potential biomarker for the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27847461

  7. Arresting the Inflammatory Drive of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Bachireddy, Pavan; Wu, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The clinical success of agents targeting the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may also derive from disrupting the CLL microenvironment. Investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of these agents illuminates the unique immunobiology of CLL and highlights potential targets for dismantling the chronic inflammatory drive. PMID:26847060

  8. Motor variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Durriyah D; Darras, Basil T; Yamout, Bassem I; Rebeiz, Jean G; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2008-06-01

    Only 2 cases of pure motor chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy in the pediatric age group have been reported in the literature. We report on a motor variant of chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy with anti-ganglioside antibodies, diagnosed in a 5-year-old girl who presented with progressive motor weakness over a period of 12 months with no sensory involvement. She initially responded partially to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (1 gm/kg/month for 6 months), and then demonstrated sustained but incomplete improvement on chronic prednisone therapy (1-2 mg/kg/day), on which she has continued since 1 year and 4 months after her initial presentation 3 years ago.

  9. New anti-inflammatory targets for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with chronic inflammation of the peripheral airways and lung parenchyma, which leads to progressive obstruction of the airways. Current management with long-acting bronchodilators does not reduce disease progression, and there are no treatments that effectively suppress chronic inflammation in COPD. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes that are involved in the pathophysiology of COPD has identified several new therapeutic targets. This Review discusses some of the most promising of these targets, including new antioxidants, kinase inhibitors and drugs that target cellular senescence, microbial colonization, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory gene expression and corticosteroid resistance.

  10. Acute clinical onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Molín, Jéssica; Márquez, Mercedes; Raurell, Xavier; Matiasek, Kaspar; Ferrer, Isidre; Pumarola, Martí

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of acute-onset ambulatory paraparesis with electrophysiological abnormalities compatible with axonal and demyelinating lesions in a Rottweiler dog. Although the clinical findings were compatible with acute canine idiopathic polyneuropathy, postmortem investigations revealed a chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy affecting the nerve roots. Due to the combination of acute clinical presentation and chronic pathologic features, this case is consistent with the acute-onset form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP).

  11. Inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic liver diseases and the lung.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Bartolome, Sonja D; Huchon, Gérard; Krowka, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    This review is devoted to the distinct associations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and chronic liver disorders with chronic airway diseases, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma, and other chronic respiratory disorders in the adult population. While there is strong evidence for the association of chronic airway diseases with IBD, the data are much weaker for the interplay between lung and liver multimorbidities. The association of IBD, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, with pulmonary disorders is underlined by their heterogeneous respiratory manifestations and impact on chronic airway diseases. The potential relationship between the two most prevalent liver-induced pulmonary vascular entities, i.e. portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome, and also between liver disease and other chronic respiratory diseases is also approached. Abnormal lung function tests in liver diseases are described and the role of increased serum bilirubin levels on chronic respiratory problems are considered. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  12. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N

    2013-12-30

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. This review was first published in 2002 and has since been updated, most recently in 2013. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the efficacy and safety of IVIg in CIDP. On 4 December 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, issue 11 in the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE to December 2012 and ISI from January 1985 to May 2008. We searched for ongoing trials through two metaRegistries (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal and Current Controlled Trials). We selected RCTs testing any dose of IVIg versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in definite or probable CIDP. Two authors reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant RCTs, scored their quality and extracted data independently. We contacted authors for additional information. We considered eight RCTs, including 332 participants, to be eligible for inclusion in the review. These trials were homogeneous and the overall risk of bias low. Five studies, in a total of 235 participants compared IVIg against placebo. One trial with 20 participants compared IVIg with plasma exchange, one trial compared IVIg with prednisolone in 32 participants, and one trial, newly included at this update, compared IVIg with intravenous methylprednisolone in 46 participants.A significantly higher proportion of participants improved in disability within one month after IVIg treatment as compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72 to 3.36; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome 3.03 (95% CI 2.33 to 4.55), high quality evidence). Whether all these improvements

  13. [Persistence of chronic inflammatory responses, role in the development of chronic pancreatitis, obesity and pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Khristich, T N

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the review--to analyze the basic data of the role of chronic low-intensity inflammatory response as general biological process in the development and progression of chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and pancreatic cancer. Highlighted evidence from epidemiological studies showing that chronic pancreatitis and obesity are independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer, regardless of diabetes. Studied role of adipokines as Cytokines regulating of immune inflammatory response. Draws attention to the staging of pancreatic cancer in obesity.

  14. Proteomics and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; André, Muriel

    2004-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are relatively frequent in developed countries. Physiopathological events involved in the etiology of IBDs include activation of immune, mesenchymal and epithelial cells. This review gives an overview of the currently applied proteomics technologies. It describes metabolic changes and goes into the approaches using this methodology to understand the molecular mechanisms implicated in the development of the disease.

  15. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Meier, R

    1996-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is still unknown. Several potential mechanisms are discussed. The etiological and therapeutic importance of nutrition is controversial. Though changes in dietary habits and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease during the last century were in parallel, no specific nutritional factor has been isolated. No dietary prophylaxis of inflammatory bowel disease is yet known; all dietary therapies in inflammatory bowel disease aim to improve nutritional support and to diminish inflammation by bowel rest. Children and adolescents gain in weight and height. Total parenteral nutrition will not substantially reduce disease activity and operation rates. Total parenteral nutrition can only be recommended in ulcerative colitis patients with severe disease in the initial phase and in Crohn's patients with severe malnutrition and intestinal complications. Enteral nutrition support is less effective in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease. Reported remission rates on enteral nutrition are 25% for ulcerative colitis and up to 80% for Crohn. However, in active Crohn's disease enteral nutrition is less effective than standard therapy with methylprednisolone and sulfasalizine. It is generally believed that nutrition therapy in combination with drugs is the best treatment modality. There is no evidence to support the importance of any combination of the formula diets such as elemental, oligopeptide, or polymeric formulations. Administration of formula diets by nasogastric tubes all show similar remission rates. Whether newer diets supplemented with arginine, glutamine, omega-3-fatty acids or short chain fatty acids increase remission rates is not known. Further studies in this field are warranted.

  16. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Özlem; Okan, Mehmet S; Kilic, Sara S

    2012-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies with complex clinical and immunologic phenotypes. Immune dysregulation leads to the generation of multiple autoantibodies against various antigenic targets in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a heterogeneous disorder that indicates an autoimmune response against peripheral nerve myelin. We describe a 7-year-old girl with common variable immunodeficiency who developed chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy. A 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg/day) improved her neurologic disorder. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy should be added to the broadening spectrum of neurologic complications in common variable immunodeficiency. Early detection and consequent treatment may reverse the neurologic sequelae.

  17. Macrolides in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Zedan, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Long-term therapy with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was shown to alter the clinical course of diffuse panbronchiolitis in the late 1980s. Since that time, macrolides have been found to have a large number of anti-inflammatory properties in addition to being antimicrobials. These observations provided the rationale for many studies performed to assess the usefulness of macrolides in other inflammatory diseases including skin and hair disorders, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bullous pemphigoid, and pityriasis lichenoides. This paper summarizes a collection of clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of macrolides antibiotics in the treatment of selected dermatoses which have primarily been classified as noninfectious and demonstrating their potential for being disease-modifying agents. PMID:22685371

  18. Effect and Treatment of Chronic Pain in Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pain is the most common reason patients with inflammatory arthritis see a rheumatologist. Patients consistently rate pain as one of their highest priorities, and pain is the single most important determinant of patient global assessment of disease activity. Although pain is commonly interpreted as a marker of inflammation, the correlation between pain intensity and measures of peripheral inflammation is imperfect. The prevalence of chronic, non-inflammatory pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia is higher among patients with inflammatory arthritis than in the general population. Inflammatory arthritis patients with fibromyalgia have higher measures of disease activity and lower quality of life than inflammatory patients who do not have fibromyalgia. This review article focuses on current literature involving the effects of pain on disease assessment and quality of life for patients with inflammatory arthritis. It also reviews non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for treatment of pain for patients with inflammatory arthritis, focusing on the implications of comorbidities and concurrent disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Although several studies have examined the effects of reducing inflammation for patients with inflammatory arthritis, very few clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of treatment directed specifically towards pain pathways. Most studies have been small, have focused on rheumatoid arthritis or mixed populations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis plus osteoarthritis), and have been at high risk of bias. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to examine the mechanisms of pain in inflammatory arthritis and to determine the safety and efficacy of analgesic medications in this specific patient population. PMID:23292816

  19. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Amanda C.; Donofrio, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common treatable chronic autoimmune neuropathy. Multiple diagnostic criteria have been established, with the primary goal of identifying neurophysiologic hallmarks of acquired demyelination. Treatment modalities have expanded to include numerous immuno-modulatory therapies, although the best evidence continues to be for corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). This review describes the pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CIDP. PMID:23117943

  20. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Amanda C; Donofrio, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common treatable chronic autoimmune neuropathy. Multiple diagnostic criteria have been established, with the primary goal of identifying neurophysiologic hallmarks of acquired demyelination. Treatment modalities have expanded to include numerous immunomodulatory therapies, although the best evidence continues to be for corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). This review describes the pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CIDP.

  1. Nutrition and chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Semerano, Luca; Julia, Chantal; Aitisha, Ouidade; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2016-11-30

    Nutrition is a major environmental influence on human health. Epidemiological and interventional studies suggest a pathophysiological or therapeutic role, respectively, for nutrition in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Nevertheless, the associations between nutrition and IRDs are often weak and inconsistent, and the available clinical trials on nutrition are methodologically flawed. Experimental evidence is accumulating that micronutrients in the diet may influence intestinal and systemic immune responses via complex interactions involving the gut microbiota. Micronutrients may, therefore, contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. No interventions targeting these interactions for diagnostic, prophylactic, or therapeutic purposes have been developed to date. Moreover, the relevance to human disease of experimental results obtained in animals or in vitro is unclear. Novel high-throughput technologies (-omics) may prove useful for a systems biology approach to these results that takes the complexity of the interactions into account. Concomitant cohort studies combining clinical and laboratory data collected over time may provide new impetus to research into the connections between nutrition and IRDs.

  2. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Makoto; Nakano, Hitoshi; Ura, Shigehisa; Yoshida, Kazuto; Niino, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), though widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, may be associated with the occurrence of autoimmune disorders. In this case report, a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) after the initiation of IFN-alpha therapy. The neurological symptoms of this patient continued to progress even though the treatment with IFN-alpha had been withdrawn; the symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. This case may therefore provide an important clue to understand the immune mechanism of CIDP and IFN-alpha.

  3. Head mass in chronic pancreatitis: Inflammatory or malignant

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amit K; Chacko, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. This often presents as a mass lesion in the head of pancreas. Mass lesion in the head of pancreas can also occur secondary to an inflammatory lesion. Recognising this is crucial to avoid unnecessary surgery. This is sometimes difficult as there is an overlap in clinical presentation and conventional computed tomography (CT) abdomen findings in inflammatory and malignant mass. Advances in imaging technologies like endoscopic ultrasound in conjunction with techniques like fine needle aspiration, contrast enhancement and elastography as well as multidetector row CT, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scanning have been shown to help in distinguishing inflammatory and malignant mass. Research is ongoing to develop molecular techniques to help characterise focal pancreatic mass lesions. This paper reviews the current status of imaging and molecular techniques in differentiating a benign mass lesion in chronic pancreatitis and from malignancy. PMID:25789097

  4. Comparing treatment options for chronic inflammatory neuropathies and choosing the right treatment plan.

    PubMed

    Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Gallia, Francesca; Terenghi, Fabrizia; Bianco, Mariangela

    2017-08-01

    Chronic inflammatory neuropathies are disorders caused by an immune response to peripheral nerve. They include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and neuropathy associated with anti-MAG IgM monoclonal gammopathy and other less frequent neuropathies. Several immune therapies have been proven to be effective in these neuropathies even if the best therapeutic option is still unsettled. Areas covered: The authors reviewed the literature to compare the efficacy and safety of currently used immune therapies in these neuropathies. The authors also analyzed the effect of other immune suppressive agents and of biological agents including rituximab, eculizumab, natalizumab, alemtuzumab and fingolimod that were found effective in other autoimmune diseases. Expert commentary: Despite the reported efficacy of a number of new immune therapies in some patients with immune mediated neuropathies, their efficacy has not been so far confirmed in randomized controlled studies. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (and subcutaneous immunoglobulin [SCIg] for maintenance treatment), steroids and plasma exchange remain the only therapy of proven efficacy in CIDP, IVIg in MMN and, with certain limits, rituximab and, occasionally plasma exchange in neuropathy associated with anti-MAG antibodies. New biological agents are also on the horizon but their efficacy needs to be proved in controlled studies.

  5. [Fundamentals of chronic inflammatory lung diseases (asthma, COPD, fibrosis)].

    PubMed

    Roth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Since three decades the prevalence of chronic inflammatory lung diseases (asthma, COPD, fibrosis) are worldwide increasing. In Switzerland about 5 % of the population develops asthma, while in other countries it affects up to 20 % (Maori: New Zealand). Today, asthma is the most frequent cause from absence from school and work, and significantly reduces life quality of the patients and their families. COPD, or the smoker's lung, is the 4th most frequent cause of death worldwide and in the Western society affects mainly cigarette smokers and ex-smokers, while in developing countries it is a diseases linked to open fire cocking with most patients being middle aged women. In both diseases only the symptoms can be controlled by muscle relaxing and anti-inflammatory drugs, but there is no cure available. The third chronic inflammatory lung disease is fibrosis which is increasing with the aging population. As indicated by the terminology "chronic inflammatory lung disease" it is widely assumed that the major cause of these diseases is chronic inflammation occurring in different segments of the lung. This hypothesis is now challenged as increasing evidence from clinical and experimental studies that suggest a much different pathogenesis. There is evidence that the inflammation may come second and tissue structural changes are already pre-set during embryogenesis and may become the major driver for the development of chronic inflammatory lung diseases later in life. The mechanism of this pre-disposition is largely unknown and the difficult to perform investigations have only started in recent years. This review aims to provide an overview of key studies published in the past 2 years on clinical and experimental research.

  6. Osteoporosis in chronic inflammatory disease: the role of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; Romeo, Stefano; Ferro, Yvelise; Migliaccio, Valeria; Gazzaruso, Carmine; Pujia, Arturo

    2013-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder affecting million of people worldwide. Increased understanding of bone disease has led to a greater recognition of factors affecting bones, and consequently many secondary causes of osteoporosis were demonstrated. In this study, we aim to explore possible causes of bone loss and fractures in subjects affected by chronic inflammatory disease and to suggest new targets for intervention. In fact several studies, evaluated to perform this study, suggest that the patients with chronic inflammatory disease could be at high risk for fractures due to bone loss as consequence of malnutrition, caused by inflammation and hormonal change. Consequently, some actions could derive from the considerations of these mechanisms: a change in actual approach of chronic patients, that may include the investigation on the possible presence of osteoporosis, as well as further research on this topic to find a better therapy to prevent osteoporosis considering all the mechanisms described.

  7. Macrolide Therapy in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Maślińska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Macrolides are a group of antibiotics with a distinctive macrocyclic lactone ring combined with sugars (cladinose, desosamine). The action of macrolides is to block protein synthesis by binding to the subunit of 50S ribosome of bacteria. Prototype macrolide was erythromycin, which came into clinical practice in the 50s of the 20th century. Its antimicrobial spectrum covers the scope of the penicillins but is extended to the impact of atypical bacteria. In the 90s more drugs of this group were synthesized—they have less severe side effects than erythromycin, extended spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria. Macrolides are effective in treating mycobacterial infections especially in patients infected with HIV. It is now known that in addition to antibacterial abilities, macrolides have immunomodulatory effects—they inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL1, 6, and 8) affect transcription factors (NF-κB) as well as costimulaton (CD 80) and adhesion molecules (ICAM). This review article focused not only on the their antimicrobial abilities but also on efficacy in the treatment of several inflammatory disorders independent of the infectious agent. Their wider use as immunomodulators requires further study, which can lead to an extension of indications for their administration. PMID:22969171

  8. Glycosaminoglycan sulodexide modulates inflammatory pathways in chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Raffetto, J D

    2014-06-01

    Inflammation represents an important epiphenomenon in the etiopathogenesis of chronic venous disease, a worldwide debilitating condition affecting millions of subjects. The pathophysiology of chronic venous disease (CVD) is based on the hemodynamic abnormalities in conjunction to alterations in cellular and extracellular matrix biocompounds. The endothelial dysfunction results from early perturbation in the endothelium linked to glycocalyx injury and promoted by inflammatory cells and mediators (such as matrix metalloproteinases and interleukins), which lead to progressive dilation of the vein resulting in chronic venous insufficiency. Activated leukocytes during the inflammatory process release enzymes, free radicals, chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in the vessel microenvironment, which are responsible for the changes of the venous wall and venous valve, reflux and venous hypertension, and the development/progression of tissue destruction and skin changes. Sulodexide, a highly purified mixture of glycosaminoglycans composed by 80% fast moving heparin and 20% of dermatan sulphate, exhibits anti-thrombotic and profibrinolytic properties, restoring also the essential endothelial glycocalyx. Glycosaminoglycan sulodexide has been also characterized to reduce the release of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and to inhibit the matrix metalloproteinases-related proteolytic cascades, counteracting endothelial dysfunctions. The pleiotropic effects of sulodexide set the basis for a very promising agent in treating the spectrum of CVD.

  9. Endomorphins as agents for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Jessop, David S

    2006-01-01

    Endomorphin (EM)-1 and EM-2 are tetrapeptides located within the mammalian central nervous system and immune tissues, with high affinity and specificity for micro-opioid receptors. Most of the literature has focused on the analgesic properties of EM-1 and EM-2 in animal models of neuropathic or neurogenic pain, but there is persuasive evidence emerging that EMs can also exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in both acute and chronic peripheral inflammation. The purpose of this review is to present and evaluate the evidence for anti-inflammatory properties of EM-1 and EM-2 with a view to their potential for use in chronic human inflammatory disease. Distribution of EMs within the immune system and functional roles as immunomodulatory agents are summarized and discussed. Possible milestones to be met revolve around issues of peptide stability, biodegradability problems and optimal route and method of delivery. The potential for delivery of a low-cost drug with both peripheral anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, effective in low doses, and targeted to the site of inflammation, should focus our attention on further development of EMs as potent therapeutic agents in chronic inflammation.

  10. Childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with nonuniform pathologic features.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xinghua; Zheng, Riliang; Chen, Bin; Yuan, Yun

    2010-08-01

    Nonuniform pathologic changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy were previously reported only in adult humans. We analyzed the pathologic features of 12 children, aged 2-17 years, with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Six patients manifested a preceding illness. Five patients presented a chronic, monophasic course, and seven presented a relapsing-remitting course. Three patients exhibited multiple cranial-nerve involvement. Five of 12 (41.7%) patients presented nonuniform features. Two subtypes of nonuniform lesions were revealed. One exhibited varying myelinated fiber content between nerve fascicles, and one exhibited onion bulbs involving a variable number of fascicles. Macrophages were evident in 11 patients, and the number of CD3-positive T cells in the nonuniform group was greater compared with the uniform group (P = 0.045). Our results demonstrate that childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy exhibits pathologically nonuniform features, thus providing more evidence to assist in differential diagnoses of pediatric patients. However, clinical and electrophysiologic features, as well as responses to treatment, were similar in the nonuniform and uniform groups.

  11. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Murata, Ken-ya; Ishiguchi, Hiroshi; Ando, Ryuki; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2013-12-01

    We report a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Except for minimal biochemical abnormalities, clinical symptoms of PBC were not observed, and we diagnosed our patient with asymptomatic PBC from the results of a liver biopsy. Although the patient noticed little muscle weakness, an electrophysiological study demonstrated slow conduction velocities and prolonged distal latencies, with definite conduction blocks in the median, ulnar, and tibial nerves. The disturbed sensory pattern was asymmetrical, and sensory nerve action potentials were not evoked. From these observations, we diagnosed this patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neuropathy associated with PBC is very rare. We must differentiate demyelinating neuropathy with PBC in patients with asymmetrical sensory dominant neuropathy with high immunoglobulin M titers, and investigate for the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies to rule out a complication of asymptomatic PBC.

  12. [Chronic inflammatory bowel disease--pathogenic concepts and therapeutic perspectives].

    PubMed

    Madsen, J R

    2000-03-06

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered to be a consequence of inappropriate upregulation of immune reactions evoked by the colonic microflora. Abnormalities observed in IBD may be explained, at least in part, by an unfavourable balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Conventional drug treatment of IBD may soon be replaced by more selective inhibitors that act centrally in the inflammatory process. Immunoneutralisation with chimeric anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) antibodies reduces treatment refractory IBD, including fistular Chrons' disease, but recombinant human TNF alpha-receptor fusion proteins may be equally effective with potentially fewer side effects. This view also applies to chimeric antibodies directed against cytokines or adhesion molecules. Potentially more promising are antisense oligonucleotides and matrix-metalloproteinase inhibitors. Whether sustained remission can be achieved probably depends on successful unravelling of the aetiology of IBD.

  13. Chronic venous disease - Part I: Inflammatory biomarkers in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ligi, Daniela; Mosti, Giovanni; Croce, Lidia; Raffetto, Joseph D; Mannello, Ferdinando

    2016-10-01

    Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) produce wound fluid (WF), as a result of inflammatory processes within the wound. It is unclear if WF from different healing phases of VLU has a peculiar biochemical profile and how VLU microenvironment affects the wound healing mechanisms. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytokine/chemokine profiles in WF from distinct VLU phases, in WF- and LPS-stimulated monocytes and treated with glycosaminoglycan Sulodexide, a therapeutic option for VLU healing. WF and plasma were collected from patients with VLU during active inflammatory (Infl) and granulating (Gran) phases. Demographics, clinical characteristics and pain measurements were evaluated. WF, plasma, and THP-1 supernatants were analyzed for 27 inflammatory mediators by multiplex immunoassay. Our results demonstrated that: 1) pain was significantly increased in patients with Infl compared to Gran VLU; 2) cytokine profile of Infl WF was found to be statistically different from that Gran WF, as well significantly increased respect to plasma; 3) LPS- and WF-stimulation of THP-1 cells significantly increased the expression of several cytokines compared to untreated cells; 4) Sulodexide treatment of both LPS- and WF-stimulated THP-1 monocytes was able to significantly down-regulate the release of peculiar inflammatory mediators. Our study highlighted the importance to understand biomolecular processes underlying CVI when providing treatment for chronic VLU. Identification of inflammatory biomarkers in leg ulcer microenvironment, may provide useful tools for predicting healing outcome and developing targeted therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Stéphane; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic immune-mediated neuropathy: it is clinically heterogeneous (relapsing-remitting form, chronic progressive form, monophasic form or CIDP having a Guillain-Barré syndrome-like onset), but potentially treatable. Although its pathophysiology remains largely unknown, CIDP is considered an immune-mediated neuropathy. Therefore, many immunotherapies have been proposed in this peripheral nervous system disorder, the most known efficient treatments being intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids and plasma exchange. However, these therapies remain unsatisfactory for many patients, so numerous other immunotherapeutic strategies have been evaluated, based on their immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory potency. We have performed a large review of the literature about treatment in CIDP, with a special emphasis on novel and alternative immunotherapeutic strategies.

  15. Rethinking the triggering inflammatory processes of chronic periaortitis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Vogt, Bruno; Blanc, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Chronic periaortitis (CP) is an uncommon inflammatory disease which primarily involves the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. However, CP should be regarded as a generalized disease with three different pathophysiological entities, namely idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm and perianeurysmal RPF. These entities share similar histopathological characteristics and finally will lead to fibrosis of the retroperitoneal space. Beside fibrosis, an infiltrate with variable chronic inflammatory cell is present. The majority of these cells are lymphocytes and macrophages as well as vascular endothelial cells, most of which are HLA-DR-positive. B and T cells are present with a majority of T cells of the T-helper phenotype. Cytokine gene expression analysis shows the presence of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-2, IL-4, interferon-gamma and IL-2 receptors. Adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were also found in aortic tissue, and may play a significant role in CP pathophysiology. Although CP pathogenesis remains unknown, an exaggerated inflammatory response to advanced atherosclerosis (ATS) has been postulated to be the main process. Autoimmunity has also been proposed as a contributing factor based on immunohistochemical studies. The suspected allergen may be a component of ceroid, which is elaborated within the atheroma. We review the pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of CP, and its potential links with ATS. Clinically relevant issues are summarized in each section with regard to the current working hypothesis of this complex inflammatory disease. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Renal amyloidosis complicating the outcome of chronic inflammatory colitis].

    PubMed

    Béji, Soumaya; Kaaroud, Hayet; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Goucha, Rym; Abderrahim, Ezzedine; El Younsi, Fethi; Ben Maïz, Hédi

    2004-07-31

    In 4 patients we observed the association of an amyloid nephropathy and a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's' disease in 3 cases and ulcerative rectocolitis in 1 case). These patients, aged a mean of 37 years (range: 28-48 years), had been admitted for exploration of a nephrotic syndrome associated with renal failure in 2 cases. The investigations lead to the diagnosis of AA type amyloidosis in the 4 cases. One patient was lost from follow-up. One patient was treated with salazopyrine, one with corticosteroids and one with colchicine. After a mean follow-up of 16 months (5-30 months), all the patients had persistent nephrotic syndrome, with end stage renal failure in one case, persistence of normal renal function in one case and improved renal function in one case. None of the patients exhibited remission in the nephrotic syndrome. The response of amyloidosis to the treatment of the chronic inflammatory bowel disease varied. Corticosteroids and colchicine stabilised renal function in 2 of our patients but without remission in the nephrotic syndrome. AA amyloidosis is a rare complication of inflammatory bowel disease. The indication for colchicine is important to consider particularly since the response of amyloidosis to the treatment of the causal disease does not, in the majority of cases, lead to the remission of the amyloidosis, the prognosis of which is determined by the extent of renal involvement.

  17. SOCS1 Mimetic Peptide Suppresses Chronic Intraocular Inflammatory Disease (Uveitis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Sun, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening disease characterized by repeated cycles of remission and recurrent inflammation. The JAK/STAT pathway regulates the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells that mediate uveitis. A SOCS1 mimetic peptide (SOCS1-KIR) that inhibits JAK2/STAT1 pathways has recently been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). However, it is not clear whether SOCS1-KIR ameliorated uveitis by targeting JAK/STAT pathways of pathogenic lymphocytes or via inhibition of macrophages and antigen-presenting cells that also enter the retina during EAU. To further investigate mechanisms that mediate SOCS1-KIR effects and evaluate the efficacy of SOCS1-KIR as an investigational drug for chronic uveitis, we induced EAU in rats by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic T-cells and monitored disease progression and severity by slit-lamp microscopy, histology, and optical coherence tomography. Topical administration of SOCS1-KIR ameliorated acute and chronic posterior uveitis by inhibiting Th17 cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into retina while promoting expansion of IL-10-producing Tregs. We further show that SOCS1-KIR conferred protection of resident retinal cells that play critical role in vision from cytotoxic effects of inflammatory cytokines by downregulating proapoptotic genes. Thus, SOCS1-KIR suppresses uveitis and confers neuroprotective effects and might be exploited as a noninvasive treatment for chronic uveitis. PMID:27703302

  18. Inflammatory Markers and Procoagulants in Chronic Renal Disease Stages 1-4

    PubMed Central

    Muslimovic, Alma; Rasic, Senija; Tulumovic, Denijal; Hasanspahic, Senad; Rebic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Starting from the point that the chronic kidney disease (CKD) is chronic, inflammatory and hypercoagulable state characterized by an increase in procoagulant and inflammatory markers high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients could be explained. Aim: The aim of the research was to monitor inflammatory markers and procoagulants in various stages of kidney disease (stage 1-4). Materials and Methods: The research included 120 subjects older than 18 years with CKD stages 1-4 examined and monitored in Clinic of Nephrology, University Clinical Centre Sarajevo over a period of 24 months. The research included determining the following laboratory parameters: serum creatinine, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, leukocytes in the blood, plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin III, coagulation factors VII (FC VII) and coagulation factor VIII (FC VIII). Results: With the progression of kidney disease (CKD stages 1-4), there was a significant increase of inflammatory and procoagulant markers: CRP, fibrinogen and coagulation factor VIII, and an increase in the average values of leukocytes and a reduction in the value of antithrombin III, but without statistical significance. Also, there were no significant differences in the values of D-dimer and coagulation factor VII. Conclusion: The progression of kidney disease is significantly associated with inflammation, which could in the future be useful in prognostic and therapeutic purposes. Connection of CKD with inflammation and proven connection of inflammation with cardiovascular risk indicates the potential value of some biomarkers, which could in the future identify as predictors of outcome and could have the benefit in the early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in CKD. PMID:26622082

  19. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: from pathology to phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Mathey, Emily K; Park, Susanna B; Hughes, Richard A C; Pollard, John D; Armati, Patricia J; Barnett, Michael H; Taylor, Bruce V; Dyck, P James B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy S-Y

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an inflammatory neuropathy, classically characterised by a slowly progressive onset and symmetrical, sensorimotor involvement. However, there are many phenotypic variants, suggesting that CIDP may not be a discrete disease entity but rather a spectrum of related conditions. While the abiding theory of CIDP pathogenesis is that cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves, the relative contributions of T cell and autoantibody responses remain largely undefined. In animal models of spontaneous inflammatory neuropathy, T cell responses to defined myelin antigens are responsible. In other human inflammatory neuropathies, there is evidence of antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin or nodal antigens. In this review, the roles of the cellular and humoral immune systems in the pathogenesis of CIDP will be discussed. In time, it is anticipated that delineation of clinical phenotypes and the underlying disease mechanisms might help guide diagnostic and individualised treatment strategies for CIDP. PMID:25677463

  20. Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jison; Maron, David J; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving aberrant immune and tissue healing responses, which begins with endothelial dysfunction and ends with plaque development, instability and rupture. The increased risk for coronary artery disease in patients with rheumatologic diseases highlights how aberrancy in the innate and adaptive immune system may be central to development of both disease states and that atherosclerosis may be on a spectrum of immune-mediated conditions. Recognition of the tight association between chronic inflammatory disease and complications of atherosclerosis will impact the understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and change diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with rheumatologic syndromes as well as patients with coronary artery disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis, discuss the proposed mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis seen in association with rheumatologic diseases, evaluate the effect of immunosuppression on atherosclerosis and provide updates on available risk assessment tools, biomarkers and imaging modalities. PMID:27042216

  1. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): expression of a chronic inflammatory reaction].

    PubMed

    Ziesche, Rolf

    2005-03-01

    Our understanding of chronic inflammation in COPD has been profoundly changed as a result of findings which suggest that airway inflammation in COPD consists not only of a chronic cellular inflammatory reaction dominated by lymphocytes and neutrophil granulocytes, but also of an intensified secondary wound healing reaction. Unfortunately, little is known about the impact of both reactions on the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation in COPD. Systematic biological evaluation under clinical circumstances will be necessary in order to realize new therapeutic options in COPD.

  2. The dilemma of diabetes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bril, Vera; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Noone, Joshua M.; Runken, M. Chris; Gelinas, Deborah; Russell, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the literature on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and explored real-world data on the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within DM. Methods: A literature search of Scopus was performed for the terms chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, CIDP, and prevalence, incidence, epidemiology, or diabetes; peripheral neuropathy and prevalence or diabetes. We also searched through the reference lists of the resulting publications for additional findings that may have been missed. Additional publications on guidelines for the diagnosis of CIDP and diabetic neuropathy were also included. A descriptive analysis of the 2009–2013 PharMetrics Plus™ Database was performed to estimate the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within the DM population. Results There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that the prevalence of CIDP tends to be higher in diabetic patients, especially in those of older age. Our real-world data seem to support published findings from the literature. For the total cohort (N = 101,321,694), the percent prevalence of CIDP (n = 8,173) was 0.008%; DM (n = 4,026,740) was 4%. The percent prevalence of CIDP without DM (n = 5,986) was 0.006%; CIDP with DM (n = 2,187) was 9-fold higher at 0.054%. For patients >50 years old, there was a significantly higher percentage of CIDP with DM than CIDP without DM. Approximately 50% of CIDP patients were treated with IVIg, 23%–24% with steroids, 1%–2% with PE, and 20%–23% received no treatment. Conclusions In addition to the growing evidence of higher prevalence of CIDP in DM, our findings reinforce the need for heightened awareness of the association of CIDP and DM. PMID:27389526

  3. Surgical transplant physical examination: correlation of renal resistance index and biopsy-proven chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Elster, Eric A; Hale, Douglas A; Mannon, Roslyn B; Cendales, Linda C; Kleiner, David; Swanson, S John; Kirk, Allan D

    2005-04-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) remains the leading cause of late renal allograft loss that is minimally responsive to therapy once graft dysfunction is clinically evident. A screening test capable of identifying individuals at high risk for CAN would be a valuable adjunct to patient care, but to be cost effective, should be administered during routine evaluations by transplantation clinicians. We have compared the resistive index (RI) as measured by Doppler ultrasonography with subsequent biopsy findings on 91 renal allograft recipients who had a subsequent protocol-directed biopsy at least 3 months after renal transplant. All ultrasonography was performed by the transplantation surgical staff without involving the radiology department or a separate appointment time. Twenty-one patients had RI >/= 80 (average 621 days posttransplantation). Among these individuals, the subsequent incidence of CAN was 38%. Length of time between initial assessment of increased RI and biopsy-proved CAN averaged 233 days. The remaining 70 patients with RI < 80 had an incidence of CAN of 11.4% (p = 0.018). There were minimal complications from these biopsies. Sensitivity and specificity of an elevated RI in predicting CAN were 50% and 83%, respectively. The negative predicted value of an elevated RI in determination of CAN was 89%. These results suggest that elevated RI is an early predictor of histologically relevant CAN, possibly a result of burgeoning vasculopathy. The technical expertise required to make this appraisal is well within the capabilities of transplantation surgeons and trainees. Early evidence of CAN may allow for a targeted change in therapy before clinically significant injury. Ultrasonography should become a routine part of a transplantation clinic evaluation.

  4. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Audu, Grace K; Nikaki, Kornilia; Crespi, Daniel; Spray, Christine; Epstein, Jenny

    2015-05-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) has been reported in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mostly in children. We describe the UK paediatric experience of CRMO and IBD and review the global literature. Three cases of CRMO and IBD were identified in UK children during the last 10 years. This adds to the previously published 24 cases worldwide (15 children). We provide further evidence for the true association of CRMO and IBD, and a greater understanding of disease course. CRMO may be considered a rare extraintestinal complication of IBD.

  5. Ocular Neuromyotonia Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nathan H; Bucelli, Robert C; McClelland, Collin M; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2015-10-01

    Ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) is a neuro-ophthalmic disorder characterized by episodic diplopia caused by contraction of one or more ocular muscles due to spontaneous excitation of the respective ocular motor nerve. We report a patient whose ocular neuromyotonia arose in the setting of a subacute demyelinating polyneuropathy consistent with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and subsequently resolved following the initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for her neuropathy. Our patient provides additional evidence towards the role of demyelination and ephaptic neurotransmission in ocular neuromyotonia and also represents the first reported case of ocular neuromyotonia associated with a systemic neurological condition.

  6. Autoantibodies against vinculin in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Satoh, Mamoru; Mori, Masahiro; Kazami, Takahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Ishibashi, Masumi; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kado, Sayaka; Kodera, Yoshio; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    To identify the target molecules of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), we used proteomic-based approach in the extracted proteins from porcine cauda equina. Two of 31 CIDP patients had markedly elevated serum autoantibodies against vinculin, a cell adhesion protein. Both of the patients with anti-vinculin antibodies had similar clinical manifestation, which are compatible with those of "typical" CIDP. Immunocytochemistry showed that vinculin was stained at the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerves by serum samples. Our results suggest that vinculin is a possible immunological target molecule in a subpopulation of typical CIDP patients.

  7. Gene expression changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Puttini, Stefania; Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Mermod, Nicolas; Renaud, Susanne; Steck, Andreas J; Kuntzer, Thierry

    2014-05-15

    Chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disease with no known biomarkers for diagnosing the disease or assessing its prognosis. We performed transcriptional profiling microarray analysis on skin punch biopsies from 20 CIDP patients and 17 healthy controls to identify disease-associated gene expression changes. We demonstrate changes in expression of genes involved in immune and chemokine regulation, growth and repair. We also found a combination of two upregulated genes that can be proposed as a novel biomarker of the disorder.

  8. Treatment of chronic relapsing inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy by plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Server, A C; Lefkowith, J; Braine, H; McKhann, G M

    1979-09-01

    A 58-year-old man developed recurrent episodes of symmetrical motor weakness associated with acroparesthesias and areflexia. The cerebrospinal fluid protein was elevated and nerve conduction velocities were slowed. There was no evidence of systemic disease or toxic exposure, and a diagnosis of chronic relapsing inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy was made. The patient improved during treatment with corticosteroids, but steroid-induced complications necessitated discontinuance. A recrudescence of symptoms prompted a search for alternative therapy, and plasma exchange was tried. A marked improvement in strength was noted following each course of plasma exchange, suggesting that further similar trials are justified.

  9. Reconstruction magnetic resonance neurography in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kazumoto; Sugiyama, Atsuhiko; Ito, Sho-ichi; Misawa, Sonoko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Mitsuma, Satsuki; Iwai, Yuta; Watanabe, Keisuke; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya; Yokota, Hajime; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-02-01

    To study distribution and patterns of nerve hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), magnetic resonance neurography with 3-dimensional reconstruction of short tau inversion recovery images was performed in 33 patients. This technique clearly showed longitudinal morphological changes from the cervical roots to the nerve trunks in the proximal arm. Nerve enlargement was detected in 88% of the patients. According to the clinical subtype of CIDP, typical CIDP patients showed symmetric and root-dominant hypertrophy, whereas Lewis-Sumner syndrome patients had multifocal fusiform hypertrophy in the nerve trunks. The patterns of nerve hypertrophy presumably reflect the different pathophysiology of each CIDP subtype.

  10. [Special surgical complications in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Kroesen, A J

    2015-04-01

    After colorectal and anorectal interventions for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, specific complications can occur.In Crohn's disease these complications mainly occur after proctocolectomy. Pelvic sepsis can be prevented by omentoplasty with fixation inside the pelvis. A persisting sepsis of the sacral cavity can be treated primarily by dissection of the anal sphincter which ensures better drainage. In cases of chronic sacral sepsis, transposition of the gracilis muscle is a further effective option. Early recurrence of a transsphincteric anal fistula should be treated by reinsertion of a silicon seton drainage.Complications after restorative proctocolectomy are frequent and manifold (35%). The main acute complications are anastomotic leakage and pelvic sepsis. Therapy consists of transperineal drainage of the abscess with simultaneous transanal drainage. Late complications due to technical and septic reasons are still a relevant problem even 36 years after introduction of this operative technique. A consistent approach with detailed diagnostic and surgical therapy results in a 75% rescue rate of ileoanal pouches.

  11. Diagnosis and clinical impact of occult hepatitis B infection in patients with biopsy proven chronic hepatitis C: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Imparato, Michele; Coppola, Nicola; Pisapia, Raffaella; Sagnelli, Caterina; Messina, Vincenzo; Piai, Guido; Stanzione, Maria; Bruno, Marika; Moggio, Giovanni; Caprio, Nunzio; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Del Vecchio Blanco, Camillo

    2008-09-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been found associated with severe liver damage, low response to interferon treatment and increased risk of developing HCC. However, doubts remain on its clinical impact and the sensitivity and specificity of its detection. HBV-DNA was sought by PCR in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and liver compartments of 89 patients with biopsy proven chronic hepatitis C, using sets of primers for core ("c"), surface ("s"), and x ("x") regions of HBV genome. Occult HBV infection was defined by the presence of HBV-DNA in at least two different PCRs in at least one compartment. Occult HBV infection was detected in 37 (41.6%) of the 89 patients investigated. It was more frequent (80.8%) in 26 anti- HBs negative/anti-HBc positive patients than in 18 anti-HBs/anti-HBc positive (61.1%, P < 0.01) and 45 anti-HBs/anti-HBc negative (11.1%, P < 0.0001), and more frequently in liver (91.9%) than in PBMCs (62.2%) and plasma (32.4%). No association was found between occult HBV infection and the degree of liver necroinflammation and fibrosis. However, considering the 52 patients without occult HBV infection, 51.4% of 35 patients with genotype 1 and 5.9% of 17 with genotype non-1 showed severe fibrosis (P = 0.003); patients with occult HBV infection did not show such difference. Instead of seeking occult HBV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C, both anti-HBs negative/anti-HBc positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive, in plasma alone, more reliable information can also be obtained from the liver tissue and PBMCs.

  12. A Novel Murine Model for Chronic Inflammatory Alveolar Bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Objective Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) demonstrates some similarities of dysregulated chronic immunoinflammatory lesion of periodontitis. Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) administered to rodents have been shown to elicit inflammatory responses that undermine the integrity of the gut epithelium similar to IBD in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of these chemicals to elicit periodontal inflammation as a novel model for alveolar bone loss. Methods Mice were treated by oral application of TNBS 2 times/week, or with DSS in the diet over a period of 18 weeks. Alveolar bone loss was assessed on defleshed skull using morphometric measures for area of bone resorption. Results TNBS-treated animals tolerated oral administration with no clinical symptoms and gained weight similar to normal controls. In contrast, DSS exerted a systemic response including shortening of colonic tissue and liver enzyme changes. Both TNBS and DSS caused a localized action on periodontal tissues with alveolar bone loss observed in both maxilla and mandibles with progression in a time dependent manner. Bone loss was detected as early as week 7, with more severe periodontitis increasing over the 18 weeks (p<0.001). Young (7 month) and old (12 month) SCID mice were treated with TNBS for a period of 7 weeks and did not develop significant bone loss. Conclusions These data show that oral administration of TNBS and DSS provoke alveolar bone loss in concert with the autochthonous oral microbiota. PMID:19602109

  13. Peripolesis followed by cytotoxicity in chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wilders, M M; Drexhage, H A; Kokjé, M; Verspaget, H W; Meuwissen, S G

    1984-01-01

    Antigen presenting veiled cells have recently been described in cell suspensions prepared from the gut wall of patients with chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). The normal gut wall is virtually devoid of these cells. In this report we describe a phenomenon known as peripolesis studied by phase contrast cinematography. This is a process in which lymphocytes are seen to wander around larger target cells. These could be identified ultrastructurally as Ia positive veiled cells. In most cases peripolesis was followed by lysis of the target cell. Peripolesis was recorded in cell suspensions of three out of seven patients with ulcerative colitis and in three out of nine patients with Crohn's disease; furthermore peripolesis was observed in one out of two patients with non-classifiable CIBD. In four cell suspensions showing peripolesis, cell lysis could be recorded and was especially striking in ulcerative colitis. Peripolesis involving veiled cells was previously described in delayed hypersensitivity reactions. This study lends support to the concept that delayed allergic reactivity plays a part in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The antigens involved are, however, completely unknown. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6380839

  14. Impact of Ivabradine on Inflammatory Markers in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Daniel; Pistulli, Rudin; Schulze, P. Christian; Stumpf, Christian; Yilmaz, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is known to reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with CHF under certain conditions. Beyond the reduction of heart rate, only limited knowledge exists about potential anti-inflammatory effects of ivabradine that might contribute to its benefit in CHF. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of ivabradine on systemic inflammation. Methods. In the present study, 33 patients with CHF due to dilated, ischemic, and hypertensive cardiomyopathy were treated with ivabradine according to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). A number of circulating dendritic cells as well as inflammatory mediators were investigated using FACS analysis and ELISA, respectively, before and during ivabradine therapy. Results. Treatment with ivabradine resulted in a significant improvement of CHF symptoms as well as an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction. Moreover, ivabradine treatment led to a significant reduction of TNF-alpha (TNF-α) serum levels and a reconstitution of circulating dendritic cells which are known to be reduced in patients with CHF. Conclusion. We show that treatment with ivabradine in patients with CHF resulted in an improvement of HF symptoms and ejection fraction as well as a normalization of inflammatory mediators. PMID:27822484

  15. NF-kappaB Signaling in Chronic Inflammatory Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schuliga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are obstructive airway disorders which differ in their underlying causes and phenotypes but overlap in patterns of pharmacological treatments. In both asthma and COPD, oxidative stress contributes to airway inflammation by inducing inflammatory gene expression. The redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (NF-κB), is an important participant in a broad spectrum of inflammatory networks that regulate cytokine activity in airway pathology. The anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (GCs), a mainstay treatment for asthma, involve inhibition of NF-κB induced gene transcription. Ligand bound GC receptors (GRs) bind NF-κB to suppress the transcription of NF-κB responsive genes (i.e., transrepression). However, in severe asthma and COPD, the transrepression of NF-κB by GCs is negated as a consequence of post-translational changes to GR and histones involved in chromatin remodeling. Therapeutics which target NF-κB activation, including inhibitors of IκB kinases (IKKs) are potential treatments for asthma and COPD. Furthermore, reversing GR/histone acetylation shows promise as a strategy to treat steroid refractory airway disease by augmenting NF-κB transrepression. This review examines NF-κB signaling in airway inflammation and its potential as target for treatment of asthma and COPD. PMID:26131974

  16. Impact of Ivabradine on Inflammatory Markers in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Ilonka; Kretzschmar, Daniel; Pistulli, Rudin; Franz, Marcus; Schulze, P Christian; Stumpf, Christian; Yilmaz, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is known to reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with CHF under certain conditions. Beyond the reduction of heart rate, only limited knowledge exists about potential anti-inflammatory effects of ivabradine that might contribute to its benefit in CHF. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of ivabradine on systemic inflammation. Methods. In the present study, 33 patients with CHF due to dilated, ischemic, and hypertensive cardiomyopathy were treated with ivabradine according to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). A number of circulating dendritic cells as well as inflammatory mediators were investigated using FACS analysis and ELISA, respectively, before and during ivabradine therapy. Results. Treatment with ivabradine resulted in a significant improvement of CHF symptoms as well as an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction. Moreover, ivabradine treatment led to a significant reduction of TNF-alpha (TNF-α) serum levels and a reconstitution of circulating dendritic cells which are known to be reduced in patients with CHF. Conclusion. We show that treatment with ivabradine in patients with CHF resulted in an improvement of HF symptoms and ejection fraction as well as a normalization of inflammatory mediators.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides: applications in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Wallwork, Ben D; Lund, Valerie J

    2009-11-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides are significant. The clinical impact on diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) has improved 10-year survival from 12% to more than 90% for these patients. The immunomodulatory activity of macrolides has been a source of mechanistic research as well as clinical research in non-DPB inflammatory airway disease. Suppression of neutrophilic inflammation of the airways has been demonstrated as the most robust immunomodulatory response from 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides. The inhibition of transcription factors, mainly nuclear factor-kB and activator protein 1, from alterations in intracellular cell signaling drives this mechanism. The suppression of interleukin-8 to a range of endogenous and exogenous challenges characterizes the alterations to cytokine production. The inflammatory mechanisms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have been a major non-DPB focus. Macrolides have been trialed in more than 14 prospective trials and are the focus of numerous research projects. Evidence for a strong clinical effect in CRS is mounting, but results may be tempered by researchers' inability to characterize the disease process. Eosinophilic dominated CRS is unlikely to respond, based on current research understanding and data from clinical trials. This article discusses the current concepts of macrolides and their application in the management of CRS.

  18. Nutritional and Anti-Inflammatory Interventions in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Anker, Stefan D; Horwich, Tamara B; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2017-01-01

    Summary Five million individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF) in the United States have poor clinical outcomes including high death rates. Observational studies have indicated a reverse epidemiology of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in CHF; in contrast to trends seen in the general population, obesity and hypercholesterolemia are associated with improved survival. The temporal discordance between the overnutrition (long-term killer) and undernutrition (short-term killer) not only can explain some of the observed paradoxes but also may indicate a role for malnutrition, inflammation and oxidative stress that result in cachexia contributing to poor survival in CHF. Diminished appetite or anorexia may be both a cause and a consequence of this so-called malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia (MIC) or wasting syndrome in CHF. Neurohumoral activation, insulin resistance, cytokine activation and survival selection resultant genetic polymorphisms may also contribute to the prominent inflammatory and oxidative characteristics of this population. In CHF patients with wasting, nutritional strategies may be a promising therapeutic approach in CHF, especially if the provision of additional protein and energy also includes nutrients with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Regardless of the etiology of anorexia, appetite stimulating agents especially with anti-inflammatory properties such as megesterol acetate or pentoxyphylline may be appropriate adjuncts to dietary supplementation. Understanding the factors that modulate the MIC and wasting and their associations with clinical outcomes in CHF may lead to the development of nutritional strategies that alter the pathophysiology of CHF and improve outcomes PMID:18514634

  19. Inulin and oligofructose in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Leenen, Celine H M; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2007-11-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, also called chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), affect up to 500 per 100,000 persons in the Western world. Recent studies in the etiology of IBD suggest that these diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Results from humans and especially animal models of colitis reported by our group and others have indicated that these diseases result from a lack of tolerance to resident intestinal bacteria in genetically susceptible hosts. Probiotic bacteria have health-promoting effects for the host when ingested and have also shown efficacy in ulcerative colitis and refractory pouchitis. In light of the efficacy of providing probiotic bacteria to patients with IBD, there has been interest in the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of inulin, oligofructose, and other prebiotics for patients with or at risk of IBD. Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary oligosaccharides that affect the host by selectively stimulating growth, activity, or both of selective intestinal (probiotic) bacteria. Prebiotics are easy to administer and, in contrast to probiotic therapy, do not require administration of large amounts of (live) bacteria and are therefore easier to administer. Studies using prebiotics, especially beta-fructan oligosaccharides, for the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation have shown benefit in animal models of colitis. Studies using these prebiotics alone or in combination with probiotics are emerging and have shown promise. These dietary therapies could lead to novel treatments for these chronic debilitating diseases.

  20. Intrafollicular inflammatory cytokines but not steroid hormone concentrations are increased in naturally matured follicles of women with proven endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gengxiang; Bersinger, N A; Mueller, M D; von Wolff, M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the intrafollicular cytokine profile in naturally developed follicles is different in women with endometriosis, possibly explaining the lower reproductive outcome in endometriosis patients. A matched case-control study was conducted at a university-based infertility and endometriosis centre. The study population included 17 patients with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis (rAFS stages II-IV), each undergoing one natural cycle IVF (NC-IVF) treatment cycle between 2013 and 2015, and 17 age-matched NC-IVF women without diagnosed endometriosis (control group). Follicular fluid and serum was collected at the time of follicle aspiration. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-18, TNF-α) and hormones (testosterone, estradiol, AMH) were determined in follicular fluid and serum by single or multiplexed immunoassay and compared between both groups. In the follicular fluid, IL-1β and IL-6 showed significantly (P < 0.001 and 0.01, respectively) higher median concentrations in the endometriosis group than in the control group and a tendency towards endometriosis severity (rAFS stage) dependence. The levels of the interleukins detectable in follicular fluid were significantly higher than those in the serum (P < 0.01). Follicular estradiol concentration was lower in severe endometriosis patients than in the control group (P = 0.036). Follicular fluid IL-1β and IL-6 levels were not correlated with estradiol in the same compartment in neither patient group. In women with moderate and severe endometrioses, some intrafollicular inflammatory cytokines are upregulated and not correlated with intrafollicular hormone concentrations. This might be due to the inflammatory microenvironment in endometriosis women, affecting follicular function and thereby possibly contributing to the reproductive dysfunction in endometriosis.

  1. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease in children.

    PubMed

    Bousvaros, A; Marcon, M; Treem, W; Waters, P; Issenman, R; Couper, R; Burnell, R; Rosenberg, A; Rabinovich, E; Kirschner, B S

    1999-12-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare disease of children characterized by aseptic inflammation of the long bones and clavicles. No infectious etiology has been identified, and CRMO has been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases (including Wegener's granulomatosis and psoriasis). The relationship between CRMO and inflammatory bowel disease is poorly described. Through an internet bulletin board subscribed to by 500 pediatric gastroenterologists, we identified six inflammatory bowel disease patients (two with ulcerative colitis, four with Crohn's colitis) with confirmed CRMO. In all cases, onset of the bony lesions preceded the onset of bowel symptoms by as much as five years. Immunosuppressive therapy for the bowel disease generally resulted in improvement of the bone inflammation. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis should be considered in any inflammatory bowel disease patient with unexplained bone pain or areas of uptake on bone scan. CRMO may be a rare extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease; alternatively, certain individuals may be genetically predisposed to the development of both diseases.

  2. Chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Matteo; Leutner, Monica; Mescoli, Claudia; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Gullotta, Renzo

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is growing in western countries, making their histological diagnosis an everyday task for all pathologists. Reviews from the literature strongly suggest that such diagnosis cannot be performed on the histological ground alone but requires a clinical-pathological approach. Moreover, bewildering variations can be observed in the terminology employed to report either individual lesions or diagnostic categories. The aim of the present paper is to suggest a practical diagnostic algorithm summarizing the main data from the literature. Particular emphasis has been placed on minimum clinical information required and the accurate definition of individual lesions. Diagnostic categories to employ and to avoid in daily practice have furthermore been stressed.

  3. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis combined with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Woo Kyung; Jeong, Jin Uk; Bang, Ki Tae; Shin, Jong Ho; Yoo, Ji Hyung; Kim, Nak Min; Park, Jun Hyung; Kim, Joo Heon

    2015-01-01

    A 58-yr-old man presented with leg edema and subacute weakness of his bilateral lower extremities. Urinary and serum immunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of lambda-type Bence Jones proteins. He was ultimately diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). A renal biopsy specimen showed fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN), which was randomly arranged as 12–20 m nonbranching fibrils in the basement membranes. Immunofluorescence studies were negative for immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, IgA, C3, and kappa light chains in the capillary walls and mesangial areas. A Congo red stain for amyloid was negative. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity examinations results were compatible with the presence of demyelinating polyneuropathy. This case showed a rare combination of FGN, without Ig deposition, and MGUS combined with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). PMID:26484033

  4. [Subcutaneous immunoglobulin. Treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculo-neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Nogués, Martín A; Varela, Francisco J; Seminario, Gisela; Insúa, María C; Bezrodnik, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired disease that may affect nerve roots and peripheral nerves. Despite its low incidence, diagnosis is particularly important because there are different effective treatments. Human immunoglobulin is one of the mainstays of the treatment. Although there are few studies up to date, subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IgSC) has been proposed as an alternative to intravenous administration with similar efficacy. We present three cases with definite CIDP, classified according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies / Peripheral Nerve, Society (EFNS /PNS) criteria in which was used SCIgG as a treatment after success with the intravenous route. The Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) was used to estimate the changes in the muscular strength before and after treatment.

  5. Standard and escalating treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min-Suk; Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuritis that is progressive or relapsing over a period of at least 8 weeks. Although the exact pathogenesis is unclear, it is thought to be mediated by both cellular and humoral immune reactions directed against the peripheral nerve myelin or axon. CIDP also involves spinal nerve roots. Early medical treatment of CIDP is important to prevent axonal loss. Only three treatment regimens for CIDP have demonstrated benefit in randomized, controlled studies: corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). Approximately 25% of patients respond inadequately to corticosteroids, plasma exchange or IVIg. Large placebo-controlled trials with alternative immunosuppressive compounds, e.g. mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, or monoclonal antibodies, are lacking. PMID:21694819

  6. Intractable chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy treated successfully with ciclosporin

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, M; Tatsumoto, M; Susuki, K; Hirata, K; Yuki, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disorder and both clinical course and response to treatment vary widely. Because of the propensity for relapse, CIDP requires maintenance therapy after the initial response to treatment. There is no consensus regarding this in the published literature. Present report: A patient with CIDP was treated with oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy but required repeated plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Treatment with ciclosporin freed the patient from repeated IVIg administration. Therapeutic responses in 14 subsequent cases including three patients who showed improvement with ciclosporin are also presented along with an algorithm of the authors' suggested protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Ciclosporin should be considered for patients with intractable CIDP who require repeated IVIg. PMID:16024890

  7. Prediction of iron deficiency in chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease anaemia.

    PubMed

    Baumann Kurer, S; Seifert, B; Michel, B; Ruegg, R; Fehr, J

    1995-12-01

    We prospectively studied 45 anaemic patients (37 women, 8 men) with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The combination of serum ferritin and CRP (as well as ESR) in its predictive capacity for bone marrow iron stores was examined. The relationship between other iron-related measurements (transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor, erythrocyte porphyrins and percentage of hypochromic/microcytic erythrocytes) and bone marrow iron stores was also investigated. Stainable bone marrow iron was taken as the most suitable standard to separate iron-deficient from iron-replete patients. 14 patients (31%) were lacking bone marrow iron. Regression analysis showed a good correlation between ferritin and bone marrow iron (adjusted R2 = 0.721, P < 0.0001). The combination of ferritin and CRP (ESR) did not improve the predictive power for bone marrow iron (adjusted R2 = 0.715) in this cohort of patients with low systemic inflammatory activity. With respect to the bone marrow iron content the best predictive cut-off value of ferritin was 30 micrograms/l (86% sensitivity, 90% specificity). The other iron-related parameters both individually and when combined were less powerful in predicting bone marrow iron than ferritin alone. Only zinc bound erythrocyte protoporphyrin in combination with ferritin slightly improved prediction (adjusted R2 = 0.731). A cut-off point of 11% hypochromic erythrocytes reached a high specificity (90%), but was less sensitive (77%).

  8. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  9. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-07-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a 'sterile' environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. 'Non-culturability', reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis'). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines.

