Science.gov

Sample records for provenance

  1. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  2. Provenance in Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.; Van Horn, John D.; Woods, Roger P.; Crawford, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image’s provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data. PMID:18519166

  3. Innocent Until Proven Guilty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Catherine; Whitaker, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this…

  4. The provenance of rutile.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    Most coarse detrital rutile is derived from high-grade metamorphic rocks. Contrary to a conventional assumption, independent rutile grains are particularly rare in igneous rocks except alkalic rocks. The use of rutile in the zircon-tourmaline-rutile index of mineralogic maturity is only partially valid, owing to its restricted provenance. -Author

  5. Innocent Until Proven Guilty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Catherine; Whitaker, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this…

  6. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  7. Semantic Workflows and Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While sharing and disseminating data is widely practiced across scientific communities, we have yet to recognize the importance of sharing and disseminating the analytic processes that leads to published data. Data retrieved from shared repositories and archives is often hard to interpret because we lack documentation about those processes: what models were used, what assumptions were made, what calibrations were carried out, etc. This process documentation is also key to aggregate data in a meaningful way, whether aggregating shared third party data or aggregating shared data with local sensor data collected by individual investigators. We suggest that augmenting published data with process documentation would greatly enhance our ability to find, reuse, interpret, and aggregate data and therefore have a significant impact in the utility of data repositories and archives. We will show that semantic workflows and provenance provide key technologies for capturing process documentation. Semantic workflows describe the kinds of data transformation and analysis steps used to create new data products, and can include useful constraints about why specific models were selected or parameters chosen. Provenance records can be used to publish workflow descriptions in standard formats that can be reused to enable verification and reproducibility of data products.

  8. Cell line provenance.

    PubMed

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  9. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  10. Provenance through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reproduce scientific results is a cornerstone of the scientific method, and access to the data upon which the results are based is essential to reproducibility. Access to the data alone is not enough though, and research communities have recognized the importance of metadata (data documentation) to enable discovery and data access, and facilitate interpretation and accurate reuse. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was first funded in late 2006 by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biology and Chemistry Sections to help ensure that data generated during NSF OCE funded research would be preserved and available for future use. The BCO-DMO was formed by combining the formerly independent data management offices of two marine research programs: the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS) and the US GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics (US GLOBEC) program. Since the US JGOFS and US GLOBEC programs were both active (1990s) there have been significant changes in all aspects of the research data life cycle, and the staff at BCO-DMO has modified the way in which we manage data contributed to the office. The supporting documentation that describes each dataset was originally displayed as a human-readable text file retrievable via a Web browser. BCO-DMO still offers that form because our primary audience is marine researchers using Web browser clients; however we are seeing an increased demand to support machine client access. Metadata records from the BCO-DMO data system are now extracted and published out in a variety of formats. The system supports ISO 19115, FGDC, GCMD DIF, schema.org Dataset extension, formal publication with a DOI, and RDF with semantic markup including PROV-O, FOAF and more. In the 1990s, data documentation helped researchers locate data of interest and understand the provenance sufficiently to determine fitness for purpose. Today, providing data

  11. Information Provenance in Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

    Information appearing in social media provides a challenge for determining the provenance of the information. However, the same characteristics that make the social media environment challenging provide unique and untapped opportunities for solving the information provenance problem for social media. Current approaches for tracking provenance information do not scale for social media and consequently there is a gap in provenance methodologies and technologies providing exciting research opportunities for computer scientists and sociologists. This paper introduces a theoretical approach aimed guiding future efforts to realize a provenance capability for social media that is not available today. The guiding vision is the use of social media information itself to realize a useful amount provenance data for information in social media.

  12. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    SciTech Connect

    Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-06-06

    Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.

  13. Understanding bias in provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Malusà, Marco; Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Innumerable pieces of information are stored in the sedimentary archive. Each single sediment layer contains billions of detrital grains, and every grain preserves imprints of its geological story. If we learn to read, compare, and combine these messages properly, through a deeper understanding of physical and chemical processes that modify sediment composition during the sedimentary cycle, provenance analysis may eventually enable us to reconstruct more accurately the geological processes that shaped the Earth's crust in the past. Interpreting detrital modes is not straightforward because provenance signals issued from source rocks become progressively blurred by multiple noises in the sedimentary environment ("environmental bias"; Komar, 2007), and finally during post-depositional history ("diagenetic bias"; Morton and Hallsworth, 2007). During transport and deposition, detrital minerals are segregated in different size fractions and environments according to their size, density and shape (Rubey, 1933; Garzanti et al., 2008). Heavy-mineral concentration can increase by an order of magnitude due to selective-entrainment effects, with potentially overwhelming impact on chemical composition and provenance estimates based on detrital-geochronology data (Garzanti et al., 2009). Conversely, heavy-mineral concentration is typically reduced by an order of magnitude in Alpine and Himalayan foreland-basin deposits older than the Pleistocene (Garzanti and Andò, 2007). Extensive chemical dissolution can occur even prior to deposition during weathering in hot humid climates (Velbel, 2007). Primary provenance signals can be isolated and assessed by studying first modern sediments in hyperarid settings (i.e., free from diagenetic and weathering bias). Next, weathering, hydraulic-sorting, and diagenetic effects can be singled out by analysing sediments of similar provenance produced in contrasting climatic conditions, sediments transported in diverse modes and deposited in

  14. The Open Provenance Model: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Freire, Juliana; Futrelle, Joe; McGrath, Robert E.; Myers, Jim; Paulson, Patrick R.

    2008-11-19

    The Open Provenance Model (OPM) is a model for provenance that is designed to meet the following requirements: { To allow provenance information to be exchanged between systems, by means of a compatibility layer based on a shared provenance model. { To allow developers to build and share tools that operate on such provenance model. { To dene the model in a precise, technology-agnostic manner. { To support a digital representation of provenance for any \\thing", whether produced by computer systems or not. { To dene a core set of rules that identify the valid inferences that can be made on provenance graphs.

  15. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I.

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  16. File level provenance tracking in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.D.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Riley, D.S.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2009-05-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimize the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  17. Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskirk, Allen; Baradaran, Hediyeh

    2009-05-01

    "Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?" generated spirited responses from its reviewers. The reviews were approximately evenly divided, and all were of very high quality. The authors agreed with the editor’s proposal that the reviewers convert their reviews into rebuttals or affirmations of the authors’ position for publication along with the article, which has been revised based on the reviews. Most agreed to such a process and their comments appear here. We hope that publication of this paper and well-reasoned rebuttals such as those provided here will initiate a wide-ranging discussion. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. Our hope is that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Reviewer Comments: Brown Lewis Yoon Wade

  18. Software and Workflow Provenance: Documenting Scientific Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2016-12-01

    While major effort has been devoted to data provenance, the provenance of software and workflows is not as well understood. Software artifacts have their own provenance in terms of how they were created, what theories or models are behind them, and how they are derived from earlier versions or prior implementations. Workflows also evolve to reflect changes in science methods, as they are extended or assumptions lifted. These provenance records may be created separately from the provenance records of the articles themselves, but are needed to fully document the provenance of new scientific results in the published record. These are issues that the EarthCube OntoSoft project and the Geoscience Papers of the Future initiative are exploring. This presentation will discuss the requirements for capturing software and workflow provenance, the integration of those provenance records with provenance of new results in an article, and the integration of data provenance with software and workflow provenance. The presentation will also discuss how provenance records can support automated credit assignment, so that the explicit provenance records of the results in a paper can be automatically analyzed to extract credit to the software and workflows used to generate the results.

  19. Provenance of the terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1994-01-01

    Earlier work on the simultaneous accumulation of the asteroid belt and the terrestrial planets is extended to investigate the relative contribution to the final planets made by material from different heliocentric distances. As before, stochastic variations intrinsic to the accumulation processes lead to a variety of final planetary configurations, but include systems having a number of features similar to our solar system. Fifty-nine new simulations are presented, from which thirteen are selected as more similar to our solar system than the others. It is found that the concept of "local feeding zones" for each final terrestrial planet has no validity for this model. Instead, the final terrestrial planets receive major contributions from bodies ranging from 0.5 to at least 2.5 AU, and often to greater distances. Nevertheless, there is a correlation between the final heliocentric distance of a planet and its average provenance. Together with the effect of stochastic fluctuations, this permits variation in the composition of the terrestrial planets, such as the difference in the decompressed density of Earth and Mars. Biologically important light elements, derived from the asteroidal region, are likely to have been significant constituents of the Earth during its formation.

  20. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B.; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-01-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data. PMID:27570843

  1. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance.

    PubMed

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-03-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data.

  2. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  3. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  4. Leveraging Data Provenance to Enhance Cyber Resilience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    system perspective [6], [21], [27], [26], [30]. System layer provenance also offers gapless descriptions of user space activity, effectively making...every application that runs on the system provenance-aware. Unfortunately, the semantic gap between kernel and user space can make system provenance...controversy [31]. An overview of the LPM architecture is shown in Figure 1. LPM instruments the Linux kernel with a 178 dedicated user space kernel space

  5. Special Issue: The First Provenance Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Altintas, Ilkay; Barga, Roger S.; Bowers, Shawn; Callahan, Steven P.; Chin, George; Clifford, Ben; Cohen, Shirley; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Davidson, Susan; Deelman, Ewa; digiampietri, Luciano; Foster, Ian T.; Freire, Juliana; Frew, James; Futrelle, Joe; Gibson, Tara D.; Gil, Yolanda; Goble, Carole; Golbeck, Jennifer; Groth, Paul; Holland, David A.; Jiang, Sheng; Kim, Jihie; Koop, David; Krenek, Ales; McPhillips, Timothy; Mehta, Gaurang; Miles, Simon; Metzger, Dominic; Munroe, Steve; Myers, James D.; Plale, Beth A.; Podhorszki, norbert; Ratnakar, Varun; Emanuele , Santos; scheidegger, Carlos E.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Seltzer, Margo I.; Simmhan, Yogesh L.; Claudio, Silva T.; Slaughter, Peter; Stephan, Eric G.; Stevens, Robert; Turi, Daniele; Vo, Huy T.; Wilde, Mike J.; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2008-04-01

    The first Provenance Challenge was set up in order to provide a forum for the community to help understand the capabilities of different provenance systems and the expressiveness of their provenance representations. To this end, a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging workflow was defined, which participants had to either simulate or run in order to produce some provenance representation, from which a set of identified queries had to be implemented and executed. Sixteen teams responded to the challenge, and submitted their inputs. In this paper, we present the challenge workflow and queries, and summarise the participants contributions.

  6. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  7. Performance of shortleaf pine provenances in Missouri

    Treesearch

    David Gwaze; Jennifer Myszewski; John Kabrick

    2007-01-01

    Two shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) provenance tests established by the USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station as part of the South-wide Southern Pine Seed Source Study were examined to determine the most suitable seed sources for planting in Missouri. Each test comprised seven different provenances from six to seven states in the...

  8. Active Provenance in Data-intensive Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Mihajlovski, Andrej; Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm

    2017-04-01

    Scientific communities are building platforms where the usage of data-intensive workflows is crucial to conduct their research campaigns. However managing and effectively support the understanding of the 'live' processes, fostering computational steering, sharing and re-use of data and methods, present several bottlenecks. These are often caused by the poor level of documentation on the methods and the data and how users interact with it. This work wants to explore how in such systems, flexibility in the management of the provenance and its adaptation to the different users and application contexts can lead to new opportunities for its exploitation, improving productivity. In particular, this work illustrates a conceptual and technical framework enabling tunable and actionable provenance in data-intensive workflow systems in support of reproducible science. It introduces the concept of Agile data-intensive systems to define the characteristic of our target platform. It shows a novel approach to the integration of provenance mechanisms, offering flexibility in the scale and in the precision of the provenance data collected, ensuring its relevance to the domain of the data-intensive task, fostering its rapid exploitation. The contributions address aspects of the scale of the provenance records, their usability and active role in the research life-cycle. We will discuss the use of dynamically generated provenance types as the approach for the integration of provenance mechanisms into a data-intensive workflow system. Enabling provenance can be transparent to the workflow user and developer, as well as fully controllable and customisable, depending from their expertise and the application's reproducibility, monitoring and validation requirements. The API that allows the realisation and adoption of a provenance type is presented, especially for what concerns the support of provenance profiling, contextualisation and precision. An actionable approach to provenance

  9. Provenance Storage, Querying, and Visualization in PBase

    SciTech Connect

    Kianmajd, Parisa; Ludascher, Bertram; Missier, Paolo; Chirigati, Fernando; Wei, Yaxing; Koop, David; Dey, Saumen

    2015-01-01

    We present PBase, a repository for scientific workflows and their corresponding provenance information that facilitates the sharing of experiments among the scientific community. PBase is interoperable since it uses ProvONE, a standard provenance model for scientific workflows. Workflows and traces are stored in RDF, and with the support of SPARQL and the tree cover encoding, the repository provides a scalable infrastructure for querying the provenance data. Furthermore, through its user interface, it is possible to: visualize workflows and execution traces; visualize reachability relations within these traces; issue SPARQL queries; and visualize query results.

  10. Tracking Provenance of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.

  11. Tracking Provenance of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.

  12. An R package for statistical provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces provenance, a software package within the statistical programming environment R, which aims to facilitate the visualisation and interpretation of large amounts of sedimentary provenance data, including mineralogical, petrographic, chemical and isotopic provenance proxies, or any combination of these. provenance comprises functions to: (a) calculate the sample size required to achieve a given detection limit; (b) plot distributional data such as detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra as Cumulative Age Distributions (CADs) or adaptive Kernel Density Estimates (KDEs); (c) plot compositional data as pie charts or ternary diagrams; (d) correct the effects of hydraulic sorting on sandstone petrography and heavy mineral composition; (e) assess the settling equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition; (f) quantify the dissimilarity between distributional data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Sircombe-Hazelton distances, or between compositional data using the Aitchison and Bray-Curtis distances; (e) interpret multi-sample datasets by means of (classical and nonmetric) Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA); and (f) simplify the interpretation of multi-method datasets by means of Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA) and 3-way MDS. All these tools can be accessed through an intuitive query-based user interface, which does not require knowledge of the R programming language. provenance is free software released under the GPL-2 licence and will be further expanded based on user feedback.

  13. Evaluation of filesystem provenance visualization tools.

    PubMed

    Borkin, Michelle A; Yeh, Chelsea S; Boyd, Madelaine; Macko, Peter; Gajos, Krzysztof Z; Seltzer, Margo; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2013-12-01

    Having effective visualizations of filesystem provenance data is valuable for understanding its complex hierarchical structure. The most common visual representation of provenance data is the node-link diagram. While effective for understanding local activity, the node-link diagram fails to offer a high-level summary of activity and inter-relationships within the data. We present a new tool, InProv, which displays filesystem provenance with an interactive radial-based tree layout. The tool also utilizes a new time-based hierarchical node grouping method for filesystem provenance data we developed to match the user's mental model and make data exploration more intuitive. We compared InProv to a conventional node-link based tool, Orbiter, in a quantitative evaluation with real users of filesystem provenance data including provenance data experts, IT professionals, and computational scientists. We also compared in the evaluation our new node grouping method to a conventional method. The results demonstrate that InProv results in higher accuracy in identifying system activity than Orbiter with large complex data sets. The results also show that our new time-based hierarchical node grouping method improves performance in both tools, and participants found both tools significantly easier to use with the new time-based node grouping method. Subjective measures show that participants found InProv to require less mental activity, less physical activity, less work, and is less stressful to use. Our study also reveals one of the first cases of gender differences in visualization; both genders had comparable performance with InProv, but women had a significantly lower average accuracy (56%) compared to men (70%) with Orbiter.

  14. Community Education Proven Practices II: Networking Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Designed to be used by those who wish to initiate or further develop community education programs at the state and local levels, this publication is one of a series of "Proven Practices" developed by federally-funded state and local community education projects. The booklet describes the administrative design and the process used to…

  15. Applying Content Management to Automated Provenance Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Gibson, Tara D.; Stephan, Eric G.; Chin, George

    2008-04-10

    Workflows and data pipelines are becoming increasingly valuable in both computational and experimen-tal sciences. These automated systems are capable of generating significantly more data within the same amount of time than their manual counterparts. Automatically capturing and recording data prove-nance and annotation as part of these workflows is critical for data management, verification, and dis-semination. Our goal in addressing the provenance challenge was to develop and end-to-end system that demonstrates real-time capture, persistent content management, and ad-hoc searches of both provenance and metadata using open source software and standard protocols. We describe our prototype, which extends the Kepler workflow tools for the execution environment, the Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) content management software for data services, and an existing HTTP-based query protocol. Our implementation offers several unique capabilities, and through the use of standards, is able to pro-vide access to the provenance record to a variety of commonly available client tools.

  16. Provenance testing at Michigan Technological University

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Sajdak

    1970-01-01

    The location of M.T.U. in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Upper Michigan provides some unique advantages and disadvantages in provenance testing and tree improvement research. Extremes in summer and winter temperatures are uncommon because of the moderating effect of Lake Superior. Near the Lake we have about 140 frost-free days while inland the frost-free season is only 80...

  17. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Provenance is a critical ingredient for establishing trust of published scientific content. This is true whether we are considering a data set, a computational workflow, a peer-reviewed publication or a simple scientific claim with supportive evidence. Existing vocabularies such as Dublin Core Terms (DC Terms) and the W3C Provenance Ontology (PROV-O) are domain-independent and general-purpose and they allow and encourage for extensions to cover more specific needs. In particular, to track authoring and versioning information of web resources, PROV-O provides a basic methodology but not any specific classes and properties for identifying or distinguishing between the various roles assumed by agents manipulating digital artifacts, such as author, contributor and curator. Results We present the Provenance, Authoring and Versioning ontology (PAV, namespace http://purl.org/pav/): a lightweight ontology for capturing “just enough” descriptions essential for tracking the provenance, authoring and versioning of web resources. We argue that such descriptions are essential for digital scientific content. PAV distinguishes between contributors, authors and curators of content and creators of representations in addition to the provenance of originating resources that have been accessed, transformed and consumed. We explore five projects (and communities) that have adopted PAV illustrating their usage through concrete examples. Moreover, we present mappings that show how PAV extends the W3C PROV-O ontology to support broader interoperability. Method The initial design of the PAV ontology was driven by requirements from the AlzSWAN project with further requirements incorporated later from other projects detailed in this paper. The authors strived to keep PAV lightweight and compact by including only those terms that have demonstrated to be pragmatically useful in existing applications, and by recommending terms from existing ontologies when plausible. Discussion

  18. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Belhajjame, Khalid; Gray, Alasdair Jg; Goble, Carole; Clark, Tim

    2013-11-22

    Provenance is a critical ingredient for establishing trust of published scientific content. This is true whether we are considering a data set, a computational workflow, a peer-reviewed publication or a simple scientific claim with supportive evidence. Existing vocabularies such as Dublin Core Terms (DC Terms) and the W3C Provenance Ontology (PROV-O) are domain-independent and general-purpose and they allow and encourage for extensions to cover more specific needs. In particular, to track authoring and versioning information of web resources, PROV-O provides a basic methodology but not any specific classes and properties for identifying or distinguishing between the various roles assumed by agents manipulating digital artifacts, such as author, contributor and curator. We present the Provenance, Authoring and Versioning ontology (PAV, namespace http://purl.org/pav/): a lightweight ontology for capturing "just enough" descriptions essential for tracking the provenance, authoring and versioning of web resources. We argue that such descriptions are essential for digital scientific content. PAV distinguishes between contributors, authors and curators of content and creators of representations in addition to the provenance of originating resources that have been accessed, transformed and consumed. We explore five projects (and communities) that have adopted PAV illustrating their usage through concrete examples. Moreover, we present mappings that show how PAV extends the W3C PROV-O ontology to support broader interoperability. The initial design of the PAV ontology was driven by requirements from the AlzSWAN project with further requirements incorporated later from other projects detailed in this paper. The authors strived to keep PAV lightweight and compact by including only those terms that have demonstrated to be pragmatically useful in existing applications, and by recommending terms from existing ontologies when plausible. We analyze and compare PAV with related

  19. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research

  20. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    DOE PAGES

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; ...

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance informationmore » and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research« less

  1. Titian: Data Provenance Support in Spark.

    PubMed

    Interlandi, Matteo; Shah, Kshitij; Tetali, Sai Deep; Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Miryung; Millstein, Todd; Condie, Tyson

    2015-11-01

    Debugging data processing logic in Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems is a difficult and time consuming effort. Today's DISC systems offer very little tooling for debugging programs, and as a result programmers spend countless hours collecting evidence (e.g., from log files) and performing trial and error debugging. To aid this effort, we built Titian, a library that enables data provenance-tracking data through transformations-in Apache Spark. Data scientists using the Titian Spark extension will be able to quickly identify the input data at the root cause of a potential bug or outlier result. Titian is built directly into the Spark platform and offers data provenance support at interactive speeds-orders-of-magnitude faster than alternative solutions-while minimally impacting Spark job performance; observed overheads for capturing data lineage rarely exceed 30% above the baseline job execution time.

  2. Provenance and annotation for visual exploration systems.

    PubMed

    Groth, Dennis P; Streefkerk, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    Exploring data using visualization systems has been shown to be an extremely powerful technique. However, one of the challenges with such systems is an inability to completely support the knowledge discovery process. More than simply looking at data, users will make a semipermanent record of their visualizations by printing out a hard copy. Subsequently, users will mark and annotate these static representations, either for dissemination purposes or to augment their personal memory of what was witnessed. In this paper, we present a model for recording the history of user explorations in visualization environments, augmented with the capability for users to annotate their explorations. A prototype system is used to demonstrate how this provenance information can be recalled and shared. The prototype system generates interactive visualizations of the provenance data using a spatio-temporal technique. Beyond the technical details of our model and prototype, results from a controlled experiment that explores how different history mechanisms impact problem solving in visualization environments are presented.

  3. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research.

  4. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport.

  5. Data Provenance in Photogrammetry Through Documentation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, N.; Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; de Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Suma, R.

    2016-06-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogrammetric workflow. We propose this pipeline, with descriptors to track all phases of digital product creation in order to assure data provenance and enable the validation of the operations from an analytic and production perspective. The approach aims to support adopters of the workflow to define procedures with a long term perspective. The conceptual schema we present is founded on an analysis of information and actor exchanges in the digitisation process. The metadata were defined through the synthesis of previous proposals in this area and were tested on a case study. We performed the digitisation of a set of cultural heritage artefacts from an Iron Age burial in Ilmendorf, Germany. The objects were captured and processed using different techniques, including a comparison of different imaging tools and algorithms. This augmented the complexity of the process allowing us to test the flexibility of the schema for documenting complex scenarios. Although we have only presented a photogrammetry digitisation scenario, we claim that our schema is easily applicable to a multitude of 3D documentation processes.

  6. RAPD profile variation amongst provenances of neem.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, N; Ranade, S A; Sane, P V

    1998-08-01

    Neem, described as a tree for solving global problems, is an evergreen, long-lived, multipurpose tree of the tropics with a wide distribution range in India. It is believed to be highly cross-pollinated. Inter-provenance variations have been reported in neem in case of morphological and physiological characters. Yet no reports about the genetic determinism for these variations are available to our knowledge. In order to have an idea about the extent and/or nature of genetic (DNA) variation in neem, the powerful RAPD technique has been employed. RAPD profiles of 34 accessions/provenances of neem were generated with 200 decamer random primers, of which the data from the 49 primers, that resulted in reproducible amplification products, were considered for analysis. Based on the presence/absence of bands, a similarity matrix was computed. Dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA method based on the pairwise similarities amongst the RAPD profiles. The similarities in RAPD profiles amongst the different DNAs was more than that expected due to the cross-pollinated nature of the tree and furthermore, these more-than-expected similarities were not due to random chance. These results suggest that neem may have a narrow genetic base.

  7. Provenance of sediments from Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Christof; Hall, Robert; Gough, Amy

    2017-04-01

    The island of Sumatra is situated at the south-western margin of the Indonesian archipelago. Sumatra is affected by active continental margin volcanism along the Sunda Trench, west of Sumatra as a result of active northeast subduction of the Indian plate under the Eurasian plate. Exposures of the Palaeozoic meta-sedimentary basement are mainly limited in extent to the northeast-southwest trending Barisan Mountain chain. The younger Cenozoic rocks are widespread across Sumatra, but can be grouped into structurally subdivided 'fore-arc', 'intramontane', and 'back-arc' basins. However, the formation of the basins pre-dates the current magmatic arc, thus a classical arc-related generation model can not be applied. The Cenozoic formations are well studied due to hydrocarbon enrichment, but little is known about their provenance history. A comprehensive sedimentary provenance study of the Cenozoic formations can aid in the wider understanding of Sumatran petroleum plays, can contribute to palaeographic reconstruction of western SE Asia, and might help to simplify the overall stratigraphy of Sumatra. This work represents a multi-proxy provenance study of sedimentary rocks from the main Cenozoic basins of Sumatra, alongside sediment from present-day river systems. The project refines the provenance in two ways: first, by studying the heavy mineral assemblages of the targeted formations, and secondly, by U-Pb detrital zircon dating using LA-ICP-MS to identify the age-range of the potential sediment sources. Preliminary U-Pb zircon age-data of >1500 concordant grains (10% discordant cut-off), heavy mineral compositions, and thin section analysis from two fieldwork seasons indicate a mixed provenance model, with a proximal igneous source, and mature basement rocks. An increase of the proximal signature in Lower-Miocene strata indicated by the occurrence of unstable heavy mineral phases such as apatite, and clinopyroxene suggests a major change of the source at the Oligocene

  8. The Open Provenance Model core specification (v1.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Clifford, Ben; Freire, Juliana; Futrelle, Joe; Gil, Yolanda; Groth, Paul; Kwasnikowska, Natalia; Miles, Simon; Missier, Paolo; Myers, Jim; Plale, Beth; Simmhan, Yogesh; Stephan, Eric; den Bussche, Jan Van

    2011-06-01

    The Open Provenance Model is a model of provenance that is designed to meet the following requirements: (1) To allow provenance information to be ex- changed between systems, by means of a compatibility layer based on a shared provenance model. (2) To allow developers to build and share tools that operate on such a provenance model. (3) To deFIne provenance in a precise, technology- agnostic manner. (4) To support a digital representation of provenance for any “thing, whether produced by computer systems or not. (5) To allow multiple levels of description to coexist. (6) To deFIne a core set of rules that identify the valid inferences that can be made on provenance representation. This docu- ment contains the speciFIcation of the Open Provenance Model (v1.1) resulting from a commChallenge.

  9. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  10. Standardized wellheads proven economical for subsea operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, C.C.; Silva Paulo, C.A. )

    1994-05-02

    A standardization program for subsea wellheads and completion equipment has made development of Brazil's offshore fields more economical and efficient. The resulting operational flexibility associated with the use of field-proven equipment and procedures saves rig time and can reduce production loss during workovers. Additionally, investments can be rationalized economically by installing part of the completion equipment at the end of the drilling job and then delaying purchase and installation of the christmas tree and the flow lines until installation of the production platform. Savings are also realized from the reduction in the number of spare parts and tools. Moreover, the savings related to improved operations exceed considerably those from equipment acquisition and storage. Thus, the greatest benefit is the operational flexibility. The paper discusses initial standards, the subsea programs, philosophy, implementation, diver-assisted trees, diverless trees, and economics.

  11. Titian: Data Provenance Support in Spark

    PubMed Central

    Interlandi, Matteo; Shah, Kshitij; Tetali, Sai Deep; Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Miryung; Millstein, Todd; Condie, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Debugging data processing logic in Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems is a difficult and time consuming effort. Today’s DISC systems offer very little tooling for debugging programs, and as a result programmers spend countless hours collecting evidence (e.g., from log files) and performing trial and error debugging. To aid this effort, we built Titian, a library that enables data provenance—tracking data through transformations—in Apache Spark. Data scientists using the Titian Spark extension will be able to quickly identify the input data at the root cause of a potential bug or outlier result. Titian is built directly into the Spark platform and offers data provenance support at interactive speeds—orders-of-magnitude faster than alternative solutions—while minimally impacting Spark job performance; observed overheads for capturing data lineage rarely exceed 30% above the baseline job execution time. PMID:26726305

  12. Modeling the Provenance of Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya-Huei; Minton, David A.

    2014-11-01

    The cratering history of the Moon provides a way to study the violent early history of our early solar system. Nevertheless, we are still limited in our ability to interpret the lunar cratering history because the complex process of generation and subsequent transportation and destruction of impact melt products is relatively poorly understood. Here we describe a preliminary model for the transport of datable impact melt products by craters over Gy timescales on the lunar surface. We use a numerical model based on the Maxwell Z-model to model the exhumation and transport of ejecta material from within the excavation flow of a transient crater. We describe our algorithm for rapidly estimating the provenance of ejecta material for use in a Monte Carlo cratering code capable of simulating lunar cratering over Gy timescales.

  13. A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature, validate scientific process, and associate trust value with data and results. Traditional approaches to provenance management have focused on only partial sections of the translational research life cycle and they do not incorporate "domain semantics", which is essential to support domain-specific querying and analysis by scientists. Results We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF), underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata: (a) Provenance collection - during data generation (b) Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics (c) Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications (d) Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applications We apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE) and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR) project, to demonstrate its effectiveness. Conclusions The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance of translational

  14. Biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J J; Pee, S; Thevarajah, B; Yap, Y C; Chin, C K

    2004-06-01

    There has been no published study of biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Malaysia. To determine the pattern of childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor, Malaysia from a histopathological perspective and the various indications used for renal biopsy in children. Retrospective study was done of all renal biopsies from children under 16 years of age, received in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor between 1994 and 2001. The histopathological findings were reviewed to determine the pattern of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis. The indications for biopsy, mode of therapy given after biopsy and the clinical outcome were studied. 122 adequate biopsies were received, 9 children had repeat biopsies. Of the 113 biopsies, minimal change disease formed the most common histopathological diagnosis (40.7%) while lupus nephritis formed the most common secondary glomerulonephritis (23.0%). The main indications for biopsy were nephrotic syndrome (50.8%), lupus nephritis (25.4%) and renal impairment (13.1%). The mode of therapy was changed in 59.8% of the children. Of 106 patients followed-up, 84 children were found to have normal renal function in remission or on treatment. 4 patients developed chronic renal impairment and 16 reached end stage renal disease. Five of the 16 children with end stage disease had since died while 11 were on renal replacement therapy. Another 2 patients died of other complications. The pattern of childhood GN in our study tended to reflect the more severe renal parenchymal diseases in children and those requiring more aggressive treatment. This was because of our criteria of selection (indication) for renal biopsy. Renal biopsy where performed appropriately in selected children may not only be a useful investigative tool for histological diagnosis and prognosis but may help clinicians plan the optimal therapy for these children.

  15. Provenance research: investigation of genetic diversity associated with geography

    Treesearch

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1963-01-01

    Provenance in forestry refers to the population of trees growing at n particular place of origin. Provenance research defines the genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation associated with geographic source. Information on provenance is important in assuring sources of seed to give well-adapted, productive trees and in directing breeding of...

  16. Scientific Workflows + Provenance = Better (Meta-)Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    The origin and processing history of an artifact is known as its provenance. Data provenance is an important form of metadata that explains how a particular data product came about, e.g., how and when it was derived in a computational process, which parameter settings and input data were used, etc. Provenance information provides transparency and helps to explain and interpret data products. Other common uses and applications of provenance include quality control, data curation, result debugging, and more generally, 'reproducible science'. Scientific workflow systems (e.g. Kepler, Taverna, VisTrails, and others) provide controlled environments for developing computational pipelines with built-in provenance support. Workflow results can then be explained in terms of workflow steps, parameter settings, input data, etc. using provenance that is automatically captured by the system. Scientific workflows themselves provide a user-friendly abstraction of the computational process and are thus a form of ('prospective') provenance in their own right. The full potential of provenance information is realized when combining workflow-level information (prospective provenance) with trace-level information (retrospective provenance). To this end, the DataONE Provenance Working Group (ProvWG) has developed an extension of the W3C PROV standard, called D-PROV. Whereas PROV provides a 'least common denominator' for exchanging and integrating provenance information, D-PROV adds new 'observables' that described workflow-level information (e.g., the functional steps in a pipeline), as well as workflow-specific trace-level information ( timestamps for each workflow step executed, the inputs and outputs used, etc.) Using examples, we will demonstrate how the combination of prospective and retrospective provenance provides added value in managing scientific data. The DataONE ProvWG is also developing tools based on D-PROV that allow scientists to get more mileage from provenance metadata

  17. Liver fluke isolates: a question of provenance.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, I

    2011-02-28

    A survey of literature on experimental infections with the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica published between 2005 and 2009 has revealed a general lack of information on where fluke material (i.e. metacercariae) was sourced from. Even less information was given on the drug status of the fluke isolate used, which is a particular concern for those studies that involved anthelmintics. In these two respects, information on the liver fluke lags far behind that for nematodes, where such information is given almost as a matter of course. Of additional concern is that, at times, information about the source and drug history of fluke isolates was incorrect. The overall aim of the review is to demonstrate why it is important to provide as much information as possible on what fluke material is being used. It also attempts to correct some of the errors in the literature and gather together what information is available about the provenance of those isolates that have been used in recent experimental studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  19. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  20. Securing Provenance of Distributed Processes in an Untrusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syalim, Amril; Nishide, Takashi; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Recently, there is much concern about the provenance of distributed processes, that is about the documentation of the origin and the processes to produce an object in a distributed system. The provenance has many applications in the forms of medical records, documentation of processes in the computer systems, recording the origin of data in the cloud, and also documentation of human-executed processes. The provenance of distributed processes can be modeled by a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where each node represents an entity, and an edge represents the origin and causal relationship between entities. Without sufficient security mechanisms, the provenance graph suffers from integrity and confidentiality problems, for example changes or deletions of the correct nodes, additions of fake nodes and edges, and unauthorized accesses to the sensitive nodes and edges. In this paper, we propose an integrity mechanism for provenance graph using the digital signature involving three parties: the process executors who are responsible in the nodes' creation, a provenance owner that records the nodes to the provenance store, and a trusted party that we call the Trusted Counter Server (TCS) that records the number of nodes stored by the provenance owner. We show that the mechanism can detect the integrity problem in the provenance graph, namely unauthorized and malicious “authorized” updates even if all the parties, except the TCS, collude to update the provenance. In this scheme, the TCS only needs a very minimal storage (linear with the number of the provenance owners). To protect the confidentiality and for an efficient access control administration, we propose a method to encrypt the provenance graph that allows access by paths and compartments in the provenance graph. We argue that encryption is important as a mechanism to protect the provenance data stored in an untrusted environment. We analyze the security of the integrity mechanism, and perform experiments to measure

  1. Data Provenance Architecture for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The pace at which geoscientific insights inform societal development quickens with time and these insights drive decisions and actions of ever-increasing human and economic significance. Until recently academic, commercial and government bodies have maintained distinct bodies of knowledge to support scientific enquiry as well as societal development. However, it has become clear that the curation of the body of data is an activity of equal or higher social and commercial value. We address the community challenges in the curation of, access to, and analysis of scientific data including: the tensions between creators, providers and users; incentives and barriers to sharing; ownership and crediting. We also discuss the technical and financial challenges in maximising the return on the effort made in generating geoscientific data. To illustrate how these challenges might be addressed in the broader geoscientific domain, we describe the high-level data governance and analytical architecture in the upstream Oil Industry. This domain is heavily dependent on costly and highly diverse geodatasets collected and assimilated over timeframes varying from seconds to decades. These data must support both operational decisions at the minute-hour timefame and strategic and economic decisions of enterprise or national scale, and yet be sufficiently robust to last the life of a producing field. We develop three themes around data provenance, data ownership and business models for data curation. 1/ The overarching aspiration is to ensure that data provenance and quality is maintained along the analytical workflow. Hence if data on which a publication or report changes, the report and its publishers can be notified and we describe a mechanism by which dependent knowledge products can be flagged. 2/ From a cost and management point of view we look at who "owns" data especially in cases where the cost of curation and stewardship is significant compared to the cost of acquiring the data

  2. Data provenance assurance in the cloud using blockchain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Sachin; Red, Val; Kamhoua, Charles; Kwiat, Kevin; Njilla, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    Ever increasing adoption of cloud technology scales up the activities like creation, exchange, and alteration of cloud data objects, which create challenges to track malicious activities and security violations. Addressing this issue requires implementation of data provenance framework so that each data object in the federated cloud environment can be tracked and recorded but cannot be modified. The blockchain technology gives a promising decentralized platform to build tamper-proof systems. Its incorruptible distributed ledger/blockchain complements the need of maintaining cloud data provenance. In this paper, we present a cloud based data provenance framework using block chain which traces data record operations and generates provenance data. We anchor provenance data records into block chain transactions, which provide validation on provenance data and preserve user privacy at the same time. Once the provenance data is uploaded to the global block chain network, it is extremely challenging to tamper the provenance data. Besides, the provenance data uses hashed user identifiers prior to uploading so the blockchain nodes cannot link the operations to a particular user. The framework ensures that the privacy is preserved. We implemented the architecture on ownCloud, uploaded records to blockchain network, stored records in a provenance database and developed a prototype in form of a web service.

  3. Automatic Provenance Recording for Scientific Data using Trident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmhan, Y.; Barga, R.; van Ingen, C.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance is increasingly recognized as being critical to the understanding and reuse of scientific datasets. Given the rapid generation of scientific data from sensors and computational model results, it is not practical to manually record provenance for data and automated techniques for provenance capture are essential. Scientific workflows provide a framework for representing computational models and complex transformations of scientific data, and present a means for tracking the operations performed to derive a dataset. The Trident Scientific Workbench is a workflow system that natively incorporates provenance capture of data derived as part of the workflow execution. The applications used as part of a Trident workflow can execute on a remote computational cluster, such as a supercomputing center on in the Cloud, or on the local desktop of the researcher, and provenance on data derived by the applications is seamlessly captured. Scientists also have the option to annotate the provenance metadata using domain specific tags such as, for example, GCMD keywords. The provenance records thus captured can be exported in the Open Provenance Model* XML format that is emerging as a provenance standard in the eScience community or visualized as a graph of data and applications. The Trident workflow system and provenance recorded by it has been successfully applied in the Neptune oceanography project and is presently being tested in the Pan-STARRS astronomy project. *http://twiki.ipaw.info/bin/view/Challenge/OPM

  4. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  5. Everything is autoimmune until proven otherwise.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-10-01

    diseases that have either an inflammatory and/or specific autoimmune response, we have to keep an open eye because everything is potentially autoimmune until proven otherwise.

  6. Towards a common provenance model for research publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L.; Ma, X.; West, P.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness. In a research publication, provenance includes entities, activities and people involved in the process leading to the parts of the publication such as figures, tables, paragraphs etc. Such information is often desirable for the readers to correctly interpret publication content and enables them to evaluate the credibility of the reported results by digging into the software in use, source data and responsible agents or even reproducing the results themselves. In this presentation, we will describe our ontology designed to model the preparing process of research publications based on our experience from two projects, both focusing on provenance capturing for research publications. The first project is about capturing provenance information for a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), and the second about capturing provenance information for an Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC). Both projects base their provenance modeling on the W3C Provenance ontology (PROV-O), which proves to be an effective way to create models for provenance capturing. We will illustrate the commonalities and differences between use cases of these two projects and how we derive a common model from models specifically designed to capture provenance information for each of the projects.

  7. Provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. in California

    Treesearch

    B.M. Emery; F. Thomas Ledig

    1987-01-01

    In California, the Lake Albacutya provenance of river red gum was clearly superior in volume growth to 22 other provenances collected throughout the range of the species in Australia. It had at least 2.5 times the volume of the plantation mean at 5.5 years, consistent with its performance in other countries with Mediterranean climates like California's. Other...

  8. Twenty-year performance in a white oak provenance test

    Treesearch

    Philip A. O' Connor

    2005-01-01

    In 1983 a limited-range provenance test for white oak (Quercus alba L.) was established at the Starve Hollow SRA in cooperation with the North Central Forest Experiment Station. The planting was made up of half-sib progeny of nine families/provenances representing six states from Mississippi through Minnesota.

  9. The problem of site variation within red pine provenance experiments

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Holst

    1966-01-01

    In spite of care taken in the selection of site and experimental design of provenance experiments, site heterogenity within the experimental area may be more complex than was anticipated when the experiment was established. The present paper describes a problem of this nature encountered in a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) provenance experiment at...

  10. Sugar maple provenance study: West Virginia outplanting - 10-year results

    Treesearch

    G. W. Wendel; W. J. Gabriel

    1980-01-01

    After 10 years, survival of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) provenances outplanted in West Virginia did not differ significantly. Total height, height growth and dbh measurements were significantly different among provenances. Fifty percent of the trees had major forks below 9.0 feet. Thirty-eight percent of the trees had no forks but 71 percent...

  11. Adaptation of eastern whitepine provenances to planting sites

    Treesearch

    Maurice E., Jr. Demeritt; Peter W. Garrett

    1996-01-01

    Eastern white pine provenances from the extreme limits of the natural range of this species are changing from above- and below-average stability to average stability for height growth with increasing age. The regression method is useful for evaluating the stability of provenance to planting sites. The same general conclusions are reached for the performance at...

  12. Research traceability using provenance services for biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Branson, Andrew; Habib, Irfan; McClatchey, Richard; Solomonides, Tony; Soomro, Kamran; The Neugrid Consortium

    2010-01-01

    We outline the approach being developed in the neuGRID project to use provenance management techniques for the purposes of capturing and preserving the provenance data that emerges in the specification and execution of workflows in biomedical analyses. In the neuGRID project a provenance service has been designed and implemented that is intended to capture, store, retrieve and reconstruct the workflow information needed to facilitate users in conducting user analyses. We describe the architecture of the neuGRID provenance service and discuss how the CRISTAL system from CERN is being adapted to address the requirements of the project and then consider how a generalised approach for provenance management could emerge for more generic application to the (Health)Grid community.

  13. Proven Force--Proof of Concept for the Composite Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-13

    AD- A24 9 881 NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, Rhode Island PROVEN FORCE - PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR THE COMPOSITE WING by J . Scott Norwood 4 Major, USAF M 3A 1...TITLE *Ki* secWAY C1=VkfcW4 Proven Force -- Proof of Concept (-z) 12. P1SIONAL AUTNOR3 Major J . Scott Norwood, USAF 13& TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TI*h...offum 1"-436.412 0102-LF-014-6602 1 PROVEN FORCE -- PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR THE COMPOSITE WING J . Scott Norwood Major, USAF IN BRIEF The lion’s share of

  14. Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper, developed for EPA's Engineering Forum, identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost.

  15. The Symbiotic Relationship between Scientific Workflow and Provenance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the symbiotic nature of scientific workflows and provenance. We will also discuss the current trends and real world challenges facing these two distinct research areas. Although motivated differently, the needs of the international science communities are the glue that binds this relationship together. Understanding and articulating the science drivers to these communities is paramount as these technologies evolve and mature. Originally conceived for managing business processes, workflows are now becoming invaluable assets in both computational and experimental sciences. These reconfigurable, automated systems provide essential technology to perform complex analyses by coupling together geographically distributed disparate data sources and applications. As a result, workflows are capable of higher throughput in a shorter amount of time than performing the steps manually. Today many different workflow products exist; these could include Kepler and Taverna or similar products like MeDICI, developed at PNNL, that are standardized on the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Provenance, originating from the French term Provenir “to come from”, is used to describe the curation process of artwork as art is passed from owner to owner. The concept of provenance was adopted by digital libraries as a means to track the lineage of documents while standards such as the DublinCore began to emerge. In recent years the systems science community has increasingly expressed the need to expand the concept of provenance to formally articulate the history of scientific data. Communities such as the International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW) have formalized a provenance data model. The Open Provenance Model, and the W3C is hosting a provenance incubator group featuring the Proof Markup Language. Although both workflows and provenance have risen from different communities and operate independently, their mutual

  16. Preventing Exploits Against Software of Uncertain Provenance (PEASOUP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    results of the research and development of PEASOUP (Preventing Exploits Against Software of Uncertain Provenance), a technology that enables the safe...Preventing Exploits Against Software of Uncertain Provenance), a technology that enables the safe execution of software executables. PEASOUP...Products and Transferable Technology 5 2.2 Use of Third-Party COTS Products 7 2.3 Overview of the Technical Approach and Plan 8 2.4 2.4.1 The (Offline

  17. DataONE: A Data Federation with Provenance Support

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yang; Jones, Christopher; Cuevas-Vicenttin, Victor; Jones, Matthew B.; Ludascher, Bertram; McPhillips, Timothy; Missier, Paolo; Schwalm, Christopher; Slaughter, Peter; Vieglais, Dave; Walker, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    DataONE is a federated data network focusing on earth and environmental science data. We present the provenance and search features of DataONE by means of an example involving three earth scientists who interact through a DataONE Member Node. DataONE provenance systems enable reproducible research and facilitate proper attribution of scientific results transitively across generations of derived data products.

  18. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  19. ISO TC211 standards on Provenance for Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Deng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Data provenance, also called lineage, records the derivation history of a data product. The history could include the algorithms used, the process steps taken, the computing environment run, data sources input to the processes, the organization/person responsible for the product, etc. Provenance provides important information to data users for them to determine the usability and reliability of the product. In the science domain, the data provenance is especially important since scientists need to use the information to determine the scientific validity of a data product and to decide if such a product can be used as the basis for further scientific analysis. Provenance is a kind of metadata. In Earth science domain, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 211 (ISO TC 211) have set geospatial metadata standards for geospatial data, including ISO 19115:2003-Metadata, ISO 19115-2:2009-Metadata-Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data, and ISO 19115-1:2014 - Metadata -- Part 1: Fundamentals. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define the fundamental metadata for documenting geospatial data products, and ISO 19115-2 provides additional metadata classes for imagery and gridded data. ISO 19115-1:2014 is the revised version of ISO 19115:2003. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define fundamental lineage information classes and subclasses. They miss some key information classes needed for documenting the provenance in the Web service environment, such as the running environment, the algorithms, and software executables. However, ISO 19115-2 extends the lineage model in ISO 19115 and provides additional metadata classes needed for documenting provenance information. The combination of lineage models in ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-2 provides a comprehensive provenance information model needed for the web service environment. Currently the ISO Provence standard is not compatible with W3C Prov standard. The revision of ISO 19115-2 will be started in

  20. Provenance Usage in the OceanLink Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Jones, M.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve thedissemination of scientific research. The OceanLink project, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is utilizing semantic technologies tointegrate geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Provenance is a vital componentin meeting both the scientific and engineering requirements of OceanLink. Provenance plays a key role in justification and understanding when presenting users with results aggregated from multiple sources. In the engineering sense, provenance enables the identification of new data and the ability to determine which data sources to query. Additionally, OceanLink will leverage human and machine computation for crowdsourcing, text mining, and co-reference resolution. The results of these computations, and their associated provenance, will be folded back into the constituent systems to continually enhance precision and utility. We will touch on the various roles provenance is playing in OceanLink as well as present our use of the PROV Ontology and associated Ontology Design Patterns.

  1. Computational provenance in hydrologic science: a snow mapping example.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Jeff; Frew, James

    2009-03-13

    Computational provenance--a record of the antecedents and processing history of digital information--is key to properly documenting computer-based scientific research. To support investigations in hydrologic science, we produce the daily fractional snow-covered area from NASA's moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). From the MODIS reflectance data in seven wavelengths, we estimate the fraction of each 500 m pixel that snow covers. The daily products have data gaps and errors because of cloud cover and sensor viewing geometry, so we interpolate and smooth to produce our best estimate of the daily snow cover. To manage the data, we have developed the Earth System Science Server (ES3), a software environment for data-intensive Earth science, with unique capabilities for automatically and transparently capturing and managing the provenance of arbitrary computations. Transparent acquisition avoids the scientists having to express their computations in specific languages or schemas in order for provenance to be acquired and maintained. ES3 models provenance as relationships between processes and their input and output files. It is particularly suited to capturing the provenance of an evolving algorithm whose components span multiple languages and execution environments.

  2. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Berrick, Steve; Shen, Suhung; Prados, Ana; Fox, Peter; Yang, Wenli; Min, Min; Holloway, Dan; Enloe, Yonsook

    2008-01-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This requires a deeper data interoperability than we have now. Efforts such as Open Geospatial Consortium and OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross-calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, location in space-time or quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, results can be meaningless or lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace to how the data came to be: sensors, processing and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio- temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences or calibration issues. Provenance information must be captured in a semantic framework that allows data inter-use tools to incorporate it and aid in the intervention of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representation, and data quality attributes in a well-structured, machine-readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance-related distrintions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance. Provenance may be either embedded within the data payload, or transmitted

  3. Risk of stroke in imaging-proven subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xia; Bai, Harrison Xiao; Wang, Zhili; Yang, Li

    2017-03-31

    To determine the risk of stroke in patients with subclavian steal syndrome (SSS). We identified 165 patients with imaging-provenSSS from two hospitals. Demographic, clinical and imaging data were retrospectively collected. Patients were followed up for stroke events. Stroke occurred in 43 patients with a median follow-up of 28months. Seven of these cases were identified prospectively and 36 cases retrospectively. On multivariate analysis, presence of symptoms at presentation (p=0.029) was a significant predictor of stroke. Presence of symptoms at presentation predicted stroke in imaging-proven SSS.

  4. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Epidemics are favored by rainfall and high humidity. A provenance collection of ~950 pecan trees from 19 locations representing the native range of the species is located in Byron, Georgia...

  5. Climate Data Provenance Tracking for Just-In-Time Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, S.; Nadeau, D.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The "Climate Data Management System" (CDMS) was created in 1996 as part of the Climate Data Analysis Tools suite of software. It provides a simple interface into a wide variety of climate data formats, and creates NetCDF CF-Compliant files. It leverages the NumPy framework for high performance computation, and is an all-in-one IO and computation package. CDMS has been extended to track manipulations of data, and trace that data all the way to the original raw data. This extension tracks provenance about data, and enables just-in-time (JIT) computation. The provenance for each variable is packaged as part of the variable's metadata, and can be used to validate data processing and computations (by repeating the analysis on the original data). It also allows for an alternate solution for sharing analyzed data; if the bandwidth for a transfer is prohibitively expensive, the provenance serialization can be passed in a much more compact format and the analysis rerun on the input data. Data provenance tracking in CDMS enables far-reaching and impactful functionalities, permitting implementation of many analytical paradigms.

  6. Scots pine in eastern Nebraska: A provenance study

    Treesearch

    Ralph A. Read

    1971-01-01

    Seedling progenies of 36 rangewide provenances of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were established in a field test in eastern Nebraska. Results in growth and other characteristics after 8 years reveal that (1) southern origins bordering the Mediterranean grow slowly to moderately fast and remain dark green in winter, (2) central European origins grow very fast and turn...