  10. Predicting response to treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y-C; Allen, D C; Fialho, D; Mills, K R; Hughes, R A C

    2006-01-01

    To discover whether Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment Group (INCAT) electrophysiological criteria for demyelinating neuropathy predict response to immunotherapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). This was a retrospective case note study of patients who had attended Guy's Hospital Peripheral Nerve Clinic between January 2001 and March 2004, been diagnosed as having CIDP, and given treatment with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PE). Patients' nerve conduction studies (NCS) were reviewed for evidence of demyelination and whether the abnormalities fulfilled modified INCAT electrophysiological criteria. Patients whose NCS fulfilled the criteria were assigned to the neurophysiologically definite CIDP group, while those that did not were labelled as neurophysiologically probable CIDP. Responses to any of the three immunotherapy agents were compared between the two groups. Out of 50 patients, 27 (54%) were classified as neurophysiologically definite and 23 (46%) as neurophysiologically probable CIDP patients. Twenty (74%) neurophysiologically definite and 17 (73.9%) neurophysiologically probable CIDP patients responded to treatment. INCAT electrophysiological criteria did not predict a higher rate of response to immunotherapy. Neurophysiologically probable CIDP patients should be given a trial of immunotherapy.

  11. Predicting response to treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Y‐C; Allen, D C; Fialho, D; Mills, K R; Hughes, R A C

    2006-01-01

    Objective To discover whether Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment Group (INCAT) electrophysiological criteria for demyelinating neuropathy predict response to immunotherapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Methods This was a retrospective case note study of patients who had attended Guy's Hospital Peripheral Nerve Clinic between January 2001 and March 2004, been diagnosed as having CIDP, and given treatment with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PE). Patients' nerve conduction studies (NCS) were reviewed for evidence of demyelination and whether the abnormalities fulfilled modified INCAT electrophysiological criteria. Patients whose NCS fulfilled the criteria were assigned to the neurophysiologically definite CIDP group, while those that did not were labelled as neurophysiologically probable CIDP. Responses to any of the three immunotherapy agents were compared between the two groups. Results Out of 50 patients, 27 (54%) were classified as neurophysiologically definite and 23 (46%) as neurophysiologically probable CIDP patients. Twenty (74%) neurophysiologically definite and 17 (73.9%) neurophysiologically probable CIDP patients responded to treatment. Conclusions INCAT electrophysiological criteria did not predict a higher rate of response to immunotherapy. Neurophysiologically probable CIDP patients should be given a trial of immunotherapy. PMID:16361609

  12. Idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an epidemiological study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, A; Cocito, D; Bottacchi, E; Buffa, C; Leone, M; Plano, F; Mutani, R; Calvo, A

    2007-01-01

    Aim The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in an Italian population were assessed. Subjects and methods All subjects with a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy after 1990 in Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta (4 334 225 inhabitants) were considered. The diagnosis of CIDP was based on the research criteria of the American Academy of Neurology. 165 of 294 patients met the diagnostic criteria. Results The crude prevalence rate was 3.58/100 000 population (95% CI 3.02 to 4.20). At the prevalence day, 76 (49.0%) cases had definite, 67 (43.2%) probable and 12 (7.7%) possible CIDP; disability was mild in 105 (67.7%) cases, moderate in 32 (20.6%) and severe in 18 (11.6%). The course was remitting–relapsing in 40 cases (25.8%), chronic progressive in 96 (61.9%) and monophasic in 19 (12.3%). Considering the 95 patients whose disorder presented in the period 1995–2001, the mean annual crude incidence rate was 0.36/100 000 population (95% CI 0.29 to 0.44), with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. 14 cases were affected by diabetes mellitus. In multivariate analysis, factors related to severe disability at the prevalence day were: age>60 years; failure of immunomodulating therapies at the time of diagnosis; worse disability at nadir; and chronic course. Conclusion Incidence and prevalence rates of CIDP in Italy were higher than those observed in most previous studies. At the prevalence day, more than 80% of cases had a mild or moderate disability, indicating either a good response to immunomodulating therapy or a tendency of CIDP to have a mild course in most cases. PMID:17494979

  13. DISREGULATION OF INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES BY CHRONIC CIRCADIAN DISRUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Wu, Mingwei; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Paul, Ketema; Gamble, Karen L.; Johnson, Russell L.; Besing, Rachel C.; Menaker, Michael; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Davidson, Alec J.

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms modulate nearly every mammalian physiological process. Chronic disruption of circadian timing in shift work or during chronic jet lag in animal models leads to a higher risk of several pathologies. Many of these conditions in both shift workers and experimental models share the common risk factor of inflammation. Here we show that experimentally-induced circadian disruption altered innate immune responses. Endotoxemic shock induced by LPS was magnified leading to hypothermia and death after 4 consecutive weekly 6h phase-advances of the light-dark schedule, with 89% mortality compared with 21% in unshifted control mice. This may be due to a heightened release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS treatment in shifted animals. Isolated peritoneal macrophages harvested from shifted mice exhibited a similarly heightened response to LPS in vitro, indicating that these cells are a target for jet lag. Sleep deprivation and stress are known to alter immune function and are potential mediators of the effects we describe. However polysomnographic recording in mice exposed to the shifting schedule revealed no sleep loss, and stress measures were not altered in shifted mice. In contrast, we observed altered or abolished rhythms in the expression of clock genes in the central clock, liver, thymus and peritoneal macrophages in mice after chronic jet lag. We conclude that circadian disruption, but not sleep loss or stress, are associated with jet lag-related disregulation of the innate immune system. Such immune changes might be a common mechanism for the myriad negative health effects of shift work. PMID:20944004

  14. A case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy presented with unilateral ptosis.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Sadegh; Karamimagham, Sina; Poursadeghfard, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy is an autoimmune disease with progressive and relapsing courses. The main clinical presentations are diffuse deep tendon hyporeflexia or areflexia and symmetric proximal-distal muscles weakness. Myasthenia gravis is also an immune mediated disease with fluctuating ocular and bulbar symptoms and sometimes weakness. Although both myasthenia gravis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are immune mediated disorders, clinical presentations are obviously different in the two diseases. Herein, we will report a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy who presented with isolated unilateral ptosis. Initially, the patient was managed as ocular type of myasthenia gravis, but after progression to general limb weakness and areflexia, the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was made. Although unilateral ptosis is a typical feature of myasthenia gravis, it may be seen as the first presentation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well which mimics myasthenia gravis disease.

  15. Expression and cellular provenance of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and chemokines in patients with severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ying, Sun; O'Connor, Brian; Ratoff, Jonathan; Meng, Qiu; Fang, Cailong; Cousins, David; Zhang, Guizhen; Gu, Shuyan; Gao, Zhongli; Shamji, Betty; Edwards, Matthew J; Lee, Tak H; Corrigan, Chris J

    2008-08-15

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with Th2 and Th1 differentiated T cells. The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) promotes differentiation of Th2 T cells and secretion of chemokines which preferentially attract them. We hypothesized that there is distinct airways expression of TSLP and chemokines which preferentially attract Th1- and Th2-type T cells, and influx of T cells bearing their receptors in asthma and COPD. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA were used to examine the expression and cellular provenance of TSLP, Th2-attracting (TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, I-309/CCL1), and Th1-attracting (IP-10/CXCL10, I-TAC/CXCL11) chemokines in the bronchial mucosa and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of subjects with moderate/severe asthma, COPD, and controls. Cells expressing mRNA encoding TSLP, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IP-10/CXCL10, but not I-TAC/CXCL11 and I-309/CCL1, were significantly increased in severe asthma and COPD as compared with non-smoker controls (p < 0.02). This pattern was reflected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentrations. Expression of the same chemokines was also increased in ex- and current smokers. The cellular sources of TSLP and chemokines were strikingly similar in severe asthma and COPD. The numbers of total bronchial mucosal T cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR8, and CXCR3 did not significantly differ in asthma, COPD, and controls. Both asthma and COPD are associated with elevated bronchial mucosal expression of TSLP and the same Th1- and Th2-attracting chemokines. Increased expression of these chemokines is not, however, associated with selective accumulation of T cells bearing their receptors.

  16. Treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with pulsed oral steroids.

    PubMed

    Muley, Suraj Ashok; Kelkar, Praful; Parry, Gareth J

    2008-11-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated neuropathy that responds to various immunosuppressive treatments. Oral daily prednisone therapy is effective and inexpensive, but the long-term treatment that is usually necessary leads to serious adverse effects. Consequently, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange have been widely used to treat CIDP, making treatment expensive and inconvenient. A steroid regimen that reduces adverse effects but preserves efficacy would simplify treatment. Pulsed steroids have nongenomic actions not seen with low-dose steroids, including rapid inhibition of arachidonic acid release and of calcium and sodium cycling across plasma membranes of immune cells. To study the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pulsed oral methylprednisolone therapy in patients with CIDP. Open-label prospective study. University of Minnesota Neuropathy Center, Minneapolis. Ten patients (3 women and 7 men) with CIDP followed up for at least 22 months. Neuromuscular score and Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score were used as outcome measures for efficacy; weight, blood pressure, changes in bone density, and steroid-related adverse effect questionnaire were used as outcome measures for safety. This steroid regimen leads to significant improvement in weakness and disability in all patients treated and to off-treatment remission in 60% of patients. Treatment was fairly well tolerated, and only 1 patient discontinued treatment because of adverse effects. Steroid-induced osteoporosis remained a problem, especially in older patients. Pulsed oral methylprednisolone may be efficacious in the long-term treatment of CIDP and is relatively well tolerated. Remission can be induced in most patients, especially those with a shorter duration of disease.

  17. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Agca, R; Heslinga, S C; van Halm, V P; Nurmohamed, M T

    2016-05-15

    Inflammatory joint disorders (IJD), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (ASp) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are prevalent conditions worldwide with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. IJD are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we present an overview of the literature. Standardised mortality ratios are increased in IJD compared with the general population, that is, RA 1.3-2.3, ASp 1.6-1.9 and PsA 0.8-1.6. This premature mortality is mainly caused by atherosclerotic events. In RA, this CV risk is comparable to that in type 2 diabetes. Traditional CV risk factors are more often present and partially a consequence of changes in physical function related to the underlying IJD. Also, chronic systemic inflammation itself is an independent CV risk factor. Optimal control of disease activity with conventional synthetic, targeted synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs decreases this excess risk. High-grade inflammation as well as anti-inflammatory treatment alter traditional CV risk factors, such as lipids. In view of the above-mentioned CV burden in patients with IJD, CV risk management is necessary. Presently, this CV risk management is still lacking in usual care. Patients, general practitioners, cardiologists, internists and rheumatologists need to be aware of the substantially increased CV risk in IJD and should make a combined effort to timely initiate CV risk management in accordance with prevailing guidelines together with optimal control of rheumatic disease activity. CV screening and treatment strategies need to be implemented in usual care.

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Osteopathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cicchitti, Luca; Martelli, Marta; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) are globally highly prevalent and characterized by severe pathological medical conditions. Several trials were conducted aiming at measuring the effects of manipulative therapies on patients affected by CID. The purpose of this review was to explore the extent to which osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) can be benefi-cial in medical conditions also classified as CID. Methods This review included any type of experimental study which enrolled sub-jects with CID comparing OMT with any type of control procedure. The search was conducted on eight databases in January 2014 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent re-viewers conducted study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Heterogeneity was assessed and meta-analysis performed where possible. Results 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review enrolling 386 subjects. The search identified six RCTs, one laboratory study, one cross-over pilot studies, one observation-al study and one case control pilot study. Results suggest a potential effect of osteopathic medicine on patients with medical pathologies associated with CID (in particular Chronic Obstructive Pul-monary Disease (COPD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Asthma and Peripheral Arterial Disease) com-pared to no treatment or sham therapy although data remain elusive. Moreover one study showed possible effects on arthritis rat model. Meta-analysis was performed for COPD studies only show-ing no effect of any type of OMT applied versus control. No major side effects were reported by those receiving OMT. Conclusion The present systematic review showed inconsistent data on the effect of OMT in the treatment of medical conditions potentially associated with CID, however the OMT appears to be a safe approach. Further more robust trials are needed to determine the direction and magnitude of the effect of OMT and to

  19. Inflammatory mechanisms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with chronic inflammation affecting predominantly the lung parenchyma and peripheral airways that results in largely irreversible and progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation is characterized by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes (predominantly TC1, TH1, and TH17 cells), and innate lymphoid cells recruited from the circulation. These cells and structural cells, including epithelial and endothelial cells and fibroblasts, secrete a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and lipid mediators. Although most patients with COPD have a predominantly neutrophilic inflammation, some have an increase in eosinophil counts, which might be orchestrated by TH2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells though release of IL-33 from epithelial cells. These patients might be more responsive to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Oxidative stress plays a key role in driving COPD-related inflammation, even in ex-smokers, and might result in activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), impaired antiprotease defenses, DNA damage, cellular senescence, autoantibody generation, and corticosteroid resistance though inactivation of histone deacetylase 2. Systemic inflammation is also found in patients with COPD and can worsen comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Accelerated aging in the lungs of patients with COPD can also generate inflammatory protein release from senescent cells in the lung. In the future, it will be important to recognize phenotypes of patients with optimal responses to more specific therapies, and development of biomarkers that identify the therapeutic phenotypes will be important.

  20. Stance Postural Strategies in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Missori, Paolo; Trompetto, Carlo; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polyneuropathy leads to postural instability and an increased risk of falling. We investigated how impaired motor impairment and proprioceptive input due to neuropathy influences postural strategies. Methods Platformless bisegmental posturography data were recorded in healthy subjects and patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Each subject stood on the floor, wore a head and a hip electromagnetic tracker. Sway amplitude and velocity were recorded and the mean direction difference (MDD) in the velocity vector between trackers was calculated as a flexibility index. Results Head and hip postural sway increased more in patients with CIDP than in healthy controls. MDD values reflecting hip strategies also increased more in patients than in controls. In the eyes closed condition MDD values in healthy subjects decreased but in patients remained unchanged. Discussion Sensori-motor impairment changes the balance between postural strategies that patients adopt to maintain upright quiet stance. Motor impairment leads to hip postural strategy overweight (eyes open), and prevents strategy re-balancing when the sensory context predominantly relies on proprioceptive input (eyes closed). PMID:26977594

  1. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy associated with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Khema R; Saadia, Daniela; Facca, Alicia G; Bhatia, Rita; Ayyar, D Ram; Sheremata, William

    2008-06-01

    To describe temporal profile of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) in patients with definite, relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy has been rarely reported in association with central nervous system demyelinating disorder indistinguishable from MS. In addition to usual diagnostic studies for CIDP and MS in all 5 patients, we studied proximal segments of nerves using deep tendon reflex latency measurements of biceps reflex, patellar reflex, and ankle reflex. All patients with MS subsequently (4-22 years) developed definite CIDP. Two of these patients developed multiple cranial nerve and spinal root enhancement on subsequent imaging without new intraparenchymal enhancement after a diagnosis of CIDP. The deep tendon reflex latencies were prolonged at more than 2 sites in all patients. Cerebral spinal fluid protein increased (70 +/- 19 to 144.8 +/- 17.4 mg/dL, P = 0.0001) at time of diagnosis of CIDP. Clinical improvement was observed in all patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. When patients with MS develop CIDP, manifestations of central and peripheral disease involvement seem to respond to intravenous immunoglobulin. These cases suggest that there may be common antigenic targets in central and peripheral nervous system in this subset of patients.

  2. Axonal and perikaryal involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, M; Terao, S; Misu, K; Li, M; Hattori, N; Ichimura, M; Sakai, M; Yamamoto, H; Watanabe, H; Riku, S; Ikeda, E; Hata, J; Oda, M; Satake, M; Nakamura, N; Matsuya, S; Hashizume, Y; Sobue, G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the extent of loss of myelinated nerve fibres and spinal motor neuron loss in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), a clinicopathological study was conducted on biopsied sural nerves and necropsied spinal cords from patients with CIDP.
METHODS—The myelinated fibre pathology of 71 biopsied sural nerves and motor neuron pathology of nine necropsied spinal cords at L4 levels in patients with CIDP were quantitatively and immunohistochemically assessed.
RESULTS—Myelinated nerve fibre density was significantly diminished to 65.4% of the control values (p <0.0001), correlating inversely with the extent of segmental demyelination and remyelination (r = −0.43, p < 0.0005) and duration of illness (r = −0.31, p < 0.01). Numbers of large spinal motor neurons in CIDP were variably but significantly diminished (range from 46.0 to 97.6% of the age matched control value (p < 0.005)), and reactive astrogliosis was evident in the ventral horn in CIDP. The frequency of ventral horn neurons exhibiting central chromatolysis and the accumulation of phosphorylated high molecular weight neurofilament protein was significantly higher in CIDP than in controls (p<0.01 and p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—The loss of nerve axons and spinal motor neurons is common in CIDP, and extensive in some cases. These neuronal and axonal losses may influence the functional prognosis in CIDP.

 PMID:10329744

  3. Electrophysiological features of POEMS syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuming; Qin, Xinyue; Zhang, Yuping; Huang, Cheng; Yu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    Polyneuropathy is often an initial manifestation of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome and therefore this disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We reviewed electrophysiological data in 20 patients with POEMS syndrome and 36 matched patients with CIDP to compare the electrophysiological features of POEMS syndrome and CIDP. Compared with CIDP controls, POEMS patients demonstrated (1) less prolonged distal motor latency and less reduced motor nerve and sensory nerve conduction velocities, (2) greater reduction of amplitudes of compound motor action potentials (CMAP) in distal stimulation, and similar reduction of amplitudes of CMAP in proximal stimulation, (3) similar reduction of amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) in median and ulnar nerves, and a greater reduction of amplitudes of SNAP in tibial and peroneal nerves, (4) less temporal dispersion, (5) less frequent conduction block, (6) more frequent neurogenic injury in the muscles of the upper and lower limbs, and more frequent neurogenic injury in the muscles of the lower than upper limbs, (7) similar F wave and H reflex abnormalities, and (8) less frequent skin sympathetic response abnormalities. We concluded that before development of typical clinical manifestations, POEMS neuropathy can be distinguished from CIDP by neural electrophysiological examination. These electrophysiological features can be used for early diagnosis and initiating correct treatment of POEMS syndrome.

  4. Peripheral nerve proteins as potential autoantigens in acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Pei; Devaux, Jérôme; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Whereas autoantibodies to GM1 or GD1a induce the development of acute motor axonal neuropathy, pathogenic autoantibodies have yet to be identified in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This review highlights the importance of autoantibodies to peripheral nerve proteins in the physiopathology of acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Moreover, we listed up other potential antigens, which may become helpful biomarkers for acquired, dysimmune demyelinating neuropathies based on their critical functions during myelination and their implications in hereditary demyelinating neuropathies.

  5. Early identification of ‘acute-onset’ chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B.; Kiernan, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  6. Atypical electrophysiologic findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)--diagnosis confirmed by nerve biopsy.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, S; Magy, L; Kabore, R; Mabrouk, T; Li, Y; Sindou, P; Tabaraud, F; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2004-04-01

    Numerous sets of electrophysiological criteria of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) have been proposed, among which the criteria established by an ad hoc subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in 1991 (Neurology 41 (1991) 617) are the most widely used. As they seemed rather restrictive, the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) group (Ann. Neurol. 50 (2001) 195) proposed modifications of these electrophysiological criteria. However, even using these criteria, some cases of CIDP may not be recognized. In such cases, nerve biopsy has proven useful for confirmation of the diagnosis by demonstrating specific abnormalities. The objective of the study was to determine the profile of electrophysiological abnormalities in patients with atypical electrophysiologic criteria of CIDP and the diagnostic value of multiple A waves and a low median to sural amplitude ratio. Over a period of 3 years, we classified 44 patients into two categories: those presenting the strict AAN and/or INCAT criteria and those who we regarded as cases of CIDP not meeting these criteria. All patients benefited from one or more clinical and electrophysiological examination. Extensive biological workup and genetic study when appropriate excluded other causes of neuropathy. Nerve biopsies were taken from all patients and samples were included in paraffin and epon for systematic light, teasing and electron microscopic examination. Out of 44 patients, 36 fulfilled the INCAT or AAN criteria. In eight other patients, the diagnosis of CIDP was suspected on clinical and EMG examinations and confirmed by nerve biopsy. In these cases, the electrophysiological exploration showed some abnormalities such as multiple A waves in four out of eight patients or an abnormal pattern of the sensory responses of the median and sural nerves in four out of eight patients that were more indicative of an initial demyelinating process. Six of our patients received

  7. Immunomodulation of inflammatory leukocyte markers during intravenous immunoglobulin treatment associated with clinical efficacy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Wayne B; Tan, Joanne C G; Day, Timothy; Kiers, Lynette; Kiernan, Matthew C; Yiannikas, Con; Reddel, Stephen; Ng, Karl; Mondy, Phillip; Dennington, Peta M; Dean, Melinda M; Trist, Halina M; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Hogarth, P Mark; Vucic, Steve; Irving, David O

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to profile leukocyte markers modulated during intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, and to identify markers and immune pathways associated with clinical efficacy of IVIg for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with potential for monitoring treatment efficacy. Response to IVIg treatment in newly diagnosed IVIg-naïve and established IVIg-experienced patients was assessed by changes in expression of inflammatory leukocyte markers by flow cytometry. The adjusted INCAT disability and Medical Research Council sum scores defined clinical response. Intravenous immunoglobulin modulated immunopathogenic pathways associated with inflammatory disease in CIDP. Leukocyte markers of clinical efficacy included reduced CD185(+) follicular helper T cells, increased regulatory markers (CD23 and CD72) on B cells, and reduction in the circulating inflammatory CD16(+) myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) population and concomitant increase in CD62L and CD195 defining a less inflammatory lymphoid homing mDC phenotype. A decline in inflammatory CD16(+) dendritic cells was associated with clinical improvement or stability, and correlated with magnitude of improvement in neurological assessment scores, but did not predict relapse. IVIg also induced a nonspecific improvement in regulatory and reduced inflammatory markers not associated with clinical response. Clinically effective IVIg modulated inflammatory and regulatory pathways associated with ongoing control or resolution of CIDP disease. Some of these markers have potential for monitoring outcome.

  8. Childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an overview of 10 cases in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Ware, Tyson L; Kornberg, Andrew J; Rodriguez-Casero, M Victoria; Ryan, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a rare condition in children. In this article, we report our experience in the management of 10 cases of childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a single center, in the era of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetic microarray, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy disease activity status. Robust neurophysiologic abnormalities were present in all cases and both MRI and lumbar puncture were useful adjuncts in diagnosis. Genetic microarray is a simple technique useful in excluding the most common hereditary demyelinating neuropathy. Intravenous immunoglobulin was an effective first-line therapy in most cases, with refractory cases responding to corticosteroids and rituximab. We found the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy disease activity status useful for assessing outcome at final follow-up, whereas the modified Rankin score was better for assessing peak motor disability.

  9. An animal model of chronic inflammatory pain: pharmacological and temporal differentiation from acute models.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alex W; Medhurst, Stephen J; Dixon, Claire I; Bontoft, Nick C; Winyard, Lisa A; Brackenborough, Kim T; De Alba, Jorge; Clarke, Christopher J; Gunthorpe, Martin J; Hicks, Gareth A; Bountra, Chas; McQueen, Daniel S; Chessell, Iain P

    2006-08-01

    Clinically, inflammatory pain is far more persistent than that typically modelled pre-clinically, with the majority of animal models focussing on short-term effects of the inflammatory pain response. The large attrition rate of compounds in the clinic which show pre-clinical efficacy suggests the need for novel models of, or approaches to, chronic inflammatory pain if novel mechanisms are to make it to the market. A model in which a more chronic inflammatory hypersensitivity phenotype is profiled may allow for a more clinically predictive tool. The aims of these studies were to characterise and validate a chronic model of inflammatory pain. We have shown that injection of a large volume of adjuvant to the intra-articular space of the rat knee results in a prolonged inflammatory pain response, compared to the response in an acute adjuvant model. Additionally, this model also results in a hypersensitive state in the presence and absence of inflammation. A range of clinically effective analgesics demonstrate activity in this chronic model, including morphine (3mg/kg, t.i.d.), dexamethasone (1mg/kg, b.i.d.), ibuprofen (30mg/kg, t.i.d.), etoricoxib (5mg/kg, b.i.d.) and rofecoxib (0.3-10mg/kg, b.i.d.). A further aim was to exemplify the utility of this chronic model over the more acute intra-plantar adjuvant model using two novel therapeutic approaches; NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonism and iNOS inhibition. Our data shows that different effects were observed with these therapies when comparing the acute model with the model of chronic inflammatory joint pain. These data suggest that the chronic model may be more relevant to identifying mechanisms for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain states in the clinic.

  10. Chronic inflammatory appendiceal conditions that mimic acute appendicitis on helical CT.

    PubMed

    Checkoff, Jaime L; Wechsler, Richard J; Nazarian, Levon N

    2002-09-01

    Acute appendicitis is commonly diagnosed on CT, but chronic appendiceal processes can mimic acute appendicitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of these alternative conditions and their findings on helical CT. Chronic inflammatory conditions other than acute appendicitis were found in 9% of patients who underwent surgery after CT findings were interpreted as suspicious for appendicitis. These inflammatory conditions were indistinguishable from acute appendicitis when we used either primary or secondary CT signs.

  11. Surgical treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in children.

    PubMed

    Barrena, S; Martínez, L; Hernandez, F; Lassaletta, L; Lopez-Santamaria, M; Prieto, G; Larrauri, J; Tovar, J A

    2011-04-01

    Surgery for chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasingly often necessary in children. This study aimed at assessing the results of these operations in order to facilitate adequate preoperative counseling. We reviewed patients treated from 1992 to 2009. The operations, complications and functional outcome were recorded. For those with preserved rectal defecation, continence (Koivusalo score) and quality of life (standardized questionnaire) were assessed in the long term. Eighty five of 192 patients had Crohn disease (CD), 107 of 192 had ulcerative colitis (UC), and 3 of 192 had indeterminate colitis (IC). 12 of 85 CD patients (15%) aged 14 (12-19) years required 13 resections, 1 stricturoplasty, 1 transplantation and 6 other operations including 3 permanent enterostomies for anorectal involvement. Removal of the involved bowel led to significant improvement of nutritional status, growth and quality of life. The transplanted patient had a striking recovery but eventually died 1 year later of unrelated complications. 29 of 107 UC patients (26%) aged 11 (2-15) years required 87 operations. Nine had emergency colectomy for toxic megacolon (3, one death) or severe hemorrhage (6). 28 had restorative proctocolectomy and ileoanostomy (RPCIA) without (16) or with (12) J-pouch under protective ileostomy. Complications were frequent (40%). Permanent ileostomy was required in five children (17%). Twelve months postoperatively, RPCIA patients had 6.5 (2-13) stools/day; all were continent during daytime, and 25% have nocturnal leaks. Mean Koivusalo score (5-12) was 8.8 ± 2. Quality of life was good in all. All attended normal school and 7 the university, 4 work and 60% of those older than 18 years have sexual partners. Three of 107 children treated as UC with RPCIA had ultimately IC (3%) and were permanently diverted. The nature of IBD involves frustrating surgery. However, it may change life for CD patients and provide a reasonably good quality of life for UC after

  12. Differential expression of systemic inflammatory mediators in amputees with chronic residual limb pain.

    PubMed

    Chamessian, Alexander; Van de Ven, Thomas; Buchheit, Thomas; Hsia, Hung-Lun; McDuffie, Mary; Gamazon, Eric R; Walsh, Colin; Bruehl, Stephen; Buckenmaier, Chester 'Trip'; Shaw, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain impacts most amputees, with more than half experiencing neuralgic residual limb pain. The transition from normal acute postamputation pain to chronic residual limb pain likely involves both peripheral and central inflammatory mechanisms. As part of the Veterans Integrated Pain Evaluation Research study, we investigated links between systemic inflammatory mediator levels and chronic residual limb pain. Subjects included 36 recent active duty military traumatic amputees with chronic residual limb pain and 40 without clinically significant pain. Blood samples were obtained and plasma concentrations of an array of inflammatory mediators were analyzed. Residual limb pain intensity and pain catastrophizing were assessed to examine associations with inflammatory mediators. Pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β, interleukin (IL)-8, ICAM-1, Tie2, CRP, and SAA were elevated in patients with chronic residual limb pain. Across all patients, residual limb pain intensity was associated positively with levels of several proinflammatory mediators (IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12, TNF-β, PIGF, Tie2, SAA, and ICAM-1), and inversely with concentrations of the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-13, as well as IL-2 and Eotaxin-3. Pain catastrophizing correlated positively with IL-8, IL-12, TNF-β, PIGF, and ICAM-1, and inversely with IL-13. Significant associations between catastrophizing and residual limb pain intensity were partially mediated by TNF-α, TNF- β, SAA, and ICAM-1 levels. Results suggest that chronic postamputation residual limb pain is associated with excessive inflammatory response to injury or to inadequate resolution of the postinjury inflammatory state. Impact of pain catastrophizing on residual limb pain may be because of part to common underlying inflammatory mechanisms.

  13. The cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul, M A; Shittu, S O; Randawa, J A; Shehu, M S

    2009-09-01

    Cancer of the cervix is the commonest malignancy of the genital tract in Nigeria. In an atmosphere of opportunistic screening due to lack of a national screening programme, studies are needed to determine patients at risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix. To determine cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and investigate the potential of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease as a risk factor to cervical dysplasia. Case-control study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty-nine premenopausal women attending the gynaecologic and family planning clinics of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria from January to December 2000. Of the 369 women that had cervical cytology by Pap smear, 163 (44%) had chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (cases) while 206 (56%) were non chronic PID patients (control). There was no statistical significance in the mean age between the two groups. The mean age at first coitus and marriage of all the women were 17.92.7 years and 18.5 3.4 years respectively. There were 52 dysplastic smears encountered, giving a prevalence rate of 140/1,000 or 14% for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. There were higher cases of dysplasia in the chronic PID group than in the control and this differences was statistically significant (p<0.05). Other risk factors to dysplasia identified include high parity (>4) and age of first coitus less than 20 years. Only 10% of all the women screened were aware of both cervical cancer and Pap smear. Women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease are probably at higher risk of developing cervical dysplasia than women without chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Cervical cancer screening programmes should be intensified in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease patients. However, further studies are needed in our setting to verify the association between pelvic inflammatory disease and

  14. The hygiene hypothesis and the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W

    2007-11-01

    The 'Hygiene' or 'Old Friends' hypothesis suggests that increases in chronic inflammatory disorders (allergies, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmunity) in developed countries are partly attributable to diminishing exposure to organisms that were part of mammalian evolutionary history. Crucial organisms, including helminths and saprophytic mycobacteria, are recognised by the innate immune system as harmless or, in the case of helminths, as organisms that once established must be tolerated. This recognition then triggers development of regulatory dendritic cells that drive regulatory T-cell responses to the 'Old Friends' themselves and to simultaneously processed 'forbidden' target antigens of the chronic inflammatory disorders.

  15. [Leeching in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Abal'masov, D V; Afanas'ev, V V; Pozharitskaia, M M

    2003-01-01

    Twenty patients with chronic inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the salivary glands (sialadenitis, sialadenosis) were examined and treated using hirudotherapy. Positive clinical shifts were observed in 50% patients; the most pronounced therapeutic effect was observed in patients with sialadenosis. Hirudotherapy was ineffective in patients with chronic parenchymatous parotitis paralleled by Sjogren's syndrome.

  16. Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine for Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasalu, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic demyelinating disorders have multifactorial origin but common important physiologic and anaesthetic considerations. Choice of anaesthesia technique and the drugs used, undertanding the pros and cons of using central neuraxial blocks will help in successful management of such patients. We describe the anaesthetic management of a 34-year-old male with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy posted for cystolithotripsy. PMID:27790558

  17. Obesity as a Risk and Severity Factor in Rheumatic Diseases (Autoimmune Chronic Inflammatory Diseases)

    PubMed Central

    Gremese, Elisa; Tolusso, Barbara; Gigante, Maria Rita; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The growing body of evidence recognizing the adipose tissue (AT) as an active endocrine organ secreting bioactive mediators involved in metabolic and inflammatory disorders, together with the global epidemic of overweight and obesity, rise obesity as a hot topic of current research. The chronic state of low-grade inflammation present in the obese condition and the multiple pleiotropic effects of adipokines on the immune system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We will discuss the main relevant evidences on the role of the AT on immune and inflammatory networks and the more recent evidences regarding the effects of obesity on the incidence and outcomes of the major autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25426122

  18. Different pro-inflammatory and immunogenic potentials of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis: implications for chronic inflammatory acne.

    PubMed

    Białecka, Anna; Mak, Monika; Biedroń, Rafał; Bobek, Małgorzata; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2005-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (PA) and Staphyloccocus epidermidis (SE) are two major bacterial strains isolated from acne lesions. Nevertheless, only PA seems to be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Evidence for this, however, remains indirect and the precise role of PA in inflammatory acne is still a matter for conjecture. The aim of this study was to compare some pro-inflammatory and adjuvant properties of PA and SE. To determine some of the pathogenic, immunostimulatory, and pro-inflammatory proper of PA and SE, two experimental models of inflammation were used. In vivo; chronic inflammation was induced by intradermal injection of living bacteria into the ear. In vitro; peritoneal macrophages elicited by the bacteria were examined for their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines. PA, but not SE, evoked mild local inflammation of infected ears. Macrophages elicited with PA produced more tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin IL-12 than those induced with SE, while SE was a stronger inducer of IL-10 production. Both bacteria equally induced the generation of NO and ROS. In contrast, only PA showed adjuvant proper-ties. The results of these studies indicate that SE, in contrast to PA, does not exert pro-inflammatory properties. Thus it is unlikely that SE may be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

  19. Treatment of chronic immune-mediated neuropathies: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and the Lewis-Sumner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sederholm, Benson H

    2010-09-01

    Current treatment approaches for the management of chronic immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies are reviewed, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and the Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS). A summary of existing evidence for commonly used treatment modalities, such as corticosteroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange is provided. Evidence for the use of additional immunosuppressant and immunomodulatory agents is also reviewed.

  20. Fatigue, Pain, Anxiety and Depression in Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Merkies, Ingemar S J; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2016-01-01

    In the clinical evaluation of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), scant attention is paid to symptoms such as fatigue, pain and anxiety/depression. We aimed at addressing seminal studies that focused on the burden of these symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL) in these conditions. Fatigue, pain, and anxiety/depression are increasingly being recognized in patients with GBS and CIDP, although their pathophysiological provenance remains unknown. Fatigue and pain are significant in terms of prevalence and intensity, may be a presenting symptom, and can persist for years after apparent functional recovery, suggesting residual injury. Anxiety/depression has also been examined although studies are limited. Despite their negative impact on QoL, the long-term dynamics of these symptoms in patients with GBS and particularly CIDP receiving therapy in routine clinical practice have not been systematically evaluated. Such observations formed the basis for the ongoing (GAMEDIS) studies evaluating the effect of Gamunex on fatigue and depression in patients with CIDP, of which some preliminary data are presented. Strength and sensory deficits are the main areas of focus in patients with GBS and CIDP, but they do not explain the total reduction in QoL, suggesting the possible role of other complaints. A more comprehensive approach to patient care demands that factors such as pain, fatigue and anxiety/depression receive greater attention. The non-interventional GAMEDIS studies are expected to provide valuable insight into the long-term effectiveness of Gamunex in everyday practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Chronic stress induced disturbances in Laminin: a significant contributor to modulating microglial pro-inflammatory tone?

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Giovanni; Mabotuwana, Nishani; Zhao, Zidan; Mahmoud, Abdolhoseini; Johnson, Sarah J; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, Frederick R

    2017-09-21

    Over the last decade, evidence supporting a link between microglia enhanced neuro-inflammatory signalling and mood disturbance has continued to build. One issue that has not been well addressed yet are the factors that drive microglia to enter into a higher pro-inflammatory state. The current study addressed the potential role of the extracellular matrix protein Laminin. C57BL6 adult mice were either exposed to chronic stress or handled for 6 consecutive weeks. Changes in Laminin, microglial morphology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were examined in tissue obtained from mice exposed to a chronic restraint stress procedure. These in-vivo investigations were complemented by an extensive set of in-vitro experiments utilising both a primary microglia and BV2 cell line to examine how Laminin influenced microglial pro-inflammatory tone. Chronic stress was associated with enhanced the expression of Laminin, microglial de-ramification and pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling. We further identified that microglia when cultured in the presence of Laminin produced and released significantly greater levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; took longer to return to baseline following stimulation and exhibited enhanced phagocytic activity. These results suggest that chronic restraint stress is capable of modulating Laminin within the CNS, an effect that has implications for understanding environmental mediated disturbances of microglial function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Clinical application of expectorant therapy in chronic inflammatory airway diseases (Review)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, TING; ZHOU, XIANGDONG

    2014-01-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a significant clinical and pathological feature of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Its clinical presentations include recurrent coughing and phlegm. Airway mucus is closely associated with the occurrence, development and prognosis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases and critically affects the lung function, quality of life, hospitalization rate and mortality of patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Therefore, expectorant therapies targeting the potential mechanisms of mucus hypersecretion have been the focus of numerous studies. Conventional expectorants are mainly mucoactive medicines, including nausea-stimulating expectorants, mucolytics, mucokinetics, and proteases and nucleases. In addition, certain traditional Chinese herbal medicines and non-mucoactive agents, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists and macrolide antibiotics, have also shown expectorant effects. Several novel medicines for expectorant therapy have emerged, including cholesterol-lowering statins, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, stanozolol, surfactants, flavonoids, tachykinin receptor antagonists, protease inhibitors, cytokine antagonists and purinergic agonists. With the increasing number of multidisciplinary studies, the effectiveness of expectorant therapy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases has been confirmed. Therefore, the development of novel expectorants and the standardization of expectorant therapy are the direction and focus of future studies, thus benefiting patients who have a chronic inflammatory airway disease. PMID:24660026

  3. Reduced GABAergic transmission in the ventrobasal thalamus contributes to thermal hyperalgesia in chronic inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Chen, Rong-Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2017-01-01

    The ventrobasal (VB) thalamus is innervated by GABAergic afferents from the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and participates in nociception. But how the TRN-VB pathway regulates pain is not fully understood. In the present study, we reported decreased extracellular GABA levels in the VB of rats with CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain, measured by microdialysis with HPLC analysis. In vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed decreased amplitudes of tonic currents, increased frequencies of mIPSCs, and increased paired-pulse ratios in thalamic slices from chronic inflammatory rats (7 days). Microinjection of the GABAAR agonist muscimol and optogenetic activation of the TRN-VB pathway relieved thermal hyperalgesia in chronic inflammatory pain. By contrast, microinjecting the extrasynaptic GABAAR agonist THIP or selective knockout of synaptic GABAAR γ2 subunits aggravated thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic stage of inflammatory pain. Our findings indicate that reduced GABAergic transmission in the VB contributes to thermal hyperalgesia in chronic inflammatory pain, which could be a synaptic target for pharmacotherapy. PMID:28150719

  4. Exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases by infectious agents: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases caused by obesity represent critical public health concerns worldwide. In these diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ that releases large quantities of inflammatory mediators into circulation. Besides classically recognized effectors on the development of obesity and resultant conditions, infection has attracted attention as an enhancer of chronic inflammatory diseases. Infectious diseases have long been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the infectious hypothesis for chronic inflammatory diseases has been challenged by inconclusive clinical trials. Nevertheless, the large body of evidence accumulated over decades on the association of infectious diseases with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease should not be disregarded. Instead, re-formulation of hypotheses of the mechanisms by which microbes affect obesity-associated diseases may be required with an emphasis on the early events in the progression of such diseases and the multifactorial nature of pathogen-host interactions. This review focuses on pathogens that directly promote obesity and on pathogens that cause chronic infections and thereby enhance metabolic diseases in obese patients. A new perspective on the interaction between infections and obesity-related diseases may improve management of chronic inflammatory diseases that rank high among global threats to human health. PMID:21537425

  5. Diagnostic value of sonography in treatment-naive chronic inflammatory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Goedee, H Stephan; van der Pol, W Ludo; van Asseldonk, Jan-Thies H; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C; Vrancken, Alexander J F E; van Es, Michael A; Nikolakopoulos, Stavros; Visser, Leo H; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2017-01-10

    To determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) for detection of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Between January 2013 and January 2015, we enrolled 75 consecutive treatment-naive patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies and 70 disease controls. We performed extensive nerve conduction and standardized HRUS studies bilaterally of large arm and leg nerves and brachial plexus. We determined optimal sonographic cutoff values of nerve size and used receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression models to identify nerve combinations with optimal diagnostic performance. Enlargement of median nerve at forearm >10 mm(2), upper arm >13 mm(2), and any trunk of brachial plexus >8 mm(2) was 99% specific for chronic inflammatory neuropathies. A shortened HRUS protocol for detecting this abnormal nerve enlargement showed high sensitivity (83%-95%), positive predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (98%) in discriminating CIDP, LSS, and MMN from clinical mimics. Sonographic enlargement of proximal median nerve segments in the arms and brachial plexus is a key feature of chronic inflammatory neuropathies, which helps to reliably distinguish them from axonal neuropathies and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study provides Class II evidence that, in absence of clinical features that suggest a hereditary demyelinating neuropathy, sonographic enlargement of proximal median nerve segments and brachial plexus accurately identifies patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Reduction of chronic abdominal pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease through transcranial direct current stimulation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Volz, Magdalena S; Farmer, Annabelle; Siegmund, Britta

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is frequently associated with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proven to reduce chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate the effects of tDCS in patients with CAP due to IBD. This randomized, sham-controlled, double blind, parallel-designed study included 20 patients with either Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis with CAP (≥3/10 on the visual analog scale (VAS) in 3/6 months). Anodal or sham tDCS was applied over the primary motor cortex for 5 consecutive days (2 mA, 20 minutes). Assessments included VAS, pressure pain threshold, inflammatory markers, and questionnaires on quality of life, functional and disease specific symptoms (Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Severity Scoring System [IBS-SSS]), disease activity, and pain catastrophizing. Follow-up data were collected 1 week after the end of the stimulation. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance and t tests. There was a significant reduction of abdominal pain in the anodal tDCS group compared with sham tDCS. This effect was evident in changes in VAS and pressure pain threshold on the left and right sides of the abdomen. In addition, 1 week after stimulation, pain reduction remained significantly decreased in the right side of the abdomen. There was also a significant reduction in scores on pain catastrophizing and on IBS-SSS when comparing both groups. Inflammatory markers and disease activity did not differ significantly between groups throughout the experiment. Transcranial direct current stimulation proved to be an effective and clinically relevant therapeutic strategy for CAP in IBD. The analgesic effects observed are unrelated to inflammation and disease activity, which emphasizes central pain mechanisms in CAP.

  7. Inflammatory fatigue and sickness behaviour - lessons for the diagnosis and management of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arnett, S V; Clark, I A

    2012-12-10

    Persistent and severe fatigue is a common part of the presentation of a diverse range of disease processes. There is a growing body of evidence indicating a common inflammatory pathophysiology underlying many conditions where fatigue is a primary patient concern, including chronic fatigue syndrome. This review explores current models of how inflammatory mediators act on the central nervous system to produce fatigue and sickness behaviour, and the commonality of these processes in conditions as diverse as surgical trauma, infection, various cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, connective tissue diseases and autoimmune diseases. We also discuss evidence indicating chronic fatigue syndrome may have important pathophysiological similarities with cytokine mediated sickness behaviour, and what lessons can be applied from sickness behaviour to chronic fatigue syndrome with regards to the diagnosis and management.

  8. Contactin 1 IgG4 associates to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yumako; Devaux, Jérôme J; Fukami, Yuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-06-01

    A Spanish group recently reported that four patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy carrying IgG4 autoantibodies against contactin 1 showed aggressive symptom onset and poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin. We aimed to describe the clinical and serological features of Japanese chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients displaying the anti-contactin 1 antibodies. Thirteen of 533 (2.4%) patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy had anti-contactin 1 IgG4 whereas neither patients from disease or normal control subjects did (P = 0.02). Three of 13 (23%) patients showed subacute symptom onset, but all of the patients presented with sensory ataxia. Six of 10 (60%) anti-contactin 1 antibody-positive patients had poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas 8 of 11 (73%) antibody-positive patients had good response to corticosteroids. Anti-contactin 1 IgG4 antibodies are a possible biomarker to guide treatment option.

  9. The contribution of natural selection to present-day susceptibility to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Brinkworth, Jessica F; Barreiro, Luis B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases have been the focus of many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) because they represent a significant cause of illness and morbidity, and many are heritable. Almost a decade of GWAS studies suggests that the pathological inflammation associated with these diseases is controlled by a limited number of networked immune system genes. Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are enigmatic from an evolutionary perspective because they exert a negative affect on reproductive fitness. The persistence of these conditions may be partially explained by the important roles the implicated immune genes play in pathogen defense and other functions thought to be under strong natural selection in humans. The evolutionary reasons for chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease persistence and uneven distribution across populations are the focus of this review. PMID:25458997

  10. Health-related quality of life in chronic inflammatory neuropathies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rajabally, Yusuf A; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-01-15

    Chronic inflammatory neuropathies represent a heterogeneous group of disorders which affect patients' functional status and quality of life. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on the effects of both disease and treatment interventions on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in this patient population. The available data are limited, as few studies have systematically considered HRQoL in patients with inflammatory neuropathies. Moreover, in treatment trials, HRQoL measures have exclusively been used as secondary outcome measures. There is some evidence suggesting that baseline pre-treatment HRQoL reports are lower in patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathy than in age and gender-matched controls. Following treatment interventions, improvements in self-reported measures were consistently documented in the physical domain of HRQoL, which in turn correlated with improvements in traditional strength and functional scales. The impact of available treatments on the quality of life of patients with inflammatory neuropathies remains largely under-investigated. Interestingly, recent, although limited evidence from generic HRQoL measures may partly or completely contradict the results found with the primary, traditional outcome measures used (rituximab for anti-MAG neuropathy; immunoglobulins versus corticosteroids for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy). Similarly, HRQoL measures may suggest superiority, rather than equivalence, of certain drug administration methods (subcutaneous over intravenous immunoglobulins). Further research is needed to assess HRQOL in patients with untreated chronic inflammatory neuropathies in comparison to normative values, as well as precisely quantify treatment benefit. The role of both generic and disease-specific HRQoL measures in the evaluation of patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies is also worthy of further consideration. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  11. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Clinical aspects and new therapy approaches].

    PubMed

    Siegmund, B

    2012-11-01

    There is a continuously increasing incidence in inflammatory bowel diseases affecting mostly young people who are in a vulnerable phase of life. Thus, early diagnosis and initiation of an effective therapeutic regimen is critical in order to maintain a good quality of life. In Germany, the standard therapeutic strategy is an accelerated step up approach, including the introduction of early immunosuppressive therapy if required. Although novel therapeutic strategies have found their way into clinical use there is still a substantial subgroup of patients where effective therapy is lacking. The future introduction of anti-adhesion molecule antibodies might provide a realistic option for this subgroup. Equally important is the availability of predictive markers allowing stratification of patients into subgroups at the time of diagnosis. Assuming that the CD8(+) T cell transcriptome approach will be confirmed in prospective trials, personalized therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease will be the next step.

  12. The role of antimicrobial peptides in chronic inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of the innate immune system of the skin. They present an activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as some fungi, parasites and enveloped viruses. Several inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris and rosacea are characterized by a dysregulated expression of AMPs. Antimicrobial peptides are excessively produced in lesional psoriatic scales or rosacea in contrast to the atopic skin that shows lower AMP levels when compared with psoriasis. The importance of the AMPs contribution to host immunity is indisputable as alterations in the antimicrobial peptide expression have been associated with various pathologic processes. This review discusses the biology and clinical relevance of antimicrobial peptides expressed in the skin and their role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:26985172

  13. Natural Killer Cells in the Orchestration of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Barbara; Tremolati, Marco; Gini, Elisabetta; Farronato, Giampietro; Bruno, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity. Here we reviewed and discussed the role of NKs in selected, different, and “distant” chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, periodontitis, and atherosclerosis, placing NK cells as crucial orchestrator of these pathologic conditions. PMID:28428965

  14. Atherosclerosis: a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by mast cells.

    PubMed

    Conti, Pio; Shaik-Dasthagirisaeb, Yazdami

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a process that plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and immune disease, involving multiple cell types, including macrophages, T-lymphocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mast cells. The fundamental damage of atherosclerosis is the atheromatous or fibro-fatty plaque which is a lesion that causes several diseases. In atherosclerosis the innate immune response, which involves macrophages, is initiated by the arterial endothelial cells which respond to modified lipoproteins and lead to Th1 cell subset activation and generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemoattractant chemokines. Other immune cells, such as CD4+ T inflammatory cells, which play a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, and regulatory T cells [Treg], which have a protective effect on the development of atherosclerosis are involved. Considerable evidence indicates that mast cells and their products play a key role in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Activated mast cells can have detrimental effects, provoking matrix degradation, apoptosis, and enhancement as well as recruitment of inflammatory cells, which actively contributes to atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Here we discuss the relationship between atherosclerosis, inflammation and mast cells.

  15. [Combination of two signals of danger--a principal cause of activation of chronic inflammatory processes].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, K A

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory processes have long current during which there is a change of remission by an aggravation of disease. Until recently was considered, that occurrence and activation of chronic inflammatory process is caused by one signal of danger. Most often it are served with microorganisms. The sum of our end literary data shows that activation is connected with accumulation in the center of an inflammation of macrophages and their hyperactivation as a result of action of two signals of danger--microorganisms and xenobiotics.

  16. Dysautonomic polyneuropathy as a variant of chronic inflammatory "demyelinating" polyneuropathy?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Kornhuber, Malte Erich; Weis, Joachim; Posa, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the clinical course over almost one decade of a male patient presenting with immune-mediated pure autonomic neuropathy resembling a distinct variant of chronic dysimmune polyneuropathies. We suppose autoantibodies directed against epitopes on autonomic axons or neurons causative for the symptoms.

  17. Inflammatory Markers in Recent Onset Psychosis and Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Schroeder, Jennifer; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy; Savage, Christina; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Immune markers have been associated with schizophrenia, but few studies have examined multiple markers in both recent onset and chronic schizophrenia patients. Methods. The sample of 588 individuals included 79 with recent onset psychosis, 249 with chronic schizophrenia, and 260 controls. A combined inflammation score was calculated by principal components factor analysis of the levels of C-reactive protein, Pentraxin 3, and IgG antibodies to gliadin, casein, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae measured in blood samples. Inflammation scores among groups were compared by multivariate analyses. Results. The chronic schizophrenia group showed significant elevations in the combined inflammation score compared with controls. The recent onset group surprisingly showed a reduction in the combined inflammation score. Consistent with these findings, the chronic schizophrenia group had significantly increased odds of a combined inflammation score greater than the 75th and the 90th percentile of that of the controls. The recent onset group had significantly increased odds of a combined inflammation score less than the 10th and the 25th percentile level of the controls. Conclusions. The recent onset of psychosis may be associated with inherent deficits in innate immunity. Individuals later in the course of disease may have increased levels of innate immunity. The reasons for these changes are not known with certainty but may be related to compensatory increases as the disease progresses. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the course of immune abnormalities in schizophrenia and their role in the clinical manifestations of the disorder. PMID:26294704

  18. Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma. PMID:21160780

  19. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Quek, Amy May Lin; Soon, Derek; Chan, Yee Cheun; Thamboo, Thomas Paulraj; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-06-15

    Inflammatory neuropathies have been reported to occur in association with nephrotic syndrome. Their underlying immuno-pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. A 50-year-old woman concurrently presented with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Both neuropathy and proteinuria improved after plasma exchange and steroids. Literature review of cases of concurrent inflammatory neuropathies and nephrotic syndrome revealed similar neuro-renal presentations. This neuro-renal condition may be mediated by autoantibodies targeting myelin and podocytes.

  20. Iron deficiency across chronic inflammatory conditions: International expert opinion on definition, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Comin-Colet, Josep; de Francisco, Angel; Dignass, Axel; Doehner, Wolfram; S P Lam, Carolyn; Macdougall, Iain C; Rogler, Gerhard; Camaschella, Clara; Kadir, Rezan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Spahn, Donat R; Taher, Ali T; Musallam, Khaled M

    2017-10-01

    Iron deficiency, even in the absence of anemia, can be debilitating, and exacerbate any underlying chronic disease, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is frequently concomitant with chronic inflammatory disease; however, iron deficiency treatment is often overlooked, partially due to the heterogeneity among clinical practice guidelines. In the absence of consistent guidance across chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease and inflammatory bowel disease, we provide practical recommendations for iron deficiency to treating physicians: definition, diagnosis, and disease-specific diagnostic algorithms. These recommendations should facilitate appropriate diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Clinical and electrophysiological parameters distinguishing acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Annie; Nicolle, Michael W; Hahn, Angelika F

    2010-02-01

    Up to 16% of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients may present acutely. We performed a retrospective chart review on 30 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and 15 acute-onset CIDP (A-CIDP) patients looking for any clinical or electrophysiological parameters that might differentiate AIDP from acutely presenting CIDP. A-CIDP patients were significantly more likely to have prominent sensory signs. They were significantly less likely to have autonomic nervous system involvement, facial weakness, a preceding infectious illness, or need for mechanical ventilation. With regard to electrophysiological features, neither sural-sparing pattern, sensory ratio >1, nor the presence of A-waves was different between the two groups. This study suggests that patients presenting acutely with a demyelinating polyneuropathy and the aforementioned clinical features should be closely monitored as they may be more likely to have CIDP at follow-up.

  2. Blood dendritic cells: “canary in the coal mine” to predict chronic inflammatory disease?

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Brodie; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled A.; Gamal, Ahmed Y.; Baban, Babak; Cutler, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases are unknown. This makes personalized medicine for assessment, prognosis, and choice of therapy very difficult. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that low-grade subclinical infections may be an underlying cause of many chronic inflammatory diseases and thus may contribute to secondary outcomes (e.g., cancer). Many diseases are now categorized as inflammatory-mediated diseases that stem from a dysregulation in host immunity. There is a growing need to study the links between low-grade infections, the immune responses they elicit, and how this impacts overall health. One such link explored in detail here is the extreme sensitivity of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) in peripheral blood to chronic low-grade infections and the role that these mDCs play in arbitrating the resulting immune responses. We find that emerging evidence supports a role for pathogen-induced mDCs in chronic inflammation leading to increased risk of secondary clinical disease. The mDCs that are elevated in the blood as a result of low-grade bacteremia often do not trigger a productive immune response, but can disseminate the pathogen throughout the host. This aberrant trafficking of mDCs can accelerate systemic inflammatory disease progression. Conversely, restoration of dendritic cell homeostasis may aid in pathogen elimination and minimize dissemination. Thus it would seem prudent when assessing chronic inflammatory disease risk to consider blood mDC numbers, and the microbial content (microbiome) and activation state of these mDCs. These may provide important clues (“the canary in the coal mine”) of high inflammatory disease risk. This will facilitate development of novel immunotherapies to eliminate such smoldering infections in atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and pre-eclampsia. PMID:24478766

  3. [Autoantibodies in children with chronic inflammatory lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Markina, O A; Iastrebova, N E; Vaneeva, N P; Volkov, I K; Katosova, L K

    2001-01-01

    124 sera of children with chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumonia, bronchial asthma, exogenic allergic alveolitis, congenital developmental defects of the lungs and the syndrome of the situs inversus of organs were examined with a view to study the state of humoral immunity to tissues. The study was carried out by means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the use of collagen, elastin, DNA (native and denaturated), membrane antigens of the lung, the liver, the small intestine and the large intestine. Among all groups of patients autoimmune disturbances, manifested by a rise in the level of autoantibodies of different specificity, were registered. The degree of manifestation of autoimmune disturbances depended on the kind of pathology. After treatment a decrease in the level of autoantibodies was registered in the examinees.

  4. Inflammatory Markers in Recent Onset Psychosis and Chronic Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Schroeder, Jennifer; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy; Savage, Christina; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Immune markers have been associated with schizophrenia, but few studies have examined multiple markers in both recent onset and chronic schizophrenia patients. The sample of 588 individuals included 79 with recent onset psychosis, 249 with chronic schizophrenia, and 260 controls. A combined inflammation score was calculated by principal components factor analysis of the levels of C-reactive protein, Pentraxin 3, and IgG antibodies to gliadin, casein, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae measured in blood samples. Inflammation scores among groups were compared by multivariate analyses. The chronic schizophrenia group showed significant elevations in the combined inflammation score compared with controls. The recent onset group surprisingly showed a reduction in the combined inflammation score. Consistent with these findings, the chronic schizophrenia group had significantly increased odds of a combined inflammation score greater than the 75th and the 90th percentile of that of the controls. The recent onset group had significantly increased odds of a combined inflammation score less than the 10th and the 25th percentile level of the controls. The recent onset of psychosis may be associated with inherent deficits in innate immunity. Individuals later in the course of disease may have increased levels of innate immunity. The reasons for these changes are not known with certainty but may be related to compensatory increases as the disease progresses. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the course of immune abnormalities in schizophrenia and their role in the clinical manifestations of the disorder. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Negative-pressure Wound Therapy in Chronic Inflammatory Breast Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Namdaroğlu, Ozan Barış; Yazıcı, Hilmi; Öztürk, Ahmet Mücteba; Yakan, Savaş; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Uçar, Ahmet Deniz; Erkan, Nazif

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is inflammation of breast tissue that may or may not originate from an infection. Two different forms of mastitis have been described, lactational and non-lactational. Lactational mastitis is the most common type and generally conservative therapy that includes milk removal and physical therapy provides symptomatic relief, but antibiotic therapy is also needed. Common types of non-lactational mastitis are periductal mastitis and idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Treatment includes antibiotics, drainage, and surgery, but usually this is a chronic process and a therapeutic management algorithm for chronic breast inflammation is unclear and has no consensus. Negative-pressure wound therapy is commonly used for various types of wounds but is limited for breast wounds. In this report, we present and discuss two patients with chronic breast inflammation who underwent surgery and were successfully treated using negative-pressure wound therapy to minimize wide tissue defects and cosmetic problems after surgery. Use of negative-pressure wound therapy for breast wounds might be benefical as it is with other wounds but there is scarce information in the literature

  6. Carbocysteine: clinical experience and new perspectives in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Panzone, Filomena; Mantovani, Giovanni

    2009-03-01

    Carbocysteine is a muco-active drug with free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties. It is actually approved for clinical use as adjunctive therapy of respiratory tract disorders characterized by excessive, viscous mucus, including chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD). The intriguing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of carbocysteine, beyond its known mucolytic activity, are described to explain its therapeutic efficacy and suggest new clinical uses. After reviewing physiology and preclinical studies, human studies on the use of carbocysteine in chronic inflammatory diseases, i.e., COPD and cancer cachexia, are reviewed. Carbocysteine has been recently recognized as an effective and safe treatment for the long-term management of COPD, able to reduce the incidence of exacerbations and improve patient quality of life. Moreover, carbocysteine was effective in counteracting some symptoms associated with cancer cachexia. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of carbocysteine are more important than mucolysis itself for its therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, carbocysteine may be able to reverse the oxidative stress associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Controlled, randomized studies in humans are warranted.

  7. Long-term macrolide treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases: risks, benefits and future developments.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E J; McSharry, C; Chaudhuri, R; Farrow, S; Thomson, N C

    2012-09-01

    Macrolide antibiotics were discovered over 50 years ago and following their use as antimicrobials it became apparent that this group of antibiotics also possessed anti-inflammatory properties. Subsequent clinical trials showed benefits of macrolides as long-term adjuncts in the treatment of a spectrum of chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases, particularly diffuse panbronchiolitis, cystic fibrosis, post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans and more recently chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The evidence for efficacy of macrolides in the long-term treatment of chronic asthma and bronchiectasis is less well established. The mechanism(s) of action of macrolides in the treatment of these diseases remains unexplained, but may be due to their antibacterial and/or anti-inflammatory actions, which include reductions in interleukin-8 production, neutrophil migration and/or function. Macrolides have additional potentially beneficial properties including anti-viral actions and an ability to restore corticosteroid sensitivity. The increased prescribing of macrolides for long-term treatment could result in the development of microbial resistance and adverse drug effects. New macrolides have been developed which do not possess any antimicrobial activity and hence lack the ability to produce microbial resistance, but which still retain immunomodulatory effects. Potentially novel macrolides may overcome a significant barrier to the use of this type of drug for the long-term treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases.

  8. Anti-inflammatory modulation of chronic airway inflammation in the murine house dust mite model.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Kristina; Hincks, Jennifer S; Walsh, Roddy; Wetterstrand, E M Caroline; Fidock, Mark D; Sreckovic, Sasha; Lamb, David J; Douglas, Garry J; Yeadon, Michael; Perros-Huguet, Christelle; Evans, Steven M

    2008-08-01

    Asthma affects 300 million people worldwide and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Disease relevant animal models of asthma are required for benchmarking of novel therapeutic mechanisms in comparison to established clinical approaches. We demonstrate that chronic exposure of mice to house dust mite (HDM) extract results in allergic airway inflammation, that can be significantly attenuated by therapeutic intervention with phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition and corticosteroid treatment. Female BALB/c mice were administered intranasally with HDM (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) extract daily for five weeks, and therapeutic intervention with anti-inflammatory treatment (dexamethasone 1 mg/kg subcutaneous once daily, prednisolone 10mg/kg orally twice daily, fluticasone 3, 10 and 30 microg intranasally twice daily, roflumilast 10 mg/kg orally twice daily and intranasally 10 and 30 microg twice daily) was initiated after three weeks of exposure. Chronic HDM extract exposure resulted in significant airway inflammation, demonstrated by bronchoalveolar lavage cell infiltration and lung tissue inflammatory gene expression by TaqMan low density array. Chronic steroid treatment significantly inhibited these parameters. In addition, roflumilast caused a significant reduction in airway inflammatory cell infiltration. We have demonstrated that chronic HDM-induced allergic inflammation can be significantly ameliorated by steroid treatment, and that phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition modulates inflammatory cell infiltration. Therefore, the murine HDM model may be a useful tool for evaluating new targets for the treatment of asthma.

  9. [Ultrasonography in chronic inflammatory rheumatic and connective tissue disorders].

    PubMed

    Mérot, O; Le Goff, B

    2014-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonography is now widely used by almost all rheumatologists thanks to an improvement in the quality of ultrasound unit and probe and to the systematic teaching of this imaging technique to the rheumatology fellows. Applications have broadened from the study of degenerative and mechanical diseases to inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Ultrasound is more sensitive than clinical examination. Power Doppler allows the direct visualisation of inflammation within the tissues. Finally, it is a prognostic tool helping the physician in the management of the disease. This review will focus on the value and applications of ultrasonography in the 2 most frequent rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. We will also give some recent data on the usefulness of this imaging technique in the study of musculoskeletal manifestations associated with connective tissue disease.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the cellular inflammatory response against biofilm bacteria in chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Mustafa; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Jørgensen, Anne; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wounds are an important problem worldwide. These wounds are characterized by a persistent inflammatory stage associated with excessive accumulation and elevated cell activity of neutrophils, suggesting that there must be a persistent stimulus that attracts and recruits neutrophils to the wound. One such stimulus might be the presence of bacterial biofilms in chronic wounds. In the present study, biopsy specimens from chronic venous leg ulcers were investigated for the detection of bacteria using peptide nucleic acid-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The bacteria in the wounds were often situated in large aggregates. To obtain a measure of the cellular inflammatory response against the bacteria in the chronic wounds, the amount of neutrophils accumulated at the site of infection was evaluated through differential neutrophil counting on the tissue sections from wounds containing either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. The P. aeruginosa-containing wounds had significantly higher numbers of neutrophils accumulated compared with the S. aureus-containing wounds. These results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the presence of P. aeruginosa biofilms in chronic wounds may be one of the main factors leading to a persistent inflammatory response and impaired wound healing.

  11. Identification of Novel Anti-inflammatory Agents from Ayurvedic Medicine for Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Reuter, Simone; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Yadev, Vivek R.; Park, Byoungduck; Kim, Ji Hye; Gupta, Subash C.; Phromnoi, Kanokkarn; Sundaram, Chitra; Prasad, Seema; Chaturvedi, Madan M.; Sung, Bokyung

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation, although first characterized by Cornelius Celsus, a physician in first Century Rome, it was Rudolf Virchow, a German physician in nineteenth century who suggested a link between inflammation and cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pulmonary diseases, neurological diseases and other chronic diseases. Extensive research within last three decades has confirmed these observations and identified the molecular basis for most chronic diseases and for the associated inflammation. The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) that controls over 500 different gene products, has emerged as major mediator of inflammation. Thus agents that can inhibit NF-κB and diminish chronic inflammation have potential to prevent or delay the onset of the chronic diseases and further even treat them. In an attempt to identify novel anti-inflammatory agents which are safe and effective, in contrast to high throughput screen, we have turned to “reverse pharmacology” or “bed to benchside” approach. We found that Ayurveda, a science of long life, almost 6000 years old, can serve as a “goldmine” for novel anti-inflammatory agents used for centuries to treat chronic diseases. The current review is an attempt to provide description of various Ayurvedic plants currently used for treatment, their active chemical components, and the inflammatory pathways that they inhibit. PMID:21561421

  12. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Li, Sijia; Henke, Adam; Muse, Evan D; Cheng, Bo; Welzel, Gustav; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Wang, Danling; Roland, Jason; Glass, Christopher K; Tremblay, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR), a nuclear hormone receptor, is an essential regulator of immune responses. Activation of LXR-mediated transcription by synthetic agonists, such as T0901317 and GW3965, attenuates progression of inflammatory disease in animal models. However, the adverse effects of these conventional LXR agonists in elevating liver lipids have impeded exploitation of this intriguing mechanism for chronic therapy. Here, we explore the ability of a series of sterol-based LXR agonists to alleviate inflammatory conditions in mice without hepatotoxicity. We show that oral treatment with sterol-based LXR agonists in mice significantly reduces dextran sulfate sodium colitis-induced body weight loss, which is accompanied by reduced expression of inflammatory markers in the large intestine. The anti-inflammatory property of these agonists is recapitulated in vitro in mouse lamina propria mononuclear cells, human colonic epithelial cells, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, treatment with LXR agonists dramatically suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression in a model of traumatic brain injury. Importantly, in both disease models, the sterol-based agonists do not affect the liver, and the conventional agonist T0901317 results in significant liver lipid accumulation and injury. Overall, these results provide evidence for the development of sterol-based LXR agonists as novel therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.-Yu, S., Li, S., Henke, A., Muse, E. D., Cheng, B., Welzel, G., Chatterjee, A. K., Wang, D., Roland, J., Glass, C. K., Tremblay, M. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases. © FASEB.

  13. Impaired Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Szondy, Zsuzsa; Garabuczi, Éva; Joós, Gergely; Tsay, Gregory J.; Sarang, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis every day. Removal of the dead cells by phagocytosis (a process called efferocytosis) must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the consequent release of pro-inflammatory cell contents that damages the tissue environment and provokes autoimmunity. In addition, detection and removal of apoptotic cells generally induces an anti-inflammatory response. As a consequence improper clearance of apoptotic cells, being the result of either genetic anomalies and/or a persistent disease state, contributes to the establishment and progression of a number of human chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune and neurological disorders, inflammatory lung diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, or atherosclerosis. During the past decade, our knowledge about the mechanism of efferocytosis has significantly increased, providing therapeutic targets through which impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and the consequent inflammation could be influenced in these diseases. PMID:25136342

  14. Nature or nurture: let food be your epigenetic medicine in chronic inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Ndlovu, Matladi N; Haegeman, Guy; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2010-12-15

    Numerous clinical, physiopathological and epidemiological studies have underlined the detrimental or beneficial role of nutritional factors in complex inflammation related disorders such as allergy, asthma, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Today, nutritional research has shifted from alleviating nutrient deficiencies to chronic disease prevention. It is known that lifestyle, environmental conditions and nutritional compounds influence gene expression. Gene expression states are set by transcriptional activators and repressors and are often locked in by cell-heritable chromatin states. Only recently, it has been observed that the environmental conditions and daily diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via "reversible" heritable epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic changes in DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites (epimutations) or corrupt chromatin states of key inflammatory genes and noncoding RNAs, recently emerged as major governing factors in cancer, chronic inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Reciprocally, inflammation, metabolic stress and diet composition can also change activities of the epigenetic machinery and indirectly or directly change chromatin marks. This has recently launched re-exploration of anti-inflammatory bioactive food components for characterization of their effects on epigenome modifying enzymatic activities (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ribosylation, oxidation, ubiquitination, sumoylation). This may allow to improve healthy aging by reversing disease prone epimutations involved in chronic inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of honey supplementation on inflammatory markers among chronic smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Wan Syaheedah Wan; Romli, Aminah Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2017-03-28

    Honey has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory property. This is a randomized, controlled, open-label trial to determine the effects of 12-week honey oral supplementation on plasma inflammatory markers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α among chronic smokers. A total of 32 non-smokers and 64 chronic smokers from Quit Smoking Clinic and Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia participated in the study. Smokers were then randomized into 2 groups: smokers with honey group that received Malaysian Tualang honey (20 g/day daily for 12 weeks) and smokers without honey group. Blood was obtained from non-smokers and smokers at pre-intervention, and from smokers at post-intervention for measurement of the inflammatory markers. At pre-intervention, smokers had significantly higher high sensitive C-reactive protein than non-smokers. In smokers with honey group, tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly increased while high sensitive C-reactive protein was significantly reduced at post-intervention than at pre-intervention. This study suggests that honey supplementation has opposite effects on tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitive C-reactive protein indicating the inconclusive effect of honey on inflammation among chronic smokers which needs further study on other inflammatory markers. The Trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001236583 . Registered 11 November 2015 (Retrospectively Registered).

  16. Extended DNFB-induced contact hypersensitivity models display characteristics of chronic inflammatory dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Röse, Lars; Schneider, Claudia; Stock, Christine; Zollner, Thomas M; Döcke, Wolf-Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent developments, there is a high medical need for new treatment options for chronic inflammatory dermatoses like allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis. Particularly, more predictive skin inflammation models are required to facilitate the process of drug discovery. Murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models adequately reflect ACD and are also used to characterize therapeutic approaches for psoriasis. Using the hapten 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), we established new subacute and subchronic DNFB-induced CHS models in C57BL/6 mice, which more closely reflect the characteristics of chronic T-cell-dependent inflammatory dermatoses as pronounced keratinocyte proliferation, strong hypervascularization, immune cell infiltration and overexpression of T cell and inflammatory cytokines. For the subacute DNFB model, we demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of the glucocorticoid, prednisolone, as well as of neutralization of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23 or IL-18. In the subchronic DNFB-induced CHS model, deficiency for MyD88 and IL-12/IL-35 p35 chain but not IL-12/IL-23 p40 chain led to decreased skin inflammation. Furthermore, as exemplified by the dose-dependently effective therapeutic prednisolone treatment, the subchronic model allows the continuous therapy of a pre-established stable contact dermatitis. Altogether, prolonged DNFB-induced mouse CHS models closely reflect ACD sensitive to glucocorticoids as standard therapy, reveal a more chronic skin inflammation and are responsive to cytokine antagonization.

  17. Subgingival Microbial and Inflammatory Cell Morphotypes Associated with Chronic Periodontitis Progression in Treated Adults.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    2015-04-01

    In a secondary data analysis, this pilot study evaluated the relationship between subgingival biofilm morphotypes and chronic periodontitis progression in treated adults. Periodontal parameters in 47 adults with chronic periodontitis were assessed by a calibrated examiner at baseline and a mean 4.5 years after a non-surgical periodontal therapy regimen. Microbial and inflammatory cell morphotypes in subgingival biofilm specimens from each patient were evaluated with phase-contrast microscopy at baseline, and at post-treatment intervals. Chronic periodontitis progression in patients was defined as ≥ 2 teeth exhibiting ≥ 3 mm interproximal clinical periodontal attachment loss from baseline evaluations. Bivariate and odds ratio analysis assessed baseline and post-treatment variables relative to chronic periodontitis progression. Eight (17%) patients had chronic periodontitis progression. No baseline clinical, radiographic or microbiological variables, and no post-treatment clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant relationships with chronic periodontitis progression. Elevated post-treatment counts of subgingival spirochetes, medium to large-sized motile rods, and crevicular leukocytes, both alone and concurrently, appeared more frequently in patients experiencing chronic periodontitis progression. A post-treatment occurrence of high concurrent counts of subgingival spirochetes and crevicular leukocytes exhibited the strongest association with chronic periodontitis progression (odds ratio = 10.1; 95% Cl = 2.2, 45.4; p = 0.004), which was greater than with either morphotype alone. Joint morphotype analysis of subgingival spirochetes and crevicular leukocytes, as simplified biomarkers of pathogenic biofilm infection and host inflammatory responses in periodontal pockets, may be diagnostically useful in assessing risk of progressive disease in treated chronic periodontitis patients.

  18. Peroxiredoxin 6 differentially regulates acute and chronic cigarette smoke–mediated lung inflammatory response and injury

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Chung, Sangwoon; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Arunachalam, Gnanapragasam; Cook, Suzanne; Yao, Hongwei; Mazur, Witold; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Fisher, Aron B.; Rahman, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) exerts its protective role through peroxidase activity against H2O2 and phospholipid hydroperoxides. We hypothesized that targeted disruption of Prdx6 would lead to enhanced susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated lung inflammation and/or emphysema in mouse lung. Prdx6 null (Prdx6−/−) mice exposed to acute CS showed no significant increase of inflammatory cell influx or any alterations in lung levels of pro inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Lung levels of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in acute CS-exposed Prdx6−/− compared to WT mice. Overexpressing (Prdx6+/+) mice exposed to acute CS showed significant decrease in lung antioxidant enzymes associated with increased inflammatory response compared to CS-exposed WT mice or air-exposed Prdx6−/− mice. However, chronic 6 months of CS exposure resulted in increased lung inflammatory response, mean linear intercept (Lm), and alteration in lung mechanical properties in Prdx6−/− when compared to WT mice exposed to CS. These data show that targeted disruption of Prdx6 does not lead to increased lung inflammatory response but is associated with increased antioxidants, suggesting a critical role of lung Prdx6 and several compensatory mechanisms during acute CS-induced adaptive response, whereas this protection is lost in chronic CS exposure leading to emphysema. PMID:20939758

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Yeon; Choo, Byung Kil; Yoon, Taesook; Cheon, Myeong Sook; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, A Yeong; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2009-01-12

    Although Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill (Liliaceae) has long been used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains to be defined. We investigated the effects of 70% ethanolic extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill (ACE) on skin inflammation in mice. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta), activation of myeloperoxidase, and histological assessment were examined in acute and chronic skin inflammation using 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema. We also performed acetic acid-induced vascular permeability test. ACE inhibited topical edema in the mouse ear, following administration at 200mg/kg (i.p.), leading to substantial reductions in skin thickness and tissue weight, inflammatory cytokine production, neutrophil-mediated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and various histopathological indicators. Furthermore, ACE was effective at reducing inflammatory damage induced by chronic TPA exposure and evoked a significant inhibition of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice. These results demonstrate that ACE is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in murine phorbol ester-induced dermatitis, and suggest that the compound may have therapeutic potential in a variety of immune-related cutaneous diseases.

  20. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7315/7316 intake modulates the acute and chronic innate inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; López-Bernal, Sergi; Camino, Sandra; Mendieta, Guiomar; Padró, Teresa; Badimon, Lina

    2015-10-01

    Probiotics may confer health benefits for the host. Although Lactobacillus has demonstrated to stimulate the immune response, only a few strains have demonstrated immunomodulatory properties. The newly identified Lactobacillus plantarum strains CECT7315 and CECT7316 (LP3457) seem to boost the immune system in individuals that immune decline. We aimed to investigate whether LP3457 protects against inflammation and the mechanism behind. LP3457 potential anti-inflammatory effects were assessed in an acute model LPS-induced inflammation in healthy rats and in a chronic model of low-grade inflammation in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Wistar rats received LP3457 or placebo control for 20 days. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at day 14, and animals were sacrificed 6 days after. Blood was collected at baseline (day 0) and consecutively at day 7, 14, 17, and 20 for haematological evaluation and assessment of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory systemic markers. Myeloperoxidase activity was investigated in the ileum. ZDF rats received LP3457 or placebo control during 8 weeks, and changes in inflammasome-related transcripts were assessed in the ileum. LPS induced a comparable and significant leucocytosis 3 days post-injection (day 17) in both LP3457-treated and LP3457-untreated rats. However, the probiotic supplementation attenuated IL-1β, IL-6, and CRP release and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels 6 days post-LPS induction (p < 0.05 vs. placebo). LP3457-supplemented animals also displayed lower intestinal myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.05 vs. placebo). Chronic administration of LP3457 to ZDF rats resulted in a significant downregulation of the inflammasome signalling pathway (p < 0.05 vs. placebo). Intake of LP3457 attenuates both acute endotoxemia-induced and chronic metabolically induced inflammatory reactions and the inflammasome signalling pathway. The stabilization and regulation of the gut microbiota is an important target

  1. Voltage gated sodium and calcium channel blockers for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wahida; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2013-12-17

    The inflammatory response is a natural response of the body that occurs immediately following tissue damage, which may be due to injury, infection or disease. The acute inflammatory response is an essential mechanism that promotes healing and a key aspect is the ensuing pain, which warns the subject to protect the site of injury. Thus, it is common to see a zone of primary sensitization as well as consequential central sensitization that generally, is maintained by a peripheral drive from the zone of tissue injury. Inflammation associated with chronic pain states, such as rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, cancer and migraine etc. is deleterious to health and often debilitating for the patient. Thus there is a large unmet clinical need. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic inflammatory pain are extensive and complex, involving a diversity of cell types, receptors and proteins. Among these the contribution of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels on peripheral nociceptors is critical for nociceptive transmission beyond the peripheral transducers and changes in their distribution, accumulation, clustering and functional activities have been linked to both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The latter has been the main area for trials and use of drugs that modulate ion channels such as carbamazepine and gabapentin, but given the large peripheral drive that follows tissue damage, there is a clear rationale for blocking voltage gated sodium and calcium channels in these pain states. It has been hypothesized that pain of inflammatory origin may evolve into a condition that resembles neuropathic pain, but mixed pains such as low back pain and cancer pain often include elements of both pain states. This review considers the therapeutic potential for sodium and calcium channel blockers for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-proline-glycine-proline or antielastin autoantibodies are not evident in chronic inflammatory lung disease.

    PubMed

    Greene, Catherine M; Low, Teck Boon; O'Neill, Shane J; McElvaney, Noel G

    2010-01-01

    In patients with chronic inflammatory lung disease, pulmonary proteases can generate neoantigens from elastin and collagen with the potential to fuel autoreactive immune responses. Antielastin peptide antibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of tobacco-smoke-induced emphysema. Collagen-derived peptides may also play a role. To determine whether autoantibodies directed against elastin- and collagen-derived peptides are present in plasma from three groups of patients with chronic inflammatory lung disease compared with a nonsmoking healthy control group and to identify whether autoimmune responses to these peptides may be an important component of the disease process in these patients. A total of 124 patients or healthy control subjects were recruited for the study (Z-A1AT deficiency, n = 20; cystic fibrosis, n = 40; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n = 31; healthy control, n = 33). C-reactive protein, IL-32, and antinuclear antibodies were quantified. Antielastin and anti-N-acetylated-proline-glycine-proline autoantibodies were measured by reverse ELISA. All patients were deemed stable and noninfective on the basis of the absence of clinical or radiographic evidence of recent infection. There were no significant differences in the levels of autoantibodies or IL-32 in the patients groups compared with the healthy control subjects. Antielastin or anti-N-acetylated proline-glycine-proline autoantibodies are not evident in chronic inflammatory lung disease.

  3. Successful treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with oral cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, R; Sockalingam, S; Shahrizaila, N; Cheah, T-E; Zain, A A; Goh, K-J

    2012-09-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a known manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the association of primary autoimmune inflammatory neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with SLE is uncommon. We report a 26-year-old man who simultaneously presented with severe CIDP and photosensitive rash, but was unresponsive to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and continued to progress. He was found to have underlying SLE and improved with combined corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy with oral cyclophosphamide. CIDP with underlying SLE may be more resistant to conventional therapy with IVIG, requiring the addition of other immunosuppressive agents.

  4. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Yener, Nese; Ilter, Erdin; Midi, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully treated pelvic inflammatory disease. Its association with chronic active follicular salpingitis has not been previously reported. Chronic active follicular salpingitis with xanthogranulomatous inflammation might give the impression of a cystic adnexal mass with septations on preoperative pelvic computed tomography. Frozen sections are necessary to rule out malignancy as done in our case.

  5. [Implication of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases in the course of chronic inflammatory airway diseases].

    PubMed

    Lechapt-Zalcman, E; Escudier, E

    2000-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major proteolytic enzymes that are involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) turn over. MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) cleave type IV collagen, which is an important constituent of basement membrane. These enzymes play an important role in normal tissue homeostasis, but imbalance between MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) is thought to be a critical factor in regulating tissue remodeling. MMP-2 is produced by fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, while MMP-9 is mainly produced by inflammatory cells. The role of MMPs was investigated through biochemical analysis or in situ expression, in the pathogenesis of two chronic inflammatory airway diseases, asthma and nasal polyposis. Both are characterized with the accumulation of active inflammatory cells, matrix remodeling and epithelial changes. Increased levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were found in asthmatic subjects and NP. In NP, MMP-9 expression was detected in epithelial, endothelial and inflammatory cells. In this setting, MMP-9 could play a crucial role in the transmigration of basement membrane components by inflammatory cells leading to inflammatory cell accumulation and maintenance of inflammation in airway. Moreover, MMP-9 may contribute to cell migration, an important mechanism involved in the repair of the respiratory epithelium.

  6. Pamidronate treatment of chronic noninfectious inflammatory lesions of the mandible in children.

    PubMed

    Compeyrot-Lacassagne, Sandrine; Rosenberg, Alan M; Babyn, Paul; Laxer, Ronald M

    2007-07-01

    Noninfectious inflammatory lesions of the mandible occur in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible (DSOM) is a condition thought to be a localized form of CRMO. Recently, bisphosphonate therapy, and particularly intravenous pamidronate, has been proposed as a treatment for patients with both CRMO and DSOM who do not improve with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug treatment. We report our experience using pamidronate in 2 children with chronic noninfectious osteomyelitis affecting the mandible. We describe the clinical and radiographic features and the treatment, side effects, and clinical and radiographic responses. Our experience suggests that pamidronate is an effective second-line therapy.

  7. Appearance of attenuated intestinal polyposis during chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2012-12-06

    Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may prevent sporadic colonic neoplasia and reduce the polyp burden in familial adenomatous polyposis. A 41-year-old pharmacologist with no family history of intestinal polyps or cancer chronically consumed daily aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for decades despite recurrent and multiple gastric ulcers. A cancerous polyp in the colon was endoscopically resected. Over the next 2 decades, almost 50 adenomatous polyps were removed from the rest of his colon and duodenum, typical of an attenuated form of adenomatous polyposis. Chronic and habitual use of aspirin or NSAIDS may have important significance in delaying the appearance of adenomas. The observations here emphasize the important implications for clinical risk assessment in screening programs designed to detect or prevent colon cancer.

  8. Systematic review of anaemia and inflammatory markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hoepers, Andrea Thives de Carvalho; Menezes, Marcia Margarete; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the relevant published articles on the prevalence of anaemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its relationship with inflammatory markers. The upregulation of erythropoietin in anaemia maintains homeostasis. However, anaemic COPD patients do not respond to increased levels of erythropoietin. The increased levels could be an indicator of the peripheral erythropoietin resistance in COPD. Anaemia and inflammation are associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality in these patients. The understanding of anaemia in chronic inflammation is that anaemia is at least partially due to the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to improvements in the management, prognosis, and survival of patients with COPD and anaemia.

  9. Targeted anti-inflammatory therapeutics in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Andrew L.; Caramori, Gaetano; Chung, Kian F.; Adcock, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway, although the drivers and site of the inflammation differ between diseases. Asthmatics with a neutrophilic airway inflammation are associated with a poor response to corticosteroids, whereas asthmatics with eosinophilic inflammation respond better to corticosteroids. Biologicals targeting the Th2-eosinophil nexus such as anti–interleukin (IL)-4, anti–IL-5, and anti–IL-13 are ineffective in asthma as a whole but are more effective if patients are selected using cellular (eg, eosinophils) or molecular (eg, periostin) biomarkers. This highlights the key role of individual inflammatory mediators in driving the inflammatory response and for accurate disease phenotyping to allow greater understanding of disease and development of patient-oriented antiasthma therapies. In contrast to asthmatic patients, corticosteroids are relatively ineffective in COPD patients. Despite stratification of COPD patients, the results of targeted therapy have proved disappointing with the exception of recent studies using CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)2 antagonists. Currently, several other novel mediator-targeted drugs are undergoing clinical trials. As with asthma specifically targeted treatments may be of most benefit in specific COPD patient endotypes. The use of novel inflammatory mediator-targeted therapeutic agents in selected patients with asthma or COPD and the detection of markers of responsiveness or nonresponsiveness will allow a link between clinical phenotypes and pathophysiological mechanisms to be delineated reaching the goal of endotyping patients. PMID:26334389

  10. Targeted anti-inflammatory therapeutics in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andrew L; Caramori, Gaetano; Chung, Kian F; Adcock, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway, although the drivers and site of the inflammation differ between diseases. Asthmatics with a neutrophilic airway inflammation are associated with a poor response to corticosteroids, whereas asthmatics with eosinophilic inflammation respond better to corticosteroids. Biologicals targeting the Th2-eosinophil nexus such as anti-interleukin (IL)-4, anti-IL-5, and anti-IL-13 are ineffective in asthma as a whole but are more effective if patients are selected using cellular (eg, eosinophils) or molecular (eg, periostin) biomarkers. This highlights the key role of individual inflammatory mediators in driving the inflammatory response and for accurate disease phenotyping to allow greater understanding of disease and development of patient-oriented antiasthma therapies. In contrast to asthmatic patients, corticosteroids are relatively ineffective in COPD patients. Despite stratification of COPD patients, the results of targeted therapy have proved disappointing with the exception of recent studies using CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)2 antagonists. Currently, several other novel mediator-targeted drugs are undergoing clinical trials. As with asthma specifically targeted treatments may be of most benefit in specific COPD patient endotypes. The use of novel inflammatory mediator-targeted therapeutic agents in selected patients with asthma or COPD and the detection of markers of responsiveness or nonresponsiveness will allow a link between clinical phenotypes and pathophysiological mechanisms to be delineated reaching the goal of endotyping patients.

  11. IL-32: A Novel Pluripotent Inflammatory Interleukin, towards Gastric Inflammation, Gastric Cancer, and Chronic Rhino Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A vast variety of nonstructural proteins have been studied for their key roles and involvement in a number of biological phenomenona. Interleukin-32 is a novel cytokine whose presence has been confirmed in most of the mammals except rodents. The IL-32 gene was identified on human chromosome 16 p13.3. The gene has eight exons and nine splice variants, namely, IL-32α, IL-32β, IL-32γ, IL-32δ, IL-32ε, IL-32ζ, IL-32η, IL-32θ, and IL-32s. It was found to induce the expression of various inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β as well as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and has been reported previously to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of a number of inflammatory disorders, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), gastric inflammation and cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the current review, we have highlighted the involvement of IL-32 in gastric cancer, gastric inflammation, and chronic rhinosinusitis. We have also tried to explore various mechanisms suspected to induce the expression of this extraordinary cytokine as well as various mechanisms of action employed by IL-32 during the mediation and progression of the above said problems. PMID:27143819

  12. SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for imaging chronic inflammatory diseases in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Anzola, L K; Galli, F; Dierckx, R A

    2015-06-01

    In the recent years, many radiopharmaceuticals have been described for the diagnosis of inflammatory chronic diseases. Several peptides, receptor ligands and monoclonal antibodies have been radiolabelled, allowing in-vivo visualization of inflammatory processes at a cellular and molecular level. The labelling of cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-12 and MCP-1 has facilitated the identification of inflamed synovia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, active Crohn's disease, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and other targets. The possibility of using monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, CD2, CD3, CD4 and anti-selectin has not only allowed the localization of inflamed sites but had also a significant impact in helping the selection of patients who can benefit from biological therapies. Regarding radiolabelled peptides, it is important to highlight the increasing use of somatostatin analogues targeting somatostatin receptors in inflammatory diseases, particularly for rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome and autoimmune thyroid diseases. In the present review we describe the state of the art of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals to image chronic inflammatory diseases.

  13. Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Vilchez-Padial, Laura Maria; Gil, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics and synbiotics are used to treat chronic diseases, principally due to their role in immune system modulation and the anti-inflammatory response. The present study reviewed the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on intestinal chronic diseases in in vitro, animal, and human studies, particularly in randomized clinical trials. The selected probiotics exhibit in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. Probiotic strains and cell-free supernatants reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via action that is principally mediated by toll-like receptors. Probiotic administration improved the clinical symptoms, histological alterations, and mucus production in most of the evaluated animal studies, but some results suggest that caution should be taken when administering these agents in the relapse stages of IBD. In addition, no effects on chronic enteropathies were reported. Probiotic supplementation appears to be potentially well tolerated, effective, and safe in patients with IBD, in both CD and UC. Indeed, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium longum 536 improved the clinical symptoms in patients with mild to moderate active UC. Although it has been proposed that probiotics can provide benefits in certain conditions, the risks and benefits should be carefully assessed before initiating any therapy in patients with IBD. For this reason, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism by which probiotics and synbiotics affect these diseases. PMID:28555037

  14. Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Vilchez-Padial, Laura Maria; Gil, Angel

    2017-05-28

    Probiotics and synbiotics are used to treat chronic diseases, principally due to their role in immune system modulation and the anti-inflammatory response. The present study reviewed the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on intestinal chronic diseases in in vitro, animal, and human studies, particularly in randomized clinical trials. The selected probiotics exhibit in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. Probiotic strains and cell-free supernatants reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via action that is principally mediated by toll-like receptors. Probiotic administration improved the clinical symptoms, histological alterations, and mucus production in most of the evaluated animal studies, but some results suggest that caution should be taken when administering these agents in the relapse stages of IBD. In addition, no effects on chronic enteropathies were reported. Probiotic supplementation appears to be potentially well tolerated, effective, and safe in patients with IBD, in both CD and UC. Indeed, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium longum 536 improved the clinical symptoms in patients with mild to moderate active UC. Although it has been proposed that probiotics can provide benefits in certain conditions, the risks and benefits should be carefully assessed before initiating any therapy in patients with IBD. For this reason, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism by which probiotics and synbiotics affect these diseases.

  15. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 peptide inhibits pathogenic leukocyte trafficking and inflammatory demyelination in experimental models of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chaoling; Greathouse, Kelsey M; Beacham, Rebecca L; Palladino, Steven P; Helton, E Scott; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2017-06-01

    The molecular determinants of pathogenic leukocyte migration across the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) are unknown. Specific disease modifying therapies for CIDP are also lacking. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 (FNCS1), an alternatively spliced fibronectin variant expressed by microvascular endothelial cells at sites of inflammation in vitro and in situ, is a counterligand for leukocyte α4 integrin (also known as CD49d) implicated in pathogenic leukocyte trafficking in multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. We sought to determine the role of FNCS1 in CIDP patient leukocyte trafficking across the BNB in vitro and in severe chronic demyelinating neuritis in vivo using a representative spontaneous murine CIDP model. Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from 7 untreated CIDP patients were independently infused into a cytokine-treated, flow-dependent in vitro BNB model system. Time-lapse digital video microscopy was performed to visualize and quantify leukocyte trafficking, comparing FNCS1 peptide blockade to relevant controls. Fifty 24-week old female B7-2 deficient non-obese diabetic mice with spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) were treated daily with 2mg/kg FNCS1 peptide for 5days via intraperitoneal injection with appropriate controls. Neurobehavioral measures of disease severity, motor nerve electrophysiology assessments and histopathological quantification of inflammation and morphometric assessment of demyelination were performed to determine in vivo efficacy. The biological relevance of FNCS1 and CD49d in CIDP was evaluated by immunohistochemical detection in affected patient sural nerve biopsies. 25μM FNCS1 peptide maximally inhibited CIDP leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. FNCS1 peptide treatment resulted in significant improvements in disease severity, motor electrophysiological parameters of demyelination and histological measures of

  16. Control of Inflammatory Responses: a New Paradigm for the Treatment of Chronic Neuronal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joo Hong; Lee, Jee Hoon; Kim, Hyunmi; Park, Soo Jung; Joe, Eun-hye

    2015-01-01

    The term 'inflammation' was first introduced by Celsus almost 2000 years ago. Biological and medical researchers have shown increasing interest in inflammation over the past few decades, in part due to the emerging burden of chronic and degenerative diseases resulting from the increased longevity that has arisen thanks to modern medicine. Inflammation is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of degenerative brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, researchers have sought to combat such diseases by controlling inflammatory responses. In this review, we describe the endogenous inflammatory stimulators and signaling pathways in the brain. In particular, our group has focused on the JAK-STAT pathway, identifying anti-inflammatory targets and testing the effects of various anti-inflammatory drugs. This work has shown that the JAK-STAT pathway and its downstream are negatively regulated by phosphatases (SHP2 and MKP-1), inhibitory proteins (SOCS1 and SOCS3) and a nuclear receptor (LXR). These negative regulators are controlled at various levels (e.g. transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational). Future study of these proteins could facilitate the manipulation of the inflammatory response, which plays ubiquitous, diverse and ambivalent roles under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26113788

  17. Control of Inflammatory Responses: a New Paradigm for the Treatment of Chronic Neuronal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joo Hong; Lee, Jee Hoon; Kim, Hyunmi; Park, Soo Jung; Joe, Eun-Hye; Jou, Ilo

    2015-06-01

    The term 'inflammation' was first introduced by Celsus almost 2000 years ago. Biological and medical researchers have shown increasing interest in inflammation over the past few decades, in part due to the emerging burden of chronic and degenerative diseases resulting from the increased longevity that has arisen thanks to modern medicine. Inflammation is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of degenerative brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, researchers have sought to combat such diseases by controlling inflammatory responses. In this review, we describe the endogenous inflammatory stimulators and signaling pathways in the brain. In particular, our group has focused on the JAK-STAT pathway, identifying anti-inflammatory targets and testing the effects of various anti-inflammatory drugs. This work has shown that the JAK-STAT pathway and its downstream are negatively regulated by phosphatases (SHP2 and MKP-1), inhibitory proteins (SOCS1 and SOCS3) and a nuclear receptor (LXR). These negative regulators are controlled at various levels (e.g. transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational). Future study of these proteins could facilitate the manipulation of the inflammatory response, which plays ubiquitous, diverse and ambivalent roles under physiological and pathological conditions.

  18. Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes via chronic inflammatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Gohar; Khan, Jalaluddin A.; Kumosani, Taha A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the potential common processes that could explain this relation between AD and T2DM. In the recent decades, an abundance of evidence has emerged demonstrating that chronic inflammatory processes may be the major factors contributing to the development and progression of T2DM and AD. In this article, we have discussed the molecular underpinnings of inflammatory process that contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM and AD and how they are linked to these two diseases. In depth understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms through which AD and T2DM are associated to each other may help the researchers to develop novel and more effective strategies to treat together AD and T2DM. Several treatment options have been identified which spurn the inflammatory processes and discourage the production of inflammatory mediators, thereby preventing or slowing down the onset of T2DM and AD. PMID:25561876

  19. Are acute exacerbations of chronic inflammatory appendicitis triggered by coprostasis and/or coproliths?

    PubMed

    Sgourakis, George; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Eibl, Charis; Bonticous, Stylianous; Moege, Jurgen; Berchtold, Christoph

    2008-05-28

    To examine the role of coprostasis and coproliths in recurrent appendicitis. We evaluated four hundred and twenty seven consecutive pathology reports of all appendectomy specimens from January 2003 to December 2004. Findings were categorised as showing acute appendicitis, acute recurrent appendicitis, subacute recurrent appendicitis, chronic appendicitis, or appendices without inflammation. All patients had presented with acute right lower quadrant pain. In 94 instances, there was a history of recurrent similar episodes in the past. Of the 427 histology reports, 294 were inter-preted as showing acute appendicitis, 56 acute recurrent appendicitis, 34 subacute recurrent appen-dicitis, 28 chronic appendicitis, and 15 non-inflamed appendices. Coprostasis was observed in 58 patients (13.58%) and the presence of coprolith in 6 (1.4%). Coprostasis, and age, were among the predictors in the final model. Coprostasis but not coproliths seems to be a contributing factor to acute exacerbations of chronic inflammatory appendicitis.

  20. Physical activity, by enhancing parasympathetic tone and activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, is a therapeutic strategy to restrain chronic inflammation and prevent many chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2013-05-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death in the world and chronic inflammation is a key contributor to many chronic diseases. Accordingly, interventions that reduce inflammation may be effective in treating multiple adverse chronic conditions. In this context, physical activity is documented to reduce systemic low-grade inflammation and is acknowledged as an anti-inflammatory intervention. Furthermore, physically active individuals are at a lower risk of developing chronic diseases. However the mechanisms mediating this anti-inflammatory phenotype and range of health benefits are unknown. We hypothesize that the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" (CAP) mediates the anti-inflammatory phenotype and range of health benefits associated with physical activity. The CAP is an endogenous, physiological mechanism by which acetylcholine from the vagus nerve, interacts with the innate immune system to modulate and restrain the inflammatory cascade. Importantly, higher levels of physical activity are associated with enhanced parasympathetic (vagal) tone and lower levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation. Accordingly, physical activity, by enhancing parasympathetic tone and activating the CAP, may be a therapeutic strategy to restrain chronic inflammation and prevent many chronic diseases.

  1. Chronic comorbidities associated with inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence and impact on healthcare costs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bähler, Caroline; Schoepfer, Alain M; Vavricka, Stephan R; Brüngger, Beat; Reich, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was shown to be associated with a variety of chronic comorbidities. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of 21 chronic conditions and compared frequencies in IBD and non-IBD populations. Further, healthcare costs of those (additional) chronic conditions were calculated. A total of 4791 IBD patients, who were insured at Helsana Insurance Group in 2014, were compared with 1 114 638 individuals without IBD. Entropy balancing was performed to create balanced samples. Chronic conditions were identified by means of the updated Pharmacy-based Cost Group model. Multivariate log-transformed linear regression modeling was performed to estimate the effect of the morbidity status (non-IBD +none, +1, +2, and +3 or more chronic conditions) on the healthcare costs. Overall, 78% of IBD patients had at least one comorbidity, with a median of three comorbidities. Largest differences between individuals with and without IBD were found for rheumatologic conditions, acid-related disorders, pain, bone diseases, migraines, cancer, and iron-deficiency anemia, whereas no significant differences between the two groups were found for diabetes, dementia, hyperlipidemia, glaucoma, gout, HIV, psychoses, and Parkinson's disease after adjustments for a variety of covariates. Each increase in the morbidity status led to increased healthcare costs; rheumatologic conditions, acid-related disorders, and pain as the most frequent comorbidities more than doubled total costs in IBD patients. We found a considerably high prevalence of concomitant chronic diseases in IBD patients. This was associated with considerably higher healthcare costs, especially in the outpatient setting.

  2. Oxidized Phospholipid OxPAPC Activates TRPA1 and Contributes to Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Tai, Yan; Caceres, Ana I; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Junfan; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation products of the naturally occurring phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC), which are known as OxPAPC, accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and at other sites of inflammation in conditions such as septic inflammation and acute lung injury to exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects. It is currently unknown whether OxPAPC also contributes to inflammatory pain and peripheral neuronal excitability in these conditions. Here, we observed that OxPAPC dose-dependently and selectively activated human TRPA1 nociceptive ion channels expressed in HEK293 cells in vitro, without any effect on other TRP channels, including TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPM8. OxPAPC agonist activity was dependent on essential cysteine and lysine residues within the N-terminus of the TRPA1 channel protein. OxPAPC activated calcium influx into a subset of mouse sensory neurons which were also sensitive to the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. Neuronal OxPAPC responses were largely abolished in neurons isolated from TRPA1-deficient mice. Intraplantar injection of OxPAPC into the mouse hind paw induced acute pain and persistent mechanical hyperalgesia and this effect was attenuated by the TRPA1 inhibitor, HC-030031. More importantly, we found levels of OxPAPC to be significantly increased in inflamed tissue in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain, identified by the binding of an OxPAPC-specific antibody. These findings suggest that TRPA1 is a molecular target for OxPAPC and OxPAPC may contribute to chronic inflammatory pain through TRPA1 activation. Targeting against OxPAPC and TRPA1 signaling pathway may be promising in inflammatory pain treatment.

  3. Oxidized Phospholipid OxPAPC Activates TRPA1 and Contributes to Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Tai, Yan; Caceres, Ana I.; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Junfan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation products of the naturally occurring phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC), which are known as OxPAPC, accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and at other sites of inflammation in conditions such as septic inflammation and acute lung injury to exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects. It is currently unknown whether OxPAPC also contributes to inflammatory pain and peripheral neuronal excitability in these conditions. Here, we observed that OxPAPC dose-dependently and selectively activated human TRPA1 nociceptive ion channels expressed in HEK293 cells in vitro, without any effect on other TRP channels, including TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPM8. OxPAPC agonist activity was dependent on essential cysteine and lysine residues within the N-terminus of the TRPA1 channel protein. OxPAPC activated calcium influx into a subset of mouse sensory neurons which were also sensitive to the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. Neuronal OxPAPC responses were largely abolished in neurons isolated from TRPA1-deficient mice. Intraplantar injection of OxPAPC into the mouse hind paw induced acute pain and persistent mechanical hyperalgesia and this effect was attenuated by the TRPA1 inhibitor, HC-030031. More importantly, we found levels of OxPAPC to be significantly increased in inflamed tissue in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain, identified by the binding of an OxPAPC-specific antibody. These findings suggest that TRPA1 is a molecular target for OxPAPC and OxPAPC may contribute to chronic inflammatory pain through TRPA1 activation. Targeting against OxPAPC and TRPA1 signaling pathway may be promising in inflammatory pain treatment. PMID:27812120

  4. The Immune Protective Effect of the Mediterranean Diet against Chronic Low-grade Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

  5. Gastrodin protects against chronic inflammatory pain by inhibiting spinal synaptic potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Mei-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Wang, Wen-Ting; Han, Wen-Juan; Lin, Zhen; Xie, Rou-Gang; Cao, Zhi; Lu, Na; Hu, San-Jue; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Dong, Hui; Luo, Ceng

    2016-01-01

    Tissue injury is known to produce inflammation and pain. Synaptic potentiation between peripheral nociceptors and spinal lamina I neurons has been proposed to serve as a trigger for chronic inflammatory pain. Gastrodin is a main bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, which has been widely used as an analgesic since ancient times. However, its underlying cellular mechanisms have remained elusive. The present study demonstrated for the first time that gastrodin exhibits an analgesic effect at the spinal level on spontaneous pain, mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity induced by peripheral inflammation, which is not dependent on opioid receptors and without tolerance. This analgesia by gastrodin is at least in part mediated by depressing spinal synaptic potentiation via blockade of acid-sensing ion channels. Further studies with miniature EPSCs and paired-pulse ratio analysis revealed the presynaptic origin of the action of gastrodin, which involves a decrease in transmitter release probability. In contrast, neither basal nociception nor basal synaptic transmission was altered. This study revealed a dramatic analgesic action of gastrodin on inflammatory pain and uncovered a novel spinal mechanism that could underlie the analgesia by gastrodin, pointing the way to a new analgesic for treating chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:27853254

  6. ECM hydrogel coating mitigates the chronic inflammatory response to polypropylene mesh.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Denver M; Londono, Ricardo; Wolf, Matthew T; Ranallo, Christian A; Carruthers, Christopher A; Wildemann, Justin D; Dearth, Christopher L; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-10-01

    Polypropylene has been used as a surgical mesh material for several decades. This non-degradable synthetic polymer provides mechanical strength, a predictable host response, and its use has resulted in reduced recurrence rates for ventral hernia and pelvic organ prolapse. However, polypropylene and similar synthetic materials are associated with a chronic local tissue inflammatory response and dense fibrous tissue deposition. These outcomes have prompted variations in mesh design to minimize the surface area interface and increase integration with host tissue. In contrast, biologic scaffold materials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are rapidly degraded in-vivo and are associated with constructive tissue remodeling and minimal fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of an ECM hydrogel coating on the long-term host tissue response to polypropylene mesh in a rodent model of abdominal muscle injury. At 14 days post implantation, the ECM coated polypropylene mesh devices showed a decreased inflammatory response as characterized by the number and distribution of M1 macrophages (CD86+/CD68+) around mesh fibers when compared to the uncoated mesh devices. At 180 days the ECM coated polypropylene showed decreased density of collagen and amount of mature type I collagen deposited between mesh fibers when compared to the uncoated mesh devices. This study confirms and extends previous findings that an ECM coating mitigates the chronic inflammatory response and associated scar tissue deposition characteristic of polypropylene.

  7. Inflammatory reaction in chronic periodontopathies in patients with diabetes mellitus. Histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Camen, Georgiana Cristiana; Caraivan, O; Olteanu, Mădălina; Camen, A; Bunget, Adina; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Predescu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Chronic periodontopathies and diabetes mellitus are two clinical entities, which reciprocally condition one another. The periodontal disease is considered a major complication, which induces an unfavorable evolution of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease which favors the occurrence of periodontopathy through gum's microvascular disorders, the selection and development of an aggressive bacterial plaque and through an exaggerate inflammatory response to the microflora within the oral cavity. Both diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease have an increasing incidence in the whole world. Development of periodontopathy is related to the aggression of bacterial flora in dental plaque, flora that is influenced on its turn by the evolution of diabetes mellitus. In our study, we have evaluated the inflammatory reaction in periodontium in patients with slowly and progressive periodontitis in patients with diabetes mellitus who had diabetes longer than five years. It has been found that all patients presented a chronic inflammatory infiltrate, abundant, with round mononuclear cells of lymphocyte, plasma cells and macrophage type, with non-homogenous arrangement, more intensely where the covering epithelium presented erosions or necrotic areas. Out of the immunity system cells, the most numerous where of T-lymphocytes type.

  8. Sleep Loss and the Inflammatory Response in Mice Under Chronic Environmental Circadian Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Natarajan, Divya; Delisser, Patrick; Davidson, Alec J.; Paul, Ketema N.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work and trans-time zone travel lead to insufficient sleep and numerous pathologies. Here, we examined sleep/wake dynamics during chronic exposure to environmental circadian disruption (ECD), and if chronic partial sleep loss associated with ECD influences the induction of shift-related inflammatory disorder. Sleep and wakefulness were telemetrically recorded across three months of ECD, in which the dark-phase of a light-dark cycle was advanced weekly by 6 h. A three month regimen of ECD caused a temporary reorganization of sleep (NREM and REM) and wake processes across each week, resulting in an approximately 10% net loss of sleep each week relative to baseline levels. A separate group of mice were subjected to ECD or a regimen of imposed wakefulness (IW) aimed to mimic sleep amounts under ECD for one month. Fos-immunoreactivity (IR) was quantified in sleep-wake regulatory areas: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain (BF), and medial preoptic area (MnPO). To assess the inflammatory response, trunk blood was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent release of IL-6 was measured. Fos-IR was greatest in the NAc, BF, and MnPO of mice subjected to IW. The inflammatory response to LPS was elevated in mice subjected to ECD, but not mice subjected to IW. Thus, the net sleep loss that occurs under ECD is not associated with a pathological immune response. PMID:23696854

  9. Long-term outcome of patients with virus-negative chronic myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy after immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Escher, Felicitas; Kühl, Uwe; Lassner, Dirk; Poller, Wolfgang; Westermann, Dirk; Pieske, Burkert; Tschöpe, Carsten; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the long-term outcome after immunosuppressive treatment of patients with virus-negative chronic myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy (CMi). We investigated 114 patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven virus-negative chronic myocarditis or CMi, who were treated with prednisone and azathioprine for 6 months. Myocardial inflammation was assessed by quantitative immunohistology. We examined hemodynamic measurements after 6 months and long-term follow-up periods of up to 10 years {median 10.5 months [95 % confidence interval (CI) 11.69-59.16]}. At follow-up, the patients showed a significant improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) compared to baseline after 6-month period (LVEF rising from 44.6 ± 17.3 to 51.8 ± 15.5 %, p = 0.006) and in the long-term follow-up (LVEF 52.1 ± 15.6 %, p = 0.006). Simultaneously, EMB-analysis revealed significant reduction of quantified inflammatory infiltrates (CD3(+) cells 16.03 ± 29.09-8.2 ± 9.0/mm(2), p = 0.002; CD2(+) cells 12.62 ± 20.01 to 6.61 ± 8.47/mm(2), p = 0.001; perforin(+) cells 3.94 ± 4.65-1.03 ± 1.47/mm(2), p = 0.0001), and cell-adhesion molecule HLA-1 [9.91 ± 5.55-6.65 ± 2.81/area fraction (AF), p = 0.0001]. In a subgroup analysis, patients with initial LVEF ≤45 % (n = 53) significantly increased with LVEF at follow-up (29.3 ± 8.8-41.7 ± 13.2-42.1 ± 13.1 %, p < 0.0001, Group I), defined as CMi. Patients with initial LVEF >45-60 % (n = 25) significantly improved further or recovered completely, regarding LVEF (53.0 ± 3.6-59.0 ± 9.4-59.8 ± 10.0 %, p = 0.03, Group II). Patients with initial LVEF >60 % (n = 36) remained stable and did not deteriorate over long-term follow-up (68.8 ± 6.7-67.5 ± 10.9-68.8 ± 10.7 %, p = 0.5, Group III). Groups II and III were defined as chronic myocarditis. In patients with virus-negative chronic myocarditis or CMi, we could show the effectiveness and

  10. Omega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula Simplício da; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Brito, Patricia Dias de; Cardoso, Claudia Santos de Aguiar; Almeida, Cristiane Fonseca de; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Sousa, Andrea Silvestre de

    2017-06-09

    Several studies have been focusing on the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on modulation of inflammatory markers in several cardiopathies. Although immunoregulatory dysfunction has been associated to the chronic cardiac involvement in Chagas disease, there is no study examining the effects of omega-3 supplementation in these patients. We investigated the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on markers of inflammation and lipid profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients. The present study was a single-center double-blind clinical trial including patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 PUFAs capsules (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA) or placebo (corn oil) during an 8-week period. Cytokines, fasting glucose, lipid, and anthropometric profiles were evaluated. Forty-two patients (23 women and 19 men) were included in the study and there were only two losses to follow-up during the 8-week period. Most of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the groups at baseline, except for the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17α, and IFNγ. The omega-3 PUFAs group demonstrated greater improvements in serum triglycerides (-21.1 vs. -4.1; p = 0.05) and IL-10 levels (-10.6 vs. -35.7; p = 0.01) in comparison to controls after 8 weeks of intervention. No further differences were observed between groups. Omega-3 PUFAs supplementation may favorably affect lipid and inflammatory profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, demonstrated by a decrease in triglycerides and improvements on IL-10 concentration. Further studies examining the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are necessary. NCT01863576.

  11. Wegener’s granulomatosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease and presenting with chronic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shahedi, Kamyar; Hanna, Ramy Magdy; Melamed, Oleg; Wilson, James

    2013-01-01

    Wegener’s granulomatosis, also known as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, is a small vessel vasculitis with primarily pulmonary, renal, and sinus disease manifestations. The prevalence of Wegener’s granulomatosis is three cases per 100,000 patients. Cardiovascular, neurologic, cutaneous, and joint manifestations have been reported in many case reports and case series. Gastrointestinal manifestations are less noted in Wegener’s granulomatosis, although they have been previously reported in the form of intestinal perforation and intestinal ischemia. Additionally, there are characteristic findings of vasculitis that are noted with active Wegener’s granulomatosis of the small bowel. We report a case of an elderly patient who presented with weight loss, diarrhea, and hematochezia. His symptoms were chronic and had lasted for more than 1 year before diagnosis. Inflammatory bowel disease or chronic enteritis due to Salmonella arizonae because of reptile exposure originally were suspected as etiologies of his presentation. The findings of proteinuria, renal failure, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis on renal biopsy, in conjunction with an elevated c-ANCA titer, confirmed the diagnosis of Wegener’s granulomatosis with associated intestinal vasculitis. This case demonstrates an atypical presentation of chronic duodenitis and jejunitis secondary to Wegener’s granulomatosis, which mimicked inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24124396

  12. Doxycycline Promotes Carcinogenesis & Metastasis via Chronic Inflammatory Pathway: An In Vivo Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Neha; Dhawan, Devinder K.; Bhatia, Alka; Mahmood, Akhtar; Mahmood, Safrun

    2016-01-01

    Background Doxycycline (DOX) exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and pro-apoptotic activity and is being tested in clinical trials as a chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers, including colon cancer. Materials & Methods In the current study, the chemotherapeutic activity of doxycycline was tested in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis, induced by colon specific cancer promoter, 1,2, dimethylhydrazine (DMH) as well as study the effect of DOX-alone on a separate group of rats. Results Doxycycline administration in DMH-treated rats (DMH-DOX) unexpectedly increased tumor multiplicity, stimulated progression of colonic tumor growth from adenomas to carcinomas and revealed metastasis in small intestine as determined by macroscopic and histopathological analysis. DOX-alone treatment showed markedly enhanced chronic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia, which was dependent upon the dose of doxycycline administered. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis revealed evidence of inflammation and anti-apoptotic action of DOX by deregulation of various biomarkers. Conclusion These results suggest that doxycycline caused chronic inflammation in colon, small intestine injury, enhanced the efficacy of DMH in tumor progression and provided a mechanistic link between doxycycline-induced chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. Ongoing studies thus may need to focus on the molecular mechanisms of doxycycline action, which lead to its inflammatory and tumorigenic effects. PMID:26998758

  13. Acute inflammatory bowel disease complicating chronic alcoholism and mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Dattolo, Pietro; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Ferro, Giuseppe; Fusco, Francesca; Consalvo, Matteo; Chiodi, Leandro; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    We report the case of a woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was hospitalized with diarrhea, severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium infusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, alternations of high blood pressure with phases of hypotension, irritability and increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol. Although carcinoid syndrome was hypothesized, abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy showed non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with severe colic wall thickening, and multiple colic biopsies confirmed non-specific inflammation with no evidence of carcinoid cells. During the following days diarrhea slowly decreased and the patient's condition progressively improved. One year after stopping alcohol consumption, the patient was asymptomatic and serum potassium was normal. Chronic alcohol exposure is known to have several deleterious effects on the intestinal mucosa and can favor and sustain local inflammation. Chronic alcohol intake may also be associated with high blood pressure, behavior disorders, abnormalities in blood pressure regulation with episodes of hypotension during hospitalization due to impaired baroreflex sensitivity in the context of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a result of malabsorption syndrome, and increased urinary cortisol as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. These considerations, together with the regression of symptoms and normalization of potassium levels after stopping alcohol consumption, suggest the intriguing possibility of a alcohol-related acute inflammatory bowel disease mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

  14. Acute Inflammatory Bowel Disease Complicating Chronic Alcoholism and Mimicking Carcinoid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Dattolo, Pietro; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Ferro, Giuseppe; Fusco, Francesca; Consalvo, Matteo; Chiodi, Leandro; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was hospitalized with diarrhea, severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium infusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, alternations of high blood pressure with phases of hypotension, irritability and increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol. Although carcinoid syndrome was hypothesized, abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy showed non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with severe colic wall thickening, and multiple colic biopsies confirmed non-specific inflammation with no evidence of carcinoid cells. During the following days diarrhea slowly decreased and the patient's condition progressively improved. One year after stopping alcohol consumption, the patient was asymptomatic and serum potassium was normal. Chronic alcohol exposure is known to have several deleterious effects on the intestinal mucosa and can favor and sustain local inflammation. Chronic alcohol intake may also be associated with high blood pressure, behavior disorders, abnormalities in blood pressure regulation with episodes of hypotension during hospitalization due to impaired baroreflex sensitivity in the context of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a result of malabsorption syndrome, and increased urinary cortisol as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. These considerations, together with the regression of symptoms and normalization of potassium levels after stopping alcohol consumption, suggest the intriguing possibility of a alcohol-related acute inflammatory bowel disease mimicking carcinoid syndrome. PMID:22949895

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid liposomes for targeting chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer: an in vitro assessment

    PubMed Central

    Alaarg, Amr; Jordan, Nan Yeun; Verhoef, Johan JF; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, Gert; Kok, Robbert J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress, and uncontrolled cell proliferation are common key features of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; also known as omega3 fatty acids or fish oil) have beneficial effects against inflammation upon dietary consumption. However, these effects cannot be fully exploited unless diets are enriched with high concentrations of fish oil supplements over long periods of time. Here, a nanomedicine-based approach is presented for delivering effective levels of PUFAs to inflammatory cells. Nanoparticles are internalized by immune cells, and hence can adequately deliver bioactive lipids into these target cells. The ω3 FA docosahexaenoic acid was formulated into liposomes (ω-liposomes), and evaluated for anti-inflammatory effects in different types of immune cells. ω-Liposomes strongly inhibited the release of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species from human neutrophils and murine macrophages, and also inhibited the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and MCP1. Moreover, ω-liposomes inhibited tumor-cell proliferation when evaluated in FaDu head and neck squamous carcinoma and 4T1 breast cancer cells in in vitro cultures. We propose that ω-liposomes are a promising nanonutraceutical formulation for intravenous delivery of fish oil FAs, which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and cancer. PMID:27785012

  16. Mutual Interaction of Basophils and T Cells in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sarfati, Marika; Wakahara, Keiko; Chapuy, Laurence; Delespesse, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Basophils are, together with mast cells, typical innate effector cells of allergen-induced IgE-dependent allergic diseases. Both cell types express the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεR1), release histamine, inflammatory mediators, and cytokines following FcεR1 cross-linking. Basophils are rare granulocytes in blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues, and the difficulties to detect and isolate these cells has hampered the study of their biology and the understanding of their possible role in pathology. Furthermore, the existence of other FcεR1-expressing cells, including professional Ag-presenting dendritic cells, generated some controversy regarding the ability of basophils to express MHC Class II molecules, present Ag and drive naïve T cell differentiation into Th2 cells. The focus of this review is to present the recent advances on the interactions between basophils and peripheral blood and tissue memory Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, as well as their potential role in IgE-independent non-allergic chronic inflammatory disorders, including human inflammatory bowel diseases. Basophils interactions with the innate players of IgE-dependent allergic inflammation, particularly innate lymphoid cells, will also be considered. The previously unrecognized function for basophils in skewing adaptive immune responses opens novel perspectives for the understanding of their contribution to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26284078

  17. [Etiopathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Role of the immune system].