  7. Seasonal growth in white pine seedlings from different provenances

    Treesearch

    Frank S., Jr. Santamour

    1960-01-01

    The Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, in cooperation with other experiment stations in the United States and Canada, began a range-wide provenance test of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in 1955. Seed was collected from 31 different locations in 17 states and 4 Canadian provinces. In most places collections were made from 10 trees at each location. The seed...

  8. Longleaf pine grown in Virginia: a provenance test

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Jerre L. Creighton; Chris A. Maier

    2015-01-01

    In 2006 the Virginia Department of Forestry established a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) provenance test on three sites near Richmond, VA, near the most northern native range of longleaf pine. Seedlings were grown in containers at the Virginia Department of Forestry New Kent Forestry Center during the 2005 growing season.

  9. Field-Proven Programs to Conserve Energy in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents field-proven school energy conservation programs, practices, procedures, and ideas that can assist educators with the resource allocation challenges caused by the international energy situation. The programs presented are representative of a broad spectrum of school and school-related organizations from 15 widely…

  10. Using provenance to manage knowledge of in silico experiments.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robert; Zhao, Jun; Goble, Carole

    2007-05-01

    This article offers a briefing in one of the knowledge management issues of in silico experimentation in bioinformatics. Recording of the provenance of an experiment-what was done; where, how and why, etc. is an important aspect of scientific best practice that should be extended to in silico experimentation. We will do this in the context of eScience which has been part of the move of bioinformatics towards an industrial setting. Despite the computational nature of bioinformatics, these analyses are scientific and thus necessitate their own versions of typical scientific rigour. Just as recording who, what, why, when, where and how of an experiment is central to the scientific process in laboratory science, so it should be in silico science. The generation and recording of these aspects, or provenance, of an experiment are necessary knowledge management goals if we are to introduce scientific rigour into routine bioinformatics. In Silico experimental protocols should themselves be a form of managing the knowledge of how to perform bioinformatics analyses. Several systems now exist that offer support for the generation and collection of provenance information about how a particular in silico experiment was run, what results were generated, how they were generated, etc. In reviewing provenance support, we will review one of the important knowledge management issues in bioinformatics.

  11. A Discussion of Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tehshik

    2009-05-01

    This review responds to the Commentary article " Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven? " and continues the discussion engendered by that piece. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. We hope that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Other Reviewer Comments: Brown Lewis Wade

  12. A Discussion of Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Theodore L.

    2009-05-01

    This review responds to the Commentary article " Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven? " and continues the discussion engendered by that piece. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. We hope that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Other Reviewer Comments: Lewis Yoon Wade

  13. A Discussion of Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, David E.

    2009-05-01

    This review responds to the Commentary article " Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven? " and continues the discussion engendered by that piece. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. We hope that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Other Reviewer Comments: Brown Yoon Wade

  14. An extensible framework for provenance in human terrain visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rick; Slingsby, Aiden; Dykes, Jason; Xu, Kai; Wood, Jo; Nguyen, Phong H; Stephens, Derek; Wong, B L William; Zheng, Yongjun

    2013-12-01

    We describe and demonstrate an extensible framework that supports data exploration and provenance in the context of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA). Working closely with defence analysts we extract requirements and a list of features that characterise data analysed at the end of the HTA chain. From these, we select an appropriate non-classified data source with analogous features, and model it as a set of facets. We develop ProveML, an XML-based extension of the Open Provenance Model, using these facets and augment it with the structures necessary to record the provenance of data, analytical process and interpretations. Through an iterative process, we develop and refine a prototype system for Human Terrain Visual Analytics (HTVA), and demonstrate means of storing, browsing and recalling analytical provenance and process through analytic bookmarks in ProveML. We show how these bookmarks can be combined to form narratives that link back to the live data. Throughout the process, we demonstrate that through structured workshops, rapid prototyping and structured communication with intelligence analysts we are able to establish requirements, and design schema, techniques and tools that meet the requirements of the intelligence community. We use the needs and reactions of defence analysts in defining and steering the methods to validate the framework.

  15. From Observation to Impacts: Provenance for Earth Science Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Privette, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) on Provenance is working on a provenance specification for use in Earth science data systems to capture, consume, and interpret the end-to-end data life cycle information. Based on W3C PROV, this Earth Science extension can be used as an interoperable specification for representing Earth science resources that includes observations by instruments, data producers, data processing systems, data archive centers, data users, analysis findings, and societal impacts. NASA is participating in the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) and also leading a related Climate Data Initiative (CDI) effort. Under CDI, NASA is also working with the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) to identify and make interoperable relevant data from multiple interagency sources. These interagency efforts will improve the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Federal data and information products derived from civil Earth observations. We will present our progress to develop a provenance specification for representing Earth science resources from observation to impacts and how it can be used to support these initiatives. We will show how it can be used in earth science data systems to automatically capture, consume, and interpret provenance information using semantic technologies.

  16. A Provenance Enabled Framework for Subjectivity and Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, T. W.; Yoon, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cyberinfrastructure encompasses support for data acquisition, storage, management, integration, mining, and visualization over the Internet. Many scientific disciplines view cyberinfrastructure as necessary, if not essential, to enabling the derivation of novel scientific theories and knowledge. The goals of cyberinfrastructure research include the sharing of data and results across institutions and disciplines and the enabling of seamless integration and analysis of information from these distributed data sources. With multiple information sources, each having potentially different contexts and different subjective interpretations, the explicit representation and specification of subjectivity and context are crucial and context-based reasoning is currently being actively developed. However, the discovery aspect of cyberinfrastructure, i.e., finding and assessing the relevance of existing information, has been identified as a difficult and outstanding problem. We present our work on a provenance enabled framework that includes semantically encoding the provenance of an information system and then dynamically discovering and comparing these provenance documents via software agents. An example from space physics is presented, in which similar information systems are discovered and the contextual provenance of each is presented to users.

  17. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to balsam twig aphid

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1989-01-01

    Susceptibility of Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona provenances of white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl.) to crown injury caused by balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) was assessed in an experimental plantation in the central Sierra Nevada in California. Bud phenology was observed to explore...

  18. Geospatial Data Provenance in the Semantic Web Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yue, P.

    2008-12-01

    Geospatial data will grow to multi-exabytes very soon. The major form of geospatial data is imagery collected by the Earth observing community through remote sensing methods. Those data, along with their derived products and model outputs, are archived in many data centers around the world. Geospatial data has to be converted to user-specific information and knowledge before they become useful. Such a user-specific information and knowledge is normally derived from multi-source data through a set of geoprocess steps. Recent technology advances in the united representation of geospatial data, information, and knowledge, the geospatial semantic web, the geospatial interoperability, and the artificial intelligence have made the automatic derivation of user-specific information and knowledge from diverse data sources in the web service environment possible. A prototype system for proofing such technologies has been constructed and successfully demonstrated. An operational systems is being development. With the ontology support, the system automatically constructs the executable workflow based on users' descriptions of what they want and the available services and the input data over the web, and execute the workflow to generate the user- specific product. In order for users to have the confidence to use such automatically generated products in real applications, complete and accurate provenance information must be provided to users, even before such user-specific products are generated. In this presentation, we will discuss the representation of geospatial data provenance, the automatic capturing of geospatial data provenance in the semantic web environment, and the management of geospatial data provenance. We will also discuss a prototype provenance management system that allows the users to query and access providence information.

  19. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.

    2010-12-01

    The notion of sharing scientific data has only recently begun to gain ground in science, where data is still considered a private asset. There is growing evidence, however, that the benefits of scientific collaboration through early data sharing during the course of a science project may outgrow the risk of losing exclusive ownership of the data. As exemplar success stories are making the headlines[1], principles of effective information sharing have become the subject of e-science research. In particular, any piece of published data should be self-describing, to the extent necessary for consumers to determine its suitability for reuse in their own projects. This is accomplished by associating a body of formally specified and machine-processable metadata to the data. When data is produced and reused by independent groups, however, metadata interoperability issues emerge. This is the case for provenance, a form of metadata that describes the history of a data product, Y. Provenance is typically expressed as a graph-structured set of dependencies that account for the sequence of computational or interactive steps that led to Y, often starting from some primary, observational data. Traversing dependency graphs is one of the mechanisms used to answer questions on data reliability. In the context of the NSF DataONE project[2], we have been studying issues of provenance interoperability in scientific collaboration scenarios. Consider a first scientist, Alice, who publishes a data product X along with its provenance, and a second scientist who further transforms X into a new product Y, also along with its provenance. A third scientist, who is interested in Y, expects to be able to trace Y's history up to the inputs used by Alice. This is only possible, however, if provenance accumulates into a single, uniform graph that can be seamlessly traversed. This becomes problematic when provenance is captured using different tools and computational models (i.e. workflow systems

  20. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  1. Sensor Data Management, Validation, Correction, and Provenance for Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Rossiter, Jeffrey S; Hensley, Zachary; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts research on technologies that use a wide range of sensors to develop and characterize building energy performance. The management of high-resolution sensor data, analysis, and tracing lineage of such activities is challenging. Missing or corrupt data due to sensor failure, fouling, drifting, calibration error, or data logger failure is another issue. This paper focuses on sensor data management, validation, correction, and provenance to combat these issues, ensuring complete and accurate sensor datasets for building technologies applications and research. The design and development of two integrated software products are discussed: Sensor Data Validation and Correction (SensorDVC) and the Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS) platform.

  2. A Provenance-based Trust Model for Delay Tolerant Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-21

    evaluation in DTNs; the challenges are due to the attackers who may modify or drop messages including provenance information or disseminate fake ...of node i towards the previous MC k about its integrity. We use three attack behaviors to form the trust opinion: no identity or fake identity...Model The use of a symmetric key prevents outside attackers, but not inside attackers. We consider the following insider attacks:  Fake identity

  3. Research on provenance of MVT Pb-Zn deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiguo

    2017-06-01

    Based on previous research materials, provenance of MVT Pb-Zn deposits are explored. The results suggest that in China, MVT Pb-Zn ores form when deep met allogenic materials are transported to shallow zones through large deep zones and taken away after they are leached by fluids. All typical MVT Pb-Zn ores present features of crust sources all over the world.

  4. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  5. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  6. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  8. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  9. General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.

  10. Making Sense of 'Big Data' in Provenance Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2014-12-01

    Huge online databases can be 'mined' to reveal previously hidden trends and relationships in society. One could argue that sedimentary geology has entered a similar era of 'Big Data', as modern provenance studies routinely apply multiple proxies to dozens of samples. Just like the Internet, sedimentary geology now requires specialised statistical tools to interpret such large datasets. These can be organised on three levels of progressively higher order:A single sample: The most effective way to reveal the provenance information contained in a representative sample of detrital zircon U-Pb ages are probability density estimators such as histograms and kernel density estimates. The widely popular 'probability density plots' implemented in IsoPlot and AgeDisplay compound analytical uncertainty with geological scatter and are therefore invalid.Several samples: Multi-panel diagrams comprising many detrital age distributions or compositional pie charts quickly become unwieldy and uninterpretable. For example, if there are N samples in a study, then the number of pairwise comparisons between samples increases quadratically as N(N-1)/2. This is simply too much information for the human eye to process. To solve this problem, it is necessary to (a) express the 'distance' between two samples as a simple scalar and (b) combine all N(N-1)/2 such values in a single two-dimensional 'map', grouping similar and pulling apart dissimilar samples. This can be easily achieved using simple statistics-based dissimilarity measures and a standard statistical method called Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).Several methods: Suppose that we use four provenance proxies: bulk petrography, chemistry, heavy minerals and detrital geochronology. This will result in four MDS maps, each of which likely show slightly different trends and patterns. To deal with such cases, it may be useful to use a related technique called 'three way multidimensional scaling'. This results in two graphical outputs: an MDS

  11. A Provenance Model for Real-Time Water Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Bai, Q.; Zednik, S.; Taylor, P.; Fox, P. A.; Taylor, K.; Kloppers, C.; Peters, C.; Terhorst, A.; West, P.; Compton, M.; Shu, Y.; Provenance Management Team

    2010-12-01

    Generating hydrological data products, such as flow forecasts, involves complex interactions among instruments, data simulation models, computational facilities and data providers. Correct interpretation of the data produced at various stages requires good understanding of how data was generated or processed. Provenance describes the lineage of a data product. Making provenance information accessible to hydrologists and decision makers not only helps to determine the data’s value, accuracy and authorship, but also enables users to determine the trustworthiness of the data product. In the water domain, WaterML2 [1] is an emerging standard which describes an information model and format for the publication of water observations data in XML. The W3C semantic sensor network incubator group (SSN-XG) [3] is producing ontologies for the description of sensor configurations. By integrating domain knowledge of this kind into the provenance information model, the integrated information model will enable water domain researchers and water resource managers to better analyse how observations and derived data products were generated. We first introduce the Proof Mark Language (PML2) [2], WaterML2 and the SSN-XG sensor ontology as the proposed provenance representation formalism. Then we describe some initial implementations how these standards could be integrated to represent the lineage of water information products. Finally we will highlight how the provenance model for a distributed real-time water information system assists the interpretation of the data product and establishing trust. Reference [1] Taylor, P., Walker, G., Valentine, D., Cox, Simon: WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observation data. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 12. [2] da Silva, P.P., McGuinness, D.L., Fikes, R.: A proof markup language for semantic web services. Inf. Syst. 31(4) (2006), 381-395. [3] W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator

  12. Indus Basin sediment provenance constrained using garnet geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Still, John

    2016-08-01

    The chemical and mineralogical diversity of western Himalayan rivers is the result of each of them draining different tectonic and lithologic units, whose character is partly transferred to the sediments carried by those rivers. Garnet geochemistry was employed to discriminate provenance in the Indus River system. We characterized the geochemistry of garnet sediment grains from the modern Indus and all its major tributaries, as well as the related but ephemeral Ghaggar-Hakra River and dune sand from the Thar Desert. Garnet geochemistry displays a unique signature for the Himalayan rivers on the east of the Indus drainage compared to those in the western drainage. The trunk Indus remains distinct because of the dominant arc-type pyrope-garnet derived from Kohistan and the Karakoram. The Jhellum, which lies just east of the modern Indus has modest concentrations of arc-type pyrope garnets, which are more depleted in the other eastern tributaries. Their presence in the Jhellum reflects recycling of trunk Indus garnets through the Miocene Siwalik Group foreland sedimentary rocks. The Thar Desert dune sample contains significant numbers of grains similar to those in the trunk Indus, likely reworked by monsoon winds from the SW. Our data further indicate the presence of a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. Sands from this channel cannot be distinguished from the Indus on the basis of their garnet geochemistry alone but we favour their sedimentation from an Indus channel rather than reworking of desert sands by another stream. The garnet geochemistry shows some potential as a provenance tool, but cannot be used alone to uniquely discriminate Indus Basin provenance.

  13. Provenance-Powered Automatic Workflow Generation and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Lee, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, scientists have learned how to codify tools into reusable software modules that can be chained into multi-step executable workflows. Existing scientific workflow tools, created by computer scientists, require domain scientists to meticulously design their multi-step experiments before analyzing data. However, this is oftentimes contradictory to a domain scientist's daily routine of conducting research and exploration. We hope to resolve this dispute. Imagine this: An Earth scientist starts her day applying NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) published climate data processing algorithms over ARGO deep ocean temperature and AMSRE sea surface temperature datasets. Throughout the day, she tunes the algorithm parameters to study various aspects of the data. Suddenly, she notices some interesting results. She then turns to a computer scientist and asks, "can you reproduce my results?" By tracking and reverse engineering her activities, the computer scientist creates a workflow. The Earth scientist can now rerun the workflow to validate her findings, modify the workflow to discover further variations, or publish the workflow to share the knowledge. In this way, we aim to revolutionize computer-supported Earth science. We have developed a prototyping system to realize the aforementioned vision, in the context of service-oriented science. We have studied how Earth scientists conduct service-oriented data analytics research in their daily work, developed a provenance model to record their activities, and developed a technology to automatically generate workflow starting from user behavior and adaptability and reuse of these workflows for replicating/improving scientific studies. A data-centric repository infrastructure is established to catch richer provenance to further facilitate collaboration in the science community. We have also established a Petri nets-based verification instrument for provenance-based automatic workflow generation and recommendation.

  14. CT imaging signs of surgically proven bowel trauma.

    PubMed

    LeBedis, Christina A; Anderson, Stephan W; Bates, David D B; Khalil, Ramy; Matherly, David; Wing, Heidi; Burke, Peter A; Soto, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and interobserver agreement of individual CT findings as well as the bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) in surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was IRB approved and consent was waived. All patients 14 years or older who sustained surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2015 were included. Admission trauma MDCT scans were independently interpreted by two abdominal fellowship-trained radiologists who recorded the following CT findings: intraperitoneal fluid, mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding, bowel wall thickening/hematoma, active intravenous contrast extravasation, free intraperitoneal air, bowel wall discontinuity, and focal bowel hypoenhancement. Subsequently, the electronic medical records of the included patients, admission abdominal physical exam results, admission white blood cell count, and findings at exploratory laparotomy of the included patients were recorded. Thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence and interobserver agreement of the CT findings were as follows: intraperitoneal fluid 93.9 %, kappa = 0.784 (good); mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding 84.8 %, kappa = 0.718 (good); bowel wall thickening/hematoma 42.4 %, kappa = 0.491 (moderate); active IV contrast extravasation 36.3 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); free intraperitoneal air 21.2 %, kappa = 0.904 (very good), bowel wall discontinuity 6.1 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); and focal bowel hypoenhancement 6.1 %, kappa = 0.468 (moderate). An absence of the specified CT findings was encountered in 9.1 % with surgically proven bowel injuries (kappa = 1.00, perfect). In our study, 9/16 patients or 56.3 % had a bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) of 2 or more as defined by McNutt et al. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg 78(1):105-111, 2014). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid and

  15. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  16. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  17. From static to dynamic provenance analysis-Sedimentary petrology upgraded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The classical approach to sandstone petrology, established in the golden years of plate tectonics and based on the axiom that "detrital modes of sandstone suites primarily reflect the different tectonic settings of provenance terranes," has represented a benchmark for decades. The composition of sand and sandstone, however, simply provides us with a distorted image of the lithological structure of source terranes and gives us little clue whether they are allochthonous or autochthonous, orogenic or anorogenic, young or old. What we may able to see reflected in detrital modes is the nature of source terranes (continental, arc, oceanic) and the tectonostratigraphic level reached by erosion in space and time. The proposed new approach to the petrology of sand and sandstone (1) starts with a simple classification scheme circulated since the 1960s, which is purely descriptive, objective, and free of ill-defined ambiguous terms and (2) focuses on the nature and tectonostratigraphic level of source terranes. Further steps are essential to upgrade provenance analysis. Acquiring knowledge from modern settings is needed to properly identify and wherever possible correct for physical and chemical processes introducing environmental and diagenetic bias and thus address nature's complexities with adequate conceptual tools. Equally important is the integration of multiple techniques, ideally including bulk-sediment, multi-mineral, and single-mineral methods. Bulk-sediment petrography remains the fundamental approach that allows us to capture the most precious source of direct provenance information, represented by the mineralogy and texture of rock fragments. Bulk-sediment geochemistry, applicable also to silt and clay carried in suspension, is a superior method to check for hydraulic sorting, chemical weathering, and fertility of detrital minerals in different sediment sources. Detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and isotope geochemistry reveal the diverse time structures

  18. Capturing, Harmonizing and Delivering Data and Quality Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have proven to be vital for various scientific and applications needs. However, the usability of these data depends not only on the data values but also on the ability of data users to assess and understand the quality of these data for various applications and for comparison or inter-usage of data from different sensors and models. In this paper, we describe some aspects of capturing, harmonizing and delivering this information to users in the framework of distributed web-based data tools.

  19. Biopsy-proven mantle cell lymphoma in brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Justin M.; Cooper, Barry; Krause, John R.; Stone, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    Brain parenchymal involvement by mantle cell lymphoma is rare and confers a grim prognosis. More commonly, patients with central nervous system manifestations of mantle cell lymphoma have leptomeningeal involvement on radiographic studies with malignant cells found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Risk factors for central nervous system involvement include a high proliferation index, bone marrow involvement, and blastoid morphology. We present an unusual case of a biopsy-proven mantle cell lymphoma mass lesion in the brain parenchyma as the presentation of relapse 6 months after diagnosis. PMID:21307976

  20. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  1. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  2. Identifying redundancy and exposing provenance in crowdsourced data analysis.

    PubMed

    Willett, Wesley; Ginosar, Shiry; Steinitz, Avital; Hartmann, Björn; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2013-12-01

    We present a system that lets analysts use paid crowd workers to explore data sets and helps analysts interactively examine and build upon workers' insights. We take advantage of the fact that, for many types of data, independent crowd workers can readily perform basic analysis tasks like examining views and generating explanations for trends and patterns. However, workers operating in parallel can often generate redundant explanations. Moreover, because workers have different competencies and domain knowledge, some responses are likely to be more plausible than others. To efficiently utilize the crowd's work, analysts must be able to quickly identify and consolidate redundant responses and determine which explanations are the most plausible. In this paper, we demonstrate several crowd-assisted techniques to help analysts make better use of crowdsourced explanations: (1) We explore crowd-assisted strategies that utilize multiple workers to detect redundant explanations. We introduce color clustering with representative selection--a strategy in which multiple workers cluster explanations and we automatically select the most-representative result--and show that it generates clusterings that are as good as those produced by experts. (2) We capture explanation provenance by introducing highlighting tasks and capturing workers' browsing behavior via an embedded web browser, and refine that provenance information via source-review tasks. We expose this information in an explanation-management interface that allows analysts to interactively filter and sort responses, select the most plausible explanations, and decide which to explore further.

  3. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-02-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800 100 b.c.) using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Mössbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Mössbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  4. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  5. General Relativity Theory -- Well Proven and Also Incomplete?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    With a few arguments (half a page) it is proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments (one page) it is proven that these contradictions are resolved by expanding general relativity. The other situation: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years. My public question: Are relativists - on account of their many famous results - unable to admit imperfections of general relativity? General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle).

  6. Triangulating the provenance of African elephants using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yasuko; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Hondo, Tomoko; Roca, Alfred L

    2013-01-01

    African elephant mitochondrial (mt) DNA follows a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. As females do not migrate between elephant herds, mtDNA exhibits low geographic dispersal. We therefore examined the effectiveness of mtDNA for assigning the provenance of African elephants (or their ivory). For 653 savanna and forest elephants from 22 localities in 13 countries, 4258 bp of mtDNA was sequenced. We detected eight mtDNA subclades, of which seven had regionally restricted distributions. Among 108 unique haplotypes identified, 72% were found at only one locality and 84% were country specific, while 44% of individuals carried a haplotype detected only at their sampling locality. We combined 316 bp of our control region sequences with those generated by previous trans-national surveys of African elephants. Among 101 unique control region haplotypes detected in African elephants across 81 locations in 22 countries, 62% were present in only a single country. Applying our mtDNA results to a previous microsatellite-based assignment study would improve estimates of the provenance of elephants in 115 of 122 mis-assigned cases. Nuclear partitioning followed species boundaries and not mtDNA subclade boundaries. For taxa such as elephants in which nuclear and mtDNA markers differ in phylogeography, combining the two markers can triangulate the origins of confiscated wildlife products. PMID:23798975

  7. A proven knowledge-based approach to prioritizing process information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Many space-related processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect is rapid analysis of the changing process information. During a disturbance, this task can overwhelm humans as well as computers. Humans deal with this by applying heuristics in determining significant information. A simple, knowledge-based approach to prioritizing information is described. The approach models those heuristics that humans would use in similar circumstances. The approach described has received two patents and was implemented in the Alarm Filtering System (AFS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). AFS was first developed for application in a nuclear reactor control room. It has since been used in chemical processing applications, where it has had a significant impact on control room environments. The approach uses knowledge-based heuristics to analyze data from process instrumentation and respond to that data according to knowledge encapsulated in objects and rules. While AFS cannot perform the complete diagnosis and control task, it has proven to be extremely effective at filtering and prioritizing information. AFS was used for over two years as a first level of analysis for human diagnosticians. Given the approach's proven track record in a wide variety of practical applications, it should be useful in both ground- and space-based systems.

  8. Ontology-Driven Provenance Management in eScience: An Application in Parasite Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Weatherly, D. Brent; Mutharaju, Raghava; Anantharam, Pramod; Sheth, Amit; Tarleton, Rick L.

    Provenance, from the French word "provenir", describes the lineage or history of a data entity. Provenance is critical information in scientific applications to verify experiment process, validate data quality and associate trust values with scientific results. Current industrial scale eScience projects require an end-to-end provenance management infrastructure. This infrastructure needs to be underpinned by formal semantics to enable analysis of large scale provenance information by software applications. Further, effective analysis of provenance information requires well-defined query mechanisms to support complex queries over large datasets. This paper introduces an ontology-driven provenance management infrastructure for biology experiment data, as part of the Semantic Problem Solving Environment (SPSE) for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi). This provenance infrastructure, called T.cruzi Provenance Management System (PMS), is underpinned by (a) a domain-specific provenance ontology called Parasite Experiment ontology, (b) specialized query operators for provenance analysis, and (c) a provenance query engine. The query engine uses a novel optimization technique based on materialized views called materialized provenance views (MPV) to scale with increasing data size and query complexity. This comprehensive ontology-driven provenance infrastructure not only allows effective tracking and management of ongoing experiments in the Tarleton Research Group at the Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases (CTEGD), but also enables researchers to retrieve the complete provenance information of scientific results for publication in literature.

  9. Provenance Capture in Data Access and Data Manipulation Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.; Gallagher, J. H.; Holloway, D.; Potter, N.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing need to trace back the origins of data products, whether images or charts in a report, data obtained from a sensor on an instrument, a generated dataset referenced in a research paper, in government reports on the environment, or in a publication or poster presentation. Yet, most software applications that perform data access and manipulation keep only limited history of the data, i.e. the provenance. Imagine the following scenario: There is a figure in a report showing multiple graphs and plots related to global climate, the report is being drafted for a government agency. The graphs and plots are generated using an algorithm from an iPython Notebook, developed by a researcher who is using a particular data portal, where the algorithm pulls data from four data sets from that portal. That data is aggregated together over the time dimension, constrained to a few parameters, accessed using a particular piece of data access software, and converted from one datatype to another datatype; All the processing on the data sets was conducted by three different researchers from a public university, on a project funded by the same government agency requesting the report, with one Principal Investigator and two Co-Investigators. In this scenario, today we're lucky to get a blob of text under the figure that might say a couple things about the figure with a reference to a publication that was written a few years ago. Data citation, data publishing information, licensing information, and provenance are all lacking in the derived data products. What we really want is to be able to trace the figure all the way back to the original datasets, including what was done to those datasets; and to see information about the researchers, the project, the agency funding, the award, and the organizations collaborating on the project. In this paper we discuss the need for such information and traceback features, as well as new technologies and standards that can help us

  10. The Paro Formation Provenance and its Tectonometamorphic History, Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobgay, T.; McQuarrie, N.; Hollister, L.; Long, S.; Gehrels, G.

    2008-12-01

    In western Bhutan, a unique package of rocks that comprises garnetiferous mica schist, quartzites, marbles, calc-silicates, and slivers of ortho-gneiss locally known as Paro Formation has posed an intriguing question on its lithostratigraphic correlation. The lithostratigraphic correlation of Paro Formation either to Greater Himalaya Sequence, Lesser Himalayan Sequence, or Tethyan sediments is important to define its contact with the surrounding rocks. Recent mapping in conjunction with U-Pb ages of detrital zircons, whole rock Nd isotopes, and petrologic study re-defines its stratigraphy and allows for provenance interpretation, lithostratigraphic correlation, and metamorphic history. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons show a strong peak at ~1.8 Ga while whole rock ɛNd isotopes are less negative and range from -9 to -12.5. The presence of much older (>1.6 Ga) detrital zircons in PF strongly suggests that the PF is LHS. However, an average ɛNd value of -10.8 requires the PF to contain young detritus. A 440 Ma crystallization age of ortho-gneiss within the PF requires PF to be older than Silurian. The mineral assemblages show that PF has attained upper green-schist to amphibolite facies metamorphism. The occurrence of sillimanite as kyanite pseudomorph suggests that rocks of PF have undergone metamorphism at temperature/pressure conditions in the sillimanite field but below the second sillimanite isograd. The metamorphic grade and thickness of the PF is significantly greater than what is documented immediately below the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in eastern Bhutan (~500 m of upper green-schist facies rocks). Metamorphism in the PF is as high as that identified in portions of the MCT Zone in Nepal and India but is significantly thicker. The combined provenance and metamorphic data may suggest that PF has a LH provenance and has been subjected to pressures and temperatures typical of GH rocks. Also, a preliminary balanced cross-section and the sequential restoration puts

  11. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  12. Functional Requirements for Information Resource Provenance on the Web

    SciTech Connect

    McCusker, James P.; Lebo, Timothy; Graves, Alvaro; Difranzo, Dominic; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2012-06-19

    We provide a means to formally explain the relationship between HTTP URLs and the representations returned when they are requested. According to existing World Wide Web architecture, the URL serves as an identier for a semiotic referent while the document returned via HTTP serves as a representation of the same referent. This begins with two sides of a semiotic triangle; the third side is the relationship between the URL and the representation received. We complete this description by extending the library science resource model Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Resources (FRBR) with cryptographic message and content digests to create a Functional Requirements for Information Resources (FRIR). We show how applying the FRIR model to HTTP GET and POST transactions disambiguates the many relationships between a given URL and all representations received from its request, provides fine-grained explanations that are complementary to existing explanations of web resources, and integrates easily into the emerging W3C provenance standard.

  13. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  14. Provenance graph query method based on double layer index structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qing Qiu; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Order to solve the problem that the efficiency of the existing source map is low and the resource occupancy rate is high, considering the relationship between the origin information and the data itself and the internal structure of the origin information, a method of provenance graph query based on double layer index structure is proposed. Firstly, we propose a two layer index structure based on the global index of the dictionary table and the local index based on the bitmap. The global index is used to query the server nodes stored in the source map. The local index is used to query the global index. Finally, based on the double-level index structure, a method of starting map query is designed. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only improves the efficiency of query and reduces the waste of memory resources.

  15. Multitechnique characterization of lapis lazuli for provenance study.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Olivero, Paolo; Pratesi, Giovanni; Albonico, Maria; Conz, Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest precious stone, being used for glyptic as early as 7,000 years ago: jewels, amulets, seals, and inlays are examples of objects produced using this material. Only a few sources of lapis lazuli exist in the world due to the low probability of geological conditions in which it can form, so that the possibility to associate the raw material to man-made objects helps to reconstruct trade routes. Since art objects produced using lapis lazuli are valuable, only nondestructive investigations can be carried out to identify the provenance of the raw materials. Ionoluminescence (IL) is a good candidate for this task. Similar to cathodoluminescence (CL), IL consists in the collection of luminescence spectra induced by megaelectronvolt ion (usually protons) irradiation. The main advantage of IL consists in the possibility of working in air while measuring simultaneously the composition of major and trace elements by means of complementary ion beam analysis techniques like particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). In the present work, a systematic study of the luminescence properties of lapis lazuli under charged particle irradiation is reported. In the first phase, a multitechnique approach was adopted (CL, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, micro-Raman) to characterize luminescent minerals. This characterization was propaedeutic for IL/PIXE/PIGE measurements carried out on significant areas selected on the basis of results obtained previously. Criteria to identify provenance of lapis lazuli from four of the main sources (Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, Chile, and Siberia) were proposed.

  16. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  17. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  18. Multi-Method Provenance Analysis of Namibian Desert Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.; Garzanti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological provenance proxies each have their own strengths and weaknesses: a. Bulk geochemistry, framework petrography and heavy mineral compositions can differentiate between source areas characterised by different lithologies, but are sensitive to hydraulic sorting and chemical alteration. b. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology is insensitive to winnowing effects, but is 'blind' to lithologies devoid of zircon and cannot differentiate between first cycle and recycled sediments. c. Cosmogenic neon isotopes can be used to identify different generations of surface exposure while simultaneously tracking different magmatic sources. The challenge is then to combine these different proxies into a self consistent story, and do so in as objective a manner as possible. We here present a case study of Namibia's Namib Sand Sea and Skeleton Coast ergs, in which all the aforementioned methods have been combined using a three-way multidimensional scaling (aka INDividual Differences SCALing or INDSCAL) analysis: 1. Each of the datasets was represented by a 'dissimilarity matrix' of pairwise distances between samples. 2. The set of these matrices was fed into the INDSCAL algorithm, which produces two pieces of graphical output: the 'group configuration', which is a scatter plot or 'map' in which similar samples plot close together and dissimilar samples plot far apart, and the 'proxy weights', in which not the samples but the proxies are plotted according to the weight they attached to the 'group configuration' axes. The INDSCAL map of the Namibia dataset indicates that (a) long-shore drift of Orange River sediments dominates the coastal sediment compositions all along the Namibian coast until Angola, and (b) that light and heavy minerals tell complementary parts of the provenance story.

  19. Provenance In Sensor Data Management: A Cohesive, Independent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In today's information-driven workplaces, data is constantly undergoing transformations and being moved around. The typical business-as-usual approach is to use email attachments, shared network locations, databases, and now, the cloud. More often than not, there are multiple versions of the data sitting in different locations and users of this data are confounded by the lack of metadata describing its provenance, or in other words, its lineage. Our project is aimed to solve this issue in the context of sensor data. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Building Technologies Research and Integration Center has reconfigurable commercial buildings deployed on the Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). These FRPs are instrumented with a large number of sensors which measure a number of variables such as HVAC efficiency, relative humidity, and temperature gradients across doors, windows, and walls. Sub-minute resolution data from hundreds of channels is acquired. This sensor data, traditionally, was saved to a shared network location which was accessible to a number of scientists for performing complicated simulation and analysis tasks. The sensor data also participates in elaborate quality assurance exercises as a result of inherent faults. Sometimes, faults are induced to observe building behavior. It became apparent that proper scientific controls required not just managing the data acquisition and delivery, but to also manage the metadata associated with temporal subsets of the sensor data. We built a system named ProvDMS, or Provenance Data Management System for the FRPs, which would both allow researchers to retrieve data of interest as well as trace data lineage. This provides researchers a one-stop shop for comprehensive views of various data transformation allowing researchers to effectively trace their data to its source so that experiments, and derivations of experiments, may be reused and reproduced without much overhead of the repeatability of experiments that

  20. Results of 1938 IUFRO Scotch pine provenance test in New York

    Treesearch

    Ernst J. Schreiner; E. W. Littlefield; E. J. Eliason

    1961-01-01

    The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) has sponsored several international provenance tests. This is a report on the practical aspects of an IUFRO provenance test with Scotch pine in New York.

  1. Height and diameter variation in twelve white ash provenance/progeny tests in eastern United States

    Treesearch

    G. Rink; F.H. Kung

    1991-01-01

    Results from 12- and 13-year old rangewide provenance/progeny tests of white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) planted at 12 locations throughout the eastern United States are reported. Although heritability of white ash tree height and dbh is high at both the provenance and family levels, the trend in variance components is for increasing provenance and...

  2. Provenance and sediment fluxes in the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Limonta, Mara

    2016-04-01

    The Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River, still a natural system scarcely affected by human activities, ranks among the five major rivers in the world for its annual suspended load, estimated as 364±60 million tons (Robinson et al., 2007). Sourced in Himalayan glaciers southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis at ca. 28°N, the Irrawaddy originates from the confluence of the Nmai and Mali Rivers, flows southward to receive its major Chindwin tributary in the middle of the central Myanmar Basin, and eventually empties through a nine-armed delta into the Andaman Sea. The compositional fingerprint of bedload sand in the upper Irrawaddy is characterized by common feldspars, medium/high rank of metamorphic rock fragments and high heavy-mineral concentration, reflecting provenance from mid-crustal granitoids, amphibolite-facies and subordinately greenschist-facies rocks widely exposed in the Mogok Belt and Lohit Plutonic Complex. Minor volcanic/metavolcanic and serpentinite grains indicate additional supply from volcanic-arc remnants and the Neotethyan ophiolitic suture. Sand of the Chindwin River has much higher quartz/feldspar ratio and much lower metamorphic indices and heavy-mineral concentration, reflecting provenance mainly from upper crustal sedimentary and very low-grade metasedimentary rocks exposed in the Indo-Burman Ranges (Garzanti et al., 2013). Feldspatho-litho-quartzose to litho-feldspatho-quartzose composition in the lower Irrawaddy is intermediate between that of Chindwin and upper Irrawaddy sand. The slight progressive downstream increase in volcanic rock fragments and chert, and decrease in metamorphic indices, point to additional local supply from volcanic and sedimentary cover rocks. U-Pb age spectra of detrital zircons are characterized by a major cluster between 30 and 150 Ma, corresponding to the long-lasting magmatic activity of the Western Myanmar Arc (Wang et al., 2014), with other clusters at 500-600 Ma and 800-1200 Ma, and a few ages between 1

  3. Rutile geochemistry and its potential use in quantitative provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, T.; von Eynatten, H.; Kronz, A.

    2004-10-01

    Rutile is among the most stable detrital minerals in sedimentary systems. Information contained in rutile is therefore of prime importance, especially in the study of mature sediments, where most diagnostic minerals are no longer stable. In contrast to zircon, rutile provides information about the last metamorphic cycle as rutile is not stable at greenschist facies conditions. Several known geochemical characteristics of rutile can be used to retrace provenance. The lithology of source rocks can be determined using Nb and Cr contents in rutile, because the most important source rocks for rutile, metapelites and metabasites, imprint a distinct Nb and Cr signature in rutiles. Since Zr in rutile, coexisting with zircon and quartz, is extremely temperature dependent, this relationship can be used as a geothermometer. Metapelites always contain zircon and quartz, thus the Nb and Cr signatures of metapelites indicate rutiles that can be used for thermometry. The result is effectively a single-mineral geothermometer, which is to our knowledge the first of its kind in provenance studies. Several other trace elements are variably enriched in rutile, but the processes creating these variations are so far not understood. In a case study, Al, Si, V, Cr, Fe, Zr, Nb and W contents in rutiles were obtained by electron microprobe from three sediment samples from Upstate New York. A Pleistocene glacial sand, whose source was granulite-facies rocks of the southern Adirondacks, has detrital rutile geochemical signatures which are consistent with the local Geology; a predominantly metapelitic source with a minor metabasitic contribution. Calculated temperatures for the metapelitic rutiles from the glacial sand are consistent with a predominantly granulite-facies source. The two other samples are from Paleozoic clastic wedges deposited in the foreland of the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. Here several geochemical patterns of detrital rutiles are comparable to rutiles derived from the

  4. Geochemical Signatures as a Tool for Vermiculite Provenance Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Carl D. Palmer

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight samples of known origin (China, Libby MT, South Africa, South Carolina) and 6 vermiculite product samples of unknown origin were analyzed for major and trace elements, including rare earth elements to determine the feasibility of distinguishing the provenance of the samples based upon a geochemical signature. Probability plots suggest that two of the four groups (Libby, South Carolina) were comprised of two subgroups. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis are highly sensitive to the linkage method chosen. Ward’s method is the most useful for this data and suggests that there are five groups within the data set (South African samples, two subsets of the Libby samples, a subset of the South Carolina samples, and a second subset of the South Carolina samples combined with the China samples). Similar results were obtained using k-cluster analysis. Neither clustering method was able to distinguish samples from China from the South Carolina samples. Discriminant analysis was used on a four-category model comprised of the original four groups and on a six-category model comprised of the five categories identified from the cluster analysis but with the China samples grouped into a sixth category. The discriminant/classification model was able to distinguish all of the groups including the China samples from one another for both the four- and six-category models with 100% of the samples properly classified. The 6 unknown product samples were classified with a probability of consistency of 99%. Both discriminant models were also run with a subset of our analyte set to be consistent with the smaller Gunter et al., (2005) analyte set. Twenty vermiculite samples (nine of known origin and eleven of unknown origin) from their study were classified based on our discriminant models with the reduced set of analytes. Of the twenty samples, Gunter et al. (2005) was able to classify 16 with cluster analysis while our 4-category discriminant analysis model allowed us

  5. Detrital shocked minerals: microstructural provenance indicators of impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of detrital shocked minerals (DSMs) merges planetary science, sedimentology, mineralogy/crystallography, accessory mineral geochemistry, and geochronology, with the goal of identifying and determining provenance of shock metamorphosed sand grains. Diagnostic high-pressure impact-generated microstructures (planar fractures, planar deformation features) are readily identified on external grain surfaces using standard SEM imaging methods (BSE), and when found, unambiguously confirm an impact origin for a given sand grain. DSMs, including quartz, zircon, monazite, and apatite, have thus far been documented at the Vredefort Dome [1,2,3], Sudbury [4], Rock Elm [5], and Santa Fe [6,7] impact structures. DSMs have been identified in alluvium, colluvium, beach sand, and glacial deposits. Two main processes are recognized that imply the global siliciclastic record contains DSMs: they survive extreme distal transport, and they survive 'deep time' lithification. Distal transport: In South Africa, shocked minerals are preserved in alluvium from the Vaal River >750 km downstream from the Vredefort impact; SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology has confirmed the origin of detrital shocked zircon and monazite from shocked Vredefort bedrock [2]. Vredefort-derived shocked zircons have also been found at the mouth of the Orange River on the Atlantic coast, having travelled ~2000 km downriver from Vredefort [8]. Deep time preservation: Vredefort-derived shocked zircon and quartz has been documented in glacial diamictite from the 300 Myr-old Dwyka Group in South Africa. Shocked minerals were thus entrained and transported in Paleozoic ice sheets that passed over Vredefort [9]. An impact crater can thus be viewed as a unique 'point source', in some cases for billions of years [2,4]; DSMs thus have applications in studying eroded impact craters, sedimentary provenance, landscape evolution, and long-term sediment transport processes throughout the geologic record. This work was supported by

  6. Applications of biotite inclusion composition to zircon provenance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Mark Harrison, T.

    2017-09-01

    Detrital zircons are the only confirmed surviving remnants of >4.03 Ga crust while younger detrital zircons provide a parallel record of more recent crustal evolution to that preserved in crystalline rocks. Zircons often preserve inclusions that may provide clues as to the origins of out-of-context grains in the sedimentary record. Previous studies have established that inclusions of biotite in magmatic zircon are compositionally well-matched to biotite in the source rock matrix, although a direct application to ancient detrital zircons has not been made. A number of studies have documented variations in the Fe, Mg, and Al contents of magmatic biotite from different source rocks and tectonic settings, suggesting that biotite inclusions may indeed serve as provenance indicators for detrital zircons. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that the FeO*/MgO ratio of magmatic biotite from continental arcs, collisional, and within-plate settings varies with relative oxidation state as well as whole-rock FeO*/MgO, while its Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO) varies with whole-rock A/CNK (molar Al/(2 ṡ Ca + Na + K)). Biotite from oxidized metaluminous and reduced S-type granitoids can be readily distinguished from each other using FeO*/MgO and Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO), while biotite from reduced I-type and oxidized peraluminous granites may in some cases be more ambiguous. Biotite from peralkaline and reduced A-type granites are also distinguishable from all other categories by Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO) and FeO*/MgO, respectively. Biotite inclusions in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia indicate a mixture of metaluminous and reduced S-type host rocks, while inclusions in 3.6-3.8 Ga detrital zircons from the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt indicate more oxidized peraluminous magmas. These results highlight the diversity of felsic materials on the early Earth and suggest that biotite inclusions are applicable to zircon provenance throughout the sedimentary record.

  7. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  8. Opinion: Taking phytoremediation from proven technology to accepted practice.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Karen E; Gerwing, Perry D; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2017-03-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to extract, immobilize, contain and/or degrade contaminants from soil, water or air. It can be an effective strategy for on site and/or in situ removal of various contaminants from soils, including petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents (e.g., trichloroethylene [TCE]), munitions waste (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT]), metal(loid)s, salt (NaCl) and radioisotopes. Commercial phytoremediation technologies appear to be underutilized globally. The primary objective of this opinion piece is to discuss how to take phytoremediation from a proven technology to an accepted practice. An overview of phytoremediation of soil is provided, with the focus on field applications, to provide a frame of reference for the subsequent discussion on better utilization of phytoremediation. We consider reasons why phytoremediation is underutilized, despite clear evidence that, under many conditions, it can be applied quite successfully in the field. We offer suggestions on how to gain greater acceptance for phytoremediation by industry and government. A new paradigm of phytomanagement, with a specific focus on using phytoremediation as a "gentle remediation option" (GRO) within a broader, long-term management strategy, is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LQCD workflow execution framework: Models, provenance and fault-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Dubey, Abhishek; Simone, James N.; Kowalkowlski, James B.

    2010-04-01

    Large computing clusters used for scientific processing suffer from systemic failures when operated over long continuous periods for executing workflows. Diagnosing job problems and faults leading to eventual failures in this complex environment is difficult, specifically when the success of an entire workflow might be affected by a single job failure. In this paper, we introduce a model-based, hierarchical, reliable execution framework that encompass workflow specification, data provenance, execution tracking and online monitoring of each workflow task, also referred to as participants. The sequence of participants is described in an abstract parameterized view, which is translated into a concrete data dependency based sequence of participants with defined arguments. As participants belonging to a workflow are mapped onto machines and executed, periodic and on-demand monitoring of vital health parameters on allocated nodes is enabled according to pre-specified rules. These rules specify conditions that must be true pre-execution, during execution and post-execution. Monitoring information for each participant is propagated upwards through the reflex and healing architecture, which consists of a hierarchical network of decentralized fault management entities, called reflex engines. They are instantiated as state machines or timed automatons that change state and initiate reflexive mitigation action(s) upon occurrence of certain faults. We describe how this cluster reliability framework is combined with the workflow execution framework using formal rules and actions specified within a structure of first order predicate logic that enables a dynamic management design that reduces manual administrative workload, and increases cluster-productivity.

  10. Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiatives Throughout Europe: Proven Value for Money

    PubMed Central

    Oberjé, Edwin J.M.; Tanke, Marit A.C.; Jeurissen, Patrick P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is recognized as a key component to stop the current European spread of antimicrobial resistance. It has also become evident that antimicrobial resistance is a problem that cannot be tackled by single institutions or physicians. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance needs rigorous actions at ward level, institution level, national level and at supra-national levels. Countries can learn from each other and possibly transplant best practices across borders to prevent antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to highlight some of the success stories of proven cost-effective interventions, and to describe the actions that have been taken, the outcomes that have been found, and the difficulties that have been met. In some cases we came across substantial scope for real-life cost savings. Although the best approach to effectively hinder the spread of antimicrobial resistance remains unclear and may vary significantly among settings, several EU-wide examples demonstrate that cost-effective antimicrobial stewardship is possible. Such examples can encourage others to implement (the most cost-effective) elements in their system. PMID:28458794

  11. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

  12. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors and dialysis dependent acute kidney injury, just a few days after treatment of a respiratory tract infection with moxifloxacin. The renal biopsy revealed dense infiltrates mainly composed of eosinophils and severe interstitial edema. A course of oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) was commenced and rapidly tapered to zero within three weeks. The renal function improved, and the patient was discharged with a creatinine of 107 μmol/l. Conclusion This case illustrates that pharmacovigilance is important to early detect rare side effects, such as AIN, even in drugs with a favourable risk/benefit ratio such as moxifloxacin. PMID:20731847

  13. Culture-proven bacterial keratitis in a Malaysian general hospital.

    PubMed

    Hooi, S H; Hooi, S T

    2005-12-01

    One hundred patients (101 eyes) with culture-proven bacterial keratitis were treated in the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru, over a 4-year period. The majority of patients was male (63%), Malay (60%), from the Johor Bahru district (62%) and aged between 41 to 50 years (20%). The ocular predisposing factors were ocular trauma (41 eyes), ocular surface disease (28 eyes) and contact lens wear (26 eyes). The corneal ulcers were mainly large (50.5%), central (59.4%) and colonized by Gram-negative bacteria (78.1%). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (67 eyes), Staphylococcus aureus (12 eyes), Acinetobacter baumanii (6 eyes), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5 eyes), Corynebacterium sp. (3 eyes:) and Streptococcus pneumonliae (3 eyes). Twelve eyes (11.8%) had polymicrobial infection. A good visual outcome occurred in 52.5% of eyes analysed. Prognostic factors for visual outcome include presenting Snellen visual acuity, time to presentation after onset of ocular symptoms, ocular predisposing factor, corneal ulcer location and corneal ulcer size.

  14. Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Floss, C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Apollo 16 mission landed in the feldspathic lunar highlands, mass-balance models suggest that there is a 5-6% mare component in the mature soils collected at the site. Only one mare basalt greater than 1 cm was found and two surveys of 2-4 mm particles found that less than 1% of this size fraction is mare basalt. Similar surveys of the less than 1 mm size fraction of A16 soils found very little lithic mare basalt, but several percent of basaltic green, yellow, and orange glass. The green glass beads were identified as VLT picritic glass and the orange/yellow glass shards were a mix of high and low Ti mare-like glass, high-Al basaltic glass, and KREEPy glasses. Most previous studies of glasses in the A16 regolith were surveys that identified a high proportion of feldspathic glass because most of the glass is produced by local impacts. Because the number of mafic glasses found was low, few compositional groupings were identified. As part of our ongoing study of the mafic components of the Apollo 16 site, we specifically targeted mafic glasses from Apollo 16, selecting against the more feldspathic glasses. In this way we were able to identify over 300 mafic glasses (greater than 10 wt % FeO). We present here the major- and trace-element chemistry of the main glass groups and discuss the likely provenance of each group.

  15. Experimental evaluation of job provenance in ATLAS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křenek, A.; Sitera, J.; Chudoba, J.; Dvořák, F.; Filipovič, J.; Kmuníček, J.; Matyska, L.; Mulaš, M.; Ruda, M.; Šustr, Z.; Campana, S.; Molinari, E.; Rebatto, D.

    2008-07-01

    Grid middleware stacks, including gLite, matured into the state of being able to process up to millions of jobs per day. Logging and Bookkeeping, the gLite job-tracking service, keeps pace with this rate; however, it is not designed to provide a long-term archive of information on executed jobs. ATLAS — representative of a large user community — addresses this issue with its own job catalogue (ProdDB). Development of such a customized service, not easily reusable, took considerable effort which is not affordable by smaller communities. On the contrary, Job Provenance (JP), a generic gLite service designed for long-term archiving of information on executed jobs focusing on scalability, extensibility, uniform data view, and configurability, allows more specialized catalogues to be easily built. We present the first results of an experimental JP deployment for the ATLAS production infrastructure where a JP installation was fed with a part of ATLAS jobs, and also stress tested with real production data. The main outcome of this work is a demonstration that JP can complement large-scale application-specific job catalogue services, while serving a similar purpose where there are none available.