    PubMed

    Siegmund, B

    2014-08-01

    The challenge of the mucosal immune system is to develop tolerance toward intestinal antigens. Considering the quantity of bacteria that continuously attack the intestinal barrier, one can only imagine the complexity involved. To master this task, a tight network between the intestinal microbiota, the barrier, immune cells of the lamina propria as well as the adjacent mesenteric fat tissue is required. The key pathways involved have been revealed by the genome-wide association studies as well as functional data from experimental models. However, although knowledge with regard to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease has been increasing continuously over recent decades, the current therapeutic strategies are limited to controlling the pro-inflammatory effector phase rather than achieving cure. The best example is cytokine neutralizing antibodies. The present review aims to describe the role of the various cell populations within the intestinal wall for disease pathogenesis and, thus, identify possible therapeutic strategies.

  18. IVIG regulates BAFF expression in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Christian; Förster, Dominik; Albrecht, Philipp; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2014-09-15

    Recent studies indicate that the cytokine B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is standard treatment for CIDP and is known to rapidly modulate increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We evaluated the expression profile of BAFF and its corresponding BAFF-receptor in samples from CIDP patients, focusing on rapid changes before and after IVIg treatment. In CIDP patients BAFF serum concentrations were elevated compared to controls. Treatment with high-dose IVIg restored those elevated BAFF serum levels. Whereas treatment with IVIg did not affect BAFF production in monocytes, antibodies against BAFF could be detected in IVIg preparations, which may explain the short-term decrease of BAFF levels after IVIg treatment. Our data suggest that BAFF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CIDP and may serve as marker for IVIg treatment response.

  19. [Association of fatty acid metabolism with systemic inflammatory response in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Denisenko, Y K; Novgorodtseva, T P; Zhukova, N V; Antonuk, M V; Lobanova, E G; Kalinina, E P

    2016-03-01

    We examined composition of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NFAs), erythrocyte fatty acids, levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with different type of the inflammatory response. The results of our study show that asthma and COPD in remission are associated with changes in the composition NFAs of plasma, FA of erythrocytes, level eicosanoid despite the difference in the regulation of immunological mechanisms of systemic inflammation. These changes are characterized by excessive production of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites (thromboxane B2, leukotriene B4) and deficiency of their functional antagonist, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). The recognized association between altered fatty acid composition and disorders of the immune mechanisms of regulation of systemic inflammation in COPD and asthma demonstrated the important role of fatty acids and their metabolites in persistence of inflammatory processes in diseases of the respiratory system in the condition of remission.

  20. Drosophila as a model for intestinal dysbiosis and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Ah; Lee, Won-Jae

    2014-01-01

    The association between deregulated intestinal microbial consortia and host diseases has been recognized since the birth of microbiology over a century ago. Intestinal dysbiosis refers to a state where living metazoans harbor harmful intestinal microflora. However, there is still an issue of whether causality arises from the host or the microbe because it is unclear whether deregulation of the gut microbiota community is the consequence or cause of the host disease. Recent studies using Drosophila and its simple microbiota have provided a valuable model system for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of intestinal dysbiosis. In this review, we examine recent exciting observations in Drosophila gut-microbiota interactions, particularly the links among the host immune genotype, the microbial community structure, and the host inflammatory phenotype. Future genetic analyses using Drosophila model system will provide a valuable outcome for understanding the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that underlie intestinal dysbiosis and chronic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Greater inflammatory activity and blunted glucocorticoid signaling in monocytes of chronically stressed caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Cashman, Rosemary; Ma, Roy; Ma, Jeffrey; Arevalo, Jesusa M.G.; Kobor, Michael S.; Cole, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is associated with morbidity and mortality from numerous conditions, many of whose pathogenesis involves persistent inflammation. Here, we examine how chronic stress influences signaling pathways that regulate inflammation in monocytes. The sample consisted of 33 adults caring for a family member with glioblastoma and 47 controls whose lives were free of major stressors. The subjects were assessed four times over eight months. Relative to controls, caregivers’ monocytes showed increased expression of genes bearing response elements for nuclear-factor kappa B, a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor. Simultaneously, caregivers showed reduced expression of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, a transcription factor that conveys cortisol’s anti-inflammatory signals to monocytes. Transcript origin analyses revealed that CD14+/CD16− cells, a population of immature monocytes, were the predominate source of inflammatory gene expression among caregivers. We considered hormonal, molecular, and functional explanations for caregivers’ decreased glucocorticoid-mediated transcription. Across twelve days, the groups displayed similar diurnal cortisol profiles, suggesting that differential adrenocortical activity was not involved. Moreover, the groups’ monocytes expressed similar amounts of glucocorticoid receptor protein, suggesting that differential receptor availability was not involved. In ex vivo studies, subjects’ monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, and caregivers showed greater production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 relative to controls. However, no group differences in functional glucocorticoid sensitivity were apparent; hydrocortisone was equally effective at inhibiting cytokine production in caregivers and controls. These findings may help shed light on the mechanisms through which caregiving increases vulnerability to inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25242587

  2. Increased anxiety-like behaviors in rats experiencing chronic inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Parent, Alexandre J; Beaudet, Nicolas; Beaudry, Hélène; Bergeron, Jenny; Bérubé, Patrick; Drolet, Guy; Sarret, Philippe; Gendron, Louis

    2012-04-01

    For many patients, chronic pain is often accompanied, and sometimes amplified, by co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression. Although it represents important challenges, the establishment of appropriate preclinical behavioral models contributes to drug development for treating chronic inflammatory pain and associated psychopathologies. In this study, we investigated whether rats experiencing persistent inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) developed anxiety-like behaviors, and whether clinically used analgesic and anxiolytic drugs were able to reverse CFA-induced anxiety-related phenotypes. These behaviors were evaluated over 28 days in both CFA- and saline-treated groups with a variety of behavioral tests. CFA-induced mechanical allodynia resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviors as evidenced by: (1) a significant decrease in percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arms of the elevated-plus maze (EPM), (2) a decrease in number of central squares visited in the open field (OF), and (3) a reduction in active social interactions in the social interaction test (SI). The number of entries in closed arms in the EPM and the distance traveled in the OF used as indicators of locomotor performance did not differ between treatments. Our results also reveal that in CFA-treated rats, acute administration of morphine (3mg/kg, s.c.) abolished tactile allodynia and anxiety-like behaviors, whereas acute administration of diazepam (1mg/kg, s.c) solely reversed anxiety-like behaviors. Therefore, pharmacological treatment of anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic inflammatory pain can be objectively evaluated using multiple behavioral tests. Such a model could help identify/validate alternative potential targets that influence pain and cognitive dimensions of anxiety.

  3. Increased Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats Experiencing Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Alexandre J.; Beaudet, Nicolas; Beaudry, Hélène; Bergeron, Jenny; Bérubé, Patrick; Drolet, Guy; Sarret, Philippe; Gendron, Louis

    2013-01-01

    For many patients, chronic pain is often accompanied, and sometimes amplified, by co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression. Although it represents important challenges, the establishment of appropriate preclinical behavioral models contributes to drug development for treating chronic inflammatory pain and associated psychopathologies. In this study, we investigated whether rats experiencing persistent inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) developed anxiety-like behaviors, and whether clinically used analgesic and anxiolytic drugs were able to reverse CFA-induced anxiety-related phenotypes. These behaviors were evaluated over 28 days in both CFA- and saline-treated groups with a variety of behavioral tests. CFA-induced mechanical allodynia resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviors as evidenced by: 1) a significant decrease in percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arms of the elevated-plus maze (EPM), 2) a decrease in number of central squares visited in the open field (OF), and 3) a reduction in active social interactions in the social interaction test (SI). The number of entries in closed arms in the EPM and the distance travelled in the OF used as indicators of locomotor performance did not differ between treatments. Our results also reveal that in CFA-treated rats, acute administration of morphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) abolished tactile allodynia and anxiety-like behaviors, whereas acute administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg, s.c) solely reversed anxiety-like behaviors. Therefore, pharmacological treatment of anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic inflammatory pain can be objectively evaluated using multiple behavioral tests. Such a model could help identify/validate alternative potential targets that influence pain and cognitive dimensions of anxiety. PMID:22245257

  4. Multiorgan chronic inflammatory hepatobiliary pancreatic murine model deficient in tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provoke persistent/chronic multiorgan inflammatory response and to contribute to stones formation followed by fibrosis in hepatobiliary and pancreatic tissues. METHODS: Tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1/R2) deficient mice reared in-house were given dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) twice within 10 d by oral gavage delivery. Sham control animals received vehicle treatment and naïve animals remained untreated throughout the study. Animals were monitored daily for symptoms of pain and discomfort. The abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity were assessed with von Frey microfilaments. Exploratory behaviors were recorded at the baseline, after initiation of treatment, and before study termination. Histopathological changes were examined postmortem in tissues. Collagen accumulation and fibrosis were confirmed with Sirius Red staining. RESULTS: Animals lost weight after oral administration of DBTC and developed persistent inflammatory abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity compared to sham-treated controls (P < 0.0001). These pain related secondary mechanical hypersensitivity responses increased more than 2-fold in DBTC-treated animals. The drastically diminished rearing and grooming rates persisted after DBTC administration throughout the study. Gross as well as micropathology at one month confirmed that animals treated with DBTC developed chronic hepatobiliary injuries evidenced with activation of stellate cells, multifocal necrosis, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, periportal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and prominent biliary ductal dilation. The severity of hepatitis was scored 3.7 ± 0.2 (severe) in DBTC-treated animals vs score 0 (normal) in sham-treated animals. Fibrotic thickening was extensive around portal ducts, in hepatic parenchyma as well as in lobular pancreatic structures and confirmed with Sirius Red histopathology. In addition, pancreatic microarchitecture was presented with distortion of islets, and parenchyma, infiltration of

  5. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus by a chronic inflammatory process. Use of topical corticosteroids to prevent this progression?

    PubMed

    Otero-Rey, Eva Maria; Suarez-Alen, Fatima; Peñamaria-Mallon, Manuel; Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Blanco-Carrion, Andres

    2014-11-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder with a capacity, although low, for malignant transformation. Of all the factors related to the process of malignant transformation, it is believed that the chronic inflammatory process plays a key role in the development of oral cancer. This inflammatory process is capable of providing a microenvironment based on different inflammatory cells and molecules that affect cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation. The objectives of our study are: to review the available evidence about the possible relationship between the chronic inflammatory process present in oral lichen planus and its malignant transformation, to discuss the potential therapeutic implications derived from this relationship and to study the role that topical corticosteroids play in the control of oral lichen planus inflammation and its possible progression to malignant transformation. The maintenance of a minimum dose of topical corticosteroids could prevent the inflammatory progression of oral lichen planus to oral cancer.

  6. [Laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in chronic inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, T A

    2001-01-01

    The complex clinico-laboratory examination of 120 infertile married couples and 120 couples with habitual miscarriage was made. For control, 96 healthy married couples were used. The microbiological risk factors of chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases were determined, namely: mixed parasitocenosis, including active anaerobic, viral and fungal components, as well as Chlamydia trachomatis. As shown in this study, metabolically active forms of chlamydial infection were characteristic of infertile married women and persistent forms of C. trachomatis, for pregnant women. At the same time chlamydial infection did not cause infertility in males. The use two of levels of laboratory tests for qualitative, quantitative and functional evaluation of parasitocenoses were proposed.

  7. [Multifocal polyneuropathy with persistent conduction blockage. A new subset of chronic inflammatory polyneuropathies].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Vadillo, E; Ferrer Gila, M T; Amer Ferrer, G; Anciones Rodríguez, B; Pérez Conde, M C; Gutiérrez Molina, M; Cruz Martínez, A

    1989-09-09

    Recently a subset of chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathies with asymmetrical involvement limited to upper limbs, at least at the onset, resembling a multifocal mononeuropathy has been described. Electrodiagnostic testing disclosed multifocal CB outside the common entrapment sites has been described. We report a 55 years old man with a 4 years history of paresis, numbness, fasciculations, myokymia, cramps and mild amyotrophy. Electrophysiological evaluation showed proximal multifocal conduction block and abundant spontaneous activity as fasciculations, myokymia and scarce denervation activity. The importance of taking into account this entity in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected mononeuritis multiplex or motoneuron disease is emphasized. The nosologic place of this entity is also discussed.

  8. Serum cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Misawa, Sonoko; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Mori, Masahiro; Ishige, Takayuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-02-15

    To identify serum cytokine networks specific to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), serum samples of two subgroups (18 patients with typical CIDP and 12 patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy [MADSAM]) were analyzed with multiplex magnetic bead-based cytokine assay. TNF-α, HGF, MIP-1β and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in total CIDP patients than in normal controls. Of these, HGF levels were elevated in typical CIDP patients, but not in MADSAM patients. Patients with high HGF levels showed good responses to steroid treatment. Different cytokine profiles among the CIDP subtypes presumably reflect differences in pathophysiology.

  9. Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Therapeutic Efficacy of Anti-Inflammatory and Antibiotic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kariyawasam, Harsha H

    2011-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) worldwide, the exact pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. Even with therapeutic intervention, treatment response is often only partial and frequently ineffective. The inability to define exact disease phenotypes in relation to specific disease mechanisms has led to a broad based approach with both anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial intervention. The clinical efficacy of such current therapeutic strategies is highlighted and the urgent need for further robust therapeutic intervention studies in CRS is discussed in this article. PMID:21966602

  10. Overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi-Rogers, Mohamed; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired heterogeneous disorder of immune origin affecting the peripheral nerves, causing motor weakness and sensory symptoms and signs. The precise pathophysiology of CIDP remains uncertain although B and T cell mechanisms are believed to be implicated. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) have been shown in a number of trials to be an effective treatment for CIDP. IVIg is thought to exert its immunomodulatory effects by affecting several components of the immune system including B-cells, T-cells, macrophages and complement. This article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of CIDP and of its treatment with IVIg. PMID:20376173

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Aberrations and Pathophysiological Implications in Hematopoietic Diseases, Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Ran; Won, Stephanie Jane; Fabian, Claire; Kang, Min-Gu; Szardenings, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are important intracellular organelles that produce energy for cellular development, differentiation, and growth. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a 10- to 20-fold higher susceptibility to genetic mutations owing to the lack of introns and histone proteins. The mtDNA repair system is relatively inefficient, rendering it vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during ATP synthesis within the mitochondria, which can then target the mtDNA. Under conditions of chronic inflammation and excess stress, increased ROS production can overwhelm the antioxidant system, resulting in mtDNA damage. This paper reviews recent literature describing the pathophysiological implications of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitochondrial genome aberrations in aging hematopoietic stem cells, bone marrow failure syndromes, hematological malignancies, solid organ cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, and other diseases caused by exposure to environmental hazards. PMID:25553274

  12. Multiple Myeloma Associated Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: The Importance of Continued Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Loncharich, Michael F; Gandhi, Viral; Rana, Sandeep; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease presenting with weakness and numbness in a remitting or chronic progressive course. It is known to have several clinical presentations and several associated diseases. CIDP has been associated with multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and other paraproteinemias. We present a case of refractory CIDP in which the initial workup for multiple myeloma was negative, and multiple myeloma was then diagnosed two and half years later. Treatment of the multiple myeloma led to clinical improvement. This case is instructive in that perhaps more frequent surveillance for paraproteinemia in patients with CIPD, even after a negative initial workup, could lead to a better clinical outcome. PMID:28070468

  13. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products for Anti-Inflammatory and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine invertebrates based compounds have biological activities and also interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates have been shown to pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), osteoporosis, and so forth. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that most chronic illnesses such as cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases exhibit dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways that have been linked to inflammation. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine invertebrate derived compounds on anti-inflammatory and some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, HIV, and cancer. PMID:24489586

  14. Effects of chronic noise on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota–host inflammatory homeostasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bo; Gai, Zhihui; She, Xiaojun; Wang, Rui; Xi, Zhuge

    2016-01-01

    Chronic noise exposure has been implicated in increased risk of diabetes. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the mechanisms linking chronic noise stress and glucose metabolism. We addressed this in the present study by examining glucose metabolism, immune response, and changes in gut microbiota/host inflammatory homeostasis in rats exposed to noise for 30 consecutive days. Chronic noise exposure increased blood glucose and corticosterone levels for at least 14 days after cessation of noise. Stressed rats also exhibited elevated levels of glycogen and triglyceride in the liver and impaired hepatic insulin production via insulin-induced insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate 1/glycogen synthase kinase 3β signalling, which persisted for 3–14 days after cessation of noise exposure. Chronic noise altered the percentage of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in the gut, increasing Roseburia but decreasing Faecalibacterium levels in the cecum relative to controls. Immunoglobulin A, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor α levels were also elevated in the intestine of these animals, corresponding to noise-induced abnormalities in glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that lifelong environmental noise exposure could have cumulative effects on diabetes onset and development resulting from alterations in gut microbiota composition and intestinal inflammation. PMID:27811997

  15. Osteoimmunology: Major and Costimulatory Pathway Expression Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Tania N.; Dharmapatni, Anak A. S. S. K.; Alias, Ekram; Haynes, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The field of osteoimmunology has emerged in response to the range of evidences demonstrating the close interrelationship between the immune system and bone metabolism. This is pertinent to immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease, where there are chronic inflammation and local bone erosion. Periprosthetic osteolysis is another example of chronic inflammation with associated osteolysis. This may also involve immune mediation when occurring in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Similarities in the regulation and mechanisms of bone loss are likely to be related to the inflammatory cytokines expressed in these diseases. This review highlights the role of immune-related factors influencing bone loss particularly in diseases of chronic inflammation where there is associated localized bone loss. The importance of the balance of the RANKL-RANK-OPG axis is discussed as well as the more recently appreciated role that receptors and adaptor proteins involved in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling pathway play. Although animal models are briefly discussed, the focus of this review is on the expression of ITAM associated molecules in relation to inflammation induced localized bone loss in RA, chronic periodontitis, and periprosthetic osteolysis, with an emphasis on the soluble and membrane bound factor osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). PMID:26064999

  16. Chronic unpredictable stress regulates visceral adipocyte‐mediated glucose metabolism and inflammatory circuits in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannides, Iordanes; Golovatscka, Viktoriya; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Sideri, Aristea; Salas, Martha; Stavrakis, Dimitris; Polytarchou, Christos; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Bradesi, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic psychological stress is a prominent risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of many complex diseases, including major depression, obesity, and type II diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ involved in the regulation of insulin action and an important component in the development of insulin resistance. Here, we examined for the first time the changes on visceral adipose tissue physiology and on adipocyte‐associated insulin sensitivity and function after chronic unpredictable stress in rats. Male rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress for 35 days. Total body and visceral fat was measured. Cytokines and activated intracellular kinase levels were determined using high‐throughput multiplex assays. Adipocyte function was assessed via tritiated glucose uptake assay. Stressed rats showed no weight gain, and their fat/lean mass ratio increased dramatically compared to control animals. Stressed rats had significantly higher mesenteric fat content and epididymal fat pad weight and demonstrated reduced serum glucose clearing capacity following glucose challenge. Alterations in fat depot size were mainly due to changes in adipocyte numbers and not size. High‐throughput molecular screening in adipocytes isolated from stressed rats revealed activation of intracellular inflammatory, glucose metabolism, and MAPK networks compared to controls, as well as significantly reduced glucose uptake capacity in response to insulin stimulation. Our study identifies the adipocyte as a key regulator of the effects of chronic stress on insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism, with important ramifications in the pathophysiology of several stress‐related disease states. PMID:24819750

  17. Prevalence of chronic narcotic use among children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jessie P; Cook, Suzanne F; Allen, Jeffery K; Kappelman, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Narcotic analgesics are not recommended for long-term management of pain for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly pediatric patients. We compared chronic use of narcotics among children with IBD and the general population and investigated factors associated with narcotic use in the pediatric IBD population. This cross-sectional study included children (younger than 18 years old) with continuous enrollment in a large administrative claims database from 2010 through 2011 (n = 4,911,286). Children with IBD were identified through diagnosis codes and dispensation of IBD medication (n = 4344); they were matched for age, sex, and region with 5 children without IBD (n = 21,720). Chronic narcotic use was defined as ≥3 dispensements of narcotics. We estimated prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), comparing narcotic use on the basis of IBD status and evaluating variables associated with narcotic use by patients with IBD by using conditional and unconditional logistic regression. The prevalence of chronic narcotic use was 5.6% among children with IBD vs 2.3% in the general population (POR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.2-3.0). Compared with the general population, POR for chronic narcotic use was significantly higher for pediatric IBD patients with psychological impairment (POR, 6.8; 95% CI, 4.3-10.6) than those without (POR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.9-2.7). Older age, increased healthcare utilization, fracture, and psychological impairment were strongly associated with chronic use of narcotics among children with IBD. Chronic narcotic use is common in pediatric IBD patients, particularly among those with anxiety and depression. Increased awareness of psychological comorbidity, screening, and treatment may reduce symptoms that lead to narcotic use and its complications. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Chronic Wound Extracts on Inflammatory Cytokine and Histatin Stability

    PubMed Central

    Boink, Mireille A.; Roffel, Sanne; Nazmi, Kamran; van Montfrans, Catherine; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Gefen, Amit; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Gibbs, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic ulcers represent a major health burden in our society. Despite many available therapies, a large number of ulcers do not heal. Protein based therapies fail in part due to proteolytic activity in the chronic wound bed. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine whether typical inflammatory cytokines and human salivary histatins remain stable when incubated with chronic wound extracts. Furthermore we determined whether a short exposure of histatins or cytokines was sufficient to exert long term effects on fibroblast migration. Stability of human recombinant cytokines IL-6 and CXCL8, and histatin variants (Hst1, Hst2, cyclic Hst1, minimal active domain of Hst1) in the presence of chronic wound extracts isolated from non-healing ulcers, was monitored by capillary zone electrophoresis. Migration-stimulating activity was assessed using a dermal fibroblast wound healing scratch assay. Histatins and cytokines stayed stable in saline for > 24h at 37°C, making them ideal as an off-the-shelf product. However, incubation with chronic wound extracts resulted in serious breakdown of Hst1 and Hst2 (~50% in 8h) and to lesser extent cyclic Hst1 and the minimal active domain of Hst1 (~20% in 8h). The cytokines IL-6 and CXCL8 were more stable in chronic wound extracts (~40% degradation in 96h). An initial 8-hour pulse of histatins or cytokines during a 96-hour study period was sufficient to stimulate fibroblast migration equally well as a continuous 96-hour exposure, indicating that they may possibly be used as novel bioactive therapeutics, exerting their activity for up to four days after a single exposure. PMID:27018788

  19. Leiden mutation (as genetic) and environmental (retinoids) sequences in the acute and chronic inflammatory and premalignant colon disease in human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, G; Nagy, Z; Nagy, A; Rumi, G; Karádi, O; Czimmer, J; Matus, Z; Tóth, G; Pár, A

    2001-01-01

    Tumor, calor, dolor, pallor and functio laesa are together involved in the different acute and chronic inflammatory processes. The processes involved in the inflammation are determined by differently acquired and hereditary factors. Recently the presence of a new genetic marker (Leiden point mutation) was found in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. On the other hand, the GI mucosal integrity was proven on gastrointestinal mucosal damage to be produced by different chemicals, xenobiotics, drugs. In human observations, the serum level of retinoids (vitamin A, lutein, zeaxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotene) was proven in patients with chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory bowel disease. The aims of this study were (1) to measure the prevalence of Leiden mutation; (2) to identify the changes in the serum retinoid level in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach (n=24), hepatitis C infection (n=75), ileitis terminalis (Crohn's disease; n=49), ulcerative colitis (n=35), colon polyposis (n=59) and adenocarcinoma in colon polyps (n=9), and 57 healthy persons were used in the control group; (3) to compare the directions of the changes in the measured parameters in the acute (H. pylori and hepatitis C infections), chronic (ileitis terminalis, ulcerative colitis) GI inflammatory diseases and in colon polyposis without and with malignisation. The Leiden mutation was measured by the method of polymerase chain reaction, the retinoid level in the patient's serum was measured by high liquid cromathografic method (HPCL). (1) It has been found that the prevalence of Leiden mutation increased significantly in patients with ileitis terminalis (P<0.001), ulcerative colitis (P<0.001), colon polyposis (P<0.001) and with colon polyps with malignisation (P<0.01). (2) Serum level of vitamin A and zeaxantin were decreased significantly in all group of patients except for the group with H. pylori infections. (3) alpha- and beta-carotenes were found to be practically at the

  20. Histopathological evaluation of colonic mucosal biopsy specimens in chronic inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic implications.

    PubMed Central

    Seldenrijk, C A; Morson, B C; Meuwissen, S G; Schipper, N W; Lindeman, J; Meijer, C J

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective blind evaluation of multiple colonic mucosal biopsy specimens, 45 clinically well defined patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (21 Crohn's disease and 24 ulcerative colitis) and 16 control subjects (seven normal subjects and nine patients with diverticular disease) were studied to identify reproducible histopathological features which could distinguish chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD) from non-CIBD and Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis. Using kappa statistics 16 of 41 histological features were sufficiently reproducible for further stepwise discriminant analysis to differentiate between CIBD and non-CIBD, and between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Using the combination of three features (an increase of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propria, the presence of branching of crypts, and neutrophils in the crypt epithelium) we were able to distinguish CIBD from non-CIBD in 89% of the cases with high probability (p greater than 0.85). To separate Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis three features (an excess of histiocytes in combination with a villous or irregular aspect of the mucosal surface and granulomas) had a high predictive value. Using these features 70% of Crohn's disease patients and 75% of ulcerative colitis patients were correctly classified with a high probability (p greater than 0.85). These findings indicate that the pathologist is dependent on the presence of only a few histological features for a reliable classification of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:1773958

  1. Respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, T; Harper-Owen, R; Bhowmik, A; Moric, I; Sanderson, G; Message, S; Maccallum, P; Meade, T W; Jeffries, D J; Johnston, S L; Wedzicha, J A

    2001-11-01

    The effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable COPD and at exacerbation. Eighty-three patients with COPD (mean [SD] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, FEV(1), 1.06 [0.61] L) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. Nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, and plasma fibrinogen and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at stable baseline and exacerbation. Sixty-four percent of exacerbations were associated with a cold occurring up to 18 d before exacerbation. Seventy-seven viruses (39 [58.2%] rhinoviruses) were detected in 66 (39.2%) of 168 COPD exacerbations in 53 (64%) patients. Viral exacerbations were associated with frequent exacerbators, colds with increased dyspnea, a higher total symptom count at presentation, a longer median symptom recovery period of 13 d, and a tendency toward higher plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Non-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respiratory viruses were detected in 11 (16%), and RSV in 16 (23.5%), of 68 stable COPD patients, with RSV detection associated with higher inflammatory marker levels. Respiratory virus infections are associated with more severe and frequent exacerbations, and may cause chronic infection in COPD. Prevention and early treatment of viral infections may lead to a decreased exacerbation frequency and morbidity associated with COPD.

  2. Risks of population antimicrobial resistance associated with chronic macrolide use for inflammatory airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Serisier, David J

    2013-05-01

    Macrolide antibiotics have established efficacy in the management of cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis-uncommon lung diseases with substantial morbidity and the potential for rapid progression to death. Emerging evidence suggests benefits of maintenance macrolide treatment in more indolent respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. In view of the greater patient population affected by these disorders (and potential for macrolide use to spread to disorders such as chronic cough), widespread use of macrolides, particularly azithromycin, has the potential to substantially influence antimicrobial resistance rates of a range of respiratory microbes. In this Personal View, I explore theories around population (rather than patient) macrolide resistance, appraise evidence linking macrolide use with development of resistance, and highlight the risks posed by injudicious broadening of their use, particularly of azithromycin. These risks are weighed against the potential benefits of macrolides in less aggressive inflammatory airway disorders. A far-sighted approach to maintenance macrolide use in non-cystic fibrosis inflammatory airway diseases is needed, which minimises risks of adversely affecting community macrolide resistance: combining preferential use of erythromycin and restriction of macrolide use to those patients at greatest risk represents an appropriately cautious management approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: A new animal model for new therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    de Sèze, J; Kremer, L; Alves do Rego, C; Taleb, O; Lam, D; Beiano, W; Mensah-Nyagan, G; Trifilieff, E; Brun, S

    2016-12-01

    Animal models are fundamental to advance knowledge of disease pathogenesis and to test/develop new therapeutic strategies. Most of the current knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms underpinning autoimmune demyelination processes implicating autoantigens has been obtained using the Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis (EAN) animal model. The most widely used EAN model is obtained by active immunization of Lewis rats using a peptide, P0 (180-199), issuing from the major peripheral nervous system myelin protein. But this model mimics only the classical monophasic acute form of demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, i.e. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We developed a new model by immunizing Lewis rats using the same immunodominant neuritogenic peptide P0 (180-199) but this time with its S-palmitoyl derivative, S-palm P0 (180-199). All of the animals immunized with the S-palm P0 (180-199) peptide developed a chronic relapsing-remitting form of the disease corresponding to the electrophysiological criteria of demyelination (slow sensory nerve conduction velocity, prolonged motor nerve latency, partial motor nerve conduction blocks) with axon degeneration. These findings were confirmed by immunohistopathology study and thus, appear to mimic human chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP). This new model opens up new avenues of research for testing new anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The route to pathologies in chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by T helper type 2 immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, K; Siebeck, M; Gropp, R

    2014-01-01

    T helper type 2 (Th2)-characterized inflammatory responses are highly dynamic processes initiated by epithelial cell damage resulting in remodelling of the tissue architecture to prevent further harm caused by a dysfunctional epithelial barrier or migrating parasites. This process is a temporal and spatial response which requires communication between immobile cells such as epithelial, endothelial, fibroblast and muscle cells and the highly mobile cells of the innate and adaptive immunity. It is further characterized by a high cellular plasticity that enables the cells to adapt to a specific inflammatory milieu. Incipiently, this milieu is shaped by cytokines released from epithelial cells, which stimulate Th2, innate lymphoid and invariant natural killer (NK) T cells to secrete Th2 cytokines and to activate dendritic cells which results in the further differentiation of Th2 cells. This milieu promotes wound-healing processes which are beneficial in parasitic infections or toxin exposure but account for increasingly dysfunctional vital organs, such as the lung in the case of asthma and the colon in ulcerative colitis. A better understanding of the dynamics underlying relapses and remissions might lead ultimately to improved therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases adapted to individual needs and to different phases of the inflammation. PMID:24981014

  5. Serum levels of inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Longo, Priscila Larcher; Artese, Hilana Paula Carillo; Rabelo, Marianade Sousa; Kawamoto, Dione; Foz, Adriana Moura; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Dib, Sergio Atala; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes has been associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases affect the metabolic control remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate serum leveis of inflammatory markers, IL-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in type 2 diabetic patients in the presence of chronic periodontitis. Forty two individuals were enrolled in this study and assigned to one of five groups: diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMI+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus with adequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMA+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus without periodontitis (DM, n = 10), periodontitis without diabetes (P, n=6), and neither diabetes nor periodontitis (H, n = 6). Periodontal clinical examination included visible plaque index (PL), gingival bleeding index (GB), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL) and bleeding on probing (BP). Glycemic control was evaluated by serum concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Inflammatory serum markers IL-8, IL-6 and (MCP-1) were measured by ELISA. DMI+P and DMA+P groups presented higher PD (p=0.025) and AL (p=0.003) values when compared to the P group. There were no significant differences among groups for IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 serum levels. Although periodontitis was more severe in diabetic patients, the serum levels of the investigated inflammatory markers did not differ among the groups.

  6. Inflammatory and Metabolic Alterations of Kager's Fat Pad in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Pingel, Jessica; Petersen, M Christine H; Fredberg, Ulrich; Kjær, Søren G; Quistorff, Bjørn; Langberg, Henning; Hansen, Jacob B

    2015-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager's fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between Kager's fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager's fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression of inflammatory markers and metabolic enzymes in Kager's fat pad. A biopsy was taken from Kager's fat pad from 31 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and from 13 healthy individuals. Gene expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Focus was on genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Expression of the majority of analyzed inflammatory marker genes was increased in patients with Achilles tendinopathy compared to that in healthy controls. Expression patterns of the patient group were consistent with reduced lipolysis and increased fatty acid β-oxidation. In the fat pad, the pain-signaling neuropeptide substance P was found to be present in one third of the subjects in the Achilles tendinopathy group but in none of the healthy controls. Gene expression changes in Achilles tendinopathy patient samples were consistent with Kager's fat pad being more inflamed than in the healthy control group. Additionally, the results indicate an altered lipid metabolism in Kager's fat pad of Achilles tendinopathy patients.

  7. Serum leveis of inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    LONGO, Priscila Larcher; ARTESE, Hilana Paula Carillo; RABELO, Marianade Sousa; KAWAMOTO, Dione; FOZ, Adriana Moura; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; DIB, Sérgio Atala; MAYER, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes has been associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases affect the metabolic control remain unclear. Objective This study aimed to evaluate serum leveis of inflammatory markers, IL-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in type 2 diabetic patients in the presence of chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods Forty two individuals were enrolled in this study and assigned to one of five groups: diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMI+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus with adequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMA+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus without periodontitis (DM, n = 10), periodontitis without diabetes (P, n=6), and neither diabetes nor periodontitis (H, n = 6). Periodontal clinical examination included visible plaque index (PL), gingival bleeding index (GB), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL) and bleeding on probing (BP). Glycemic control was evaluated by serum concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Inflammatory serum markers IL-8, IL-6 and (MCP-1) were measured by ELISA. Results DMI+P and DMA+P groups presented higher PD (p=0.025) and AL (p=0.003) values when compared to the P group. There were no significant differences among groups for IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 serum levels. Conclusions Although periodontitis was more severe in diabetic patients, the serum levels of the investigated inflammatory markers did not differ among the groups. PMID:24676580

  8. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: decreased claudin-5 and relocated ZO-1

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, T; Numata, Y; Mizusawa, H

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To clarify the dynamics of molecules composing the blood–nerve barrier (BNB) in inflammatory neuropathies. Methods: The expression of four tight junction (TJ) proteins—claudin-1, claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1—was analysed immunohistochemically in sural nerve biopsy specimens obtained from patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Results: Claudin-1 was detected only in perineurial cells, whereas claudin-5 was present in endothelial cells, irrespective of vessel location or size. Occludin and ZO-1 were found in perineurial cells, in addition to some epineurial and endoneurial endothelial cells. In CIDP, percentages of endoneurial small vessels immunoreactive for claudin-5 were significantly decreased, as were ZO-1 immunoreactive endoneurial small vessels, with staining localised to interfaces between cells. Claudin-1 and occludin immunoreactivity did not differ appreciably between the neuropathies examined. Conclusions: The downregulation of claudin-5 and altered localisation of ZO-1 seen in CIDP specimens may indicate that BNB derangement occurs in inflammatory neuropathies. Further investigation of TJ molecules may suggest new treatments based on properties of the BNB. PMID:15090575

  9. The Effect of Resistance Exercise on Inflammatory and Myogenic Markers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emma L.; Viana, Joao L.; Wimbury, David; Martin, Naomi; Greening, Neil J.; Barratt, Jonathan; Smith, Alice C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls. A sub-set of the cohort consented to vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies (n = 10 exercise, n = 7 control) in which the inflammatory response (IL-6, IL-15, MCP-1 TNF-α), myogenic (MyoD, myogenin, myostatin), anabolic (P-Akt, P-eEf2) and catabolic events (MuRF-1, MAFbx, 14 kDa, ubiquitin conjugates) and overall levels of oxidative stress have been studied. Results: A large inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise was seen with IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α all significantly elevated from baseline by 53-fold (P < 0.001), 25-fold (P < 0.001), and 4-fold (P < 0.001), respectively. This response was reduced following training with IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α elevated non-significantly by 2-fold (P = 0.46), 2.4-fold (P = 0.19), and 2.5-fold (P = 0.06), respectively. In the untrained condition, an acute bout of resistance exercise did not result in increased phosphorylation of Akt (P = 0.84), but this was restored following training (P = 0.01). Neither unaccustomed nor accustomed exercise resulted in a change in myogenin or MyoD mRNA expression (P = 0.88, P = 0.90, respectively). There was no evidence that resistance exercise training created a prolonged oxidative stress response within the muscle, or increased catabolism. Conclusions: Unaccustomed exercise creates a large inflammatory response within the muscle, which is no

  10. Inflammatory endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis based on cluster analysis of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tomassen, Peter; Vandeplas, Griet; Van Zele, Thibaut; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Arebro, Julia; Olze, Heidi; Förster-Ruhrmann, Ulrike; Kowalski, Marek L; Olszewska-Ziąber, Agnieszka; Holtappels, Gabriele; De Ruyck, Natalie; Wang, Xiangdong; Van Drunen, Cornelis; Mullol, Joaquim; Hellings, Peter; Hox, Valerie; Toskala, Elina; Scadding, Glenis; Lund, Valerie; Zhang, Luo; Fokkens, Wytske; Bachert, Claus

    2016-05-01

    Current phenotyping of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) into chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) might not adequately reflect the pathophysiologic diversity within patients with CRS. We sought to identify inflammatory endotypes of CRS. Therefore we aimed to cluster patients with CRS based solely on immune markers in a phenotype-free approach. Secondarily, we aimed to match clusters to phenotypes. In this multicenter case-control study patients with CRS and control subjects underwent surgery, and tissue was analyzed for IL-5, IFN-γ, IL-17A, TNF-α, IL-22, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, eosinophilic cationic protein, myeloperoxidase, TGF-β1, IgE, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin-specific IgE, and albumin. We used partition-based clustering. Clustering of 173 cases resulted in 10 clusters, of which 4 clusters with low or undetectable IL-5, eosinophilic cationic protein, IgE, and albumin concentrations, and 6 clusters with high concentrations of those markers. The group of IL-5-negative clusters, 3 clusters clinically resembled a predominant chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) phenotype without increased asthma prevalence, and 1 cluster had a TH17 profile and had mixed CRSsNP/CRSwNP. The IL-5-positive clusters were divided into a group with moderate IL-5 concentrations, a mixed CRSsNP/CRSwNP and increased asthma phenotype, and a group with high IL-5 levels, an almost exclusive nasal polyp phenotype with strongly increased asthma prevalence. In the latter group, 2 clusters demonstrated the highest concentrations of IgE and asthma prevalence, with all samples expressing Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin-specific IgE. Distinct CRS clusters with diverse inflammatory mechanisms largely correlated with phenotypes and further differentiated them and provided a more accurate description of the inflammatory mechanisms involved than phenotype information only. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of

  11. Adipokine CTRP-5 as a Potential Novel Inflammatory Biomarker in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diandian; Wu, Yanqiu; Tian, Panwen; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tao; Ying, Binwu; Wang, Lanlan; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Local and systemic inflammation often present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adipokines are secretory protein mediators by adipose tissue, which have been found to involve in inflammatory responses in many chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we performed this preliminary clinical study to investigate the possible association between 2 adipokines, C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 and -5 (CTRP-3 and CTRP-5), with lung function and other markers of inflammation in COPD. Serum CTRP-3 and CTRP-5 levels were measured in 73 COPD patients and 54 health controls, together with lung function and levels of adiponectin, CRP, TNF-α, and MPO in both groups. Pearson's partial correlation was used to analyze the correlations between CTRPs and other serum markers or lung function. Serum CTRP-5 was significantly elevated in COPD patients (0.41 ± 0.35 versus 0.29 ± 0.28 μg/ml, P = 0.01) and correlated inversely with FEV1/FVC ratio in all patients (r = −0.31, P = 0.001). In COPD patients, CTRP-5 was also correlated negatively with FEV1% predicted (r = −0.464, P < 0.001) and had a positive association with CRP levels (r = 0.262, P = 0.04). However, serum CTRP-3 levels were not correlated with measures of lung function or systemic inflammation. In conclusion, circulating CTRP-5 was associated with the severity of airflow obstruction and systemic inflammation in patients with COPD, which suggests that it may be used as a potential novel inflammatory biomarker in COPD. Further studies should be performed to clarify the exact role of CTRP-5 on the pathogenesis and outcomes of COPD. PMID:26356719

  12. Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Immune-Inflammatory Pathways in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been classified as a disease of the central nervous system by the WHO since 1969. Many patients carrying this diagnosis do demonstrate an almost bewildering array of biological abnormalities particularly the presence of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and a chronically activated innate immune system. The proposal made herein is that once generated chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways conspire to generate a multitude of self-sustaining and self-amplifying pathological processes which are associated with the onset of ME/CFS. Sources of continuous activation of O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are chronic, intermittent and opportunistic infections, bacterial translocation, autoimmune responses, mitochondrial dysfunctions, activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Radical Cycle, and decreased antioxidant levels. Consequences of chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are brain disorders, including neuroinflammation and brain hypometabolism / hypoperfusion, toxic effects of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, secondary autoimmune responses directed against disrupted lipid membrane components and proteins, mitochondrial dysfunctions with a disruption of energy metabolism (e.g. compromised ATP production) and dysfunctional intracellular signaling pathways. The interplay between all of these factors leads to self-amplifying feed forward loops causing a chronic state of activated O&NS, immune-inflammatory and autoimmune pathways which may sustain the disease. PMID:24669210

  13. Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) injury induces chronic facial pain and susceptibility to anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D N; Kniffin, T C; Zhang, L P; Danaher, R J; Miller, C S; Bocanegra, J L; Carlson, C R; Westlund, K N

    2015-06-04

    Our laboratory previously developed a novel neuropathic and inflammatory facial pain model for mice referred to as the Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) model. Rather than inducing whole nerve ischemia and neuronal loss, this injury induces only slight peripheral nerve demyelination triggering long-term mechanical allodynia and cold hypersensitivity on the ipsilateral whisker pad. The aim of the present study is to further characterize the phenotype of the TIC injury model using specific behavioral assays (i.e. light-dark box, open field exploratory activity, and elevated plus maze) to explore pain- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with this model. Our findings determined that the TIC injury produces hypersensitivity 100% of the time after surgery that persists at least 21 weeks post injury (until the animals are euthanized). Three receptive field sensitivity pattern variations in mice with TIC injury are specified. Animals with TIC injury begin displaying anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box preference and open field exploratory tests at week eight post injury as compared to sham and naïve animals. Panic anxiety-like behavior was shown in the elevated plus maze in mice with TIC injury if the test was preceded with acoustic startle. Thus, in addition to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, the present study identified significant anxiety-like behaviors in mice with TIC injury resembling the clinical symptomatology and psychosocial impairments of patients with chronic facial pain. Overall, the TIC injury model's chronicity, reproducibility, and reliability in producing pain- and anxiety-like behaviors demonstrate its usefulness as a chronic neuropathic facial pain model.

  14. Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) Injury Induces Chronic Facial Pain and Susceptibility to Anxiety-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Danielle N.; Kniffin, Tracey C.; Zhang, Liping; Danaher, Robert J.; Miller, Craig S.; Bocanegra, Jose L.; Carlson, Charles R.; Westlund, Karin N.

    2015-01-01

    Our laboratory previously developed a novel neuropathic and inflammatory facial pain model for mice referred to as the Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) model. Rather than inducing whole nerve ischemia and neuronal loss, this injury induces only slight peripheral nerve demyelination triggering long-term mechanical allodynia and cold hypersensitivity on the ipsilateral whisker pad. The aim of the present study is to further characterize the phenotype of the TIC injury model using specific behavioral assays (i.e. light-dark box, open field exploratory activity, and elevated plus maze) to explore pain- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with this model. Our findings determined that the TIC injury produces hypersensitivity 100% of the time after surgery that persists at least 21 weeks post injury (until the animals are euthanized). Three receptive field sensitivity pattern variations in mice with TIC injury are specified. Animals with TIC injury begin displaying anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box preference and open field exploratory tests at week 8 post injury as compared to sham and naïve animals. Panic anxiety-like behavior was shown in the elevated plus maze in mice with TIC injury if the test was preceded with acoustic startle. Thus, in addition to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, the present study identified significant anxiety-like behaviors in mice with TIC injury which resembling the clinical symptomatology and psychosocial impairments of patients with chronic facial pain. Overall, the TIC injury model’s chronicity, reproducibility, and reliability in producing pain- and anxiety-like behaviors demonstrate its usefulness as a chronic neuropathic facial pain model. PMID:25818051

  15. Chronic low level arsenic exposure evokes inflammatory responses and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Kaustav; Prasad, Priyanka; Sinha, Dona

    2015-08-01

    The cross-sectional study investigated the impact of chronic low level arsenic (As) exposure (11-50μg/L) on CD14 expression and other inflammatory responses in rural women of West Bengal enrolled from control (As level <10μg/L; N, 131) and exposed area (As level 11-50μg/L, N, 142). Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that As level in groundwater was higher in endemic areas (22.93±10. 1 vs. 1.61±0.15, P<0.0001) and showed a positive correlation [Pearsons r, 0.9281; 95% confidence interval, 0.8192-0.9724] with As content in nails of the exposed women. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD 14 expression on monocytes was significantly higher (P<0.001) in exposed women and positively correlated with groundwater As [Pearsons r, 0.9191; 95% confidence interval, 0.7584-0.9745]. Leucocytes and airway cells of As exposed women exhibited up regulation of an inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (P<0.0001). Plasma pro inflammatory cytokines like - TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) - IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 were elevated whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was depleted in the exposed women. Sputa of the exposed women had elevated activity of inflammatory markers - MMP-2 and MMP-9 whereas sera were observed with only increased activity of MMP-9. Airway cells of the exposed women had exacerbated DNA damage than control. Level of oxidative DNA adducts like 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) were also enhanced in plasma of exposed women. Therefore it might be indicated that low level As exposure elicited a pro-inflammatory profile which might have been contributed in part by CD14 expressing monocytes and prolong persistence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation might have promoted oxidative DNA damage in the rural women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. NF-κβ signaling and chronic inflammatory diseases: exploring the potential of natural products to drive new therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Matthew J; Linder, Mark; Pontoniere, Paolo; Crea, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Chronic inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases that represent major public health and financial concerns, including heart failure (HF), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and arthritis. Nuclear factor kappa β (NF-κβ) is a central component of inflammation; owing to its upstream signaling position, it is considered an attractive target for new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Hydroxytyrosol is an orally bioavailable polyphenol, obtained from olives, which inhibits NF-κβ activity and has elicited promising efficacy signals in several inflammatory diseases. Here, we further examine the role of NF-κβ in inflammation, provide an introduction to natural products and their anti-inflammatory effects and explore the potential of hydroxytyrosol as a new approach to combating the burden of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  17. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  18. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and variants: where we are and where we should go.

    PubMed

    Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic and often disabling sensory motor neuropathy postulated as caused by an immune attack against peripheral nerve myelin. In addition to a classic sensory–motor polyneuropathy, other phenotypes of CIDP have been described including the Lewis- Sumner syndrome, distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy, pure motor CIDP, pure sensory CIDP including chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy (CISP), and focal CIDP. These phenotypes are currently considered to be variants of CIDP, even if the possibility that they represent different demyelinating neuropathies cannot be fully excluded considering differences in their response to therapy. Several data support the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of CIDP even if the precise targets and actors (antibodies and lymphocytes) of this immune response remain uncertain. Recent studies have shown that the therapeutic response may differ in patients with peculiar clinical presentations supporting the hypothesis that different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie the heterogeneity of CIDP. The majority of patients with CIDP show improvement after immune therapies including corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). It remains unclear why none of the other immune therapies that were reported to be variably effective in other immune disorders proved to be effective also in CIDP.

  19. Cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes morbidity and all-cause mortality among diverse chronic inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Dregan, Alex; Chowienczyk, Phil; Molokhia, Mariam

    2017-06-10

    The present study aimed to assess the relationship between inflammatory disorders with cardiometabolic diseases and mortality within a community-based population. The UK Biobank data were used to conduct two investigations: a cross-sectional study to estimate cardiometabolic risk and a prospective cohort study to estimate mortality risk. Binary regression analyses were used to model the association between coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, venous thromboembolism and peripheral artery disease diagnoses with seven inflammatory disorders (eg, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic vasculitis, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC)). Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality. About 4% (n=19, 082) of the study population (n=5 02 641) were diagnosed with a chronic inflammatory disorder. The most common inflammatory disorder was psoriasis (n=6286), and the least common was SLE (n=654). SLE showed the strongest association with multiple (relative risk (RR) 6.36, 95% CI 4.37 to 9.25) risk of cardiometabolic diseases, followed by the RA (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.83), UC (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.51 to 1.89), AS (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.52), vasculitis (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.42-1.90) and psoriasis (RR 1.25, 95% 1.16 to 1.35) disorders. The magnitude of the association was higher among participants prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids drugs, with multiple cardiometabolic risk being greater within SLE (RR 12.35, 95% CI 7.18 to 21.24), followed by UC (RR 3.81, 95% CI 2.69 to 5.38), Crohn's disease (RR 3.07, 95% CI 1.85 to 5.11), RA (RR 3.06, 95% CI 2.44 to 3.85), psoriasis (RR 2.36, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.95), AS (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.41) and vasculitis (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.79). Similar pattern was observed with respect to the cumulative cardiometabolic risk. Inflammatory disorders are associated with

  20. Urinary patterns of patients with renal stones associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Castelnuovo, Chiara; Zanetti, Giampaolo; Pisani, Enrico

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of renal stone patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease and their urinary patterns. During a 20-year period, 1941 consecutive patients with renal stone disease underwent routine laboratory procedures including a fasting blood sample for chemistry profile and a 24-hour urine collection for analyses of electrolytes. Thorough histories including chronic inflammatory disease or ileal resection were obtained. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease together with a control group comprising 47 idiopathic renal calcium stone formers were submitted to a xylose absorption test for evaluation of intestinal absorption. We observed 10 patients with Crohn's disease, 12 with ulcerative colitis and one patient with ileal bypass for obesity. Six patients underwent ileal resection and 10 patients total colectomy. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly higher and urinary citrate lower in stone patients with ileal disease (Ox 60 +/- 23, Cit 113 + 7-118 mg/day) than in idiopathic stone formers (Ox 28.2 +/- 11.5, Cit 381 +/- 205) and stone patients with ulcerative colitis (Ox 20.3 +/- 14.8, Cit 369 +/- 247). Urinary volume was significantly lower in patients with ulcerative colitis. A significant inverse correlation (-0.38, p < 0.01) between oxalate urinary excretion and blood xylose level was found 2 hours after ingestion of xylose. No significant reduction of xylose absorption was demonstrated in both normoxaluric and hyperoxaluric idiopathic stone patients. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are characterized by recurrent inflammatory involvement of different intestinal segments involving distinctive urinary patterns. Malabosorption associated with ileal disease causes increased oxalate absorption by increasing oxalate solubility in the intestinal lumen and permeability of the colonic mucosa; a reduced citrate excretion is associated in relation to mild acidosis due to the loss of bicarbonate in the liquid stool. In

  1. Condom use and the risk of recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, or infertility following an episode of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Randall, Hugh; Richter, Holly E; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Montagno, Andrea; Soper, David E; Sweet, Richard L; Nelson, Deborah B; Schubeck, Diane; Hendrix, Susan L; Bass, Debra C; Kip, Kevin E

    2004-08-01

    Among 684 sexually active women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) followed up for a mean of 35 months, we related contraceptive use to self-reported PID recurrence, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Persistent use of condoms during the study reduced the risk of recurrent PID, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Consistent condom use (about 60% of encounters) at baseline also reduced these risks, after adjustment for confounders, by 30% to 60%. Self-reported persistent and consistent condom use was associated with lower rates of PID sequelae.

  2. The Role of Nucleotides and Purinergic Signaling in Apoptotic Cell Clearance – Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Billions of cells undergo apoptosis every day in healthy individuals. A prompt removal of dying cells prevents the release of pro-inflammatory intracellular content and progress to secondary necrosis. Thus, inappropriate clearance of apoptotic cells provokes autoimmunity and has been associated with many chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate and related nucleotides play an important role in the apoptotic clearance process. Here, we review the current understanding of nucleotides and purinergic receptors in apoptotic cell clearance and the potential therapeutic targets of purinergic receptor subtypes in inflammatory conditions. PMID:25566266

  3. Inflammatory dendritic cells migrate in and out of transplanted chronic mycobacterial granulomas in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Heidi A.; Harding, Jeffrey S.; Hunt, Oliver; Altamirano, Christopher J.; Hulseberg, Paul D.; Stewart, Danielle; Fabry, Zsuzsanna; Sandor, Matyas

    2011-01-01

    An estimated one-third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although most affected individuals maintain a latent infection. This control is attributed to the formation of granulomas, cell masses largely comprising infected macrophages with T cells aggregated around them. Inflammatory DCs, characterized as CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+, are also found in granulomas and are an essential component of the acute immune response to mycobacteria. However, their function during chronic infection is less well understood. Here, we report that CD11c+ cells dynamically traffic in and out of both acute and chronic granulomas induced by Mycobacterium bovis strain bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in mice. By transplanting Mycobacterium-induced granulomas containing fluorescently labeled CD11c+ cells and bacteria into unlabeled mice, we were able to follow CD11c+ cell trafficking and T cell activation. We found that half of the CD11c+ cells in chronic granulomas were exchanged within 1 week. Compared with tissue-resident DC populations, CD11c+ cells migrating out of granuloma-containing tissue had an unexpected systemic dissemination pattern. Despite low antigen availability, systemic CD4+ T cell priming still occurred during chronic infection. These data demonstrate that surveillance of granulomatous tissue by CD11c+ cells is continuous and that these cells are distinct from tissue-resident DC populations and support T cell priming during both stages of Mycobacterium infection. This intense DC surveillance may also be a feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and other granuloma-associated diseases. PMID:21911937

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of heel pain in chronic inflammatory arthritis using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, G; Brophy, D P; Gibney, R G; FitzGerald, O

    1996-06-01

    The authors examined the role of ultrasound (US) in diagnosis and management of heel pain in chronic inflammatory arthritis. Nineteen patients underwent US examination. Eight patients (2 with previously unsuccessful nonguided injections), had 11 US-guided corticosteroid injections for treatment of retrocalcaneal bursitis (n = 6), plantar fasciitis (n = 3), and posterior tibial tenosynovitis (n = 2). US-demonstrated Achilles tendon rupture (n = 2), Achilles tendinitis (n = 8), posterior tibial tenosynovitis (n = 6), peroneus longus tenosynovitis (n = 2), retrocalcaneal bursitis (n = 13), and plantar fasciitis (n = 4). Loss of smooth bone contour (n = 13) correlated with bone erosions on plain radiographs in all but one case. Ten of 11 guided injections resulted in full resolution of heel pain. The diverse causes of heel pain are highlighted, and the ability of US to provide information with management implications is confirmed. US-guided corticosteroid injection is beneficial, especially after failure of nonguided injection.