  16. Sedimentary provenance of Maastrichtian oil shales, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Mohamed, Ramadan S.; Zaki, Rafat

    2017-04-01

    Maastrichtian oil shales are distributed within the Central Eastern Desert in Egypt. In this study elemental geochemical data have been applied to investigate the probable provenance of the sedimentary detrital material of the Maastrichtian oil shale beds within the Duwi and the Dakhla formations. The Maastrichtian oil shales are characterized by the enrichment in Ca, P, Mo, Ni, Zn, U, Cr and Sr versus post-Archean Australian shales (PAAS). The chondrite-normalized patterns of the Maastrichtian oil shale samples are showing LREE enrichment, HREE depletion, slightly negative Eu anomaly, no obvious Ce anomaly and typical shale-like PAAS-normalized patterns. The total REE well correlated with Si, Al, Fe, K and Ti, suggesting that the REE of the Maastrichtian oil shales are derived from terrigenous source. Chemical weathering indices such as Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) indicate moderate to strong chemical weathering. We suggest that the Maastrichtian oil shale is mainly derived from first cycle rocks especially intermediate rocks without any significant inputs from recycled or mature sources. The proposed data illustrated the impact of the parent material composition on evolution of oil shale chemistry. Furthermore, the paleo-tectonic setting of the detrital source rocks for the Maastrichtian oil shale is probably related to Proterozoic continental island arcs

  17. Murder by insulin: suspected, purported and proven-a review.

    PubMed

    Marks, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    Murder by insulin-whether attempted, suspected or proven-is rare. Only 66 cases worldwide could be found for this review. A conviction was secured in 31 cases and additional weapon was employed in 11. Differentiation of attempted homicide from Munchausen syndrome by proxy in the young and from 'mercy killing' in the elderly was not attempted. Most perpetrators were close relatives and most victims were alive when discovered and responded to treatment. Hypoglycaemia is the first clue to homicidal insulin use in living subjects and requires the demonstration of a plasma insulin concentration of generally more than 1000 pmol/L and undetectable plasma C-peptide concentration to establish the diagnosis. Serum glucose measurements are valueless in victims found dead. The presence near the body of insulin vials, syringes or needles, loose talk by the suspected perpetrator or their ready access to insulin may be the only clue. The demonstration of insulin in tissue around an injection site by immunohistopathology or by measuring it in an extract clinches the diagnosis. Immunoassays suitable for clinical use to detect and measure insulin and C-peptide are subject to random errors and cannot be relied upon unless special precautions including separation by gel filtration or HPLC are undertaken prior to analysis. They do not detect or measure accurately a new generation of synthetic insulin analogues. Mass spectrometry will be required to do this and to validate clinical immunoassays, upon which convictions have always had to rely in the past. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  19. Bridging the Gap between Scientific Data Producers and Consumers: A Provenance Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-06-03

    Despite the methodical and painstaking efforts made by scientists to record their scientific findings and protocols, a knowledge gap problem continues to persist today between producers of scientific results and consumers because technology is performing the exchange of data as opposed to scientists making direct contact. Provenance is a means to formalize how this knowledge is transferred. However, for it to be meaningful to scientists, the provenance research community needs continued contributions from the scientific community to extend and leverage provenance-based vocabularies and technology from the provenance community. Going forward the provenance community must also be vigilant to meet scalability needs of data intensive science

  20. Oligocene Provenance, Drainage Morphology, and Topography of the Nevadaplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassel, E. J.; Henry, C. D.; Graham, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Grove, M.

    2011-12-01

    Debate surrounds the origin, uplift, and evolution of the northern Sierra Nevada and western Basin and Range. Many consider the Late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic Sierra to have formed the western edge of a high elevation plateau that covered much of what is now Nevada. The topography, extent, and drainage of this plateau remain uncertain. We integrate local paleovalley morphology and alluvial conglomerate stratigraphy with regional assessments of sediment and volcanic provenance and paleo-elevations across the proposed ancestral "Nevadaplano" to gain a better understanding of the early Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of the region, and to assess the possible tectonic and climatic drivers for that evolution. A sequence of Oligocene rhyolitic ignimbrites is preserved from eastern Nevada to the western foothills of the modern Sierra, commonly overlying a basal alluvial/fluvial coarse sand- to cobble-size conglomerate. The stratigraphy and provenance of these units, based on clast composition, detrital zircon and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and TREE geochemistry, demonstrates the presence of an active westward-draining fluvial system in the late Eocene to early Oligocene. Although dominated by Mesozoic batholith sources, detrital zircon populations from fluvial deposits in the northern Sierra contain 2-20% zircon grains with U-Pb ages from 42.7 to 33.0 Ma, which were likely sourced from Eocene volcanic rocks in northern Nevada, and 5-30% Precambrian zircon grains, reflecting derivation from basement metamorphic belts of the Sierra, as well as possible contributions from Nevada. Hydrated volcanic glass from overlying ignimbrites was used as a proxy for δD of Oligocene meteoric water, which reflects the effect of ancient topography on precipitation. δD decreases gradually from west to east across what is now northern Nevada, although at a significantly lower gradient than Oligocene δD across the Sierra. δD of volcanic glass across Nevada decreases from values ranging from

  1. Provenance and geochronology of Cenozoic sandstones of northern Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hattum, M. W. A.; Hall, R.; Pickard, A. L.; Nichols, G. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Crocker Fan of Sabah was deposited during subduction of the Proto-South China Sea between the Eocene and Early Miocene. Collision of South China microcontinental blocks with Borneo in the Early Miocene terminated deep water sedimentation and resulted in the major regional Top Crocker Unconformity (TCU). Sedimentation of fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine character resumed in the late Early Miocene. The Crocker Fan sandstones were derived from nearby sources in Borneo and nearby SE Asia, rather than distant Asian and Himalayan sources. The Crocker Fan sandstones have a mature composition, but their textures and heavy mineralogy indicate they are first-cycle sandstones, mostly derived from nearby granitic source rocks, with some input of metamorphic, sedimentary and ophiolitic material. The discrepancy between compositional maturity and textural immaturity is attributed to the effects of tropical weathering. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons are predominantly Mesozoic. In the Eocene sandstones Cretaceous zircons dominate and suggest derivation from granites of the Schwaner Mountains of southern Borneo. In Oligocene sandstones Permian-Triassic and Palaeoproterozoic zircons become more important, and are interpreted to be derived from Permian-Triassic granites and Proterozoic basement of the Malay Tin Belt. Miocene fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine sandstones above the TCU were mostly recycled from the deformed Crocker Fan in the rising central mountain range of Borneo. The provenance of the Tajau Sandstone Member of the Lower Miocene Kudat Formation in north Sabah is strikingly different from other Miocene and older sandstones. Sediment was derived mainly from granitic and high-grade metamorphic source rocks. No such rocks existed in Borneo during the Early Miocene, but potential sources are present on Palawan, to the north of Borneo. They represent continental crust from South China and subduction-related metamorphic rocks which formed an elevated region in the Early

  2. Provenance of Ross Sea Till From Sand Petrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, J. R.; Swope, R.; Licht, K. J.

    2002-12-01

    The 125-2000 micron fraction of till samples from cores retrieved beneath the Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C in West Antarctica and samples collected proximal to four outlet glaciers in East Antarctica have distinct compositions. The sand fraction of East Antarctic till samples is dominantly composed of angular intermediate to mafic igneous lithic fragments, quartz-rich lithic fragments, rounded quartz grains, rounded carbonate lithic fragments, angular pyroxene grains, and rounded feldspar grains. The sand fraction of West Antarctic till is dominantly composed of rounded quartz grains, rounded feldspar grains, quartz-rich lithic fragments, and felsic igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar and phyllosillicates (biotite and chlorite). We also examined the 125-2000 micron fraction of several till samples from cores retrieved from the eastern Ross Sea. The samples are composed of (1) (25-40 %) rounded quartz grains; (2) (10-36 %) quartz-rich lithic fragments; (3) (8-20 %) quartzite fragments; (4) (5-15 %) felsic igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar, hornblende, and phyllosilicates (biotite and chlorite); (5) (5-10 %) intermediate igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar, pyroxene, and amphibole; (6) (<1 %) carbonate grains; and (7) (<1 %) feldspar grains. Compositional similarities in last glacial maximum till from the eastern Ross Sea and till collected from beneath ice streams in West Antarctica indicate the likelihood that eastern Ross Sea sediments were deposited by an advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Most notable are the compositional similarities in the quartz grain and quartz-rich sedimentary lithic fragment percentages, and felsic lithic fragment percentages and composition. Future work involves sampling numerous last glacial maximum till samples across the Ross Sea using sand petrography as a provenance tracer to determine paleo ice flow paths.

  3. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Hlavacs, Helmut; Haq, Inam Ul; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Fakhri Alam; Ahmad, Awais

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  4. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  5. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2017-06-01

    Texture, mineralogy, and major and trace element geochemistry of 26 coastal dune sand samples were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic environment of two dune fields close to the beaches of Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Onshore winds generate fine, moderate, moderately-well to well-sorted, coarse-skewed to near-symmetrical dune sands with mesokurtic distributions. Winds pick up and transport grains from nearby beach sands and alluvial deposits into a wide Red Sea coastal plain at the border of the beach. The mineralogical (Qt-Ft-Lt) and geochemical composition of the sands, indicate that SF and QS coastal dune sands are mature and influenced by quartz-rich sands. The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary and partly metamorphic-plutonic sources. The high content of quartz with shell debris and carbonates in coastal dune sands support the recycled sedimentary beach and alluvial sand sources. The dominance of heavy minerals like amphiboles (hornblende) and biotite in the coastal dune sands also supports the effect of metamorphic-plutonic source rocks. The new tectonic discriminant-function diagrams suggest that the coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The results provide a good evidence for the extension in the Red Sea rift system during Oligocene-post Pliocene, which is consistent with the general geology of Egypt.

  6. Glomerular Density in Biopsy-Proven Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Haruhara, Kotaro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Kanzaki, Go; Koike, Kentaro; Suyama, Masahiro; Shimizu, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Yoichi; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Ogura, Makoto; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Previous autopsy studies suggested that a reduced nephron number is associated with increased risk of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. However, the significance of the nephron number estimated from a renal biopsy in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HNS) has not yet been elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the clinicopathological findings of biopsy-proven HNS patients with preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). The glomerular density (GD; the number of glomeruli per total renal cortical area) in biopsy specimens was evaluated as a surrogate of the nephron number. Renal biopsies from kidney transplant donors were used as healthy controls. A total of 58 HNS patients were enrolled. The GD value in the HNS patients was low compared with those in the kidney transplant donors (2.0 vs. 3.2 /mm(2)). These differences remained significant when globally sclerotic glomeruli were included in the calculation of the GD. Of note, the GD in HNS patients with overt proteinuria (≥1 g/day) was significantly lower than that of HNS patients with mild proteinuria (<1g/day; 1.8 vs. 2.2/mm(2), P = 0.014). In contrast, other histopathological parameters, including the severity of global glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and arterial and arteriole lesions were comparable between the 2 HNS subgroups. In addition, the GD was identified as a factor that was associated with the amount of urinary protein excretion at biopsy, independent of other clinicopathological factors. These results suggest that a low GD is a renal histological characteristic of HNS patients, especially those with overt proteinuria. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process.

  8. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  9. A proven approach for more effective software development and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Hall, Dana; Sinclair, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Modern space flight mission operations and associated ground data systems are increasingly dependent upon reliable, quality software. Critical functions such as command load preparation, health and status monitoring, communications link scheduling and conflict resolution, and transparent gateway protocol conversion are routinely performed by software. Given budget constraints and the ever increasing capabilities of processor technology, the next generation of control centers and data systems will be even more dependent upon software across all aspects of performance. A key challenge now is to implement improved engineering, management, and assurance processes for the development and maintenance of that software; processes that cost less, yield higher quality products, and that self-correct for continual improvement evolution. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has a unique experience base that can be readily tapped to help solve the software challenge. Over the past eighteen years, the Software Engineering Laboratory within the code 500 Flight Dynamics Division has evolved a software development and maintenance methodology that accommodates the unique characteristics of an organization while optimizing and continually improving the organization's software capabilities. This methodology relies upon measurement, analysis, and feedback much analogous to that of control loop systems. It is an approach with a time-tested track record proven through repeated applications across a broad range of operational software development and maintenance projects. This paper describes the software improvement methodology employed by the Software Engineering Laboratory, and how it has been exploited within the Flight Dynamics Division with GSFC Code 500. Examples of specific improvement in the software itself and its processes are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. Finally, the initial findings are given when this methodology was applied across the

  10. Provenance study conflict Miocene eolian deposit in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Stockli, D. F.; Li, J.; Song, C.

    2013-12-01

    The dispute of fine-grained Miocene sediments from Tianshui Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau as eolian loess-paleosol or neptunian mudflat/distal fan is an unresolved hot topic in Cenozoic palaeoclimatology , impacting further research of Asian monsoon and the mechanism of its variations. Tratigraphic correlation and constraining the sedimentary age with paleomagnetic method show that hundreds miles of foreland basin stratums occurred in north of West Qinling mountain belt in Miocene. The tratums are about 2000 m thick in the south foredeep range, thinning to less than 300 m thick in the north backbulge range. Similar heavy minerals composition and detrital ziron U/Pb ages distribution also show that the materials in the basin were from the same denuded regions. Such evidences conform that the Miocene sedimentary sections identified as loess in Tianshui basin could be distal fan and flood plain in the united foreland basin system. Comprehensive provenance techniques of heavy minerals and detrital zircon U/Pb ages show differences between Miocene Tianshui sediments and Pliocene- Quaternary loess- red clay from Chinese loess Plateau. Specifically, samples from Tianshui basin have more than 20% of Magnetite and 30% of Epidote, but Amphibole is lacking. Loess-red clay samples consist of 21% Amphibole on average. Classifying degree of correction of Amphibole proves that weathering erosion is not the reason for this dissimilarity. More Amphibole rich iginous rocks or matemorphoic rocks could exist widely in loess's source region. Most zircon U/Pb ages in this study fall into similar ranges, especially from 200Ma to 500Ma. There is a significant age peak from 200Ma to 250Ma in Tianshui sediments and modern river sands originating from West Qinling mountain belt, which is rare in loess-red clay samples. A part of zircons from loess and red clay contain very low U and Th elements, implying some of Mafic or intermediate rocks in eolian source area. Both Mafic and

  11. Collision-Orogen provenance: Modern sands from big Himalayan rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, E.; Vezzoli, G.; Andò, S.; France-Lanord, C.; Singh, S. K.; Clift, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen represents the most important source of terrigenous detritus on Earth. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system ranks first in terms of sediment load, and together with the Indus carried to the Indian Ocean ca 2 billion tons of sediments annually. Stored in the Bengal and Indus fans, the world's largest turbiditic cones by far, are ca 15*10^6km^3 of detritus derived from the Himalayas since the Paleogene. Nevertheless, petrographic and mineralogic composition of sediments transported by big Himalayan rivers has been poorly documented so far. This high-resolution actualistic study provides a key to interpret detrital modes of Tertiary foreland basin strata, and sheds light on diagnostic features of collision-orogen provenance. Composition of Himalayan-derived sands indicates dominant contribution from amphibolite-facies rocks exposed both south and north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture, reflecting extreme uplift and widespread exhumation of the deep roots of the orogen. Hornblende-dominated dense-mineral suites of both Indus and Brahmaputra sands are largely derived from Asian active-margin plutons. The Indus sands in particular reflect major supply from arc batholiths, widely exposed in Ladakh, Kohistan, and along the Karakorum and Hindukush belts. The Ganga sands are instead chiefly derived from High-Himalayan nappes with Tertiary metamorphism up to sillimanite-grade. Intermediate composition characterizes the Brahmaputra sands, shed largely from High Himalayan crystalline rocks subject to very rapid erosion around the Namche-Barwa syntaxis, and subordinately from Gangdese batholiths in the Tibetan tract and from plutonic rocks of the Mishmi hills farther downstream. Supply from sedimentary covers and recycling of accreted foreland-basin strata are significant, whereas volcanic and ophiolitic detritus is volumetrically negligible. Carbonate grains, common in the Indus sands and present in the Ganga sands, are negligible in the Brahmaputra sands

  12. The geochemistry and provenance of Apollo 16 mafic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Floss, Christine

    2006-12-01

    , alkali-rich, and moderately titaniferous; they are unlike any previously recognized lunar lithology or glass group. Their likely provenance is within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, but they are not found within the Apollo 16 ancient regolith breccias and therefore were likely deposited at the Apollo 16 site post-Imbrium. The basaltic-andesite glasses are the most ferroan variety of KREEP yet discovered.

  13. Provenance control on chemical indices of weathering (Taiwan river sands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Geochemical parameters obtained from the analysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks are widely used to infer weathering and paleo-weathering conditions in source areas. Chemical indices of weathering, however, may not reflect weathering only, or even principally. The concentration of chemical elements in terrigenous sediments is constrained by the original mineralogy of source rocks, and is thus provenance-dependent. Moreover, the mineralogy and consequently the geochemistry of sediments may undergo substantial modifications by diverse physical processes during transport and deposition, including recycling and hydraulic sorting by size, density or shape, and/or by chemical dissolution and precipitation during diagenesis. Around the island of Taiwan, temperature and rainfall are consistently high and relatively homogeneous, and no significant correlation is observed between geochemical and climatic parameters. Physical erosion, fostered by landslides induced by frequent earthquakes and typhoons, prevails because of high relief and extreme rates of tectonic uplift. In such a dynamic orogenic setting, all chemical indices of weathering are controlled principally by the geology of source terranes. Sedimentaclastic and metasedimentaclastic sands carried by western Taiwan rivers draining the pro-wedge display the strongest depletion in Na, Ca, Mg and Sr relative to average upper continental crust, and no depletion or even enrichment in K, Rb and Ba. Low WIP indices reflect erosion of phyllosilicate-dominated rocks in the Slate Belt and extensive recycling of clastic rocks exposed in the Western Foothills. Instead, metamorphiclastic sands carried by eastern Taiwan rivers draining the retro-wedge show no depletion or even enrichment in Mg and Ca, and low CIA and PIA, reflecting contributions from the Tailuko Belt and Coastal Range. Volcaniclastic sands have the same CIA values of their andesitic source rocks (47 ± 1 versus 47 ± 7), indicating that weathering is

  14. Geisinger's ProvenCare methodology: driving performance improvement within a shared governance structure.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Ruth; Wary, Andrea; King, Megan; Laam, Leslie A; Hallick, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Many performance improvement projects fail because they occur in parallel to the organization's shared governance structure. Leveraging the full potential of its nursing shared governance structure, Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare methodology harnessed the full potential of its staff nurses to create truly reliable workflows that benefit patients and that the team finds professionally satisfying. Using ProvenCare Perinatal and its smoking cessation education intervention and outcomes as an example, the authors describe the ProvenCare methodology.

  15. The application of cloud computing to the creation of image mosaics and management of their provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Deelman, Ewa; Groth, Paul; Juve, Gideon

    2010-07-01

    We have used the Montage image mosaic engine to investigate the cost and performance of processing images on the Amazon EC2 cloud, and to inform the requirements that higher-level products impose on provenance management technologies. We will present a detailed comparison of the performance of Montage on the cloud and on the Abe high performance cluster at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Because Montage generates many intermediate products, we have used it to understand the science requirements that higher-level products impose on provenance management technologies. We describe experiments with provenance management technologies such as the "Provenance Aware Service Oriented Architecture" (PASOA).

  16. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  17. Geoscience Australia's enterprise application of provenance standards and systems for physical and digital objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, C.; Car, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Geoscience Australia (GA) is a government agency that provides advice on the geology and geography of Australia. It is the custodian of many digital and physical datasets of national significance. For several years GA has been implementing an enterprise approach to provenance management. The goal for transparency and reproducibility for all of GA's information products; an objective supported at the highest levels and explicitly listed in its Science Principles. Currently GA is finalising a set of enterprise tools to assist with provenance management and rolling out provenance reporting to different science areas. GA has adopted or developed: provenance storage systems; provenance collection code libraries (for use within automated systems); reporting interfaces (for manual use) and provenance representation capability within legacy catalogues. Using these tools within GA's science areas involves modelling the scenario first and then assessing whether the area has its data managed in such a way that allows links to data within provenance to be resolvable in perpetuity. We don't just want to represent provenance (demonstrating transparency), we want to access data via provenance (allowing for reproducibility). A subtask of GA's current work is to link physical samples to information products (datasets, reports, papers) by uniquely and persistently identifying samples using International GeoSample Numbers and then modelling automated & manual laboratory workflows and associated tasks, such as data delivery to corporate databases using the W3C's PROV Data Model. We use PROV DM throughout our modelling and systems. We are also moving to deliver all sample and digital dataset metadata across the agency in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and exposing it via Linked Data methods in order to allow Semantic Web querying of multiple systems allowing provenance to be leveraged using as a single method and query point. Through the Science First Transformation Program GA is

  18. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  19. Querying Provenance Information: Basic Notions and an Example from Paleoclimate Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodden, V.; Ludaescher, B.; Bocinsky, K.; Kintigh, K.; Kohler, T.; McPhillips, T.; Rush, J.

    2016-12-01

    Computational models are used to reconstruct and explain past environments and to predict likely future environments. For example, Bocinsky and Kohler have performed a 2,000-year reconstruction of the rain-fed maize agricultural niche in the US Southwest. The resulting academic publications not only contain traditional method descriptions, figures, etc. but also links to code and data for basic transparency and reproducibility. Examples include ResearchCompendia.org and the new project "Merging Science and Cyberinfrastructure Pathways: The Whole Tale." Provenance information provides a further critical element to understand a published study and to possibly extend or challenge the findings of the original authors. We present different notions and uses of provenance information using a computational archaeology example, e.g., the common use of "provenance for others" (for transparency and reproducibility), but also the more elusive but equally important use of "provenance for self". To this end, we distinguish prospective provenance (a.k.a. workflow) from retrospective provenance (a.k.a. data lineage) and show how combinations of both forms of provenance can be used to answer different kinds of important questions about a workflow and its execution. Since many workflows are developed using scripting or special purpose languages such as Python and R, we employ an approach and toolkit called YesWorkflow that brings provenance modeling, capture, and querying into the realm of scripting. YesWorkflow employs the basic W3C PROV standard, as well as the ProvONE extension for sharing and exchanging retrospective and prospective provenance information, respectively. Finally, we argue that the utility of provenance information should be maximized by developing different kinds provenance questions and queries during the early phases of computational workflow design and implementation.

  20. Survival and height growth of northern white-cedar from 18 provenances

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Jeffers

    1976-01-01

    Northern white-cedar from 18 provenances was evaluated for total height in the nursery and for survival and total height in two field plantings in northern Wisconsin and in western Upper Michigan. There were significant differences among provenances in survival at one location and in height at both field locations 5 years after planting; there were no differences among...

  1. Ten-year performance of ponderosa pine provenances in the Great Plains of North America

    Treesearch

    Ralph A. Read

    1983-01-01

    A cluster and discriminant analysis based on nine of the best plantations, partitioned the seed provenance populations into six geographic clusters according to their consistency of performance in the plantations.The Northcentral Nebraska cluster of three provenances performed consistently well above average in all plantations. These easternmost...

  2. Genetic variation in ponderosa pine: A 15-year test of provenances in the Great Plains

    Treesearch

    David F. Van Haverbeke

    1986-01-01

    Survival was highest and height growth greatest in ponderosa pine provenances from northcentral Nebraska, southwest South Dakota, and the High Plains region. Genotype x environment interaction was minimal in central and northern Great Plains plantations. Age/age correlations indicate provenances expressing superior height growth can be identified after 5 or 10 years....

  3. Provenance and progeny variation in pitch pine from the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    John E. Kuser; F. Thomas Ledig

    1987-01-01

    A test of open-pollinated pitch pine families from 17 different locations on the Atlantic Coastal Plain was evaluated at 12 years of age. Genetic variation for growth was almost totally on the provenance level and was detectable among families within provenances in only a few cases. Mean volume decreased with latitude and also with distance of the seed origin from the...

  4. Performance of Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1986-01-01

    Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna were compared at four locations on the island of Hawaii to seek seed sources better than those in current use which were introduced earlier from unrecorded locations in Australia. A broad range of latitude and elevation was represented among the provenances. At all four...

  5. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances

    PubMed Central

    Gülcü, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively. PMID:28133603

  6. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Bilir, Nebi

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  7. Five-year results of a ponderosa pine provenance study in the Black Hills

    Treesearch

    James L. Van Deusen

    1974-01-01

    Survival and height growth data were collected after five field growing seasons from ponderosa pine progeny representing 75 provenances of natural stands in the Great Plains and Northern Rockies. Results showed that trees from no other provenance survived significantly better or grew significantly taller than trees from the Black Hills. Trees from southern Colorado,...

  8. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled “Rigor and Reproducibility “ for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project. PMID:28269904

  9. EFFECTS OF COLD STRATIFICATION AND GA3 ON GERMINATION OF ARBUTUS UNEDO SEEDS OF THREE PROVENANCES.

    PubMed

    Pipinis, Elias; Stampoulidis, Athanasios; Milios, Elias; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    Arbutus unedo is a valuable Mediterranean shrub as an ornamental plant as well as fruit tree. Fresh fruits of A. unedo are a good source of antioxidants, of vitamins C, E and carotenoids and also are characterized by the high content of mineral elements. The effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and cold stratification (CS) on seed germination performance were investigated in A. unedo seeds collected from three provenances in the Northern part of Greece. Seeds of each provenance were soaked in solutions of GA3 (500, 1000 or 2000 ppm) for 24 h and subsequently were subjected to CS at 3 - 5°C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. Non-stratified seeds of the three A. unedo provenances which were not treated with GA3 solutions exhibited very low germination. However, seed germination was significantly improved after a one-month period of CS. Similarly, the non-stratified seeds of all three provenances became non-dormant after the treatment with 2000 ppm GA3 and they germinated at high percentages. However, in untreated seeds with GA3, after a one-month CS period the seeds of the Pieria provenance exhibited higher germination percentage than that of Rodopi provenance seeds. Furthermore, in non-stratified seeds, the Pieria provenance seeds treated with GA3 germinated at higher percentages and more rapidly than those of the other two provenances. The results indicated that untreated seeds exhibited very low germination at 20/25°C. However, in all three provenances seed germinability was significantly improved by a one-month period of CS or treatment of seeds with 2000 ppm GA3. Furthermore, there was a considerable variability among seed provenances in response to the treatments which were applied.

  10. EFFECTS OF COLD STRATIFICATION AND GA3 ON GERMINATION OF ARBUTUS UNEDO SEEDS OF THREE PROVENANCES

    PubMed Central

    Pipinis, Elias; Stampoulidis, Athanasios; Milios, Elias; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arbutus unedo is a valuable Mediterranean shrub as an ornamental plant as well as fruit tree. Fresh fruits of A. unedo are a good source of antioxidants, of vitamins C, E and carotenoids and also are characterized by the high content of mineral elements. Materials and Methods: The effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and cold stratification (CS) on seed germination performance were investigated in A. unedo seeds collected from three provenances in the Northern part of Greece. Seeds of each provenance were soaked in solutions of GA3 (500, 1000 or 2000 ppm) for 24 h and subsequently were subjected to CS at 3 - 5°C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. Results: Non-stratified seeds of the three A. unedo provenances which were not treated with GA3 solutions exhibited very low germination. However, seed germination was significantly improved after a one-month period of CS. Similarly, the non-stratified seeds of all three provenances became non-dormant after the treatment with 2000 ppm GA3 and they germinated at high percentages. However, in untreated seeds with GA3, after a one-month CS period the seeds of the Pieria provenance exhibited higher germination percentage than that of Rodopi provenance seeds. Furthermore, in non-stratified seeds, the Pieria provenance seeds treated with GA3 germinated at higher percentages and more rapidly than those of the other two provenances. Conclusion: The results indicated that untreated seeds exhibited very low germination at 20/25°C. However, in all three provenances seed germinability was significantly improved by a one-month period of CS or treatment of seeds with 2000 ppm GA3. Furthermore, there was a considerable variability among seed provenances in response to the treatments which were applied. PMID:28480410

  11. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.

  12. Presenting Provenance Based on User Roles - Experiences from the ACOS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    One goal of provenance is to provide users an understanding of the steps a system took to generate data products. Here, the level of detail captured by provenance becomes an important consideration. As detail is added, more questions can be hypothetically addressed. However, presenting significant provenance detail may also overwhelm end users, for one of two reasons: (i) the detail presented is irrelevant to the objectives, or (ii) the detail requires background knowledge a user lacks. Both of these challenges are present for data generated by the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photometer-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into data products consumable by end users. To fully understand these sequences of steps, background knowledge corresponding to various areas (e.g., astronomy, digital imaging, and ACOS specific techniques) is required by end users. This makes reviewing provenance difficult for users outside the ACOS development team, where varying degrees of background may be expected (ranging from outside domain experts in Solar Physics to citizen scientists). Likewise, even when steps taken by ACOS are understandable, they may provide undesired detail to an end user if presented. The work with ACOS involved the development of a Semantic Web based framework to selectively present provenance detail for data products in ACOS. Here, provenance is captured according to two sets of ontologies, the Proof Markup Language, which is an ontology based domain-independent provenance model, and a step ontology, designed to capture hierarchies of provenance steps. Used in combination, these ontology sets enable the creation of multiple levels of provenance, ranging from coarse to fine grained detail. In this setting, users may choose to expand/collapse provenance steps to view desired details. However, the specific provenance details a user initially sees is defined through

  13. Extending eScience Provenance with User-Submitted Semantic Annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, J.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    eScience based systems generate provenance of their data products, related to such things as: data processing, data collection conditions, expert evaluation, and data product quality. Recent advances in web-based technology offer users the possibility of making annotations to both data products and steps in accompanying provenance traces, thereby expanding the utility of such provenance for others. These contributing users may have varying backgrounds, ranging from system experts to outside domain experts to citizen scientists. Furthermore, such users may wish to make varying types of annotations - ranging from documenting the purpose of a provenance step to raising concerns about the quality of data dependencies. Semantic Web technologies allow for such kinds of rich annotations to be made to provenance through the use of ontology vocabularies for (i) organizing provenance, and (ii) organizing user/annotation classifications. Furthermore, through Linked Data practices, Semantic linkages may be made from provenance steps to external data of interest. A desire for Semantically-annotated provenance has been motivated by data management issues in the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photomoeter-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into final data products consumable by end users. At intermediate stages of ACOS processing, factors such as evaluations by human experts and weather conditions are logged, which could impact data product quality. If such factors are linked via user-submitted annotations to provenance, it could be significantly beneficial for other users. Likewise, the background of a user could impact the credibility of their annotations. For example, an annotation made by a citizen scientist describing the purpose of a provenance step may not be as reliable as a similar annotation made by an ACOS project member. For this work, we have developed a software package that

  14. Multi-scale Science: Supporting Emerging Practice with Semantically Derived Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, James D.; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Lansing, Carina S.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Ashish, N., Goble, C

    2003-10-20

    Scientific progress is becoming increasingly dependent of our ability to study phenomena at multiple scales and from multiple perspectives. The ability to recontextualize third party data within the semantic and syntactic framework of a given research project is increasingly seen as a primary barrier in multi-scale science. Within the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Science (CMCS) project, we are developing a general-purpose informatics-based approach that emphasizes ''on-demand'' metadata creation, configurable data translations, and semantic mapping to support the rapidly increasing and continually evolving requirements for managing data, metadata, and data relationships in such projects. A concrete example of this approach is the design of the CMCS provenance subsystem. The concept of provenance varies across communities, and multiple independent applications contribute to and use provenance. In CMCS, we have developed generic tools for viewing provenance relationships and for using them to, for example, scope notifications and searches. These tools rely on a configurable concept of provenance defined in terms of other relationships. The result is a very flexible mechanism capable of tracking data provenance across many disciplines and supporting multiple uses of provenance information.

  15. Autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce plus tree progeny and trees of the local and transferred provenances in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hannerz, Mats; Westin, Johan

    2005-09-01

    Reforestation with provenances from locations remote from the planting site (transferred provenances) or the progeny of trees of local provenances selected for superior form and vigor (plus trees) offer alternative means to increase yield over that obtained by the use of seed from unselected trees of the local provenance. Under Swedish conditions, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of certain transferred provenances generally has an advantage in productivity relative to the local provenance comparable to that of progeny of plus trees. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which productivity gains achieved by provenance transfer or the use of plus tree progeny are associated with reductions in autumn frost hardiness, relative to that of trees of the local provenance. In a field trial with 19-year-old trees in central Sweden, bud hardiness was tested on four occasions during the autumn of 2002. Trees of the local provenance were compared with trees of a south Swedish provenance originating 3 degrees of latitude to the south, a Belarusian provenance and the progeny of plus trees of local origin. The Belarusian provenance was the least hardy and the local provenance the most hardy, with plus tree progeny and the south Swedish provenance being intermediate in hardiness. Both the Belarusian provenance and the plus tree progeny were significantly taller than trees of the other populations. Within provenances, tree height was negatively correlated with autumn frost hardiness. Among the plus tree progeny, however, no such correlation between tree height and autumn frost hardiness was found. It is concluded that although the gain in productivity achieved by provenance transfer from Belarus was comparable to that achieved by using the progeny of plus trees of the local provenance, the use of trees of the Belarus provenance involved an increased risk of autumn frost damage because of later hardening.

  16. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks. PMID:27630643

  17. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  18. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  19. A Provenance Visualization Tool for Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa Santos, Guillem; Masó Pau, Joan

    2013-04-01

    The widespread use of the distributed environments in the Geographic Information Systems field had generated a broader access and a broader interchange of geographic information. This huge quantity of information, the heterogeneity of the origin of the data, and the complex functionalities involved in the creation of some geographical products can generate some problems in the reliability assessment process. Hence, this can affect to the quality of the results obtained from processing geographic information. In order to increase the trust of the data, the collection and the accessibility of detailed lineage information including responsibilities parties (part of the metadata that refers to the origin and the processes undertaken to obtain a specific geographic product, also known as provenance), is crucial to evaluate the quality of the resulting knowledge, to estimate the trustworthiness level offered by the Agents and the Processes, as well as to allow the reproducibility of the geographical information. Even there are several works related to this topic and some models have been created to integrate provenance information into the metadata standards, there are still some challenges in provenance-aware applications, like the interoperability of the provenance formats, automatic provenance registration and provenance visualization tools. The first goal of this communication is to analyze the state of the art in provenance visualization by comparing different approaches and methods. Secondly, we propose a tool for provenance visualization in Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) considering also the relation between provenance information and workflow processing in distributed environments e.g. Web Processing Services. This work is done in the context of the GeoViQua FP7 project.

  20. Fagus sylvatica L. provenances maintain different leaf metabolic profiles and functional response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Ismael; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de Miguel, Marina; Mancha, Jose Antonio; Guevara, María Angeles; Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, María Brígida

    2017-07-01

    Most temperate forest tree species will suffer important environmental changes as result of the climate change. Adaptiveness to local conditions could change at different sites in the future. In this context, the study of intra-specific variability is important to clarify the singularity of different local populations. Phenotypic differentiation between three beech provenances covering a wide latitudinal range (Spain/ES, Germany/DE and Sweden/SE), was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Non-target leaf metabolite profiles and ecophysiological response was analyzed in well-watered and water stressed seedlings. There was a provenance-specific pattern in the relative concentrations of some leaf metabolites regardless watering treatment. The DE and SE from the center and north of the distribution area of the species showed a clear differentiation from the ES provenance in the relative concentration of some metabolites. Thus the ES provenance from the south maintained larger relative concentration of some organic and amino acids (e.g. fumaric and succinic acids or valine and isoleucine), and in some secondary metabolites (e.g. kaempferol, caffeic and ferulic acids). The ecophysiological response to mild water stress was similar among the three provenances as a consequence of the moderate water stress applied to seedlings, although leaf N isotope composition (δ15N) and leaf C:N ratio were higher and lower respectively in DE than in the other two provenances. This would suggest potential differences in the capacity to uptake and post-process nitrogen according to provenance. An important focus of the study was to address for the first time inter-provenance leaf metabolic diversity in beech from a non-targeted metabolic profiling approach that allowed differentiation of the three studied provenances.

  1. Diverging drought resistance of Scots pine provenances revealed by infrared thermography and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming and more frequent and severe drought events will alter the adaptedness and fitness of tree species. Especially, Scots pine forests have been affected above average by die-off events during the last decades. Assisted migration of adapted provenances might help alleviating impacts by recent climate change and successfully regenerating forests. However, the identification of suitable provenances based on established ecophysiological methods is time consuming, sometimes invasive, and data on provenance-specific mortality are lacking. We studied the performance, stress and survival of potted Scots pine seedlings from 12 European provenances grown in a greenhouse experiment with multiple drought and warming treatments. In this paper, we will present results of drought stress impacts monitored with four different thermal indices derived from infrared thermography imaging as well as an ample mortality study. Percent soil water deficit (PSWD) was shown to be the main driver of drought stress response in all thermal indices. In spite of wet and dry reference surfaces, however, fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly in terms of air temperature and humidity, altered the measured stress response. In linear mixed-effects models, besides PSWD and meteorological covariates, the factors provenance and provenance - PSWD interactions were included. The explanatory power of the models (R2) ranged between 0.51 to 0.83 and thus, provenance-specific responses to strong and moderate drought and subsequent recovery were revealed. However, obvious differences in the response magnitude of provenances to drought were difficult to explicitly link to general features such Mediterranean - continental type or climate at the provenances' origin. We conclude that seedlings' drought resistance may be linked to summer precipitation and their experienced stress levels are a.o. dependent on their above ground dimensions under given water supply. In respect to mortality, previous

  2. 77 FR 57637 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Place of Provenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Styles in Tibetan Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to... the exhibition ``The Place of Provenance--Regional Styles in Tibetan Painting,'' imported from...

  3. Data Provenance Hybridization Supporting Extreme-Scale Scientific WorkflowApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Elsethagen, Todd O.; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Schram, Malachi; Macduff, Matt C.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Kleese-Van Dam, Kerstin; Singh, Alok; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-11-21

    As high performance computing (HPC) infrastructures continue to grow in capability and complexity, so do the applications that they serve. HPC and distributed-area computing (DAC) (e.g. grid and cloud) users are looking increasingly toward workflow solutions to orchestrate their complex application coupling, pre- and post-processing needs To gain insight and a more quantitative understanding of a workflow’s performance our method includes not only the capture of traditional provenance information, but also the capture and integration of system environment metrics helping to give context and explanation for a workflow’s execution. In this paper, we describe IPPD’s provenance management solution (ProvEn) and its hybrid data store combining both of these data provenance perspectives.

  4. Adaptation of eastern white pine provenances to planting sites. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Demeritt, M.E.; Garrett, P.W.

    1996-10-01

    Eastern white pine provenances from the extreme limits of the natural range of this species are changing from above- and below-average stability to average stability for height growth with increasing age. The regression method is useful for evaluating the stability of provenance to planting sites. The same general conclusions are reached for the performance at different planting sites from the regression method as from the relative difference method.

  5. Leveraging The Open Provenance Model as a Multi-Tier Model for Global Climate Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Halter, Todd D.; Ermold, Brian D.

    2010-12-08

    Global climate researchers rely upon many forms of sensor data and analytical methods to help profile subtle changes in climate conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program provides researchers with curated Value Added Products (VAPs) resulting from continuous sensor data streams, data fusion, and modeling. The ARM operations staff and software development teams (data producers) rely upon a number of techniques to ensure strict quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) standards are maintained. Climate researchers (data consumers) are highly interested in obtaining as much provenance (data quality, data pedigree) as possible to establish data trustworthiness. Currently all the provenance is not easily attainable or identifiable without significant efforts to extract and piece together information from configuration files, log files, codes, and status information from ARM databases. The need for a formalized approach to managing provenance became paramount with the planned addition of 120 new instruments, new data products, and data collection scaling to half a terabyte daily. Last year our research identified the need for a multi-tier provenance model to enable the data consumer easy access to the provenance for their data. This year we are leveraging the Open Provenance Model as a foundational construct that serves the needs of both the VAP producers and consumers, we are organizing the provenance in different tiers of granularity to model VAP lineage, causality at the component level within a VAP, and the causality for each time step as samples are being assembled within the VAP. This paper shares our implementation strategy and how the ARM operations staff and the climate research community can greatly benefit from this approach to more effectively assess and quantify VAP provenance.

  6. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin.

  7. Annotating and embedding provenance in science data repositories to enable next generation science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Zednik, S.; Del Rio, N.; Ding, L.; West, P.; Chang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recognizing the increased need for knowledge provenance in interdisciplinary eScience efforts, we have begun an effort to enhance a real-world data production pipeline and the resulting data services with semantic provenance. This work designing and implementing in an existing fielded virtual observatory setting has allowed us to collect key provenance requirements for a broad variety of end users. We have documented several image data pipelines for solar physics instruments at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and have documented almost 20 use cases covering usage from instrument scientists, observers, data analysts and managers, and end-user scientists. These use cases have guided our work developing an initial infrastructure that can be searched, queried, or browsed by these users. We use a multi-stage approach to provenance as data and information artifacts progress along processing pipelines. Our motivation, is that both the qualitative and quantitative measures of uncertainty may be vastly improved when treated in an end-to-end manner. This also reduces the likelihood that critical information is left behind or obscurely represented, making the later use of the data and information difficult or impossible. Another motivation is that provenance captured consistently at ingest time supports transparency of sources and propagation of credit for data generation, thereby increasing the likelihood of contribution and reuse. We present the current stages of implementation of our provenance infrastructure, tools and impact on what users are able to learn from the annotated information streams. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) project is an NSF/OCI/SDCI funded effort involving the High Altitude Observatory at NCAR, McGuinness Associates and the University of Michigan.

  8. Survival and growth of two intensively cultured jack pine provenances raised in Tubepak and Jiffy 7 containers

    Treesearch

    J. Zavitkovski; Howard M. Phipps

    1983-01-01

    Container type, provenance, and spacing affect survival, height and d.b.h, growth, and biomass production of intensively cultured jack pine. The Lower Michigan provenance and Tubepak grown plants performed better than the local (Wisconsin) provenance and plants raised in Jiffy 7 pellets. At age 5, biomass of Tubepak plantings was more than 100% higher than that of...

  9. Persistent identifiers for web service requests relying on a provenance ontology design pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Nicholas; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley; Si, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Delivering provenance information for datasets produced from static inputs is relatively straightforward: we represent the processing actions and data flow using provenance ontologies and link to stored copies of the inputs stored in repositories. If appropriate detail is given, the provenance information can then describe what actions have occurred (transparency) and enable reproducibility. When web service-generated data is used by a process to create a dataset instead of a static inputs, we need to use sophisticated provenance representations of the web service request as we can no longer just link to data stored in a repository. A graph-based provenance representation, such as the W3C's PROV standard, can be used to model the web service request as a single conceptual dataset and also as a small workflow with a number of components within the same provenance report. This dual representation does more than just allow simplified or detailed views of a dataset's production to be used where appropriate. It also allow persistent identifiers to be assigned to instances of a web service requests, thus enabling one form of dynamic data citation, and for those identifiers to resolve to whatever level of detail implementers think appropriate in order for that web service request to be reproduced. In this presentation we detail our reasoning in representing web service requests as small workflows. In outline, this stems from the idea that web service requests are perdurant things and in order to most easily persist knowledge of them for provenance, we should represent them as a nexus of relationships between endurant things, such as datasets and knowledge of particular system types, as these endurant things are far easier to persist. We also describe the ontology design pattern that we use to represent workflows in general and how we apply it to different types of web service requests. We give examples of specific web service requests instances that were made by systems

  10. Physiological response to drought stress in Camptotheca acuminata seedlings from two provenances

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Ye Q.; Song, Li L.; Jacobs, Douglass F.; Mei, Li; Liu, Peng; Jin, Song H.; Wu, Jia S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is a key environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of Camptotheca acuminata (C. acuminata) to different drought stresses and compare the drought tolerance between the provenances Kunming (KM) and Nanchang (NC), which are naturally distributed in different rainfall zones with annual rainfalls of 1000–1100 mm and 1600–1700 mm, respectively. We determined relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content [Chl(a+b)], net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities of C. acuminata seedlings under both moderate (50% of maximum field capacity) and severe drought stress (30% of maximum field capacity). As the degree of water stress increased, RWC, Chl(a+b) content, Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) values decreased, but water use efficiency (WUE), REC, MDA content and SOD and POD activities increased in provenances KM and NC. Under moderate and severe drought stress, provenance KM had higher RWC, Chl(a+b), Pn, WUE, SOD, and POD and lower Gs, Tr, Ci, and REC in leaves than provenance NC. The results indicated that provenance KM may maintain stronger drought tolerance via improvements in water-retention capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and membrane integrity. PMID:26052334

  11. Vesicoureteral reflux in children with suspected and proven urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Annukka; Venhola, Mika; Renko, Marjo; Pokka, Tytti; Huttunen, Niilo-Pekka; Uhari, Matti

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and clinically significant ultrasonography (US) abnormalities in a large group of children with proven and suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). The medical reports on renal US and voiding cystouretrographies (VCUG) of 2,036 children were reviewed. Renal US was performed on all children and VCUG on 1,185 children (58%). Based on the urine culture data, the UTI diagnoses were classified into five reliability classes (proven, likely, unlikely, false and no microbial data). The UTI diagnose was considered proven in 583/2036 (28.6%) and false in 145 (7.1%) cases. The prevalence of VUR was similar among those with proven and false UTI [37.4 vs. 34.8%; relative risk (RR) 1.08, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 0.7-1.7, P = 0.75] and decreased with increasing age (P = 0.001). Clinically significant US abnormalities occurred in 87/583 (14.9%) cases with proven UTI and significantly less often (11/145, 7.6%) in the false UTI class (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.1-3.6, P = 0.02). Our finding supports the claim that VUR is not significantly associated to UTI and that its occurrence among children even without UTI is significantly higher than traditional estimates. This challenges the recommendations of routine VCUG after UTI.

  12. Analysis of Antarctic glacigenic sediment provenance through geochemical and petrologic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, Kathy J.; Hemming, Sidney R.

    2017-05-01

    The number of provenance studies of glacigenic sediments in Antarctica has increased dramatically over the past decade, providing an enhanced understanding of ice sheet history and dynamics, along with the broader geologic history. Such data have been used to assess glacial erosion patterns at the catchment scale, flow path reconstructions over a wide range of scales, and ice sheet fluctuations indicated by iceberg rafted debris in circumantarctic glacial marine sediments. It is notable that even though most of the bedrock of the continent is ice covered and inaccessible, provenance data can provide such valuable information about Antarctic ice and can even be used to infer buried rock types along with their geo- and thermochronologic history. Glacigenic sediments provide a broader array of provenance analysis opportunities than any other sediment type because of their wide range of grain sizes, and in this paper we review methods and examples from all size fractions that have been applied to the Antarctic glacigenic sedimentary record. Interpretations of these records must take careful consideration of the choice of analytical methods, uneven patterns of erosion, and spatial variability in sediment transport and rock types, which all may lead to a preferential identification of different elements of sources in the provenance analyses. Because of this, we advocate a multi-proxy approach and highlight studies that demonstrate the value of selecting complementary provenance methods.

  13. MRI features most often associated with surgically proven tears of the spring ligament complex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; Widnall, James; Evans, Paul; Platt, Simon

    2013-07-01

    The authors aim to present the common MRI appearances of surgically proven spring ligament tears as minimal radiological literature exists regarding injury to this increasingly important structure. Our retrospective review identified a treatment group comprising 13 cases of surgically proven spring ligament injury and a 96-patient comparison group. All patients underwent standard musculoskeletal MRI sequences of the foot and ankle. Images were reviewed by a registrar-grade orthopedic surgeon and a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist for abnormalities of the spring ligament complex. MRI findings in relation to surgically proven injury of the superior-medial portion of the spring ligament included proximal thickening >5 mm in 92 % and distal thinning <2 mm in 85 % of proven injures to the spring ligament complex. Common abnormalities of the medio-plantar portion comprised ligament thickening >7 mm in 31 % and intra-substance signal heterogenicity demonstrated in 38 % of cases. The complex orientation of the medio-plantar ligament makes its evaluation unreliable due to the difficulty obtaining diagnostic quality imaging and our inability to correlate MRI findings in this portion of the ligament with surgically proven injury. However, MRI abnormalities of the superior-medial ligament are consistent, reproducible, and correlate with surgical pathology. As our incomplete understanding of the flexible flatfoot deformity evolves, our ability to recognize injury to the spring ligament may encourage novel surgical treatments looking to incorporate its repair or reconstruction into deformity correction.

  14. Oxidant and antioxidant status in neonatal proven and clinical sepsis according to selenium status.

    PubMed

    Asci, Ali; Surmeli-Onay, Ozge; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Yigit, Sule; Yurdakok, Murat; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma

    2015-12-01

    Selenium is a trace element required for the functioning of the immune system. Neonatal sepsis is a serious condition leading to morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. The purpose of this study was to measure selenium and plasma selenoprotein P (SePP), selenoenzyme activity, and alterations in oxidant/antioxidant status with immune biomarkers in neonates with clinical (n = 27) and proven neonatal sepsis (n = 25). Erythrocyte selenium and SePP; plasma lipid peroxidation (LP), protein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity and erythrocyte total glutathione (GSH) concentration; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured spectrophotometrically/spectrofluorometrically. Plasma interleukin 2 and 6 were also measured. Erythrocyte selenium and SePP were markedly lower both in the clinical and proven sepsis groups versus control. Erythrocyte GPx activity was higher only in the clinical sepsis group. TrxR activity was markedly lower in proven sepsis. SOD activity and GSH were markedly higher both in clinical sepsis and in proven sepsis. CAT activity was significantly higher both in clinical sepsis and in proven sepsis. LP and protein oxidation were significantly higher in both of the sepsis groups. Both selenium-dependent and selenium-independent blood redox systems were altered in sepsis, suggesting that sepsis causes an imbalance between cellular antioxidant and oxidant states. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Nitrogen partitioning in oak leaves depends on species, provenance, climate conditions and soil type.