  5. [Value of ultrasound in diagnostic and follow-up of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Kinkel, Horst; Michels, Guido; Jaspers, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Transabdominal ultrasound as an easy to use, accurate, cost-effective and pleasant method has emerged as one of the most important imaging techniques in daily routine. Ultrasound is efficient for the diagnosis and differentiation of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). For monitoring disease activity and severity as well as identifying complications (stenosis, abscess and fistula) high-resolution ultrasonography with Doppler techniques and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is well suited. Perineal ultrasound and extravascular CEUS can give important information for clinical management of patients with IBD. The aim of this article is to give an updated overview about the clinical applications of ultrasound in the diagnosis and followup of patients with IBD.

  6. Autoantibody responses to nodal and paranodal antigens in chronic inflammatory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Mathey, E K; Garg, N; Park, S B; Nguyen, T; Baker, S; Yuki, N; Yiannikas, C; Lin, C S; Spies, J M; Ghaoui, R; Barnett, M H; Vucic, S; Pollard, J D; Kiernan, M C

    2017-08-15

    Autoantibodies to nodal/paranodal proteins have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). To determine the frequency of anti-paranodal antibodies in our cohort of CIDP patients and to validate the presence anti-nodal antibodies in MMN, sera were screened for IgG against human neurofascin 155, contactin-1, neurofascin 186 and gliomedin using ELISA. In CIDP patients, 7% were anti-NF155 IgG4 positive and 7% were anti-CNTN1 IgG4 positive. Positive results were confirmed using cell based assays and indirect immunofluorescence on teased nerve fibres. We did not detect IgG autoantibodies against these nodal/paranodal antigens in MMN patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rosacea: Molecular Mechanisms and Management of a Chronic Cutaneous Inflammatory Condition.

    PubMed

    Woo, Yu Ri; Lim, Ji Hong; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-09-15

    Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease that affects the facial skin. Clinically, rosacea can be categorized into papulopustular, erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous rosacea. However, the phenotypic presentations of rosacea are more heterogeneous. Although the pathophysiology of rosacea remains to be elucidated, immunologic alterations and neurovascular dysregulation are thought to have important roles in initiating and strengthening the clinical manifestations of rosacea. In this article, we present the possible molecular mechanisms of rosacea based on recent laboratory and clinical studies. We describe the genetic predisposition for rosacea along with its associated diseases, triggering factors, and suggested management options in detail based on the underlying molecular biology. Understanding the molecular pathomechanisms of rosacea will likely aid toward better comprehending its complex pathogenesis.

  8. Rosacea: Molecular Mechanisms and Management of a Chronic Cutaneous Inflammatory Condition

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yu Ri; Lim, Ji Hong; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease that affects the facial skin. Clinically, rosacea can be categorized into papulopustular, erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous rosacea. However, the phenotypic presentations of rosacea are more heterogeneous. Although the pathophysiology of rosacea remains to be elucidated, immunologic alterations and neurovascular dysregulation are thought to have important roles in initiating and strengthening the clinical manifestations of rosacea. In this article, we present the possible molecular mechanisms of rosacea based on recent laboratory and clinical studies. We describe the genetic predisposition for rosacea along with its associated diseases, triggering factors, and suggested management options in detail based on the underlying molecular biology. Understanding the molecular pathomechanisms of rosacea will likely aid toward better comprehending its complex pathogenesis. PMID:27649161

  9. Treatment of pediatric chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: Challenges, controversies and questions.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jay; Ramos-Platt, Leigh; Mitchell, Wendy G

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon acquired disorder of unknown cause, presumed to have an immunological basis. We report 20 patients seen at Children's Hospital Los Angeles over a period of 10 years. The outcome of our patients was favorable in a vast majority with good response to various treatments instituted. However, residual neurologic deficit was common. The choice of treatment modality was empirical and selected by the treating neurologist. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids were most commonly utilized for treatment. Plasmapheresis, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and abatacept were added if the patients were refractory to IVIG or became corticosteroid dependent. The spectrum of disease severity ranged from a single monophasic episode, to multiphasic with infrequent relapses with good response to IVIG, to progressive disease refractory to multiple therapies.

  10. [Anesthetic management of a Dialysis Patient with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Koji; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2015-11-01

    We report the successful management of anesthesia in a 46-year-old male dialysis patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). He underwent an osteosynthesis of the ankle joint using general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. The anesthetic concerns in patients with CIDP are the possibility of postoperative respiratory dysfunction due to anesthetics or muscle relaxants and that of postoperative neurological deterioration due to spinal or epidural anesthesia. In this case, sevoflurane (1.5-2%) did not cause respiratory dysfunction postoperatively and muscle relaxant effect of rocuronium was effectively reversed by sugammadex. Epidural anesthesia using ropivacaine (0.2-0.375%) and fentanyl did not worsen the neurological symptoms of CIDP post-operatively.

  11. Intravenous immunoglobulin inhibits BAFF production in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy - a new mechanism of action?

    PubMed

    Bick, Sandra; Tschernatsch, Marlene; Karg, Anne; Fuehlhuber, Verena; Trenczek, Tina E; Faltermeier, Kathrin; Hackstein, Holger; Kaps, Manfred; Blaes, Franz

    2013-03-15

    Chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disease treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The underlying mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. The B-cell activating factor BAFF contributes to B-cell homeostasis and (auto-)antibody production. BAFF was recently identified as one key molecule in the development of autoimmune diseases. Herein, we demonstrate that BAFF serum levels are elevated in CIDP patients. IVIg treatment resulted in a significant decrease of BAFF serum level. In vitro, IVIg inhibited BAFF in monocytes. Consequently, we identified BAFF as a new target for IVIg in CIDP treatment and provide a new, Fcγ-receptor independent, mechanism of action for IVIg.

  12. POEMS Syndrome in a Juvenile Initially Diagnosed as Treatment Resistant Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Krish, Sonia N; Nguyen, Thy; Biliciler, Suur; Kumaravel, Manickam; Wahed, Amer; Risin, Semyon; Sheikh, Kazim A

    2015-12-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) is a disorder that mainly affects adults. We report a pediatric patient, initially considered to have Guillain-Barré syndrome, who continued to have progression of neuropathic disease leading to the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Diagnosis of POEMS was established by an abnormal bone marrow biopsy, prompted by laboratory and imaging findings, which became abnormal later in the course of the disease. POEMS syndrome is extremely rare in children, and neuropathic features in this age group have not been previously described. This case illustrates that "Guillain-Barré syndrome-like" initial presentation for POEMS, which has not been previously reported. It also emphasizes that in children with progressive acquired neuropathies that are treatment unresponsive, POEMS syndrome should be considered.

  13. Office immunotherapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Peter J; Taylor, Bruce V; Davies, Jenny L; Mauermann, Michelle L; Litchy, William J; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, P James B

    2015-10-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIg], plasma exchange [PE], and corticosteroids are efficacious treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [CIDP]. IVIg is effective in multifocal motor neuropathy [MMN]. NIS, NIS-weakness, sum scores of raw amplitudes of motor fiber (CMAPs) amplitudes, and Dyck/Rankin score provided reliable measures to detect and scale abnormality and reflect change; they are therefore ideal for office management of response-based immunotherapy (R-IRx) of CIDP. Using efficacious R-IRx, a large early and late therapeutic response (≥ one-fourth were in remission or had recovered) was demonstrated in CIDP. In MMN only an early improvement with late non-significant worsening was observed. The difference in immunotherapy response supports a fundamental difference between CIDP (immune attack on Schwann cells and myelin) and MMN (attack on nodes of Ranvier and axons).

  14. Patient demographics and health plan paid costs in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guptill, Jeffrey T; Bromberg, Mark B; Zhu, Li; Sharma, Bal K; Thompson, Amy R; Krueger, Andrew; Sanders, Donald B

    2014-07-01

    We determined health plan paid costs and healthcare resource usage of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). CIDP patients from 9 U.S. commercial health plans with claims in 2011 were identified from the Accordant Health Services claims database. We examined demographics, prevalence of comorbidities, prescribed drugs, place of service, and mean annual health plan paid costs per patient. From 6.5 million covered lives, 73 (56% men; mean age 47) met study entry criteria. The most prescribed therapies were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (26% of patients), gabapentin (26%), and prednisone (16%). The annual health plan paid cost was $56,953. Pharmacy cost was the major cost driver (57% of the total), and IVIg totaled 90% of the pharmacy costs. Healthcare costs for CIDP patients are substantial, with a large burden in pharmacy usage. Studies are needed to determine optimal long-term treatment strategies for CIDP, particularly related to IVIg. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy presenting as cauda equina syndrome in a diabetic.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wayne W L; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2007-09-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) may occur in association with diabetes mellitus (DM). We report a case of a poorly controlled diabetic patient who presented with rapid onset of bilateral lower extremity weakness and sensory loss associated with sacral and posterior thigh paresthesias and urinary and bowel incontinence, indicative of cauda equina syndrome (CES). Subsequent evaluation was consistent with CIDP. Monthly infusions with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) with strict glycemic control using insulin resulted in remarkable clinical and electrophysiological recovery. This case report describes a rare presentation of CIDP and emphasizes the importance of early utility of electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies in the clinical evaluation of diabetic patients presenting with rapidly progressive lower extremity weakness and sensory loss associated with diminished reflexes.

  16. Multiple Viral Determinants Mediate Myopathogenicity in Coxsackievirus B1-Induced Chronic Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Patricia E.; Weber-Sanders, Melissa L.; Messner, Ronald P.

    2003-01-01

    Mice infected with myopathic coxsackievirus B1 Tucson (CVB1T) develop chronic inflammatory myopathy (CIM) consisting of hind limb weakness and inflammation. Amyopathic virus variants are infectious but attenuated for CIM. In this report, viral clones, chimeras, and sequencing were used to identify viral determinants of CIM. Chimeras identified several regions involved in CIM and localized a weakness determinant to nucleotides 2493 to 3200 of VP1. Sequencing of multiple clones and viruses identified five candidate determinants that were strictly conserved in myopathic viruses with one located in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR), three in the VP1 capsid, and one in the 3C protease. Taken together, these studies implicate Tyr-87 and/or Val-136 as candidate determinants of weakness. They also indicate that there are at least two determinants of inflammation and one additional determinant of weakness encoded by myopathic CVB1T. PMID:14557670

  17. Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: From Molecular Bases to Practical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ripellino, Paolo; Fleetwood, Thomas; Cantello, Roberto; Comi, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, in which both cellular and humoral immune responses are involved. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with some patients displaying pure motor form and others also showing a variable degree of sensory dysfunction; disease evolution may also differ from patient to patient, since monophasic, progressive, and relapsing forms are reported. Underlying such clinical variability there is probably a broad spectrum of molecular dysfunctions that are and will be the target of therapeutic strategies. In this review we first explore the biological bases of current treatments and subsequently we focus on the practical management that must also take into account pharmacoeconomic issues. PMID:24527207

  18. Serum thymosin α 1 levels in patients with chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Pica, F; Chimenti, M S; Gaziano, R; Buè, C; Casalinuovo, I A; Triggianese, P; Conigliaro, P; Di Carlo, D; Cordero, V; Adorno, G; Volpi, A; Perricone, R; Garaci, E

    2016-10-01

    Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is a powerful modulator of immunity and inflammation. Despite years of studies, there are a few reports evaluating serum Tα1 in health and disease. We studied a cohort of healthy individuals in comparison with patients affected by chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Sera from 120 blood donors (healthy controls, HC), 120 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 40 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 40 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), attending the Transfusion Medicine or the Rheumatology Clinic at the Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, were tested for Tα1 content by means of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Data were analysed in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics of patients and controls. A gender difference was found in the HC group, where females had lower serum Tα1 levels than males (P < 0·0001). Patients had lower serum Tα1 levels than HC (P < 0·0001), the lowest were observed in PsA group (P < 0·0001 versus all the other groups). Among all patients, those who at the time of blood collection were taking disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) plus steroids had significantly higher Tα1 levels than those taking DMARD alone (P = 0·044) or no treatment (P < 0·0001), but not of those taking steroids alone (P = 0·280). However, whichever type of treatment was taken by the patients, serum Tα1 was still significantly lower than in HC and there was no treatment-related difference in PsA group. Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm and deepen these observations. They might improve our understanding on the regulatory role of Tα1 in health and disease and increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

  19. Comparison of tumor markers and inflammatory biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Barouchos, Nikolaos; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Barouchos, Nektarios; Armeniakou, Eleni; Dionyssopoulou, Vasiliki; Mathioudakis, Alexandros G; Christopoulou, Eleni; Koltsida, Spiridoula; Bassiakou, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was: (a) to measure levels of the tumor markers, Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), Cancer antigen 125 (CA125), Neuron specific enolase (NSE) and Cytokeratin fragments 19 (CYFRA21-1); (b) to investigate any correlation between them and the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cells count (WBC), in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, who belong in groups of severity C and D, as classified by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD); (c) and finally, to compare these results in these two groups. Fifty-two patients with COPD exacerbation [35 male/17 female, mean age (± SD) 68.3 ± 6.4 years] were the study subjects, and were classified in severity groups C (n = 27) and D (n = 25), based on the spirometric classification, the number of exacerbations in the preceding year and the assessment of their symptoms by GOLD. Results. CEA and CA125 were increased in group D. In group C, there was a significant correlation between CRP and CA125 (p = 0.05). In group D, there was a significant correlation between WBC and NSE (p = 0.02), between CRP and CA19-9 (p = 0.02) and NSE (p < 0.001), and between the ESR and NSE (p = 0.03). CA125 (p = 0.01) and CA19-9 (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in group D compared to group C. In contrast, there was no significant difference in two groups for NSE, CEA and CYFRA21-1. Certain tumor markers were increased and were associated with increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and with the disease severity. Inflammation might have a key pathogenetic role linking the above tumor markers with the severity of COPD.

  20. The biopsychosocial model of treatment the patients with inflammatory chronic bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rakovec-Felser, Zlatka

    2011-06-01

    We present the organised psychological group interventions for persons with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerose colitis, Morbus Crohn). The actual bio-psychosocial model of health and illness is used to explain the situation of chronically ill patient as stressful life position and their ways of coping with such, health-related problems. Considering that numerous psychological factors can lead to insufficient illness adaptation and (non) adherence to treatment--and all those--to much more complications and higher use of therapies, we try to develop for group of those patients effective model of treatment. The group of 15 gastroenterological patients from treatment in UKC Maribor was included in the psycho-diagnostic procedure (semi-structural interview, The Freiburg's Personal Inventory, The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Health-related Questionnaire of Quality of Life). The data that we had been gathered were significant to the C-type of coping, found in some other group of chronically ill patients, too. For such persons is typically their low emotions expressiveness, especially negative emotions (sadness, anger). In interpersonal contacts they usually show extreme social agreement and low level of assertiveness. So we formed our therapeutic model and its therapeutic aims to the course of being able to express the emotions, to reach higher personal autonomy, better assertively and self image--which at the end have all greater influence on the human's quality of life. After therapeutic model and aims of treatment has been formed, patients with inflammatory bowel disease were treated in cognitive-behavioural group, where also C. Roger's conditions for successful psychotherapy were taken in account and were the part of hole, integrative form of treatment.

  1. Chronic intestinal inflammation: inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Deborah C.; Shaker, Anisa; Levin, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine. The prevalence in the United States is greater than 200 cases per 100,000, with the total number of IBD patients between 1 and 1.5 million. CD may affect all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus, but most commonly involves the distal part of the small intestine or ileum, and colon. UC results in colonic inflammation that can affect the rectum only, or can progress proximally to involve part of or the entire colon. Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and weight loss. A serious long-term complication of chronic inflammation is the development of colorectal cancer. A genetic basis for IBD had long been recognized based on the increased familial risk. However, significant discordance for CD in twins, and a much less robust phenotypic concordance for UC, suggested additional factors play a role in disease pathogenesis, including environmental factors. In the past several years, progress in understanding the molecular basis of IBD has accelerated, beginning with the generation of animal models of colitis and progressing to the identification of specific genetic markers from candidate gene, gene linkage, and genome-wide association analyses. Genetic studies have also resulted in the recognition of the importance of environmental factors, particularly the crucial role of the gut microbiota in CD and UC. Altered immune responses to the normal intestinal flora are key factors in IBD pathogenesis. In this research topic, the genetic basis of IBD, the genetic and cellular alterations associated with colitis-associated colon cancer, and the emerging role of the intestinal microbiota and other environmental factors will be reviewed. PMID:22586430

  2. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. 10 years' experience in a Mexican centre].

    PubMed

    San-Juan, O D; Castro-Macías, J I

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic, but potentially treatable, acquired autoimmune neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that few studies have been conducted on its epidemiology, presenting symptoms and long-term functional prognosis. To describe the clinical and neurophysiological forms of patients with CIDP at the outset and their follow-up at one year. We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study of patients who were hospitalised in our unit between 1995 and 2005. The cases were defined in accordance with Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) group criteria. Data gathered included demographic characteristics, forms of clinical presentation, neurophysiological findings, cerebrospinal fluid and functional prognosis at one year. A statistical descriptive analysis was performed. The sample consisted of 26 patients--12 males (46.15%) and 14 females (53.84%)--between 15 and 71 years of age (40.17 +/- 15.7 years). CIDP was associated with other autoimmune diseases in 20.8% of the patients. The predominant features at the outset of the disease were paresis and distal symmetrical paresthesias in the four limbs, high protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid and demyelination with axonal degeneration. Prednisone was administered in 43% of the cases. At one year, five patients remained asymptomatic (22.72%), there was a partial improvement in 13 (59.09%) and no improvement was seen in four cases (18.18%). The most frequent initial form of clinical presentation of CIDP in our population is quadriparesis and distal symmetrical paresthesias, high protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid and demyelination with axonal degeneration, which are related to a good functional prognosis at one year.

  3. Urinalysis for interleukin-8 in the non-invasive diagnosis of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Taha, A; Grant, V; Kelly, R

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Given its role in mediating inflammation, the use of urinary interleukin-8 (IL-8) was assessed in the non-invasive diagnosis of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Methods: IL-8 was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in random urine samples (1 ml each) carrying code numbers and taken from 208 patients: 177 adults and 31 children presenting with a range of active or inactive inflammatory conditions. Results: In the appropriate controls and in patients with inactive inflammation, the median urinary IL-8 levels ranged from 7–12 pg/ml, compared with 104 pg/ml in active ulcerative colitis (p = 0.002), 54 in active Crohn's disease (p = 0.025), 93 in active rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.001), 107 in acute cholecystitis (p<0.0001), 127 in acute appendicitis (p = 0.0001), and 548 pg/ml in urinary tract infection (p<0.0001). Children with non-viral inflammation/infection also had higher IL-8 values (median, 199 pg/ml; p = 0.0001) than those with viral infection (median, 7 pg/ml) or non-specific conditions (median, 10 pg/ml). In the study group as a whole urinary IL-8 values correlated positively with peripheral blood white cell count (r = 0.32; p < 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.41; p<0.001), and C-reactive protein (r = 0.33; p<0.001). Conclusion: Taking the appropriate clinical situation into account, urinary IL-8 measurement helps in the non-invasive assessment of active inflammation in at least a number of common acute and chronic conditions. PMID:12697917

  4. Effects of Chronic Mental Stress and atherogenic diet on the immune inflammatory environment in mouse aorta

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Zhukov, Viktor; Bradlow, Henry; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Gonzalez, Alejandro Sanchez; Curtiss, Linda K.; Conti, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and stress are regarded as two important atherogenic factors. Because stress can affect leukocyte distribution, we hypothesized that stress-mediated leukocyte extravasation can modify the inflammatory environment of the arterial wall possibly contributing to atherogenesis. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the inflammatory environment of the aorta in C57Bl/6 mice subjected to 3 and to 12 months of chronic stress and compared it to age matched non-stressed animals. Experiments were carried out in mice fed regular chow or atherogenic diets. Both treatments increased the expression of vascular and leukocyte adhesion molecules and leukocyte accumulation. At 3 months, stress but not an atherogenic diet elevated the number of CD4 cells, CD8 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils. These changes were associated with elevation of transcripts for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, E-Selectin and Neuropeptide Y. At 12 months, stress or high cholesterol acted similarly to elevate the number of CD8 and macrophages, and synergistically on the number of all cell types investigated. At this time-point, strong synergism was also observed on the level of E-selectin and NPY in the aorta, but not in the circulation. Despite these effects, histological and morphological alterations of the arterial wall were severe in the atherogenic diet, but not in the stress groups. Thus, although stress and an atherogenic diet may both affect leukocyte accumulation in the aorta, they may contribute differently to atherogenesis. PMID:21722726

  5. Immunoadsorption in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with unsatisfactory response to first-line treatment.

    PubMed

    Galldiks, Norbert; Burghaus, Lothar; Dohmen, Christian; Teschner, Sven; Pollok, Manfred; Leebmann, Josef; Frischmuth, Nikolaus; Hollinger, Peter; Nazli, Nahed; Fassbender, Cordula; Klingel, Reinhard; Benzing, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R; Haupt, Walter F

    2011-01-01

    First-line treatment options for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) are corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange. In a significant number of patients, first-line therapy fails, and long-term maintenance treatment still remains a therapeutic challenge. Immunoadsorption (IA) may be an alternative to classical plasma exchange in the therapy of immune-mediated neurologic diseases. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate efficacy and safety of IA in patients with CIDP with unsatisfactory response to first-line treatment options. CIDP patients received adjunct IA treatment using tryptophan-immune adsorbers. The inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment disability (INCAT) score was used to grade disability and monitor treatment effects. In total, 14 CIDP patients were analyzed. Ten patients were treated in hospital. After one IA treatment series, the INCAT score decreased significantly in all 10 patients. Four of these 14 patients were treated in outpatient clinics using long-term maintenance IA with 1-2 treatments per week. In these 4 patients, effects of long-term maintenance IA resulted in an improvement of overall disability. In all patients, IA was safe, well tolerated, and no severe adverse effects occurred. IA could be an effective and safe option for CIDP patients with unsatisfactory response to first-line treatment options and for long-term maintenance treatment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Unusual CD4+CD28− T Cells and Their Pathogenic Role in Chronic Inflammatory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ga Hye

    2016-01-01

    CD28 is a primary co-stimulatory receptor that is essential for successful T cell activation, proliferation, and survival. While ubiquitously expressed on naive T cells, the level of CD28 expression on memory T cells is largely dependent on the T-cell differentiation stage in humans. Expansion of circulating T cells lacking CD28 was originally considered a hallmark of age-associated immunological changes in humans, with a progressive loss of CD28 following replicative senescence with advancing age. However, an increasing body of evidence has revealed that there is a significant age-inappropriate expansion of CD4+CD28− T cells in patients with a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, suggesting that these cells play a role in their pathogenesis. In fact, expanded CD4+CD28− T cells can produce large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α and also have cytotoxic potential, which may cause tissue damage and development of pathogenesis in many inflammatory disorders. Here we review the characteristics of CD4+CD28− T cells as well as the recent advances highlighting the contribution of these cells to several disease conditions. PMID:28035207

  7. The Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Auricular Point Acupressure for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chun; Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Morone, Natalia E.; Glick, Ronald M.; Albers, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Auricular point acupressure (APA) is a promising treatment for pain management. Few studies have investigated the physiological mechanisms of APA analgesics. Method. In this pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT), a 4-week APA treatment was used to manage chronic low back pain (CLBP). Sixty-one participants were randomized into a real APA group (n = 32) or a sham APA group (n = 29). Blood samples, pain intensity, and physical function were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results. Subjects in the real APA group reported a 56% reduction of pain intensity and a 26% improvement in physical function. Serum blood samples showed (1) a decrease in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP] and (2) an increase in IL-4. In contrast, subjects in the sham APA group (1) reported a 9% reduction in pain and a 2% improvement in physical function and (2) exhibited minimal changes of inflammatory cytokines and neuropeptides. Statistically significant differences in IL-4 and CGRP expression between the real and sham APA groups were verified. Conclusion. These findings suggest that APA treatment affects pain intensity through modulation of the immune system, as reflected by APA-induced changes in serum inflammatory cytokine and neuropeptide levels. PMID:26170869

  8. Marked QTc Prolongation and Torsades de pointes in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Pietro Enea; Capecchi, Pier Leopoldo; Bertolozzi, Iacopo; Morozzi, Gabriella; Lorenzini, Sauro; Simpatico, Antonella; Selvi, Enrico; Bacarelli, Maria Romana; Acampa, Maurizio; Lazaro, Deana; El-Sherif, Nabil; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Laghi-Pasini, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that in chronic inflammatory arthritis (CIA), QTc prolongation is frequent and correlates with systemic inflammatory activation. Notably, basic studies demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines induce profound changes in potassium and calcium channels resulting in a prolonging effect on cardiomyocyte action potential duration, thus on the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the risk of sudden cardiac death is significantly increased when compared to non-RA subjects. Conversely, to date no data are available about torsades de pointes (TdP) prevalence in CIA, and the few cases reported considered CIA only an incidental concomitant disease, not contributing factor to TdP development. We report three patients with active CIA developing marked QTc prolongation, in two cases complicated with TdP degenerating to cardiac arrest. In these patients, a blood sample was obtained within 24 h from TdP/marked QTc prolongation occurrence, and levels of IL-6, TNFα, and IL-1 were evaluated. In all three cases, IL-6 was markedly elevated, ~10 to 100 times more than reference values. Moreover, one patient also showed high circulating levels of TNFα and IL-1. In conclusion, active CIA may represent a currently overlooked QT-prolonging risk factor, potentially contributing in the presence of other “classical” risk factors to TdP occurrence. In particular, a relevant role may be played by elevated circulating IL-6 levels via direct electrophysiological effects on the heart. This fact should be carefully kept in mind, particularly when recognizable risk factors are already present and/or the addition of QT-prolonging drugs is required. PMID:27703966

  9. Inflammatory and Metabolic Alterations of Kager's Fat Pad in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fredberg, Ulrich; Kjær, Søren G.; Quistorff, Bjørn; Langberg, Henning; Hansen, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager’s fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between Kager’s fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager’s fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. Aim The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression of inflammatory markers and metabolic enzymes in Kager’s fat pad. Methods A biopsy was taken from Kager’s fat pad from 31 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and from 13 healthy individuals. Gene expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Focus was on genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Results Expression of the majority of analyzed inflammatory marker genes was increased in patients with Achilles tendinopathy compared to that in healthy controls. Expression patterns of the patient group were consistent with reduced lipolysis and increased fatty acid β-oxidation. In the fat pad, the pain-signaling neuropeptide substance P was found to be present in one third of the subjects in the Achilles tendinopathy group but in none of the healthy controls. Conclusion Gene expression changes in Achilles tendinopathy patient samples were consistent with Kager’s fat pad being more inflamed than in the healthy control group. Additionally, the results indicate an altered lipid metabolism in Kager’s fat pad of Achilles tendinopathy patients. PMID:25996876

  10. [Azithromycin: an anti-inflammatory effect in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis? A preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Schilling, F; Wagner, A D

    2000-10-01

    In this preliminary communication we report our experience with Azithromycin in patients with Chronic Recurring Multifocal Osteomyelitis (CRMO). Seven out of 13 patients, mainly teenager, showed a fast clinical improvement after they were started on Azithromycin. The immediate therapeutic effect of Azithromycin in patients with CRMO was surprising and lead us to the hypothesis that Azithromycin could have an antiphlogistic in addition to it's antibiotic effect in this disease setting. In patients with reactive chronic pelvic osteomyelitis Azithromycin obviously had a direct influence on the sympathic coxitis. Half of the patients reported an immediate reduction of pain and a significant improvement in range of movement after they were started on Azithromycin. In all cases the clinical and radiographic signs on MRI showed a reduction of the inflammatory process. Experimental animal models have recently shown that macrolids have independent additional antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The assumed local immunomodulatory effect of Azithromycin potentially is an additional activity to the already known synergistic antimicrobial and antiinflammatory effect. Right now we are in the process of collecting data from patients with SAPHO Syndrome who underwent bone-biopsies for microbiologic and histomorphologic investigations. All patients with the growth of propionibacterium acnes were started on a long-term antibiotic therapy with Azithromycin. This study will possibly help to answer the question of the additional antiphogistic/immunomodulatory effect of Azithromycin in this disease entity and the related CRMO.

  11. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. Clinical findings: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. Diagnoses: A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. Interventions: After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. Outcomes: A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Conclusion: Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered. PMID:27930572

  12. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in children: a report of four patients with variable relapsing courses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Young Mock; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2015-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronically progressive or relapsing symmetric sensorimotor disorder presumed to occur because of immunologic antibody-mediated reactions. To understand the clinical courses of CIDP, we report variable CIDP courses in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval. Four patients who were diagnosed with acute-onset and relapsing CIDP courses at Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were enrolled in this retrospective study. We diagnosed each patient on the basis of the CIDP diagnostic criteria developed in 2010 by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guidelines. We present the cases of four pediatric patients diagnosed with CIDP to understand the variable clinical course of the disease in children. Our four patients were all between 8 and 12 years of age. Patients 1 and 2 were diagnosed with acute cerebellar ataxia or Guillain-Barré syndrome as initial symptoms. While patients 1 and 4 were given only intravenous dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day) for 5 days at the first episode, Patients 2 and 3 were given a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day). All patients were maintained with oral prednisolone at 30 mg/day, but their clinical courses were variable in both relapse intervals and severity. We experienced variable clinical courses of CIDP in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval.

  13. Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin and excretion of 111indium granulocytes in assessment of disease activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, W; Becker, W; Mössner, J; Koch, W; Reiners, C

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal protein loss in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases may be easily determined by measurement of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) stool concentration and alpha 1-AT clearance. Both parameters were significantly raised in 36 and 34 patients respectively with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, compared with eight patients with non-inflammatory bowel diseases, or 19 healthy volunteers. There was wide range of overlap between active and inactive inflammatory disease. Contrary to serum alpha 1-AT, faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT did not correlate with ESR, serum-albumin, orosomucoid, and two indices of disease activity. A comparison of alpha 1-AT faecal excretion and clearance with the faecal excretion of 111In labelled granulocytes in 27 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, showed no correlation between the intestinal protein loss and this highly specific marker of intestinal inflammation. Enteric protein loss expressed by faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT does not depend on mucosal inflammation only, but may be influenced by other factors. PMID:3495470

  14. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  15. The influence of occupational chronic lead exposure on the levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Machoń-Grecka, A; Dobrakowski, M; Boroń, M; Lisowska, G; Kasperczyk, A; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selected factors that influence angiogenesis. The study population was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to lead. The second group (control) was comprised of 24 male administrative workers. The serum levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead compared to control values by 38%, 68%, and 57%, respectively. Similarly, the values of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-basic) were higher by 19% and 63%, respectively. In the group of workers chronically exposed to lead, there were positive correlations between the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and angiogenic factors (VEGF, FGF-basic, sVEGFR-1, and soluble angiopoietin receptor). In the control group, there were no correlations between the levels of the abovementioned parameters. Results of the present study indicate that chronic occupational lead exposure promotes inflammatory processes via induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulates angiogenesis, and elicits interdependencies between the immune response and angiogenic factors.

  16. Pso p27, a SERPINB3/B4-derived protein, is most likely a common autoantigen in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Ole-Jan; Lysvand, Hilde; Slupphaug, Geir

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by chronic inflammatory reactions localized to an organ or organ-system. They are caused by loss of immunologic tolerance toward self-antigens, causing formation of autoantibodies that mistakenly attack their own body. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune skin disease in which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we present evidence accumulated through more than three decades that the serpin-derived protein Pso p27 is an autoantigen in psoriasis and probably also in other chronic inflammatory diseases. Pso p27 is derived from the serpin molecules SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 through non-canonical cleavage by mast cell chymase. In psoriasis, it is exclusively found in skin lesions and not in uninvolved skin. The serpins are cleaved into three fragments that remain associated as a Pso p27 complex with novel immunogenic properties and increased tendency to form large aggregates compared to native SERPINB3/B4. The amount of Pso p27 is directly correlated to disease activity, and through formation of complement activating immune-complexes, Pso p27 contribute to the inflammation in the skin lesions. SERPINB3/B4 are expressed in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, but normally absent in mast cells. Overexpression of the serpins may be induced by inflammation and hypoxia, resulting in mast cell uptake via yet unknown mechanisms. Here the generation and subsequent release of Pso p27 aggregates may promote an inflammatory loop that contributes to the chronicity of psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases.

  17. Optogenetic Stimulation of Peripheral Vagus Nerves using Flexible OLED Display Technology to Treat Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Mental Health Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Optogenetic Stimulation of Peripheral Vagus Nerves using Flexible OLED Display Technology to Treat Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Mental Health...using a non-invasive drug-free optogenetics -based therapy that treats patients by optically stimulating afferent branches of the auricular vagus...therapeutic optical stimulation in optogenetically modified neural tissue. Keywords: Optogenetics ; neuromodulation; organic light emitting diode

  18. Upregulation of inflammatory gene transcripts in periosteum of chronic migraineurs: implications to extracranial origin of headache

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Carlton; Blake, Pamela; Buettner, Catherine; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schain, Aaron; Bhasin, Manoj; Burstein, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic migraine (CM) is often associated with chronic tenderness of pericranial muscles. In fact, a distinct increase in muscle tenderness prior to onset of occipital headache that eventually progresses into a full blown migraine attack is common. This experience raises the possibility that some CM attacks originate outside the cranium. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are extracranial pathophysiologies in these headaches. Methods We biopsied and measured the expression of gene transcripts (mRNA) encoding proteins that play roles in immune and inflammatory responses in affected (i.e., where the head hurts) calvarial periosteum of (a) patients whose CMs are associated with muscle tenderness and (b) patients with no history of headache. Results Expression of proinflammatory genes (e.g., CCL8, TLR2) in the calvarial periosteum significantly increases in CM patients attesting to muscle tenderness, whereas expression of genes that suppress inflammation and immune cell differentiation (e.g., IL10RA, CSF1R) decreased. Interpretation Because the up-regulated genes were linked to activation of white blood cells, production of cytokines, and inhibition of NFKB, and the down-regulated genes linked to prevention of macrophage activation and cell lysis, we suggest that the molecular environment surrounding periosteal pain fibers is inflamed and in turn activates trigeminovascular nociceptors that reach the affected periosteum through suture branches of intracranial meningeal nociceptors and/or somatic branches of the occipital nerve. This study provides the first set of evidence for localized extracranial pathophysiology in chronic migraine. PMID:27091721

  19. Chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia patients is associated with HBB(*)S haplotype.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Izabel C J; Rocha, Lillianne B S; Barbosa, Maritza C; Elias, Darcielle B D; Querioz, José A N; Freitas, Max Vitor Carioca; Gonçalves, Romélia P

    2014-02-01

    The chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with several factors such as the following: endothelial damage; increased production of reactive oxygen species; hemolysis; increased expression of adhesion molecules by leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets; and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Genetic characteristics affecting the clinical severity of SCA include variations in the hemoglobin F (HbF) level, coexistence of alpha-thalassemia, and the haplotype associated with the HbS gene. The different haplotypes of SCA are Bantu, Benin, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian. These haplotypes are associated with ethnic groups and also based on the geographical origin. Studies have shown that the Bantu haplotype is associated with higher incidence of clinical complications than the other haplotypes and is therefore considered to have the worst prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17 in patients with SCA and also to assess the haplotypes associated with beta globin cluster S (HBB(*)S). We analyzed a total of 62 patients who had SCA and had been treated with hydroxyurea; they had received a dose ranging between 15 and 25 (20.0±0.6)mg/kg/day for 6-60 (18±3.4)months; their data were compared with those for 30 normal individuals. The presence of HbS was detected and the haplotypes of the beta S gene cluster were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Our study demonstrated that SCA patients have increased inflammatory profile when compared to the healthy individuals. Further, analysis of the association between the haplotypes and inflammatory profile showed that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were greater in subjects with the Bantu/Bantu haplotype than in subjects with the Benin/Benin haplotype. The Bantu/Benin haplotype individuals had lower levels of cytokines than those with

  20. Inflammatory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, Jackie

    2010-09-01

    Inflammatory neuropathies are acquired disorders of peripheral nerves and occasionally of the central nervous system that can affect individuals at any age. The course can be monophasic, relapsing, or progressive. Inflammatory neuropathies are classified as acute or chronic. The acute form reaches a nadir by 4 weeks and the chronic form over 8 weeks or greater. The most common example of an acute inflammatory neuropathy is acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), which is part of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The most common chronic inflammatory neuropathy is chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP). Other chronic inflammatory neuropathies are multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and the Lewis-Sumner syndrome. The Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis occur acutely and have clinical overlap with AIDP.

  1. S100 protein positive dendritic cells in primary biliary cirrhosis and other chronic inflammatory liver diseases. Relevance to pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A. J.; Sever, C.; Kakizoe, S.; Oguma, S.; Starzl, T. E.; Jaffe, R.

    1989-01-01

    A study to determine the location of dendritic cells, in chronic inflammatory liver disease was performed. S100 protein positivity and dendritic cytoplasmic morphology were used to identify dendritic cells. S100 protein positive dendritic cells (S100 + DC) were found inside the basement membrane between biliary epithelial cells of septal bile ducts of livers affected by early stage PBC, but were not present at later stages. S100 + DC also were seen in areas of piecemeal necrosis in chronic active hepatitis of various etiologies. In contrast, intra-epithelial S100 + DC were not found with any consistency in sclerosing cholangitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia, or chronic liver allograft rejection, all of which are characterized by inflammatory bile duct damage. The possible relevance of DC in the pathogenesis of PBC is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2705505

  2. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei Kevin; Tao, Shan-Shan; Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Yu-Sang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, He-Bin; Cong, Ren-Huai; Ma, Fang-Li; Wan, Chu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain, or sometimes referred to as persistent pain, reduces the life quality of patients who are suffering from chronic diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer and diabetes. Hence, herbal medicines draw many attentions and have been shown effective in the treatment or relief of pain. Methods and Results Here in this study, we used the CFA-injected rats as a sustainable pain model to test the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of nutmeg oil, a spice flavor additive to beverages and baked goods produced from the seed of Myristica fragrans tree. Conclusions We have demonstrated that nutmeg oil could potentially alleviate the CFA-injection induced joint swelling, mechanical allodynia and heat hyperanalgesia of rats through inhibition of COX-2 expression and blood substance P level, which made it possible for nutmeg oil to be a potential chronic pain reliever. PMID:27121041

  3. Correlation between altered central pain processing and concentration of peritoneal fluid inflammatory cytokines in endometriosis patients with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Neziri, Alban Y; Bersinger, Nick A; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mueller, Michael D; Curatolo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Translational research has not yet elucidated whether alterations in central pain processes are related to peripheral inflammatory processes in chronic pain patients. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of cytokines in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients with chronic pain correlate with parameters of hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system. The concentrations of 15 peritoneal fluid cytokines were measured in 11 patients with chronic pelvic pain and a diagnosis of endometriosis. Six parameters assessing central pain processes were recorded. Positive correlations between concentration of some cytokines in the peritoneal fluid and amplification of central pain processing were found. The results suggest that inflammatory mechanisms may be important in the pathophysiology of altered central pain processes and that cytokines produced in the environment of endometriosis could act as mediators between the peripheral lesion and changes in central nociceptive processes.

  4. The role of chronic inflammation in the development of gastrointestinal cancers: reviewing cancer prevention with natural anti-inflammatory intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young Min; Gil, Hong Kwon; Kim, Jinhyung; Chang, Ji Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators alter the local environment of tumors, known as the tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, chronic inflammation induces DNA damage, but understanding this hazard may help in the search for new chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer which attenuate inflammation. In the clinic, GI cancer still remains a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, chemoprevention with anti-inflammatory agents is thought to be a realistic approach to reduce GI cancer. Proton pump inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-sense targeted smad7 and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have been investigated for their potential to prevent inflammation-based GI cancer. Besides these, a wide variety of natural products have also shown potential for the prevention of GI cancer. In this review, the authors will provide insights to explain the mechanistic connection between inflammation and GI cancer, as well as describe a feasible cancer prevention strategy based on anti-inflammatory treatments.

  5. [THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOLOGY OF BIOFILM OF PERIODONTIUM UNDER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GUMS (CHRONIC CATARRHAL GINGIVITIS, CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, CANDIDA-ASSOCIATED PERIODONTITIS) ACCORDING RESULTS OF ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Ippolitov, E V; Didenko, L V; Tzarev, V N

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to analyze morphology of biofilm of periodontium and to develop electronic microscopic criteria of differentiated diagnostic of inflammatory diseases of gums. The scanning electronic microscopy was applied to analyze samples of bioflm of periodont from 70 patients. Including ten patients with every nosologic form of groups with chronic catarrhal periodontitis. of light, mean and severe degree, chronic catarrhal gingivitis, Candida-associated paroperiodontitis and 20 healthy persons with intact periodontium. The analysis was implemented using dual-beam scanning electronic microscope Quanta 200 3D (FEI company, USA) and walk-through electronic micJEM 100B (JEOL, Japan). To detect marker DNA of periodont pathogenic bacteria in analyzed samples the kit of reagentsfor polymerase chain reaction "MultiDent-5" ("GenLab", Russia). The scanning electronic microscopy in combination with transmission electronic microscopy and polymerase chain reaction permits analyzing structure, composition and degree of development of biofilm of periodontium and to apply differentiated diagnostic of different nosologic forms of inflammatory diseases of periodontium, including light form of chronic periodontitis and gingivitis. The electronic microscopical indications of diseases ofperiodontium of inflammatory character are established: catarrhal gingivitis, (coccal morphological alternate), chronic periodontitis (bacillary morphological alternate), Candida-associated periodontitis (Candida morphological alternate of biofilm ofperiodontium).

  6. Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in chronic inflammatory fistulizing and fibrotic diseases: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Voswinkel, Jan; Francois, Sabine; Simon, Jean-Marc; Benderitter, Marc; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Mohty, Mohamad; Fouillard, Loïc; Chapel, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), multipotent adult stem cells, feature the potential to regenerate tissue damage and, in parallel, inhibit inflammation and fibrosis. MSC can be safely transplanted in autologous and allogeneic ways as they are non-immunogenic, and consequently represent a therapeutic option for refractory connective tissue diseases, fibrosing diseases like scleroderma and fistulizing colitis like in Crohn's disease. Actually, there are more than 200 registered clinical trial sites for evaluating MSC therapy, and 22 are on autoimmune diseases. In irradiation-induced colitis, MSC accelerate functional recovery of the intestine and dampen the systemic inflammatory response. In order to provide rescue therapy for accidentally over-irradiated prostate cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy, allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSC from family donors were intravenously infused to three patients with refractory and fistulizing colitis resembling fistulizing Crohn's disease. Systemic MSC therapy of refractory irradiation-induced colitis was safe and effective on pain, diarrhoea, hemorrhage, inflammation and fistulization accompanied by modulation of the lymphocyte subsets towards an increase of T regulatory cells and a decrease of activated effector T cells. The current data indicate that MSC represent a promising alternative strategy in the treatment of various immune-mediated diseases. Encouraging results have already been obtained from clinical trials in Crohn's disease and SLE as well as from case series in systemic sclerosis. MSC represent a safe therapeutic measure for patients who suffer from chronic and fistulizing colitis. These findings are instructional for the management of refractory inflammatory bowel diseases that are characterized by similar clinical and immunopathological features.

  7. Therapeutic effect of aripiprazole in chronic schizophrenia is accompanied by anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Sobiś, Jarosław; Rykaczewska-Czerwińska, Monika; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Gorczyca, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities occur in chronic schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, sTNF-R1, IL-12, IL-23, IL-1Ra, TGF-β1, IL-4, and IL-10) after switching to aripiprazole. Cytokine, hsCRP and insulin measurements were performed in patients (n=17) on day 0 and day 28 of the study using standard ELISA assays. The psychopathological status was assessed using PANSS. WC and BMI were measured and calculated, respectively. We observed high clinical efficacy in aripiprazole linked to a 2.7% weight loss. There were statistically significant reductions in PANSS scores and body parameters (p<0.001). After 28 days we detected a significant reduction in hsCRP (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.001), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, sTNF-R1, IL-12, IL-23, IL-1Ra, TGF-β1, IL-4 (p<0.001), IFN-γ (p<0.05) and a significant elevation of IL-10 (p<0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between IL-10 levels and PANSS positive, negative and total scores after the study (p=0.022, p=0.003, p=0.008, respectively). Aripiprazole limits inflammatory processes by enhancing anti-inflammatory signaling. Aripiprazole also reduces the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Sweet bing cherries lower circulating concentrations of markers for chronic inflammatory diseases in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Darshan S; Adkins, Yuriko; Reddy, Aurosis; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Mackey, Bruce E; Erickson, Kent L

    2013-03-01

    A limited number of studies have demonstrated that some modulators of inflammation can be altered by the consumption of sweet cherries. We have taken a proteomics approach to determine the effects of dietary cherries on targeted gene expression. The purpose was then to determine changes caused by cherry consumption in the plasma concentrations of multiple biomarkers for several chronic inflammatory diseases in healthy humans with modestly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; range, 1-14 mg/L; mean, 3.5 mg/L; normal, <1.0 mg/L). Eighteen men and women (45-61 y) supplemented their diets with Bing sweet cherries (280 g/d) for 28 d. Fasting blood samples were taken before the start of consuming the cherries (study d 7), 28 d after the initiation of cherry supplementation (d 35), and 28 d after the discontinuation (d 63). Of the 89 biomarkers assessed, cherry consumption for 28 d altered concentrations of 9, did not change those of 67, and the other 13 were below the detection limits. Cherry consumption decreased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of extracellular newly identified ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (29.0%), CRP (20.1%), ferritin (20.3%), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (19.9%), endothelin-1 (13.7%), epidermal growth factor (13.2%), and IL-18 (8.1%) and increased that of IL-1 receptor antagonist (27.9%) compared with corresponding values on study d 7. The ferritin concentration continued to decrease between d 35 and 63 and it was significantly lower on d 63 than on d 7. Because the participants in this study were healthy, no clinical pathology end points were measured. However, results from the present study demonstrate that cherry consumption selectively reduced several biomarkers associated with inflammatory diseases.

  9. Timing and course of clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Latov, Norman; Deng, Chunqin; Dalakas, Marinos C; Bril, Vera; Donofrio, Peter; Hanna, Kim; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hughes, Richard A C; Merkies, Ingemar S J; van Doorn, Peter A

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the timing, course, and clinical characteristics of the response to intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Data were extracted from the ICE trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of immune globulin intravenous, 10% caprylate/chromatography purified (IGIV-C). Multiple international centers. One hundred seventeen individuals with CIDP. Intervention Treatment with IGIV-C (Gamunex, n = 59) or placebo (n = 58), with IGIV-C administered as a 2-g/kg loading dose followed by a 1-g/kg maintenance dose every 3 weeks, for up to 24 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was an improvement of 1 or more points in adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score. Participants treated with IGIV-C were divided into subgroups based on meeting responder vs nonresponder definitions and by time to first improvement. Among 30 responders to IGIV-C, 14 (47%) patients had improved adjusted INCAT scores by week 3, and 16 (53%) patients improved at week 6 after a second infusion. Participants who improved by week 3 were more severely disabled at baseline than those who improved at 6 weeks. In patients who improved, the number of individuals reaching maximal improvement continued to increase during maintenance therapy for up to 24 weeks. For patients with first improvement by week 3, the change in dominant-hand grip strength over time tended to parallel the INCAT score. In patients with first improvement by week 6, however, the improvement in dominant-hand grip strength preceded initial improvement in INCAT score. Data suggest that treatment with 2 courses of IGIV-C administered 3 weeks apart may be required for initial improvement, and continued maintenance therapy may be necessary to achieve a maximal therapeutic response. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00220740.

  10. Bacterial biofilms are associated with inflammatory cells infiltration and the innate immunity in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Du, Jing; Zhao, Chunyuan

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the role of bacterial biofilms in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis, we applied scanning electron microscopy to detect bacterial biofilms, immunohistochemical and hemotoxylin-eosin staining to identify the types of inflammatory cells infiltration, and real-time PCR array analysis to evaluate the innate immune responses to bacteria biofilms. Biofilms were found in 14 of 19 (73.7%) of CRSwNP (chronic rhinosisusitis with nasal polyps), 11 of 15 (73.3%) of CRSsNP (chronic rhinosisusitis without nasal polyps), and none of biofilms were found in 13 normal controls. T helper lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and neutrophils were the most frequently observed immune cells. The inflammatory cells did not reveal any significant differences in CRSwNP between with biofilms and without biofilms. CRSsNP with biofilms had significantly more neutrophils than CRSsNP without biofilms, and it was inclined to Th1 inflammatory response. Fifty and fifty-one genes were upregulated respectively in CRSwNP and CRSsNP with biofilms. Twenty genes were upregulated separately when comparing biofilms-positive CRSwNP with biofilms-positive CRSsNP. CRSwNP and CRSsNP with biofilms had different types of inflammatory cells infiltration and characteristic changes of the innate immunity. Further research about the direct role of bacterial biofilms in the pathogenesis of CRS will provide a new target for CRS.

  11. Systemic inflammatory responses in patients with type 2 diabetes with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mesia, Ruben; Gholami, Fatemeh; Huang, Hong; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Wallet, Shannon M; Shaddox, Luciana M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this case–control study was to quantify the immune responsiveness in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as compared with patients without diabetes (NT2D) diagnosed with periodontitis. Research Design and Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 20 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis (10 T2D, 10 NT2D). Blood samples were stimulated with ultrapure Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 hours. 14 cytokines/chemokines were quantified in culture supernatants using multiplex technology. Results T2D individuals demonstrated higher unstimulated levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, IL-10, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α), and 1β (MIP1β), and higher stimulated levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP1α and MIP1β, along with lower unstimulated and stimulated levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) when compared with NT2D (p<0.05). Importantly, the LPS-induced levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and MIP1α strongly correlated with severity of disease, measured by pocket depths (PD), within the T2D group (r2≥0.7, p<0.05), but not within NT2D. Conclusions Among patients with chronic periodontitis, patients with T2D seem to have an enhanced LPS-induced immune responsiveness than individuals without diabetes, which correlates with periodontal disease severity, concomitant with a less robust GM-CSF response. This data may in part explain the higher predisposition to periodontitis in this population. PMID:27651910

  12. Distribution patterns of demyelination correlate with clinical profiles in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, S; Ogawara, K; Misawa, S; Mori, M; Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disorder having a wide clinical range, and is characterised by multifocal demyelination that can involve the distal nerve terminals, intermediate nerve segments, and nerve roots. Objective: To investigate whether the distribution patterns of demyelination along the course of the nerve correlate with clinical profiles in patients with CIDP. Methods: Motor nerve conduction studies were carried out on 42 consecutive patients. According to the physiological criteria for demyelination, the presence of a demyelinative lesion was determined in the distal nerve segments (distal pattern) or intermediate nerve segments (intermediate pattern), or in both (diffuse pattern). The serum concentration of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α was measured by immunoassay. Results: Patients were classified as having a distal (n=10), intermediate (n=13), or diffuse (n=15) pattern, or were unclassified (n=4). Patients with the distal or diffuse pattern had common clinical features such as subacute onset, symmetric symptoms, and weakness involving proximal as well as distal muscles. Patients with the distal pattern had a good response to treatment and a monophasic remitting course, but the diffuse pattern was associated with a treatment dependent relapsing course, reflecting longer disease activity. The serum TNF-α concentrations increased only in the "diffuse" subgroup of patients, and this might be associated with breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier and therefore, involvement of the intermediate segments. The intermediate pattern was characterised by a chronic course, asymmetric symptoms, less severe disability, and refractoriness to treatments. Conclusions: CIDP consists of subtypes with varying predilections for lesions along the course of the nerve. The distribution patterns of conduction abnormalities may be useful in the prediction of outcome of patients with CIDP. PMID:11784822

  13. Detection of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva and urine: Potential in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Amit K; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of inflammatory cells to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells. This inflammation has been linked to several chronic diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Major biomarkers of inflammation include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipooxygenase, and C-reactive protein, all of which are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Although examining inflammatory biomarkers in blood is a standard practice, its identification in saliva and/or urine is more convenient and non-invasive. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the detection of these inflammatory biomarkers in urine and saliva; (2) advantages of using salivary and urinary inflammatory biomarkers over blood, while also weighing on the challenges and/or limitations of their use; (3) examine their role(s) in connection with diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and drug development for several chronic diseases with inflammatory consequences, including cancer; and (4) explore the use of innovative salivary and urine based biosensor strategies that may permit the testing of biomarkers quickly, reliably, and cost-effectively, in a decentralized setting. PMID:27013544

  14. In situ detection of frequent and active infection of human cytomegalovirus in inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: possible pathogenic role in sustained chronic inflammatory reaction.

    PubMed

    Yonemitsu, Y; Nakagawa, K; Tanaka, S; Mori, R; Sugimachi, K; Sueishi, K

    1996-04-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is histopathologically characterized by extensive adventitial fibrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration with lymph follicle formation, and severe atheromatous changes in the aneurysmal wall. We previously reported a frequent prevalence and immediate early gene expression of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in IAAA by solution-phase PCR and reverse transcription PCR, respectively, and suggested that this virus might play a role in chronic inflammatory reaction in IAAA. To evaluate the pathogenic role of CMV infection, the frequency and distribution of CMV infected cells in IAAA were examined by in situ PCR, and compared with those in atherosclerotic aneurysms (AA) and control cases with minimal atherosclerotic changes. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR was simultaneously evaluated as a marker for immune response related to CMV infection. Immediate early gene expression was also detected by reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization, to certify whether the CMV infection in IAAA is active or latent. In the fibrously thickened adventitia of IAAA, CMV infected cells and HLA-DR-positive cells were more frequently encountered than in that of AA and control cases (p < 0.01). CMV infected cells were largely identified as macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes. The expression of CMV immediate early mRNA, which suggests an active infection inducing active inflammatory reaction, was detected in most of the macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Our results strongly suggest that frequent and active infection of CMV in IAAA plays a significant role in the induction and acceleration of chronic inflammatory reaction in aortas of IAAA.

  15. Recurrent Isolated Sixth Nerve Palsy in Relapsing-Remitting Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Bustani, Najwa; Weiss, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy that typically presents as a relapsing-remitting or progressive disorder. Cranial neuropathies infrequently occur in association with other more typical symptoms of CIDP. We report a case of CIDP with recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy. Her physical examination showed a right sixth nerve palsy and absent deep tendon reflexes as the only indicator of her disease. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed thickening without enhancement of the trigeminal and sixth cranial nerves. Nerve conduction study (NCS) revealed a sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy with conduction block and temporal dispersion in multiple nerves consistent with CIDP. Cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminic-cytologic dissociation. She had a remarkable response to intravenous immunoglobulin and remains asymptomatic without any additional immunomodulating therapy. Isolated cranial neuropathies can rarely occur as the sole manifestation of relapsing-remitting CIDP. The profound demyelination found on NCS in this case demonstrates that there can be a dramatic discordance between the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in some patients with this disorder.

  16. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  17. Anemia of Chronic Disease and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Murawska, Natalia; Fabisiak, Adam; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-05-01

    Anemia coexists with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in up to two-thirds of patients, significantly impairing quality of life. The most common types of anemia in patients with IBD are iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease, which often overlap. In most cases, available laboratory tests allow successful diagnosis of iron deficiency, where difficulties appear, recently established indices such as soluble transferrin-ferritin ratio or percentage of hypochromic red cells are used. In this review, we discuss the management of the most common types of anemia in respect of the latest available data. Thus, we provide the mechanisms underlying pathophysiology of these entities; furthermore, we discuss the role of hepcidin in developing anemia in IBD. Next, we present the treatment options for each type of anemia and highlight the importance of individual choice of action. We also focus on newly developed intravenous iron preparations and novel, promising drug candidates targeting hepcidin. Concurrently, we talk about difficulties in differentiating between the true and functional iron deficiency, and discuss tools facilitating the process. Finally, we emphasize the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of anemia in IBD. We conclude that management of anemia in patients with IBD is tricky, and appropriate screening of patients regarding anemia is substantial.

  18. Validity of Oxygen-Ozone Therapy as Integrated Medication Form in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bocci, Velio; Zanardia, Iacopo; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Borrelli, Emma; Travagli, Valter

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of oxygen-ozone therapy is now clarified and all the mechanisms of action of medical ozone are within classical biochemistry and molecular biology. The outcomes of standard treatments in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and dry-form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been compared with the documented therapeutic results achieved with ozonated autohemotherapy (O-AHT). On the other hand, the clinical data of O-AHT on stroke remain indicative. As the cost of O-AHT is almost irrelevant, its application in all public hospitals, especially those of poor Countries, would allow two advantages: the first is for the patient, who will improve her/his conditions, and the second is for Health Authorities burdened with increasing costs. The aim of this paper is to report to clinical scientists that O-AHT is a scientific-based therapeutic approach without side effects. The integration of O-AHT with effective approved drugs is likely to yield the best clinical results in several chronic inflammatory diseases.

  19. [Efficacy of magnetolaser therapy of patients with an inflammatory form of chronic abacterial prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Shangichev, A V; Belousov, I I

    2010-01-01

    To assess efficacy of magnetolaser therapy (KAP-ELM-01 Andro-Gin unit) in the treatment of inflammatory chronic abacterial prostatitis (ICAP), 68 ICAP patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 patients (n = 33) received standard therapy. Group 2 patients received standard therapy plus magnetolaser (ML) therapy. The effect was assessed by the symptoms scale and indices of kallirrein-kinin system. After treatment pain relieved by 36,9%, on the average, in group 1 and by 63.1% in group 2. Lower urinary tract symptoms regressed insignificantly in both groups: by 4.8% and 7.1%, respectively. Quality of life improved by 27.6 and 65.5%, respectively. Kallikrein activity in prostatic secretion remained high in both groups. A 21.7% rise (p < 0.05) of prokallikrein level was seen after treatment only in group 2. Activity of KKS inhibitors (alpha2-MG and alphal-PI) in prostatic secretion normalized in group 2. Total activity of serin proteinases lowered in both groups (p < 0.05). High activity of alphal-PI (8.21 + 1.97 U/ml) persisted in group 1. Thus, standard treatment of ICAP does not result in biochemical normalization of prostatic secretion. ML therapy is more effective.

  20. Nerve Ultrasound and Electrophysiology for Therapy Monitoring in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Gold, Ralf; Yoon, Min-Suk

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively nerve ultrasound and electrophysiology as monitoring methods of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Overall 15 healthy subjects and 11 CIDP patients undergoing IVIG therapy were recruited in the study. All patients underwent clinical, ultrasound, and electrophysiological evaluation at the time point of first onset of symptoms (<6 weeks of symptoms) and 4, 8, and 12 months after onset. The intranerve cross-sectional area (CSA) variability of each nerve, but not the CSA alone, correlated with the MRC Scale score during 12-month follow-up. On the other hand, none of the electrophysiological parameters correlated with the MRC Scale Score in each of the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, in ¾ of the CIDP patients, the resolution of the conduction block correlated with the improvement in the MRC Sum score. Nerve ultrasound and in particular the intranerve CSA variability seems to be a useful method in monitoring CIDP patients. Although the sample size is small, the intranerve CSA variability seems to be more promising than neurophysiology. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. Electrophysiological and neuromuscular stability of persons with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Kevin J; Allen, Matti D; Doherty, Timothy J; Kimpinski, Kurt; Rice, Charles L

    2017-09-01

    We assessed motor unit (MU) properties and neuromuscular stability in the tibialis anterior (TA) of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography. Dorsiflexion strength was assessed, and surface and concentric needle electromyography were sampled from the TA. Estimates of MU numbers were derived using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography and spike-triggered averaging. Neuromuscular transmission stability was assessed from concentric needle-detected MU potentials. CIDP patients had 43% lower compound muscle action potential amplitude than controls, and despite near-maximum voluntary activation, were 37% weaker. CIDP had 27% fewer functioning MUs in the TA, and had 90% and 44% higher jiggle and jitter values, respectively compared with controls. CIDP had lower strength and compound muscle action potential values, moderately fewer numbers of MUs, and significant neuromuscular instability compared with controls. Thus, in addition to muscle atrophy, voluntary weakness is also due to limitations of peripheral neural transmission consistent with demyelination. Muscle Nerve 56: 413-420, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cyclosporin A in treatment of refractory patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Masayuki; Hoshi, Kenichi; Gono, Takahisa; Morita, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2004-09-15

    To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of cyclosporin A (CyA) in the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), a microemulsion form of this drug (Neoral) was orally given to seven patients with the disease who were unresponsive or resistant to conventional therapies. The daily dose of CyA was carefully controlled in order to keep the plasma trough concentration between 100 and 150 ng/ml. Within 1 month of initiation of CyA, all patients subjectively showed improvement of clinical symptoms, while both modified Rankin and INCAT disability scores were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and grip strength was significantly increased (p < 0.05) 3 months after initiation compared with before. Total protein in the cerebrospinal fluid was significantly decreased 3 and 6 months after starting CyA (p < 0.05). Although the maximal motor nerve conduction velocity showed a significant improvement in the median nerve 1 to 1.5 years after commencement of CyA (p < 0.05), there were no significant changes in any other neurophysiological parameters. One patient with anti-sulphoglucuronyl paragloboside IgM antibodies gradually became resistant to CyA, but the rest have since been in good neurological condition without complications ascribable to this drug. These results suggest that oral CyA may be effective even for refractory cases with CIDP. CyA should be actively considered as a therapeutic option when patients with CIDP are resistant to conventional treatment.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin versus oral prednisolone in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R; Bensa, S; Willison, H; Van den Bergh, P; Comi, G; Illa, I; Nobile-Orazio, E; van Doorn, P; Dalakas, M; Bojar, M; Swan, A

    2001-08-01

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover trial compared a six week course of oral prednisolone tapering from 60 mg to 10 mg daily with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) 2.0 g/kg given over one to two days for treating chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Twenty-four of the thirty-two randomized patients completed both treatment periods. Both treatments produced significant improvements in the primary outcome measure, change in an 11-point disability scale two weeks after randomization. There was slightly, but not significantly, more improvement after IVIg than with prednisolone, the mean difference between the groups in change in disability grade being 0.16 (95% CI = -0.35 to 0.66). There were also slightly, but not significantly, greater improvements favoring IVIg in the secondary outcome measures: time to walk 10 meters after two weeks and improvement in disability grade after six weeks. Results may have been biased against IVIg by the eight patients who did not complete the second arm of the trial. A serious adverse event (psychosis) attributable to treatment occurred in one patient while on prednisolone and in none with IVIg.

  4. From gut microflora imbalance to mycobacteria infection: is there a relationship with chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases?

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Bellavia, Maurizio; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Damiani, Provvidenza; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2011-01-01

    The gut of a healthy adult harbours a myriad of different microbial species. It is estimated that approximately 10 14 are present in total bacterial colony forming units (CFU). Each colony colonizes a specific intestinal tract. In healthy adult, the main control of intestinal bacterial colonization occurs through gastric acidity but also other factors can influence the intestinal microenvironment such as pH, temperature, competition among different bacterial strains, peristalsis, drugs, radiotherapy and much more. Impaired microbial homeostasis leads to an alteration of the permeability of tissue, together with the activation of the intestinal immune system MALT (mucosal associated lymphoid tissue). In this regard we discuss the increasing experimental evidences of the role of commensal microbiota in the activation of specific intestinal immunocompetent cells. The aforementioned micro-environmental changes provide the substrate for the etiopathogenetic outbreak of numerous pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, such as intestinal chronic inflammation (Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis), together with a miscellany of extra intestinal disorders. This article is an overview of the latest scientific findings about the close causal relationship between intestinal microbial flora and inflammatory bowel diseases or other extra-intestinal diseases; it is also mentioned the possible relationship between mycobacteria and Chron's disease. Finally we analyse the beneficial role of probiotics.

  5. Provenance in Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.; Van Horn, John D.; Woods, Roger P.; Crawford, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image’s provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data. PMID:18519166

  6. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a patient with HIV/HCV coinfection: case report].

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Bil Randerson; Trés, Eduardo Sturzeneker; Ciríaco, Jovana Gobbi Marchesi; Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira Silva

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has a strong association with HIV and HCV infection. A rare association between chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon alpha was described recently. We described the first case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a white man infected with HIV and HCV. The patient recovered completely with the use of intravenous hyperimmune immunoglobulin. Infectologists and hepatologists should be alert regarding this rare and serious association, which requires immediately drug discontinuation and early treatment.

  7. The effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. The long-standing chronic pancreatitis and its associated pancreatic fibrosis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the therapeutic strategies to chronic pancreatitis and the chemoprevention of pancreatic carcinogenesis are very limited. Methods We investigated the effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on inhibition of chronic pancreatitis in a caerulein induced chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Results Sulindac significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis including the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The protein expression of phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was inhibited in the chronic pancreatic tissues by sulindac treatment as measured by Western blot assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and MCP-1 were also significantly decreased with sulindac treatment, as well as the expression of TGF-β, PDGF-β, SHH and Gli in the chronic pancreatic tissue detected by qPCR assay and confirmed by western blot assay. The activation of pancreatic satellet cells was also inhibited by sulindac as measured by the activity of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the pancreatic tissue of chronic pancreatitis. Conclusions Sulindac is a promising reagent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis via inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis, the inhibitory effect of sulindac on chronic pancreatitis may through targeting the activation ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22920325

  8. The effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Han; Chen, Xiaokai; Zhang, Lin; Dou, Xiaoguang

    2012-08-24

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. The long-standing chronic pancreatitis and its associated pancreatic fibrosis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the therapeutic strategies to chronic pancreatitis and the chemoprevention of pancreatic carcinogenesis are very limited. We investigated the effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on inhibition of chronic pancreatitis in a caerulein induced chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Sulindac significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis including the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The protein expression of phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was inhibited in the chronic pancreatic tissues by sulindac treatment as measured by Western blot assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and MCP-1 were also significantly decreased with sulindac treatment, as well as the expression of TGF-β, PDGF-β, SHH and Gli in the chronic pancreatic tissue detected by qPCR assay and confirmed by western blot assay. The activation of pancreatic satellet cells was also inhibited by sulindac as measured by the activity of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the pancreatic tissue of chronic pancreatitis. Sulindac is a promising reagent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis via inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis, the inhibitory effect of sulindac on chronic pancreatitis may through targeting the activation ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

  9. Chronic orbital inflammatory disease and optic neuropathy associated with long-term intranasal cocaine abuse: 2 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Siemerink, Martin J; Freling, Nicole J M; Saeed, Peerooz

    2017-10-01

    Orbital inflammatory disease and secondary optic neuropathy is a rare but devastating complication of long-term intranasal cocaine abuse. We describe 2 patients with a history of intranasal cocaine consumption who presented with subacute onset of unilateral vision loss from optic neuropathy and limitation of abduction in the affected eye. Magnetic resonance imaging findings included an orbital mass in combination with absent nasal septum and partial destruction of the paranasal sinuses. Biopsies and histopathologic examination of the nasal cavity and the orbital mass revealed chronic inflammation. Both patients were treated with oral corticosteroids, ocular movements completely normalized but no improvement of visual acuity was noted. Intranasal cocaine abuse can cause orbital complications from chronic sinonasal inflammatory disease and these patients are at risk to develop optic neuropathy. Optic neuropathy may be caused by compression, infiltration, or ischaemia.

  10. Natural Products as Tools for Defining How Cellular Metabolism Influences Cellular Immune and Inflammatory Function during Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA) and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB) and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function. PMID:26633463

  11. Natural Products as Tools for Defining How Cellular Metabolism Influences Cellular Immune and Inflammatory Function during Chronic Infection.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Erica S; Polyak, Stephen J

    2015-11-30

    Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA) and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB) and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function.

  12. Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor mimicking as chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sophelia H S; Tsang, Dickson S F; Wong, Virginia C N; Chan, Godfrey C F

    2015-02-01

    We report a young boy who presented with progressive weakness of lower extremities associated with areflexia and abnormal electrophysiological findings initially suggestive of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Initial lumbosacral spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickened descending spinal nerve roots only. Immunomodulating therapy was given but with limited clinical response. Repeated spine magnetic resonance imaging showed cauda equina and also new spinal cord extramedullary contrast enhancement. The initial extensive investigations including open biopsy did not point to any specific diagnosis. Only through pursuing a repeated biopsy, the diagnosis of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor that could have an initial chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation. The literature review confirms that this is a rare condition and cauda equina origin has only been reported in adults and teenagers, and this is the first reported case in a young child.

  13. High bioavailability curcumin: an anti-inflammatory and neurosupportive bioactive nutrient for neurodegenerative diseases characterized by chronic neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Faheem; Liang, Andy; Rangel, Alejandra; Gyengesi, Erika; Niedermayer, Garry; Münch, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Neuroinflammation is a pathophysiological process present in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury including chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other age-related CNS disorders. Although there is still much debate about the initial trigger for some of these neurodegenerative disorders, during the progression of disease, broad range anti-inflammatory drugs including cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs) might be promising therapeutic options to limit neuroinflammation and improve the clinical outcome. One of the most promising CSAIDs is curcumin, which modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., STAT, NF-κB, AP-1) and their pro-inflammatory molecular signaling pathways. However, normal curcumin preparations demonstrate low bioavailability in vivo. To increase bioavailability, preparations of high bioavailability curcumin have been introduced to achieve therapeutically relevant concentrations in target tissues. This literature review aims to summarize the pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile of different curcumin formulations.

  14. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction caused by an intestinal inflammatory myopathy: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dewit, S; de Hertogh, G; Geboes, K; Tack, J

    2008-04-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is an uncommon disorder that may be of primary or secondary origin. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with CIP due to inflammatory disorder of unknown origin involving the skin (eosinophilic fasciitis), the lungs (decreased diffusion capacity) and the gastrointestinal tract. History, clinical examination, plain abdominal film, barium X-ray and colonoscopy established a diagnosis of recurrent pseudo-obstruction. A full-thickness biopsy was performed during explorative laparotomy, and histological examination revealed findings compatible with an inflammatory myopathy due to a dense lymphoid infiltrate and extensive loss of the muscularis propria layers. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporin was initiated, with significant clinical improvement. This case illustrates another form of CIP, characterized by an inflammatory myopathy, which is histologically distinct from other known visceral myopathies and neuropathies.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of a Novel Herbal Formulation (WSY-1075) in a Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Woo; Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Moon, Hyong Woo; Cho, Shin Jay; Yang, Jong Hyup; Kim, Woo Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Jin Bong; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Ha, U-Syn; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of a multi-herbal formula known as WSY-1075 in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in a rat model. Materials and Methods Experimental chronic bacterial prostatitis was induced in 32 Wistar rats by instillation of a bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli, 108 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) into the prostatic urethra. After the induction of prostatitis, the rats were randomly divided into one of 4 treatment groups: control (n=8), ciprofloxacin (n=8), WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg) (n=8), and WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg)+ciprofloxacin (n=8). After 4 weeks of treatment, microbiological data from prostate tissue cultures, level of prostatic pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-8), anti-oxidant effects (superoxide dismutase [SOD]), and histological findings were noted. Results The WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin, and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups showed fewer CFUs in prostate tissue cultures than the control group. The WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups showed statistically significantly lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 than the control group. SOD levels in the WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups were significantly higher than in the control group. Conclusions This study found that WSY-1075 had anti-microbial effects, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-oxidative effects in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model. We expect the WSY-1075 may be useful for the clinical treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. PMID:28053947

  16. Segmental somatosensory-evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies, and other sensory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Koutlidis, R M; Ayrignac, X; Pradat, P-F; Le Forestier, N; Léger, J-M; Salachas, F; Maisonobe, T; Fournier, E; Viala, K

    2014-09-01

    Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recordings were performed with the aim of distinguishing chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from other sensory neuropathies. Four groups of 20 subjects each corresponded to patients with (1) possible sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, (2) patients with sensory polyneuropathy of unknown origin, (3) patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and (4) normal subjects. The patients selected for this study had preserved sensory potentials on electroneuromyogram and all waves were recordable in evoked potentials. Somatosensory-evoked potentials evaluations were carried out by stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle, recording peripheral nerve potential in the popliteal fossa, radicular potential and spinal potential at the L4-L5 and T12 levels, and cortical at C'z, with determination of distal conduction time, proximal and radicular conduction time and central conduction time. In the group of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, 80% of patients had abnormal conduction in the N8-N22 segment and 95% had abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. In the group of neuropathies, distal conduction was abnormal in most cases, whereas 60% of patients had no proximal abnormality. None of the patients in the group of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had an abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recording can be used to distinguish between atypical sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and other sensory neuropathies, at the early stage of the disease. Graphical representation of segmental conduction times provides a rapid and accurate visualization of the profile of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Apo(a)-isoform size, nutritional status and inflammatory markers in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, P; Heimbürger, O; Tuck, C H; Berglund, L

    1998-05-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. Levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], an established cardiovascular risk factor, are elevated in uremic patients. Moreover, low serum albumin levels indicating malnutrition have been associated with elevated plasma Lp(a) levels in dialysis patients. However, serum albumin levels are also influenced by an inflammatory reaction. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the relationship between Lp(a), inflammation and malnutrition in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) prior to the initiation of renal replacement therapy, and to investigate the potential relation between these factors and apo(a)-isoform size, an important determinant of plasma Lp(a) levels. A total of 83 patients (mean age 52 +/- 1 year) with terminal (creatinine clearance 9 +/- 1 ml/min) CRF were cross sectionally investigated. In addition to lipid parameters and apo(a)-isoform size, C-reactive protein (CRP), nutritional parameters including serum levels of albumin and body composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), as well as a subjective global assessment (SGA) and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were evaluated. Malnourished patients (N = 39) had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher median plasma Lp(a) level (19.5 mg/dl) as compared to 44 well-nourished patients, (11.7 mg/dl). No difference was found for other lipid or lipoprotein parameters. A significant relationship was found between CRP and plasma Lp(a), whereas no significant relation was observed between plasma Lp(a) and serum albumin levels. The apo(a)-isoform distribution was similar among malnourished and well-nourished patients. There was no difference in nutritional parameters when comparing patients with small- and large-size apo(a) isoforms. However, a subgroup of patients (12%) with no detectable apo(a)-bands and low Lp(a) levels had

  18. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins from Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Markers in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Borges, Natália A; Barros, Amanda F; Nakao, Lia S; Dolenga, Carla J; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2016-11-01

    Protein-bound uremic toxins from gut microbiota tend to accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and are poorly removed by current dialysis techniques. These toxins induce inflammation and are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to report the relationship between uremic toxins and inflammatory and cardiovascular markers in CKD patients. This was a cross sectional study. Twenty-one nondialysis patients were included (43% men, 63.0 ± 7.8 years, glomerular filtration rate: 34.4 ± 12.5 mL/min) as well as 29 hemodialysis (HD) patients [58% men, 52.7 ± 10.3 years, time on dialysis 54 (31-94.5 months)]. Total levels of uremic toxins (IS, p-CS, and IAA) were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and calprotectin plasma levels were determined by immunometric assays. HD patients presented higher inflammatory markers and uremic toxins levels than nondialysis patients. IL-6 levels were positively correlated with IS (r = 0.49; P = .03), p-CS (r = 0.35; P = .04) and IAA (r = 0.36; P = .03). A positive correlation was also observed between MCP-1 levels with IS (r = 0.72; P = .001), p-CS (r = 0.48; P = .001) and IAA (r = 0.75; P = .0001). Linear regression showed that IS was an independent predictor for IL-6 and MCP-1 levels after adjustment. Plasma uremic toxins were associated with higher IL-6 and MCP-1 levels in CKD patients, potentially playing a role in the development of CVD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Serum Neopterin and Inflammatory Activation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Vinod; Jha, Vivekanand

    2012-01-01

    Background. The serum levels of neopterin, a marker associated with cell-mediated immunity are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated serum neopterin levels and investigated its association with markers of inflammation in a cross-section of CKD subjects without known cardiovascular disease. Methods. Serum neopterin levels were measured in 118 patients with stage 3–5 CKD and 41 healthy subjects with normal kidney function (HC). Patients with known cardiovascular disease were excluded. We also estimated highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) and interluekin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the CKD subjects. All assays were done using commercially available ELISA kits. The correlation between neopterin and markers of inflammation were investigated. Results. Of the CKD population, 82 were in stage 5 (60 stage 5 D), 24 in stage 4, and 12 in stage 3. The mean age was 51.04 ± 1.3 years and 66% were males. The commonest cause of CKD was diabetes (36%). Serum neopterin levels were 5-fold higher in CKD patients as compared to HC (74.8 ± 3.6 versus 15.0 ± 2.8 nmol/L, P < 0.0001). There was a graded increase of serum neopterin from stages 3 to 4 and 5. CKD 5 D patients exhibited significantly higher levels compared to nondialysis stage 5 patients (P < 0.0001). An inverse correlation was noted between serum neopterin and eGFR (r = −0.359, P < 0.0001). Serum neopterin correlated with hsCRP (r = 0.285, P = 0.002), IL-6 (r = 0.212, P = 0.034), and IFN-γ (r = 0.32, P = 0.001) but not with TNF-α. Conclusion. Serum neopterin level is elevated and correlates with the severity of CKD. The elevation correlates with elevation of most, but not all, inflammatory markers. Its role in future development of cardiovascular disease and modulation with anti-inflammatory therapies needs further studies. PMID:22969169

  20. Association between serum neopterin and inflammatory activation in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Vinod; Jha, Vivekanand

    2012-01-01

    The serum levels of neopterin, a marker associated with cell-mediated immunity are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated serum neopterin levels and investigated its association with markers of inflammation in a cross-section of CKD subjects without known cardiovascular disease. Serum neopterin levels were measured in 118 patients with stage 3-5 CKD and 41 healthy subjects with normal kidney function (HC). Patients with known cardiovascular disease were excluded. We also estimated highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the CKD subjects. All assays were done using commercially available ELISA kits. The correlation between neopterin and markers of inflammation were investigated. Of the CKD population, 82 were in stage 5 (60 stage 5 D), 24 in stage 4, and 12 in stage 3. The mean age was 51.04 ± 1.3 years and 66% were males. The commonest cause of CKD was diabetes (36%). Serum neopterin levels were 5-fold higher in CKD patients as compared to HC (74.8 ± 3.6 versus 15.0 ± 2.8 nmol/L, P < 0.0001). There was a graded increase of serum neopterin from stages 3 to 4 and 5. CKD 5 D patients exhibited significantly higher levels compared to nondialysis stage 5 patients (P < 0.0001). An inverse correlation was noted between serum neopterin and eGFR (r = -0.359, P < 0.0001). Serum neopterin correlated with hsCRP (r = 0.285, P = 0.002), IL-6 (r = 0.212, P = 0.034), and IFN-γ (r = 0.32, P = 0.001) but not with TNF-α. Serum neopterin level is elevated and correlates with the severity of CKD. The elevation correlates with elevation of most, but not all, inflammatory markers. Its role in future development of cardiovascular disease and modulation with anti-inflammatory therapies needs further studies.

  1. Association of terpinolene and diclofenac presents antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory synergistic effects in a model of chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Macedo, E M A; Santos, W C; Sousa, B P; Lopes, E M; Piauilino, C A; Cunha, F V M; Sousa, D P; Oliveira, F A; Almeida, F R C

    2016-06-20

    Pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain is usually done by administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs present high efficacy, although side effects are common, especially gastrointestinal lesions. One of the pharmacological strategies to minimize such effects is the combination of drugs and natural products with synergistic analgesic effect. The monoterpene terpinolene (TPL) is a chemical constituent of essential oils present in many plant species, which have pharmacological activities, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The association of ineffective doses of TPL and diclofenac (DCF) (3.125 and 1.25 mg/kg po, respectively) presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the acute (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, after treatment) and chronic (10 days) inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of female Wistar rats (170-230 g, n=6-8). The mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by the Randall Selitto paw pressure test, which determines the paw withdrawal thresholds. The development of edema was quantified by measuring the volume of the hind paw by plethismography. The TPL/DCF association reduced neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the histological analysis of the paw, following a standard staining protocol with hematoxylin and eosin and the counts were performed with the aid of optical microscopy after chronic oral administration of these drugs. Moreover, the TPL/DCF association did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. A possible mechanism of action of the analgesic effect is the involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, because ketanserin completely reversed the antinociceptive effect of the TPL/DCF association. These results suggest that the TPL/DCF association had a synergistic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without causing apparent gastric injury, and that the serotonergic system may be involved in the antinociceptive effect of this association.

  2. Association of terpinolene and diclofenac presents antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory synergistic effects in a model of chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, E.M.A.; Santos, W.C.; Sousa, B.P.; Lopes, E.M.; Piauilino, C.A.; Cunha, F.V.M.; Sousa, D.P.; Oliveira, F.A.; Almeida, F.R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain is usually done by administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs present high efficacy, although side effects are common, especially gastrointestinal lesions. One of the pharmacological strategies to minimize such effects is the combination of drugs and natural products with synergistic analgesic effect. The monoterpene terpinolene (TPL) is a chemical constituent of essential oils present in many plant species, which have pharmacological activities, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The association of ineffective doses of TPL and diclofenac (DCF) (3.125 and 1.25 mg/kg po, respectively) presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the acute (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, after treatment) and chronic (10 days) inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of female Wistar rats (170-230 g, n=6-8). The mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by the Randall Selitto paw pressure test, which determines the paw withdrawal thresholds. The development of edema was quantified by measuring the volume of the hind paw by plethismography. The TPL/DCF association reduced neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the histological analysis of the paw, following a standard staining protocol with hematoxylin and eosin and the counts were performed with the aid of optical microscopy after chronic oral administration of these drugs. Moreover, the TPL/DCF association did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. A possible mechanism of action of the analgesic effect is the involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, because ketanserin completely reversed the antinociceptive effect of the TPL/DCF association. These results suggest that the TPL/DCF association had a synergistic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without causing apparent gastric injury, and that the serotonergic system may be involved in the antinociceptive effect of this association

  3. The beneficial role of anti-inflammatory dietary ingredients in attenuating markers of chronic low-grade inflammation in aging.

    PubMed

    Panickar, Kiran S; Jewell, Dennis E

    2015-08-01

    Aging in humans is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation (systemic), and this condition is sometimes referred to as "inflammaging". In general, canines also age similarly to humans, and such aging is associated with a decline in mobility, joint problems, weakened muscles and bones, reduced lean body mass, cancer, increased dermatological problems, decline in cognitive ability, reduced energy, decreased immune function, decreased renal function, and urinary incontinence. Each of these conditions is also associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. An inflammatory state characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory markers including but not restricted to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein (CRP) is believed to contribute to or worsen a general decline in biological mechanisms responsible for physical function with aging. Nutritional management of inflammation in aging dogs is important in maintaining health. In particular, natural botanicals have bioactive components that appear to have robust anti-inflammatory effects and, when included in the diet, may contribute to a reduction in inflammation. While there are scientific data to support the anti-inflammatory effects and the efficacy of such bioactive molecules from botanicals, the clinical data are limited and more studies are needed to validate the efficacy of these ingredients. This review will summarize the role of dietary ingredients in reducing inflammatory molecules as well as review the evidence available to support the role of diet and nutrition in reducing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in animal and human studies with a special reference to canines, where possible.

  4. Chronic inflammatory pain prevents tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Mehalick, Melissa L.; Ingram, Susan L.; Aicher, Sue; Morgan, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) contributes to morphine antinociception and tolerance. Chronic inflammatory pain causes changes within the PAG that are expected to enhance morphine tolerance. This hypothesis was tested by assessing antinociception and tolerance following repeated microinjections of morphine into the vlPAG of rats with chronic inflammatory pain. Microinjection of morphine into the vlPAG reversed the allodynia caused by intraplantar administration of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), and produced antinociception on the hot plate test. Although there was a gradual decrease in morphine antinociception with repeated testing, there was no evidence of tolerance when morphine and saline treated rats with hind paw inflammation were tested with cumulative doses of morphine. In contrast, repeated morphine injections into the vlPAG caused a rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve in rats without hind paw inflammation, as would be expected with the development of tolerance. The lack of tolerance in CFA treated rats was evident whether rats were exposed to repeated behavioral testing or not (Experiment 2) and whether they were treated with 4 or 8 prior microinjections of morphine into the vlPAG (Experiment 3). These data demonstrate that chronic inflammatory pain does not disrupt the antinociceptive effect of microinjecting morphine into the vlPAG, but it does disrupt the development of tolerance. PMID:24161274

  5. Production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in chronic alcoholism: relationship with ethanol intake and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Laso, Francisco Javier; Vaquero, José Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Marcos, Miguel; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) by PB monocytes was analyzed at the single level by flow cytometry in chronic alcoholics without liver disease and active ethanol (EtOH) intake (AWLD group), as well as in patients with alcohol liver cirrhosis (ALC group), who were either actively drinking (ALCET group) or with alcohol withdrawal (ALCAW group). A significantly increased spontaneous production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha was observed on PB monocytes among AWLD individuals. Conversely, circulating monocytes form ALCET patients showed an abnormally low spontaneous and stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. No significant changes were observed in ALCAW group as regards production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha. Our results show an altered pattern of production of inflammatory cytokines in PB monocytes from chronic alcoholic patients, the exact abnormalities observed depending on both the status of EtOH intake and the existence of alcoholic liver disease. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. α-blockers, antibiotics and anti-inflammatories have a role in the management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Attia, John; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; Nickel, J Curtis

    2012-10-01

    Study Type - Therapy (systematic review) Level of Evidence 1a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Individual clinical trials evaluating antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and α-blockers for the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome have shown only modest or even no benefits for patients compared with placebo, yet we continue to use these agents in selected patients with some success in clinical practice. This network meta-analysis of current evidence from all available randomized placebo-controlled trials with similar inclusion criteria and outcome measures shows that these '3-As' of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome treatment (antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and α-blockers) do offer benefits to some patients, particularly if we use them strategically in selected individuals. To provide an updated network meta-analysis mapping α-blockers, antibiotics and anti-inflammatories (the 3-As) in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). • To use the results of this meta-analysis to comment on the role of the 3-As in clinical practice. We updated a previous review including only randomized controlled studies employing the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) as one of the outcomes to compare treatment effects in CP/CPPS patients. • A longitudinal mixed regression model (network meta-analysis) was applied to indirectly assess multiple treatment comparisons (i.e. α-blockers, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory/immune modulation therapies, α-blockers plus antibiotics, and placebo). Nineteen studies (1669 subjects) were eligible for analysis. • α-blockers, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory/immune modulation therapies were associated with significant improvement in symptoms when compared with placebo, with mean differences of total CPSI of -10.8 (95% CI -13.2 to -8.3; P < 0.001), -9.7 (95% CI -14.2 to -5.3; P < 0.001) and -1.7 (95% CI -3.2 to -0.2; P= 0

  7. Conformational anti-cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) auto-antibodies contribute to necro-inflammatory injury in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sutti, S; Vidali, M; Mombello, C; Sartori, M; Albano, E

    2010-10-01

    Circulating auto-antibodies against cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) have been observed in a significant fraction of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study investigated the clinical significance of these auto-antibodies in relation to their antigen specificity. The presence of anti-CYP2E1 IgG was investigated in 137 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven CHC. Anti-CYP2E1 IgG above control threshold levels was detected in 52 (38%) subjects. By combined immunoprecipitation and western blotting, we observed that among anti-CYP2E1 IgG-positive sera, 23 (44%) were unreactive towards denaturated CYP2E1, indicating a prevalent recognition of conformational CYP2E1 antigens. Conformational anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies were unrelated to circulating gamma-globulins, alcohol intake or infection by specific HCV genotypes. The presence of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies was associated with an 11-fold (OR 10.9 95%CI 1.4-86.6 P = 0.008) increased prevalence of necro-inflammatory grading ≥ 4 (Ishack's criteria) and 4-fold (OR 4.0; 95%CI 1.3-11-7: P = 0.014) increased prevalence of fibrosis staging ≥ 2, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed conformational anti-CYP2E1 IgG (P = 0.005) and age (P = 0.033) as independent predictors of necro-inflammatory grading ≥ 4. The development of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies targeting conformational CYP2E1 epitopes is associated with more severe liver damage in CHC.

  8. Association of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cortisol and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-jie; Yang, Chang-jiang; Li, Bei; Wu, Xiao; Lv, Yu-bao; Jin, Hua-liang; Cao, Yu-xue; Sun, Jing; Luo, Qing-li; Gong, Wei-yi; Zhang, Hong-ying; Liu, Bao-jun; Wu, Jin-Ffng; Dong, Jing-cheng

    2014-08-01

    Evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol play a crucial role in the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Depression occurs commonly among COPD patients and an earlier diagnosis would be beneficial. This study investigated the associations between depression, sputum cytokines and salivary cortisol in COPD patients. The diurnal rhythms of sputum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and salivary cortisol were measured in COPD patients with depression compared to those only with depression, or COPD and healthy controls. The area under the diurnal variation curves (AUC) over the 24h time course and relative diurnal variation (VAR) were calculated while correlation and regression analysis were performed. Patients with co-morbid depression and COPD showed an increasing sputum IL-1, sputum TNF-α AUC and a decreasing salivary cortisol VAR (P<0.001). The combination of sputum TNF-α AUC, sputum IL-1 AUC, sputum IL-6 AUC and salivary cortisol VAR performed best as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of depression in COPD patients, with a sensitivity of 94.74% and a specificity of 96.67%. Positive correlations were found between sputum IL-1 AUC and sputum TNF-α AUC versus depressive symptoms, respectively a negative correlation was found between salivary cortisol VAR and depression. They were independently associated with depression in logistic regression models. Depression in COPD is associated with higher 24-h overall levels of sputum IL-1, TNF-α and flattened diurnal salivary cortisol. These non-invasive sputum and salivary biomarkers may serve as a simple clinical tool for the early diagnosis of depression in COPD patients.

  9. Targeted Gene Panel Sequencing for Early-onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Britt-Sabina; August, Dietrich; Abt, Renate; Alddafari, Moudjahed; Atarod, Lida; Baris, Safa; Bhavsar, Hemant; Brinkert, Florian; Buchta, Mary; Bulashevska, Alla; Chee, Ronnie; Cordeiro, Ana I; Dara, Naghi; Dückers, Gregor; Elmarsafy, Aisha; Frede, Natalie; Galal, Nermeen; Gerner, Patrick; Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Goldacker, Sigune; Hammermann, Jutta; Hasselblatt, Peter; Havlicekova, Zuzana; Hübscher, Katrin; Jesenak, Milos; Karaca, Neslihan E; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Kharaghani, Mahboubeh M; Kilic, Sara S; Kiykim, Ayca; Klein, Christoph; Klemann, Christian; Kobbe, Robin; Kotlarz, Daniel; Laass, Martin W; Leahy, T Ronan; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Mitton, Sally; Neves, João F; Öztürk, Birol; Pereira, Luis F; Rohr, Jan; Restrepo, Jessica L R; Ruzaike, Gunda; Saleh, Nadia; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Senol, Ebru; Speckmann, Carsten; Tegtmeyer, Daniel; Thankam, Paul; van der Werff Ten Bosch, Jutte; von Bernuth, Horst; Zeissig, Sebastian; Zeissig, Yvonne; Franke, Andre; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2017-09-19

    In contrast to adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where many genetic loci have been shown to be involved in complex disease etiology, early-onset IBD (eoIBD) and associated syndromes can sometimes present as monogenic conditions. As a result, the clinical phenotype and ideal disease management in these patients often differ from those in adult-onset IBD. However, due to high costs and the complexity of data analysis, high-throughput screening for genetic causes has not yet become a standard part of the diagnostic work-up of eoIBD patients. We selected 28 genes of interest associated with monogenic IBD and performed targeted panel sequencing in 71 patients diagnosed with eoIBD or early-onset chronic diarrhea to detect causative variants. We compared these results to whole-exome sequencing (WES) data available for 25 of these patients. Target coverage was significantly higher in the targeted gene panel approach compared with WES, whereas the cost of the panel was considerably lower (approximately 25% of WES). Disease-causing variants affecting protein function were identified in 5 patients (7%), located in genes of the IL10 signaling pathway (3), WAS (1), and DKC1 (1). The functional effects of 8 candidate variants in 5 additional patients (7%) are under further investigation. WES did not identify additional causative mutations in 25 patients. Targeted gene panel sequencing is a fast and effective screening method for monogenic causes of eoIBD that should be routinely established in national referral centers.

  10. Proteomic profiling of inflammatory signaling molecules in the tears of patients on chronic glaucoma medication.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tina T; Zhou, Lei; Li, Jing; Tong, Louis; Zhao, Shao Zhen; Li, Xiao Rong; Yu, Shang Juan; Koh, Siew Kwan; Beuerman, Roger W

    2011-09-22

    To identify the tear proteins associated with the long-term use of glaucoma medication by using proteomic analysis and to compare these proteins to those previously reported in primary dry eye disease. Eighteen patients treated with topical antiglaucoma medications and 10 normal age-matched subjects with no prior topical treatment were recruited for the study. Tears were collected by using Schirmer's strip and analyzed by iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) for tear proteins by mass spectrometry. Conjunctival samples were collected and RNA expression determined by PCR. Of the 124 identified tear proteins (99% confidence, ProtScore ≥ 2.0), we found that the tear levels of S100-A8, S100-A9, mammaglobin B, and 14-3-3 ζ/δ were significantly increased in the medicated group compared with levels in the nonmedicated group (P < 0.05). For S100-A9, mammaglobin B, and 14-3-3 ζ/δ, use of topical medication for less than 1 year did not reach statistical significance compared with that in the nonmedicated group. Eyes on topical medication for less than 1 year showed a decrease in proline-rich 4 protein tear level (P = 0.0049) compared to nonmedicated group. The tear proteins detected in the medicated group differed from those in the primary dry eye group. Treatment with topical antiglaucoma medications for longer than 1 year may start to induce ocular surface inflammation. The inflammatory tear protein profile present in chronically medicated glaucomatous eyes appears to be different from that found in primary dry eye. Identification of tear proteins specific to medicated glaucomatous eyes will help to specifically develop targeted screening modalities and therapeutic agents different from current conventional dry eye management.

  11. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use Among Persons With Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura; Grubbs, Vanessa; Sarkar, Urmimala; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Robinson, Bruce; Saran, Rajiv; Geiss, Linda; Burrows, Nilka Ríos; Eberhardt, Mark; Powe, Neil

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Because avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is recommended for most individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), we sought to characterize patterns of NSAID use among persons with CKD in the United States. METHODS A total of 12,065 adult (aged 20 years or older) participants in the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) responded to a questionnaire regarding their use of over-the-counter and prescription NSAIDs. NSAIDs (excluding aspirin and acetaminophen) were defined by self-report. CKD was categorized as no CKD, mild CKD (stages 1 and 2; urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g) and moderate to severe CKD (stages 3 and 4; estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–59 mL/min/1.73 m2). Adjusted prevalence was calculated using multivariable logistic regression with appropriate population-based weighting. RESULTS Current use (nearly every day for 30 days or longer) of any NSAID was reported by 2.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% of the US population with no, mild, and moderate to severe CKD, respectively; nearly all of the NSAIDs used were available over-the-counter. Among those with moderate to severe CKD who were currently using NSAIDs, 10.2% had a current NSAID prescription and 66.1% had used NSAIDs for 1 year or longer. Among those with CKD, disease awareness was not associated with reduced current NSAID use: (3.8% vs 3.9%, aware vs unaware; P=.979). CONCLUSIONS Physicians and other health care clinicians should be aware of use of NSAIDs among those with CKD in the United States and evaluate NSAID use in their CKD patients. PMID:21911761

  12. A novel inhibitor of active protein kinase G attenuates chronic inflammatory and osteoarthritic pain.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ying-Ju; Sofoluke, Nelson; Nkamany, Mary; Deng, Shixian; Xie, Yuli; Greenwood, Jeremy; Farid, Ramy; Landry, Donald W; Ambron, Richard T

    2017-05-01

    Activating PKG-1α induces a long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in nociceptive neurons. Since the LTH correlates directly with chronic pain in many animal models, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting PKG-1α would attenuate LTH-mediated pain. We first synthesized and characterized compound N46 (N-((3R,4R)-4-(4-(2-fluoro-3-methoxy-6-propoxybenzoyl)benzamido)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide). N46 inhibits PKG-1α with an IC50 of 7.5 nmol, was highly selective when tested against a panel of 274 kinases, and tissue distribution studies indicate that it does not enter the CNS. To evaluate its antinociceptive potential, we used 2 animal models in which the pain involves both activated PKG-1α and LTH. Injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the rat hind paw causes a thermal hyperalgesia that was significantly attenuated 24 hours after a single intravenous injection of N46. Next, we used a rat model of osteoarthritic knee joint pain and found that a single intra-articular injection of N46 alleviated the pain 14 days after the pain was established and the relief lasted for 7 days. Thermal hyperalgesia and osteoarthritic pain are also associated with the activation of the capsaicin-activated transient receptor protein vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel. We show that capsaicin activates PKG-1α in nerves and that a subcutaneous delivery of N46 attenuated the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity elicited by exposure to capsaicin. Thus, PKG-1α appears to be downstream of the transient receptor protein vanilloid-1. Our studies provide proof of concept in animal models that a PKG-1α antagonist has a powerful antinociceptive effect on persistent, already existing inflammatory pain. They further suggest that N46 is a valid chemotype for the further development of such antagonists.

  13. Cost-utility analysis of intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisolone for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    McCrone, Paul; Chisholm, Daniel; Knapp, Martin; Hughes, Richard; Comi, Giancarlo; Dalakas, Marinos C; Illa, Isabel; Kilindireas, Costas; Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Swan, Anthony; Van den Bergh, Peter; Willison, Hugh J

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis comparing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and prednisolone treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Patients were recruited to a double-blind randomized crossover trial from nine European centres and received either prednisolone or IVIg during the first 6-week treatment period on which the economic evaluation was based. A societal perspective was adopted in measuring service use and costs, although the costs of lost employment were not included. The main outcome measure in the economic evaluation was the number of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, with change in a 11-point disability scale used to measure clinical outcomes. Service use and quality of life data were available for 25 patients. Baseline costs were controlled for using a bootstrapped multiple regression model. The cost difference between the two treatments was estimated to be euro 3754 over the 6-week period. Health-related quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol EQ-5D instrument, increased more in the IVIg group but the difference was not statistically significant. Using a net-benefit approach it was shown that the probability of IVIg being cost-effective in comparison with prednisolone was 0.5 or above (i.e. was more likely to be cost-effective than cost-ineffective) only if one QALY was valued at over euro 250 000. The cost-effectiveness of IVIg is greatly affected by the price of IVIg and the amount administered. The impact of later side-effects of prednisolone on long-term costs and quality of life are likely to reduce the cost per QALY of IVIg treatment.

  14. Epidemiologic variability of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with different diagnostic criteria: study of a UK population.

    PubMed

    Rajabally, Yusuf A; Simpson, Benjamin S; Beri, Sushil; Bankart, John; Gosalakkal, Jayaprakash A

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiologic data on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is limited, and previous studies have shown variable results. The frequencies of CIDP subtypes remain unknown. Variations due to use of different diagnostic criteria have not been studied. We examined the prevalence and incidence of CIDP in Leicestershire and Rutland, UK (population 963,600). Prevalence day was 1 May 2008. The prevalence of CIDP fulfilling the 2006 clinical and electrophysiologic European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS) criteria was 4.77 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.49-6.37). Using the 1991 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria, the prevalence was 1.97 per 100,000 in this population (95% CI 1.19-3.08). Lewis-Sumner syndrome was diagnosed in 15.2% of patients, and 23.9% had pure sensory onset. Over 40% required no immunotherapy, and 84.6% of those treated responded. More than 80% of the AAN criteria-negative but EFNS/PNS criteria-positive patients were responsive to treatment. Both sets of criteria were equally likely to identify patients who required therapy. The mean annual incidence rate over the 3 years preceding the prevalence day was 0.70 per 100,000/year using EFNS/PNS criteria (95% CI 0.43-1.08), and 0.35 per 100,000/year using AAN criteria (95% CI 0.17-0.64). We conclude that the AAN criteria may underestimate prevalence and incidence of the disease. The EFNS/PNS criteria provide higher diagnostic sensitivity and are of greater clinical relevance, and they also offer a useful breakdown of the epidemiologic data for CIDP subtypes.

  15. Steroids for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: evidence base and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Press, R; Hiew, F L; Rajabally, Y A

    2016-04-01

    Evidence-based therapies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) consist of corticosteroids, intravenous immunglobulins (IVIg), and plasma exchange. Steroids represent the oldest treatment used historically. In countries where readily available and affordable, IVIg tends to be favored as first-line treatment. The reason for this preference, despite substantially higher costs, is the perception that IVIg is more efficacious and safer than corticosteroids. However, the unselected use of IVIg as a first-line treatment option in all cases of CIDP raises issues of cost-effectiveness in the long-term. Furthermore, serious although rare, particularly thromboembolic side effects may result from their use. Recent data from randomized trials suggest pulsed corticosteroids to have a higher potential in achieving therapy-free remission or longer remission-free periods compared with IVIg, as well as relatively low rates of serious side effects when given as pulsed intravenous infusions during short periods of time. These specific advantages suggest that pulsed steroids could in many cases be used, as the first, rather than second choice of treatment when initiating immunomodulation in CIDP, primarily in hopes of achieving a remission after the short-term use. This article reviews the evidence base for the use of corticosteroids in its various forms in CIDP and factors that may influence clinicians' choice between IVIg and pulsed steroid treatment. The issue of efficacy, relapse rate and time, and side effect profile are analyzed, and some aspects from the authors' experience are discussed in relation to the possibility of using the steroid option as first-line therapy in a large proportion of patients with CIDP.

  16. Evolutionary medicine and bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases – a theory of inflammation-related osteopenia

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Rainer H.; Cutolo, Maurizio; Pacifici, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bone loss is typical in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, pemphigus vulgaris, and others. It is also typical in transplantation-related inflammation and during the process of aging. While we recognized that bone loss is tightly linked to immune system activation or inflammaging in the form of acute, chronic active, or chronic smoldering inflammation, bone loss is typically discussed to be an “accident of inflammation”. Methods Extensive literature search in PubMed central. Results Using elements of evolutionary medicine, energy regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation of homeostasis and immune function, we work out that bone waste is an adaptive, evolutionarily positively selected program that is absolutely necessary during acute inflammation. However, when acute inflammation enters a chronic state due to the inability to terminate inflammation (e.g., in autoimmunity or in continuous immunity against microbes), the acute program of bone loss is a misguided adaptive program. Conclusions The article highlights the complexity of interwoven pathways of osteopenia. PMID:26044543

  17. [Function and modulation of type Ⅱ innate lymphoid cells and their role in chronic upper airway inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liu, Z

    2017-02-07

    Type Ⅱ innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is a family of innate immune lymphocytes, which provide effective immune responses to cytokines. ILC2 are regulated by the nuclear transcription factor ROR alpha and GATA3, secreting cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, etc. Animal models have shown that ILC2 are involved in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, and also play a very important role in the metabolic balance. In addition, recent reports suggest that ILC2 not only play a role in the initial stages of the disease, but also can lead to chronic pathological changes in the disease, such as fibrosis, and may have an effect on acquired immunity. This paper mainly focus in the role and regulation of ILC2 cells, and review the research status of ILC2 in the field of chronic upper airway inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis.

  18. Association Between the Inflammatory Biomarkers and Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andrijevic, Ljiljana; Milutinov, Senka; Andrijevic, Ilija; Jokic, Daniela; Vukoja, Marija

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The increased inflammatory biomarker levels predict exacerbations and are associated with cardiovascular diseases in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients but their role in the settings of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations has not been determined. Aims: To analyse the association between inflammatory biomarkers and heart failure and also to determine the predictors of mortality in patients with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: We analysed 194 patients admitted for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at The Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica, Serbia. In all patients, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide and white blood count were measured and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Results: There were 119 men (61.3%) and the median age was 69 years (interquartile range 62-74). Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%) was present in 47 (24.2%) subjects. Patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction had higher C-reactive protein levels (median 100 vs. 31 mg/L, p=0.001) and fibrinogen (median 5 vs. 4 g/L, p=<0.001) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction. The overall hospital mortality was 8.2% (16/178). The levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and ejection fraction predicted hospital mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for age, hypoxemia and C-reactive protein, ejection fraction remained significant predictors of hospital mortality (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.05-15.8). Conclusion: Nearly a quarter of patients with the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease present with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

  19. Association Between the Inflammatory Biomarkers and Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Andrijevic, Ljiljana; Milutinov, Senka; Andrijevic, Ilija; Jokic, Daniela; Vukoja, Marija

    2017-05-05

    Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The increased inflammatory biomarker levels predict exacerbations and are associated with cardiovascular diseases in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients but their role in the settings of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations has not been determined. To analyse the association between inflammatory biomarkers and heart failure and also to determine the predictors of mortality in patients with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prospective observational study. We analysed 194 patients admitted for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at The Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica, Serbia. In all patients, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide and white blood count were measured and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. There were 119 men (61.3%) and the median age was 69 years (interquartile range 62-74). Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%) was present in 47 (24.2%) subjects. Patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction had higher C-reactive protein levels (median 100 vs. 31 mg/L, p=0.001) and fibrinogen (median 5 vs. 4 g/L, p=<0.001) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction. The overall hospital mortality was 8.2% (16/178). The levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and ejection fraction predicted hospital mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for age, hypoxemia and C-reactive protein, ejection fraction remained significant predictors of hospital mortality (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.05-15.8). Nearly a quarter of patients with the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease present with left ventricular systolic dysfunction which may be associated with mortality.

  20. The anti-inflammatory effect of locally delivered nano-doxycycline gel in therapy of chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Madi, Marwa; Pavlic, Verica; Samy, Wael; Alagl, Adel

    2017-09-29

    To date, various drugs as host modulating agents had been suggested as adjunctive treatment modality in the therapy of chronic periodontal disease. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of subgingivally delivered nanostructured doxycycline gel (nDOX) was evaluated and compared to conventional doxycycline gel (DOX) used as adjunct to scaling and root planning (SRP) in the treatment of moderate chronic periodontitis to reduce probing pocket depth. Nanostructured doxycycline gel (nDOX) was prepared using spray-drying technique with chitosan (CH) as a matrix polymer, followed by dispersion in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The deepest periodontal pocket in 45 patients suffering from moderate chronic periodontitis was selected. The patients were divided into three groups following scaling and root planning (SRP); group I: SRP + nDOX, group II: SRP + DOX and group III: SRP + placeboCH. Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment level(CAL), as well as ginigival crevicular fluid levels of (GCF) IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months following local drug application. Group I showed significant reduction in probing depth and attachment gain compared with group II and III at one and three months period. The inflammatory mediators levels were significantly reduced in all treatment groups at one-month period. Except for group I, the reduced values were observed at three-month period. The results suggest that treatment with nDOX gel as an adjunct to SRP had anti-inflammatory effect by improving both clinical parameters and inflammatory markers up to three months period.

  1. Quercetin prevents chronic unpredictable stress induced behavioral dysfunction in mice by alleviating hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-15

    It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Inflammatory Processes in Occurrence of Left Ventricular Failure in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shemirani, Hassan; Tavakol, Sara; Atapoor, Abdolamir; Golshahi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recently, the relationship between increased level of inflammatory mediators and occurrence of left ventricular failure in patients with kidney disease has been suggested. The present study attempted to assess relationship between inflammatory mediators and occurrence of left ventricular failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at Noor and Hazrat Aliasghar hospital in Isfahan between September 2012 to September 2013 on patients aged >19 years that referred for following their chronic kidney disease. Serum level of inflammatory parameters including C-reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured using spectrophotometer. All patients were also assessed using M-mode echocardiography to determine left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Results: The group with significant reduced LVEF showed lower GFR when compared to the normal LVEF group (40.73 ± 20.61% versus 44.43 ± 17.98%, P = 0.032). Comparing GFR across the three groups with normal LVEF (>55%), with mild LV dysfunction (LVEF: 45 – 55) those with significant LV dysfunction (LVEF < 45%) showed significantly lower GFR level in latter group compared with normal LVEF and mild LV dysfunction group (P = 0.026). Although the level of serum CRP was significantly higher in patients with significant left ventricular failure than other groups (P = 0.018). Conclusion: Inflammatory processes can potentially affect left ventricular function in patients with chronic kidney disease. In this regard, increased level of CRP may be a main factor for predicting severity of left ventricular failure in these patients. PMID:28299305

  3. Innocent Until Proven Guilty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Catherine; Whitaker, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this…

  4. The provenance of rutile.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    Most coarse detrital rutile is derived from high-grade metamorphic rocks. Contrary to a conventional assumption, independent rutile grains are particularly rare in igneous rocks except alkalic rocks. The use of rutile in the zircon-tourmaline-rutile index of mineralogic maturity is only partially valid, owing to its restricted provenance. -Author

  5. Innocent Until Proven Guilty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Catherine; Whitaker, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this…

  6. Effects of prandial challenge on triglyceridemia, glycemia, and pro-inflammatory activity in persons with chronic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Ellenbroek, Dennis; Kressler, Jochen; Cowan, Rachel E; Burns, Patricia A; Mendez, Armando J; Nash, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    Exaggerated postprandial lipemia has been reported after spinal cord injury (SCI). We examined metabolite and accompanying pro-inflammatory biomarker responses to repeat feeding of typical high-fat meals in individuals with chronic paraplegia. Descriptive trial. Metabolites (triglycerides, glucose, and insulin) and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured under fasting conditions in 11 recreationally active individuals with chronic (>1 year) paraplegia. Subjects received high-fat meals at time point 0 and again at minute 240. Antecubital venous blood was obtained at time points -30 (fasting), 0 (first meal), 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 (second meal), 360, and 480 minutes. Correlations were examined among the study variables. Exploratory subgroup analysis was performed for subjects with levels of postprandial glucose greater than >200 mg/dl. Triglycerides showed a significant rise 4 hours after eating. Basal inflammatory markers were elevated, and did not undergo additional change during the testing. Additionally, subjects with excessive postprandial glucose responses showed higher hsCRP levels than those having typical glucose responses both for fasting (11.8 ± 6.5 vs. 2.9 ± 2.7 mg/l, P = 0.064) and postprandial (11.1 ± 4.9 vs. 3.7 ± 3.8 mg/l, P = 0.018) values. Despite elevations in metabolic response markers, inflammatory markers did not change significantly after consumption of population-representative (i.e. hypercaloric) mixed-nutrient meals. Levels of fasting CRP in the high-risk range are consistent with other reports in persons with SCI and continue to pose concern for their cardiovascular disease risk. The possible association between postprandial metabolic responses and inflammatory states warrants further investigation to identify individual component risks for this secondary health hazard.

  7. Insulin resistance, selfish brain, and selfish immune system: an evolutionarily positively selected program used in chronic inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a general phenomenon of many physiological states, disease states, and diseases. IR has been described in diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, chronic mental stress, and others. In arthritis, abnormalities of glucose homeostasis were described in 1920; and in 1950 combined glucose and insulin tests unmistakably demonstrated IR. The phenomenon is now described in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and others. In chronic inflammatory diseases, cytokine-neutralizing strategies normalize insulin sensitivity. This paper delineates that IR is either based on inflammatory factors (activation of the immune/ repair system) or on the brain (mental activation via stress axes). Due to the selfishness of the immune system and the selfishness of the brain, both can induce IR independent of each other. Consequently, the immune system can block the brain (for example, by sickness behavior) and the brain can block the immune system (for example, stress-induced immune system alterations). Based on considerations of evolutionary medicine, it is discussed that obesity per se is not a disease. Obesity-related IR depends on provoking factors from either the immune system or the brain. Chronic inflammation and/or stress axis activation are thus needed for obesity-related IR. Due to redundant pathways in stimulating IR, a simple one factor-neutralizing strategy might help in chronic inflammatory diseases (inflammation is the key), but not in obesity-related IR. The new considerations towards IR are interrelated to the published theories of IR (thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, and others). PMID:25608958

  8. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Topical Formulations of Pterocarpus Santalinus Powder in Rat Model of Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit O; Jain, Sourav; Dawane, Jayshree Shriram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of arthritis is quite high and there is a need for the search of natural products to halt the progression of disease or provide symptomatic relief without significant adverse effects. Aim This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topical Pterocarpus santalinus in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Materials and Methods Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six rats each (Group I – Control, Group II –Gel base, Group III –P. santalinus paste, Group IV –P. santalinus gel, Group V– Diclofenac gel). Chronic inflammation was induced on day 0 by injecting 0.1 ml Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) in sub-plantar tissue of left hind paw of the rats. Topical treatment was started from day 12 till day 28. Body weight and paw volume (Plethysmometer) were assessed on day 0, 12 and 28. Pain assessment was done using Randall and Selitto paw withdrawal method. Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism version 5. Unpaired students t-test and ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test was used for comparison among groups. Results Only topical P.santalinus gel significantly reduced the body weight (p=0.02) due to reduction in inflammatory oedema of the left limb. P. santalinus gel also showed significant reduction (p=0.03) in paw volume of rats compared to the other groups. There was significant reduction in pain threshold (gm/sec) due to chronic inflammation, with all the study drugs (p<0.05) but with P. santalinus gel, this reduction was less (p<0.001). Conclusion Gel showed significant anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic activity on topical application in rat model of chronic inflammation. PMID:28892928

  9. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Topical Formulations of Pterocarpus Santalinus Powder in Rat Model of Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dhande, Priti Pravin; Gupta, Amit O; Jain, Sourav; Dawane, Jayshree Shriram

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of arthritis is quite high and there is a need for the search of natural products to halt the progression of disease or provide symptomatic relief without significant adverse effects. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topical Pterocarpus santalinus in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six rats each (Group I - Control, Group II -Gel base, Group III -P. santalinus paste, Group IV -P. santalinus gel, Group V- Diclofenac gel). Chronic inflammation was induced on day 0 by injecting 0.1 ml Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in sub-plantar tissue of left hind paw of the rats. Topical treatment was started from day 12 till day 28. Body weight and paw volume (Plethysmometer) were assessed on day 0, 12 and 28. Pain assessment was done using Randall and Selitto paw withdrawal method. Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism version 5. Unpaired students t-test and ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used for comparison among groups. Only topical P.santalinus gel significantly reduced the body weight (p=0.02) due to reduction in inflammatory oedema of the left limb. P. santalinus gel also showed significant reduction (p=0.03) in paw volume of rats compared to the other groups. There was significant reduction in pain threshold (gm/sec) due to chronic inflammation, with all the study drugs (p<0.05) but with P. santalinus gel, this reduction was less (p<0.001). Gel showed significant anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic activity on topical application in rat model of chronic inflammation.