    PubMed

    Hu, B; Simon, J; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Siegwolf, R; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    Climate-tolerant tree species and/or provenances have to be selected to ensure the high productivity of managed forests in Central Europe under the prognosticated climate changes. For this purpose, we studied the responses of saplings from three oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) and provenances of different climatic origin (i.e. low or high rainfall, low or high temperature habitats) with regard to leaf nitrogen (N) composition as a measure of N nutrition. Saplings were grown in model ecosystems on either calcareous or acidic soil and subjected to one of four treatments (control, drought, air warming or a combination of drought and air warming). Across species, oak N metabolism responded to the influence of drought and/or air warming with an increase in leaf amino acid N concentration at the expense of structural N. Moreover, provenances or species from drier habitats were more tolerant to the climate conditions applied, as indicated by an increase in amino acid N (comparing species) or soluble protein N (comparing provenances within a species). Furthermore, amino acid N concentrations of oak leaves were significantly higher on calcareous compared to acidic soil. From these results, it can be concluded that seeds from provenances or species originating from drier habitats and - if available - from calcareous soil types may provide a superior seed source for future forest establishment.

  16. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls.

    PubMed

    McManus, Catherine E; McMillan, Nancy J; Harmon, Russell S; Whitmore, Robert C; De Lucia, Frank C; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-11-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18)) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo #1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance.

  17. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, Catherine E.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Harmon, Russell S.; Whitmore, Robert C.; De Lucia, Frank C. Jr.; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-11-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo no. 1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance.

  18. Potential and pitfalls in establishing the provenance of Earth-related samples in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, Barry G; Kemp, Simon J; Hodgkinson, Emily H; Riding, James B; Vane, Christopher H; Poulton, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy

    2006-07-01

    Earth scientists are often asked to establish or constrain the likely provenance of very small quantities of earth-related material as part of a forensic investigation. We tested the independent and collective interpretations of four experts with differing analytical skills in the prediction of sample provenance for three samples from different environmental settings. The methods used were X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the assessment of pollen assemblages, and structural characterization of organic matter at the molecular level. Independent interpretations were less accurate than those where multiple techniques were combined. Collective interpretation was very effective in the assessment of provenance for two of the three sites where the mineralogy and plant communities were distinctive. At the other site, although the mineralogical analysis correctly identified the Triassic mudstone soil parent material, Carboniferous spores from domestic coal were initially interpreted as deriving directly from bedrock. Such an interpretation could be a common pitfall owing to anthropogenic redistribution of material such as coal.

  19. Provenance analysis of the Voirons Flysch (Gurnigel nappe, Haute-Savoie, France): stratigraphic and palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusa, Jérémy; Kindler, Pascal; Segvic, Branimir; Ospina-Ostios, Lina Maria

    2017-04-01

    The Chablais Prealps (Haute-Savoie, France) represent a well-preserved accretionary wedge of the Western Alpine Tethys. They comprise a stack of sedimentary nappes related to palaeogeographic realms ranging from the Ultrahelvetic to the Southern Penninic. The provenance analysis is based on the Gazzi-Dickinson method and on QEMSCAN® for heavy-minerals. The Quartzose petrofacies is the most important of the two sources, and supplied three of the four formations of the Voirons Flysch. It is similar to the sources that fed the other flyschs from the Gurnigel nappe. It is characterised by a mature, quartz-rich assemblage and a heavy-mineral population dominated by apatite and the zircon-tourmaline-rutile mineral group. These observations suggest a Clastic wedge provenance. The Feldspathic petrofacies is derived from a feldspar-rich source associated with metamorphic clasts and a heavy-mineral population dominated by garnet. This provenance characterises only one formation of the Voirons Flysch, and is related to the axial belt provenance. This provenance analysis shows that the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene Voirons Flysch was fed by two sources, in contrast to the other flyschs of the Gurnigel nappe, and further suggests that this flysch was not deposited in the Piemont Ocean but in the Valais domain. Based on the results and comparative provenance analysis with the other flyschs of the Gurnigel nappe, we propose a generic feeding model which involves the Sesia-Dent Blanche nappe, the sedimentary nappes incorporated in the accretionary prism, and probably the Briançonnais basement.

  20. Impact of summer drought on isoprenoid emissions and carbon sink of three Scots pine provenances

    PubMed Central

    Lüpke, M.; Leuchner, M.; Steinbrecher, R.; Menzel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances cover broad ecological amplitudes. In a greenhouse study, we investigated the impact of drought stress and rewetting on gas exchange for three provenances (Italy: Emilia Romagna; Spain: Alto Ebro; Germany: East-German lowlands) of 2-year old Scots pine seedlings. CO2, water vapour and isoprenoid exchange of stressed and control trees were quantified with a four-chamber dynamic-enclosure system in the controlled environment of a climate chamber. The three provenances showed distinct isoprenoid emission patterns and were classified into a non-Δ3-carene, with either high α-/β-pinene or β-myrcene fraction, and a Δ3-carene dominated type. Isoprenoid emission rates, net-photosynthesis and transpiration were reduced during summer drought stress and significantly recovered after rewetting. A seasonal increase of isoprenoid emission rates towards autumn was observed for all control groups. Compared with the German provenance, the Spanish and Italian provenances revealed higher isoprenoid emission rates and more plastic responses to drought stress and seasonal development, which points to a local adaptation to climate. As a result of drought, net carbon uptake and transpiration of trees was reduced, but recovered after rewetting. We conclude from our study that Scots pine isoprenoid emission is more variable than expected and sensitive to drought periods, likely impacting regional air chemistry. Thus, a provenance-specific emission assessment accounting for reduced emission during prolonged (summer) drought is recommend for setting up biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventories used in air quality models. PMID:27591438

  1. Impact of summer drought on isoprenoid emissions and carbon sink of three Scots pine provenances.

    PubMed

    Lüpke, M; Leuchner, M; Steinbrecher, R; Menzel, A

    2016-11-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances cover broad ecological amplitudes. In a greenhouse study, we investigated the impact of drought stress and rewetting on gas exchange for three provenances (Italy: Emilia Romagna; Spain: Alto Ebro; Germany: East-German lowlands) of 2-year old Scots pine seedlings. CO2, water vapour and isoprenoid exchange of stressed and control trees were quantified with a four-chamber dynamic-enclosure system in the controlled environment of a climate chamber. The three provenances showed distinct isoprenoid emission patterns and were classified into a non-Δ(3)-carene, with either high α-/β-pinene or β-myrcene fraction, and a Δ(3)-carene dominated type. Isoprenoid emission rates, net-photosynthesis and transpiration were reduced during summer drought stress and significantly recovered after rewetting. A seasonal increase of isoprenoid emission rates towards autumn was observed for all control groups. Compared with the German provenance, the Spanish and Italian provenances revealed higher isoprenoid emission rates and more plastic responses to drought stress and seasonal development, which points to a local adaptation to climate. As a result of drought, net carbon uptake and transpiration of trees was reduced, but recovered after rewetting. We conclude from our study that Scots pine isoprenoid emission is more variable than expected and sensitive to drought periods, likely impacting regional air chemistry. Thus, a provenance-specific emission assessment accounting for reduced emission during prolonged (summer) drought is recommend for setting up biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventories used in air quality models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Isonymy and the structure of the Provençal-Italian ethnic minority.

    PubMed

    Biondi, G; Vienna, A; Peña Garcia, J A; Mascie-Taylor, C G N

    2005-03-01

    Surnames were obtained for the second half of the 20th century from civil and religious marriage registers on fifteen Provençal-Italian and five Italian villages of Cuneo Province, Italy. To insert in the analysis an outward comparison, surnames from two Italian villages of Turin Province, one parish of Turin, one village of Alessandria Province and one village of Asti Province were also collected. Ethnicity does not seem to be the main factor affecting the present genetic structure of the Provençal-Italians. They are an open community, and evidence the end of the genetic isolation of the alpine populations.

  3. Elevated temperature differently affects foliar nitrogen partitioning in seedlings of diverse Douglas fir provenances.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Junker, Laura Verena; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change causes an increase in ambient air temperature, a major environmental factor influencing plant physiology and growth that already has been perceived at the regional scale and is expected to become even more severe in the future. In the present study, we investigated the effect of elevated ambient air temperature on the nitrogen metabolism of two interior provenances of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) originating from contrasting habitats, namely the provenances Monte Creek (MC) from a drier environment and Pend Oreille (PO) from a more humid environment. Three- to four-year-old seedlings of the two provenances were grown for 3 months in controlled environments under either control temperature (day 20 °C, night 15 °C) or high temperature (HT, 30/25 °C) conditions. Total nitrogen (N), soluble protein, chlorophyll and total amino acid (TAA) contents as well as individual amino acid concentrations were determined in both current-year and previous-year needles. Our results show that the foliar total N contents of the two provenances were unaffected by HT. Arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate and glutamine were the most abundant amino acids, which together contributed ∼88% to the TAA pool of current- and previous-year needles. High temperature decreased the contents of most amino acids of the glutamate family (i.e., arginine, proline, ornithine and glutamine) in current-year needles. However, HT did not affect the concentrations of metabolites related to the photorespiratory pathway, such as [Formula: see text], glycine and serine. In general, current-year needles were considerably more sensitive to HT than previous-year needles. Moreover, provenance PO originating from a mesic environment showed stronger responses to HT than provenance MC. Our results indicate provenance-specific plasticity in the response of Douglas fir to growth temperature. Provenance-specific effects of elevated temperature on N-use efficiency suggest

  4. LA-ICP-MS as Tool for Provenance Analyses in Arctic Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildau, Antje; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The hydraulic transport of sediments is a major geological process in terrestrial and marine systems and is responsible for the loss, redistribution and accumulation of minerals. Provenance analyses are a powerful tool for assessing the origin and dispersion of material in ancient and modern fluvial and marine sediments. Provenance-specific heavy minerals (e.g., zircon, rutile, tourmaline) can therefore be used to provide valuable information on the formation of ore deposits (placer deposits), and the reconstruction of paleogeography, hydrology, climate conditions and developments. The application of provenances analyses for the latter reason is of specific interest, since there is need for research on the progressing climate change, and heavy minerals represent good proxies for the evaluation of recent and past changes in the climate. The study of these fine particles provides information about potential regional or long distance transport paths, glacial / ice drift and current flows, freezing and melting events as well as depositional centers for the released sediments. Classic methods applied for provenance analyses are mapping of the presence / absence of diagnostic minerals, their grain size distribution, modal mineralogy and the analysis of variations in ratio of two or more heavy minerals. Electron microprobe has been established to discover changes in mineral chemistry of individual mineral phases, which can indicate fluctuations or differences in the provenance. All these methods bear the potential of high errors that lower the validity of the provenance analyses. These are for example the misclassification of mineral species due to undistinguishable optical properties or the limitations in the detection / variations of trace elements using the election microprobe. For this case study, marine sediments from the Arctic Ocean have been selected to test if LA-ICP-MS can be established as a key technique for precise and reliable provenance analyses. The Laptev

  5. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan in three different seasons in the Southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Wet, humid conditions typical of the Southeast are known to provide conditions conducive to epidemics. A provenance collection of pecan from 19 locations representing the native rang...

  6. Garnet Ratios and Provenance in The Glacial Drift of Western New York.

    PubMed

    Connally, G G

    1964-06-19

    The ratio of purple to red garnet identifies drift provenance. Low ratios indicate glacier flow from the central Adirondacks. Ratios of 1.4 or greater indicate flow from Canada, by way of the St. Lawrence lowland. The heavy mineral assemblages were evidently undiluted by local sources in western New York.

  7. Protru: Leveraging Provenance to Enhance Network Trust in a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Gulustan

    2013-01-01

    Trust can be an important component of wireless sensor networks for believability of the produced data and historical value is a crucial asset in deciding trust of the data. A node's trust can change over time after its initial deployment due to various reasons such as energy loss, environmental conditions or exhausting sources. Provenance can…

  8. Sap sugar parameters of silver maple provenances and clones grown on upland and bottomland sites

    Treesearch

    J. J. Zaczek; A. D. Carver; K. W. J. Williard; J. K. Buchheit; J. E. Preece; J. C. Mangun

    2003-01-01

    Sap sugar concentration (SSC), sap volume, and stem diameter were measured for 49 different silver maple clones representing a range-wide collection of 13 provenances within replicated upland and bottomland plantations in southern Illinois during the winter of 2001. For comparison, 42 sugar maple trees were sampled in a local sugarbush. Silver maple SSC averaged 1.51...

  9. Radial Growth of Nine Selected 18-Year-Old Baldcypress Provenances Under Prolonged Drought

    Treesearch

    P. Joy Young; Jim L. Chambers

    2004-01-01

    Coastal and bottomland restoration have prompted an interest in species that tolerate wetland and/or saline conditions. It has been suggested that provenance tests may be used to explore a species’ response to global climate change (Matyas 1994). Baldcypress, [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich], a canopy dominant in the lower Atlantic and Gulf coast...

  10. Protru: Leveraging Provenance to Enhance Network Trust in a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Gulustan

    2013-01-01

    Trust can be an important component of wireless sensor networks for believability of the produced data and historical value is a crucial asset in deciding trust of the data. A node's trust can change over time after its initial deployment due to various reasons such as energy loss, environmental conditions or exhausting sources. Provenance can…

  11. Sycamore Seed Germination: The Effects of Provenance, Stratification, Temperature, and Parent Tree

    Treesearch

    Charles D. Webb; Robert E. Farmer

    1968-01-01

    Various stratification periods and germination temperatures were applied to sycamore seed collected along the Chattahoochee River from north Georgia to west Florida. Results showed that percent and speed of germination were greater for seed from southern than from northern provenances. Percent and speed of germination increased as temperature increased. The...

  12. Quantifying sediment provenance using multiple composite fingerprints in a small watershed in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantitative information on sediment provenance is badly needed for calibration and validation of process-based soil erosion models. However, sediment source data are rather limited due to difficulties in direct measurement of various source contributions at a watershed scale. The objectives are t...

  13. Spanish melons (Cucumis melo L.) of the Madrid provenance: A unique germplasm reservoir

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces of the Madrid provenance, Spain, have received national distinction for their high fruit quality and sensorial attributes. More specifically, a unique array of Group Inodorus landraces have been continuously cultivated and conserved by farmers in the municipality o...

  14. ACSM Fitness Book: A Proven Step-By-Step Program from the Experts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

    This offers advice on the health benefits of regular physical activity. It includes a scientifically proven fitness test to determine one's starting point and monitor ongoing progress, offering step-by-step instructions, sample programs, and insights on nutrition, weight control, motivation, and overcoming setbacks. Seven chapters examine: (1)…

  15. Response of different white fir geographic provenances to Trichosporium symbioticum inoculation in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Otrosina; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    We inoculated the fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) associated fungus Trichosporium symbioticum Wright onto 56 white fir (Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) trees planted in a common garden study near Camino, California, that represented five geographic provenances of this species....

  16. Preparing All Teachers to Use Proven, Effective Instructional Methods across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that certain ways of teaching can make a difference in whether students learn standards-based content. Many strategies have proven to be effective in teaching literacy, mathematics, science and social studies. These strategies have facilitated blending academic and career/technical subjects to make learning more meaningful for…

  17. ACSM Fitness Book: A Proven Step-By-Step Program from the Experts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

    This offers advice on the health benefits of regular physical activity. It includes a scientifically proven fitness test to determine one's starting point and monitor ongoing progress, offering step-by-step instructions, sample programs, and insights on nutrition, weight control, motivation, and overcoming setbacks. Seven chapters examine: (1)…

  18. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan in in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecan scab is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. It is spread in rain and is widespread in the Southeast where conditions conducive to epidemics. A provenance collection of pecan from 19 locations representing the native range of the tree is located in Byron, Geo...

  19. Insight: Semantic Provenance and Analysis Platform for Multi-center Neurology Healthcare Research

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Priya; Wei, Annan; Welter, Elisabeth; Bamps, Yvan; Stoll, Shelley; Bukach, Ashley; Sajatovic, Martha; Sahoo, Satya S.

    2016-01-01

    Insight is a Semantic Web technology-based platform to support large-scale secondary analysis of healthcare data for neurology clinical research. Insight features the novel use of: (1) provenance metadata, which describes the history or origin of patient data, in clinical research analysis, and (2) support for patient cohort queries across multiple institutions conducting research in epilepsy, which is the one of the most common neurological disorders affecting 50 million persons worldwide. Insight is being developed as a healthcare informatics infrastructure to support a national network of eight epilepsy research centers across the U.S. funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This paper describes the use of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) PROV recommendation for provenance metadata that allows researchers to create patient cohorts based on the provenance of the research studies. In addition, the paper describes the use of descriptive logic-based OWL2 epilepsy ontology for cohort queries with “expansion of query expression” using ontology reasoning. Finally, the evaluation results for the data integration and query performance are described using data from three research studies with 180 epilepsy patients. The experiment results demonstrate that Insight is a scalable approach to use Semantic provenance metadata for context-based data analysis in healthcare informatics. PMID:27069752

  20. Variation among northern red oak provenances in bark thickness:dbh ratios

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Russell; Jeffrey O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    Differences in bark thickness in relation to diameter at breast height were observed in a 30-32 year old Illinois planting of 32 provenances of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) from throughout its natural range. Bark thickness by itself is often a good indication of relative cambial insulation from fire. Fire resistance in trees can largely be...

  1. Height growth and foliage color in a Scotch pine provenance study in northern Michigan

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Garrett

    1969-01-01

    A Scotch pine provenance study conducted in northern Michigan revealed important differences in height growth and foliage color among seedlings from 83 European sources. Seed from southern European sources produced seedlings with the best fall foliage coloration. Height growth was fastest among seedlings from sources with latitudes like that of the Michigan planting...

  2. Geochemical Identification in Sediment Provenance during Glacial/Interglacial Period: the Southern Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. K.; Jung, J.; Lee, J. I.; Yoo, K. C.; Kim, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Clay mineralogy and crystal size distribution in marine sediment is used for the indication of a sediment provenance and climatic changes. Objective of this study is to trace the sediment provenances in the Southern Drake Passage with clay mineralogy, elemental composition and crystal size distributions (CSDs) of clay mineral. In the present study, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) measurements showed that smectite, illite and chlorite are dominant phases. The semi-quantitative analysis showed that the relatively proportion of smectite is 50 - 60% in interglacial stage, 30 - 39% in glacial stage. Comparing with REE data, sediments supply was influenced by Weddell sea current and Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Moreover, elemental composition and microscopic analysis of smectites were carried by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The composition of smectite clay minerals were plotted on the tertiary diagram indicating that Smectite in Drake Passage was transported from three provenances: South Shetland island, east and west side of Antarctic peninsula during glacial - interglacial period. The CSDs of smectite also indicate the various source of smectite. The variation in the values of α (mean thickness) and β2 (shape or uniformity of the distribution) of smectite grain size will be discussed in terms of the sediment provenance.

  3. Preparing All Teachers to Use Proven, Effective Instructional Methods across the Curriculum. High Schools That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that certain ways of teaching can make a difference in whether students learn standards-based content. Many strategies have proven to be effective in teaching literacy, mathematics, science and social studies. These strategies have facilitated blending academic and career/technical subjects to make learning more meaningful for…

  4. K/Ar geochronology as a tool for tracing dust provenance in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, J.; Koffman, B. G.; Recasens, C.; Hemming, S. R.; Kaplan, M. R.; Gombiner, J. H.; Boswell, S.; Williams, T.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the sources and transport pathways of dust can provide a better understanding of past atmospheric circulation and give insight into nutrient and radiative effects on the climate system. Mineralogy and radiogenic isotope chemistry using strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) have been able to constrain sources of dust but are not sufficient to distinguish among important potential source areas in the Southern Hemisphere. The K/Ar isotope system can improve our ability to infer dust provenance because it can discriminate between sources that have similar crustal residence ages but different subsequent tectonothermal histories. To assess K/Ar ages as a provenance tool, we measured radiogenic argon concentrations of samples from potential dust sources such as glaciogenic sediments in Patagonia and New Zealand. Provenance ages from Patagonian sediments cluster around 70 Ma with a range from 33.2 ± 0.4 Ma to 120 ± 3 Ma, and those from New Zealand sediments cluster around 160 Ma with a range from 125 ± 1 Ma to 191 ± 2 Ma, showing that K/Ar geochronology can discriminate between these two source areas and improve upon previous provenance studies. In addition, as a proof of concept we made a case study of a sedimentary time series from core TN057-6 on the Agulhas Ridge in the southeast Atlantic Ocean as well as a set of Holocene and glacial samples from four cores along the SE African margin. We found that K/Ar provenance ages of the <5μm terrigenous material from TN057-6 are best explained as the result of mixing of sediments transported from Patagonia and Africa-derived sediments delivered by the Agulhas Current. The K/Ar method was also able to show different sediment provenance between glacial and interglacial times, with a dominant Patagonian signature during glacial intervals. Ongoing work aims to characterize additional Southern Hemisphere dust sources, including the ice-free regions of Antarctica, and apply the K/Ar provenance tool to dust in Antarctic

  5. Facilitating Scientific Research through Workflows and Provenance on the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    Provenance data has numerous applications in science. Two key ones are 1) replication: facilitate the repeatable derivation of results and 2) discovery: enable the location of data based on processing history and derivation relationships. The following scenario illustrates a typical use of provenance data. Alice, a climate scientist, has developed a VisTrails workflow to prepare Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data. After verifying that the workflow generates data in the desired form, she uses the ReproZip tool to create a reproducible package that will enable other scientists to re-run the workflow without having to install and configure the particular libraries she is using. In addition, she exports the provenance information of the workflow execution and customizes it through a tool such as the ProvExplorer, in order to eliminate the information she regards as superfluous. She then creates and shares a DataONE data package containing the data she prepared, the ReproZip package, the customized provenance, and additional science/system metadata. Both the customized provenance and metadata are indexed by the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (CI) for discovery purposes. Bob, another climate scientist, is looking for a benchmark GPP data to validate the Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM) he has developed. Searching the DataONE repository he finds Alice's data package. He retrieves its ReproZip package, customizes it (e.g. changing the spatial resolution), and re-runs it to generate the benchmark data in the form he desires. The newly generated data is then used as input for his own model evaluation workflow. His workflow generates residual maps and a Taylor diagram that enable him to evaluate the similarity between the results of his model and the benchmark data. At this point, Bob can also make use of the tools Alice used to publish his results as another discoverable and reproducible data package. In order to support these capabilities, we propose to extend the Data

  6. Patients with computed tomography-proven acute diverticulitis require follow-up to exclude colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Shafquat; Chapman, Warren; Mohammed, Imtiyaz; Gill, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Traditionally, patients with acute diverticulitis undergo follow-up endoscopy to exclude colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its usefulness has been debated in this era of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) diagnosis. We assessed the frequency and outcome of endoscopic follow-up for patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis, according to the confidence in the CT diagnosis. Methods Records of patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis between October 2007 and March 2014 at Sandwell & West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust were retrieved. The National Cancer Registry confirmed the cases of CRC. Endoscopy quality indicators were compared between these patients and other patients undergoing the same endoscopic examination over the same period. Results We identified 235 patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis, of which, 187 were managed conservatively. The CT report was confident of the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis in 75% cases. Five of the 235 patients were subsequently diagnosed with CRC (2.1%). Three cases of CRC were detected in the 187 patients managed conservatively (1.6%). Forty-eight percent of the conservatively managed patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; one case of CRC was identified. Endoscopies were often incomplete and caused more discomfort for patients with diverticulitis compared with controls. Conclusions CRC was diagnosed in patients with CT-proven diverticulitis at a higher rate than in screened asymptomatic populations, necessitating follow-up. CT reports contained statements regarding diagnostic uncertainty in 25% cases, associated with an increased risk of CRC. Follow-up endoscopy in patients with CT-proven diverticulitis is associated with increased discomfort and high rates of incompletion. The use of other follow-up modalities should be considered. PMID:28522949

  7. A coastal and an interior Douglas fir provenance exhibit different metabolic strategies to deal with drought stress.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Kleiber, Anita; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kammerer, Bernd; Ensminger, Ingo; Gessler, Arthur; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress affecting growth and vitality of forest ecosystems. In the present study, foliar nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) metabolism of two Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) provenances with assumed different drought tolerance were investigated. We worked with 1-year-old seedlings of the interior provenance Fehr Lake (FEHR) originating from a dry environment and the coastal provenance Snoqualmie (SNO) from a more humid origin. Total C and N, structural N and the concentrations of soluble protein, total amino acids (TAAs) and individual amino acids as well as the relative abundance of polar, low-molecular-weight metabolites including antioxidants were determined in current-year needles exposed either to 42 days of drought or to 42 days drought plus 14 days of rewatering. The seedlings reacted in a provenance-specific manner to drought stress. Coastal provenance SNO showed considerably increased contents of TAAs, which were caused by increased abundance of the quantitatively most important amino acids arginine, ornithine and lysine. Additionally, the polyamine putrescine accumulated exclusively in drought-stressed trees of this provenance. In contrast, the interior provenance FEHR showed the opposite response, i.e., drastically reduced concentrations of these amino acids. However, FEHR showed considerably increased contents of pyruvate-derived and aromatic amino acids, and also higher drought-induced levels of the antioxidants ascorbate and α-tocopherol. In response to drought, both provenances produced large amounts of carbohydrates, such as glucose and fructose, most likely as osmolytes that can readily be metabolized for protection against osmotic stress. We conclude that FEHR and SNO cope with drought stress in a provenance-specific manner: the coastal provenance SNO was mainly synthesizing N-based osmolytes, a reaction not observed in the interior provenance FEHR; instead, the latter increased the levels of scavengers of reactive

  8. Morphological and oil content variation in seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India.

    PubMed

    Kaura, S K; Gupta, S K; Chowdhury, J B

    1998-01-01

    Seed morphology (seed length and 20 seed weight) and oil content was studied in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) of five provenances of northern and western India. Trees with wide ranges of girths were considered for study. Maximum average oil content was observed in trees from Hisar provenance. Seed oil content in most of the provenances was not consistently and significantly correlated with morphological parameters of seeds. Age of the tree had no significant effect on the oil yield.

  9. Graphical representations of the chemistry of garnets in a three-dimensional MATLAB based provenance plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria; Gier, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed, MATLAB based garnet provenance plot allows a three-dimensional tetrahedral representation of the chemistry of garnets for the endmembers almandine, pyrope, spessartine and grossular. Based on a freely accessible database of Suggate & Hall (2013) and additional EPMA-data on the internet, the chemistry of more than 2500 garnets was evaluated and used to create various subfields that correspond to different facies conditions of metapelitic, metasomatic and metaigneous rocks as well as granitic rocks. These triangulated subfields act as reference structures within the tetrahedron, facilitating assignments of garnet chemistries to different lithologies. In comparison with conventional tenary garnet discrimination diagrams by Mange & Morton (2007), Wright/Preston et al. (1938/2002) and Aubrecht et al. (2009), this tetrahedral provenance plot enables a better assessment of the conditions of formation of garnets by reducing the overlapping of certain subfields. In particular, a clearer distinction between greenschist facies rocks, amphibolite facies rocks and granitic rocks can be achieved. First applications of the tetrahedral garnet plot provided new insights on sedimentary processes during the Lower Miocene in the pre-Alpine Molasse basin. Bibliography Aubrecht, R., Meres, S., Sykora, M., Mikus, T. (2009). Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt , Western Carpathians, Slovakia). In: Geologica Carpathica, Dec. 2009, 60, 6, pp. 463-483. Mange, M.A., Morton, A.C. (2007). Geochemistry of Heavy Minerals. In: Mange, M.A. & Wright, D.T.(2007).Heavy Minerals in Use, Amsterdam, pp. 345-391. Preston, J., Hartley, A., Mange-Rajetzky, M., Hole, M., May, G., Buck, S., Vaughan, L. (2002). The provenance of Triassic continental sandstones from the Beryl Field, northern North Sea: Mineralogical, geochemical and sedimentological constraints. In: Journal of Sedimentary Research, 72, pp. 18

  10. Influence of Rock Strength on Landscape Evolution and Sediment Provenance Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Yanites, B.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital minerals within the stratigraphic record provide key constraints for a range of geologic problems, including the first order tectonic setting of basins, structural histories within orogens, changes in climate, and major drainage network reorganizations. Numerous provenance techniques exist for linking detrital minerals to their source areas, but the majority of these methods share an underlying assumption that sediment delivered to a basin is a representative sample of the bedrock geology of the source area. Satisfying this assumption requires that sediment production rates, i.e. erosion rates, of a source area are uniform throughout. In detail, erosion rates within a source area vary as a function of patterns of landscape evolution dictated by rock erodibility, climate, and relative uplift rate, thus long-term and transient biasing of sediment provenance records is expected. Biases associated with landscape evolution in response to changes in climate, tectonics, or strength of exposed rock can last 10s Myr. Previous work recognized a potential influence of differential erosion on provenance records, but the relative importance of this effect has proven difficult to quantify with field data. To address this, we are using a modified version of the CHILD landscape evolution model (LEM), which supports numerous lithologies with different erodibilities within a landscape. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the relative influence of rock strength and changes in climate or uplift rate on provenance records. We focus on U-Pb detrital zircon records because these data have seen wide adoption as a provenance tool and the refractory nature of zircon makes them less likely to be influenced by chemical weathering effects that are beyond the scope of this work. We plan to test several scenarios including variations in rock erodibility and temporal changes in climate or uplift rate. We will then use results from the LEM to calculate erosion rates from different

  11. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Goldstein, J.; Duggan, B.; Xu, J.; Du, C.; Akkiraju, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The periodical National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [1] produces reports about findings of global climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States. Those findings are of great public and academic concerns and are used in policy and management decisions, which make the provenance information of findings in those reports especially important. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS), in which the NCA reports and associated provenance information are the primary records. We were modeling and developing Semantic Web applications for the GCIS. By applying a use case-driven iterative methodology [2], we developed an ontology [3] to represent the content structure of a report and the associated provenance information. We also mapped the classes and properties in our ontology into the W3C PROV-O ontology [4] to realize the formal presentation of provenance. We successfully implemented the ontology in several pilot systems for a recent National Climate Assessment report (i.e., the NCA3). They provide users the functionalities to browse and search provenance information with topics of interest. Provenance information of the NCA3 has been made structured and interoperable by applying the developed ontology. Besides the pilot systems we developed, other tools and services are also able to interact with the data in the context of the 'Web of data' and thus create added values. Our research shows that the use case-driven iterative method bridges the gap between Semantic Web researchers and earth and environmental scientists and is able to be deployed rapidly for developing Semantic Web applications. Our work also provides first-hand experience for re-using the W3C PROV-O ontology in the field of earth and environmental sciences, as the PROV-O ontology is recently ratified (on 04/30/2013) by the W3C as a recommendation and relevant applications are still rare. [1] http

  12. Provenance, life span, and phylogeny do not affect grass species' responses to nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Benfield, Cara D; Borer, Elizabeth T; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2011-09-01

    Successful conservation management requires an understanding of how species respond to intervention. Native and exotic species may respond differently to management interventions due to differences arising directly from their origin (i.e., provenance) or indirectly due to biased representations of different life history types (e.g., annual vs. perennial life span) or phylogenetic lineages among provenance (i.e., native or exotic origin) groups. Thus, selection of a successful management regime requires knowledge of the life history and provenance-bias in the local flora and an understanding of the interplay between species characteristics across existing environmental gradients in the landscape. Here we tested whether provenance, phylogeny, and life span interact to determine species distributions along natural gradients of soil chemistry (e.g., soil nitrogen and phosphorus) in 10 upland prairie sites along a 600-km latitudinal transect running from southern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, USA. We found that soil nitrate, phosphorus, and pH exerted strong control over community composition. However, species distributions along environmental gradients were unrelated to provenance, life span, or phylogenetic groupings. We then used a greenhouse experiment to more precisely measure the response of common grass species to nitrogen and phosphorus supply. As with the field data, species responses to nutrient additions did not vary as a function of provenance, life span, or phylogeny. Native and exotic species differed strongly in the relationship between greenhouse-measured tolerance of low nutrients and field abundance. Native species with the greatest ability to maintain biomass production at low nutrient supply rates were most abundant in field surveys, as predicted by resource competition theory. In contrast, there was no relationship between exotic-species biomass at low nutrient levels and field abundance. The

  13. Tracking and Establishing Provenance of Earth Science Datasets: A NASA-based Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Goldstein, Justin C.; Hua, Hook; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Information quality is of paramount importance to science. Accurate, scientifically vetted and statistically meaningful and, ideally, reproducible information engenders scientific trust and research opportunities. Therefore, so-called Highly Influential Scientific Assessments (HISA) such as the U.S. Third National Climate Assessment undergo a very rigorous process to ensure transparency and credibility. As an activity to support the transparency of such reports, the U.S. Global Change Research Program has developed the Global Change Information System (GCIS). Specifically related to the transparency of NCA3, a recent activity was carried out to trace the provenance as completely as possible for all figures in the NCA3 report that predominantly used NASA data. This paper discusses lessons learned from this activity that trace the provenance of NASA figures in a major HISA-class pdf report.

  14. Automated metadata, provenance cataloging and navigable interfaces: ensuring the usefulness of extreme-scale data

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, David; Greenwald, Martin

    2016-12-15

    The MPO (Metadata, Provenance, Ontology) Project successfully addressed the goal of improving the usefulness and traceability of scientific data by building a system that could capture and display all steps in the process of creating, analyzing and disseminating that data. Throughout history, scientists have generated handwritten logbooks to keep track of data, their hypotheses, assumptions, experimental setup, and computational processes as well as reflections on observations and issues encountered. Over the last several decades, with the growth of personal computers, handheld devices, and the World Wide Web, the handwritten logbook has begun to be replaced by electronic logbooks. This transition has brought increased capability such as supporting multi-media, hypertext, and fast searching. However, content creation and metadata (a set of data that describes and gives information about other data) capturing has for the most part remained a manual activity just as it was with handwritten logbooks. This has led to a fragmentation of data, processing, and annotation that has only accelerated as scientific workflows continue to increase in complexity. From a scientific perspective, it is very important to be able to understand the lineage of any piece of data: who, what, when, how, and why. This is typically referred to as data provenance. The fragmentation discussed previously often means that data provenance is lost. As scientific workflows move to powerful computers and become more complex, the ability to track all of the steps involved in creating a piece of data become even more difficult. It was the goal of the MPO (Metadata, Provenance, Ontology) Project to create a system (the MPO System) that allows for automatic provenance and metadata capturing in such a way to allow easy searching and browsing. This goal needed to be accomplished in a general way so that it may be used across a broad range of scientific domains, yet allow the addition of vocabulary

  15. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  16. Provenance studies of Central European Neolithic obsidians using external beam milli-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2014-01-01

    External beam milli-PIXE technique was used for the determination of the elemental concentration ratios in some Prehistoric obsidian tools found in Transylvania, in the Iron Gates region near Danube, as well as on a few relevant geological obsidian samples from Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari, Armenia. As provenance "fingerprints" the Ti to Mn and Rb to Zr ratios were used. The results confirm that the Transylvanian Neolithic samples have a Slovak Tokaj Mountains provenance. For Iron Gates samples, there are at least two different geological sources: for Late Neolithic tools, the origin is also the Slovak Tokaj Mountains but for Late Mesolithic-Early Neolithic samples, the sources are clearly different, possibly of the Hungarian Tokaj Mountains or the Balkan-Aegean origin.

  17. Correlation of standard diagnostic studies with surgically proven lumbar disk rupture.

    PubMed

    Schoedinger, G R

    1987-01-01

    One hundred patients with surgically proven ruptured lumbar disks were studied in terms of their diagnostic work-up. Four studies--electromyogram, CT scan, myelogram, and epidural venogram--were evaluated independently and in combination. No one study was consistently abnormal; however, epidural venography was diagnostic in 74% of cases. CT scanning and electromyographic examination, when used in combination, were found to be reliable in confirming the diagnosis of lumbar disk rupture in 84% of cases. In no instance were all preoperative diagnostic studies normal when a diagnosis of herniated nucleus pulposus was proven surgically. It seems, therefore, that a detailed history and physical examination in combination with a positive result in at least one of the diagnostic studies appears sufficient to establish the diagnosis of lumbar disk rupture.

  18. [A primary Raman microscopic study of the turquoise and its role in provenance-tracking].

    PubMed

    She, Ling-zhu; Qin, Ying; Feng, Min; Mao, Zhen-wei; Xu, Cun-yi; Huang, Feng-chun

    2008-09-01

    The authors analyzed four modern turquoises from Hubei province and Anhui province by using the Raman microscopic with the samples are gathered on the spot. According to the study the authors discovered that the Raman spectra of the Hubei turquoises with different color but with the same backgrounds of mineral resource and the formation cause of mineral resource and in the same formation line of turquoise mineral resource have little difference. On the contrary, there is a strong difference in the 900-100 cm(-1) region of the Raman spectra between the turquoises from Hubei province and the turquoise from Anhui province which has remarkable different backgrounds of mineral resource and the formation cause of mineral resource. At the same time the authors studied two ancient turquoises to discuss the feasibility of using the Raman spectra of turquoises, the provenance of which is known, as the fingerprint directions to track the provenance of ancient turquoises.

  19. Rapid elemental analysis and provenance study of Blumea balsamifera DC using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Zhao, Na; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2014-12-31

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a rapid elemental analysis and provenance study of Blumea balsamifera DC. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were implemented to exploit the multivariate nature of the LIBS data. Scores and loadings of computed principal components visually illustrated the differing spectral data. The PLS-DA algorithm showed good classification performance. The PLS-DA model using complete spectra as input variables had similar discrimination performance to using selected spectral lines as input variables. The down-selection of spectral lines was specifically focused on the major elements of B. balsamifera samples. Results indicated that LIBS could be used to rapidly analyze elements and to perform provenance study of B. balsamifera.

  20. Rapid Elemental Analysis and Provenance Study of Blumea balsamifera DC Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaona; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Zhao, Na; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a rapid elemental analysis and provenance study of Blumea balsamifera DC. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were implemented to exploit the multivariate nature of the LIBS data. Scores and loadings of computed principal components visually illustrated the differing spectral data. The PLS-DA algorithm showed good classification performance. The PLS-DA model using complete spectra as input variables had similar discrimination performance to using selected spectral lines as input variables. The down-selection of spectral lines was specifically focused on the major elements of B. balsamifera samples. Results indicated that LIBS could be used to rapidly analyze elements and to perform provenance study of B. balsamifera. PMID:25558999

  1. Solid state NMR and IR characterization of wood polymer structure in relation to tree provenance.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Ilaria; Callone, Emanuela; Sandak, Anna; Sandak, Jakub; Dirè, Sandra

    2015-03-06

    (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and mid-infrared spectroscopies were used for characterizing changes in the chemical structure of wood polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in relation to the tree growth location. Samples of three provenances in Europe (Finland, Poland and Italy) were selected for studies. The requirement was to use untreated solid wood samples to minimize any manipulation to the nanostructure of native wood. The results confirm that the chemical and physical properties of samples belonging to the same wood species (Picea abies Karst.) differ due to the origin. Both FT-IR and dynamic NMR spectroscopies were able to correctly discriminate samples originating from three different provenances in Europe. Such methods might be very useful for both, research and understanding of wood microstructure and its variability due to the growth conditions.

  2. Ten years of provenance research at Michigan State University and the next steps in tree improvement

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Wright

    1970-01-01

    Michigan State University's first provenance test was started in 1958, a little more than a decade ago. Tests in three more species were started in 1959. Others have been added until the list of species covered now totals 28. There are such experiments in eight species of pine, six of elm, three of spruce, two each of larch and the true firs, and one each of...

  3. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Kristina M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north–south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration. PMID:26755503

  4. A Multi-technique Approach for Provenance Studies of Mesozoic Clastic Rocks in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Zimmermann, U.; Støle, L.; Ruud, C.; Mostafa, E.; Andò, S.; Borromeo, L.; Magnaghi, M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments of Mesozoic age deposited in the Arctic Hammerfest and Tromsø basins (southern Barents Sea) are the focus of a comprehensive provenance study which forms part of ongoing work by the LoCrA consortium (Lower Cretaceous Basin Studies in the Arctic). Jurassic (Stø, Fuglen, Hekkingen) and Cretaceous (Knurr, Kolje, Kolmule) formations were sampled from seven wells. Analytical methods include petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, heavy mineral (HM) analysis and U-Pb on detrital zircons. HM concentration is <1%, with an ultrastable HM assemblage of zircon, rutile, tourmaline, spinel, apatite, garnet, chloritoid and common authigenic heavy minerals and opaques. Cretaceous sedimentary rocks show geochemical variations that reflect an unrecycled Upper Continental Crust signature, whereas Jurassic detritus tends to show more evidence of recycling with a relatively low input of mafic material. Kolmule Formation whole-rock geochemistry indicates sediment recycling from a major Sc-depleted but intermediate to mafic source and hence suggests input of rift detritus from the syn-depositional opening of the Atlantic Ocean. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons for Cretaceous sandstones show age groups of 200-500 Ma, 1200-1800 Ma, and 2100-2800 Ma, indicating potential source regions in the Urals/Novaya Zemlya, the Caledonides, Grenvillian/Sveconorwegian, and Palaeoproterozoic and Archean sources. Provenance data via geochemistry and HM analysis indicate different sources in the same formation basin-wide, with a significant change in provenance and sediment composition from Jurassic to Cretaceous and between the Knurr and Kolmule formations. These differences in composition need to be compared to detailed single grain studies and may only be explained in terms of basin dynamics, or even on a smaller scale, in terms of facies distributions. If so, this case study raises concerns about the use of single samples for provenance models on a larger scale.

  5. Providing Global Change Information for Decision-Making: Capturing and Presenting Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.

  6. The Relations Between HSG Proven Tubal Occlusion, Stimulated Intrauterine Insemination and Pregnancy Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yetkin Yıldırım, Gonca; Orta Korkut, Ahu; Köroğlu, Nadiye; Susan Türkgeldi, Lale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tubal factor infertility is one of the main causes of female infertility. Although its sensitivity is low, hysterosalpingography (HSG) is remains the first-line method for evaluating tubal patency. Aims: To compare pregnancy rates in patients with HSG proven proximal or distal unilateral tubal occlusion, and unexplained infertility undergoing both controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Study Design: Case control study. Methods: In total, 237 patients undergoing ovulation induction (OI) with gonadotropins and IUI were divided into two groups and evaluated. Study group consisted 59 patients with HSG proven unilateral tubal pathology, and 178 patients with unexplained infertility taken as control subjects. Cumulative pregnancy rate was the primary endpoint. Results: Cumulative pregnancy rates after three cycles of OI and IUI were 15.25% in study group and 20.79% in control group. Pregnancy rates between two groups were not statistically significant. Although, pregnancy rates in patients with proximal tubal occlusion (21.8%) were higher than in those with distal tubal occlusion (7.4%), the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study data shows that, regardless of the HCG proven occlusion area, COS and IUI might be a preferred treatment modality in patient with unilateral tubal occlusion. PMID:28251025

  7. Strontium isotopes in otoliths of a non-migratory fish (slimy sculpin): Implications for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Sean R.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Randy J.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of river-dissolved strontium (Sr) across geologically diverse environments provides a useful tool for investigating provenance, connectivity and movement patterns of various organisms and materials. Evaluation of site-specific 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability throughout study regions is a prerequisite for provenance research, but the dynamics driving temporal variability are generally system-dependent and not accurately predictable. We used the time-keeping properties of otoliths from non-migratory slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) to evaluate multi-scale 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability of river waters throughout the Nushagak River, a large (34,700 km2) remote watershed in Alaska, USA. Slimy sculpin otoliths incorporated site-specific temporal variation at sub-annual resolution and were able to record on the order of 0.0001 changes in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. 87Sr/86Sr profiles of slimy sculpin collected in tributaries and main-stem channels of the upper watershed indicated that these regions were temporally stable, whereas the Lower Nushagak River exhibited some spatio-temporal variability. This study illustrates how the behavioral ecology of a non-migratory organism can be used to evaluate sub-annual 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability and has broad implications for provenance studies employing this tracer.

  8. Geochemistry evidence for depositional settings and provenance of Jurassic argillaceous rocks of Jiyuan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yao; Zheng, Deshun; Li, Minglong

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to discuss the depositional settings and provenances for the Jurassic in Jiyuan basin, North China, based on the rare earth element (REE) and trace element features of 16 Jurassic argillaceous rock samples from the Anyao, Yangshuzhuang and Ma'ao Formations, respectively. Generally, geochemical analysis results show that chondrite-normalised REE distribution patterns of all the three formations are characterised by light-REE (LREE) enrichment, moderately negative Eu anomalies, slightly negative Ce anomalies, and strong fractionation between LREE and heavy-REE (HREE). Trace element proxies V/(V + Ni), Ce anom index, Ce/La, Sr/Ba, and Sr/Cu indicate a weak oxidation-reduction environment, progressively decreasing reducibility and water depth from the bottom up during Jurassic in Jiyuan basin. Palaeoclimate varied from humid in the Early Jurassic to arid in the Middle Jurassic, corresponding with the variations of palaeoredox and palaeosalinity. The provenances of Jurassic rocks in Jiyuan basin are mainly from felsic sources related to active continental margin and continental island arc. The Early-Middle Jurassic (Anyao and Yangshuzhuang Formations) provenances are mainly derived from North Qinling and partially from the eroded recycled felsic sedimentary covers of Taihang Mountain. In the late stage of Middle Jurassic (Ma'ao Formation), Taihang Mountain has been the primary source to Jiyuan basin. We conclude that the Jurassic rocks of Jiyuan basin reveal the progressive uplift and denudation processes of the Taihang Mountain.

  9. Discrimination of sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea: Secondary grain-size effect and REE proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Jeong, Do-Hyun; Xu, Zhaokai; Li, Tiegang

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzed grain size and elemental concentrations (Al, Mg, Fe, and rare earth elements (REEs)) in 91 surface sediments to elucidate sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea. Elemental concentrations were normalized by Al concentration (Celement/CAl) to minimize the sediment grain-size effect (GSE). However, noticeable linear relationships between Al concentration (or mean grain size) and the ratio (e.g., Mg/Al or Fe/Al) appeared unexpectedly in pair diagrams. The spatial distribution patterns of Fe/Al and Mg/Al ratios were also similar to the pattern of mean grain size. This implies that the GSE was not removed completely, even after the normalization process. Thus, great care must be taken when applying the ratios of Celement/CAl as a proxy of sediment provenance. To improve provenance discrimination of the sediments in the Yellow Sea, the difference between the REE distribution patterns of Chinese and Korean river sediments, expressed as δ (δ = REE∗(La) - REE∗(Lu)), was calculated, and the spatial distribution patterns of the δ values were mapped. The δ values gradually increased from the western to the eastern part of the Yellow Sea, except for low δ values in the southeastern part of the Yellow Sea. This result indicates that the majority of Chinese and Korean river sediments are accumulating near to their respective coasts, except for a deposit along the southwestern coast of Korea in which a considerable amount of sediment from Chinese rivers has been accumulating.

  10. [Suspected allergy to a local anaesthetic: how often is allergy proven?].

    PubMed

    Tupker, Ron A; Fransen, Marloes; van Zuuren, Esther J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the percentage of proven allergy for local anaesthetics (LA) in patients who were tested because of a clinical suspicion of LA allergy. Retrospective multicentre case series. All patients from two hospitals who were seen from 2004 through 2013 for a possible allergy to local anaesthetics. Their records were analyzed for the probable type of allergic reaction and allergy tests were performed. Distinction was made between skin prick tests (SPT), intradermal tests (IDT), subcutaneous provocation tests and epicutaneous tests (patch tests). 53 patients were included. The most common symptoms were dizziness (n = 14) and collapse (n = 12). Urticaria, oedema and/or erythema were seen in 25 patients, whilst 2 patients had a drop in blood pressure. In 4 patients an IgE-mediated allergy was proven by means of provocation testing. SPT and IDT were not predictive. In 1 patient a delayed-type allergy was established by patch testing. IgE-mediated and delayed-type allergic reactions are rarely caused by LA. IgE-mediated reactions can be proven by provocation testing. Patch testing is used when a delayed type reaction is suspected.

  11. Strontium isotopes in otoliths of a non-migratory fish (slimy sculpin): Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean R.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Randy J.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of river-dissolved strontium (Sr) across geologically diverse environments provides a useful tool for investigating provenance, connectivity and movement patterns of various organisms and materials. Evaluation of site-specific 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability throughout study regions is a prerequisite for provenance research, but the dynamics driving temporal variability are generally system-dependent and not accurately predictable. We used the time-keeping properties of otoliths from non-migratory slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) to evaluate multi-scale 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability of river waters throughout the Nushagak River, a large (34,700 km2) remote watershed in Alaska, USA. Slimy sculpin otoliths incorporated site-specific temporal variation at sub-annual resolution and were able to record on the order of 0.0001 changes in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. 87Sr/86Sr profiles of slimy sculpin collected in tributaries and main-stem channels of the upper watershed indicated that these regions were temporally stable, whereas the Lower Nushagak River exhibited some spatio-teporal variability. This study illustrates how the behavioral ecology of a non-migratory organism can be used to evaluate sub-annual 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability and has broad implications for provenance studies employing this tracer.

  12. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  13. Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are

  14. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  15. Survival, growth, and juvenile-mature correlations in a West Virginia sugar maple provenance test 25 years after establishment

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Schuler

    1994-01-01

    Survival, total height, diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), and stem quality of sugar maple trees of different provenances were compared 25 years after establishment in north-central West Virginia. Provenances were from Michigan, Minnesota, West Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and Quebec, Canada. There were significant differences between...

  16. QEMSCAN+LA-ICP-MS: a 'big data' generator for sedimentary provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Rittner, Martin; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Sedimentary provenance may be traced by 'fingerprinting' sediments with chemical, mineralogical or isotopic means. Normally, each of these provenance proxies is characterised on a separate aliquot of the same sample. For example, the chemical composition of the bulk sample may be analysed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) on one aliquot, framework petrography on another, heavy mineral analysis on a density separate of a third split, and zircon U-Pb dating on a further density separate of the heavy mineral fraction. The labour intensity of this procedure holds back the widespread application of multi-method provenance studies. We here present a new method to solve this problem and avoid mineral separation by coupling a QEMSCAN electron microscope to an LA-ICP-MS instrument and thereby generate all four aforementioned provenance datasets as part of the same workflow. Given a polished hand specimen, a petrographic thin section, or a grain mount, the QEMSCAN+LA-ICP-MS method produces chemical and mineralogical maps from which the X-Y coordinates of the datable mineral are extracted. These coordinates are subsequently passed on to the laser ablation system for isotopic and, hence, geochronological analysis. In the process of finding all the zircons in a sediment grain mount, the QEMSCAN yields the compositional and mineralogical compositions as byproducts. We have applied the new QEMSCAN+LA-ICP-MS instrument suite to over 100 samples from three large sediment routing systems: (1) the Tigris-Euphrates river catchments and Rub' Al Khali desert in Arabia; (2) the Nile catchment in northeast Africa and (3) desert and beach sands between the Orange and Congo rivers in southwest Africa. These studies reveal (1) that Rub' Al Khali sand is predominantly derived from the Arabian Shield and not from Mesopotamia; (2) that the Blue Nile is the principal source of Nile sand; and (3) that Orange River sand is carried northward by longshore drift nearly 1,800km from South Africa to southern

  17. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kueppers, Lara M.; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S.; Mitton, Jeffry B.