  10. Chronic inflammatory injury results in increased coupling of delta opioid receptors to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Amynah; Smith, Monique; McGuire, Brenna; Evans, Christopher; Walwyn, Wendy

    2013-03-04

    Opioid receptors regulate a diverse array of physiological functions. Mu opioid receptor agonists are well-known analgesics for treating acute pain. In contrast, animal models suggest that chronic pain is more effectively relieved by delta opioid receptor agonists. A number of studies have shown that chronic pain results in increased function of delta opioid receptors. This is proposed to result from enhanced trafficking of the delta opioid receptor to the cell membrane induced by persistent tissue injury. However, recent studies have questioned this mechanism, which has resulted in some uncertainty as to whether delta opioid receptors are indeed upregulated in chronic pain states. To clarify this question, we have examined the effect of chronic inflammatory pain over time using both an ex vivo measure of delta function: receptor-Ca2+ channel coupling, and an in vivo measure; the relief of chronic pain by a delta opioid receptor agonist. In addition, as beta-arrestin 2 can regulate delta opioid receptor trafficking and signaling, we have further examined whether deleting this scaffolding and signal transduction molecule alters delta opioid receptor function. We used the Complete Freund's Adjuvant model of inflammatory pain, and examined the effectiveness of the delta agonist, SNC80, to both inhibit Ca2+ channels in primary afferent neurons and to attenuate mechanical allodynia. In naïve beta-arrestin 2 wildtype and knockout mice, SNC80 neither significantly inhibited voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents nor produced antinociception. However, following inflammatory pain, both measures showed a significant and long-lasting enhancement of delta opioid receptor function that persisted for up to 14 days post-injury regardless of genotype. Furthermore, although this pain model did not alter Ca2+ current density, the contribution of N-type Ca2+ channels to the total current appeared to be regulated by the presence of beta-arrestin 2. Our results indicate that there is an

  11. Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation Protects Against Seizures, Cognitive Impairments, Hippocampal Apoptosis, and Inflammatory Responses in Epileptic Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhu, Li-Jun; Wang, Xian-Hong; Zuo, Jian; He, Hui-Yan; Tian, Miao-Miao; Wang, Lei; Liang, Gui-Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) has recently been demonstrated effective in the treatment of epilepsy and mood disorders. Here, we aim to determine the effects of TNS on epileptogenesis, cognitive function, and the associated hippocampal apoptosis and inflammatory responses. Rats were injected with pilocarpine to produce status epilepticus (SE) and the following chronic epilepsy. After SE induction, TNS treatment was conducted for 4 consecutive weeks. A pilocarpine re-injection was then used to induce a seizure in the epileptic rats. The hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by seizure was assessed by TUNEL staining and inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) number was counted through video monitoring, and the cognitive function assessed through Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. TNS treatment attenuated the SRS attacks and improved the cognitive impairment in epileptic rats. A pilocarpine re-injection resulted in less hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and reduced level of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and microglial activation in epileptic rats with TNS treatment in comparison to the epileptic rats without TNS treatment. It is concluded that TNS treatment shortly after SE not only protected against the chronic spontaneous seizures but also improved cognitive impairments. These antiepileptic properties of TNS may be related to its attenuating effects on hippocampal apoptosis and pro-inflammatory responses.

  12. Dragon's blood inhibits chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain responses by blocking the synthesis and release of substance P in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Sang; Wang, Jun-Xian; Jia, Mei-Mei; Liu, Min; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, He-Bin

    2012-01-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, dragon's blood (DB) is widely used in treating various pains for thousands of years due to its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In the present study, we observed that intragastric administration of DB at dosages of 0.14, 0.56, and 1.12 g/kg potently inhibited paw edema, hyperalgesia, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, or preprotachykinin-A mRNA expression in carrageenan-inflamed or sciatic nerve-injured (chronic constriction injury) rats, respectively. A short-term (15 s or 10 min) pre-exposure of cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to DB (0.3, 3, and 30 µg/ml) or its component cochinchinenin B (CB; 0.1, 1, and 10 µM) blocked capsaicin-evoked increases in both the intracellular calcium ion concentration and the substance P release. Moreover, a long-term (180 min) exposure of cultured rat DRG neurons to DB or CB significantly attenuated bradykinin-induced substance P release. These findings indicate that DB exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects by blocking the synthesis and release of substance P through inhibition of COX-2 protein induction and intracellular calcium ion concentration. Therefore, DB may serve as a promising potent therapeutic agent for treatment of chronic pain, and its effective component CB might partly contribute to anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

  13. Circumcision plus antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and α-blocker therapy for the treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuyang; Zhao, Wei; Lang, Genqiang; Chen, Yaowu; Liu, Jianxin; Wang, Guozeng; Ma, Xiaobing; Gong, Min; Xu, Dongliang; Xia, Shujie

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of circumcision combined with antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and α-blocker therapy for the treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Subjects assigned to the circumcision group were given antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and α-blocker medications and scheduled for surgery the same period in each site by study clinicians. Subjects assigned to the control group were asked to only take the same medications and remain uncircumcised until the end of the 3-month study period. The primary outcome was a reduction of at least four points on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). A total of 774 eligible participants underwent randomization, and the ratio of men with a decrease of at least four points on the total NIH-CPSI score from baseline to 12 weeks was 84.6% in the circumcision group and 68.5% in the control group (P < 0.001). Of the 713 men who completed the trial, the median total NIH-CPSI score decreased significantly from 21.0 ± 7.0 to 12.0 ± 8.0 (P < 0.001) in the circumcision group, and in the control group, the change was from 21.0 ± 8.0 to 15.0 ± 7.0 (P < 0.001). Comparison of the changes in the total and three subdomain NIH-CPSI scores over time revealed significant differences between the circumcision and control groups (P < 0.001). Our findings show that circumcision plus antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and α-blocker therapy for CP/CPPS patients resulted in improved NIH-CPSI scores compared with medication therapy only.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: results of the cardiovascular in rheumatology [CARMA] study.

    PubMed

    Urruticoechea-Arana, Ana; Martín-Martínez, María A; Castañeda, Santos; Piedra, Carlos A Sanchez; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Díaz-Gonzalez, Federico; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2015-08-14

    The aim was to study the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the clinical characteristics of patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD). We studied a cross-section from the baseline visit of the CARMA project (CARdiovascular in rheuMAtology), a 10-year prospective study evaluating the risk of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients, and non-CIRD patients who attended rheumatology outpatient clinics from 67 hospitals in Spain. Non-CIRD group was frequency matched by age with the joint distribution of the three CIRD groups included in the study. 25(OH)D deficiency was defined if 25(OH)D vitamin levels were < 20 ng/ml. 2.234 patients (775 RA, 738 AS and 721 PsA) and 677 non-CIRD subjects were assessed. The median (p25-p75) 25(OH)D levels were: 20.4 (14.4-29.2) ng/ml in RA, 20.9 (13.1-29.0) in AS, 20.0 (14.0-28.8) in PsA, and 24.8 (18.4-32.6) ng/ml in non-CIRD patients. We detected 25(OH)D deficiency in 40.5 % RA, 39.7 % AS, 40.9 % PsA and 26.7 % non-CIRD controls (p < 0.001). A statistically significant positive association between RA and 25(OH)D deficiency was found (adjusted (adj.) OR = 1.46; 95 % CI = 1.09-1.96); p = 0.012. This positive association did not reach statistical significance for AS (adj. OR 1.23; 95 % CI = 0.85-1.80) and PsA (adj. OR 1.32; 95 % CI = 0.94-1.84). When the parameters of disease activity, severity or functional impairment were assessed, a marginally significant association between 25(OH)D deficiency and ACPA positivity in RA patients (adj. OR = 1.45; 95 % CI = 0.99-2.12; p = 0.056), and between 25(OH)D deficiency and BASFI in AS patients (adj. OR = 1.08; 95 % CI = 0.99-1.17); p = 0.07) was also found. Patients with RA show an increased risk of having 25(OH)D deficiency compared to non-CIRD controls.

  15. [Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in Gijón, Asturias].

    PubMed

    Saro Gismera, C; Lacort Fernández, M; Argüelles Fernández, G; Antón Magarzo, J; Navascues, C A; Garcia López, R; Suárez González, A; Diaz Alvarez, G; Palacios Galán, A; Altadill arregui, A; Vizoso, F; González Bernal, A; Martínez, A

    2001-05-01

    To determine several aspects of the epidemiology of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including distribution of the various forms of IBD, sex, age at diagnosis considering lag-time to diagnosis, criteria used in the diagnosis, the relationship between educational level and activity, familial aggregation, phenotype (site and clinical type), number of admissions and mean hospital stay/year, surgical requirements and mortality. We carried out a retrospective (1954-1993) and prospective (1994-97) descriptive epidemiologic population study, in the fifth health district of Gijón in Asturias (Spain), with 225,798 inhabitants. A total of 595 patients diagnosed with chronic IBD according to the diagnostic criteria described by Lennard-Jones and Truelove for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and according to Ashley B. Price's criteria for indeterminate colitis (IC) were studied. In all patients a complete clinical follow-up was performed. During the study period, we diagnosed 595 patients with IBD [305 patients with UC (51.3%), 272 (45.7%) patients with CD and 18 (3%) with IC]. Sex distribution was 287 females (48.2%) and 308 males (51.8%), with a male/female ratio of 1.07. Mean age at presentation was 38.79 +/- 17.44 years (UC: 43.37 +/- 17.55; CD: 33.98 +/- 16.16; IC: 33.73 +/- 13.48), p = 0.000. Age at onset prior to diagnosis was as follows: UC: 42.03; CD: 30.47; IC: 30.99 (p = 0.000). Diagnostic criteria used in UC was symptomatic in 99.01% (p = ns), endoscopic in 95.04% (p = 0.000), and pathologic in 87.21% (p = 0.000); in CD diagnostic criteria used was radiologic in 85.29% (p = 0.000). A total of 29.1% of patients with UC and 66.7% of those with CD had higher education (p = 0.0005). Family history was found in 9.8%. Anatomical site was as follows: in UC: rectum 21%, 28.2% rectum and sigmoid, 22.3% left colitis, 4.2% distal to hepatic flexure and 24% pancolitis; in CD: 32.72% terminal ileum, 19.11% colon, 37.13% ileo-colon, 11.02% extensive

  16. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy with Reversible Dementia: A New Clinical Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Samaniego, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), an acquired demyelination of peripheral nerves and nerve roots presents with symmetric motor and sensory involvement, weakness in proximal and distal muscles, globally diminished or absent reflexes, painful dysesthesias, and back pain with no brain involvement. In this case, a highly functional lawyer presents with reversible dementia and motor and sensory symptoms consistent with CIDP. This case may represent a new clinical entity of CIDP with reversible dementia. Case Report A 60-year-old man presented with progressive weakness, and cognitive dysfunction in the form of dementia over the last 8 weeks. Sensory and motor weakness continued to progress affecting upper and lower extremities with both proximal and distal muscle groups to the point where the patient was unable to move without assistance. The patient had word finding difficulty, short-term memory impairment, and was disoriented, despite his comprehension being intact. Initial Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was 12/30. Initial neurologic exam was notable for muscle strength 3/5, globally depressed deep tendon reflexes. Lumbar puncture revealed elevated protein with no pleocytosis and no serum paraprotein. EMG/NCS demonstrated mixed sensorimotor axonal and demyelination peripheral polyneuropathy. CIDP was diagnosed based on clinical history according to Koski criteria. He was started on a 5-day treatment of IVIG, after which he had marked cognitive improvement after just one dose and improvement in weakness after the second dose of IVIG. Three weeks after IVIG treatment, the patient's cognitive function was back at baseline with MoCA score 29/30; no further word finding difficulty, and no short term memory impairment. At discharge, the patient's weakness had significantly improved to the point where he was able to walk with only the aid of a walker. His neurologic exam had improved as well as his muscle strength 4/5 and 2

  17. Reducing inappropriate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescription in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Keohane, David M; Dennehy, Thomas; Keohane, Kenneth P; Shanahan, Eamonn

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reduce inappropriate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescribing in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Once diagnosed, CKD management involves delaying progression to end stage renal failure and preventing complications. It is well established that non-steroidal anti-inflammatories have a negative effect on kidney function and consequently, all nephrology consensus groups suggest avoiding this drug class in CKD. Design/methodology/approach The sampling criteria included all practice patients with a known CKD risk factor. This group was refined to include those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min per 1.73m2 (stage 3 CKD or greater). Phase one analysed how many prescriptions had occurred in this group over the preceding three months. The intervention involved creating an automated alert on at risk patient records if non-steroidal anti-inflammatories were prescribed and discussing the rationale with practice staff. The re-audit phase occurred three months' post intervention. Findings The study revealed 728/7,500 (9.7 per cent) patients at risk from CKD and 158 (2.1 per cent) who were subsequently found to have an eGFR<60 ml/min, indicating=stage 3 CKD. In phase one, 10.2 per cent of at risk patients had received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescription in the preceding three months. Additionally, 6.2 per cent had received non-steroidal anti-inflammatories on repeat prescription. Phase two post intervention revealed a significant 75 per cent reduction in the total non-steroidal anti-inflammatories prescribed and a 90 per cent reduction in repeat non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescriptions in those with CKD. Originality/value The study significantly reduced non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescription in those with CKD in primary care settings. It also created a CKD register within the practice and an enduring medication alert system for individuals that risk nephrotoxic

  18. Characterization of Inflammatory Response in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure and Relationship with Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Cristina; Solà, Elsa; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Fernàndez, Guerau; Huelin, Patricia; Graupera, Isabel; Moreira, Rebeca; de Prada, Gloria; Ariza, Xavier; Pose, Elisa; Fabrellas, Núria; Kalko, Susana G.; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Ginès, Pere

    2016-01-01

    ACLF is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response, but the cytokines involved in this process have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to characterize the systemic inflammatory response in patients with cirrhosis and ACLF and its relationship with prognosis. Fifty-five patients with cirrhosis, 26 with ACLF, were studied prospectively. Systemic inflammatory response was analyzed by measuring a large array of plasma cytokines by using a multiplex kit. A principal component analysis show noticeable differences between ACLF and decompensated cirrhosis without ACLF. Patients with ACLF had significant abnormal levels of 12 cytokines compared to those without ACLF, including: VCAM-1, VEGF-A, Fractalkine, MIP-1α, Eotaxin, IP-10, RANTES, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-2, ICAM-1, and MCP-1. Cytokines showing the most marked relationship with ACLF were VCAM-1 and VEGF-A (AUCROC 0.77; p = 0.001). There was a significant relationship between some of inflammatory mediators and 3-month mortality, particularly VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and GM-CSF (AUCROC>0.7; p < 0.05). Functional Enrichment Analysis showed that inflammatory markers differentially expressed in ACLF patients were enriched in leukocyte migration, particularly monocytes and macrophages, and chemotaxis pathways. In conclusion, ACLF is characterized by a marked inflammatory reaction with activation of mediators of adhesion and migration of leukocytes. The intensity of the inflammatory reaction correlates with prognosis. PMID:27578545

  19. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  20. Protective role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors in chronic intestinal inflammation: TNFR1 ablation boosts systemic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Yu; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guijun; Wang, Renxi; Xiao, He; Li, Xinying; Hou, Chunmei; Shen, Beifen; Guo, Renfeng; Li, Yan; Chen, Guojiang

    2013-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) acts as a key factor for the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), whose function is known to be mediated by TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) or TNFR2. However, the precise role of the two receptors in IBD remains poorly understood. Herein, chronic colitis was established by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in TNFR1 or TNFR2-/- mice. Unexpectedly, TNFR1 or TNFR2 deficiency led to exacerbation of signs of colitis compared with wild-type (WT) counterparts. Of note, TNFR1 ablation rendered significantly increased mortality compared with TNFR2 and WT mice after DSS. Aggravated pathology of colitis in TNFR1-/- or TNFR2-/- mice correlated with elevated colonic expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, ablation of TNFR1 or TNFR2 increased apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells, which might be due to the heightened ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and increased expression of caspase-8. Intriguingly, despite comparable intensity of intestinal inflammation in TNFR-deficient mice after DSS, systemic inflammatory response (including splenomegaly and myeloid expansion) was augmented dramatically in TNFR1-/- mice, instead of TNFR2-/- mice. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) was identified as a key mediator in this process, as neutralization of GMCSF dampened peripheral inflammatory reaction and reduced mortality in TNFR1-/- mice. These data suggest that signaling via TNFR1 or TNFR2 has a protective role in chronic intestinal inflammation, and that lacking TNFR1 augments systemic inflammatory response in GMCSF-dependent manner.

  1. Helminth infection does not reduce risk for chronic inflammatory disease in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bager, Peter; Vinkel Hansen, Anne; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can suppress symptoms of allergy, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. We analyzed data from a large, population-based cohort study to determine whether common childhood enterobiasis protects against these diseases. We collected information on individual prescriptions filled for the drug mebendazole against Enterobius vermicularis for all children born in Denmark 1995-2008 from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics (n = 924,749; age 0-14 years); 132,383 of these children (14%) filled a prescription for mebendazole, 102,482 of the children (11%) had a household peer who was registered with a filled mebendazole prescription, and the remaining 689,884 children (75%) comprised the reference group. Children diagnosed with asthma, type 1 diabetes, juvenile arthritis, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease were identified from the National Patient Registry. We used Poisson regression to estimate confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios for first in- or outpatient hospital diagnosis of chronic inflammatory disease according to history of mebendazole treatment prescribed to children in the study. Chronic inflammatory disease was diagnosed in 10,352 children during 6.4 million person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate ratios was 1.07 for asthma (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.13), 1.05 for type 1 diabetes (95% CI: 0.79-1.12), 1.13 for juvenile arthritis (95% CI: 0.94-1.37), 0.77 for ulcerative colitis (95% CI: 0.41-1.46), and 1.44 for Crohn's disease (95% CI: 0.82-2.53). Results were not modified by number of treatments or age at treatment. Based on a population-based analysis, enterobiasis does not reduce risk for asthma, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Lazure, Thierry; Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  3. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  4. Mortality and causes of death in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease in Gijón, Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    Saro Gismera, C; Lacort Fernández, M; Argüelles Fernández, G; Antón Magarzo, J L; Suárez González, A; García López, R; Navascués, C A; Díaz Alvarez, G; González Bernal, A

    1999-03-01

    to review mortality, survival, influence of age at diagnosis and at death, cause of death, and relation with the extent of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in a city in northern Spain. descriptive retrospective epidemiological study of 516 patients diagnosed in Gijón (Asturias) between 1954 and 1997. of the 26 patients who died (5.03%), 18 had ulcerative colitis, 8 had Crohn's disease, and none had indeterminate colitis. Mortality was higher than in the general population, with a standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 5 (95% confidence interval 1.6-11.6). We found no differences in sex ratio (p = 0.63). Mean duration of the disease was 10 +/- 8 years in surviving patients, and 6 +/- 6 years in patients who died (p = 0.02). Duration was longer in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.014). Mean age at diagnosis for chronic inflammatory bowel disease was 37.5 +/- 17 years in patients who survived, and 58 +/- 18 years in patients who died (p = 0.0005). Mean age at death was 64 +/- 20 years. In Crohn's disease, the most frequent cause of death was the primary disease (50%), followed by tumors of different origin (37.5%). In ulcerative colitis the primary disease was also the most frequent cause of death (38.%), followed by thromboembolic disease (22.2%) and tumors (22.2%). mortality among patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease is higher than in the general population in our setting, decreases as duration of the disease increases, and is higher in patients diagnosed at older ages. Fewer than half the deaths were due to the primary disease; many patients with Crohn's disease died from tumors or thromboembolic disease.

  5. High Frequency of Chronic Bacterial and Non-Inflammatory Prostatitis in Infertile Patients with Prostatitis Syndrome Plus Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Enzo; La Vignera, Sandro; Arcoria, Domenico; Condorelli, Rosita; Vicari, Lucia O.; Castiglione, Roberto; Mangiameli, Andrea; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although prostatitis syndrome (PS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common disorders, information on the prevalence of IBS in infertile patients with PS is relatively scanty. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of PS and IBS and to evaluate the prevalence of the various diagnostic categories of prostatitis. Methodology/Principal Findings This study enrolled 152 patients with PS, diagnosed by the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) in an andrological setting, and 204 patients with IBS, diagnosed according to the Rome III diagnostic criteria in a gastroenterological setting. The patients with PS were asked to fulfill the Rome III questionnaire for IBS, whereas patients with IBS were asked to complete the NIH-CPSI. The simultaneous presence of PS and IBS was observed in 30.2% and 31.8% of the patients screened by andrologists and gastroenterologists, respectively. Altogether, 111 patients had PS plus IBS (31.2%). They had a total NIH-CPSI and pain subscale scores significantly higher than patients with PS alone. Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PS plus IBS were similar to those reported by patients with IBS alone and significantly greater in patients with PS alone. Patients with PS plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II) and lower of non-inflammatory prostatitis (category IIIB), compared to patients with PS alone. The frequency of inflammatory prostatitis (category IIIA) resulted similar. Conclusions/Significance Prostatitis syndromes and IBS are frequently associated in patients with PS- or IBS-related symptoms. These patients have an increased prevalence of chronic bacterial and non-inflammatory prostatitis. PMID:21494624

  6. [The changes of monocarboxylate transporter-2 in spinal cord horn in a rat model of chronic inflammatory pain].

    PubMed

    He, Jian-hua; Xu, Li; Shen, Yu; Kong, Ming-jian; Shi, Lin-yu; Ma, Zheng-liang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the levels of monocarboxylate transporter-2 in spinal cord horn in a rat model of chronic inflammatory pain. Male SD rats weighting 180 - 220 g were randomly divided into two groups(n = 48): normal saline group (NS group), complete Freund's adjuvant group (CFA group). Rats were given injections of CFA 100 µl in left hind paw in group CFA, and an equal volume of saline was given injection in group NS. Mechanical withdraw threshold(MWT) and thermal withdraw latency(TWL) were measured at before injection(T0 and 3 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after injection(T1-7). Four rats were chosen from each group at T0-7 and sacrificed, and L4-5 segments of the spinal cord horn were removed for measurement of the expression of monocarboxylate transporter-2 by Western blot analysis. In CFA group, mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia appeared on the 3 h after CFA injection, then until the day 14. The expression of monocarboxylate transporter-2 in the spinal dorsal horn of rats in CFA group was significantly higher than that in normal control group at T1-6(P <0.05). The protein level of monocarboxylate transporter-2 was apparently correlated with MWT and TWL(P <0.01 and P <0.05) in CFA group. The level of monocarboxylate transporter-2 in spinal dorsal horn is significantly increased in a rat model of chronic inflammatory pain and the change may involve in the formation and maintenance of central sensitization in spinal cord of chronic inflammatory uain.

  7. Investigating the Burden of Chronic Pain: An Inflammatory and Metabolic Composite

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, Kimberly T.; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Stubhaug, Audun; Schirmer, Henrik; Chen, Huaihou; McEwen, Bruce S.; Nielsen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic pain is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, predominated by cardiovascular disease and cancer. Investigating related risk factor measures may elucidate the biological burden of chronic pain. Objectives. We hypothesized that chronic pain severity would be positively associated with the risk factor composite. Methods. Data from 12,982 participants in the 6th Tromsø study were analyzed. Questionnaires included demographics, health behaviors, medical comorbidities, and chronic pain symptoms. The risk factor composite was comprised of body mass index, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Chronic pain severity was characterized by frequency, intensity, time/duration, and total number of pain sites. Results. Individuals with chronic pain had a greater risk factor composite than individuals without chronic pain controlling for covariates and after excluding inflammation-related health conditions (p < 0.001). A significant “dose-response” relationship was demonstrated with pain severity (p < 0.001). In individuals with chronic pain, the risk factor composite varied by health behavior, exercise, lower levels and smoking, and higher levels. Discussion. The risk factor composite was higher in individuals with chronic pain, greater with increasing pain severity, and influenced by health behaviors. Conclusions. Identification of a biological composite sensitive to pain severity and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors would have significant clinical and research utility. PMID:27445627

  8. Challenges and Current Efforts in the Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Inflammatory and Remodeling Conditions of the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Grunig, Gabriele; Baghdassarian, Aram; Park, Sung-Hyun; Pylawka, Serhiy; Bleck, Bertram; Reibman, Joan; Berman-Rosenzweig, Erika; Durmus, Nedim

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses biomarkers that are being researched for their usefulness to phenotype chronic inflammatory lung diseases that cause remodeling of the lung’s architecture. The review focuses on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension. Bio-markers of environmental exposure and specific classes of biomarkers (noncoding RNA, metabolism, vitamin, coagulation, and microbiome related) are also discussed. Examples of biomarkers that are in clinical use, biomarkers that are under development, and biomarkers that are still in the research phase are discussed. We chose to present examples of the research in biomarker development by diseases, because asthma, COPD, and pulmonary hypertension are distinct entities, although they clearly share processes of inflammation and remodeling. PMID:26917944

  9. Challenges and Current Efforts in the Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Inflammatory and Remodeling Conditions of the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Grunig, Gabriele; Baghdassarian, Aram; Park, Sung-Hyun; Pylawka, Serhiy; Bleck, Bertram; Reibman, Joan; Berman-Rosenzweig, Erika; Durmus, Nedim

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses biomarkers that are being researched for their usefulness to phenotype chronic inflammatory lung diseases that cause remodeling of the lung's architecture. The review focuses on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension. Bio-markers of environmental exposure and specific classes of biomarkers (noncoding RNA, metabolism, vitamin, coagulation, and microbiome related) are also discussed. Examples of biomarkers that are in clinical use, biomarkers that are under development, and biomarkers that are still in the research phase are discussed. We chose to present examples of the research in biomarker development by diseases, because asthma, COPD, and pulmonary hypertension are distinct entities, although they clearly share processes of inflammation and remodeling.

  10. The use of low-dose naltrexone (LDN) as a novel anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jarred; Parkitny, Luke; McLain, David

    2014-04-01

    Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) has been demonstrated to reduce symptom severity in conditions such as fibromyalgia, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. We review the evidence that LDN may operate as a novel anti-inflammatory agent in the central nervous system, via action on microglial cells. These effects may be unique to low dosages of naltrexone and appear to be entirely independent from naltrexone's better-known activity on opioid receptors. As a daily oral therapy, LDN is inexpensive and well-tolerated. Despite initial promise of efficacy, the use of LDN for chronic disorders is still highly experimental. Published trials have low sample sizes, and few replications have been performed. We cover the typical usage of LDN in clinical trials, caveats to using the medication, and recommendations for future research and clinical work. LDN may represent one of the first glial cell modulators to be used for the management of chronic pain disorders.

  11. Novel insight into Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polineuropathy in APECED syndrome: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications in children.

    PubMed

    Valenzise, Mariella; Aversa, Tommaso; Salzano, Giuseppina; Zirilli, Giuseppina; De Luca, Filippo; Su, Maureen

    2017-01-19

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder typically caused by homozygous AIRE gene mutation. It is characterized by the association of multiple autoimmune diseases, with a classical triad including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical failure. Its clinical spectrum has significantly enlarged in the last years with the apparence of new entities. One of these novel manifestations is the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polineuropathy (CIDP), that is characterized by involvement of peripheral nervous system, with nerve demyelination, progressive muscular weakness of both arms and legs and sensory loss. The identification of myelin protein zero as an important autoantigen (Ag) in CIDP may suggest the development of Ag-based therapies, such as Ag-specific DNA vaccination or infusion of Ag-coupled cells.

  12. The Frontal Area with Higher Frequency Response Is the Principal Feature of Laser-Evoked Potentials in Rats with Chronic Inflammatory Pain: A Parallel Factor Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Wan, You; Li, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a pathological developing course of pain. In clinic, an objective indicator is needed for diagnosing and better controlling chronic pain. The abnormal neural responses in chronic pain are reflected by multiple event-related potentials (ERPs) in time, frequency, and location domain, respectively. However, multiple changes in ERPs are not applicable in clinic. So, the principal feature covered the most informative changes extracted from these three domains of ERP during the development of chronic pain is needed. In the present study, a parallel factor analysis method was employed to extract time-frequency-channel features of laser-evoked potential (LEP) simultaneously from rats with chronic inflammatory pain. Results showed that the main feature of LEP in channel domain locates in the frontal brain region in rats with chronic inflammatory pain while in the parietal brain region in control rats. In the frequency domain, the main frequency of LEP was significantly higher in chronic inflammatory pain rats than that in control rats. These findings indicate that the frontal region with higher frequency response to nociceptive information is the principal feature in the chronic pain state. Our study provided not only a principal feature of LEP but also a promising strategy for chronic pain, which is potential for clinic application.

  13. Suppression of neuro-inflammatory signaling cascade by tocotrienol can prevent chronic alcohol-induced cognitive dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vinod; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2009-11-05

    Chronic alcohol intake is known to induce the selective neuronal damage associated with increase oxidative-nitrosative stress and activation of inflammatory cascade finally resulting in neuronal apoptosis and thus dementia. In the present study, we investigated the comparative effect of both the isoforms of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienol against chronic alcohol-induced cognitive dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were given ethanol (10g/kg; oral gavage) for 10 weeks, and treated with alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienol for the same duration. The learning and memory behavior was assessed using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze test. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 10th week and cytoplasmic fractions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus were prepared for the quantification of acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative-nitrosative stress parameters, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). From the 6th week onwards, ethanol-treated rats showed significant increase in transfer latency in both the behavioral paradigms which was coupled with enhanced acetylcholinesterase activity, increased oxidative-nitrosative stress, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels in different brain regions of ethanol-treated rats. Co-administration of alpha-tocopherol as well as tocotrienol significantly and dose-dependently prevented these behavioral, biochemical and molecular changes in the brains of ethanol-treated rats. However, the effects were more pronounced with tocotrienol. The current study thus demonstrates the possible involvement of oxidative-nitrosative stress mediated activation of inflammatory cascade in chronic alcohol-induced cognitive dysfunction and also suggests the effectiveness of vitamin E isoforms, of which tocotrienol being more potent, in preventing the cognitive deficits associated with chronic alcohol consumption.

  14. Semantic Workflows and Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While sharing and disseminating data is widely practiced across scientific communities, we have yet to recognize the importance of sharing and disseminating the analytic processes that leads to published data. Data retrieved from shared repositories and archives is often hard to interpret because we lack documentation about those processes: what models were used, what assumptions were made, what calibrations were carried out, etc. This process documentation is also key to aggregate data in a meaningful way, whether aggregating shared third party data or aggregating shared data with local sensor data collected by individual investigators. We suggest that augmenting published data with process documentation would greatly enhance our ability to find, reuse, interpret, and aggregate data and therefore have a significant impact in the utility of data repositories and archives. We will show that semantic workflows and provenance provide key technologies for capturing process documentation. Semantic workflows describe the kinds of data transformation and analysis steps used to create new data products, and can include useful constraints about why specific models were selected or parameters chosen. Provenance records can be used to publish workflow descriptions in standard formats that can be reused to enable verification and reproducibility of data products.

  15. Cell line provenance.

    PubMed

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen attenuates neuropathic pain and reverses inflammatory signaling likely via the Kindlin-1/Wnt-10a signaling pathway in the chronic pain injury model in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baisong; Pan, Yongying; Xu, Haiping; Song, Xingrong

    2017-12-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is proven to attenuate neuropathic pain in rodents. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the Kindlin-1/Wnt-10a signaling pathway during astrocyte activation and inflammation in a rodent model of neuropathic pain. Rats were assigned into sham operation, chronic constriction injury (CCI), and CCI + HBO treatment groups. Neuropathic pain developed in rats following CCI of the sciatic nerve. Rats in the CCI + HBO group received HBO treatment for five consecutive days beginning on postoperative day 1. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and the thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) tests were performed to determine mechanical and heat hypersensitivity of animals, respectively. Kindlin-1, Wnt-10a and β-catenin protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was also determined by ELISA. Our findings demonstrated that HBO treatment significantly suppressed mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the CCI neuropathic pain model in rats. HBO therapy significantly reversed the up-regulation of Kindlin-1 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), spinal cord, and hippocampus of CCI rats. CCI-induced astrocyte activation and increased levels of TNF-α were efficiently reversed by HBO (P < 0.05 vs. CCI). HBO also reversed Wnt-10a up-regulation induced by CCI in the DRG, spinal cord, and hippocampus (P < 0.05 vs. CCI). Our findings demonstrate that HBO attenuated CCI-induced rat neuropathic pain and inflammatory responses, possibly through regulation of the Kindlin-1/Wnt-10a signaling pathway.

  17. Characterization of a new rat model for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Brun, Susana; Beaino, Wissam; Kremer, Laurent; Taleb, Omar; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Lam, Chanh D; Greer, Judith M; de Seze, Jérôme; Trifilieff, Elisabeth

    2015-01-15

    Our objective was to develop a chronic model of EAN which could be used as a tool to test treatment strategies for CIDP. Lewis rats injected with S-palmitoylated P0(180-199) peptide developed a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease. Our model fulfills electrophysiological criteria of demyelination with axonal degeneration, confirmed by immunohistopathology. The late phase of the chronic disease was characterized by accumulation of IL-17(+) cells and macrophages in sciatic nerves and by high serum IL-17 levels. In conclusion, we have developed a reliable and reproducible animal model resembling CIDP that can now be used for translational drug studies.

  18. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Costa, Barbara; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Comelli, Francesca; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Colleoni, Mariapia

    2007-02-05

    Cannabidiol, the major psycho-inactive component of cannabis, has substantial anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. This study investigated its therapeutic potential on neuropathic (sciatic nerve chronic constriction) and inflammatory pain (complete Freund's adjuvant intraplantar injection) in rats. In both models, daily oral treatment with cannabidiol (2.5-20 mg/kg to neuropathic and 20 mg/kg to adjuvant-injected rats) from day 7 to day 14 after the injury, or intraplantar injection, reduced hyperalgesia to thermal and mechanical stimuli. In the neuropathic animals, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of cannabidiol (20 mg/kg) was prevented by the vanilloid antagonist capsazepine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by cannabinoid receptor antagonists. Cannabidiol's activity was associated with a reduction in the content of several mediators, such as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), lipid peroxide and nitric oxide (NO), and in the over-activity of glutathione-related enzymes. Cannabidiol only reduced the over-expression of constitutive endothelial NO synthase (NOS), without significantly affecting the inducible form (iNOS) in inflamed paw tissues. Cannabidiol had no effect on neuronal and iNOS isoforms in injured sciatic nerve. The compound's efficacy on neuropathic pain was not accompanied by any reduction in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) content. The results indicate a potential for therapeutic use of cannabidiol in chronic painful states.

  19. Plausible anti-inflammatory mechanism of resveratrol and caffeic acid against chronic stress-induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Suprithi; Mourya, Ashish; Ahuja, Swati; Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Kumar, Anil

    2016-12-01

    Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance. In this study, male LACA mice (20-30 g) were subjected to 2 h of chronic restraint stress daily for 30 days at variable time. Resveratrol, caffeic acid, glibenclamide, and their combinations were administered 45 min prior to restraint stress daily for 30 days and their anti-inflammatory effect was examined on CRS-induced behavioral, biochemical, and metabolic alterations. Induction of stress in mice was evident by increased corticosterone and decreased bodyweight. Chronic restraint stress for 30 days developed insulin resistance characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, hyperlipidemia, increased inflammatory cytokines, and TNF-α. Treatment with resveratrol, caffeic acid, and their combinations has attenuated stress-induced insulin resistance by reducing inflammation.

  20. Anti-steatotic and anti-inflammatory effects of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. extracts in chronic alcohol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ra-Yeong; Woo, Moon-Jae; Ham, Ju Ri; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2017-04-02

    The anti-steatotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fruit water extract (FW) and seed ethanol extract (SE) of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. in chronic alcohol-fed rats were investigated. Rats were fed a liquid diet containing 36% calories from alcohol and orally administered FW or SE (300 and 500mg/kg/day). Both FW and SE reduced hepatic lipid contents and droplets, serum lipid concentration and inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6) levels compared with the alcohol control group. Alcohol led to significant decreases in the hepatic fatty acid oxidative gene (Ppargc1a, Cpt1a and Acsl1) levels, while it significantly increased the Myd88 and Tnfa gene levels. However, FW or SE supplementation significantly up-regulated gene expression of Ppargc1a, Ppara, Cpt1a and Acsl1, and down-regulated gene expression of Myd88, Tnfa and Crp compared with the alcohol control group. FW or SE supplementation also significantly decreased hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in chronic alcohol-fed rats. Plasma alcohol and acetaldehyde levels, hepatic enzyme activity and protein expression of CYP2E1 were lowered by FW or SE supplementation. These results indicate that both FW and SE play an important role in improvement of alcoholic hepatic steatosis and inflammation via regulation of lipid and inflammation metabolism.

  1. Antidepressant-like effects of curcumin in chronic mild stress of rats: involvement of its anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yihe; Xie, Kai; Zhang, Qingrui; Luan, Qinsong; Chen, Wenqiang; Liu, Dexiang

    2013-12-02

    Mounting evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, exhibits a number of pharmacological properties, including potent anti-inflammatory action. Hence, the current study aimed to explore the immunomodulatory effects of curcumin in an animal model of chronic mild stress (CMS). Rats were subjected to CMS protocol for a period of 21 days to induce depressive-like behavior. The body weight, sucrose preference and locomotor activity were evaluated. Both RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Modulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was assessed by western blotting. Chronic treatment with curcumin significantly reversed the CMS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference and decreased locomotor activity) in stressed rats. Additionally, curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and reduced the activation of NF-κB. The study revealed that curcumin exerted antidepressant-like effects in CMS rats, partially due to its anti-inflammatory aptitude.

  2. A comparative study of brachial plexus sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Goedee, H S; Jongbloed, B A; van Asseldonk, J-T H; Hendrikse, J; Vrancken, A F J E; Franssen, H; Nikolakopoulos, S; Visser, L H; van der Pol, W L; van den Berg, L H

    2017-10-01

    To compare the performance of neuroimaging techniques, i.e. high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when applied to the brachial plexus, as part of the diagnostic work-up of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Fifty-one incident, treatment-naive patients with CIDP (n = 23) or MMN (n = 28) underwent imaging of the brachial plexus using (i) a standardized MRI protocol to assess enlargement or T2 hyperintensity and (ii) bilateral HRUS to determine the extent of nerve (root) enlargement. We found enlargement of the brachial plexus in 19/51 (37%) and T2 hyperintensity in 29/51 (57%) patients with MRI and enlargement in 37/51 (73%) patients with HRUS. Abnormal results were only found in 6/51 (12%) patients with MRI and 12/51 (24%) patients with HRUS. A combination of the two imaging techniques identified 42/51 (83%) patients. We found no association between age, disease duration or Medical Research Council sum-score and sonographic nerve size, MRI enlargement or presence of T2 hyperintensity. Brachial plexus sonography could complement MRI in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CIDP and MMN. Our results indicate that combined imaging studies may add value to the current diagnostic consensus criteria for chronic inflammatory neuropathies. © 2017 EAN.

  3. Biologics beyond TNF-α inhibitors and the effect of targeting the homologues TL1A-DR3 pathway in chronic inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Peter; Zervides, Kristoffer Alexander; Skov, Søren; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2016-01-01

    A number of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) biologics have been developed in recent years, such as adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and psoriasis and several other novel drugs that target TNF-α signaling are still being developed. Indeed, blockade of this pathway seems so important amongst immune-targets that TNF-α targeted therapies will continue to have a significant role in the treatment of chronic inflammation. However, up to 40% of RA and IBD patients do not respond to anti-TNF-α treatment and one possible explanation may be the heterogeneity of chronic inflammatory diseases and a dominance of other significant TNF family members. Indeed, polymorphisms in the TNF family member, TL1A gene, is associated with the development of IBD and increased serum concentrations of TL1A has been demonstrated in patients with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Here, we describe the current knowledge of TL1As immunobiology and present results from human disease, animal models, and pre-clinical intervention studies that point toward development of anti-TL1A therapy as a highly promising strategy for treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders.

  4. Telmisartan attenuates myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats: modulation of nitric oxide metabolism and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhu, Die; Guo, Xue-ling; Deng, Yan; Shang, Jin; Liu, Kui; Liu, Hui-guo

    2015-05-01

    NO and NO synthase (NOS) are known to play key roles in the development of myocardial apoptosis induced by ischemia/hypoxia. Current evidence suggests that angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, such as telmisartan, lower blood pressure and produce beneficial regulatory effects on NO and NOS. Here, we examined the protective role of telmisartan in myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8 h of intermittent hypoxia/day, with/without telmisartan for 8 weeks. Myocardial apoptosis, NO and NOS activity, and levels of inflammatory mediators and radical oxygen species were determined. Treatment with telmisartan preserved endothelial NOS expression and inhibited inducible NOS and excessive NO generation, while reducing oxidation/nitration stress and inflammatory responses. Administration of telmisartan before CIH significantly ameliorated the CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis. This study show that pre-CIH telmisartan administration ameliorated myocardial injury following CIH by attenuating CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis via regulation of NOS activity and inhibition of excessive NO generation, oxidation/nitration stress, and inflammatory responses.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata K. Schum in acute and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Igbe, Ighodaro; Ching, Fidelis P; Eromon, Aigbe

    2010-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata K. Schum (Apocynaceae) was evaluated using the carrageenan- and dextran-induced rat paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced arthritis inflammation tests. Oral administration of the extract produced significant (p < 0.05) antiedematogenic effect with a dose of 500 mg/kg throughout the period of the experiment in the dextran induced paw edema and at the 3 h in the carrageenan model. The extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-related and significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of xylene induced ear edema and the effect was similar to that produced by dexamethasone (1 mg/kg). In the chronic inflammation (formalin induced arthritis) the extract did not show any significant anti-inflammatory activity. Oral acute toxicity assays did not show any mortality at 15 g/kg of the plant extract. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of H. umbellata possesses acute inflammatory activity which may be mediated by either inhibition or by blocking the release of prostaglandins and histamine, thus supporting the usage of the plant in traditional medicine treatment of inflammation.

  6. Wu-tou decoction inhibits chronic inflammatory pain in mice: participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Wang, Danhua; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30 g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain.

  7. Effects of prandial challenge on triglyceridemia, glycemia, and pro-inflammatory activity in persons with chronic paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbroek, Dennis; Kressler, Jochen; Cowan, Rachel E.; Burns, Patricia A.; Mendez, Armando J.; Nash, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Context/Objective Exaggerated postprandial lipemia has been reported after spinal cord injury (SCI). We examined metabolite and accompanying pro-inflammatory biomarker responses to repeat feeding of typical high-fat meals in individuals with chronic paraplegia. Design Descriptive trial. Methods Metabolites (triglycerides, glucose, and insulin) and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured under fasting conditions in 11 recreationally active individuals with chronic (>1 year) paraplegia. Subjects received high-fat meals at time point 0 and again at minute 240. Antecubital venous blood was obtained at time points −30 (fasting), 0 (first meal), 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 (second meal), 360, and 480 minutes. Correlations were examined among the study variables. Exploratory subgroup analysis was performed for subjects with levels of postprandial glucose greater than >200 mg/dl. Results Triglycerides showed a significant rise 4 hours after eating. Basal inflammatory markers were elevated, and did not undergo additional change during the testing. Additionally, subjects with excessive postprandial glucose responses showed higher hsCRP levels than those having typical glucose responses both for fasting (11.8 ± 6.5 vs. 2.9 ± 2.7 mg/l, P = 0.064) and postprandial (11.1 ± 4.9 vs. 3.7 ± 3.8 mg/l, P = 0.018) values. Conclusions Despite elevations in metabolic response markers, inflammatory markers did not change significantly after consumption of population-representative (i.e. hypercaloric) mixed-nutrient meals. Levels of fasting CRP in the high-risk range are consistent with other reports in persons with SCI and continue to pose concern for their cardiovascular disease risk. The possible association between postprandial metabolic responses and inflammatory states warrants further investigation to identify individual component risks for this secondary health hazard. PMID:24617559

  8. Robust Therapeutic Efficacy of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2-Cleavable Fas-1-RGD Peptide Complex in Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Keum Hee; Sung, Shijin; Park, Jae Yong; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, In San; Kang, Young Mo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Therapeutic agents that are transformable via introducing cleavable linkage by locally enriched MMP-2 within inflamed synovium would enhance therapeutic efficacy on chronic inflammatory arthritis. Transforming growth factor-β-inducible gene-h3 (βig-h3), which consists of four fas-1 domains and an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, intensifies inflammatory processes by facilitating adhesion and migration of fibroblast-like synoviocyte in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex consisting of a fas-1 domain and an RGD peptide blocks the interaction between βig-h3 and resident cells and leads to the amelioration of inflammatory arthritis. Methods We designed βig-h3-derivatives, including the fourth fas-1 domain truncated for H1 and H2 sequences of mouse (MFK00) and MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex (MFK902). MMP-2 selectivity was examined by treatment with a series of proteases. MFK902 efficacy was determined by the adhesion and migration assay with NIH3T3 cells in vitro and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model using male DBA/1J mice in vivo. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with MFK902 at different dosages. Results MFK902 was specifically cleaved by active MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner, and βig-h3-mediated adhesion and migration were more effectively inhibited by MFK902, compared with RGD or MFK00 peptides. The arthritis activity of murine CIA, measured by clinical arthritis index and incidence of arthritic paws, was significantly ameliorated after treatment with all dosages of MFK902 (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg). MFK902 ameliorated histopathologic deterioration and reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators simultaneously with improvement of clinical features. In addition, a favorable safety profile of MFK902 was demonstrated in vivo. Conclusion The present study revealed that MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex based on βig-h3 structure is a potent and safe

  9. The Telomere/Telomerase System in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. Cause or Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Kordinas, Vasileios; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures located at the end of linear chromosomes and telomerase is the enzyme responsible for telomere elongation. Telomerase activity is a key component of many cancer cells responsible for rapid cell division but it has also been found by many laboratories around the world that telomere/telomerase biology is dysfunctional in many other chronic conditions as well. These conditions are characterized by chronic inflammation, a situation mostly overlooked by physicians regarding patient treatment. Among others, these conditions include diabetes, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Since researchers have in many cases identified the association between telomerase and inflammation but there are still many missing links regarding this correlation, the latest findings about this phenomenon will be discussed by reviewing the literature. Our focus will be describing telomere/telomerase status in chronic diseases under the prism of inflammation, reporting molecular findings where available and proposing possible future approaches. PMID:27598205

  10. Peripheral blood gene expression patterns discriminate among chronic inflammatory diseases and healthy controls and identify novel targets.

    PubMed

    Mesko, Bertalan; Poliska, Szilard; Szegedi, Andrea; Szekanecz, Zoltan; Palatka, Karoly; Papp, Maria; Nagy, Laszlo

    2010-05-05

    Chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) afflict millions of people worldwide, but their pathogenesis is still not well understood. It is also not well known if distinct changes in gene expression characterize these diseases and if these patterns can discriminate between diseased and control patients and/or stratify the disease. The main focus of our work was the identification of novel markers that overlap among the 3 diseases or discriminate them from each other. Diseased (n = 13, n = 15 and n = 12 in IBD, psoriasis and RA respectively) and healthy patients (n = 18) were recruited based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria; peripheral blood samples were collected by clinicians (30 ml) in Venous Blood Vacuum Collection Tubes containing EDTA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation. RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent. Gene expression data was obtained using TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) containing 96 genes that were selected by an algorithm and the statistical analyses were performed in Prism by using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (P-values < 0.05). Here we show that using a panel of 96 disease associated genes and measuring mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells; we could identify disease-specific gene panels that separate each disease from healthy controls. In addition, a panel of five genes such as ADM, AQP9, CXCL2, IL10 and NAMPT discriminates between all samples from patients with chronic inflammation and healthy controls. We also found genes that stratify the diseases and separate different subtypes or different states of prognosis in each condition. These findings and the identification of five universal markers of chronic inflammation suggest that these diseases have a common background in pathomechanism, but still can be separated by peripheral blood

  11. Nivolumab-induced chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy mimicking rapid-onset Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Yanagiha, Kumi; Hirabayashi, Takumi; Ishii, Akiko; Okune, Mari; Inoue, Sae; Sekine, Ikuo; Tamaoka, Akira; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1-specific monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated a durable response and effect on overall survival and has become one of the standard treatments for patients with advanced melanoma. Reported herein is a case of nivolumab-induced chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, in which an 85-year-old woman with stage IV melanoma developed grade 1 paresthesia 2 weeks after the initial dose of nivolumab was administered. With continued treatment, the neurological deficiency deteriorated rapidly, mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome, causing such a dramatic decrease in her activities of daily living that she could no longer function in daily life. Thus, nivolumab treatment was discontinued. A course of intravenous immunoglobulin infusion yielded a dramatic clinical improvement; in particular, improved motor control was observed within a few days. Her initial presentation was suggestive of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome; however, the good response to steroids and exacerbation 8 weeks after the onset were suggestive of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy induced by nivolumab. This is the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome-like autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy induced by programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitors. Although neurological adverse events related to nivolumab are rare, they can become severe, requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Intravenous immunoglobulin may be considered as an effective initial treatment for patients who develop acute autoimmune nervous system disorders due to nivolumab. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period?

    PubMed

    Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Chapes, Stephen K; Teeman, Colby S; Cull, Brooke J; Emerson, Sam R; Levitt, Morton H; Smith, Joshua R; Harms, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However, exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify postprandial airway inflammation. The postprandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. This study investigated whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Thirty-nine nonasthmatic subjects (20 active, 13 males/7 females) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and 19 insufficiently active (6 males/13 females) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill for 1 h post-HFM (63% fat, 10 kcal/kg body weight). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline and 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p = 0.03). There was a time × COND interaction (p = 0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 h compared with CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 h post-HFM (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after an HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level.

  13. Chronic (-)-epicatechin improves vascular oxidative and inflammatory status but not hypertension in chronic nitric oxide-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Sánchez, Manuel; Romero, Miguel; O'Valle, Francisco; Lopez-Sepulveda, Rocío; Quintela, Ana María; Galindo, Pilar; Zarzuelo, María José; Bailón, Elvira; Delpón, Eva; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2011-11-01

    The present study analysed the effects of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin in rats after chronic inhibition of NO synthesis with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), at doses equivalent to those achieved in the studies involving human subjects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control-vehicle, (2) L-NAME, (3) L-NAME-epicatechin 2 (L-NAME-Epi 2) and (4) L-NAME-epicatechin 10 (L-NAME-Epi 10). Rats were daily given by oral administration for 4 weeks: vehicle, (-)-epicatechin 2 or 10 mg/kg. Animals in the L-NAME groups daily received L-NAME 75 mg/100 ml in drinking-water. The evolution in systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and morphological and plasma variables, proteinuria, vascular superoxide, reactivity and protein expression at the end of the experiment were analysed. Chronic (-)-epicatechin treatment did not modify the development of hypertension and only weakly affected the endothelial dysfunction induced by L-NAME but prevented the cardiac hypertrophy, the renal parenchyma and vascular lesions and proteinuria, and blunted the prostanoid-mediated enhanced endothelium-dependent vasoconstrictor responses and the cyclo-oxygenase-2 and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) up-regulation. Furthermore, (-)-epicatechin also increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and prevented the L-NAME-induced increase in systemic (plasma malonyldialdehyde and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α) and vascular (dihydroethidium staining, NADPH oxidase activity and p22phox up-regulation) oxidative stress, proinflammatory status (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, IL-1β and TNFα up-regulation) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. The present study shows for the first time that chronic oral administration of (-)-epicatechin does not improve hypertension but reduced pro-atherogenic pathways such as oxidative stress and proinflammatory status of the vascular wall induced by blockade of NO production.

  14. [Social consequences and quality of life in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Frenzer, A; Binek, J; Hammer, B

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a survey on the quality of life and social consequences for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Questionnaires of 41 patients with Crohn's disease, 28 patients with ulcerative colitis and 7 patients with overlap colitis were evaluated. All the patients had been hospitalized in the past. 15 patients (20%) were unable to work due to inflammatory bowel disease. 9 (12%) of these 15 patients received a disability pension. 11 patients (15%) had to change a place of work and 16 (21%) had had financial problems due to inflammatory bowel disease. 4 patients (5%) had had to give up a partnership due to the disease. For 16% of the patients their perceived quality of life during the past 4 weeks was poor or very poor, while 35% of the patients perceived their overall quality of life as poor or very poor since the beginning of the disease. We conclude that inflammatory bowel disease affects job and financial matters rather than partnerships. The quality of life is judged by many patients as considerably diminished.

  15. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Causes Liver Injury in High-Fructose-Fed Male Mice Through Enhanced Hepatic Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Song, Ming; Chen, Theresa; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C; McClain, Craig J

    2016-03-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome occur in approximately one-third of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The increased consumption of fructose parallels the increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the United States and worldwide. In this study, we investigated whether dietary high fructose potentiates chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, and explored potential mechanism(s). Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 4 groups: control, high fructose, chronic ethanol (EtOH), and high fructose plus chronic alcohol. The mice were fed either control diet or high-fructose diet (60%, w/w) for 18 weeks. Chronic alcohol-fed mice were given 20% (v/v) ethanol (Meadows-Cook model) ad libitum as the only available liquid from the 9th week through the 18th week. Liver injury, steatosis, hepatic inflammatory gene expression, and copper status were assessed. High-fructose diet and chronic alcohol consumption alone each induce hepatic fat accumulation and impair copper status. However, the combination of dietary high fructose plus chronic alcohol synergistically induced liver injury as evidenced by robustly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, but the combination did not exacerbate hepatic fat accumulation nor worsen copper status. Moreover, FE-fed mice were characterized by prominent microvesicular steatosis. High-fructose diet and chronic alcohol ingestion together led to a significant up-regulation of Kupffer cell (KC) M1 phenotype gene expression (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling gene expression, which is also associated with the up-regulation of KCs and activation marker gene expression, including Emr1, CD68, and CD163. Our data suggest that dietary high fructose may potentiate chronic alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. The underlying mechanism might be due to the synergistic effect of dietary high

  16. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Causes Liver Injury in High-Fructose-Fed Male Mice Through Enhanced Hepatic Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ming; Chen, Theresa; Prough, Russell A.; Cave, Matthew C.; McClain, Craig J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity and the metabolic syndrome occur in approximately one-third of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The increased consumption of fructose parallels the increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the United States and worldwide. In this study, we investigated whether dietary high fructose potentiates chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, and explored potential mechanism(s). Methods Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 4 groups: control, high fructose, chronic ethanol (EtOH), and high fructose plus chronic alcohol. The mice were fed either control diet or high-fructose diet (60%, w/w) for 18 weeks. Chronic alcohol-fed mice were given 20% (v/v) ethanol (Meadows-Cook model) ad libitum as the only available liquid from the 9th week through the 18th week. Liver injury, steatosis, hepatic inflammatory gene expression, and copper status were assessed. Results High-fructose diet and chronic alcohol consumption alone each induce hepatic fat accumulation and impair copper status. However, the combination of dietary high fructose plus chronic alcohol synergistically induced liver injury as evidenced by robustly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, but the combination did not exacerbate hepatic fat accumulation nor worsen copper status. Moreover, FE-fed mice were characterized by prominent microvesicular steatosis. High-fructose diet and chronic alcohol ingestion together led to a significant up-regulation of Kupffer cell (KC) M1 phenotype gene expression (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-a and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling gene expression, which is also associated with the up-regulation of KCs and activation marker gene expression, including Emr1, CD68, and CD163. Conclusions Our data suggest that dietary high fructose may potentiate chronic alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. The underlying mechanism might be due to the

  17. A diagnosis challenge-L4 nerve root compression as the initial presentation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Alexianu, Marilena; Bastian, Alexandra; Sapira, Violeta; Herţea, Cristina; Cojocaru, M

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was admitted for paraparesis and paresthesias in the inferior limbs. The neurological examination revealed the difficulty in extension of the right foot and of the right toe, accompanied by paresthesias located in the anterolateral area of the right leg, dorsum and plantar area of the foot, the reduction of the right knee jerk, and of the ankle tendon jerk both sides. The vertebro-spinal MRI showed lumbar canal stenosis with L4 intraforaminal compression on the right, and L2-L3 on the left. CSF examination revealed mild increase in protein concentration. The morphological picture of the sural nerve biopsy was compatible with a chronic inflammatory neuropathy and severe muscular lesions of neurogenic origin were observed on right gastrocnemius muscle biopsy. The diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was established. Solu-medrol (0.5 g/d)-5 days, then medrol (prednisolone) was done, followed by improving of the symptomatology. For the relapse of the disease intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG)-0.4 g/kg/d-5 days was the elective treatment. Six months later she presented a new relapse. IVIG were administered with the remission of the sensitive symptoms. A chronic treatment with medrol was recommended. The diagnosis of L4 disc herniation was obvious in the studied case, but the electroneurographic examination brought extra data for the associated diagnosis of CIDP whose onset was asymmetrical and initially paucisymptomatic. Neither the electroneurographic examination nor the CSF examination were total relevant for CIDP, imposing the sural nerve biopsy. The diagnosis of CIDP involves a team-work composed of neurologist, electroneurophysiologist and neuropathologist.

  18. 3-Hydroxy Kynurenine Treatment Controls T. cruzi Replication and the Inflammatory Pathology Preventing the Clinical Symptoms of Chronic Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knubel, Carolina P.; Martínez, Fernando F.; Acosta Rodríguez, Eva V.; Altamirano, Andrés; Rivarola, Héctor W.; Diaz Luján, Cintia; Fretes, Ricardo E.; Cervi, Laura; Motrán, Claudia C.