    2016-01-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  18. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  19. Relict basin closure and crustal shortening budgets during continental collision: An example from Caucasus sediment provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowgill, Eric; Forte, Adam M.; Niemi, Nathan; Avdeev, Boris; Tye, Alex; Trexler, Charles; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Elashvili, Mikheil; Godoladze, Tea

    2016-12-01

    Comparison of plate convergence with the timing and magnitude of upper crustal shortening in collisional orogens indicates both shortening deficits (200-1700 km) and significant (10-40%) plate deceleration during collision, the cause(s) for which remains debated. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which result from postcollisional Cenozoic closure of a relict Mesozoic back-arc basin on the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, help reconcile these debates. Here we use U-Pb detrital zircon provenance data and the regional geology of the Caucasus to investigate the width of the now-consumed Mesozoic back-arc basin and its closure history. The provenance data record distinct southern and northern provenance domains that persisted until at least the Miocene. Maximum basin width was likely 350-400 km. We propose that closure of the back-arc basin initiated at 35 Ma, coincident with initial (soft) Arabia-Eurasia collision along the Bitlis-Zagros suture, eventually leading to 5 Ma (hard) collision between the Lesser Caucasus arc and the Scythian platform to form the Greater Caucasus Mountains. Final basin closure triggered deceleration of plate convergence and tectonic reorganization throughout the collision. Postcollisional subduction of such small (102-103 km wide) relict ocean basins can account for both shortening deficits and delays in plate deceleration by accommodating convergence via subduction/underthrusting, although such shortening is easily missed if it occurs along structures hidden within flysch/slate belts. Relict basin closure is likely typical in continental collisions in which the colliding margins are either irregularly shaped or rimmed by extensive back-arc basins and fringing arcs, such as those in the modern South Pacific.

  20. Archaeometric researches on the provenance of Mediterranean Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery.

    PubMed

    Amadori, M L; Del Vais, C; Fermo, P; Pallante, P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to setup a first chemical database that could represent the starting point for a reliable classification method to discriminate between Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery on the base of their chemical data. This database up to now can discriminate between several different areas of production and provenance and can be applied also to unknown ceramic samples of comparable age and production areas. More than 100 ceramic fragments were involved in this research, coming from various archaeological sites having a crucial importance in the context of the Phoenician and Punic settlement in central and western Mediterranean: Carthage (Tunisia), Toscanos (South Andalusia, Spain), Sulci, Monte Sirai, Othoca, Tharros (Sardinia, Italy) and Pithecusa (Campania, Italy). Since long-time archaeologists hypothesised that Mediterranean Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery had mainly a local or just a regional diffusion, with the exception of some particular class like transport amphorae. To verify the pottery provenance, statistical analyses were carried out to define the existence of different ceramic compositional groups characterised by a local origin or imported from other sites. The existing literature data are now supplemented by new archaeometric investigations both on Archaic Phoenician ceramics and clayey raw materials from Sardinia. Therefore, diffractometric analyses, optical microscopy observations and X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed to identify the mineralogical and chemical composition of Othoca ceramics and clayey raw material. The obtained results were then compared with own literature data concerning Phoenician and Punic pottery in order to find features related to the different ceramic productions and their provenance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed on the chemical compositional data in order to discriminate ceramic groups. A very complex situation was found

  1. The association of insomnia with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Sumida, Yoshio; Tanaka, Saiyu; Imajo, Kento; Yoneda, Masato; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Ono, Masafumi; Fujii, Hideki; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Saibara, Toshiji; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-07-01

    It is suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), can be associated with insomnia and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The relationship between GERD and insomnia in subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD was investigated. This study enrolled 123 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Insomnia was assessed by the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), a self-assessment psychometric instrument designed to quantify sleep difficulty based on ICD-10 criteria; AIS scores ≥ 6 were considered positive for insomnia. GERD symptoms were evaluated using a frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG); FSSG scores ≥ 8 were considered positive. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of insomnia with GERD, after adjusting for potential confounders. Thirteen patients with GERD were treated with the proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole (RPZ; 10 mg/day), for 12 weeks. Of the 123 patients, 76 (62%) were female and 87 (71%) were obese, with 34 (28%) having AIS scores ≥ 6 and 31 (25%) having FSSG scores ≥ 8. Liver biopsy revealed that 40 patients (33%) had NAFL and 83 (67%) had NASH. FSSG and AIS scores were similar in the two groups. HOMA-IR, FSSG scores and γGT (GGT) concentrations were significantly higher in insomniacs than in non-insomniacs. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FSSG score and GGT concentration were independently associated with insomnia. RPZ treatment resulted in significantly reductions in both AIS and FSSG scores. Nearly 30% of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD had insomnia, which was related to GGT and GERD and could be relieved by RPZ treatment.

  2. Outcomes in biopsy-proven lupus nephritis: evaluation of 190 white patients from a single center.

    PubMed

    Sisó, Antoni; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Bové, Albert; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Soria, Natalia; Nardi, Norma; Testi, Adriana; Perez-de-Lis, Marta; Díaz-Lagares, Cándido; Darnell, Alejandro; Sentís, Juan; Coca, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    We describe the natural history of lupus nephritis (LN) in a historical cohort of 190 white patients with the diagnosis of biopsy-proven LN followed in a single reference center.We evaluated 670 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) consecutively followed in our department from 1970 until 2006. All patients fulfilled the 1997 revised criteria for the classification of SLE. White patients (Spanish-born) with biopsy-proven LN were selected as the study population.The cohort included 190 patients (170 female patients and 20 male) with a mean age at LN diagnosis of 31 years. Renal biopsy revealed type I LN in 8 (4%) patients, type II in 33 (17%), type III in 46 (24%), type IV in 72 (38%), type V in 28 (15%), and type VI in 3 (2%) patients. Induction remission was achieved in 85% of patients with types I and II, 78% with type III, 70% with type IV, and 32% of patients with type V. After a mean follow-up of 2391 patient-years, 62 (33%) patients developed chronic renal failure and 18 (9%) evolved to end-stage renal disease. Adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis identified male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 4.33) and elevated creatinine at LN diagnosis (HR, 5.18) as independent variables for renal failure. Survival was 92% at 10 years of follow-up, 80% after 20 years, and 72% after 30 years.Our results suggest that biopsy-proven LN in white patients has an excellent prognosis. Ethnicity should be considered a key factor when evaluating the prognosis and therapeutic response to different agents in patients with LN.

  3. Provenance of Middle Tertiary sandstones of the San Emigdio and Tehachapi Mountains, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, M.L. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Petrographic analysis of 78 medium to coarse-grained sandstones collected from complete depositional sequences of early Eocene to early miocene age exposed in the San Emigdio and Tehachapi Ranges reveal moderately sorted, subangular arkoses and lithic arkoses. Framework sand-sized grains are primarily detrital quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase and lithic fragments. Lithic fragments consist of: (a) Volcanic/meta-volcanic types, (Lv); (b) low/high grade metamorphic types, (Lm); and, (c) sedimentary/meta-sedimentary types, (Ls). Gazzi-Dickinson point-counts of 450 framework grains per slide yield the following modal averages: Tejon Fm-Uvas Member: %QFL = 62, 34, 4; Metralla Member: %QFL = 43, 50, 7; San Emigdio Fm-Basal Member: %QFL = 49, 38, 13; Upper Sandstone Member: %QFL = 59, 34, 7; Tecuya Fm: %QFL = 62, 28, 10; Pleito: %QFL = 43, 49, 8; and, Temblor Fm: %QFL = 47, 46, 6. Modal data plotted on provenance discrimination diagrams indicate a continental block-uplifted basement provenance and a dissected arc provenance suggesting Sierran and Mojavian block sources. To determine the extent that depostional processes control sandstone composition, QFL averages and standard deviations were calculated for samples grouped by facies. Modal averages were distinct between facies: Fluvial, %QFL = 40, 47, 13; eolian, %QFL = 80, 16, 4; beach, %QFL = 75, 13, 12; surf zone-longshore trough, %QFL = 51, 41, 8; shelf, %QFL = 41, 46, 13. In general eolian and beach sandstones are more mature than fluvial, surf zone and shelf sandstones. Climate during deposition of the sandstones was not a dominant factor controlling sandstone composition. However, sandstone deposition during the tropical conditions of the Eocene produced predominantly quartose sandstones. Sandstones deposited after the Eocene/Oligocene climatic deterioration produced predominantly feldspar-rich sandstones.

  4. Associating uncertainty with datasets using Linked Data and allowing propagation via provenance chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Fitch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    With earth-science datasets increasingly being published to enable re-use in projects disassociated from the original data acquisition or generation, there is an urgent need for associated metadata to be connected, in order to guide their application. In particular, provenance traces should support the evaluation of data quality and reliability. However, while standards for describing provenance are emerging (e.g. PROV-O), these do not include the necessary statistical descriptors and confidence assessments. UncertML has a mature conceptual model that may be used to record uncertainty metadata. However, by itself UncertML does not support the representation of uncertainty of multi-part datasets, and provides no direct way of associating the uncertainty information - metadata in relation to a dataset - with dataset objects.We present a method to address both these issues by combining UncertML with PROV-O, and delivering resulting uncertainty-enriched provenance traces through the Linked Data API. UncertProv extends the PROV-O provenance ontology with an RDF formulation of the UncertML conceptual model elements, adds further elements to support uncertainty representation without a conceptual model and the integration of UncertML through links to documents. The Linked ID API provides a systematic way of navigating from dataset objects to their UncertProv metadata and back again. The Linked Data API's 'views' capability enables access to UncertML and non-UncertML uncertainty metadata representations for a dataset. With this approach, it is possible to access and navigate the uncertainty metadata associated with a published dataset using standard semantic web tools, such as SPARQL queries. Where the uncertainty data follows the UncertML model it can be automatically interpreted and may also support automatic uncertainty propagation . Repositories wishing to enable uncertainty propagation for all datasets must ensure that all elements that are associated with uncertainty

  5. Inferring tectonic provenance of siliciclastic rocks from their chemical compositions: A dissent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Abhijit; Bickford, Marion E.; Deasy, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Chemical compositions of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are commonly used to infer their tectonic provenance. We have tested the universal applicability of the underlying principle in a small, but controlled study expecting 100% confirmation of the practice. A comparison is made between the chemical composition of the 1480 Ma Butler Hill Granite in an uplifted cratonic block of the St. Francois Mountain Igneous Complex and that of a small 1-m-thick regolith body, a weathered granite sample, and the basal quartz arenites of the 520 Ma Lamotte Formation immediately above the regolith. The results show that in plots of K2O/Na2O vs. SiO2/Al2O3, the regolith and sandstone samples correctly plot in the Passive Margin field, although the weathered granite plots in the Arc field. In plots of Th-Sc-Zr/10 and La-Th-Sc, the results plot in the Passive and Active Continental Margins and their extensions. In other common plots to discriminate tectonic provenance (e.g., SiO2 vs. K2O/Na2O, Fe2O3 + MgO vs. Al2O3/SiO2, Fe2O3 + MgO vs. TiO2, Sc/Cr vs. La/Y) a few points plot in the Passive Margin field but scatter into and outside of other fields of tectonic provenances. The chondrite-normalized REE distributions show variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies, with flat HREE, conforming to a felsic source. The LREE distributions show both positive and negative Ce anomalies that can be ascribed to the variability of redox conditions during weathering and diagenesis of the original siliciclastic sediments. The variability of the Eu anomaly was likely affected by post-erosion processes in addition to whatever was inherited from the parent rocks. We conclude that chemical compositions can provide good clues, but are neither strong indicators nor unique identifiers of their tectonic provenance. Rather, they indicate a dominantly felsic or dominantly mafic, or a mixed set of source rocks.

  6. Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, G.B.; Setterholm, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks. This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner. We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material. However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments.

  7. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  8. Using Sediment Provenance to Study Ice Streams in the Weddell Sea Embayment of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; Williams, T.; Boswell, S.; Licht, K.; Agrios, L.; Brachfeld, S. A.; van de Flierdt, T.; Kuhn, G.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Zhai, X.

    2016-12-01

    The geochemical and geochronological fingerprint of rock debris eroded and carried by ice streams may be used to identify the provenance of iceberg-rafted debris (IRD) in the marine sediment record. During deglacial times it has been shown that there is an increase in IRD accumulation in marine sediments underlying the western limb of the Weddell Gyre. We seek to find the provenance of this IRD, identify the ice streams contributing to the IRD load, and interpret the geographic sequence of ice sheet retreat in the Weddell Sea embayment for the last three deglaciations. In December 2014 we conducted fieldwork to collect samples of rock and sediment debris carried by three of the major ice streams draining the Weddell Sea embayment: the Foundation Ice Stream, the Academy Glacier, and the Recovery Glacier. We sampled both modern moraines at the edges of the ice streams and older till on hillsides next to the ice streams. In addition to rocks representing the geology of local outcrops, we found that each of the three ice streams carries a characteristic set of erratic lithologies from further upstream, giving clues to the geology hidden under the ice sheet. Downstream, subglacial till and proximal glaciomarine sediment from existing core sites located at the edge of the Filchner and Ronne Ice Shelves, collected on past expeditions of the RV Polarstern, characterize the geochemical and geochronological fingerprint along ice flow lines extending from the ice streams. Finally, two deep-water RV Polarstern sites contain a continuous record of IRD sourced from the set of Weddell embayment ice streams over the last few glacial cycles. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar hornblende and biotite thermochronological data from individual mineral grains, K-Ar from the silt fraction, and U-Pb zircon geochronology from the onshore tills and offshore sediments. Using this data we will discuss provenance matching between the IRD and the ice streams, and the possibilities for using

  9. Mineralogical and rock magnetic provenance variation in Alaskan Abyssal Plain sediments, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, A. D.; Jaeger, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The interplay between regional tectonic activity and climate is a fundamental issue in ocean and earth sciences. These interactions are greatest in areas of high topographic relief coupled with aggressive erosional agents. Focused erosion in uplifting glaciated regions generates a positive feedback loop, accelerating uplift (Tompkin, 2007) and depositing erosional products into adjacent basins. Gulf of Alaska (GoA) strata offer insight into erosional responses to shifts in climate, such as the intensification of Cordilleran glaciation at 2.6 Ma. This coincides with increased accumulation of terrigenous sediment and appearance of ice rafted debris in the adjacent mud-rich Surveyor Fan (SF). It is hypothesized that this change in sediment accumulation and lithology at 2.6 Ma between the Lower Fan Sequence (LFS) and Upper Fan Sequence (UFS) may represent intensification of glacial erosion along the windward side of coastal mountains in southern Alaska. Establishing a provenance record of the UFS and LFS would provide insight into the history of glaciation and subsequent erosion of this region. Determining provenance of fine-grained sediments of the SF requires tracers that not only uniquely differentiate the adjacent Chugach and Yakutat geologic terranes, but are also preserved in offshore muds. Preliminary quantitative powder XRD mineralogy suggests that muds from onshore terranes and UFS sediments can be largely characterized by their distribution as resolved clusters on cross-plots of quartz, feldspar, clinochlore, and muscovite abundance. Within these plots, UFS sediments predominantly occupy the same region as Yakutat-derived samples, suggesting the mineralogy of UFS fine-grained sediments reflects that of the Yakutat Terrane. Distinctive groupings of on- and offshore sediments can also be observed on a Day plot of coercivity of remnance (Hcr/Hc) versus magnetic grain size (Mr/Ms), where Chugach and Yakutat samples group into separate clusters in the multi

  10. The case for physician assisted suicide: how can it possibly be proven?

    PubMed

    Dahl, E; Levy, N

    2006-06-01

    In her paper, The case for physician assisted suicide: not (yet) proven, Bonnie Steinbock argues that the experience with Oregon's Death with Dignity Act fails to demonstrate that the benefits of legalising physician assisted suicide outweigh its risks. Given that her verdict is based on a small number of highly controversial cases that will most likely occur under any regime of legally implemented safeguards, she renders it virtually impossible to prove the case for physician assisted suicide. In this brief paper, we suggest some ways that may enable us to weigh the risks and benefits of legalisation more fairly and, hopefully, allow us to close the case for physician assisted suicide.

  11. The case for physician assisted suicide: how can it possibly be proven?

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, E; Levy, N

    2006-01-01

    In her paper, The case for physician assisted suicide: not (yet) proven, Bonnie Steinbock argues that the experience with Oregon's Death with Dignity Act fails to demonstrate that the benefits of legalising physician assisted suicide outweigh its risks. Given that her verdict is based on a small number of highly controversial cases that will most likely occur under any regime of legally implemented safeguards, she renders it virtually impossible to prove the case for physician assisted suicide. In this brief paper, we suggest some ways that may enable us to weigh the risks and benefits of legalisation more fairly and, hopefully, allow us to close the case for physician assisted suicide. PMID:16731731

  12. Defining the “proven technology” technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia’s nuclear power program

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-29

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that “proven technology” is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for “proven technology” is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the “proven technology” term according to a specific country’s requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of “proven technology” that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia’s definition of “proven technology”.

  13. [Effects of phosphorus stress on the growth and nitrogen and phosphorus absorption of different Formosan sweet gum provenances].

    PubMed

    Leng, Hua-Ni; Chen, Yi-Tai; Duan, Hong-Ping; Rao, Long-Bing; Wang, Yong-Jun; Hu, Yun-Xue

    2009-04-01

    Aiming at the ecological value of Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana) as a pioneer species and the status of red soil phosphorus (P) deficiency, a sand culture experiment of split design was conducted to study the responses of three-leaf stage seedlings of seven Formosan sweet gum provenances from Yixing of Jiangsu, Jingxian of Anhui, Yongkang of Zhejiang, Nanchang of Jiangxi, Shaowu of Fujian, Yanping of Fujian, and Nandan of Guangxi to four levels of P (P0, P1/2, P1, P2). With increasing P stress, the biomass and the N and P absorption of test provenances decreased, whereas the utilization efficiency increased. In higher P treatments, the provenances from Nanchang and Yixing had higher biomass and higher N and P absorption but lower utilization efficiency, while the provenance from Nandan had lower N and P absorption but higher utilization efficiency. In lower P treatments, the biomass and the P absorption and utilization efficiency of the provenances from Nanchang and Nandan were all higher. All the results illustrated that the provenances with high biomass had high P absorption at high P level, and had both high P absorption and high utilization efficiency at low P level. The provenance from Nanchang could be considered to be an excellent P stress-resistant provenance, followed by that from Nandan. Phosphorus was not a limiting nutritional factor of Formosan sweet gum, biomass, leaf delta (N/P) ratio and P efficiency could be used as the indicators of P stress-tolerance of Formosan sweet gum provenances.

  14. Provenance of Des Moines lobe till records ice-stream catchment evolution during Laurentide deglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusardi, B.A.; Jennings, C.E.; Harris, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and analysis of deposits of the Des Moines lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, active after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), reveal several texturally and lithologically distinct tills within what had been considered to be a homogeneous deposit. Although the differences between tills are subtle, minor distinctions are predictable and mappable, and till sheets within the area covered by the lobe can be correlated for hundreds of kilometres parallel to ice flow. Lateral till-sheet contacts are abrupt or overlap in a narrow zone, coincident with a geomorphic discontinuity interpreted to be a shear margin. Till sheets 10 to 20m thick show mixing in their lower 2 to 3m. We suggest that: (i) lithologically distinct till sheets correspond to unique ice-stream source areas; (ii) the sequence of tills deposited by the Des Moines lobe was the result of the evolution and varying dominance of nearby and competing ice streams and their tributaries; and (iii) in at least one instance, more than one ice stream simultaneously contributed to the lobe. Therefore the complex sequence of tills of subtly different provenances, and the unconformities between them record the evolution of an ice-catchment area during Laurentide Ice Sheet drawdown. Till provenance data suggest that, after till is created in the ice-stream source area, the subglacial conditions required for transporting till decline and incorporation of new material is limited. ?? 2011 The Authors. Boreas ?? 2011 The Boreas Collegium.

  15. [Study on geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds].

    PubMed

    Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Qin, Shu-Ying; Liu, Chang-Li; Zhang, Zhao-Ying; Di, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To study the geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds, approach the geographical variation mode and ecology mechanism, and laid theoretical foundation for districting and allocating of G. uralensis seeds. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were applied. Seed shape and kilosseed weight were sampled randomly, germination rate germination force by general methods. The morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis seeds showed roughly longitude variation tendency that the seeds increased gradually from west to east. While the germination characteristic showed roughly altitude variation tendency that the seeds germination rate and germination force increased with the increase of the altitude, and the average germination rate was the same with the seeds morphologic characteristic. The results of analysis correlated with the climatic factors show that the morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis was positive correlated with annual rain-fall of the habitat, and the germination rate was quickened by drought, high temperature and strong sunshine. The morphologic and germination characteristic and of G. uralensis seeds present distinguished geographical variation, and the formation of the variation was related to the ecological environment in which the seed provenance adapted.

  16. Provenance information as a tool for addressing engineered nanoparticle reproducibility challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Thrall, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles of various types are of increasing research and technological importance in biological and other applications. Difficulties in the production and delivery of nanoparticles with consistent and well defined properties appear in many forms and have a variety of causes. Among several issues are those associated with incomplete information about the history of particles involved in research studies including the synthesis method, sample history after synthesis including time and nature of storage and the detailed nature of any sample processing or modification. In addition, the tendency of particles to change with time or environmental condition suggests that the time between analysis and application is important and some type of consistency or verification process can be important. The essential history of a set of particles can be identified as provenance information tells the origin or source of a batch of nano-objects along with information related to handling and any changes that may have taken place since it was originated. A record of sample provenance information for a set of particles can play a useful role in identifying some of the sources and decreasing the extent of particle variability and the observed lack of reproducibility observed by many researchers.

  17. Provenance tracking for scientific software toolchains through on-demand release and archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, David

    2017-04-01

    There is an emerging consensus that published computational science results must be backed by a provenance chain tying results to the exact versions of input data and the code which generated them. There is also now an impressive range of web services devoted to revision control of software, and the archiving in citeable form of both software and input data. However, much scientific software itself builds on libraries and toolkits, and these themselves have dependencies. Further, it is common for cutting edge research to depend on the latest version of software in online repositories, rather than the official release version. This creates a situation in which an author who wishes to follow best practice in recording the provenance chain of their results must archive and cite unreleased versions of a series of dependencies. Here, we present an alternative which toolkit authors can easily implement to provide a semi-automatic mechanism for creating and archiving custom software releases of the precise version of a package used in a particular simulation. This approach leverages the excellent services provided by GitHub and Zenodo to generate a connected set of citeable DOIs for the archived software. We present the integration of this workflow into the Firedrake automated finite element framework as a practical example of this approach in use on a complex geoscientific tool chain in practical use.

  18. Treatment Outcome of Breast Cancer with Pathologically Proven Synchronous Ipsilateral Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinhong; Kim, Su Ssan; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-Wook; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Lee, Jong Won; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis, patterns of failure, and prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with pathologically proven synchronous ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node (ISCLN) metastases. We reviewed the records of breast cancer patients with pathologically proven ISCLN metastases. Local aggressive treatment was defined as treatment including surgery, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), ISCLN excision, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy. A total of 111 patients were included. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 64.2% and 56.2%, respectively. On univariate analysis, RT, ALND, trastuzumab treatment, hormone receptor (HR) status, and local aggressive treatment were identified as significant factors for OS. The 5-year OS for 73 patients who received local aggressive treatment was superior to that of 38 patients who received nonaggressive treatment (70.9% vs. 49.3%, p=0.036). Multivariate analysis showed that RT, HR status, and trastuzumab were significant variables for the 5-year OS and DFS. Multimodality treatment with surgery, taxane-based chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and RT is strongly recommended for breast cancer patients with synchronous ISCLN metastases.

  19. Prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with proven ovarian torsion and a proposed triage schema.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher; Meyers, Arthur B; Capotasto, Juliana; Bokhari, Jamal

    2009-03-01

    Many women with ovarian torsion present with nonspecific abdominal/pelvic pain and initially receive computed tomography (CT). We hypothesize that the CT scans preformed on these women will all show abnormalities of the involved ovary. Our purpose is to review cases of surgically proven ovarian torsion at our institution over the last 20 years, assessing CT findings in women with ovarian torsion. A retrospective review of all patients at our institution with surgically proven ovarian torsion from 1985-2005 was conducted. Two physicians reviewed available CT reports, and a radiologist reviewed all available images. CT was obtained in 33% of the 167 patients. Dictated reports were available for 28 studies; all described an enlarged ovary, ovarian cyst, or adnexal mass of the involved ovary. Radiologist review of the available CT images confirmed these findings. This series supports the claim that a CT scan with well-visualized normal appearing ovaries rules out ovarian torsion, while abnormal pelvic findings or failure to visualize the ovaries in women with pelvic pain necessitates further evaluation of torsion.

  20. Mineralogy and provenance of clays in miarolitic cavities of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Clay samples from 105 cavities within miarolitic granitic pegmatites throughout the Pikes Peak batholith, in Colorado, were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Smectite (beidellite), illite, and kaolinite were found within the cavities. Calculation of crystallite-thickness distribution (CTD), mean thickness of the crystallites, and variance in crystallite thickness, as deduced from XRD patterns, allowed a determination of provenance and mode of formation for illite and smectite. Authigenic miarolitic-cavity illite and smectite show lognormal CTDs and larger mean thicknesses of crystallites than do their soil-derived counterparts; non-lognormal illite in a cavity results from mixing of cavity and soil illite. Analysis of mean thickness and thickness variance shows that crystal growth of illite is initiated by a nucleation event of short duration, followed by surface-controlled kinetics. Crystallization of the miarolitic cavity clays is presumed to occur by neoformation from hydrothermal fluids. The assessment of provenance allows a determination of regional and local distributions of clay minerals in miarolitic cavities within the Pikes Peak batholith.

  1. Application of REE geochemical signatures for Mesozoic sediment provenance to the Gettysburg Basin, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Johanna M.; Peters, Stephen C.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2017-03-01

    Rift basins adjacent to accreted terranes provide accommodation space for sediments eroded from these terranes. Despite similar depositional environments and geologic age, rocks of the Triassic Gettysburg Basin have approximately half the arsenic concentrations of the adjacent Newark Basin. Quartz-feldspar-lithics (QFL) diagrams and rare earth element (REE) geochemical signatures can inform sediment provenance. Here we investigate REE geochemical signatures of the sedimentary rocks in the Triassic Gettysburg rift basin, with the goal of distinguishing the main sources of siliciclastic sediment among the Appalachian foreland in the rift footwall from Piedmont arc and Iapetan continental margin rocks exposed in the hanging wall and ultimately understanding the geochemical cycling of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin. Shale-normalized REE spider diagrams and Mann-Whitney tests on trace element ratios suggest that the Gettysburg Basin samples show patterns that most closely resemble those of the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise Iapetus Rift Volcanic, and Accretionary Complex deposits. Mann-Whitney Rank Sum analysis suggest that the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise terrane is the main source of sediments to the basin, which confirms results from prior QFL analysis and shows the utility of REE fingerprinting in provenance analysis. The main sources of sediment have smaller minimum and maximum arsenic concentrations than other terranes and the Newark Basin sediments, additionally suggesting the source of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin is based upon specific terranes.

  2. Detrital provenance of Early Mesozoic basins in the Jiangnan domain, South China: Paleogeographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xianbing; Tang, Shuai; Lin, Shoufa

    2016-04-01

    Detrital provenance analysis is an effective way to understand paleogeographic change and geodynamics. In this paper, we present petrological, whole-rock geochemical and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analysis of Early and Middle Jurassic terrestrial clastic rocks in the Jingdezhen Basin and the Huangshan Basin in the Jiangnan domain, South China. Petrology and whole-rock geochemistry show that the source rocks are dominated by intermediate to acid component. The Chemical Index of Alteration ranges from 69 to 86, suggesting a moderate weathering history for the source rocks. The Early-Middle Jurassic sediments in the Jingdezhen and Huangshan basins were mostly sourced from magmatogenic greywackes and felsic magmatic rocks, respectively. Detrital zircons have seven age peaks at 240 Ma, 430 Ma, 1390 Ma, 1880 Ma, 2500 Ma, -3200 Ma and 788-999 Ma (a wide peak). Provenance analysis indicates that the source rocks are in the Jiangnan domain, the Northwest Zhejiang Basin and the Wuyishan domain. Combining these with previous results and paleocurrent directions, we infer that the NE-trending Wuyishan and Xuefengshan domains and the nearly E-W-Jiangnan domain and Nanling tectonic belt were orogenic uplifts and watersheds during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. The Early Mesozoic geodynamics in the South China Block was related to the westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate and the northward continent-continent collision following the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  3. Neuroimaging Study Designs, Computational Analyses and Data Provenance Using the LONI Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo; Lozev, Kamen; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Pierce, Jonathan; Zamanyan, Alen; Chakrapani, Shruthi; Van Horn, John; Parker, D. Stott; Magsipoc, Rico; Leung, Kelvin; Gutman, Boris; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Modern computational neuroscience employs diverse software tools and multidisciplinary expertise to analyze heterogeneous brain data. The classical problems of gathering meaningful data, fitting specific models, and discovering appropriate analysis and visualization tools give way to a new class of computational challenges—management of large and incongruous data, integration and interoperability of computational resources, and data provenance. We designed, implemented and validated a new paradigm for addressing these challenges in the neuroimaging field. Our solution is based on the LONI Pipeline environment [3], [4], a graphical workflow environment for constructing and executing complex data processing protocols. We developed study-design, database and visual language programming functionalities within the LONI Pipeline that enable the construction of complete, elaborate and robust graphical workflows for analyzing neuroimaging and other data. These workflows facilitate open sharing and communication of data and metadata, concrete processing protocols, result validation, and study replication among different investigators and research groups. The LONI Pipeline features include distributed grid-enabled infrastructure, virtualized execution environment, efficient integration, data provenance, validation and distribution of new computational tools, automated data format conversion, and an intuitive graphical user interface. We demonstrate the new LONI Pipeline features using large scale neuroimaging studies based on data from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping [5] and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [6]. User guides, forums, instructions and downloads of the LONI Pipeline environment are available at http://pipeline.loni.ucla.edu. PMID:20927408

  4. Rare earth element fingerprints in Korean coastal bay sediments: Association with provenance discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Woo, Han Jun; Jang, Seok; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Jung, Hoi-Soo; Hwang, Ha Gi; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Jin Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs: La-Lu) in surface sediments collected from the mouth and middle tidal flats of Gomso Bay, South Korea, in August 2011 and May 2012 were analyzed to investigate the fine-grained sediment provenance. The upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized light REEs (LREEs: La to Nd) were more enriched than the middle REEs (MREEs: Sm to Dy) and heavy REEs (HREEs: Ho to Lu), resulting in large (La/Yb)UCC (1.9 ± 0.4) to (Gd/Yb)UCC (1.4 ± 0.2) ratios. The monthly (La/Yb)UCC values differed between the mouth and middle tidal flats due to deposition of fine-grained sediments that originated from distant rivers (the Geum and Yeongsan) and the Jujin Stream, located on the southern shore of the inner bay. We observed relative reductions in the (La/Yb)UCC value and REE content in the sediments from the mouth of the bay compared with those from Jujin Stream sediments. Confined to the middle tidal flat around the KH Line of Jujin Stream, the sediments, most enriched in LREEs but depleted in Eu, were distributed in August as strong Jujin Stream runs. Here, we suggest that an increase in LREE/HREE and decrease in MREE/LREE ratios can be used as a proxy to identify the Jujin Stream provenance in mixed riverine sediments and to trace Jujin Stream sediments within the Gomso Bay tidal flat, especially in the summer rainy season.

  5. Provenance information as a tool for addressing engineered nanoparticle reproducibility challenges

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Donald R.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Thrall, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles of various types are of increasing research and technological importance in biological and other applications. Difficulties in the production and delivery of nanoparticles with consistent and well defined properties appear in many forms and have a variety of causes. Among several issues are those associated with incomplete information about the history of particles involved in research studies, including the synthesis method, sample history after synthesis, including time and nature of storage, and the detailed nature of any sample processing or modification. In addition, the tendency of particles to change with time or environmental condition suggests that the time between analysis and application is important and some type of consistency or verification process can be important. The essential history of a set of particles can be identified as provenance information and tells the origin or source of a batch of nano-objects along with information related to handling and any changes that may have taken place since it was originated. A record of sample provenance information for a set of particles can play a useful role in identifying some of the sources and decreasing the extent of particle variability and the lack of reproducibility observed by many researchers. PMID:27936809

  6. Geochemical indicators of provenance and tectonic setting of Mississippian pelites of the Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.W. ); Blatt, H.; Weaver, B.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions of the southern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic are inconclusive. Numerous conflicting models have been proposed for the opening and closing of the Iapetus Ocean and the subsequent deposition and deformation of the Ouachita System. Considerable confusion also exists concerning the provenance of the Carboniferous flysch deposits of the Ouachitas. Trace element geochemistry of shales from the Stanley Group constrain both the provenance of the sediments and the plate tectonic setting during the Mississippian evolution of the southern continental margin. Th/Sc and Cr/Th ratios support a cratonic source for the majority of samples analyzed. However, in several samples the Th/Sc ratio decreases and the Cr/Th ratio increases, suggesting a contribution from a more mafic source. Using element ratio-ratio diagrams, all of the samples plot along a curve consistent with a two-component mixing model between a felsic and a mafic source. Both a tantalum-niobium trough and a strongly negative strontium anomaly are seen in upper-crust-normalized trace element spiderdiagrams. These anomalies are also present in interbedded volcaniclastics within the Stanley. The Stanley shales also exhibit a positive vanadium-chromium-nickel anomaly. The pervasive occurrence of these anomalies is interpreted as inherited from their source, and not from diagenetic alteration or sedimentary processes.

  7. Controls on Quaternary Sediment Erosion and Provenance in the Himalayan Rain Shadow, Zanskar River, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonell, T. N.; Clift, P. D.; Carter, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Summer Monsoon exerts strong control over erosion in the frontal Himalaya and possibly farther onto the periphery of the Tibetan Plateau in the Himalayan rain shadow. This study evaluates the Zanskar River, a large rain shadow tributary to the Indus River system, to establish how monsoonal precipitation controls erosion patterns, sediment yield, and sediment composition in the Himalayan rain shadow. Bulk sediment petrography and U-Pb detrital zircon ages demonstrate that Zanskar River sands are overwhelmingly dominated by 600-850 Ma zircon, which is consistent with material eroding from Greater Himalayan lithologies. In particular, modern sediment production appears to be heavily concentrated in the wettest and most glaciated subcatchment. River terrace sands indicate that no significant change in the area of sediment production and basin-wide provenance signal has occurred since ~11.5 ka, despite changes in monsoon strength. Variability in subcatchment provenance signals, however, do shift locally with enhanced precipitation around the time of the Monsoon Maximum (10-8 ka). Detrital apatite fission track ages suggest rates of erosion typical for the northwest Indian Himalaya for the last 6.4 M.y. in Zanskar, in spite of the changing monsoonal climate. Together these data indicate most sediment in the Zanskar River is freshly-eroded and transmitted immediately downstream into the Indus River with only modest buffering in terraces.

  8. Thermal stability of structurally different viruses with proven or potential relevance to food safety.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, E; Bouwknegt, M; Zwietering, M H; Koopmans, M; Duizer, E

    2012-05-01

    To collect comparative data on thermal stability of structurally different viruses with proven or potential relevance to food safety. Suspensions with poliovirus Sabin1, adenovirus type5, parechovirus1, human norovirus (NoV) GII.4, murine NoV (MNV1) and human influenza A (H1N1) viruses were heated at 56 and 73°C. Infectivity was tested by culture assay for all but human NoV GII.4 that cannot be cultivated in vitro. Time to first log(10) reduction (TFL-value) was calculated based on best fit using the monophasic, biphasic or Weibull models. The Weibull model provided the best fit at 56°C for all viruses except influenza virus. The TFL at 56°C varied between a high of 27 min (parechovirus) to a low of 10 s (adenovirus) and ranked parechovirus > influenza > MNV1 > poliovirus > adenovirus. The monophasic model best described the behaviour of the viruses at 73°C, in which case the TFL was MNV1(62s) > influenza > adenovirus > parechovirus > poliovirus(14s). Viruses do not follow log-linear thermal inactivation kinetics and the thermostability of parechovirus and influenza virus is similar to that of proven foodborne viruses. Resistant fractions of viruses may remain infectious in thermal inactivation processes and inactivation of newly discovered or enveloped viruses in thermal food preparation processes should not be assumed without further testing. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity.

  10. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.

    2009-04-01

    Collision orogens have a complex structure, including diverse rock units assembled in various ways by geodynamic processes. Consequently, orogenic detritus embraces a varied range of signatures, and unravelling provenance of clastic wedges accumulated in adjacent foreland basins, foredeeps, or remnant-ocean basins is an arduous task. Dickinson and Suczek (1979) and Dickinson (1985) recognized the intrinsically composite nature of orogenic detritus, but did not attempt to establish clear conceptual and operational distinctions within their broad "Recycled Orogenic Provenance". In the Alpine and Himalayan belts, the bulk of the detritus is produced by focused erosion of the central backbone of the orogen, characterized by high topography and exhumation rates (Garzanti et al., 2004; Najman, 2006). Detritus derived from such axial nappe pile, including slivers of thinned continental-margin lithosphere metamorphosed at depth during early collisional stages, has diagnostic general features, which allows us to define an "Axial Belt Provenance" (Garzanti et al., 2007). In detail, "Axial Belt" detrital signatures are influenced by metamorphic grade of source rocks and relative abundance of continental versus oceanic protoliths, typifying distinct subprovenances. Metasedimentary cover nappes shed lithic to quartzolithic detritus, including metapelite, metapsammite, and metacarbonate grains of various ranks; only amphibolite-facies metasediments supply abundant heavy minerals (e.g., almandine garnet, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite, diopsidic clinopyroxene). Continental-basement nappes shed hornblende-rich quartzofeldspathic detritus. Largely retrogressed blueschist to eclogite-facies metaophiolites supply albite, metabasite and foliated antigorite-serpentinite grains, along with abundant heavy minerals (epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, lawsonite, actinolitic to barroisitic amphiboles, glaucophane, omphacitic clinopyroxene). Increasing metamorphic grade and deeper

  11. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Common sediment fingerprinting techniques use either (1) extensive analytical datasets, sometimes nearly complete with respect to accessible characterization techniques; they are processed by multidimensional statistics based on certain statistical assumptions on distribution functions of analytical results and conservativeness/additivity of some components, or (2) analytically demanding characteristics such as isotope ratios assumed to be unequivocal "labels" on the parent material unaltered by any catchment process. The inherent problem of the approach ad (1) is that interpretation of statistical components ("sources") is done ex post and remains purely formal. The problem of the approach ad (2) is that catchment processes (weathering, transport, deposition) can modify most geochemical parameters of soils and sediments, in other words, that the idea that some geochemistry parameters are "conservative" may be idealistic. Grain-size effects and sediment provenance have a joint influence on chemical composition of fluvial sediments that is indeed not easy to distinguish. Attempts to separate those two main components using only statistics seem risky and equivocal, because grain-size dependence of element composition is nearly individual for each element and reflects sediment maturity and catchment-specific formation transport processes. We suppose that the use of less extensive datasets of analytical results and their interpretation respecting fundamental principles should be more robust than only statistic tools applied to overwhelming datasets. We examined sediment composition, both published by other researchers and gathered by us, and we found some general principles, which are in our opinion relevant for fingerprinting: (1) Concentrations of all elements are grain-size sensitive, i.e. there are no "conservative" elements in conventional sense of provenance- or transport-pathways tracing, (2) fractionation by catchment processes and fluvial transport changes

  12. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  13. Provenance and depositional conditions of Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sandstones from northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehrmann, Stephanie; Augustsson, Carita; Izaguirre Valdez, Rocio Nereyda; Jenchen, Uwe; Schulte, Peter

    2012-12-01

    We compare Late Maastrichtian siliciclastic sandstone in northeastern Mexico with those representing the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary to reveal differences in provenance and depositional conditions between background sedimentation and K-Pg sand. Lithology and compositional variations are presented for the deep-water Burgos Basin and the shallow-water La Popa Basin. The Late Maastrichtian sandstones in the Burgos Basin have sharp lower contacts, contain abundant trace fossils and are separated by meter-thick marl layers. They represent sporadic mass flows from coastal areas separated by long phases of hemipelagic sedimentation. The K-Pg sandstone layers are amalgamated, contain thin marl intercalations only in the uppermost part and trace fossils are present in the top sandstone layer only. Also this succession represents mass-flow deposits, but the sand may have been deposited during a very short period. The La Popa Basin sandstones represent deltaic sedimentation interrupted by submarine channel deposition during the K-Pg boundary transition with abundant rip-up clasts and bioclasts at the base. The sandstones of the Burgos Basin are quartz to akosic wacke dominated by quartz (> 90%) and some feldspar (< 10%) in calcite cement and matrix. Lithic fragments are rare and dominated by chert and bioclasts. Ultra-stable heavy minerals (ZTR = 50-80) and plutonic quartz grains (ca. 40% of the total quartz population) are particularly common in the K-Pg sandstones. In the Maastrichtian sandstones, metamorphic heavy minerals, particularly chlorite, clinozoisite, and tourmaline (20-50% of the heavy mineral population), and metamorphic quartz (80% of the quartz population) have higher abundances. The La Popa sandstones are subarkose to arkose and arkosic wacke and have a high abundance of feldspar (15-30%) and lithic fragments (5-20%), mainly of siltstone and carbonate. The sandstones from both basins have chemical compositions typical for recycling (Zr/Sc = 12-27 and

  14. Syn-Uralian orogenic heavy mineral provenance analysis from southeastern Taimyr, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.; Scott, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Taimyr peninsula is on the northern margin of the Siberian craton and divides into the southern, central and northern NE - SW trending domains. The southern Taimyr domain represents the passive margin of Siberia and is dominated by a Paleozoic, extending into the early Mesozoic, succession. The central Taimyr domain accreted to the southern domain during Late Precambrian time, followed by collision with the northern Taimyr domain of Baltican affinity during the Late Paleozoic as part of Uralian orogenesis. The Carboniferous - Permian sedimentary succession, which was deposited during the later stage of Uralian Orogeny, can provide crucial information about the extent of contemporaneous Uralian orogensis and its influence on the tectonic evolution of southern Taimyr. Three Carboniferous - Permian samples from southeastern Taimyr were analyzed for petrography and heavy mineral analysis to define their sedimentary and provenance characteristics. The Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian sample (VP10-25, Turuzovskya Formation, C2-P1tr), the Lower Permian sample (VP10-14, Sokolinskaya Formation, P1sk) and the Upper Permian sample (VP10-12, Baykurskaya Formation, P2bk)) classify as subarkose, lithic arkose and feldspathic litharenite, respectively- they record decreasing sediment maturity through time. While all the samples represent a 'recycled orogen' source based on QtFL plots, the C2-P1tr sample represents a recycled quartzite, while the P1sk sample plots within the mixed field, and the P2bk sample is transitional on QmFLt plots. According to the heavy mineral analysis results, the C2-P1tr sample and P1sk sample show great similarity in heavy mineral assemblage, dominated by zircon, apatite and rutile. The P2bk sample shows distinct differences, containing apatite, tourmaline, garnet and zircon. The prominent increase of garnet suggests a metamorphic source. These similarities and variations among the three samples are also shown in other discrimination diagrams

  15. Detrital fingerprints of fossil continental-subduction zones (Axial Belt Provenance, European Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Andò, Sergio; Malusà, Marco G.; Padoan, Marta; Paparella, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Alpine-type collision orogens are generated by attempted subduction of thinned continental margins. Because of complex tectonic structure, orogenic detritus is characterized by a range of detrital signatures, making its recognition an arduous task (Dickinson and Suczek, 1979). Among the various orogenic sub-provenances, Axial Belt Provenance, derived from the erosion of the neometamorphic axial pile, can be regarded as the most typifying signature of collision orogens (Garzanti et al., 2007). In the Austroalpine Cretaceous and Penninic Eocene axial belts of the Alps, we ideally distinguish three structural levels, each characterized by diagnostic detrital fingerprints. The shallow level chiefly consists of offscraped remnant-ocean turbidites and unmetamorphosed continental-margin sediments, and mostly produces lithic to lithoquartzose sedimentaclastic sands yielding very-poor heavy-mineral suites including ultrastable minerals. The intermediate level includes low-grade metasediments and polymetamorphic basements, and sheds lithoquartzose to quartzolithofeldspathic metamorphiclastic sands yielding moderately-rich epidote- amphibole suites with chloritoid or garnet. The deep level contains eclogitic remnants of continent- ocean transitions, and supplies quartzofeldspathic to quartzolithic high-rank metamorphiclastic to lithic ultramaficlastic sands yielding rich to extremely-rich suites dominated by garnet, hornblende, or epidote depending on protoliths (continental vs. oceanic) and pressure/temperature paths followed during exhumation. Although widely overprinted under greenschist-facies or amphibolite-facies conditions, occurrence of ultradense eclogite in source areas is readily revealed by the Heavy Mineral Concentration (HMC) index, which mirrors the average density of source rocks in the absence of hydraulic-sorting effects (Garzanti and Andò 2007). The Metamorphic Index (MI, Garzanti and Vezzoli, 2003) and Hornblende Colour Index (HCI) reflect peak

  16. The suitability of the GERDyzer instrument in pH-test-proven laryngopharyngeal reflux patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Pin; Liang, Wen-Miin; Wang, Chen-Chi; Chang, Chi-Sen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lien, Han-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The use of validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for the treatment outcome measure of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is crucial given the lack of objective markers. However, current symptom-based PRO instruments can only partially capture the impact of LPR. The GERD Analyzer (GERDyzer), an existing disease-specific PRO instrument, which measures multidimensional health-related quality of life (HRQL) affected by the illness rather than by any specific symptoms, has been validated in patients with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration PRO guidance, we cross-culturally adapted the GERDyzer instrument into Chinese, and examined the qualitative and quantitative psychometric properties of the Chinese version GERDyzer in pH-test-proven LPR patients.The GERDyzer comprises 10 dimensions of HRQL, including general well-being, pain/discomfort, physical health, diet, energy, activities, leisure activities, social life, mood, and sleep. To examine the content validity, we recruited 26 pH-test-proven LPR participants to conduct 4 focus group meetings for direct patient input on clinical manifestations and HRQL impacts. We also tested the quantitative psychometric properties, including reliability, validity, and responsiveness in 100 pH-test-proven LPR patients.Saturation of concept elicitation was achieved from the 4 focus groups, and a strong conceptual match was evident between the GERDyzer contents and responses from the focus group participants. Cognitive debriefing assessment showed that the Chinese version GERDyzer was adequate for use by patients as it demonstrated linguistic validation and cultural harmonization. Quantitative psychometric properties showed evidence of high internal consistency (Cronbach α: 0.96), good to excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.84-0.98). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor structure. Convergent validity was confirmed by

  17. The suitability of the GERDyzer instrument in pH-test-proven laryngopharyngeal reflux patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Pin; Liang, Wen-Miin; Wang, Chen-Chi; Chang, Chi-Sen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lien, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for the treatment outcome measure of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is crucial given the lack of objective markers. However, current symptom-based PRO instruments can only partially capture the impact of LPR. The GERD Analyzer (GERDyzer), an existing disease-specific PRO instrument, which measures multidimensional health-related quality of life (HRQL) affected by the illness rather than by any specific symptoms, has been validated in patients with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration PRO guidance, we cross-culturally adapted the GERDyzer instrument into Chinese, and examined the qualitative and quantitative psychometric properties of the Chinese version GERDyzer in pH-test-proven LPR patients. The GERDyzer comprises 10 dimensions of HRQL, including general well-being, pain/discomfort, physical health, diet, energy, activities, leisure activities, social life, mood, and sleep. To examine the content validity, we recruited 26 pH-test-proven LPR participants to conduct 4 focus group meetings for direct patient input on clinical manifestations and HRQL impacts. We also tested the quantitative psychometric properties, including reliability, validity, and responsiveness in 100 pH-test-proven LPR patients. Saturation of concept elicitation was achieved from the 4 focus groups, and a strong conceptual match was evident between the GERDyzer contents and responses from the focus group participants. Cognitive debriefing assessment showed that the Chinese version GERDyzer was adequate for use by patients as it demonstrated linguistic validation and cultural harmonization. Quantitative psychometric properties showed evidence of high internal consistency (Cronbach α: 0.96), good to excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.84–0.98). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor structure. Convergent validity was

  18. Biopsy proven and biopsy negative temporal arteritis: differences in clinical spectrum at the onset of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Duhaut, P.; Pinede, L.; Bornet, H.; Demolombe-Rague, S.; Dumontet, C.; Ninet, J.; Loire, R.; Pasquier, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the clinical features of biopsy proven and negative biopsy temporal arteritis at the time of diagnosis and during a three year follow up.
METHODS—Newly diagnosed cases of giant cell arteritis were included in a prospective, multicentre study. Initial clinical and biological features, season of diagnosis, and cardiovascular events occurring during the follow up were recorded. Biopsy proven and negative biopsy cases were compared. 
RESULTS—Two hundred and seven biopsy proven, and 85 negative biopsy cases were included from 1991 to 1997. Fifty eight per cent of the biopsy proven cases, compared with 39.29% of the negative biopsy cases, were diagnosed during the autumn or winter (p = 0.003). Visual problems (31.5%, v 19.1%, p = 0.031), blindness (9.7% v 2.38%, p = 0.033), jaw claudication (40.8%, v 28.243%, p = 0.044), and temporal artery palpation abnormalities (61.3% v 29.5%, p = 7.10-7) were more frequent in the biopsy proven than in the negative biopsy group. Less specific symptoms, such as headache (82.5% v 92.9%, p = 0.021), or associated polymyalgia rheumatica (40.1% v 65.9%, p = 9 × 10-5) were more prevalent in the negative biopsy cases. Biological markers of inflammation were significantly more increased in the biopsy proven group. All cases of blindness occurring after treatment belonged to the biopsy proven group.
CONCLUSION—Biopsy proven cases seem to be more severe than biopsy negative cases at the time of diagnosis and during follow up. Seasonal difference at diagnosis may suggest a different aetiological pattern.

 PMID:10340957

  19. Responses to mild water deficit and rewatering differ among secondary metabolites but are similar among provenances within Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Adam B; Potts, Brad M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hovenden, Mark J; Davies, Noel W; McAdam, Scott A M; Ross, John J; Rodemann, Thomas; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit associated with drought can severely affect plants and influence ecological interactions involving plant secondary metabolites. We tested the effect of mild water deficit and rewatering on physiological, morphological and chemical traits of juvenile Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. We also tested if responses of juvenile eucalypts to water deficit and rewatering varied within species using provenances across a rainfall gradient. Both species and all provenances were similarly affected by mild water deficit and rewatering, as only foliar abscisic acid levels differed among provenances during water deficit. Across species and provenances, water deficit decreased leaf water potential, above-ground biomass and formylated phloroglucinol compound concentrations, and increased condensed tannin concentrations. Rewatering reduced leaf carbon : nitrogen, and total phenolic and chlorogenic acid concentrations. Water deficit and rewatering had no effect on total oil or individual terpene concentrations. Levels of trait plasticity due to water deficit and rewatering were less than levels of constitutive trait variation among provenances. The overall uniformity of responses to the treatments regardless of native provenance indicates limited diversification of plastic responses when compared with the larger quantitative variation of constitutive traits within these species. These responses to mild water deficit may differ from responses to more extreme water deficit or to responses of juvenile/mature eucalypts growing at each locality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Tawil Sandstone (Lower Devonian) in Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harbi, Omar A.; Khan, M. Mujtaba

    2008-07-01

    The Tawil Sandstone (Lower Devonian) in Central Saudi Arabia overlies the Sharwara Member of the Tayyarat Formation (Silurian) and succeeded conformly by the Shaiba Member of the Jauf Formation. Petrographical data reveal that the Tawil Sandstone comprises 96% quartz, 3% feldspar, and 1% rock fragments and all samples are classified as quartz arenites. The presence of well sorted, altered to fresh feldspar, and discriminate function analysis suggests that the sediments have been subjected to substartial reworking resulting in a high level of maturity. Modal analysis data (Q-F-L) suggest a stable cratonic provenance for the sediments and accumulation in a passive margin basin is indicated (binary plot of SiO 2 vs K 2O/Na 2O). Diagenetic features include dissolution of feldspar and rock fragments, compaction, reduction of the existing pore space through rearrangements, and rotation and fragmentation of grains resulting in dissolution of quartz grains and cementation.

  1. Giant cell (Temporal) arteritis with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: a biopsy-proven case in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng-Kuo; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Huang, Kai-Han; Wu, Tzu-En; Peng, Pai-Huei

    2010-07-01

    Giant cell arteritis with arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy has rarely been diagnosed in Taiwan. Recently, we encountered a 76-year-old Taiwanese patient who presented with right visual impairment and marked pale swelling of his right disc. He also suffered body weight loss, general malaise and many typical manifestations of giant cell arteritis, such as jaw claudication, a tender, non-pulsating engorgement of his temporal arteries, and a highly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level. Biopsy of his right superficial temporal artery revealed a granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cell infiltration. This was a biopsy-proven case of giant cell arteritis with arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and indicated that although rare, this disease could occur in patients in Taiwan. Copyright 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracking and Establishing Provenance of Earth Science Datasets: A NASA-Based Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Goldstein, Justin C.; Hua, Hook; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Information quality is of paramount importance to science. Accurate, scientifically vetted and statistically meaningful and, ideally, reproducible information engenders scientific trust and research opportunities. Not surprisingly, federal bodies (e.g., NASA, NOAA, USGS) have very strictly affirmed the importance of information quality in their product requirements. So-called Highly Influential Scientific Assessments (HISA) such as The Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) published in 2014 undergo a very rigorous review process to ensure transparency and credibility. To support the transparency of such reports, the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has developed the Global Change Information System (GCIS). A recent activity was performed to trace the provenance as completely as possible for all NCA3 figures that were predominantly based on NASA data. This poster presents the mechanics of that project and the lessons learned from that activity.

  3. Provenances of late Pliocene rare-metal-titanium placers in the Tamansky Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefranova, A. V.; Lalomov, A. V.

    2013-02-01

    The comprehensive mineralogical analysis of the Taman nearshore Ti-Zr placers and their provenances in the adjoining late Pliocene sedimentation basin is presented. Taking into account paleogeographic reconstructions and contemporary mineral potential of sediments in the Sea of Azov, a contribution of specific feeding sources of terrigenous minerals to the formation of the late Pliocene placers have been estimated. These sources are crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the Caucasus, the southern Russian Plate, and the southeastern Ukrainian Shield (listed in the order of their contribution). The Miocene placers of the Stavropol Arch and Adygea Prominence, as well as the Cretaceous and younger placers of the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Anteclise are suggested to be transitional reservoirs. Economic deposits are forecasted in the zone of paleostraits.

  4. Paleocurrent, petrography and provenance analyses of the Ajali Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), southeastern Benue Trough, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amajor, L. C.

    1987-09-01

    Paleocurrent, petrographic and heavy-mineral analyses of the Ajali Sandstone (Late Cretaceous) in southeastern Nigeria show that the sedimentary rocks on the Santonian Okigwe-Abakaliki anticlinorium provided the major detritus, whereas minor contributions of the eastern Precambrian basement block (Oban massif) are confined along a narrow belt southeast of Alayi in the Afikpo Basin. The sandstones derived from the major sedimentary source are quartz arenites characterized by a zircon-tourmaline heavy-mineral assemblage and a radial paleocurrent pattern which parallels the paleoslope of the provenance. On the other hand, those sands generated from the eastern basement block are arkose and sub-arkose dominated by a garnet-apatite-rutile heavy-mineral assemblage and southwesterly directed paleocurrent modes. The results of this study support the previous hypothesis that most ancient quartz arenites are multicycle in origin.

  5. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance

    PubMed Central

    Licht, A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Abels, H. A.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Z.; Abell, J.; Giesler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42–33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat. PMID:27488503

  6. Proteotyping of Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) provenances through proteomic analysis of acorn flour.

    PubMed

    Galván, José Valero; Fernández, Raquel González; Valledor, Luis; Cerrillo, Rafael Ma Navarro; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics has become a powerful tool to characterize biodiversity and natural variability in plant species, as well as to catalogue and establish phylogenetic relationships and distances among populations, provenances or ecotypes. In this chapter, we describe the standard proteomics workflow that we currently use in cataloguing Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) populations. Proteins are extracted from acorn flour or pollen by TCA/acetone or TCA/acetone-phenol methods, resolved by one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and gel images are captured and analyzed by appropriate software and statistical packages. Quantitative or qualitative variable bands or spots are subjected to MS analysis in order to identify them and correlate differences in the protein profile with the phenotypes or environmental conditions.

  7. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  8. Close or not so close? Provenance studies of megalithic monuments from Alentejo (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaventura, R.; Moita, P.

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant amount of studies about megalithic tombs conducted in the Alentejo region. However the geological provenance of monoliths used in the construction of those tombs usually was not a priority among researchers with rare exceptions (Dehn, Kalb and Vortisch, 1991; Boaventura, 2000). Recent studies of dolmens (Oliveira, 1997 and 2006; Gonçalves, 2003) refer only to a brief characterization of rocks, such as "granite or schist slabs", highlighting certain types if the geological stratum is identical or not to the stone blocks. On the other hand, when the type of raw material appears to be similar with the bedrock, it is common and empirically assumed its local provenance. With the aim of testing and expand the knowledge about the provenance of the slabs used in the construction of megalithic tombs, several lithic samples from dolmen slabs and outcrops in their surroundings were collected for analysis and comparison. The samples were characterized by petrographic studies in thin section as well with a geochemical analyses performed by XRF that gives major elements as well some trace elements. The dolmens tested for this project are located roughly between the northeast to west of the town of Monforte (Upper region of Alentejo, Portugal) and are named, from south to north, as Serrinha, Rabuje group (1 to 5), Geodésico de Besteiros 3 and Velho. The field work and petrographic studies revealed that the slabs are constituted mainly by several types of granitoids (gnaissic, red, white, tonalitic), amphibolites and mottled schist shale. The comparison of chemical analyses between slabs and selected outcrops revealed that the provenances are in most of the cases from the nearby geological stratum. In fact, major elements (e.g. MgO, SiO2, CaO) as well trace elements (e.g. Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) compositions are similar on slab samples and in rocks from the outcrops. If in terms of major elements a similarity was already expectable, or easier to obtain, the

  9. Isolation and characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf (Khorramshahr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Zeynalipour, Mohammad Saleh; Musa, Farzaneh Hosseinzadeh

    2014-05-15

    Fifteen crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from oil contaminated sites in the Persian Gulf at Khorramshahr provenance. These bacteria were screened with two important factors such as growth rate on crude oil and hydrocarbon biodegradation, and then three strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for further study. One strain (PG-Z) that show the best crude oil biodegradation was selected between all isolates. Nucleotides sequencing of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that strain PG-Z belong to Corynebacterium variabile genus. This strain was efficient in degrading of crude oil. This strain was capable to degraded 82% of crude-oil after one week incubation in ONR7a medium. The PG-Z strain had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production between all isolates. GC-MS analysis shows that C. variabile strain PG-Z can degrade different alkanes in crude oil.

  10. Gold Provenance Studies for Romanian Archaeological Objects Using Micro-SR-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilescu, Angela; Constantinescu, Bogdan; Bugoi, Roxana; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Simon, Rolf

    2010-04-06

    Studies by Synchrotron Radiation--X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF) for the search of the presence of trace elements like Sb, Sn, Te and Pb in archaeological metallic objects found on the territory of Romania--old coins and Bronze Age jewelry, aimed to determine the provenance of the gold used in their manufacture. The results are compared with the detailed elemental composition of alluvial or primary gold samples, obtained by the same technique. This work attempted to establish the origin of the gold used for the mint of two different types of koson coins. We found that the kosons with monogram are made of refined gold, while the one used for the kosons without monogram is mainly alluvial. The gold used in the manufacture of the Calarasi Vulchitrun-type disk and the Tauteu hair ring is also of alluvial origin.

  11. The natural history of Unverricht-Lundborg disease: a report of eight genetically proven cases.

    PubMed

    Chew, Nee K; Mir, Pablo; Edwards, Mark J; Cordivari, Carla; Martino, Davide; Schneider, Susanne A; Kim, Hee-Tae; Quinn, Niall P; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2008-01-01

    We report eight cases of genetically proven ULD, with the aim of reassessing the clinical characteristics and natural history of ULD in genetically characterized patients. The eight patients had their first symptoms at mean age of 10.6 years (range: 6-14 years). The main clinical features were action myoclonus, cerebellar ataxia, seizures, and mild intellectual dysfunction. We report three new clinical features of ULD; ocular motor apraxia, dystonia, and rapidly progressive dementia. All patients needed a combination of at least four antimyoclonic drugs, but despite this, all patients were severely disabled by their action myoclonus. After a mean duration of disease of 29.9 years (range: 21-37 years), four patients were walking with aids while another four were wheelchair bound. The clinical phenotypes associated with ULD are more diverse than previously recognized and even though the long term functional outcome and survival have improved, the overall efficacy of antimyoclonic drugs remains unsatisfactory.

  12. Evaluating Rifean Corridor Closure using Detrital Zircon Sediment Provenance of the Taza-Guercif Basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, J. R.; Barbeau, D. L.; Emran, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the late Miocene, the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean was tectonically severed leading to severe evaporative draw down of Mediterranean sea level such that the entire basin was desiccated or near desiccated in an event from ~5.96-5.33 Ma known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The MSC sequestered 6% of global ocean salinity into evaporite deposits, created a deep, dry and hot basin that altered global atmospheric circulation, opened passageways for mammal migration between Europe, Africa and Arabia and ended in the largest flood observed in the geologic record. The combined effects of the Messinian Salinity Crisis make it the most important oceanic event in the last 20 million years, yet despite the dramatic ramifications of the MSC, the exact nature of its cause has remained both elusive and controversial. By examining the sedimentary provenance of Rifean Corridor, this research evaluates the progression of corridor closure and the tectonic context of the initiation of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The difficulty in evaluating the progression of closure is due to the tectonic complexity of the Africa-Eurasia convergent plate boundary in north-central Morocco. The shortening associated with the tectonic convergence is accommodated by two genetically and tectonically distinct orogenic systems, the Rif and Atlas mountain belts, which lie in juxtaposition to the slab-rollback dominated Alboran Sea. The basins of the Rifean corridor lie between these two orogens and as such shortening and uplift associated with either or both ranges could be the cause of the corridor closure. Several hypotheses have been posited for the tectonic controls on basin emergence including slab-rollback related delamination on the Alboran margin, domal uplift of the Middle Atlas as well as a more traditional propagation of the Rifean orogenic wedge. This research provides the first quantitative provenance data for the Taza-Guercif basin in the form of LA

  13. Absolute age Determinations on Diamond by Radioisotopic Methods: NOT the way to Accurately Identify Diamond Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.

    2002-05-01

    Gem-quality diamond contains such low abundances of parent-daughter radionuclides that dating the diamond lattice directly by isotopic measurements has been and will be impossible. Absolute ages on diamonds typically are obtained through measurements of their syngenetic mineral inclusions: Rb-Sr in garnet; Sm-Nd in garnet and pyroxene; Re-Os and U-Th-Pb in sulfide; K-Ar in pyroxene; and U-Pb in zircon. The application of the first two isotope schemes in the list requires putting together many inclusions from many diamonds whereas the latter isotope schemes permit ages on single diamonds. The key limitations on the application of these decay pairs are the availability and size of the inclusions, the abundance levels of the radionuclides, and instrumental sensitivity. Practical complications of radioisotope dating of inclusions are fatal to the application of the technique for diamond provenance. In all mines, the ratio of gem-quality diamonds to stones with datable inclusions is very high. Thus there is no way to date the valuable, marketable stones that are part of the conflict diamond problem, just their rare, flawed cousins. Each analysis destroys the diamond host plus the inclusion and can only be carried out in research labs by highly trained scientists. Thus, these methods can not be automated or applied to the bulk of diamond production. The geological problems with age dating are equally fatal to its application to diamond provenance. From the geological perspective, for age determination to work as a tool for diamond provenance studies, diamond ages would have to be specific to particular kimberlites or kimberlite fields and different between fields. The southern African Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Mobile Belt is the only cratonic region where age determinations have been applied on a large enough scale to a number of kimberlites to illustrate the geological problems in age measurements for diamond provenance. However, this southern African example

  14. Gold Provenance Studies for Romanian Archaeological Objects Using Micro-SR-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilescu, Angela; Constantinescu, Bogdan; Bugoi, Roxana; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Simon, Rolf

    2010-04-01

    Studies by Synchrotron Radiation—X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF) for the search of the presence of trace elements like Sb, Sn, Te and Pb in archaeological metallic objects found on the territory of Romania—old coins and Bronze Age jewelry, aimed to determine the provenance of the gold used in their manufacture. The results are compared with the detailed elemental composition of alluvial or primary gold samples, obtained by the same technique. This work attempted to establish the origin of the gold used for the mint of two different types of koson coins. We found that the kosons with monogram are made of refined gold, while the one used for the kosons without monogram is mainly alluvial. The gold used in the manufacture of the Calarasi Vulchitrun-type disk and the Tauteu hair ring is also of alluvial origin.

  15. Cheminformatics and the Semantic Web: adding value with linked data and enhanced provenance

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Jeremy G; Bird, Colin L

    2013-01-01

    Cheminformatics is evolving from being a field of study associated primarily with drug discovery into a discipline that embraces the distribution, management, access, and sharing of chemical data. The relationship with the related subject of bioinformatics is becoming stronger and better defined, owing to the influence of Semantic Web technologies, which enable researchers to integrate heterogeneous sources of chemical, biochemical, biological, and medical information. These developments depend on a range of factors: the principles of chemical identifiers and their role in relationships between chemical and biological entities; the importance of preserving provenance and properly curated metadata; and an understanding of the contribution that the Semantic Web can make at all stages of the research lifecycle. The movements toward open access, open source, and open collaboration all contribute to progress toward the goals of integration. PMID:24432050

  16. Proven, long-life hydrogen/oxygen thrust chambers for space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. Paul; Price, Harold G.

    1986-01-01

    A 25 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen thruster has been developed and proven as a viable candidate to meet the needs of the Space Station Program. Likewise, a 50 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber has been developed and has demonstrated reliable, long-life expectancy at anticipated Space Station operating conditions. Both these thrust chambers were based on design criteria developed in previous thruster programs. Extensive thermal analysis and models were used to design the thrusters to achieve total impulse goals of 2 million lb sub f sec. Test data from each thruster are compared to the analytical predictions for the performance and heat transfer characteristics. Also, the results of thrust chamber life verification tests are presented.

  17. Scale models: A proven cost-effective tool for outage planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1995-03-01

    As generation costs for operating nuclear stations have risen, more nuclear utilities have initiated efforts to improve cost effectiveness. Nuclear plant owners are also being challenged with lower radiation exposure limits and new revised radiation protection related regulations (10 CFR 20), which places further stress on their budgets. As source term reduction activities continue to lower radiation fields, reducing the amount of time spent in radiation fields becomes one of the most cost-effective ways of reducing radiation exposure. An effective approach for minimizing time spent in radiation areas is to use a physical scale model for worker orientation planning and monitoring maintenance, modifications, and outage activities. To meet the challenge of continued reduction in the annual cumulative radiation exposures, new cost-effective tools are required. One field-tested and proven tool is the physical scale model.

  18. ILP, the Blind, and the Elephant: Euclidean Embedding of Co-proven Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hannes; Kersting, Kristian; Karwath, Andreas

    Relational data is complex. This complexity makes one of the basic steps of ILP difficult: understanding the data and results. If the user cannot easily understand it, he draws incomplete conclusions. The situation is very much as in the parable of the blind men and the elephant that appears in many cultures. In this tale the blind work independently and with quite different pieces of information, thereby drawing very different conclusions about the nature of the beast. In contrast, visual representations make it easy to shift from one perspective to another while exploring and analyzing data. This paper describes a method for embedding interpretations and queries into a single, common Euclidean space based on their co-proven statistics. We demonstrate our method on real-world datasets showing that ILP results can indeed be captured at a glance.

  19. Etiologic spectrum of biopsy-proven peripheral neuropathies in childhood from a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Pramod; Mahadevan, Anita; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Taly, Arun B

    2015-05-01

    There are only a few studies describing the etiologic spectrum of biopsy-proven peripheral neuropathies in children. This study reviewed the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathologic profile of 239 children (≤18 years of age) who have undergone nerve biopsy in a tertiary care centre for neurologic disorders and analyzed the etiologic spectrum and utility of nerve biopsy. The clinical profile, neuropathologic findings, and other investigations were combined to infer the final diagnosis. Neuropathy was detected in 199 biopsies; axonal pathology in 43%; demyelination in 41%; mixed pattern in 8%; and nonspecific findings in 8%. The major diagnostic categories included hereditary neuropathies (48%), heredodegenerative and metabolic disorders (27%), and inflammatory neuropathies (12%). Nerve biopsy proved most helpful in diagnosis of demyelinating and inflammatory neuropathies, reiterating its usefulness in specific situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. An Approach to Evaluate Scientist Support in Abstract Workflows and Provenance Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Salayandia, Leonardo; Gates, Ann Q.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02

    Abstract workflows are useful to bridge the gap between scientists and technologists towards using computer systems to carry out scientific processes. Provenance traces provide evidence required to validate results and support their reuse. Assuming both technologies are based on formal semantics, a knowledge-based system that consistently merges both technologies is useful for scientists that produce data to document their data collecting and transformation processes; it is also useful for scientists that reuse data to assess scientific processes and resulting datasets produced by others. While evaluation of each technology is necessary for a given application, this work discusses their combined evaluation. The claim is that both technologies should complement each other and align consistently to a scientist’s perspective in order to be effective for science. Evaluation criteria are proposed based on lessons learned and exemplified for discussion.

  1. Distribution and provenance of lunar highland rock types at North Ray Crater, Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Ostertag, R.; Borchardt, R.; Malley, J.; Rehfeldt, A.; Reimold, W. U.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with its selenographic setting in the central lunar highlands, the Apollo 16 landing site in the Descartes area is highly important as a prime sampling area for rocks which formed as part of the primordial crust and as a key location for the analysis of the deformation and transport of crustal material by impact processes. The present investigation is concerned with the North Ray crater, which is located on the N-S running boundary between the smooth Cayley plains to the west and the Descartes mountains to the east. Attention is given to aspects of selenography and location of samples, the ejecta distribution of post-Cayley impact craters, sample classification, the frequency distribution of rock types in the North Ray Crater ejecta, an interpretation of compositional and age data, a model of the target stratigraphy and excavation of North Ray Crater, and implications for the emplacement and provenance of North Ray target rocks.

  2. Correlations between histopathological findings and clinical manifestations in biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Francesco; Boiardi, Luigi; Cavazza, Alberto; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Pipitone, Nicolò; Restuccia, Giovanna; Bellafiore, Salvatore; Cimino, Luca; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    To correlate histopathological features of positive temporal artery biopsy (TAB) and clinical manifestations of the disease in a large single-center population-based cohort of patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA). A pathologist with expertise in vasculitis and blinded to clinical data and final diagnosis reviewed all TABs performed for suspected GCA at our hospital between January 1986 and December 2013. Histopathologic features evaluated were: the severity of inflammation and intimal hyperplasia, both graded on a semiquantitative scale (mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3), the presence of intraluminal acute thrombosis, calcifications, giant cells, fibrinoid necrosis and laminar necrosis. 274 patients had a final diagnosis of biopsy-proven GCA and were included in the study. Cranial ischemic events (CIEs) were observed in 161 (58.8%), visual manifestations in 79 (28.8%) and permanent (partial or complete) visual loss in 51 (18.6%) patients. Predictors for the development of CIEs were older age (OR = 1.057, 95% CI 1.019-1.097, p = 0.003), lower ESR values (OR = 0.990, 95% CI 0.981-0.999, p = 0.026) as well as the presence of giant cells (OR = 1.848, 95% CI 1.045-3.269, p = 0.035) and laminar necrosis at TAB (OR = 2.334, 95% CI 1.187-4.587, p = 0.014). Predictors for the development of permanent visual loss were lower CRP values (OR = 0.906, 95% CI 0.827-0.992, p = 0.033) and the presence of calcifications at TAB (OR = 3.672, 95% CI 1.479-9.121, p = 0.005). Fibrinoid necrosis was not observed in any of the TABs evaluated. Pathological features of TAB may predict some manifestations of GCA. These findings may have implications for patients' management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are Local Filters Blind to Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More than Natives

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Dean E.; Icasatti, Nadia S.; Hierro, Jose L.; Bird, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species’ origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species’ traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species’ origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant species in central Argentina. Ant seed predation proved to be an important local filter that strongly suppressed plant recruitment, but ants suppressed exotic recruitment far more than natives (89% of exotic species vs. 22% of natives). Seed size predicted ant impacts on recruitment independent of origins, with ant preference for smaller seeds resulting in smaller seeded plant species being heavily suppressed. The disproportionate effects of provenance arose because exotics had generally smaller seeds than natives. Exotics also exhibited greater emergence and earlier peak emergence than natives in the absence of ants. However, when ants had access to seeds, these potential advantages of exotics were negated due to the filtering bias against exotics. The differences in traits we observed between exotics and natives suggest that higher-order introduction filters or regional processes preselected for certain exotic traits that then interacted with the local seed predation filter. Our results suggest that the interactions between local filters and species traits can predict invasion outcomes, but understanding the role of provenance will require quantifying filtering processes at multiple hierarchical scales and evaluating interactions between filters. PMID:25099535

  4. Isotopic and magnetic provenance characterization of distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Galicia Interior Basin in NW Iberia Margin are of particular palaeoclimatic interest as they are located at the boundary where the climatic oscillations of the glacial interval were interrupted by extreme events such as Heinrich events. These events are well characterized in Northern North Atlantic areas, but little is known about their occurrence beyond the Ruddiman belt. This study presents a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal ice-rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred during the last glacial period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin. The last six Heinrich Layers were identified by their magneto-mineralogical and geochemical properties. Their Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicated that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the major source for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. However, the European ice sheets also influenced the initial development stages of HL1, HL2, HL4. HL3, HL6 and partially HL1, HL2 and HL4 were influenced by more juvenile provinces, such as Iceland/Faroes sheets and/or by the Fram Strait/East Greenland nearby areas. Separate provenance analyses of the coarse and fine fractions in the studied Heinrich Layers also indicated that IRDs and glacial flour sources might not always be the same. Our results shed unequivocal evidence that Canadian-sourced distal IRD are preceded by European-sourced IRD, at least from the H4. In our view, LIS and EIS instabilities registered in the Iberian Margin respond to the same climate forcing at different velocities.

  5. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  6. Petrology and provenance of Upper Cretaceous Sandstone, southern San Rafael Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Toyne, C.D.

    1987-05-01

    Petrologic analysis of 24 medium to coarse-grained sandstone samples, collected from a 2950-m submarine fan complex of late Campanian-early Maestrichtian age exposed within Mono Creek Canyon, reveal commonly calcite cemented, poorly sorted, subangular biotic arkoses. Framework averages 86.0%. Matrix - primarily detrital quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments finer than 0.03 mm and mechanically and chemically altered phyllosilicates and labile aphanites - averages 8.9%. Calcite cement averages 4.2%. Porosity averages 0.9%. Gazzi-Dickinson point counts of 400 framework grains per slide yield modal averages of Q/sub 37.7/ F/sub 49.8/ L/sub 12.5/; Qm/sub 27.4/ F/sub 49.8/ Lt/sub 22.8/; Qm/sub 35.6/ P/sub 43.7/ K/sub 20.7/; and Qp/sub 49.4/ Lv/sub 22.1/ Ls/sub 28.5/. P/F averages 0.68, Lv/L averages 0.45, Qp/Q averages 0.27, and detrital phyllosilicate, predominantly biotite, averages 5.7% of total framework. Neither primary nor secondary parameters vary systematically with stratigraphic position. Miscellaneous constituents average 1.3% of framework and include epidote, garnet, amphibole, pyroxene, zircon, and tourmaline as well as carbonaceous blebs, opaque minerals, and unidentifiable lithic fragments. Separate analysis of 100 medium sized quartz grains per slide indicates a mean population of 63.0% non-undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 9.1% undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 10.1% polycrystalline quartz of 2 to 3 crystals, and 17.9% polycrystalline quartz composed of more than 3 crystals. Modal data, plotted upon provenance discrimination diagrams, indicate a plutonic provenance transitional between a dissected magmatic arc and uplifted basement terrane. Paleocurrent data, neglecting possible clockwise rotation, indicate sediment transport from the north.

  7. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  8. Provenance record of Paleogene exhumation and Laramide basin evolution along the southern Rocky Mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, M. A.; Horton, B. K.; Murphy, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Sangre de Cristo and Nacimiento uplifts of the southern Rocky Mountains formed key parts of a major Paleogene topographic boundary separating the Cordilleran orogenic system from the North American plate interior. This barrier largely isolated interior Laramide basins from a broad Laramide foreland with fluvial systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, and thereby played a critical role in the evolution of continental-scale paleodrainage patterns. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance analyses of Cretaceous-Paleogene siliciclastic strata in the Raton, Galisteo-El Rito, and San Juan basins record the partitioning of the broad Cordilleran (Sevier) foreland basin by Laramide basement uplifts. These trends are recognized both in provenance signals and depositional styles corresponding to cratonward (eastward) propagation of the Laramide deformation front and resultant advance of flexural depocenters in the North American interior. Along the eastern flank of the deformation front, the Raton basin shows a mix of Cordilleran, Appalachian, and Grenville age zircons restricted to the Cretaceous Dakota and Vermejo formations, marine units of the Western Interior Seaway. Upsection, the Cordilleran age peaks are absent from Paleocene-Eocene units, consistent with significant Laramide drainage reorganization and isolation from Cordilleran sources to the west. In the Galisteo-El Rito basin system, a shift to dominantly Mazatzal-Yavapai basement ages is recognized in the Paleocene El Rito and Oligocene Ritito formations. The heavy mineral results show a corresponding shift to less mature, dominantly metamorphic source compositions. These new datasets bear upon Cretaceous-Cenozoic reconstructions of North American paleodrainage and have implications for potential linkages between major fluvial systems of the southern Rocky Mountains and Paleogene deepwater reservoir units in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

  9. Provenance study of the Yellow Sea sediment: geochemical evidence from Chinese and Korean rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Li, C. X.; Lee, C. B.; Jung, H. S.

    2003-04-01

    The Yellow Sea is a world-famous epicontinental sea, semi-enclosed by landmass of China and Korea. It has held great fascination for marine geologists by offering itself as a world-class laboratory in which to study the interplay among sea-level change, terrigeneous sediment input, and hydrology for the typical epicontinental sea. Although the Yellow Sea sediment has been extensively characterized for the understanding of dispersal patterns and limits of terrestrial sediments from two gigantic rivers from China, Changjiang and Huanghe, and from several small Korean rivers (Han, Keum and Yeongsan), the intractable source problem remains unsolved so far because of poor knowledge on compositions of the Chinese and Korean river sediments and instability of source indicators for discrimination. Compositions of major, trace and rare earth elements in bulk and acid-leached sediments of Chinese and Korean rivers were measured by ICP-MS and compared, in order to characterize different source sediments. Source rock composition and chemical weathering intensity are two most important factors constraining distinct elemental compositions of river sediments, whereas grain size effect and human impact are minor. On the basis of element mobility and difference in compositions, chemical parameters, including Ti content, (La/Yb)N, GdN, ratios of Ti/Nb and Cr/Th, are suggested as source indicators to discriminate Changjiang and Huanghe sediments from Korean river matters. These source indicators, therefore, create the opportunity to decipher the provenance of the Yellow Sea sediment. Surface sediment samples from the Yellow Sea were determined for elemental compositions, and the provenance was identified by a discrimination model on the basis of the above geochemical indicators. The Huanghe river matter governs major part of the Yellow Sea, while the Changjiang and Korean river sediments contribute considerably to the southern and eastern parts of the Yellow Sea, respectively. The

  10. Incidence and Visual Outcomes of Culture-Proven Endophthalmitis Following Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant.

    PubMed

    Stem, Maxwell S; Todorich, Bozho; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Capone, Antonio; Williams, George A; Ruby, Alan J

    2017-04-01

    The rate of endophthalmitis following dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX) has varied in large clinical trials. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the optimal management of eyes with endophthalmitis associated with DEX has not been established. To report the incidence of culture-proven endophthalmitis in a single vitreoretinal practice over the course of 3 years and describe the clinical outcomes associated with each case of endophthalmitis. All patients who received DEX between January 14, 2013, and August 31, 2016, were included in this retrospective single-center case series at a private vitreoretinal practice. The patients were identified during a search of the billing records over the period of interest. Cases of endophthalmitis associated with DEX were also identified. Treatment with DEX. Development of endophthalmitis following DEX and the clinical management and outcomes of each case of endophthalmitis. Of the 1051 participants who collectively received 3593 injections of DEX, 4 patients developed endophthalmitis; all 4 patients were white, female, and 60 years or older (mean [SD] age, 75.6 [13] years). Two patients had culture-proven bacterial endophthalmitis after DEX monoinjections (0.06% of injections and 0.2% of patients). Three other cases of endophthalmitis developed after coinjection with bevacizumab (aggregate rate: 0.14% of injections and 0.38% of patients), of which 2 were culture positive. One patient developed endophthalmitis on 2 separate occasions. Vitrectomy was performed in 2 patients, and in 1 of these patients, the implant was removed. All 4 patients were treated with injection of intravitreous vancomycin and ceftazidime. These data suggest that endophthalmitis is a rare event following injection of DEX. However, given the rarity of endophthalmitis following DEX and the heterogeneity among our reported cases, it remains unclear whether the DEX endophthalmitis rate approximates that of intravitreous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  11. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur sandstones, Chattisgarh basin: A petrographic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Basudeb

    2005-06-01

    Sandstones of early Neoproterozoic Chandarpur Group, Chattisgarh Supergroup, central India display progressive change towards greater textural and mineralogical maturity from base to top of the succession. The clay-silt matrix decreases, sorting of sand grains improves, frequency of rounded grains increases, monocrystalline quartz content increases with concomitant decrease in polycrystalline quartz, feldspar and rock fragments. The trend of variations in different mineralogical and textural attributes, however, exhibits inflections at different stratigraphic levels. The sandstones of the basal Lohardih Formation are alluvial fan deposits, characterized by high matrix and feldspar content, iron-oxide impregnated highly angular grains and poor sorting. Petrographic properties collectively indicate that the sandstones were derived from a weathered granitic crust under a humid climatic condition. Abundance of well rounded grains within the alluvial fan and overlying braided fluvial deposit indicates prolonged wind action during episodes of high aridity. The shallow marine deposit overlying the fluvial deposits in the upper part of the Lohardih Formation exhibits bed-to-bed variation in the frequency of angular grains, feldspar content and overall maturity suggesting environmentally controlled segregation of sediments. The abrupt appearance of coarse-grained immature sandstones with concomitant reappearance of iron-oxide impregnated/altered feldspar grains in the upper part of the shelf deposits of the Chaporadih Formation point to a phase of tectonic uplift that possibly triggered a regression. Continued regression and peneplanation heralded the deposition of supermature medium-grained purple quartzarenite of the upper shoreface Kansapathar Formation in the uppermost part of the Chandarpur succession under a hot desertic climatic condition. The provenance analysis revealed that the Chandarpur clastics were derived from granites and granite-gneisses of a continental

  12. The use of trace elements to determine provenance relations among different types of Georgia kaolins

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates the proposition that different types of commercial kaolin district were derived from different source rocks. This analysis was made by comparing the cobalt, lanthanum, scandium and thorium concentrations of commercial kaolins to in situ kaolins derived from igneous and metamorphic rocks of the southeastern Piedmont provence. These elements are effective provenance indicators of fine grained sedimentary rocks because acidic (i.e., felsic) source rocks contain high levels of thorium and lanthanum; whereas, basic (i.e., basic) source rocks contain high levels of scandium and cobalt. Also, these elements are relatively immobile under surface weathering conditions. The -2 micrometer fraction of in situ kaolins derived from granite and gneiss adjacent to the kaolin belt contains relatively high concentrations of thorium (25.5-86.6 ppm) and lanthanum (46.0-256 ppm) and low concentrations of cobalt (7.5-25.2 ppm) and scandium (13.8-28.3 ppm). In contrast, in situ kaolins derived from intermediate metavolcanic rocks contain relatively low abundances of thorium (5.6-20.7 ppm) and lanthanum (17.5-122 ppm) and high concentrations of cobalt (18.6-55.5 ppm) and scandium (13.8-48.9 ppm). After consideration of factors that cause chemical fractionation of trace elements in low temperature environments the following provenance relationships are indicated: (1) the Cretaceous (soft) kaolins of Middle Georgia and South Carolina are derived from granite and gneiss, (2) the east Georgia and South Carolina Tertiary (hard) kaolins are derived from a mixture of approximately 70% metavolcanic rocks and 30% granite/gneiss source rocks, and (3) the Middle Georgia tertiary (hard) kaolins are derived from predominantly metavolcanic source rocks with distinct zones dominated by detritus from granite/gneiss sources. The differences in source material are controlled by the availability of source material exposed to alteration and erosion during the different time periods.

  13. Biopsy-Proven BK Virus-Associated Nephropathy: Clinico-Pathologic Correlations.

    PubMed

    Jahdali, Sarah; Al Oudah, Noura; Alsaad, Khaled O; Kfoury, Hala; Qurashi, Salem; Al Sayyari, Abdulla

    2017-06-01

    Our objective was to study the clinico-pathologic correlations in BK virus nephropathy. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with biopsy-proven polyoma (BK) virus infection. We compared their survival and renal outcomes versus BK virus-negative patients with biopsy-proven graft rejection. Histopathologic characterization by a blinded nephropathologist was performed. BK nephropathy was found in 10 patients biopsied for graft dysfunction. All virus-positive patients received antithymocyte globulin induction therapy compared with only 59.3% of the BK-negative group (P = .06). The percentage of patients in the BK-negative group who received acyclovir was significantly higher than that in the BK-positive group (P = .01). After a mean observation period of 6.8 ± 3.2 years, 70% of the BK group had functioning grafts compared with 68% in the BK-negative group (P = .9) with similar 3-year graft survival in the 2 groups (80% and 90%; P = .8). Within the BK group, graft survival was better in the older group (P = .005) and in those with deceased donor kidney grafts (P = .016). Patients in the BK-negative group were heavier (mean weight of 64.3 ± 12.1 vs 46.7 ± 20.6 kg; P = .003). None of the histopathologic features studied had any effect on renal prognosis. The risk factors for developing BK nephropathy were use of antithymocyte globulin, lower weight, and not using acyclovir as early prophylaxis. Within the BK nephropathy group, better graft survival was observed in deceased donor kidney recipients and in older patients. The viral load and polyoma virus nephropathy stage did not affect graft survival in this small sample study.

  14. Detrital zircon provenance of the Paleogene syn-rift sediments in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Pang, Xiong; Jiang, Tao; Qiao, Peijun; Zhao, Meng

    2016-02-01

    The early rift sedimentation history of the South China Sea is still not well understood due to restricted borehole coverage of the Paleogene strata and lack of reliable stratigraphic dating. We use detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to explore the source-to-sink characteristics of syn-rift sequences in the northern South China Sea. The results reveal significant intrabasinal provenances in addition to the well-perceived terrigenous supply from the north. The Dongsha Uplift is considered to account for the dominance of the Early Cretaceous zircons in the Eocene samples. The Lower Oligocene sediments in the Qiongdongnan Basin could have been sourced from Hainan Island and local uplifts, but their distinction cannot be confirmed by the U-Pb age spectra. Contemporary sediments in the northern Pearl River Mouth Basin were most likely transported from southeastern South China with well-rounded zircon grains showing U-Pb age similarity to those from the northeastern tributaries of the Pearl River. By contrast, intrabasinal sources from the west and east are suggested to have contributed the infill of the southern part of the Pearl River Mouth Basin based on generally euhedral zircon shapes. These sedimentary source patterns appear to change very little in the Oligocene northern South China Sea. However, the newly detected Neoproterozoic zircons in the Upper Oligocene sediments from borehole L21 tend to indicate a southern source. The episodic and diachronic nature of rifting and erosion processes in the early South China Sea is the cause of complex patterns in the Paleogene provenance history.

  15. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  16. Exploring the temporal change in provenance encoded in the late Quaternary deposits of the Ganga Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Shailesh; Sanyal, Prasanta; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Dash, Jitendra K.

    2013-07-01

    Temporal analysis of Sr isotopes in soil carbonates and Sr and Nd isotopes in silicate fractions has been carried out in a sedimentary core (Kalpi core; 50 m long) raised from the southern bank of the Yamuna river, Ganga Plain, India. The aim of the study is to constrain sediment provenance through comparison with the modern Himalayan and peninsular river systems' water and bank sediments. Sr isotopic data in soil carbonates (0.71874 to 0.71410) and Srsbnd Nd isotopic data in silicate (0.72865 to 0.74544 and - 13.9 to - 17.2, respectively) vary significantly with depth and are indicative of both Himalayan and peninsular sources for sediments in the southern Ganga Plain. The positive correlation between 87Sr/86Sr ratio and 1/Sr in soil carbonate and the negative correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd in silicate confirm mixing of sediments from these sources. Variations of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in soil carbonates show that at ~ 80 and 45 ka the Himalaya acted as the major source of sediments in the southern part of the Ganga Plain. The gradual decrease in 87Sr/86Sr ratios after 80 and 45 ka indicates change in source to peninsular India which is also supported by limited Sr and Nd isotope data in silicates. The change in sediment provenance corresponds well with the available climatic record and is suggestive of strong climatic control in sediment supply with high supply from the Himalaya during the interglacial period and peninsular sediments during glacial period.

  17. Provenance effect on carbon assimilation, photochemistry and leaf morphology in Mediterranean Cistus species under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Puglielli, G; Cuevas Román, F J; Catoni, R; Moreno Rojas, J M; Gratani, L; Varone, L

    2017-07-01

    The potential resilience of shrub species to environmental change deserves attention in those areas threatened by climate change, such as the Mediterranean Basin. We asked if leaves produced under different climate conditions through the winter season to spring can highlight the leaf traits involved in determining potential resilience of three Cistus spp. to changing environmental conditions and to what extent intraspecific differences affect such a response. We analysed carbon assimilation, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv /Fm ) and leaf morphological control of the photosynthetic process in leaves formed through the winter season into spring in C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus (CE), C. salvifolius (CS) and C. monspeliensis (CM) grown from seed of different provenances under common garden conditions. Intraspecific differences were found in Fv /Fm for CE and CS. Carbon assimilation-related parameters were not affected by provenance. Moreover, our analysis highlighted that the functional relationships investigated can follow seasonal changes and revealed patterns originating from species-specific differences in LMA arising during the favourable period. Cistus spp. have great ability to modify the structure and function of their leaves in the mid-term in order to cope with changing environmental conditions. The Fv /Fm response to chilling reveals that susceptibility to photoinhibition is a trait under selection in Cistus species. Concerning carbon assimilation, differing ability to control stomatal opening was highlighted between species. Moreover, seasonal changes of the functional relationships investigated can have predictable consequences on species leaf turnover strategies. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Are local filters blind to provenance? Ant seed predation suppresses exotic plants more than natives.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Icasatti, Nadia S; Hierro, Jose L; Bird, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species' origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species' traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species' origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant species in central Argentina. Ant seed predation proved to be an important local filter that strongly suppressed plant recruitment, but ants suppressed exotic recruitment far more than natives (89% of exotic species vs. 22% of natives). Seed size predicted ant impacts on recruitment independent of origins, with ant preference for smaller seeds resulting in smaller seeded plant species being heavily suppressed. The disproportionate effects of provenance arose because exotics had generally smaller seeds than natives. Exotics also exhibited greater emergence and earlier peak emergence than natives in the absence of ants. However, when ants had access to seeds, these potential advantages of exotics were negated due to the filtering bias against exotics. The differences in traits we observed between exotics and natives suggest that higher-order introduction filters or regional processes preselected for certain exotic traits that then interacted with the local seed predation filter. Our results suggest that the interactions between local filters and species traits can predict invasion outcomes, but understanding the role of provenance will require quantifying filtering processes at multiple hierarchical scales and evaluating interactions between filters.

  19. An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Bussell, John D; Hobbs, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ∼60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration. PMID:23919158

  20. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  1. Sports drug testing: Analytical aspects of selected cases of suspected, purported, and proven urine manipulation.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Sigmund, Gerd; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-01-05

    Manipulation of urine specimens provided by elite athletes for doping control purposes has been reported several times in the past, and in most of these cases urine substitution was eventually proven. Recent findings of suspected and substantiated manipulation have outlined the complexity and diversity of tampering options, sample appearance alterations resulting from non-manipulative influence, and the analytical challenges arising from these scenarios. Using state-of-the-art mass spectrometric and immunological doping control and forensic chemistry methodologies, four unusual findings were observed. One sports drug testing specimen was found to contain an unusually high content of saccharides accompanied by hordenine and Serpine-Z4, while no endogenous steroid (e.g. testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone) was detected. This specimen was identified as non-alcoholic beer filled into the doping control sample container, constituting an undisputed doping offense. A doping control sample of bright green color was received and found to contain residues of methylene blue, which is not considered relevant for doping controls as no masking or manipulative effect is known. In addition, the number of urine samples of raspberry to crimson red coloration received at doping control laboratories has constantly increased during the last years, attributed to the presence of hemoglobin or betanin/isobetanin. Also here, no doping rule violation was given and an impact on routine analytical results was not observed. Finally, a total of 8 sports drug testing samples collected at different competition sites was shown to contain identical urine specimens as indicated by steroid profile analysis and conclusively proven by DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. Here, the athletes in question were not involved in the urine substitution act but the doping control officer was convicted of sample manipulation.

  2. Detrital zircon provenance link of the Chinle Formation and the Auld Lang Syne Group in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrels, G.E.; Dickinson, W.R. . Dept of Geosciences); Riggs, N. . Dept of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Previous workers have interpreted the Upper Triassic Auld Lang Syne Group of northwest Nevada as (a) part of a suspect terrane displaced with respect to the craton, or (b) the deltaic terminus of the Chinle depositional system of the Colorado Plateau. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons (air-abraded and analyzed as individual crystals), from sandstones in basal Chinle Fm near Currie and the Osobb Fm (basal Auld Lang Syne Gp) in Dixie Valley, set constraints on the provenance of the two units as follows: (a) Chinle grains (n = 40): 225--235 (n = 2), 505--525 (n = 19), 1,410--1,440 (n = 9), 1,700--1,740 (n = 4); (b) Osobb grains (n = 40): [approximately]235 (n = 1), [approximately]265 (n = 1), 355--415 (n = 3), 510--530 (n = 5), 1,010--1,080 (n = 11), [approximately]1,160 (n = 1), 1,430--1,450 (n = 7), 1,705--1,730 (n = 3). Proterozoic grains were likely shed from basement rocks in the SW US, whereas Triassic grains in both samples and Silurian-Devonian and Permian grains in the Osobb sample may have come from arc terranes to the south (Chinle) or west (Osobb). The Chinle sand is quartzose with only rare chert-quartzite grains, whereas the Osobb sand is subarkosic with chert-argillite and feldspar grains that presumably reflect the admixture of Grenville-age detritus (1,010--1,160 Ma) of uncertain provenance. The most likely source for Cambrian grains (505--530 Ma) is the rift-related igneous province stretching from southern Colorado to SW Oklahoma (Wichita Mtns). Regardless of origin, the unexpected occurrence of Cambrian grains in both Nevada samples supports the suggestion of Lupe and Silberling (1985) that the Auld Lang Syne Gp was deposited as a linked facies equivalent of the Chinle Fm.

  3. Sediment characteristics and provenance of the Taiwan Shoal in the southern Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, W. S.; Lin, A. T.; Kuo, L. W.; Lee, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Taiwan Shoal in the southern Taiwan Strait exhibits a lobe-shaped shallow water area, with a depth less than around 40 m and an area approximately of 13,000 km2. The Shoal consists of relict sediments remnant from deltaic deposits during the last glacial period and associated with the paleo-Min River. We collected seafloor sediments in and around the Taiwan Shoal to study the sediment characteristics and provenance of the Shoal as well as Taiwanese river sediments to characterize sediment sourced from southern Taiwan. Our results help to understand possible sediment delivery pathways in a source-to-sink context from the southern Taiwan Strait to the northern South China Sea. The method of X-ray diffraction is used to identify mineral compositions for muds and mineral compositions are examined under polarized microscope for sands. Zircon grains are separated from heavy minerals for U-Pb dating in order to understand the sediment source terranes. Sediments of the Taiwan Shoal are mostly tawny-colored, medium to coarse-grained sands with abundant shell fragments and shallow-water benthic foraminifera. Sediments to the south of the Taiwan Shoal and in the outer shelf consist of dark brown-colored and fine-grained sands with rare shell fragments. Siliciclastic compositions of the Taiwan Shoal sediments are mostly quartz. The second abundant composition is rock fragments with more occurrences near the Chinese coastline and the Penghu archipelago. Slate fragments are found to occur near Taiwan, especially in the Penghu Channel area. Clay minerals from the Penghu Channels and south of the Taiwan Shoal are dominated by illite and chlorite with minor smectite and kaolinite. The sediment colors and mineral species are very different for the sediments of the Taiwan Shoal and outer shelf, revealing that these two areas featuring different oceanographic processes and sediment provenance.

  4. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 C degrees up to 2 C. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed.

  5. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sampled across North America; however, the results revealed that local populations could be outperformed by nonlocal ones. Provenances originating from south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec, Canada, close to the southern edge of the species' natural distribution, demonstrated superior growth in more northerly environments compared with local populations and performed much better than populations from western Canada and Alaska, United States. During the 19–28 years between planting and measurement, the southern provenances have not been more susceptible to freezing damage compared with local populations, indicating they have the potential to be used now for the reforestation of more northerly planting sites; based on changing temperature, these seed sources potentially could maintain or increase white spruce productivity at or above historical levels at northern sites. A universal response function (URF), which uses climatic variables to predict provenance performance across field trials, indicated a relatively weak relationship between provenance performance and the climate at provenance origin. Consequently, the URF from this study did not provide information useful to ISAM. The ecological and economic importance of conserving white spruce genetic resources in south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec for use in ISAM is discussed. PMID:25360273

  6. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-06-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sampled across North America; however, the results revealed that local populations could be outperformed by nonlocal ones. Provenances originating from south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec, Canada, close to the southern edge of the species' natural distribution, demonstrated superior growth in more northerly environments compared with local populations and performed much better than populations from western Canada and Alaska, United States. During the 19-28 years between planting and measurement, the southern provenances have not been more susceptible to freezing damage compared with local populations, indicating they have the potential to be used now for the reforestation of more northerly planting sites; based on changing temperature, these seed sources potentially could maintain or increase white spruce productivity at or above historical levels at northern sites. A universal response function (URF), which uses climatic variables to predict provenance performance across field trials, indicated a relatively weak relationship between provenance performance and the climate at provenance origin. Consequently, the URF from this study did not provide information useful to ISAM. The ecological and economic importance of conserving white spruce genetic resources in south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec for use in ISAM is discussed.

  7. Sr - an element shows the way - Applications of Sr isotopes for provenance, tracing and migration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohaska, T.; Irrgeher, J.; Zitek, A.; Teschler Nicola, M.