    2011-01-01

    Background 3-Hydroxy Kynurenine (3-HK) administration during the acute phase of Trypanosoma. cruzi infection decreases the parasitemia of lethally infected mice and improves their survival. However, due to the fact that the treatment with 3-HK is unable to eradicate the parasite, together with the known proapoptotic and immunoregulatory properties of 3-HK and their downstream catabolites, it is possible that the 3-HK treatment is effective during the acute phase of the infection by controlling the parasite replication, but at the same time suppressed the protective T cell response before pathogen clearance worsening the chronic phase of the infection. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of 3-HK treatment on the development of chronic Chagas’ disease. Principal Findings In the present study, we treated mice infected with T. cruzi with 3-HK at day five post infection during 5 consecutive days and investigated the effect of this treatment on the development of chronic Chagas disease. Cardiac functional (electrocardiogram) and histopathological studies were done at 60 dpi. 3-HK treatment markedly reduced the incidence and the severity of the electrocardiogram alterations and the inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis in heart and skeletal muscle. 3-HK treatment modulated the immune response at the acute phase of the infection impairing the Th1- and Th2-type specific response and inducing TGF-β-secreting cells promoting the emergence of regulatory T cells and long-term specific IFN-γ secreting cells. 3-HK in vitro induced regulatory phenotype in T cells from T. cruzi acutely infected mice. Conclusions Our results show that the early 3-HK treatment was effective in reducing the cardiac lesions as well as altering the pattern of the immune response in experimental Chagas’ disease. Thus, we propose 3-HK as a novel therapeutic treatment able to control both the parasite replication and the inflammatory response. PMID:22028903

  19. Expression of pericardial fluid T-cells and related inflammatory cytokines in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Reinard; Liu, Shengchen; Xiang, Fei; Chen, Wen; Li, Liangpeng; Qin, Wei; Huang, Fuhua; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Pericardial fluid, as a biochemical indicator of heart status, directly indicates pathological alteration to the heart. The accumulation of pericardial fluid can be attributed to an underlying systemic or local inflammatory process. However, the pericardial fluid expression of cellular surface markers, as well as several cytokines in chronic heart failure (CHF), remain unclear. In order to evaluate these issues further the pericardial fluid expression of several cytokines and the surface expression of activity markers between CHF patients and non-heart failure (NHF) patients were analyzed. The pericardial fluid expression of cytokines was measured by immunofluorescence and biomarker of plasma N-terminal propeptide of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), while pericardial fluid levels of soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) were analyzed by ELISA in 50 CHF and 24 NHF patients. In addition, the surface expression of activation markers for T-cells was measured by immunohistochemistry. Patients with CHF demonstrated increased levels of plasma NT-proBNP and pericardial fluid sgp130. Surface expression of cellular activation markers CD25 and Foxp3 in the pericardial fluid was increased in patients with CHF. Moreover, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in patients with CHF also demonstrated an increased expression within its pericardial fluid. In addition, there was infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the pericardial fluid of patients with CHF, which may reflect T cell activation, suggesting that systemic inflammation is important in the progression of CHF. This evidence could indicate a possible novel target for future therapeutics and prevention of CHF. PMID:28565777

  20. Expression of pericardial fluid T-cells and related inflammatory cytokines in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Reinard; Liu, Shengchen; Xiang, Fei; Chen, Wen; Li, Liangpeng; Qin, Wei; Huang, Fuhua; Chen, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Pericardial fluid, as a biochemical indicator of heart status, directly indicates pathological alteration to the heart. The accumulation of pericardial fluid can be attributed to an underlying systemic or local inflammatory process. However, the pericardial fluid expression of cellular surface markers, as well as several cytokines in chronic heart failure (CHF), remain unclear. In order to evaluate these issues further the pericardial fluid expression of several cytokines and the surface expression of activity markers between CHF patients and non-heart failure (NHF) patients were analyzed. The pericardial fluid expression of cytokines was measured by immunofluorescence and biomarker of plasma N-terminal propeptide of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), while pericardial fluid levels of soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) were analyzed by ELISA in 50 CHF and 24 NHF patients. In addition, the surface expression of activation markers for T-cells was measured by immunohistochemistry. Patients with CHF demonstrated increased levels of plasma NT-proBNP and pericardial fluid sgp130. Surface expression of cellular activation markers CD25 and Foxp3 in the pericardial fluid was increased in patients with CHF. Moreover, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in patients with CHF also demonstrated an increased expression within its pericardial fluid. In addition, there was infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the pericardial fluid of patients with CHF, which may reflect T cell activation, suggesting that systemic inflammation is important in the progression of CHF. This evidence could indicate a possible novel target for future therapeutics and prevention of CHF.

  1. New-onset vitiligo and progression of pre-existing vitiligo during treatment with biological agents in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Méry-Bossard, L; Bagny, K; Chaby, G; Khemis, A; Maccari, F; Marotte, H; Perrot, J L; Reguiai, Z; Sigal, M L; Avenel-Audran, M; Boyé, T; Grasland, A; Gillard, J; Jullien, D; Toussirot, E

    2017-01-01

    The development of vitiligo during treatment with biological agents is an unusual event and only a few isolated cases have been reported. To describe the clinical characteristics and evolution of patients developing new-onset vitiligo following initiation of a biological agent for chronic inflammatory disease; and also to report the clinical course of pre-existing vitiligo under biological therapy. This nationwide multicentre, retrospective study, carried out between July 2013 and January 2015, describes the characteristics of a large series of 18 patients (psoriasis N = 8, inflammatory rheumatic diseases N = 8, ulcerative colitis N = 1, uveitis N = 1) who developed new-onset vitiligo while receiving a biological agent. TNFα inhibitors were the most common biological agent involved (13/18) while anti-IL-12/23 and anti-IL-17 agents or abatacept were less common (4/18 and 1/18 respectively). Mean duration of biological agent exposure before vitiligo onset was 13.9 ± 16.5 months. Outcome was favourable for most patients (15/17) while maintaining the biological agent. Data were also collected for 18 patients (psoriasis N = 5, inflammatory rheumatic diseases N = 10, inflammatory bowel diseases N = 2, SAPHO N = 1) who had pre-existing vitiligo when treatment with a biological agent started (TNFα inhibitors N = 15, ustekinumab N = 1, rituximab N = 1, tocilizumab N = 1). Vitiligo progressed in seven patients and was stable or improved in eight cases. Vitiligo may thus emerge and/or progress during treatment with various biological agents, mainly TNFα inhibitors and could be a new paradoxical skin reaction. De novo vitiligo displays a favourable outcome when maintaining the biological agent, whereas the prognosis seems worse in cases of pre-existing vitiligo. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and simple analgesics.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard; Wolff, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) has proven to be very challenging in North America, as evidenced by its mounting socioeconomic burden. Choosing amongst available nonsurgical therapies can be overwhelming for many stakeholders, including patients, health providers, policy makers, and third-party payers. Although all parties share a common goal and wish to use limited health-care resources to support interventions most likely to result in clinically meaningful improvements, there is often uncertainty about the most appropriate intervention for a particular patient. To help understand and evaluate the various commonly used nonsurgical approaches to CLBP, the North American Spine Society has sponsored this special focus issue of The Spine Journal, titled Evidence-Informed Management of Chronic Low Back Pain Without Surgery. Articles in this special focus issue were contributed by leading spine practitioners and researchers, who were invited to summarize the best available evidence for a particular intervention and encouraged to make this information accessible to nonexperts. Each of the articles contains five sections (description, theory, evidence of efficacy, harms, and summary) with common subheadings to facilitate comparison across the 24 different interventions profiled in this special focus issue, blending narrative and systematic review methodology as deemed appropriate by the authors. It is hoped that articles in this special focus issue will be informative and aid in decision making for the many stakeholders evaluating nonsurgical interventions for CLBP.

  3. Treatments for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP): an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Lunn, Michael Pt; Hughes, Richard Ac; van Schaik, Ivo N; Frost, Chris; Chalk, Colin H

    2017-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic progressive or relapsing and remitting disease that usually causes weakness and sensory loss. The symptoms are due to autoimmune inflammation of peripheral nerves. CIPD affects about 2 to 3 per 100,000 of the population. More than half of affected people cannot walk unaided when symptoms are at their worst. CIDP usually responds to treatments that reduce inflammation, but there is disagreement about which treatment is most effective. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) and non-Cochrane systematic reviews of any treatment for CIDP and to compare the effects of treatments. We considered all systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any treatment for any form of CIDP. We reported their primary outcomes, giving priority to change in disability after 12 months.Two overview authors independently identified published systematic reviews for inclusion and collected data. We reported the quality of evidence using GRADE criteria. Two other review authors independently checked review selection, data extraction and quality assessments.On 31 October 2016, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (in theCochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus for systematic reviews of CIDP. We supplemented the RCTs in the existing CSRs by searching on the same date for RCTs of any treatment of CIDP (including treatment of fatigue or pain in CIDP), in the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus. Five CSRs met our inclusion criteria. We identified 23 randomised trials, of which 15 had been included in these CSRs. We were unable to compare treatments as originally planned, because outcomes and outcome intervals differed. CorticosteroidsIt is uncertain whether daily oral prednisone improved impairment compared to no treatment because the quality of the

  4. Clarithromycin and dexamethasone show similar anti-inflammatory effects on distinct phenotypic chronic rhinosinusitis: an explant model study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jin; Cao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Heng; Cui, Yong-Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2015-06-06

    Phenotype of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be an important determining factor of the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatments. Although both glucocorticoids and macrolide antibiotics have been recommended for the treatment of CRS, whether they have different anti-inflammatory functions for distinct phenotypic CRS has not been completely understood. The aim of this study is to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of clarithromycin and dexamethasone on sinonasal mucosal explants from different phenotypic CRS ex vivo. Ethmoid mucosal tissues from CRSsNP patients (n = 15), and polyp tissues from eosinophilic (n = 13) and non-eosinophilic (n = 12) CRSwNP patients were cultured in an ex vivo explant model with or without dexamethasone or clarithromycin treatment for 24 h. After culture, the production and/or expression of anti-inflammatory molecules, epithelial-derived cytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, T helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines, chemokines, dendritic cell relevant markers, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and tissue remodeling factors were detected in tissue explants or culture supernatants by RT-PCR or ELISA, respectively. We found that both clarithromycin and dexamethasone up-regulated the production of anti-inflammatory mediators (Clara cell 10-kDa protein and interleukin (IL)-10), whereas down-regulated the production of Th2 response and eosinophilia promoting molecules (thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, IL-33, CD80, CD86, OX40 ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1, CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, CCL5, IL-5, IL-13, and eosinophilic cationic protein) and Th1 response and neutrophilia promoting molecules (CXCL8, CXCL5, CXCL10, CXCL9, interferon-γ, and IL-12), from sinonasal mucosa from distinct phenotypic CRS. In contrast, they had no effect on IL-17A production. The expression of PRRs (Toll-like receptors and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5) was induced, and the production of tissue remodeling factors (transforming growth factor-β1

  5. Chronic oral infection with major periodontal bacteria Tannerella forsythia modulates systemic atherosclerosis risk factors and inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S.; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F.; Velsko, Irina M.; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R.; Lucas, Alexandra R.; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative anaerobic organism that inhabits the subgingival cavity and initiates connective tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal disease (PD). PD is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease and has been linked to several systemic diseases including atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the effects of a chronic oral infection with T. forsythia ATCC 43037 on the induction of PD, inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk factors in hyperlipidemic ApoEnull mice. Mice were orally infected for 12 and 24 weeks prior to euthanasia. Bacterial colonization of the oral cavity and bacteremia was confirmed via isolation of genomic DNA from oral plaque and tissues. Oral infection elicited significantly elevated levels of serum IgG and IgM antibodies and alveolar bone resorption compared to control mice. Tannerella forsythia-infected mice had increased serum amyloid A, and significantly reduced serum nitric oxide when compared to controls. Tannerella forsythia chronic infection also significantly increased serum lipoproteins suggesting altered cholesterol metabolism and potential for aortic inflammation. Despite enhanced acute phase reactants and altered lipid profiles, T. forsythia infection was associated with decreased aortic plaque. This study investigates the potential of a known periodontal bacterial pathogen found in atherosclerotic plaque in humans to accelerate atherosclerosis in hyperlipdemic mice. PMID:25663343

  6. Chronic oral infection with major periodontal bacteria Tannerella forsythia modulates systemic atherosclerosis risk factors and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F; Velsko, Irina M; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R; Lucas, Alexandra R; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-04-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative anaerobic organism that inhabits the subgingival cavity and initiates connective tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal disease (PD). PD is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease and has been linked to several systemic diseases including atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the effects of a chronic oral infection with T. forsythia ATCC 43037 on the induction of PD, inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk factors in hyperlipidemic ApoE(null) mice. Mice were orally infected for 12 and 24 weeks prior to euthanasia. Bacterial colonization of the oral cavity and bacteremia was confirmed via isolation of genomic DNA from oral plaque and tissues. Oral infection elicited significantly elevated levels of serum IgG and IgM antibodies and alveolar bone resorption compared to control mice. Tannerella forsythia-infected mice had increased serum amyloid A, and significantly reduced serum nitric oxide when compared to controls. Tannerella forsythia chronic infection also significantly increased serum lipoproteins suggesting altered cholesterol metabolism and potential for aortic inflammation. Despite enhanced acute phase reactants and altered lipid profiles, T. forsythia infection was associated with decreased aortic plaque. This study investigates the potential of a known periodontal bacterial pathogen found in atherosclerotic plaque in humans to accelerate atherosclerosis in hyperlipdemic mice.

  7. Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects to prevent memory deficits in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have recently focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. In prior studies, we described its beneficial effects on scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on emotional and spatial cognitive functions, neurotropic factor expression, and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which is known to induce cognitive deficits. Resveratrol (5 or 20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 35 days. Rats in the CUMS group and in the 5mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group performed poorly in tasks designed to assess emotional and spatial learning and memory. The 20mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group showed improved performance compared to the CUMS group. In addition, the CUMS procedure induced lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and in the amygdala of stressed rats. These effects were reversed by chronic administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg). In addition, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were increased by CUMS, but were restored to normal by resveratrol. These results indicate that resveratrol significantly attenuates the deficits in emotional learning and spatial memory seen in chronically stressed rats. These effects may be related to resveratrol-mediated changes in neurotrophin factor expression in hippocampus and in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation.

  8. The neuroimmune connection interferes with tissue regeneration and chronic inflammatory disease in the skin.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard F; Kruse, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Research over the past decades has revealed close interactions between the nervous and immune systems that regulate peripheral inflammation and link psychosocial stress with chronic somatic disease. Besides activation of the sympathetic and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, stress leads to increased neurotrophin and neuropeptide production in organs at the self-environment interface. The scope of this short review is to discuss key functions of these stress mediators in the skin, an exemplary stress-targeted and stress-sensitive organ. We will focus on the skin's response to acute and chronic stress in tissue regeneration and pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, psoriasis, and skin cancer to illustrate the impact of local stress-induced neuroimmune interaction on chronic inflammation.

  9. Surveys on therapeutic effects of “halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment” on patients with certain chronic allergenic respiratory pathologies and infectious-inflammatory pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Lazarescu, H; Simionca, I; Hoteteu, M; Munteanu, A; Rizea, I; Iliuta, A; Dumitrascu, D; Dumitrescu, E

    2014-01-01

    Halotherapy (HT), derived from speleotherapy in salt mines, is also a drug-free therapeutic method. HT effects vary depending on the therapeutic method and the structure of halotherapy environment. The purpose of this article is to show the HT effects of “halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment” of the National Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Balneoclimatology (INRMFB), on patients with bronchial asthma and other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory diseases, describing the clinical effects on certain nonspecific resistance factors, on markers of inflammatory processes and on certain immunological changes. Patients were clinically assessed, with the application of hematologic investigations, analysis of nonspecific resistance to infection and of inflammatory process markers, immunologic assessments, analysis of sodium and potassium concentrations, of mineralocorticoid function and other biochemical tests. For the experimental HT therapy performed in the “halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment” of INRMFB, 15 patients suffering from bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy were selected, based on specific medical indications and contraindications and applying ethical principles, as well as 4 patients with similar pathologies for the control group, who underwent in-home drug treatment. After the specific halotherapy treatment on patients with bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy, which also showed other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory pathologies, triggering of anti-inflammatory (and also anti allergic) mechanisms and healing effects on inflammatory process were noted. Data acquired also proved the halo therapeutic effect causing the reduction of sensitiveness of body in patients with bronchial asthma. Abbreviations: HT=Halotherapy, INRMFB=National Institute of

  10. Surveys on therapeutic effects of "halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment" on patients with certain chronic allergenic respiratory pathologies and infectious-inflammatory pathologies.

    PubMed

    Lazarescu, H; Simionca, I; Hoteteu, M; Munteanu, A; Rizea, I; Iliuta, A; Dumitrascu, D; Dumitrescu, E

    2014-01-01

    Halotherapy (HT), derived from speleotherapy in salt mines, is also a drug-free therapeutic method. HT effects vary depending on the therapeutic method and the structure of halotherapy environment. The purpose of this article is to show the HT effects of "halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment" of the National Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Balneoclimatology (INRMFB), on patients with bronchial asthma and other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory diseases, describing the clinical effects on certain nonspecific resistance factors, on markers of inflammatory processes and on certain immunological changes. Patients were clinically assessed, with the application of hematologic investigations, analysis of nonspecific resistance to infection and of inflammatory process markers, immunologic assessments, analysis of sodium and potassium concentrations, of mineralocorticoid function and other biochemical tests. For the experimental HT therapy performed in the "halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment" of INRMFB, 15 patients suffering from bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy were selected, based on specific medical indications and contraindications and applying ethical principles, as well as 4 patients with similar pathologies for the control group, who underwent in-home drug treatment. After the specific halotherapy treatment on patients with bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy, which also showed other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory pathologies, triggering of anti-inflammatory (and also anti allergic) mechanisms and healing effects on inflammatory process were noted. Data acquired also proved the halo therapeutic effect causing the reduction of sensitiveness of body in patients with bronchial asthma.

  11. [Physician-patient relations and stress caused by coloscopy in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Frenzer, A; Binek, J; Hammer, B

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between doctors and patients with inflammatory bowel disease is usually considered complex and difficult. We analyzed the quality of this relationship and the stress inflicted on the patients by endoscopy. 76 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis answered a questionnaire. More than three quarters considered their relationship to their doctors good or very good. The patients expressed a wish for more information on the pathophysiology and treatment options of their disease. The stress placed on the patients by endoscopy was considered severe or very severe by 57%. We conclude that the relationship between doctor and patients with inflammatory bowel disease is generally considered good or very good. Endoscopies are highly stressful for most patients and we recommend appropriate sedation.

  12. [Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--traditional bronchodilatation and targeted anti-inflammatory therapy].

    PubMed

    Mróz, Robert M; Skopiński, Tomasz; Hołownia, Adam; Chyczewska, Elżbieta; Braszko, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    Currently available pharmacological treatment of COPD relies mostly on prophylaxis (smoking cessation) and symptomatic treatment, i.e. inhaled anticholinergic agents, β2-agonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, aiming in their bronchodilatation capacity. Inhaled corticosteroid therapy is mainly prescribed in far advanced stages of the disease and its role in disease modification is still controversial. The authors analize currently available treatment modalities with regards to their potential anti-inflammatory and pleiotropic mode of action, which may lead to disease course modification.

  13. Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas developed in the setting of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Julien; Nault, Jean C; Balabaud, Charles; Couchy, Gabrielle; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Azoulay, Daniel; Mehdaoui, Dalila; Luciani, Alain; Zafrani, Elie S; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma is considered to occur exclusively in non-fibrotic livers. It is a heterogeneous entity and a molecular classification is now widely accepted. The most frequent hepatocellular adenoma subtype, namely inflammatory adenoma, harbor somatic activating mutations of genes involved in the interleukin-6 pathway that lead to high C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A expression. The aim of our study was to investigate a series of benign hepatocellular neoplasms developed on cirrhotic livers and characterized by an unequivocal histological diagnosis. We performed a clinical, pathological, and molecular study of 10 benign hepatocellular neoplasms developed in three patients with cirrhosis. Markers allowing hepatocellular adenoma classification were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Samples were sequenced for CTNNB1, HNF1A, IL6ST, GNAS, STAT3, and TERT (promoter) mutations. A control series of 32 classical macronodules developed in cirrhosis related to various etiologies was screened by immunohistochemistry and gene sequencing. The three patients had cirrhosis related to metabolic syndrome and/or alcohol intake; two had a single tumor, while the third developed more than 30 lesions. Microscopic examination showed well-differentiated neoplasms sharing features with inflammatory adenoma including inflammatory infiltrates, sinusoidal dilatation, and dystrophic vessels. Sequencing revealed classical hotspot somatic mutations (IL6ST, n=8; STAT3, n=1; and GNAS, n=1) known to be responsible for IL-6/JAK/STAT pathway activation. Two classical high-grade macronodules demonstrated high serum amyloid A and/or C-reactive protein expression, without gene mutations. Altogether, our findings support the existence of rare inflammatory adenoma developed in cirrhosis.

  14. A pollen extract (Cernilton) in patients with inflammatory chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a multicentre, randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Schneider, Henning; Ludwig, Martin; Schnitker, Jörg; Brähler, Elmar; Weidner, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent condition for which no standardised treatment exists. To assess the safety and efficacy of a standardised pollen extract in men with inflammatory CP/CPPS. We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study comparing the pollen extract (Cernilton) to placebo in men with CP/CPPS (NIH IIIA) attending urologic centres. Participants were randomised to receive oral capsules of the pollen extract (two capsules q8h) or placebo for 12 wk. The primary endpoint of the study was symptomatic improvement in the pain domain of the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Participants were evaluated using the NIH-CPSI individual domains and total score, the number of leukocytes in post-prostatic massage urine (VB3), the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the sexuality domain of a life satisfaction questionnaire at baseline and after 6 and 12 wk. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 139 men were randomly allocated to the pollen extract (n=70) or placebo (n=69). The individual domains pain (p=0.0086) and quality of life (QoL; p=0.0250) as well as the total NIH-CPSI score (p=0.0126) were significantly improved after 12 wk of treatment with pollen extract compared to placebo. Response, defined as a decrease of the NIH-CPSI total score by at least 25% or at least 6 points, was seen in the pollen extract versus placebo group in 70.6% and 50.0% (p=0.0141), respectively. Adverse events were minor in all patients studied. Compared to placebo, the pollen extract significantly improved total symptoms, pain, and QoL in patients with inflammatory CP/CPPS without severe side-effects.

  15. Changes in Inflammatory Activity after Glaucoma Filtration Surgery in Children with Chronic Anterior Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Christina; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Heinz, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate changes in inflammatory activity over time in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated anterior uveitis after two different types of glaucoma surgery. Retrospective analysis of 32 patients with JIA who had trabeculectomy (TE, 21 eyes) or Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGV, 11 eyes). Inflammatory activity and use of anti-inflammatory medication were evaluated 1 year prior to surgery and in the first, third, and fifth years after surgery. In both groups IOP decreased significantly from pre-surgery to 2 years after surgery (TE, 31.1 ± 6.7 to 12.8 ± 6.1 mmHg, p<0.0001; AGV, 28.5 ± 8.5 to 14.9 ± 6.6 mmHg, p<0.001). In the TE group flare, anterior chamber cells, and uveitis activity decreased significantly after surgery, whereas with AGV there was no sustained reduction of flare. The degree of inflammation in JIA-associated uveitis is significantly reduced after trabeculectomy.

  16. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers and Antioxidant Response during the Post-Acute and Chronic Phase after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Licastro, Federico; Hrelia, Silvana; Porcellini, Elisa; Malaguti, Marco; Di Stefano, Cristina; Angeloni, Cristina; Carbone, Ilaria; Simoncini, Laura; Piperno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a mechanical insult to the brain caused by external forces and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The patients may show different profiles of neurological recovery and a combination of oxidative damage and inflammatory processes can affect their courses. It is known that an overexpression of cytokines can be seen in peripheral blood in the early hours/days after the injury, but little is known about the weeks and months encompassing the post-acute and chronic phases. In addition, no information is available about the antioxidant responses mediated by the major enzymes that regulate reactive oxygen species levels: superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases, and GSH-related enzymes. This study investigates the 6-month trends of inflammatory markers and antioxidant responses in 22 severe TBI patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, consecutively recruited in a dedicated neurorehabilitation facility. Patients with a high degree of neurological impairment often show an uncertain outcome. In addition, the profiles of plasma activities were related to the neurological recovery after 12 months. Venous peripheral blood samples were taken blindly as soon as clinical signs and laboratory markers confirmed the absence of infections, 3 and 6 months later. The clinical and neuropsychological assessment continued up to 12 months. Nineteen patients completed the follow-up. In the chronic phase, persistent high plasma levels of cytokines can interfere with cognitive functioning and higher post-acute levels of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL1b, IL6] are associated with poorer cognitive recoveries 12 months later. Moreover, higher IFN-γ, higher TNF-α, and lower glutathione peroxidase activity are associated with greater disability. The results add evidence of persistent inflammatory response, provide information about long-term imbalance of antioxidant activity, and suggest that

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of Man-Pen-Fang, a Chinese herbal compound, on chronic pelvic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Jun; Zhu, Jian-Yong; Sun, Meng-Yao; Song, Ya-Nan; Rahman, Khalid; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Miao; Ye, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2017-08-17

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has become the focus of research for the treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (CPID) based on unique medical theory system. Man-Pen-Fang (MPF), a Chinese herbal compound, which is composed of Thlaspi arvense L. (Cruciferae), Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Leguminosae), Smilax china L. (Liliaceae), Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. (Celastraceae) and Vaccaria segetalis (Neck.) (Caryophyllaceae) MPF has been used for the treatment of CPID and exerted significant clinical curative effects. However, the corresponding active principles and anti-inflammatory mechanism of MPF are still unknown. The objective of present study is to evaluate the effect of MPF on CPID in the chronic pelvic inflammation (CPI) rat model and elucidate its possible anti-inflammatory mechanism. The CPI in rats was induced by administration with E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Beta-hemolytic streptococcus. MPF (8.112g/(kg d) (20 times of adult dosage), 4.056g/(kg d) (10 times of adult dosage) and 2.028g/(kg d) (5 times of adult dosage)) and Jingangteng Capsule 2g/(kg d) (20 times of adult dosage) were administered orally for 20 days. The serum levels of five inflammation-associated cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β1) were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and the mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1, P53, Fas, FasL and MMP-2 in the uterus tissue were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the expression of NF-κB p65 in uterus and ovary tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry assay and the pathological changes induced in the uterus and ovary tissues were observed by histology. MPF caused a reduction in serum levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β1. The expression of P53 mRNA, Fas/FasL mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA in the uterus tissue was significantly elevated after treating with MPF, in contrast the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was decreased. Furthermore, the expression of NF-κB p65 in uterus and ovary tissue was inhibited after

  18. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers and Antioxidant Response during the Post-Acute and Chronic Phase after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Licastro, Federico; Hrelia, Silvana; Porcellini, Elisa; Malaguti, Marco; Di Stefano, Cristina; Angeloni, Cristina; Carbone, Ilaria; Simoncini, Laura; Piperno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a mechanical insult to the brain caused by external forces and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The patients may show different profiles of neurological recovery and a combination of oxidative damage and inflammatory processes can affect their courses. It is known that an overexpression of cytokines can be seen in peripheral blood in the early hours/days after the injury, but little is known about the weeks and months encompassing the post-acute and chronic phases. In addition, no information is available about the antioxidant responses mediated by the major enzymes that regulate reactive oxygen species levels: superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases, and GSH-related enzymes. This study investigates the 6-month trends of inflammatory markers and antioxidant responses in 22 severe TBI patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, consecutively recruited in a dedicated neurorehabilitation facility. Patients with a high degree of neurological impairment often show an uncertain outcome. In addition, the profiles of plasma activities were related to the neurological recovery after 12 months. Venous peripheral blood samples were taken blindly as soon as clinical signs and laboratory markers confirmed the absence of infections, 3 and 6 months later. The clinical and neuropsychological assessment continued up to 12 months. Nineteen patients completed the follow-up. In the chronic phase, persistent high plasma levels of cytokines can interfere with cognitive functioning and higher post-acute levels of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL1b, IL6] are associated with poorer cognitive recoveries 12 months later. Moreover, higher IFN-γ, higher TNF-α, and lower glutathione peroxidase activity are associated with greater disability. The results add evidence of persistent inflammatory response, provide information about long-term imbalance of antioxidant activity, and suggest that

  19. A wound-like inflammatory aortic response in chronic portal hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Aller, María-Angeles; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Miana, María; Ballesteros, Sandra; Regadera, Javier; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Arias, Jaime; Lahera, Vicente

    2012-06-01

    Long-term prehepatic portal hypertension in the rat produces a low-grade splanchnic inflammation with liver steatosis and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that in this experimental model these inflammatory alterations could represent a risk factor of vascular disease. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether long-term prehepatic portal hypertension (PH) induces vascular pathology, fundamentally inflammatory aortopathy. Male Wistar sham-operated (SO) rats and rats with triple partial portal vein ligation in the very long-term (22 months) of postoperative evolution were used. Serum lipid profile, pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines and ACTH and corticosterone were assayed by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques. Aorta mRNA expression of oxidative and nitrosative stress enzymes, NFκB e IκB, immune-related cytokine production and vascular fibrosis parameters, were evaluated by real time RT-PCR. In addition, aortic p22phox subunit immunostaining, morphometry and vascular fibrosis in aorta were analyzed. PH rats have increased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), while high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were lower than in SO rats. Serum ACTH and corticosterone decreased in PH rats. Also, serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly higher in PH-rats. Portal hypertensive-rats showed aortic oxidative stress with increased mRNA expressions of NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox, XDh, SOD and eNOS; higher aortic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; remodeling markers, like collagen I, CTGF and MMP-9; and finally, higher protein production of p22phox and collagen and extracellular matrix density were significantly higher in rats with PH. The results from the current study suggest that very long-term prehepatic portal hypertension in rats induces an abdominal aortic inflammatory and fibrotic response. Therefore, it could be considered that portal hypertension aggravates

  20. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  1. Chronic combined stress induces selective and long-lasting inflammatory response evoked by changes in corticosterone accumulation and signaling in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Piskunov, Aleksey; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Tishkina, Anna; Novikova, Margarita; Levshina, Irina; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampus is believed to be selectively vulnerable to stress. We hypothesized that this phenomenon may be mediated by relatively high vulnerability to neuroinflammation related to impairments of local glucocorticoid metabolism and signaling. We have evaluated inflammatory responses induced by acute or chronic combined stress in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus as well as circulating and brain corticosterone (CS) levels as well as expression of corticosterone target genes. The hippocampus showed higher stress-induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β as compared to the cerebral cortex. A month after the termination of the chronic stress, IL-1β mRNA in the cerebral cortex reached control level, while in the hippocampus it remained significantly increased. Under chronic stress, the maladaptive inflammatory response in hippocampus was accompanied by a significant increase in local CS levels, as compared to cerebral cortex. Under acute stress, the increased CS level induced changes in CS-regulated genes expression (CRF and IGF1), while this phenomenon was not observed after chronic stress. Thus, the hippocampus appears to be more vulnerable to stress-induced inflammation as compared to the neocortex and demonstrates persistent inflammatory response induced by chronic stress. Stress-induced maladaptive inflammatory response is associated with a selective increase in hippocampal CS accumulation and changes in CS signaling.

  2. Gratitude uniquely predicts lower depression in chronic illness populations: A longitudinal study of inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Wood, Alex M

    2017-02-01

    Although gratitude has been identified as a key clinically relevant trait for improving well-being, it is understudied within medical populations. The current study addressed this gap and extended previous and limited cross-sectional research by examining the longitudinal associations of gratitude to depression in 2 chronic illness samples, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two chronic illness samples, arthritis (N = 423) and IBD (N = 427), completed online surveys at Time 1 (T1). One hundred sixty-three people with arthritis and 144 people with IBD completed the 6-month follow-up survey (T2). Depression, gratitude, illness cognitions, perceived stress, social support, and disease-related variables were assessed at T1 and T2. At T2, 57.2% of the arthritis sample and 53.4% of the IBD sample met the cut off scores for significant depression. T1 gratitude was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at T1 and T2 in both samples (rs from -.43 to -.50). Regression analyses revealed that T1 gratitude remained a significant and unique predictor of lower T2 depression after controlling for T1 depression, relevant demographic variables, illness cognitions, changes in illness-relevant variables, and another positive psychological construct, thriving, in both samples. As the first investigation of the longitudinal associations of gratitude to psychological well-being in the context of chronic illness, the current study provides important evidence for the relevance of gratitude for health-related clinical populations. Further intervention-based research is warranted to more fully understand the potential benefits of gratitude for adjustment to chronic illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Chronic Psychological Stress Disrupted the Composition of the Murine Colonic Microbiota and Accelerated a Murine Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Arase, Sohei; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of psychological stress on the gastrointestinal microbiota is widely recognized. Chronic psychological stress may be associated with increased disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, but the relationships among psychological stress, the gastrointestinal microbiota, and the severity of colitis is not yet fully understood. Here, we examined the impact of 12-week repeated water-avoidance stress on the microbiota of two inbred strains of T cell receptor alpha chain gene knockout mouse (background, BALB/c and C57BL/6) by means of next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In both mouse strains, knockout of the T cell receptor alpha chain gene caused a loss of gastrointestinal microbial diversity and stability. Chronic exposure to repeated water-avoidance stress markedly altered the composition of the colonic microbiota of C57BL/6 mice, but not of BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the relative abundance of genus Clostridium, some members of which produce the toxin phospholipase C, was increased, which was weakly positively associated with colitis severity, suggesting that expansion of specific populations of indigenous pathogens may be involved in the exacerbation of colitis. However, we also found that colitis was not exacerbated in mice with a relatively diverse microbiota even if their colonic microbiota contained an expanded phospholipase C-producing Clostridium population. Exposure to chronic stress also altered the concentration of free immunoglobulin A in colonic contents, which may be related to both the loss of bacterial diversity in the colonic microbiota and the severity of the colitis exacerbation. Together, these results suggest that long-term exposure to psychological stress induces dysbiosis in the immunodeficient mouse in a strain-specific manner and also that alteration of microbial diversity, which may be related to an altered pattern of immunoglobulin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract, might play a crucial role in the

  4. Chronic Psychological Stress Disrupted the Composition of the Murine Colonic Microbiota and Accelerated a Murine Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yohei; Arase, Sohei; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of psychological stress on the gastrointestinal microbiota is widely recognized. Chronic psychological stress may be associated with increased disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, but the relationships among psychological stress, the gastrointestinal microbiota, and the severity of colitis is not yet fully understood. Here, we examined the impact of 12-week repeated water-avoidance stress on the microbiota of two inbred strains of T cell receptor alpha chain gene knockout mouse (background, BALB/c and C57BL/6) by means of next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In both mouse strains, knockout of the T cell receptor alpha chain gene caused a loss of gastrointestinal microbial diversity and stability. Chronic exposure to repeated water-avoidance stress markedly altered the composition of the colonic microbiota of C57BL/6 mice, but not of BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the relative abundance of genus Clostridium, some members of which produce the toxin phospholipase C, was increased, which was weakly positively associated with colitis severity, suggesting that expansion of specific populations of indigenous pathogens may be involved in the exacerbation of colitis. However, we also found that colitis was not exacerbated in mice with a relatively diverse microbiota even if their colonic microbiota contained an expanded phospholipase C-producing Clostridium population. Exposure to chronic stress also altered the concentration of free immunoglobulin A in colonic contents, which may be related to both the loss of bacterial diversity in the colonic microbiota and the severity of the colitis exacerbation. Together, these results suggest that long-term exposure to psychological stress induces dysbiosis in the immunodeficient mouse in a strain-specific manner and also that alteration of microbial diversity, which may be related to an altered pattern of immunoglobulin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract, might play a crucial role in the

  5. 99th Dahlem Conference on Infection, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders: Symbionts and immunopathology in chronic diseases: insights from evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, P W

    2010-01-01

    Immunological aetiologies of disease are not generally well understood, but have been attributed to intrinsic immunological imbalances, infectious triggers or persistent infections. Evolutionary considerations lead to the formulation of three feasible categories of immunopathology for common diseases. One category of hypotheses presumes that the immune system is exposed to environmental conditions to which the individual is not well adapted. One hypothesis within this category, often referred to as the hygiene hypothesis, proposes that new more hygienic environmental conditions have generated compositions of symbionts that differ from those to which humans have been adapted. A second category of hypotheses proposes that infectious agents act as triggers of immunopathology by shifting the immune system into a self-destructive state. A third category proposes that infectious agents keep the immune in a self-destructive state by causing persistent infections. To evaluate disease causation rigorously and to determine the appropriate interventions, these three categories of causation need to considered for every disease that involves immunopathology. Assessment of the progress in understanding oncogenesis and other chronic diseases emphasizes the value of such integrated assessments. PMID:20415848

  6. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis contributes differentially to environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise in alleviating chronic inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Xu, Ling-Chi; Ma, Long-Yu; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cui, Shuang; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Wan, You; Yi, Ming

    2017-03-14

    Cognitive behavioral therapy, such as environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx), is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain. However, the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of EE-VEx remain unclear. In mice with intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), our results revealed that EE-VEx alleviated perceptual, affective and cognitive dimensions of chronic inflammatory pain. These effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain were contingent on the occurrence of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a functionally dissociated manner along the dorsoventral axis: neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participated in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas neurogenesis in the dorsal dentate gyrus was involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects. Chronic inflammatory pain was accompanied by decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the dentate gyrus, which were reversed by EE-VEx. Over-expression of BDNF in the dentate mimicked the effects of EE-VEx. Our results demonstrate distinct contribution of adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis to EE-VEx's beneficial effects on different dimensions of chronic pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTEnvironmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx) is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain, but its effectiveness and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, the present study demonstrates that the beneficial effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain depend on adult neurogenesis with a dorsoventral dissociation along the hippocampal axis. Adult neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participates in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas that in the dorsal pole is involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects in chronic pain.

  7. Macrophage Polarization in AIDS: Dynamic Interface between Anti-Viral and Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages during Acute and Chronic Infection.

    PubMed

    Burdo, Tricia H; Walker, Joshua; Williams, Kenneth C

    2015-06-01

    Monocyte and macrophage inflammation in parenchymal tissues during acute and chronic HIV and SIV infection plays a role in early anti-viral immune responses and later in restorative responses. Macrophage polarization is observed in such responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and the heart and cardiac vessels that suggest early responses are M1 type antiviral responses, and later responses favor M2 restorative responses. Macrophage polarization is unique to different tissues and is likely dictated as much by the local microenvironment as well as other inflammatory cells involved in the viral responses. Such polarization is found in HIV infected humans, and the SIV infected animal model of AIDS, and occurs even with effective anti-retroviral therapy. Therapies that directly target macrophage polarization in HIV infection have recently been implemented, as have therapies to directly block traffic and accumulation of macrophages in tissues.

  8. Association of urinary phenolic compounds, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrheal symptoms: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Punyanganie S; Yang, Xuan; Korzenik, Joshua R; Goldman, Rose H; Arheart, Kristopher L; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2017-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as phenolic compounds and parabens may be involved in chronic non-infective disease. While products incorporating these compounds are extensively utilized in consumer and personal products, little is known about their effect on bowel health. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - consisting of the diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - and irritable bowel syndrome are common chronic non-infectious diarrheal diseases. Despite limited knowledge on the etiology of IBD, these diseases have increased prevalence in industrialized countries and cause significant impairment to quality of life. In the present study we examine relationships between urinary environmental phenolic compounds, chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Data was obtained from the 2005-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, inflammatory markers and urinary phenolic chemical concentrations. Only participants with complete environmental phenols & parabens component were included in our analysis. Chronic diarrheal symptoms were determined by using the 2009-2010 NHANES questionnaire which included questions pertaining to bowel health. We utilized chronic bowel leakage symptoms as a surrogate marker for chronic diarrhea. The presence of IBD was also analyzed from 2009 to 2010 NHANES data, as a sub-analysis for arthropathy directly querying the presence or absence of IBD. Among the subset of 5218 American adults aged 20-80 years in the NHANES study period who completed environmental phenols & parabens component, 25.5% reported chronic diarrheal symptoms. Abnormal markers of inflammation were present in 2200 (42.2%) of respondents. For IBD, 19 individuals with arthropathy confirmed a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, and 1 person confirmed a Crohn's diagnosis. After adjustment for demographics, inflammatory and subsample weighing; lower paraben levels were

  9. Residential proximity to abandoned uranium mines and serum inflammatory potential in chronically exposed Navajo communities.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Molly E; Lewis, Johnnye; Miller, Curtis; Hoover, Joseph; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Shuey, Chris; Cajero, Miranda; Lucas, Selita; Zychowski, Katherine; Pacheco, Bernadette; Erdei, Esther; Ramone, Sandy; Nez, Teddy; Gonzales, Melissa; Campen, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Members of the Navajo Nation, who possess a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, reside near hundreds of local abandoned uranium mines (AUM), which contribute uranium, arsenic and other metals to the soil, water and air. We recently reported that hypertension is associated with mine waste exposures in this population. Inflammation is a major player in the development of numerous vascular ailments. Our previous work establishing that specific transcriptional responses of cultured endothelial cells treated with human serum can reveal relative circulating inflammatory potential in a manner responsive to pollutant exposures, providing a model to assess responses associated with exposure to these waste materials in this population. To investigate a potential link between exposures to AUM and serum inflammatory potential in affected communities, primary human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated for 4 h with serum provided by Navajo study participants (n=145). Endothelial transcriptional responses of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were measured. These transcriptional responses were then linked to AUM exposure metrics, including surface area-weighted AUM proximity and estimated oral intake of metals. AUM proximity strongly predicted endothelial transcriptional responses to serum including CCL2, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (P<0.0001 for each), whereas annual water intakes of arsenic and uranium did not, even after controlling for all major effect modifiers. Inflammatory potential associated with proximity to AUMs, but not oral intake of specific metals, additionally suggests a role for inhalation exposure as a contributor to cardiovascular disease.

  10. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS): An unrecognized paradoxical effect of biologic agents (BA) used in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Coline; Villani, Axel Patrice; Aubin, François; Lipsker, Dan; Bottaro, Martine; Cohen, Jean-David; Durupt, François; Jeudy, Géraldine; Sbidian, Emilie; Toussirot, Eric; Badot, Valérie; Barbarot, Sébastien; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Goegebeur, Guetty; Morel, Jacques; Nassif, Aude; Duru, Gérard; Jullien, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Paradoxical hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) induced by biologic agents (BA) is scarcely reported. We sought to describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients developing paradoxical HS under BA. This was a multicenter nationwide retrospective study asking physicians to report all cases of HS, confirmed by a dermatologist, occurring during treatment of an inflammatory disease by a BA. We included 25 patients (15 inflammatory rheumatism, 9 Crohn's disease, 1 psoriasis) treated by 5 BA (adalimumab = 12, infliximab = 6, etanercept = 4, rituximab = 2, tocilizumab = 1). Median duration of BA exposure before HS onset was 12 (range 1-120) months. Patients were mostly Hurley stage I (n = 13) or II (n = 11). Simultaneously to HS or within 1 year, 11 patients developed additional inflammatory diseases, including paradoxical reactions (psoriasis = 9, Crohn's disease = 3, alopecia areata = 1, erythema elevatum diutinum = 1). Complete improvement of HS was more frequently obtained after BA discontinuation or switch (n = 6/10, 60%) rather than maintenance (n = 1/14, 7%). Reintroducing the same BA resulted in HS relapse in 3 of 3 patients. Retrospective nature and lack of complete follow-up for some patients are limitations. HS is a rare paradoxical adverse effect of BA, but fortuitous association cannot be excluded in some cases. We observed a trend toward better outcome when the BA was discontinued or switched. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Education to improve quality of life of people with chronic inflammatory skin conditions: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Pickett, K; Frampton, G; Loveman, E

    2016-06-01

    Patient and carer education has been proposed as a way of improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with chronic inflammatory skin conditions. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of education that specifically addresses HRQoL among people with chronic inflammatory skin conditions. We searched 12 literature databases and other sources (up to July 2014). Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the review inclusion criteria. Data from these RCTs were extracted and critically appraised. Two RCTs showed that for psoriasis in adults, group-based and text message education (as adjuncts to usual care) resulted in better HRQoL and disease severity outcomes than comparators, respectively. One RCT found that group-based education for children with eczema (atopic dermatitis) and their parents resulted in greater improvements in parents' HRQoL and in the children's disease severity than no education at 12 months. The remaining RCTs evaluated an educational session for psoriasis, a website for carers of children with eczema, information on skincare and make-up use given to women with acne, and an itch-coping programme for a range of conditions, all as adjuncts to usual care. None of these RCTs found statistically significant effects on HRQoL or disease severity compared with usual care. Common features of the effective interventions were long delivery (over 6 weeks to 3 months) and delivery by a multidisciplinary team. Overall, the evidence base is currently limited and generally has an unclear risk of bias. There is a need for more large RCTs evaluating piloted and theory-based interventions. © 2016 Crown copyright. British Journal of Dermatology © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  12. Value of counting colonic mucosal Ig-containing cells in the differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Seldenrijk, C. A.; Meuwissen, S. G.; Schipper, N. W.; Morson, B. C.; Lindeman, J.; Meijer, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether counting cells containing immunoglobulin (Ig) subclass in colonic biopsy specimens of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in addition to conventional histological evaluation, can improve the differentiation of patients with Crohn's disease from those with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: The colonic and rectal biopsy specimens of 40 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, comprising 20 patients with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis, were used and sections were stained specifically for IgA, IgM, and IgG heavy chains using an indirect immune peroxidase method. The immunoglobulin subclass containing cells were counted using an ocular grid counting method in a light microscope. A linear stepwise discriminant analysis was performed on Ig subclass containing cell counts in combination with 16 reproducible histological features. The results of this discriminant analysis were compared with the results of the discriminant analyses in which only the histological features were used. RESULTS: Applying stepwise discriminant analysis, two histological features (an excess of histiocytes in the lamina propria and the villous or irregular aspect of the mucosal surface) in combination with IgMax were selected as the most discriminatory parameters that distinguish Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis. IgMmax was defined as the maximum value of the mean percentage of IgM containing cells over all the biopsy locations. The use of this combination resulted in a better classification in 20% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 9% of the patients with ulcerative colitis compared with the use of histological features alone. CONCLUSIONS: Morphometric enumeration of Ig subclass containing cells in colonic mucosal biopsy specimens has diagnostic value as a means of differentiating individual patients with Crohn's disease from those with ulcerative colitis. PMID:1556234

  13. Inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress cascades as new drug targets in myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue (CF) are distinct diagnostic categories with regard to clinical symptoms, severity of illness and biomarkers. Patients with ME and CFS show higher scores on fatigue, neurocognitive disorders, hyperalgesia, autonomic symptoms, postexertional malaise and a subjective feeling of infection than patients with CF. ME is characterized by increased postexertional malaise, a subjective feeling of infection and neurocognitive disorders and is a more severe variant than CFS. Fukuda's 1994 CDC criteria are adequate to make a distinction between patients with ME/CFS and CF, while ME/CFS patients should be subdivided into those with and without postexertional malaise into ME and CFS, respectively. Different interrelated pathophysiological mechanisms play a role in ME/CFS, i.e. (1) inflammation and immune activation, (2) oxidative and nitrosative stress and lowered antioxidant defenses, (3) activation of cell signaling networks, e.g. nuclear factor ĸβ, the 2 9 ,5 9 -oligoadenylate/RNase-L and/or protein kinase R pathway, (4) a transition towards autoimmune reactions, and (5) bacterial translocation. The inflammatory biomarkers are higher in ME/CFS than in CF and higher in ME than in CFS. The above-mentioned pathways may explain the onset of characteristic ME/CFS symptoms, such as fatigue, malaise, autonomic symptoms, hyperalgesia, and neurocognitive symptoms. Different etiological factors may trigger ME/CFS/CF, e.g. viral and bacterial infections, and (auto)immune and inflammatory disorders, while psychosocial and physical stressors act as modulating factors. New pathophysiologically driven drug candidates for ME and CFS are discussed which target the pathways that play a role in ME/CFS. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The six-spot-step test - a new method for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kreutzfeldt, Melissa; Jensen, Henrik B; Ravnborg, Mads; Markvardsen, Lars H; Andersen, Henning; Sindrup, Søren H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the six-spot-step test (SSST) is more suitable for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy than the timed 25-foot-walking test (T25FW). In the SSST, participants have to walk as quickly as possible across a field measuring 1 × 5 m, while kicking blocks out of five circles on the floor. Sixty-two patients and 61 controls performed the SSST and T25FW. Patients also performed the overall disability sumscore, INCAT sensory sumscore, Medical Research Council sumscore, and 9-hole-peg-test. Twenty-one patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) every 4-6 weeks were tested prior to and 2-3 weeks after treatment and judged change in their own clinical condition using the patient global impression of change (PGIC) scale. In patients, SSST ranged from 5.7 to 26.8 s and T25FW ranged from 3.6 to 12.9 s. Intra-class correlation between repeated tests was 0.97 for SSST and 0.95 for T25FW. Correlation with the additional tests was stronger for SSST than T25FW. In IVIG-treated patients, the mean change in walking time was -2.3 s for SSST and -0.6 s for T25FW. The SSST showed larger responsiveness in terms of effect size, standardized response means, and relative efficiency. Both ambulation tests correlated moderately to PGIC. The SSST may be superior to the T25FW in terms of dynamic range, floor effect, and responsiveness which makes the SSST a possible alternative for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  15. Diagnoses and Management of Drug Hypersensitivity and Anaphylaxis in Cancer and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Reactions to Taxanes and Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bonamichi-Santos, Rafael; Castells, Mariana

    2016-06-08

    Due to the increase in utilization of chemotherapies and antibodies, drug hypersensitivity reactions have increased dramatically worldwide, preventing the use of first-line therapies and impacting patients' survival and quality of life. Some of the more frequently used medications in cancer include taxanes for ovarian, lung, breast, and prostate cancers. Monoclonal antibodies are used in the treatment of neoplastic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, and their clinical applications are becoming broader. Monoclonal antibody targets include CD20, HER-2, EGFR, IL-6 receptor, TNF-α, CD30, VEGF-A, IgE, and more, and examples of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases that respond to monoclonal antibodies include rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, ankylosing spondylitis, plaque psoriasis, and asthma. Neoplastic diseases include non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and colorectal, breast, gastric, and lung cancer. The clinical presentation of drug hypersensitivity reactions ranges from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening symptoms including anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) has become a groundbreaking approach to the management of immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions IgE and non-IgE mediated. It is the only effective procedure that enables sensitized patients to receive the full treatment dose safely, thus representing an important advance in the patients' treatment and prognosis. The aim of this review is to provide an update on hypersensitivity reactions to commonly used monoclonal and taxanes, their clinical presentations, diagnosis, and the use of RDD for their management.

  16. Two years’ long-term follow up in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ellrichmann, Gisa; Gold, Ralf; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Yoon, Min-Suk; Schneider-Gold, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Administration of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs) is established for long-term treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Prevention of secondary axonal loss going along with permanent clinical disability and muscular atrophy is a major aim in CIDP therapy. To assess long-term clinical efficacy of IVIg treatment despite heterogenous disease course and variable complaints reported by the patients, long-term electrophysiological monitoring was performed for systematic evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of IVIg. Methods: A total of 21 patients with CIDP treated with IVIg 1 g/kg bodyweight every 3–6 weeks were examined electrophysiologically every 12 months over a period of 2 years. Results: Assessment of clinical symptoms, using the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) and Hughes functional grading score (F-score) revealed improvement of motor and sensory symptoms over a period of 2 years. As electrophysiological results remained stable, IVIg treatment seems to be suitable to prevent axonal loss in CIDP. Conclusions: This study confirms efficacy of IVIg as firstline therapy in CIDP. Doses and frequency of IVIg application should be adapted based on clinical evaluation and analysis of long-term electrophysiological findings. PMID:28382108

  17. Adenosine A1-Receptors Modulate mTOR Signaling to Regulate White Matter Inflammatory Lesions Induced by Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Zuo, Xuzheng; Ren, Yifei; Bai, Shunjie; Tang, Weiju; Chen, Xiuying; Wang, Gong; Wang, Haoxiang; Huang, Wen; Xie, Peng

    2016-12-01

    We sought to investigate the role of the adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) in white matter lesions under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) and explore the potential repair mechanisms by activation of the receptors. A right unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (rUCCAO) method was used to construct a CCH model. 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a specific agonist of A1ARs, was used to explore the biological mechanisms of repair in white matter lesions under CCH. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylation of mTOR (P-mTOR), myelin basic protein (MBP, a marker of white matter myelination) were detected by Western-blot. Pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were determined by ELISA. Compared with the control groups on week 2, 4 and 6, in CCPA-treated groups, the ratio of P-mTOR/mTOR, expression of MBP and IL-10 increased markedly, while the expression of TNF-α reduced at week 6. In conclusion, A1ARs appears to reduce inflammation in white matter via the mTOR signaling pathway in the rUCCAO mice. Therefore, A1ARs may serve as a therapeutic target during the repair of white matter lesions under CCH.

  18. Anti-ganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chenghe; Jin, Haiqiang; Hao, Hongjun; Gao, Feng; Sun, Yongan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Pu; Cui, Wei; Teng, Yuming; Huang, Yining

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigated the relationships between anti-ganglioside antibodies and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Samples from 48 Chinese patients diagnosed with GBS and 18 patients diagnosed with CIDP were retrospectively reviewed. In the GBS patients, 62.5% were classified as having acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 27.1% were found to have acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), and 10.4% were unclassified. Serum IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies were detected in 46.2% of the AMAN patients and in 6.7% of the AIDP patients (P < 0.05); 5.6% of the 18 CIDP patients were IgG antibody positive, and 27.8% were IgM antibody positive. Facial palsy and sensory impairment were significantly associated with IgM antibodies. These results suggest that IgG anti-GM1 antibodies are associated with AMAN, but not with AIDP, and that IgM antibodies against GM1, GM2, and GM3 are associated with facial nerve palsy. Muscle Nerve 55: 470-475, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Two years' long-term follow up in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment.

    PubMed

    Ellrichmann, Gisa; Gold, Ralf; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Yoon, Min-Suk; Schneider-Gold, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    Administration of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs) is established for long-term treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Prevention of secondary axonal loss going along with permanent clinical disability and muscular atrophy is a major aim in CIDP therapy. To assess long-term clinical efficacy of IVIg treatment despite heterogenous disease course and variable complaints reported by the patients, long-term electrophysiological monitoring was performed for systematic evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of IVIg. A total of 21 patients with CIDP treated with IVIg 1 g/kg bodyweight every 3-6 weeks were examined electrophysiologically every 12 months over a period of 2 years. Assessment of clinical symptoms, using the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) and Hughes functional grading score (F-score) revealed improvement of motor and sensory symptoms over a period of 2 years. As electrophysiological results remained stable, IVIg treatment seems to be suitable to prevent axonal loss in CIDP. This study confirms efficacy of IVIg as firstline therapy in CIDP. Doses and frequency of IVIg application should be adapted based on clinical evaluation and analysis of long-term electrophysiological findings.

  20. 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: lifestyle changes affecting the host-environment interface.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S; Kaufmann, S H E

    2010-04-01

    In industrialized nations and high-income regions of the world, the decline of infectious diseases is paralleled by an increase in allergic, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases (AACID). Changes in lifestyle in westernized societies, which impact individually and collectively on intestinal microbiota, may - at least in part - account for the AACID pandemic. Many disease genes that contribute to AACID encode pattern recognition and signalling molecules in barrier-associated cells. Interactions between gene products and environmental factors depend highly upon the host's state of maturation, the composition of the skin and gut microflora, and exposure to pollutants, antibiotics and nutrients. Inflammatory stress responses, if regulated appropriately, ensure immunity, health and relative longevity; when they are dysregulated, they can no longer be terminated appropriately and thus precipitate AACID. The 99th Dahlem Conference brought together experts of various disciplines (genetics, evolution biology, molecular biology, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, microbiology, nutrition science, epidemiology and clinical medicine) to discuss the multi-faceted relationships between infection, immunity and inflammation in barrier organs and the development of AACID. In Clinical and Experimental Immunology we are presenting a compilation of background papers that formed the basis of discussions. Controversial viewpoints and gaps in current knowledge were examined and new concepts for prevention and treatment of CID were formulated.

  1. A prospective study comparing tryptophan immunoadsorption with therapeutic plasma exchange for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lieker, Ina; Slowinski, Torsten; Harms, Lutz; Hahn, Katrin; Klehmet, Juliane

    2017-05-09

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare paralyzing inflammatory neuropathy with probably autoimmune origin. While plasma exchange (PE) constitutes a first-line treatment option for CIDP, there is only little known about the efficacy and safety of immunoadsorption (IA), a more selective apheresis procedure with assumed better tolerability. In this prospective-randomized pilot trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive 6 sessions of PE (n = 10) or IA (n = 10) treating equal plasma volumes. To evaluate efficacy, we calculated the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score at baseline (V1), after completion of 6 sessions (V2) as well as 4 weeks after completion (V3) in 9 patients per group (1 patient in each group did not complete follow-up). We additionally assessed safety and tolerability of treatments by monitoring adverse event and blood parameters. With IA, 6 out of 9 (66.7%) patients improved clinically, whereas with PE, 4 out of 9 (44.4%) patients improved, most of them immediately with completion of the apheresis treatment series. There was one adverse event (AE) out of 52 treatment sessions for the 9 patients in the IA group. In the PE group of 9 patients, there was 1 AE out of 51 sessions and a trend of greater fibrinogen reduction. No severe AE occurred in either group. The results of this pilot study suggest that IA is at least equally effective and safe compared to PE in CIDP patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Glucocorticoid-associated osteoporosis in chronic inflammatory diseases: epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    von Scheven, Emily; Corbin, Kathleen Jo; Stagi, Stefano; Stefano, Stagi; Cimaz, Rolando

    2014-09-01

    Children with chronic illnesses such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Crohn's disease, particularly when taking glucocorticoids, are at significant risk for bone fragility. Furthermore, when childhood illness interferes with achieving normal peak bone mass, life-long fracture risk is increased. Osteopenia and osteoporosis, which is increasingly recognized in pediatric chronic disease, likely results from numerous disease- and treatment-related factors, including glucocorticoid exposure. Diagnosing osteoporosis in childhood is complicated by the limitations of current noninvasive techniques such as DXA, which despite its limitations remains the gold standard. The risk:benefit ratio of treatment is confounded by the potential for spontaneous restitution of bone mass deficits and reshaping of