    2010-12-01

    Strontium - named after the small Scottish town Strontian - as such is an element with little popularity. Firstly described by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1798, the metal is used in metallurgy to some extent whereas its compounds are interesting in glass industries, electronics and pyrotechnics. The element has chemical similarity to Ca and makes up 1/60 of the earth’s amount of the latter. Nonetheless, it is its isotopic composition which makes Sr so interesting for a large number of scientists. The natural composition of the four naturally occurring isotopes (84Sr, 86Sr 87Sr and 88Sr) varies in nature due to the radioactive decay of 87Rb to 87Sr. Thus, it was early recognized as geochronometer especially in Ca rich matrices. With increasing precision of applied methodology, the natural variation of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio (analyzed at first mainly by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS)) became more and more popular in provenance studies. The natural variation of the ratio is mainly determined by the geological age and the original composition of the rock and can be used therefore as fingerprint of the local geology. The ratio is transferred with no significant fractionation via the water into plants and finally via the food chain into animal and human tissues (especially bones and teeth). As the element is chemically similar to Ca, it appears in most matrices. The use for provenance studies is supported by the fact that the long half life (4.8 x 1010 years) does not lead to an alteration during the time scales which are investigated (from recent samples to human or animal skeletal remains which date back up to 30.000 BC). The uniqueness of the system besides the natural variation is defined by the ubiquity in nature and the relatively high (and thus measurable) elemental concentration in most tissues. It was finally the advent of multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) which augmented the number of applications

  8. Provenance and Dispersal of Quaternary Sediments in the Gaxun Nur Basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpf, S.; Diekmann, B.; Hartmann, K.; Wuennemann, B.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Gaxun Nur Basin is an intramontane accumulation area with one of the biggest continental alluvial fans in the world. It is situated in the western part of Inner Mongolia and its origin is the result of the interplay between tectonic activity and climate dynamics. Due to the endorheic character of the basin, it is predestined as a terrestrial longtime-archive of climate and environmental change. The sediments in the Gaxun Nur basin were deposited during the last 250 kyr by the Hei River System with a catchment size of roughly 130.000 km2. To understand the sedimentary processes of this huge sediment cascade from the Qilian Mountains in the south to the terminal lakes in the north, sources of sediments have to be investigated. Sediment provenance can be deduced from mineralogical fingerprints of modern sediments deposited along the recent pathways from the sources (Qilian Mountains) to the sink (Gaxun Nur Basin). The resulting spatial variation serves as a reference for the mineralogical data from a drilling core in the distal part of the Gaxun Nur Basin. Inferring spatial and temporal variation of sediment provenance provides important information for reconstructing sediment input by fluvial, eolian, lacustrine, and glacial processes. The methodical approach focusses on the analysis of clay and heavy minerals, using XRD and petrographic techniques. Other methods involve geochemistry of heavy mineral grains, using computer-controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM), as well as bulk geochemistry, XRF element scanning and a statistical data processing. In this poster we present geochemical and mineralogical data of a 20 m long sediment core (GN100) combined with the results of about 200 surface sediment samples from different archives of the whole Hei River catchment. Lithological changes in the drilling core reveal temporal variations in the depositional environment. These variations are related to alternating phases of fluvial and eolian activity supported

  9. Tracking eolian dust with helium and thorium: Impacts of grain size and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, David; Winckler, Gisela; Borunda, Alejandra; Serno, Sascha; Anderson, Robert F.; Recasens, Cristina; Bory, Aloys; Gaiero, Diego; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kaplan, Michael; McManus, Jerry F.; Revel, Marie; Sun, Youbin

    2016-02-01

    terrigenous He in studies of extraterrestrial He in sediments and ice. We also investigate the use of He/Th ratios as a provenance tracer. Our results suggest differences in fine fraction He/Th ratios between East Asia, Australia, central South America and Patagonia, with ratios showing a positive relationship with the geological age of source rocks. He/Th ratios may thus provide useful provenance information, for example allowing separation of Patagonian sources from Puna-Central West Argentina or Australian dust sources. He/Th ratios in open-ocean marine sediments are similar to ratios in the fine fraction of upwind dust source areas. He/Th ratios in mid-latitude South Atlantic sediments suggest that dust in this region primarily derives from the Puna-Central West Argentina region (23-32°S) rather than Patagonia (>38°S). In the equatorial Pacific, He/Th ratios are much lower than in extratropical Pacific sediments or potential source areas measured as a part of this study (East Asia, South America, Australia) for reasons that are at present unclear, complicating their use as provenance tracers in this region.

  10. Nd and Sr isotope compositions in modern and fossil bones - Proxies for vertebrate provenance and taphonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tütken, Thomas; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Pfretzschner, Hans-U.

    2011-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REE), while not essential for the physiologic functions of animals, are ingested and incorporated in ppb concentrations in bones and teeth. Nd isotope compositions of modern bones of animals from isotopically distinct habitats demonstrate that the 143Nd/ 144Nd of the apatite can be used as a fingerprint for bedrock geology or ambient water mass. This potentially allows the provenance and migration of extant vertebrates to be traced, similar to the use of Sr isotopes. Although REE may be enriched by up to 5 orders of magnitude during diagenesis and recrystallization of bone apatite, in vivo143Nd/ 144Nd may be preserved in the inner cortex of fossil bones or enamel. However, tracking the provenance of ancient or extinct vertebrates is possible only for well-preserved archeological and paleontological skeletal remains with in vivo-like Nd contents at the ppb-level. Intra-bone and -tooth REE analysis can be used to screen for appropriate areas. Large intra-bone Nd concentration gradients of 10 1-10 3 are often measured. Nd concentrations in the inner bone cortex increase over timescales of millions of years, while bone rims may be enriched over millenial timescales. Nevertheless, ɛ Nd values are often similar within one ɛ Nd unit within a single bone. Larger intra-bone differences in specimens may either reflect a partial preservation of in vivo values or changing ɛ Nd values of the diagenetic fluid during fossilization. However, most fossil specimens and the outer rims of bones will record taphonomic 143Nd/ 144Nd incorporated post mortem during diagenesis. Unlike REE patterns, 143Nd/ 144Nd are not biased by fractionation processes during REE-uptake into the apatite crystal lattice, hence the ɛ Nd value is an important tracer for taphonomy and reworking. Bones and teeth from autochthonous fossil assemblages have small variations of ±1 ɛ Nd unit only. In contrast, fossil bones and teeth from over 20 different marine and terrestrial fossil

  11. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  12. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called ;headless; diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  13. 50years of oral lipid-based formulations: Provenance, progress and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Orlagh M; Crum, Matthew F; McEvoy, Claire L; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Williams, Hywel D; Pouton, Colin W; Charman, William N; Bergström, Christel A S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-06-01

    Lipid based formulations (LBF) provide well proven opportunities to enhance the oral absorption of drugs and drug candidates that sit close to, or beyond, the boundaries of Lipinski's 'rule-of-five' chemical space. Advantages in permeability, efflux and presystemic metabolism are evident; however, the primary benefit is in increases in dissolution and apparent intestinal solubility for lipophilic, poorly water soluble drugs. This review firstly details the inherent advantages of LBF, their general properties and classification, and provides a brief retrospective assessment of the development of LBF over the past fifty years. More detailed analysis of the ability of LBF to promote intestinal solubilisation, supersaturation and absorption is then provided alongside review of the methods employed to assess formulation performance. Critical review of the ability of simple dispersion and more complex in vitro digestion methods to predict formulation performance subsequently reveals marked differences in the correlative ability of in vitro tests, depending on the properties of the drug involved. Notably, for highly permeable low melting drugs e.g. fenofibrate, LBF appear to provide significant benefit in all cases, and sustained ongoing solubilisation may not be required. In other cases, and particularly for higher melting point drugs such as danazol, where re-dissolution of crystalline precipitate drug is likely to be slow, correlations with ongoing solubilisation and supersaturation are more evident. In spite of their potential benefits, one limitation to broader use of LBF is low drug solubility in the excipients employed to generate formulations. Techniques to increase drug lipophilicity and lipid solubility are therefore explored, and in particular those methods that provide for temporary enhancement including lipophilic ionic liquid and prodrug technologies. The transient nature of these lipophilicity increases enhances lipid solubility and LBF viability, but

  14. Timing, variability and sediment provenance of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, L. W. M.; Sejrup, H. P.; Hjelstuen, B. O. B.; Haflidason, H.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of the NW European ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum is fairly well constrained to, at least in periods, the shelf edge. However, the exact timing and varying activity of the largest ice stream, the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS), remains uncertain. We here present three sediment records, recovered proximal and distal to the upper NW European continental slope. All age models for the cores are constructed in the same way and based solely on 14C dating of planktonic foraminifera. The sand-sized sediments in the discussed cores is believed to be primarily transported by ice rafting. All records suggest ice streaming activity between 25.8 and 18.5 ka BP. However, the core proximal to the mouth of the Norwegian Channel (NC) shows distinct periods of activity and periods of very little coarse sediment input. Out of this there appear to be at least three well-defined periods of ice streaming activity which lasted each for 1.5 to 2 ka, with "pauses" of several hundred years in between. The same core shows a conspicuous variation in several proxies and sediment colour within the first peak of ice stream activity, compared to the second and third peak. The light grey colour of the sediment was earlier attributed to Triassic chalk grains, yet all "chalk" grains are in fact mollusc fragments. The low magnetic susceptibility values, the high Ca, high Sr and low Fe content compared to the other peaks suggests a different provenance for the material of the first peak. We suggest therefore, that the origin of this material is rather the British Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) and not the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS). Earlier studies have shown an extent of the BIIS at least to the NC, whereas ice from the FIS likely stayed within the boundaries of the NC. A possible scenario for the different provenance could therefore be the build-up of the BIIS into the NC until it merged with the FIS. At this point the BIIS calved off the shelf edge southwest of the mouth of

  15. The Science of Diamonds and Their Inclusions: Can such Data be Used to Establish Diamond Provenance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Sobolev, N. V.; Ghazi, M.; Anand, M.; Bodner, R. J.

    2002-05-01

    The physics and chemistry of diamonds and their mineral inclusions can be used to determine the geographic source of rough diamonds. The science of diamonds includes their morphology and external features, N aggregation states and zonations, δ 13C, δ 15N, trace-element chemistry, and the nature of their rims and coatings. The science of the diamond inclusions (DIs) includes their mineralogy and chemical/isotopic compositions, the variation of mineral chemistry between diamonds and as multiple DIs within a single diamond, and the relations of DIs to geologic locales. For example, the exotic DIs in Brazilian diamonds appear to be unique and world famous; but are they really? The δ 34S values of the sulfide DIs are yet another type of data that may prove useful for paragenetic identification, but the requisite data are not presently available. A recently attempted method for discerning the locale of a diamond's origin involves the combined use of laser-ablation, high-resolution, inductively-coupled-plasma, mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICPMS) and Raman spectroscopy. These sophisticated instruments are combined in a study of the outermost rims of coated diamonds. The premise to this endeavor is that these coatings contain the signatures of the very latest stages of diamond formation, within the kimberlite, as the diamonds are carried to the Earth's surface. Based upon xenolith and DI studies, the mantle of the Earth at a depth of 150 km, although heterogeneous on a small scale, is actually quite similar worldwide. Diamonds grown in the mantle may also have similar characteristics worldwide. However, the chemistry of kimberlite magmas, as they traverse the upper mantle and lower crust, on their way to the surface, can pick up late-stage characteristics that differ from place to place. Some of these definitive signatures may be preserved in the outermost coated regions of the diamonds. The bottom line to the question of provenance for rough diamonds, as addressed at the

  16. The Value of Palliative Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer Patients With Intraoperatively Proven Peritoneal Seeding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Wei-Han; Lu, Zheng-Hao; Chen, Xin-Zu; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival benefit of palliative gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding proven intraoperatively and to identify positive predictive factors for improving survival. The value of palliative resection for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis is controversial. From 2006 to 2013, 267 gastric cancer patients with intraoperatively identified peritoneal dissemination were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into resection group and nonresection group according to whether a palliative gastrectomy was performed. Clinicopathologic variables and survival were compared. Subgroup analyses stratified by clinicopathologic factors and multivariable analysis for overall survival were also performed. There were 114 patients in the resection group and 153 in nonresection group. The morbidities in the resection and nonresection groups were 14.91% and 5.88%, respectively (P = 0.014). There, however, was no difference in mortality between the 2 groups. The median survival time of patients in the resection group was longer than in nonresection group (14.00 versus 8.57 months, P = 0.000). The median survivals among the patients with different classifications of peritoneal metastasis were statistically significant (P = 0.000). Patients undergoing resection followed by chemotherapy had a significantly longer median survival, compared with that of patients who had chemotherapy alone, those who had resection alone, or those who had not received chemotherapy or resection (P = 0.000). Results of subgroup analyses showed that except for P3 patients and patients with multisite distant metastases, overall survival was significantly better in patients with palliative gastrectomy, compared with the nonresection group. In multivariate analysis, P3 disease (P = 0.000), absence of resection (P = 0.000), and lack of chemotherapy (P = 0.000) were identified as independently

  17. Poor mobilizer: a retrospective study on proven and predicted incidence according to GITMO criteria.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Nicola; Vacca, Michele; Lanti, Alessandro; Ipsevich, Francesco; Maresca, Maddalena; Fiorelli, Elena; Bianchi, Maria; Adorno, Gaspare; Pierelli, Luca; Majolino, Ignazio; Leone, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2012-10-01

    The Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, GITMO) recently formalized criteria for a shared definition of poor mobilizer in order to facilitate randomized clinical trials and study comparison focusing on the efficacy of current mobilizing regimens. The availability of a standardized tool for poor mobilizer definition suggested us to retrospectively test GITMO criteria feasibility and applicability. Therefore we analyzed medical and laboratory records of adult patients affected by myeloma (MM) or lymphoma undergoing mobilization for autologous peripheral blood HSC collection from January 2010 to June 2011, at Servizio di Emotrasfusione, Istituto di Ematologia, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Roma, UOC SIMT AO S. Camillo Forlanini Roma and SIMT Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata Roma. We collected data about 227 patients (134 male, 93 female) affected by MM (31.3%) NHL (58.6%) e HD (10.1%). Thirty-nine patients, 21 male and 18 female met proven poor mobilizer criteria definition resulting in a incidence of 17.2% (12.7% in MM, 21.8% in NHL and 4.3% in HD). Eleven patients, seven affected by lymphoma and four affected by myeloma, were defined predicted PM according to major criteria. Eight patients, seven affected by lymphoma and one affected by myeloma, were define predicted PM according to minor criteria. Sixteen out of 39 patients defined as poor mobilizer either according to major or minor criteria underwent collection procedures and eight (20.5%) achieved a cell dose ⩾2×10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells. GITMO criteria application was easy and resulted in poor mobilizer incidence comparable to current literature. Definitions of proven poor mobilizer and predicted poor mobilizer according to major criteria were very effective while minor criteria were less predictive. These results came from a retrospective analysis and therefore should be validated in future prospective trial. On the other hand these data could be

  18. The geochemical signature of Neogene Eastern Mediterranean sediment: evidence for temporal and spatial variations in provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaver, Martijn; Vroon, Pieter; Wijbrans, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Subducted sediment is one of the main geochemical components in arc magmas. Although an east-west gradient in Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) sediment composition has been evoked to explain the along-arc geochemical variations in Aegean arc magmas [1], solid evidence for E-W changes in EMS sediment composition is lacking. The EMS sediment dataset is limited to Holocene samples, while the sediment currently underneath the volcanic arc has an age of at least 6 Ma. In order to characterise EMS sediment, we have used a combination of thermogravimetric and geochemical analyses of 45 Neogene DSDP and ODP drill core samples. Thermogravimetric dissociation curves provide a rapid way to determine carbonate-content and relative abundance of clay mineral groups in mixed sediment samples. Clear clay mineral distribution patterns are observed in the EMS: smectite is dominant in Nile sediment, aeolian dust consist mainly of kaolinite while illite is present in coarser (shelf) sediment. Four distinct provenance areas can be recognised on the basis of radiogenic isotope and trace element ratios of the EMS sediment samples. In line with previous studies [e.g. 2], we conclude that Sahara dust and Nile sediment are main constituents of EMS sediment. However, we recognize two additional source areas. Sediment derived from Cyprus and/or SW Turkey, characterised by high Ni/Nb ratios, is an important component in Quaternary EMS sediment. Sediment from the Aegean region has an arc signature (e.g. high La/Nb) and is distinguishable only in the Hellenic Trench. During the Neogene, an increase in aeolian dust input to the EMS is observed, which is consistent with the progressive aridification of the Sahara region. The geochemical characterisation of Neogene EMS sediment and the recognition of distinct provenance areas can be used to assess the contribution of subducted sediment to magmas in the Aeolian and Aegean volcanic arcs. In addition, it allows further high-resolution investigation of

  19. "Fingerprinting" tectono-magmatic provenance using trace elements in igneous zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, C. B.; Wooden, J. L.; Cheadle, M. J.; John, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 5300 recent SHRIMP-RG analyses of trace elements (TE) in igneous zircon have been compiled and classified based on their original tectono-magmatic setting to empirically evaluate "geochemical fingerprints" unique to those settings. Immobile element geochemical fingerprints used for lavas are applied with the same rational to zircon, including consideration of mineral competition on zircon TE ratios, and new criteria for distinguishing mid-ocean ridge (MOR), magmatic arc, and ocean island (and other plume-influenced) settings are proposed. The elemental ratios in zircon effective for fingerprinting tectono-magmatic provenance are systematically related to lava composition from equivalent settings. Existing discrimination diagrams using zircon U/Yb versus Hf or Y do not distinguish TE-enriched ocean island settings (i.e., Iceland, Hawaii) from magmatic arc settings. However, bivariate diagrams with combined cation ratios involving U-Nb-Sc-Yb-Gd-Ce provide a more complete distinction of zircon from these settings. On diagrams of U/Yb versus Nb/Yb, most MOR, ocean island, and kimberlite zircon define a broad "mantle-zircon array"; arc zircon defines a parallel array offset to higher U/Yb. Distinctly low U/Yb ratios of MOR zircon (typically <0.1) mirror their parental magmas and long-term incompatible element depletion of the MORB mantle. Plume-influenced sources are distinguished from MOR by higher U/Yb, U/Nb, Nb/Yb, and Nb/Sc. For zircon with U/Yb > 0.1, high Sc/Yb separates arc settings from low-Sc/Yb plume-influenced sources. The slope of scandium enrichment trends in zircon differ between MOR and continental arc settings, likely reflecting the involvement of amphibole during melt differentiation. Scandium is thus also critical for discriminating provenance, but its behavior in zircon probably reflects contrasting melt fractionation trends between tholeiitic and calc-alkaline systems more than compositional differences in primitive magmas sourced at each

  20. XRF analysis of turbidites in the Japan Trench: Evidences of provenances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwestermann, Tobias; Fink, Hiske G.; Wefer, Gerold; Fleischmann, Timo; McHugh, Cecilia M.; Ikehara, Ken; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Kioka, Arata; Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Since the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake in 2011, intensive research is going on, in order to analyse earthquake-related changes and fingerprints in the sedimentological record of the Japan Trench. Many turbidites were detected within small depositional trench basins in the central part of the trench by means of high-resolution sub-bottom profiles and sediment cores. There, distinct thick turbidite sequences have been dated by tephra and radiocarbon analyses and correlated to historic earthquakes. However, information on the turbiditeś source areas and, thus, inferences on their causing earthquake characteristics, is so far lacking. For this purpose, this study performs turbidite provenance analyses by detailed petrographic and XRF core scanning analysis on cores retrieved during cruises of R/V Sonne SO-219A and R/V Sonne SO-251A, covering the entire along-strike extent of the Japan Trench from 36° to 40.3°N. Cores were measured on the Avaatech x-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner at MARUM, Bremen, with a sampling interval of 1cm with 10kV and 30kV for the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe and Rb, Sr, Zr, respectively. First results show distinctly different chemical fingerprints of the various spatially and temporally distributed turbidite sequences. In particular, the fine grained (silt to clay) upper parts of the turbidite sequences have partly distinct trends in elemental ratios, indicating either (i) various source areas, (ii) sorting processes along the turbidités pathways and/or (iii) post-depositional alteration processes. Furthermore, also the coarser basal sequences (mostly composed of multiple fine sand layers and beds) show various trends of elemental ratios. In particular the Fe/Rb vs. density trends can be indicative for the event deposits in the central part of the trench, which have been linked to historic earthquakes. Although, XRF core scanning data from the sand fraction needs to be interpreted with care, also sediment petrographic data (heavy

  1. Geochemical insights into the provenance of large scale North Atlantic turbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Millie; Hunt, James; Talling, Peter; Allin, Josh; Pope, Ed

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic margin has been subject to several very large (>100 km3) submarine landslides. Motion of some of these slides has been shown to generate damaging tsunamis, which travelled long distances across the ocean, such as that generated by the Storegga slide at 8.15 ka BP. If such a tsunami occurred again, it would pose a major hazard to northern European coastlines. Therefore identifying the source and age of past slide deposits is important to quantifying the risk to UK and the rest of coastal Europe. In this study we analyse the distal deposits of slides (turbidites) to assess their provenance. We present initial results from a new shallow piston core dataset from the Storegga slide, Trænadjupet slide, Lofoten Drift and basin, and the outer edge of the Voring plateau. Turbidite mudcaps were analysed using both the non-destructive, semi-quantitative Itrax micro-XRF core scanner at BOSCORF for major elements. In addition ICP-MS was used to determine the rare earth element (REE) abundances, allowing the relationship of distal turbidite deposits to be established. REEs are a good source discriminator due to the stability and immobility of lanthanide group elements, and the preservation of elemental ratios during transport. Due to hydraulic fractionation only the finest mud fraction was analysed to avoid the bias associated with heavy mineral concentrations . Clusters of distinct elemental ratios indicate different provenances for the distal turbidites, notably the Eu/Eu* anomaly and (Gd/Yb)N. The clusters demonstrate each deposit has a unique geochemical signature and provide insights into the history of past large-volume slides in the region and the influence of contour current-reworking of deep-water deposits. The Norwegian margin has a long record of large-scale landslides, which are commonly linked to glacial-interglacial transitions. This margin is also an important location of deep-water formation, with strong currents capable of transporting

  2. Cenozoic sedimentation rates and provenance variations in the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.; Harris, R. N.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Pelagic clays are traditionally difficult to date due to the scarcity of biogenic deposition and the prevalence of homogenous, altered, very fine-grain sediment. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329 recovered completely oxic, brown, pelagic zeolitic metalliferous clay from the South Pacific Gyre (SPG). Despite post-depositional alteration, the sediment retains enough of its original chemical signature to track downcore changes in provenance. Of particular interest is the cosmogenic portion of the sediment (e.g., Co), which we use to determine sedimentation rates and explore the paleoceanographic implications of changing sedimentation in the SPG throughout the Cenozoic. Under the assumption that the flux of extraterrestrial cosmogenic dust is spatially and temporally constant (or can at least be constrained), the concentration of cosmic dust in the sediment is inversely proportional to the sedimentation rate. Previous studies have used this premise to successfully date pelagic clays and Fe-Mn crusts, using Co as a proxy for cosmic dust deposition. The SPG has the slowest marine sedimentation rates in the world (as low as 0.1 m/Myr) and subsequently has the highest concentration of cosmic dust in the seafloor, making it an ideal region to apply this techniques. Building upon Zhou and Kyte (1992, Paleocean., 7, 441-465) at the single location of DSDP Site 596, we are dating SPG pelagic clays and identifying provenance variations throughout the SPG using a combined analytical and statistical approach. We analyze bulk sediment from Exp. 329 for a wide suite of major, trace, and rare earth elements by ICP-ES/MS. We apply multivariate statistical methods to quantify the contributions through time from various sources, aiming to distinguish a cosmogenic component. From the cosmogenic abundances, we produce a high-resolution record of instantaneous sedimentation rates of SPG pelagic clays during the Cenozoic. Our preliminary constant cosmogenic Co models show

  3. Geochemically tracking provenance changes in marine sediment from the South Pacific Gyre throughout the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.; Harris, R. N.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific Gyre (SPG), characterized by extremely slow sedimentation rates, is the world's largest oceanic desert. The little eolian dust from continents in the Southern Hemisphere must traverse great distances to reach the SPG, and the ultra-oligotrophic waters minimize the biogenic flux of sediment to the seafloor. However sparse, the pelagic sediment that is ultimately found on the seafloor retains a chemical record that can be used to trace its origin. Using cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329, we trace downcore fluctuations in major, trace, and rare earth element (REE) composition and flux to yield clues to the geological, chemical, and biological evolution of the SPG throughout the Cenozoic. The shipboard scientific party generally described the completely oxic, brown pelagic clays recovered during Exp. 329 as zeolitic metalliferous clay. The homogenous, very fine-grained nature of these sediments speaks to the challenges we face in resolving eolian detrital material ("dust"), fine-grained ash (commonly altered), and authigenic aluminosilicates from one another. Based on ICP-ES and ICP-MS analyses followed by multivariate statistical treatments, we are developing chemical records from a number of sites located throughout the SPG. Building on earlier work at DSDP Site 596 (Zhou and Kyte, 1992, Paleocean., 7, 441-465), and based on backtrack paths from 100 Ma forward, we are working to construct a regionally and temporally continuous paleoclimatological history of the SPG. Preliminary La-Th-Sc concentrations from Sites U1367, U1368, and U1369 show a distinct authigenic influence, but several refractory elements retain their original provenance signature. Sediment ages are constrained using a constant-Co model, based on the geochemically similar work that Zhou and Kyte (1992) performed in the SPG. REE concentrations normalized to post-archean average shale (PAAS) reveal a negative Ce anomaly that becomes more pronounced closer to

  4. Tracing salt provenance in McMurdo Dry Valley soils by using magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuozzo, N.; Sletten, R. S.; Hu, Y.; Teng, F. Z.

    2016-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) are a hyper-arid polar desert that contain a rich geologic record in permafrost that has been preserved over millions of years. Soluble salts accumulate through the surface and subsurface of MDV soils. Sources of salt accumulation include mineral weathering, transport of marine aerosols, and possible glacial meltwater. This project seeks to study the provenance of these salts in a 30-meter ice cemented permafrost core collected in Beacon Valley. The ice-rich core was thawed and water extracted by centrifugation using a double bottom centrifuge tube. The extracted water was analyzed for ionic composition, pH, and Mg isotopes (δ26Mg), which are useful in interpreting provenance. The ionic and δ26Mg values show a disconformity at around 7 meters. Above 7 meters, δ26Mg values vary between -0.76 to -0.52, indicating rock-water interactions. These samples are isotopically heavier than the lower section of the core and can be explained by a slow accumulation of sediment and warmer near-surface temperatures that allow for greater chemical weathering of dolerite in the ice-cemented, debris-rich permafrost core. This interpretation is also supported by the more alkaline pH values (7.07 - 7.54) above 7 meters, which is consistent with chemical weathering of dolerite. In comparison, salt samples below 7 meters have δ26Mg values between -0.95 to -0.84, which overlaps with modern seawater (δ26Mg = -0.83 ± 0.09) and is fairly consistent throughout the rest of the core. Furthermore, below a depth of 7 meters, Mg/Na and Mg/K ratios are also similar to modern seawater. In summary, these results indicate differing sources of salts along the depth of the Dry Valley permafrost core, changing from a marine-dominant signature in the deeper section to a stronger weathered signal in the upper section. Additional work dating the sediment using cosmogenic nuclides provides a history for the burial of the sediments in the permafrost core and may provide

  5. Data Publication: Addressing the Issues of Provenance, Attribution, Citation, and Accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, L. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Lowry, R. K.; Urban, E. R.; Moncoiffe, G.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by publisher and funding agency mandates, and a desire to properly attribute data sets to originating investigators, the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library and a team of data managers and scientists are collaborating with representatives from the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The work is inspired by a June 2008 SCOR/IODE Workshop on Data Publishing. The goal is to identify best practices for tracking data provenance and clearly attributing credit to data collectors/providers for data published in journal articles. To improve efficacy of data directly associated with a scientific article those data must be discoverable, citeable and freely available on the Internet. Resources, standards, and workflows must be defined to support publisher and funding agency mandates. For the data to be discoverable, appropriate metadata, defined using community accepted metadata standards, must be associated with the data source. Data will be made citeable by the assignment of a persistent identifier as well as provenance and attribution metadata. The availability of the data will be assured by submission to a data repository that has stability and permanence. In April 2010, project participants were challenged to develop and execute pilot projects related to two use cases in which: (1) data held by data centers are packaged and served in formats that can be cited and (2) data related to traditional journal articles are assigned persistent identifiers referred to in the articles and stored in institutional repositories, such as DSpace. The MBLWHOI Library team chose to focus on data that support published articles, particularly the data used to create the figures and tables. Several published papers were identified and used to test the MBLWHOI Library model based on open archive

  6. Studsvik Processing Facility - A proven solution for the conservation of a National Asset

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, M.; Hill, M.; Harrison, J.; Wise, D.

    2007-07-01

    Studsvik has completed over 7.5 years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 13.3 million pounds (4.96 million kg) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, granular activated carbon (GAC), and filter cartridges which comprised a cumulative total activity of 87,396 Curies (3.23E+09 MBq), with the highest radiation level for any incoming resin container being 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/hr). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF-Erwin) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Spent Filter Cartridges (Metal or Poly), Ion Exchange Resins (IER), powered filter media, GAC, organic solids, graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions. In 2005 Studsvik added advanced robotic technology to the SPF greatly increasing its capabilities to safely handle waste streams with radiation levels in excess of 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h), saving personnel exposure and maximizing ALARA. The most recent addition to Studsvik's capabilities is the cost and volume efficient processing of filter cartridges (both metal and poly). The SPF-Erwin employs the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) process, developed and patented by Studsvik, which utilizes pyrolysis/steam reforming technology. THOR{sup sm} reliably and safely processes these wide varieties of LLRWs in a unique, moderate temperature, pyrolysis/steam reforming, fluidized bed treatment system. The THOR{sup sm} technology is also suitable for processing hazardous, mixed, and dry active LLRW with appropriate licensing and waste feed modifications. Studsvik has proven to be an experienced and reliable source for the cost efficient disposition of LLRW for the nuclear industry. These processing concepts and capabilities have helped generators maximize the utilization of the limited available burial space - extending the Class-A, Class-B, and Class-C burial capabilities

  7. Provenance analysis of Neogene sediments in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, B. R.; Wagreich, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which reflects Neogene extensional tectonics in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya, lies north of the Dhaulagiri-Annapurna ranges and south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The regional geology of the basin is dominated by a basement of Tibetan-Tethys sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, unconformably overlain by continental debris (more than 850 m) of Neogene to Quaternary age (Fort et al., 1982; Yoshida et al., 1984). Stratigraphically, the graben sediments have been divided into four formations; the Miocene Tetang and Thakkhola formations, disconformably overlain by the Plio-Pleistocene Sammargaon and Marpha formations. In the present study, the sediment provenance and the nature of the source rocks have been investigated. Field mapping, logging of 22 profiles, measurement of pebble imbrication and lithology in all possible beds and heavy mineral sampling (50 samples) were carried out. Paleocurrent data from imbricated pebbles (no other palaeocurrent indicators were seen) in the western part of the graben shows SE-directed flow while in the eastern part it shows a SSW transport. Sandstone, mudstone, quartzite and granite clasts are dominant in the Ghiling, Chaile and Dhakmar sections on the western side while carbonate clasts are dominant in the Tetang and Dhinkyo Khola sections in the southeastern part of the basin. Tourmaline, staurolite, zircon, garnet and apatite constitute a significant proportion of the heavy-minerals whereas epidote, andalusite, kyanite, chloritoid, hornblende, chrome-spinel, rutile and amphibole are less common. Paleocurrent data of imbricated conglomerates in all formations of the basin show a southward flow direction of the Kaligandaki River. All the paleocurrent data and composition analysis of the conglomerates in the northwestern part of the basin (Dhi and Tange) of the Thakkhola Formation suggest that the clasts were derived from Mesozoic rocks to the east. Mostly Paleozoic clasts, with

  8. Data Provenance as a Tool for Debugging Hydrological Models based on Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wombacher, A.; Huq, M.; Wada, Y.; Van Beek, R.

    2012-12-01

    There is an increase in data volume used in hydrological modeling. The increasing data volume requires additional efforts in debugging models since a single output value is influenced by a multitude of input values. Thus, it is difficult to keep an overview among the data dependencies. Further, knowing these dependencies, it is a tedious job to infer all the relevant data values. The aforementioned data dependencies are also known as data provenance, i.e. the determination of how a particular value has been created and processed. The proposed tool infers the data provenance automatically from a python script and visualizes the dependencies as a graph without executing the script. To debug the model the user specifies the value of interest in space and time. The tool infers all related data values and displays them in the graph. The tool has been evaluated by hydrologists developing a model for estimating the global water demand [1]. The model uses multiple different data sources. The script we analysed has 120 lines of codes and used more than 3000 individual files, each of them representing a raster map of 360*720 cells. After importing the data of the files into a SQLite database, the data consumes around 40 GB of memory. Using the proposed tool a modeler is able to select individual values and infer which values have been used to calculate the value. Especially in cases of outliers or missing values it is a beneficial tool to provide the modeler with efficient information to investigate the unexpected behavior of the model. The proposed tool can be applied to many python scripts and has been tested with other scripts in different contexts. In case a python code contains an unknown function or class the tool requests additional information about the used function or class to enable the inference. This information has to be entered only once and can be shared with colleagues or in the community. Reference [1] Y. Wada, L. P. H. van Beek, D. Viviroli, H. H. Drr, R

  9. Detrital mica 40Ar/39Ar dating approach for provenance and exhumation of the Eastern Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemignani, Lorenzo; Sun, Xilin; Van Gerve, Thomas; Braun, Jean; Wijbrans, Jan Robert

    2017-04-01

    The use of thermochronological techniques on detrital minerals, such as (U-Th)/He on apatite and zircon, zircon fission-tracks and Ar-dating on mica and microcline, can be used to constrain the lateral variation of the exhumation rate and the sediment provenance of large sectors of an actively deforming mountain belt. Analysis of modern river sands yields an inventory of ages of rocks currently cropping out and eroding in the hinterland of a river drainage basin. So far, only few studies have focused on testing the consistency of the detrital mineral age distributions and the surface bed-rock thermochronology. We present here new detrital 40Ar/39Ar biotite and muscovite age distributions for nineteen modern river sands from rivers draining the Eastern Alps north of the Periadriatic line. The ages, interpreted to reflect cooling of the source rock under the closure temperature of muscovite and biotite respectively, were compared with the in-situ ages for the bedrock in the hinterland from literature. The results were generally comparable with the bedrocks ages for both the target minerals and represent three main clusters of ages that record the main exhumation pulses in this sector of the Alps. We have applied two numerical methods to the cooling ages to a) quantify the rates of exhumation of the Tauern Window during Paleocene-Miocene period of the Alpine orogeny, b) linearly compute the spatial variability of the present-day exhumation rates of a set of 4 detrital mineral sample drainage basins along the Inn river stream. Our results suggest a 0.17-0.52 mm/yr range in exhumation rates for the Tauern Window since the Miocene. The results from modelling constrained the downstream evolution of the detrital signal in the Inn river and realistically predicts higher erosion rates in the downstream basin where young cooling ages from the Penninic units of the Tauern are drained into the system, forming a characteristic peak. Our data define more inclusive trends in

  10. Sensitivity of Emergency Bedside Ultrasound to Detect Hydronephrosis in Patients with Computed Tomography-proven Stones

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Jeff; Case, Aaron; Wopat, Ross; Beckham, Stephen; Lucas, Mikael; McClung, Christian D.; Swadron, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-contrast computed tomography (CT) is widely regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of urolithiasis in emergency department (ED) patients. However, it is costly, time-consuming and exposes patients to significant doses of ionizing radiation. Hydronephrosis on bedside ultrasound is a sign of a ureteral stone, and has a reported sensitivity of 72–83% for identification of unilateral hydronephrosis when compared to CT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate trends in sensitivity related to stone size and number. Methods This was a structured, explicit, retrospective chart review. Two blinded investigators used reviewed charts of all adult patients over a 6-month period with a final diagnosis of renal colic. Of these charts, those with CT evidence of renal calculus by attending radiologist read were examined for results of bedside ultrasound performed by an emergency physician. We included only those patient encounters with both CT-proven renal calculi and documented bedside ultrasound results. Results 125 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall sensitivity of ultrasound for detection of hydronephrosis was 78.4% [95% confidence interval (CI)=70.2–85.3%]. The overall sensitivity of a positive ultrasound finding of either hydronephrosis or visualized stones was 82.4% [95%CI: 75.6%, 89.2%]. Based on a prior assumption that ultrasound would detect hydronephrosis more often in patients with larger stones, we found a statistically significant (p=0.016) difference in detecting hydronephrosis in patients with a stone ≥6 mm (sensitivity=90% [95% CI=82–98%]) compared to a stone <6 mm (sensitivity=75% [95% CI=65–86%]). For those with 3 or more stones, sensitivity was 100% [95% CI=63–100%]. There were no patients with stones ≥6 mm that had both a negative ultrasound and lack of hematuria. Conclusion In a population with CT-proven urolithiasis, ED bedside ultrasonography had similar overall sensitivity to previous reports but showed better

  11. [Clinical and histopathological characteristics of biopsy-proven renal diseases in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Batinić, Danica; Sćukanec-Spoljar, Mira; Milosević, Danko; Subat-Dezulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marjan; Delmis, Jasna; Puretić, Zvonimir; Cvitkovic-Kuzmić, Andrea; Skitarelić, Natasa; Spajic, Marija; Nizić, Ljiljana; Vrljicak, Kristina; Matković, Maja; Kniewald, Hrvoje; Batinić, Danko; Grković, Lana; Borojević, Irena; Flajsman, Sanja; Kosuljandić-Vukić, Durdica; Marić, Semsa; Ljubanović, Danica

    2007-09-01

    There is little data on the spectrum of renal diseases in children in Croatia. The Croatian Society for Pediatric Nephrology has established the Registry of Biopsy-Proven Renal Diseases in an attempt to address this issue nationwide. Here we report preliminary results of a retrospective analysis of clinical and histopathological data of 565 children aged < or =17 years presenting to 9 hospitals in Croatia from 1991 to 2004, in whom kidney biopsy was performed. The most common indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (39.1%), followed by asymptomatic proteinuria/hematuria (22.0%) and acute nephritic syndrome (17.0%). All biopsies were analysed by light-, immunofluorescent and electron microscopy. The majority of children, 552 out of 565 (92.4%), had glomerulonephritis (GN). Tubulointerstitial nephritis was found in 16 (2.8%), congenital renal parenchyma anomalies in 14 (2.5%) and vascular disease in 11 (1.9%) cases. One (0.2%) child had sarcoidosis with nephrocalcinosis. The sample was non-diagnostic in 1 (0.2%) case. Among children with GN, primary GN accounted for 70.9%, secondary GN for 16.1% and hereditary GN for 13.0% cases. The most frequent primary GN forms were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (24.6%), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MEPGN) (19.2%) and IgA nephropathy (18.1%). Acute GN in resolution was found in 11.1% and minimal changes GN in 6.8% of cases. Most children with secondary GN had nephritis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) (54.7%) and nephritis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (40.5%), while among hereditary GN Alport syndrome was most common (80.9%). In the group of children with primary GN who presented with nephrotic syndrome, most common forms were FSGS (38.5%) and MEPGN (24.0%). Minimal changes GN accounted for only 10.9% of cases. IgA nephropathy, primary or related to HSP (20.0%), FSGS (16.1%), MEPGN (12.6%) and Alport syndrome (9.7%) were the most common biopsy-proven renal diseases in Croatian

  12. µ-XRF Analysis of Trace Elements in Lapis Lazuli-Forming Minerals for a Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Angelici, Debora; Borghi, Alessandro; Chiarelli, Fabrizia; Cossio, Roberto; Gariani, Gianluca; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Pratesi, Giovanni; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents new developments on the provenance study of lapis lazuli started by our group in 2008: during the years a multi-technique approach has been exploited to obtain minero-petrographic characterization and creation of a database considering only rock samples of known provenance. Since the final aim of the study is to develop a method to analyze archeological findings and artworks made with lapis lazuli in a completely non-invasive way, ion beam analysis techniques were employed to trace the provenance of the raw material used for the production of artifacts. Continuing this goal and focusing the analysis on determination of more significant minero-chemical markers for the provenance study of trace elements in different minerals, the method was extended with the use of micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), to test the potential of the technique for this application. The analyzes were focused on diopside and pyrite in lapis lazuli samples of known provenance (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Siberia). In addition, µ-XRF data were compared with micro proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) results to verify the agreement between the two databases and to compare the analytical performance of both techniques for this application.

  13. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  14. Synchronisms between bud and cambium phenology in black spruce: early-flushing provenances exhibit early xylem formation.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Magali; Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-03-03

    Bud and cambial phenology represent the adaptation of species to the local environment that allows the growing season to be maximized while minimizing the risk of frost for the developing tissues. The temporal relationship between the apical and radial meristems can help in the understanding of tree growth as a whole process. The aim of this study was to compare cambial phenology in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) provenances classified as early and late bud flushing. The different phases of cambial phenology were assessed on wood microcores sampled weekly from April to October in 2014 and 2015 from 61 trees growing in a provenance trial in Quebec, Canada. Trees showing an early bud flush also exhibited early reactivation of xylem differentiation, although an average difference of 12 days for buds corresponded to small although significant differences of 4 days for xylem. Provenances with early bud flush had an early bud set and completed xylem formation earlier than late bud flush provenances. No significant difference in the period of xylem formation and total growth was observed between the flushing classes. Our results demonstrate that the ecotype differentiation of black spruce provenances represented by the phenological adaptation of buds to the local climate corresponds to specific growth dynamics of the xylem.

  15. An Ontology-Enabled Natural Language Processing Pipeline for Provenance Metadata Extraction from Biomedical Text (Short Paper).

    PubMed

    Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael; Kim, Matthew; Redline, Susan; Sahoo, Satya S

    2016-10-01

    Extraction of structured information from biomedical literature is a complex and challenging problem due to the complexity of biomedical domain and lack of appropriate natural language processing (NLP) techniques. High quality domain ontologies model both data and metadata information at a fine level of granularity, which can be effectively used to accurately extract structured information from biomedical text. Extraction of provenance metadata, which describes the history or source of information, from published articles is an important task to support scientific reproducibility. Reproducibility of results reported by previous research studies is a foundational component of scientific advancement. This is highlighted by the recent initiative by the US National Institutes of Health called "Principles of Rigor and Reproducibility". In this paper, we describe an effective approach to extract provenance metadata from published biomedical research literature using an ontology-enabled NLP platform as part of the Provenance for Clinical and Healthcare Research (ProvCaRe). The ProvCaRe-NLP tool extends the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES) platform using both provenance and biomedical domain ontologies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of ProvCaRe-NLP tool using a corpus of 20 peer-reviewed publications. The results of our evaluation demonstrate that the ProvCaRe-NLP tool has significantly higher recall in extracting provenance metadata as compared to existing NLP pipelines such as MetaMap.

  16. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, Nuraslinda Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-22

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the β{sub min} is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the β{sub min}, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the β{sub min}. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  17. The 4Ps of Breast Cancer Chemoprevention: Putting Proven Principles into Practice.

    PubMed

    Jordan, V Craig

    2017-04-01

    The pioneering Royal Marsden Tamoxifen Prevention Trial recruited 2,471 eligible high-risk women to be randomized to either placebo or tamoxifen (20 mg daily) for 8 years. Breast cancer incidence was evaluated at a median of 18.4 years from the start of the study. There was a 32% reduction in estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR)-positive breast cancers after tamoxifen treatment finished. Translational research, to study "the good, the bad, and the ugly of tamoxifen" in the 1980s, subsequently ensured women's safety from possible increases in osteoperosis, coronary heart disease, and endometrial cancer. Other tamoxifen chemoprevention trials followed. The result of laboratory research was the unanticipated discovery of raloxifene to prevent osteoporosis and breast cancer at the same time. A new group of medicines, now known as selective ER modulators, was established. Indeed, the ability to prevent or delay multiple diseases with a single cheap medicine has the potential to alleviate pressure on health care systems that are overwhelmed. It is a priority to educate physicians appropriately to apply recommended proven medicines as preventives. Cancer Prev Res; 10(4); 219-22. ©2017 AACRSee related article by Detre, et al., Cancer Prev Res 2017;10(3):171-6. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. "Guilty until proven innocent": the contested use of maternal mortality indicators in global health.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini T; Béhague, Dominique P

    2017-03-15

    The MMR - maternal mortality ratio - has risen from obscurity to become a major global health indicator, even appearing as an indicator of progress towards the global Sustainable Development Goals. This has happened despite intractable challenges relating to the measurement of maternal mortality. Even after three decades of measurement innovation, maternal mortality data are widely presumed to be of poor quality, or, as one leading measurement expert has put it, 'guilty until proven innocent'. This paper explores how and why leading epidemiologists, demographers and statisticians have devoted the better part of the last three decades to producing ever more sophisticated and expensive surveys and mathematical models of globally comparable MMR estimates. The development of better metrics is publicly justified by the need to know which interventions save lives and at what cost. We show, however, that measurement experts' work has also been driven by the need to secure political priority for safe motherhood and by donors' need to justify and monitor the results of investment flows. We explore the many effects and consequences of this measurement work, including the eclipsing of attention to strengthening much-needed national health information systems. We analyse this measurement work in relation to broader political and economic changes affecting the global health field, not least the incursion of neoliberal, business-oriented donors such as the World Bank and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation whose institutional structures have introduced new forms of administrative oversight and accountability that depend on indicators.

  19. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  20. Khnifiss Beach's Black Sand: Provenance and Transport Pathways Investigation Using Heavy Minerals' Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnani, M.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Ahmamou, M.; Masmoudi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Arid areas in south of Morocco suffer from silting problem causing destruction of villages infrastructure, roads, agriculture land and oasis heritage. Black sand on Khnifiss beach near Tarfaya city (S-W Morocco) is marked by enrichment of heavy minerals. This later is an important fraction that could help to assess the provenance and transport pathways of sediment. The sand's origin investigation could be useful to fight against erosion and silting problems from the source of supply, to this end, mineralogical analysis was carried out in Khnifiss beach's sand using Optic Microscope and Scanning Electronic Microscope with dispersive energy (SEM- EDS), in addition to physico-chemical analysis provided by Electronic Microprobe. The results revealed: (i) a high grade of oxides (Rutile, Ilmenite, Magnetite, Ulvöspinel) in samples, (ii) silicates (Quartz, Clinopyroxene, feldspar, Zircon), (iii) phosphate (apatite) and (iv) carbonate (calcite). The dominance of iron oxides justifies the black sand's colour. Then, the mineral composition supposes interference between different origins: proximal source (Calcareous cliff) for calcite, distal sources of oxides and silicates are supposed to be eroded and carried by Drâa valley from granite and igneous rocks in Anti-Atlasic field. Another source supposed might be a proximal volcanic island (Canaries island).

  1. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  2. Clinical significance of nephrotoxicity in patients treated with amphotericin B for suspected or proven aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Wingard, J R; Kubilis, P; Lee, L; Yee, G; White, M; Walshe, L; Bowden, R; Anaissie, E; Hiemenz, J; Lister, J

    1999-12-01

    The records of 239 immunosuppressed patients receiving amphotericin B for suspected or proven aspergillosis were reviewed to determine rates of nephrotoxicity, dialysis, and fatality. The mean and median durations of treatment were 20.4 and 15.0 days, respectively. The creatinine level doubled in 53% of patients and exceeded 2.5 mg/dL in 29%; 14.5% underwent dialysis; and 60% died. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that patients whose creatinine level exceeded 2.5 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR], 42.02; P<.001), allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients (HR, 6.34; P<. 001), and autologous BMT patients (HR, 5.06; P=.024) were at greatest risk for requiring hemodialysis. Use of hemodialysis (HR, 3. 089; P<.001), duration of amphotericin B use (HR, 1.03 per day; P=. 015), and use of nephrotoxic agents (HR, 1.96; P=.017) were associated with greater risk of death, whereas patients undergoing solid organ transplantation were at lowest risk (HR, 0.46; P=.002). These data indicate that elevated creatinine levels during amphotericin B treatment are associated with a substantial risk for hemodialysis and a higher mortality rate, but the risks vary in different patient groups.

  3. Geoscience Academic Provenance: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Geoscience Students' Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, H.; Keane, C.

    2012-04-01

    The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.

  4. North America - Caribbean plate motion as constrained by provenance of Eocene beds in Central Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, U.; Gutierrez, A.

    2009-12-01

    The continental Subinal Formation of Central Guatemala is composed of red conglomerates and sandstones that outcrop along the Motagua Valley. The geographic distribution of the Subinal basin is elongate and constrained by the faults of the Motagua system. This suggests the basin developed as a trans-extensional feature associated with strike-slip tectonics at the Caribbean-North American plate boundary. Stratigraphic position of the Subinal implies a post-Cretaceous depositional age, possibly Eocene. This chronologic constraint is supported by detrital zircon geochronology by the LA-ICPMS U-Pb method. The presence of eclogite in conglomerate indicates that HP belts of the Guatemala Suture Complex were already exposed at that time. The study of pebbles in conglomerate indicates that the relative abundance of some clast groups correlates with the rock units exposed north, across the San Agustín fault. This implies provenance from the North American plate and minor motion along this fault. We hypothesize that the Subinal basin was formed as an onland response to the opening of the coveal Cayman Trough.

  5. Prediction of Uncertainty in Watershed Scale Sediment Provenance Model Using Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, I.; Karim, A.; Boutton, T. W.; Strom, K.

    2014-12-01

    The study, conducted on the urbanized Buffalo Bayou Watershed in Harris County, Texas, draws on two methods to quantify and compare the uncertainties in sediment fingerprint or provenance model. There are two sources of uncertainty. One is from the physically based watershed sediment yield model due to spatial variation in the watershed terrain slopes. The other is from the use of long-range episodic rainfall time series data. The work finds the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method as more mathematically robust compared with the traditional optimization based Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method for prediction of sediment yield fraction estimate uncertainty. Thereby, the work attempts to close the existing gap in research in this area of uncertainty comparison. The link between Markov Chain rainfall time series and the Bayesian MCMC simulation model is established using an erosion process parameter that promotes uncertainty in the statistical soil yield fraction estimates. The research hypothesis was tested using physical and statistical computational models in soil erosion and geostatistics with the use of rain gauge data and soil biogeochemical properties.

  6. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the βmin is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the βmin, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the βmin. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  7. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with genetically proven mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Franik, Sebastian; Huidekoper, Hidde H; Visser, Gepke; de Vries, Maaike; de Boer, Lonneke; Hermans-Peters, Marion; Rodenburg, Richard; Verhaak, Chris; Vlieger, Arine M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wortmann, Saskia B

    2015-05-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases, clinical management of these conditions remains largely supportive, and no effective treatment is available. We therefore assumed that the burden of disease combined with the lack of adequate treatment leaves open a big market for complementary and alternative medicine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in children and adults with genetically proven mitochondrial disease. The reported use was surprisingly high, with 88% of children and 91% of adults having used some kind of complementary and alternative medicine in the last 2 years. Also, the mean cost of these treatments was impressive, being 489/year for children and 359/year for adult patients. Over-the-counter remedies (e.g., food supplements, homeopathy) and self-help techniques (e.g., Reiki, yoga) were the most frequently used complementary and alternative therapies in our cohort: 54% of children and 60% of adults reported the various complementary and alternative medicine therapies to be effective. Given the fact that currently no effective treatment exists, further research toward the different therapies is needed, as our study clearly demonstrates that such therapies are highly sought after by affected patients.

  8. Academic Provenance: Mapping Geoscience Students' Academic Pathways to their Career Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, H. R.; Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Targeted recruitment and retention efforts for the geosciences have become increasingly important with the growing concerns about program visibility on campuses, and given that geoscience degree production remains low relative to the demand for new geoscience graduates. Furthermore, understanding the career trajectories of geoscience degree recipients is essential for proper occupational placement. A theoretical framework was developed by Houlton (2010) to focus recruitment and retention efforts. This "pathway model" explicitly maps undergraduate students' geoscience career trajectories, which can be used to refine existing methods for recruiting students into particular occupations. Houlton's (2010) framework identified three main student population groups: Natives, Immigrants or Refugees. Each student followed a unique pathway, which consisted of six pathway steps. Each pathway step was comprised of critical incidents that influenced students' overall career trajectories. An aggregate analysis of students' pathways (Academic Provenance Analysis) showed that different populations' pathways exhibited a deviation in career direction: Natives indicated intentions to pursue industry or government sectors, while Immigrants intended to pursue academic or research-based careers. We expanded on Houlton's (2010) research by conducting a follow-up study to determine if the original participants followed the career trajectories they initially indicated in the 2010 study. A voluntary, 5-question, short-answer survey was administered via email. We investigated students' current pathway steps, pathway deviations, students' goals for the near future and their ultimate career ambitions. This information may help refine Houlton's (2010) "pathway model" and may aid geoscience employers in recruiting the new generation of professionals for their respective sectors.

  9. Primary Cultures of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells or Podocytes with Proven Origin

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Kevin; Sechi, Antonio; Sauer-Lehnen, Sibille; Tag, Carmen; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; Warsow, Gregor; Schordan, Sandra; Mostertz, Jörg; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Homuth, Georg; Endlich, Nicole; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Fuellen, Georg; Endlich, Karlhans; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or podocytes using FACsorting. By this approach, the morphology of primary glomerular epithelial cells in culture could be resolved: Primary podocytes formed either large cells with intracytoplasmatic extensions or smaller spindle shaped cells, depending on specific culture conditions. Primary PECs were small and exhibited a spindle-shaped or polygonal morphology. In the very early phases of primary culture, rapid changes in gene expression (e.g. of WT-1 and Pax-2) were observed. However, after prolonged culture primary PECs and podocytes still segregated clearly in a transcriptome analysis - demonstrating that the origin of primary cell cultures is important. Of the classical markers, synaptopodin and podoplanin expression were differentially regulated the most in primary PEC and podocyte cultures. However, no expression of any endogenous gene allowed to differentiate between the two cell types in culture. Finally, we show that the transcription factor WT1 is also expressed by PECs. In summary, genetic tagging of PECs and podocytes is a novel and necessary tool to derive pure primary cultures with proven origin. These cultures will be a powerful tool for the emerging field of parietal epithelial cell biology. PMID:22529955

  10. Proven, long-life hydrogen/oxygen thrust chambers for space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. P.; Price, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the manned space station has necessitated the development of technology related to an onboard auxiliary propulsion system (APS) required to provide for various space station attitude control, orbit positioning, and docking maneuvers. A key component of this onboard APS is the thrust chamber design. To develop the required thrust chamber technology to support the Space Station Program, the NASA Lewis Research Center has sponsored development programs under contracts with Aerojet TechSystems Company and with Bell Aerospace Textron Division of Textron, Inc. During the NASA Lewis sponsored program with Aerojet TechSystems, a 25 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen thruster has been developed and proven as a viable candidate to meet the needs of the Space Station Program. Likewise, during the development program with Bell Aerospace, a 50 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen Thrust Chamber has been developed and has demonstrated reliable, long-life expectancy at anticipated space station operating conditions. Both these thrust chambers were based on design criteria developed in previous thruster programs and successfully verified in experimental test programs. Extensive thermal analyses and models were used to design the thrusters to achieve total impulse goals of 2 x 10 to the 6th power lb sub f-sec. Test data for each thruster will be compared to the analytical predictions for the performance and heat transfer characteristics. Also, the results of thrust chamber life verification tests will be presented.

  11. Partitioning sediment flux by provenance and tracing erosion patterns in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, Alberto; Goren, Liran; Castelltort, Sébastien; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    We critically evaluate the potential and limitations of an alternative way to calculate erosion rates based on petrographic and mineralogical fingerprints of fluvial sediments coupled with gauged sediment fluxes. Our approach allows us to apportion sediment loads to different lithological units, and consequently to discriminate erosion rates in different tectonic domains within each catchment. Our provenance data on modern Taiwanese sands indicate focused erosion in the Backbone Range and Tananao Complex of the retrowedge. Lower rates are inferred for the northern part of the island characterized by tectonic extension and for the western foothills in the prowedge. The principal factor of uncertainty affecting our estimates is the inevitably inaccurate evaluation of total sediment load, because only the suspended flux was measured. Another is the assumption that suspended load and bed load are derived from the same sources in fixed proportions. Additional errors are caused by the insufficiently precise definition of lithologically similar compositional end-members and by the temporal variability of sediment composition at the outlet of each catchment related to the spatial variability of erosional processes and triggering agents such as earthquakes, typhoons, and landslides. To evaluate the robustness of our findings, we applied a morphometric technique based on the stream-power model. The results obtained are broadly consistent, with local discrepancies ascribed to poorly constrained assumptions and choices of scaling parameters. Our local erosion estimates are consistent with GPS uplift rates measured on a decadal timescale and generally higher than basin-wide results inferred from cosmogenic-nuclide and thermochronology data.

  12. Features of Occult Invasion in Biopsy-Proven DCIS at Breast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wisner, Dorota Jakubowski; Hwang, E. Shelley; Chang, C. Belinda; Tso, Hilda H.; Joe, Bonnie N.; Lessing, Juan N.; Lu, Ying; Hylton, Nola M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if MRI BI-RADS criteria or radiologist perception correlate with presence of invasive cancer after initial core biopsy of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Materials and Methods Retrospective search spanning 2000-2007 identified all core-biopsy diagnoses of pure DCIS that coincided with preoperative MRI. Two radiologists fellowship-trained in breast imaging categorized lesions according to ACR MRI-BIRADS lexicon and estimated likelihood of occult invasion. Semi-quantitative signal enhancement ratio (SER) kinetic analysis was also performed. Results were compared to histopathology. Results 51 consecutive patients with primary core biopsy-proven DCIS and concurrent MRI were identified. Of these, 13 patients (25%) had invasion at excision. Invasion correlated significantly with presence of a mass for both readers (p=0.012, 0.001), rapid initial enhancement for Reader 1 (p=0.001), and washout kinetics for Reader 2 (p=0.012). Significant correlation between washout and invasion was confirmed by SER (p=0.006) when threshold percent enhancement was sufficiently high (130%), corresponding to rapidly enhancing portions of the lesion. Radiologist perception of occult invasion was strongly correlated to true presence of invasion. Conclusion These results provide evidence that certain BI-RADS MRI criteria, as well as radiologist perception, correlate with occult invasion after an initial core biopsy of DCIS. PMID:24165314

  13. Features of occult invasion in biopsy-proven DCIS at breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Wisner, Dorota Jakubowski; Hwang, E Shelley; Chang, C Belinda; Tso, Hilda H; Joe, Bonnie N; Lessing, Juan N; Lu, Ying; Hylton, Nola M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if MRI BI-RADS criteria or radiologist perception correlate with presence of invasive cancer after initial core biopsy of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Retrospective search spanning 2000-2007 identified all core-biopsy diagnoses of pure DCIS that coincided with preoperative MRI. Two radiologists fellowship-trained in breast imaging categorized lesions according to ACR MRI BI-RADS lexicon and estimated likelihood of occult invasion. Semiquantitative signal enhancement ratio (SER) kinetic analysis was also performed. Results were compared with histopathology. 51 consecutive patients with primary core biopsy-proven DCIS and concurrent MRI were identified. Of these, 13 patients (25%) had invasion at excision. Invasion correlated significantly with presence of a mass for both readers (p = 0.012 and 0.001), rapid initial enhancement for Reader 1 (p = 0.001), and washout kinetics for Reader 2 (p = 0.012). Significant correlation between washout and invasion was confirmed by SER (p = 0.006) when threshold percent enhancement was sufficiently high (130%), corresponding to rapidly enhancing portions of the lesion. Radiologist perception of occult invasion was strongly correlated with true presence of invasion. These results provide evidence that certain BI-RADS MRI criteria, as well as radiologist perception, correlate with occult invasion after an initial core biopsy of DCIS.

  14. NASA's Small Explorer spacecraft - Flight proven, high performance, reliable, and still small

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watzin, James G.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) project has developed a series of highly capable small satellites that are being used to support astrophysics and space physics investigations. These satellites, while both small and economical, give up nothing in performance and versatility to the larger satellites developed over the past 15 years within the Explorer program. Innovative engineering and new technology advances have increased the potential scientific return of the SMEX spacecraft to a level comparable to larger carriers. The design has struck a balance between mission risk and cost that has allowed for the development of an extremely capable spacecraft. The first SMEX mission, Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), has been in orbit since July 1992 and is continuing to perform well. It has proven the merits of this design approach. This paper describes the fundamental strategies and technologies used in developing the design. It outlines the key elements of the system architecture and describes the capabilities and merits of the major subsystems. Major design trade-offs are highlighted. Emphasis is placed on the innovative attitude control system which was developed for the SAMPEX mission. The paper also describes the unique SMEX approach to mission operations.

  15. Late Cenozoic tephrostratigraphy offshore the southern Central American Volcanic Arc: 1. Tephra ages and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Alvarado, G. E.; Wang, K.-L.; Straub, S. M.; Hemming, S. R.; Frische, M.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2016-11-01

    We studied the tephra inventory of 18 deep-sea drill sites from six DSDP/ODP legs (Legs 84, 138, 170, 202, 205, and 206) and two IODP legs (Legs 334 and 344) offshore the southern Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Eight drill sites are located on the incoming Cocos plate and 10 drill sites on the continental slope of the Caribbean plate. In total, we examined ˜840 ash-bearing horizons and identified ˜650 of these as primary ash beds of which 430 originated from the CAVA. Correlations of ash beds were established between marine cores and with terrestrial tephra deposits, using major and trace element glass compositions with respect to relative stratigraphic order. As a prerequisite for marine-terrestrial correlations, we present a new geochemical data set for significant Neogene and Quaternary Costa Rican tephras. Moreover, new Ar/Ar ages for marine tephras have been determined and marine ash beds are also dated using the pelagic sedimentation rates. The resulting correlations and provenance analyses build a tephrochronostratigraphic framework for Costa Rica and Nicaragua that covers the last <15 Myr. We define 39 correlations of marine ash beds to specific tephra formations in Costa Rica and Nicaragua; from the 4.15 Ma Lower Sandillal Ignimbrite to the 3.5 ka Rincón de la Vieja Tephra from Costa Rica, as well as another 32 widely distributed tephra layers for which their specific region of origin along Costa Rica and Nicaragua can be constrained.

  16. Provenance study of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. X.; Y Gao, Z.; Li, R. W.; Zhao, W. J.; Xie, J. Z.; Feng, S. L.; Zhuo, Z. X.; Y Fan, D.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z. F.; Liu, H.

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports our study of the provenance of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain. The content of 29 elements in the Yaozhou porcelain samples was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analysed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the trend fuzzy cluster diagrams. These samples with different glaze colour, ranging over more than 700 years, were fired in different kilns. Our analysis indicates the relatively concentrated distribution of the sources of the raw material for the Yaozhou porcelain body samples. They can be classified into two independent periods, i.e. the Tang (AD 618-907) and the Five Dynasties (AD 907-960) period, and the Song (AD 960-1279) and Jin (AD 1115-1234) period. Our analysis also indicates that the sources of the raw material for the ancient Yaozhou porcelain glaze samples are quite scattered and those for the black glaze in the Tang Dynasty are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the celadon glaze and the white glaze in the Tang Dynasty are widely distributed and those for the celadon glaze in the Song Dynasty are close to those of the bluish white glaze in the Jin Dynasty, and they are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the porcelain glazes cover those of the porcelain bodies.

  17. Deep water provenance and dynamics of the (de)glacial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippold, Jörg; Gutjahr, Marcus; Blaser, Patrick; Christner, Emanuel; de Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Luiza; Mulitza, Stefan; Christl, Marcus; Wombacher, Frank; Böhm, Evelyn; Antz, Benny; Cartapanis, Olivier; Vogel, Hendrik; Jaccard, Samuel L.

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing past modes of ocean circulation is an essential task in paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. To this end, we combine two sedimentary proxies, Nd isotopes (εNd) and the 231Pa/230Th ratio, both of which are not directly involved in the global carbon cycle, but allow the reconstruction of water mass provenance and provide information about the past strength of overturning circulation, respectively. In this study, combined 231Pa/230Th and εNd down-core profiles from six Atlantic Ocean sediment cores are presented. The data set is complemented by the two available combined data sets from the literature. From this we derive a comprehensive picture of spatial and temporal patterns and the dynamic changes of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation over the past ∼25 ka. Our results provide evidence for a consistent pattern of glacial/stadial advances of Southern Sourced Water along with a northward circulation mode for all cores in the deeper (>3000 m) Atlantic. Results from shallower core sites support an active overturning cell of shoaled Northern Sourced Water during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Furthermore, we report evidence for a short-lived period of intensified AMOC in the early Holocene.

  18. Distribution and provenance of detrital minerals in southern coast of Shandong Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinqing; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Yong; Song, Hongying; Bi, Shipu; Cao, Zhimin; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-10-01

    Detrital minerals of 137 offshore and 22 river sediment samples collected from Qingdao coastal areas have been analyzed. Four mineral assemblage provinces can be classified by Q-mode cluster analysis. Factor analysis identifies two major factors that account for the total variability in most common minerals: 1) based on the relationship of quartz, hornblende, actinolite, micas, and authigenic pyrite, 41.55% of the variability is related to sediment sources; 2) based on the relationship of epidote, garnet, sphere, and ilmenite, 23.21% can be related to strong hydrodynamic conditions that control transport and sedimentation. By comparing mineral compositions of river waters in the study area, the following four mineral provenances can be identified. The Qingdao-Laoshan nearshore area has a quartz-feldspar-epidote-hornblende-limenite-limonite-sphene assemblage, which is largely attributed to relict sediment and coastal erosion. The Jimo-Haiyang nearshore area has a quartz-feldspar-hornblende-epidote-limonite-mica-actinolite assemblage, derived largely from the Wulong River and Rushan River, and is also affected by the Huanghe River, while the Qianliyan Island area in the deeper offshore area separated by a mud belt has a similar assemblage. The Haiyang-Rushan nearshore area has a quartz-feldspar-hornblende-epidote-micas-limonite assemblage, indicating multiple sources from the Rushan River, the Wulong River, the Huanghe River, and coastal erosion. The central area, located in an eddy center, has a mica-authigenic pyrite-hornblende-quartzfeldspar assemblage, indicating multiple sources dominated by Huanghe River distal sediments.

  19. A convergent diffusion and social marketing approach for disseminating proven approaches to physical activity promotion.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W; Maibach, Edward W; Buller, David B

    2006-10-01

    Approaches from diffusion of innovations and social marketing are used here to propose efficient means to promote and enhance the dissemination of evidence-based physical activity programs. While both approaches have traditionally been conceptualized as top-down, center-to-periphery, centralized efforts at social change, their operational methods have usually differed. The operational methods of diffusion theory have a strong relational emphasis, while the operational methods of social marketing have a strong transactional emphasis. Here, we argue for a convergence of diffusion of innovation and social marketing principles to stimulate the efficient dissemination of proven-effective programs. In general terms, we are encouraging a focus on societal sectors as a logical and efficient means for enhancing the impact of dissemination efforts. This requires an understanding of complex organizations and the functional roles played by different individuals in such organizations. In specific terms, ten principles are provided for working effectively within societal sectors and enhancing user involvement in the processes of adoption and implementation.

  20. Provenance studies on Dead Sea scrolls parchment by means of quantitative micro-XRF.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Timo; Rabin, Ira; Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kindzorra, Emanuel; Hahn, Oliver

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we address the question of the provenance and origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts. A characteristic low ratio of chlorine to bromine, corresponding to that of the Dead Sea water, may serve as an indicator for local production. For this aim we developed a non-destructive procedure to determine the Cl/Br ratio in the parchment of these manuscripts. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) measurements of a large number of parchment and leather fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls were analyzed with a routine we developed based on fundamental parameter quantification. This routine takes into account the absorption of the collagen matrix and the influence of the different sample thicknesses. To calculate the representative Cl/Br ratio for each fragment, we investigated the lateral homogeneity and determined the total mass deposition using the intensity of the inelastically scattered, characteristic tube radiation. The distribution of the Cl/Br ratios thus obtained from the μ-XRF measurements make it possible to distinguish fragments whose origin lies within the Dead Sea region from those produced in other locations.

  1. Survival of patients with pathologically proven multiple system atrophy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shlomo, Y; Wenning, G K; Tison, F; Quinn, N P

    1997-02-01

    A systematic review of the neurologic literature identified 433 cases of pathologically proven multiple system atrophy over a 100-year period. Earlier case reports included patients younger in age with more frequent cerebellar involvement. Mean age of onset was 54.2 years (range 31 to 78) and survival was 6.2 years (range 0.5 to 24). Survival analysis showed a secular trend from a median duration of 4.9 years for publications between 1887 and 1970 to 6.8 years between 1991 and 1994. Older age of onset was associated with shorter survival; the hazard ratio for patients with onset after 60 years was 1.8 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.3) compared with patients between 31 and 49 years. Cerebellar features were associated with marginally increased survival (6.1 years versus 5.4 years; p = 0.04). There were no difference in survival according to gender, parkinsonian, or pyramidal features or whether the patient was classified as striatonigral degeneration or olivopontocerebellar atrophy type. These results demonstrate the poor prognosis for patients with multiple system atrophy but may be biased toward the worst cases. Future research needs to recruit more representative samples.

  2. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol.

  3. Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances.

    PubMed

    James, S A; Bell, D T

    2000-09-01

    Light availability strongly affects leaf structure of the distinctive ontogenetic leaf forms of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus. Late-maturing plants from St. Marys, Tasmania and early maturing plants from Wilsons Promontory, Victoria (hereafter referred to as Wilsons Prom.) were grown for 9 months in 100, 50 or 10% sunlight. Growth, biomass and leaf area were significantly reduced when plants were grown in 10% sunlight. Provenance differences were minimal despite retention of the juvenile leaf form by the Tasmanian plants throughout the study. The time taken for initiation of vegetative phase change by the Wilsons Prom. saplings increased with decreasing light availability, but the nodal position of change on the main stem remained the same. Both juvenile and adult leaves remained horizontal in low light conditions, but became vertical with high irradiance. Leaf dimensions changed with ontogenetic development, but were unaffected by light availability. Juvenile leaves retained a dorsiventral anatomy and adult Wilsons Prom. leaves retained an isobilateral structure despite a tenfold difference in light availability. Stomatal density and distribution showed ontogenetic and treatment differences. At all irradiances, juvenile leaves produced the smallest stomata and adult leaves the largest stomata. Amphistomy decreased with decreasing irradiance. Detrended, correspondence analysis ordination highlighted the structural changes influenced by ontogenetic development and light availability. Adult leaves had characteristics similar to the xeromorphic, sun-leaf type found in arid, high-light conditions. Although juvenile leaves had characteristics typical of mesomorphic leaves, several structural features suggest that these leaves are more sun-adapted than adult leaves.

  4. Provenance and geochemical behavior of fluorine in the soils of an endemic fluorosis belt, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbandi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2017-05-01

    The concentration of fluorine, major, trace and rare earth elements (REEs) were used to estimate the probable sources and provenance of fluorine in the soils of an endemic fluorosis belt in central Iran. Total fluorine (TF) in soils varied from 146 to 406 mg/kg with a mean of 277.5 mg/kg. Calculated enrichment factor (EF) and single factor pollution index (SFPI) revealed that the majority of soil samples were moderately contaminated by fluorine. The very strong positive correlation of TF with weathering indices and soil's fine sized fractions indicated that chemical weathering and alteration of parent rocks/soils are the main controlling factors of fluorine behavior in soils. Fluorine affinity to immobile transition trace elements and REEs suggested the role of heavy minerals as the potential F host phases. Modal mineralogy along with SEM-EDX analysis indicated that apatite, fluorapophyllite, epidote, biotite, muscovite and chlorite, as well as, clay minerals are the main F-bearing minerals in the studied soils. Discriminant, bivariate and ternary diagrams of elemental compositions displayed similar geochemical signature of soils to intermediate-acidic rocks and local shales. Based on the weathering indices, soils were immature and showed a non-steady state weathering trend from upper continental crust (UCC), acidic and intermediate igneous source rocks towards shale composition possibly due to mixing of moderately weathered and un-weathered sources of different primary compositions.

  5. Provenance and tectonic significance of the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary successions of central and nothern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Macey, P.H.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Bauer, W.; Key, R.M.; Potter, C.J.; Armstrong, R.A.; Miller, J.A.; Randriamananjara, T.; Ralison, V.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Bejoma, M.

    2011-01-01

    New detrital zircon U–Pb age data obtained from various quartzite units of three spatially separated supracrustal packages in central and northern Madagascar, show that these units were deposited between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga and have similar aged provenances. The distribution of detrital zircon ages indicates an overwhelming contribution of sources with ages between 2.5 and 1.8 Ga. Possible source rocks with an age of 2.5 Ga are present in abundance in the crustal segments (Antananarivo, Antongil and Masora Domains) either side of a purported Neoproterozoic suture ("Betsimisaraka Suture Zone"). Recently, possible source rocks for the 1.8 Ga age peak have been recognised in southern Madagascar. All three supracrustal successions, as well as the Archaean blocks onto which they were emplaced, are intruded by mid-Neoproterozoic magmatic suites placing a minimum age on their deposition. The similarities in detrital pattern, maximum and minimum age of deposition in the three successions, lend some support to a model in which all of Madagascar's Archaean blocks form a coherent crustal entity (the Greater Dharwar Craton), rather than an amalgamate of disparate crustal blocks brought together only during Neoproterozoic convergence. However, potential source terranes exist outside Madagascar and on either side of the Neoproterozoic sutures, so that a model including a Neoproterozoic suture in Madagascar cannot be dispelled outright.

  6. Two pairs of proven monozygotic twins discordant for familial amyloid neuropathy (FAP) TTR Met 30

    PubMed Central

    Munar-Ques, M.; Pedrosa, J.; Coelho, T.; Gusmao, L.; Seruca, R.; Amorim, A.; Sequeiros, J.

    1999-01-01

    Twin studies are an important tool in medical genetics for the evaluation of the relative roles of genetic and non-genetic factors in several diseases. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I), TTR Met 30, was present in two sets of proven monozygotic (MZ) twins, one from Majorca and the other from Portugal. Monozygosity was established by analysis of DNA polymorphisms. Both pairs were discordant for age at onset and some clinical manifestations of FAP-I. We reviewed the differences in age at onset and clinical features in both sets and in two other pairs of presumed MZ twins with FAP-I and compared them with those in MZ twin pairs with other Mendelian disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, Huntington's disease, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and myotonic dystrophy. We conclude that, in addition to the postulated modifying genes, there must be a significant contribution from non-genetic factors to the phenotypic variability of FAP-I (age at onset and clinical expression), either because of enviromental differences or stochastic events during (or after) the twinning process.


Keywords: hereditary amyloidosis; discordant MZ twins; non-genetic factors; stochastic process PMID:10465115

  7. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted.

  8. Provenance of Gebel El-Zeit sandstones, gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wahab, Antar A.

    1992-01-01

    The Paleozoic elastic succession at Gebel Zeit chiefly consists of fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite, locally containing well-rounded quartz pebbles. The marine Araba Formation (Early Cambrian) was deposited during transgression over a Precambrian granite. The overlying Naqus Formation (Late Cambrian) is fluvial, except for the uppermost few meters. Paleocurrent data for the Araba and Naqus formations indicate derivation from the north-northeast and south-southwest respectively. Quartz typology, other morphologic features of quartz, and mineral inclusions in quartz, as well as the study of heavy minerals were used to determine the provenance of the sandstones. Quartz typology successfully identified a granitic source for the Araba Formation. A combination of parameters indicates that the Naqus Formation was derived chiefly from a metamorphic terrain. Two ratios, polycrystalline/monocrystalline quartz and undulose/non-undulose quartz, successfully distinguish sandstones of the Araba Formation from those of the Naqus Formation. These values are 0.14 and 0.25 for Araba sandstones and 0.26 and 0.46 for Naqus sandstones, respectively. These differences either reflect different source rocks, or have resulted from selective abrasion loss of polycrystalline quartz in the rigorous surf zone during the marine transgression that deposited the Araba Formation.

  9. Study of the provenance of Belgian Merovingian garnets by PIXE at IPNAS cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, F.; Vrielynck, O.; Laclavetine, K.; Chêne, G.; Strivay, D.

    2008-05-01

    Recent archaeological excavation in Belgium reveals one of the biggest Merovingian necropolis ever found in this country. This necropolis contains 436 tombs with a period of occupation of almost two centuries. Some of these tombs were very rich, especially two of them, and delivered an important funerary furniture. About 60 jewels inlaid with red garnets have been found, most of them of "cloisonné" style (namely about 450 garnets). The new extracted beam set-up of the IPNAS cyclotron (University of Liège, Belgium) has been improved in order to analyse by PIXE these garnets and try to determine their provenance. These analyses reveal that the garnets found in the necropolis of Grez-Doiceau are very homogeneous in composition (almandine garnets) and are coming almost from a unique source. These results have been compared to previous studies led in France during these past five years. This permits to identify the source of almandine garnet situated in India and to highlight differences in garnet supply between France and Belgium in Merovingian times.

  10. “Guilty until proven innocent”: the contested use of maternal mortality indicators in global health

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini T.; Béhague, Dominique P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The MMR – maternal mortality ratio – has risen from obscurity to become a major global health indicator, even appearing as an indicator of progress towards the global Sustainable Development Goals. This has happened despite intractable challenges relating to the measurement of maternal mortality. Even after three decades of measurement innovation, maternal mortality data are widely presumed to be of poor quality, or, as one leading measurement expert has put it, ‘guilty until proven innocent’. This paper explores how and why leading epidemiologists, demographers and statisticians have devoted the better part of the last three decades to producing ever more sophisticated and expensive surveys and mathematical models of globally comparable MMR estimates. The development of better metrics is publicly justified by the need to know which interventions save lives and at what cost. We show, however, that measurement experts’ work has also been driven by the need to secure political priority for safe motherhood and by donors’ need to justify and monitor the results of investment flows. We explore the many effects and consequences of this measurement work, including the eclipsing of attention to strengthening much-needed national health information systems. We analyse this measurement work in relation to broader political and economic changes affecting the global health field, not least the incursion of neoliberal, business-oriented donors such as the World Bank and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation whose institutional structures have introduced new forms of administrative oversight and accountability that depend on indicators. PMID:28392630

  11. Data Analysis Provenance: Use Case for Exoplanet Search in CoRoT Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, L.; Salete Marcon Gomes Vaz, M.; Emílio, M.; Ferreira da Rocha, J. C.; Janot Pacheco, E.; Carlos Boufleur, R.

    2012-09-01

    CoRoT (COnvection Rotation and Planetary Transits) is a mission led by the French national space agency CNES, in collaboration with Austria, Spain, Germany, Belgium and Brazil. The mission priority is dedicated to exoplanet search and stellar seismology. CoRoT light curves database became public after one year of their delivery to the CoRoT Co-Is, following the CoRoT data policy. The CoRoT archive contains thousands of light curves in FITS format. Several exoplanet search algorithms require detrend algorithms to remove both stellar and instrumental signal, improving the chance to detect a transit. Different detrend and transit detection algorithms can be applied to the same database. Tracking the origin of the information and how the data was derived in each level in the data analysis process is essential to allow sharing, reuse, reprocessing and further analysis. This work aims at applying a formalized and codified knowledge model by means of domain ontology. It allows to enrich the data analysis with semantic and standardization. It holds the provenance information in the database for a posteriori recovers by humans or software agents.

  12. [Global and Spatial Gustatory Function after Proven Unilateral Transsection of the Chorda Tympani].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H; Schönherr, A; Bitter, T; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2015-12-01

    A transection of the chorda tympani results in loss of spatial gustatory function on the ipsilateral tongue. Most patients do not notice anymore this alteration. The cause is unclear. Do adjacent gustatory areas become more sensitive or is the gustatory perception rather independent of the size of stimulated area? 51 patients with proven unilateral transection of the chorda tympani and 51 healthy subjects were tested for gustatory recognition thresholds. The methods used were the "three-drops-choice-technique" by Henkin to evaluate the whole mouth taste (global taste examination) and the "spatial taste test" to evaluate the local gustatory function on 4 areas of the tongue. The taste solutions were sweet, sour, salty and bitter with increasing concentrations. The global gustatory function of the patients and of the control group did not differ in either the 4 taste qualities but the composite score was increased within the group of patients. Most patients did not realize that. The spatial taste examination showed reduction of taste perception on 3 of the 4 gustatory areas of the tongue in the patients. The decreased gustatory function on the area of the transected chorda remained unchanged over time. The taste attenuation on the ipsilateral back area and the contralateral front area improved over time. Transection of chorda tympani also leads to an attenuation of spatial gustatory function in adjacent areas. Therefore, adjacent areas cannot be taken as reference. Instead, taste function has to be compared to the results of healthy probands. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Geochemistry of Lower Cretaceous strata of northern Priverkhoyansk Foreland Basin (NE SIBERIA): implications for provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Dmitry; Ershova, Victoria; Ivensen, Galina; Prokopiev, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The study area is located in the lower reaches of the Lena R., in between Chekurovka and Chucha Capes. The Lower Cretaceous clastic rocks of the northern part of the Priverkhoyansk foreland basin adjacent to the front of the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt have been studied. The Lower Cretaceous sections are composed of marine and fluvial terrigenous rocks. Marine deposits are represented by alternating sandstones and siltstones, while continental ones by alternating thick sandstones units (up to 400 m) and shale units with subordinate sandstones beds. The thickness of studied strata varies from 800-1900 m. The whole-rock geochemical analyses were done for 121 samples The geochemical study show: 1) uniform, persistent chemical composition close to that of acid igneous rocks; 2) low TiO2 content; 3) low MgO and FeO* values; 4) prevalence of FeO over Fe2O3 ; 5) high alkalies content with prevailing Na2O; 6) positive correlation between TiO2 and FeO* contents and negative correlation between Na2 O+K2 O and FeO* values. The data point to the same source of sediments both for marine and fluvial deposits with prevailing felsic rocks in provenance area. This research was supported by RFBR grants 14-05-31298, 13-05-00700, 13-05-00943 research grant of Saint Petersburg State University and Grant of President of Russia for Young Scientist MK-2902.2013.5.

  14. Effect of tobacco, alcohol, and smoking habits in oral precancer with histological proven epithelial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Seema; Chandra, Saumya; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, S P; Kumar, Sandeep; Goel, Madhu Mati

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of risk factors tobacco, alcohol, and smoking habits in oral precancer patients with epithelial dysplasia status. The study sample included biopsy proven cases of 29 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 43 cases of clinical leukoplakia. Histopathological diagnosis was made from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues as per WHO criteria. The relevant clinical and demographic details were recorded after interviewing the patients. Risk for tobacco, alcohol and smoking was determined by logistic regression analysis by SPSS software. Presence of epithelial dysplasia was significantly associated with tobacco in OSMF & both tobacco and smoking habits in leukoplakia. In OSMF tobacco was associated with 14.16-fold (95% CI, 1.36-147.07; p < 0.026) and in leukoplakia tobacco was associated with 4.66-fold (95% CI, 1.00-21.63; p < 0.047) and smoking was associated with 9.20-fold (95% CI, 1.65-51.28; p < 0.011) increased risk of epithelial dysplasia. Tobacco consumption was independent risk factor for epithelial dysplasia in OSMF and both tobacco and cigarette smoking were independent factors for epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia.

  15. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with imaging-proven lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Galm, R; Fröhling, M; Rittmeister, M; Schmitt, E

    1998-01-01

    A dysfunction of a joint is defined as a reversible functional restriction of motion presenting with hypomobility according to manual medicine terminology. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction in patients with low back pain and sciatica and imaging-proven disc herniation. We examined the SIJs of 150 patients with low back pain and sciatica; all of these patients had herniated lumbar disks, but none of them had sensory or motor losses. Forty-six patients, hereinafter referred to as group A, were diagnosed with dysfunction of the SIJ. The remaining 104 patients, hereinafter referred to as group B, had no SIJ dysfunction. Dysfunctions were resolved with mobilizing and manipulative techniques of manual medicine. Regardless of SIJ findings, all patients received intensive physiotherapy throughout a 3-week hospitalisation. At the 3 weeks follow-up, 34 patients of group A (73.9%) reported an improvement of lumbar and ischiadic pain, 5 patients were pain free. Improvement was recorded in 57 of the group B patients (54.8%); however, nobody in group B was free of symptoms. We conclude that in the presence of lumbar and ischiadic symptoms our presented data suggest consideration of SIJ dysfunction, requiring manual medicine examination and, in the presence of SIJ dysfunction, appropriate therapy, regardless of intervertebral disc pathomorphology. This could avoid wrong indications for nucleotomy.

  16. The incidence of biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy is associated with multiple socioeconomic deprivation.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Mackinnon, Bruce; McNeice, Valerie; Fox, Jonathan G; Geddes, Colin C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is more common in areas of socioeconomic deprivation, but the relationship with the incidence and diagnosis of biopsy-proven renal disease is unknown. In order to study this, all consecutive adult patients undergoing renal biopsy in West and Central Scotland over an 11-year period were prospectively analyzed for demographics, indication, and histologic diagnosis. Using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, 1555 eligible patients were separated into quintiles of socioeconomic deprivation according to postcode. Patients in the most deprived quintile were significantly more likely to undergo biopsy compared with patients from less deprived areas (109.5 compared to 95.9 per million population/year). Biopsy indications were significantly more likely to be nephrotic syndrome, or significant proteinuria without renal impairment. Patients in the most deprived quintile were significantly more likely to have glomerulonephritis. There was a significant twofold increase in the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy in the patients residing in the most compared with the least deprived postcodes not explained by the demographics of the underlying population. Thus, patients from areas of socioeconomic deprivation in West and Central Scotland are significantly more likely to undergo native renal biopsy and have a higher prevalence of IgA nephropathy.

  17. Sarcoidosis with involvement of the paranasal sinuses - a retrospective analysis of 12 biopsy-proven cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extrapulmonary involvement by sarcoidosis is observed in about 30–40% of patients with sarcoidosis. Little is known about the frequency and clinical characteristics of sinonasal sarcoidosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of biopsy-proven sinonasal sarcoidosis. Patients were identified from a patient population of 1360 patients with sarcoidosis at the Outpatient Clinic for Sarcoidosis and Rare Lung Diseases at LungClinic Grosshansdorf, a tertiary care hospital for respiratory medicine. Results The most frequent signs and symptoms were nasal polyps (4 cases), epistaxis (3 cases), nasal crusts (8 cases) and anosmia (5 cases). Pulmonary sarcoidosis of the patients was staged as stage I (n = 1) and stage II (n = 11) on chest radiographs. Spirometry was normal in 11 patients. 7 patients had a diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide of less than 90% of predicted. Other organs were affected in 8 patients. All patients received systemic corticosteroid treatment and most patients received topical steroids. 5 patients received steroid sparing agents. Repeated sinus surgery had to be performed in 4 patients. Conclusions Sinonasal involvement is a rare disease manifestation of sarcoidosis with a frequency slightly lower than 1% in our patient population. The clinical course of sinonasal sarcoidosis can be complicated by relapse despite systemic immunosuppressive treatment and repeated sinus surgery. PMID:24070015

  18. Maximum sedimentation ages and provenance of metasedimentary rocks from Tinos Island, Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsken, Tim; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of five metasedimentary rocks from the Lower Unit on Tinos Island (Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece) document supply of detritus from various Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks as well as post-depositional metamorphic zircon formation. Essential features of the studied zircon populations are Late Cretaceous (70-80 Ma) maximum sedimentation ages for the lithostratigraphic succession above the lowermost dolomite marble, significant contributions from Triassic to Neoproterozoic source rocks, minor influx of detritus recording Paleoproterozoic and older provenance (1.9-2.1, 2.4-2.5 and 2.7-2.8 Ga) and a lack or paucity of zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages (1.1-1.8 Ga). In combination with biostratigraphic evidence, the new dataset indicates that Late Cretaceous or younger rocks occur on top of or very close to the basal Triassic metacarbonates, suggesting a gap in the stratigraphic record near the base of the metamorphic succession. The time frame for sediment deposition is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon ages (70-80 Ma) and metamorphic overgrowths that are related to high-pressure/low-temperature overprinting in the Eocene. This time interval possibly indicates a significant difference to the sedimentation history of the southern Cyclades, where Late Cretaceous detrital zircons have not yet been detected.

  19. Terrigenous sediment provenance from geochemical tracers, south Molokai reef flat, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takesue, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Land-derived runoff is one of the greatest threats to coral-reef health. Identification of runoff sources is an important step in erosion mitigation efforts. A geochemical sediment provenance study was done in uplands and across the adjacent fringing reef on the southeast shore of Molokai, Hawaii, to determine whether sediment runoff originated from hillsides or gulches. Source-region identification was based on geochemical differences between alkalic basalt, which outcrops on hillsides, and tholeiitic basalt, which outcrops in gulches. In Kawela watershed, copper to iron ratios (Cu/Fe) were distinct in hillside soil versus gulch sediment and suggest that hillside erosion is the predominant mechanism of sediment delivery to the nearshore. This suggests that runoff-mitigation efforts should take steps to reduce hillside erosion. Cadmium to thorium ratios (Cd/Th) in nearshore sediment suggest that there is a high-Cd source of runoff east of Kamalo Gulch. This compositional difference is consistent with the predominance of tholeiitic basalt on the eastern end of Molokai.

  20. A Proven, Industrial Magnetron Sputtering System With Excellent Expansion And Scale-Up Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.

    1987-11-01

    Airco Solar Products began as a business unit of Airco Temescal in the early 1970's. The first large area magnetron sputtering deposition occurred in 1974, and the first large area magnetron sputtering system was built and operated under contract to Guardian Industries in Carleton, Michigan in 1977, and was later sold to Guardian. This system continues in three-shift production today. A smaller development system, designed for use in the architectural glass coating industry, was introduced in parallel with the large area coaters. There are now over seventeen of these systems, called the ILS-1600, in use or on order throughout the world. This is a proven, industrial-style development sputter deposition system and has an excellent field record in the areas of versatility and low maintenance requirements. Airco Solar Products has recently begun to market this system into other applications such as the photovoltaics industry, the flat panel display industry and other specialty industries. The features of this system such as overall design, expandability, process scale-up and available options will be discussed. Expanded versions of this system currently in the field will be reviewed, and future applications will be discussed.

  1. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange Proven Secure against Insider Dictionary Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. PMID:25309956

  2. Provenance study from petrography of the late Permian - Early Triassic sandstones of the Balfour Formation Karoo Supergroup, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghenekome, M. E.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Hammond, N. Q.; van Bever Donker, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Non marine clastic sediments from the Late Permian - Early Triassic Balfour Formation of the Karoo Supergroup were studied to infer the composition, provenance and influence of weathering conditions. Petrographic studies based on quantitative analysis of the detrital minerals reveal that these sediments (mainly sandstones) are mostly composed of quartz, feldspar and sedimentary and metamorphic rock fragments. There is no significant petrographic variation across the sandstone succession of the study. The sandstones are dominantly feldspathic litharenite and ultralithofeldspathic in composition indicating a metamorphic source area. Modal analysis data plot in the dissected and transitional arc block provenance fields of QmFLt (quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments) diagram suggesting an active margin and magmatic arc signature preserving a recycled provenance.

  3. Responses of leaf nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates in different Quercus species/provenances to moderate climate changes.

    PubMed

    Li, M-H; Cherubini, P; Dobbertin, M; Arend, M; Xiao, W-F; Rigling, A

    2013-01-01

    Global warming and shortage of water have been evidenced in the recent past and are predicted for the future. Climate change will inevitably have considerable impact on plant physiology, growth, productivity and forest ecosystem functions. The present study determined the effects of simulated daytime air warming (+1 to 1.5 °C during the growing season), drought (-40% and -57% of mean precipitation of 728 mm during the 2007 and 2008 growing season, respectively) and their combination, on leaf nitrogen (N) and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) of two Quercus species (Q. robur and Q. petraea) and provenances (two provenances for each species) grown in two soil types in Switzerland across two treatment years, to test the hypothesis that leaf N and NSC in the more water-sensitive species (Q. robur) and provenances (originating from water-rich locations) will more strongly respond to global warming and water deficit, compared to those in the more drought-tolerant species (Q. petraea) or provenances. No species- and provenance-specific responses in leaf N and NSC to the climate treatment were found, indicating that the results failed to support our hypothesis. The between-species variation of leaf N and NSC concentrations mainly reflected differences in biology of the two species, and the between-provenance variation of N and NSC concentrations apparently mirrored the climate of their origins. Hence, we conclude that (i) the two Quercus species studied are somewhat insensitive, due to their distribution covering a wide geographical and climate range, to moderate climate change within Switzerland, and (ii) a moderate global warming of B1 scenario (IPCC 2007) will not, or at least less, negatively affect the N and carbon physiology in Q. robur and Q. petraea.

  4. Biomechanical differences in the stem straightening process among Pinus pinaster provenances. A new approach for early selection of stem straightness.

    PubMed

    Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario; Pando, Valentín; Martínez-Zurimendi, Pablo; Peñalvo, Alejandro; Báscones, Esther; Moulia, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Stem straightness is an important selection trait in Pinus pinaster Ait. breeding programs. Despite the stability of stem straightness rankings in provenance trials, the efficiency of breeding programs based on a quantitative index of stem straightness remains low. An alternative approach is to analyze biomechanical processes that underlie stem form. The rationale for this selection method is that genetic differences in the biomechanical processes that maintain stem straightness in young plants will continue to control stem form throughout the life of the tree. We analyzed the components contributing most to genetic differences among provenances in stem straightening processes by kinetic analysis and with a biomechanical model defining the interactions between the variables involved (Fournier's model). This framework was tested on three P. pinaster provenances differing in adult stem straightness and growth. One-year-old plants were tilted at 45 degrees, and individual stem positions and sizes were recorded weekly for 5 months. We measured the radial extension of reaction wood and the anatomical features of wood cells in serial stem cross sections. The integral effect of reaction wood on stem leaning was computed with Fournier's model. Responses driven by both primary and secondary growth were involved in the stem straightening process, but secondary-growth-driven responses accounted for most differences among provenances. Plants from the straight-stemmed provenance showed a greater capacity for stem straightening than plants from the sinuous provenances mainly because of (1) more efficient reaction wood (higher maturation strains) and (2) more pronounced secondary-growth-driven autotropic decurving. These two process-based traits are thus good candidates for early selection of stem straightness, but additional tests on a greater number of genotypes over a longer period are required.

  5. Influence of sea level change on sediment provenance variations since the last glaciation in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwarungrueangkul, T.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clay mineralogy and grain size of 170 sediment samples from Core MD05-2893 located near the Molengraaff paleo-river mouth on the upper Sunda slope in the southern South China Sea were investigated to assess the effect of sea level change on sediment provenance variations. The clay mineral results show high contents of smectite (35-55%), moderate contents of illite (16-31%), kaolinite (11-29%), and chlorite (8-15%). Due to distinction of clay mineral assemblages from each sediment provenance, the Indonesian Archipelago is the majority of smectite source, whereas North Boneo mainly provides illite to the southern South China Sea. Therefore, the smectite/illite ratio is applied to determine the sediment provenance variations. Both the mineralogical ratio and median grain size show consistent sediment source and dynamic variations since the last glaciation, in which case the response of sediment provenance change due to the sea level rise is expected. Our study suggests a three-stage evolution of the sediment provenance variation on the Sunda slope in the southern South China Sea: (1) during the low sea level stand of the last glaciation, the high content of smectite implies that the Indonesian Archipelago provided the majority of sediments to this area through the Molengraaff paleo-river system; (2) during the sea level rise of the deglaciation, the decreasing of smectite content but the increasing of illite indicates that the Indonesian Archipelago reduced in sediments supply due to regression of coastline, whereas North Boneo increased sediment supply; (3) during the high sea level stand of Holocene, the smectite content increases again, implying that the Indonesian Archipelago provides sediments to this area again through the ocean circulation. Consequently, the sea level rise mainly results in sediment provenance change in the southern South China Sea since the last deglaciation.

  6. Above-Ground Dimensions and Acclimation Explain Variation in Drought Mortality of Scots Pine Seedlings from Various Provenances

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment is a critical part of the life cycle, thus seedling survival might be even more important for forest persistence under recent and future climate change. Scots pine forests have been disproportionally more affected by climate change triggered forest-dieback. Nevertheless, some Scots pine provenances might prove resilient to future drought events because of the species’ large distributional range, genetic diversity, and adaptation potential. However, there is a lack of knowledge on provenance-specific survival under severe drought events and on how acclimation alters survival rates in Scots pine seedlings. We therefore conducted two drought-induced mortality experiments with potted Scots pine seedlings in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, 760 three-year-old seedlings from 12 different provenances of the south-western distribution range were subjected to the same treatment followed by the mortality experiment in 2014. In the second experiment, we addressed the question of whether acclimation to re-occurring drought stress events and to elevated temperature might decrease mortality rates. Thus, 139 four-year-old seedlings from France, Germany, and Poland were subjected to different temperature regimes (2012–2014) and drought treatments (2013–2014) before the mortality experiment in 2015. Provenances clearly differed in their hazard of drought-induced mortality, which was only partly related to the climate of their origin. Drought acclimation decreased the hazard of drought-induced mortality. Above-ground dry weight and height were the main determinants for the hazard of mortality, i.e., heavier and taller seedlings were more prone to mortality. Consequently, Scots pine seedlings exhibit a considerable provenance-specific acclimation potential against drought mortality and the selection of suitable provenances might thus facilitate seedling establishment and the persistence of Scots pine forest. PMID:27458477

  7. U-Pb provenance ages of shocked zircons from the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic systematics from analyses of single zircons identify at least two provenance ages, approximately 575 Ma and approximately 330 Ma, for zircons from the impact layer of the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado. These data are a preliminary confirmation of results reported from the same layer. The zircon provenance ages provide a unique signature for identification of the source crater since igneous rocks of these ages (or sedimentary rocks derived from them) must characterize part of the impact stratigraphy.

  8. Towards a Standard for Provenance and Context for Preservation of Data for Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Moses, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term data sets with data from many missions are needed to study trends and validate model results that are typical in Earth System Science research. Data and derived products originate from multiple missions (spaceborne, airborne and/or in situ) and from multiple organizations. During the missions as well as well past their termination, it is essential to preserve the data and products to support future studies. Key aspects of preservation are: preserving bits and ensuring data are uncorrupted, preserving understandability with appropriate documentation, and preserving reproducibility of science with appropriate documentation and other artifacts. Computer technology provides adequate standards to ensure that, with proper engineering, bits are preserved as hardware evolves. However, to ensure understandability and reproducibility, it is essential to plan ahead to preserve all the relevant data and information. There are currently no standards to identify the content that needs to be preserved, leading to non-uniformity in content and users' not being sure of whether preserved content is comprehensive. Each project, program or agency can specify the items to be preserved as a part of its data management requirements. However, broader community consensus that cuts across organizational or national boundaries would be needed to ensure comprehensiveness, uniformity and long-term utility of archived data. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), a diverse network of scientists, data stewards and technology developers, has a forum for ESIP members to collaborate on data preservation issues. During early 2011, members discussed the importance of developing a Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS) and developed an initial list of content items. This list is based on the outcome of a NASA and NOAA meeting held in 1998 under the auspices of the USGCRP, documentation requirements from NOAA and our experience with some of the NASA Earth science

  9. Tracing erosion patterns in Taiwan by quantitative provenance and geomorphological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, Alberto; Goren, Liran; Castelltort, Sebastien; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan is one of the world's foremost natural laboratories for studies of orogenesis. After only a few Ma of ongoing collision between the Chinese continental margin and the Luzon Arc, the associated orogen has reached nearly 4 km in height and 100-150 km in width. High rates of convergence leading to rapid rock uplift combine with the wet stormy climate of the sub-tropical typhoon belt to deliver annually an average detrital mass of 9500 t/km2. The doubly-vergent thrust belt is composed of more than 85% of sedimentary rocks dominant in the pro-wedge, but metamorphic rocks as young as < 10 Ma are exposed in the retro-wedge, where zircon fission-track, apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He ages are all reset and as young as 1 Ma or younger, indicating very recent fast exhumation. There is hardly another region where rock-uplift, unroofing and sediment production are of equal intensity. Quantitative analyses of tectonic and erosional processes around Taiwan have been carried out following diverse independent ways, including estimates of fluvial discharge of suspended solids, thermochronological techniques, cosmogenic measurements, and morphometry of river profiles (Dadson et al., 2003; Willett et al., 2003; Fox et al., 2014). Also the appearance and relative abundance of diagnostic rock fragments and other detrital minerals in Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary successions has been used to constrain unroofing rates, but a systematic description of compositional signatures of sediments shed by distinct tectonic domains has not been carried out so far. In this study we combine high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral analyses of modern sands carried by rivers all around Taiwan with their estimated sediment loads to calculate the detrital volumes generated from different lithologic assemblages within the orogen. River sediments are potent integrators of information that efficiently mediate provenance signals from different parts of the entire watershed, thus offering a

  10. Gulf coastal plain evolution in West Louisiana: Heavy mineral provenance and Pleistocene alluvial chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mange, Maria A.; Otvos, Ervin G.

    2005-12-01

    High Resolution Heavy Mineral Analysis (HRHMA) of late Pleistocene terrace samples, their Tertiary source rocks, and modern river sediments provided an effective tool for reconstructing sediment provenance and mapping heavy mineral provinces in southwest Louisiana. Each province, linked to a discrete source region, represents Pleistocene fluvial channel belts within which depositional activity was controlled by periods of climate, sediment supply, and sea level changes. Four coastal heavy mineral provinces have been identified. The Northern Province (NP), drained by the lower reaches of the Sabine and Calcasieu Rivers underlies level mid- and late Pleistocene coastal terrace surfaces and is distinguished by high-grade metamorphic assemblages (kyanite, staurolite, sillimanite) and abundant zircon, probably of Ouachita Mts. derivation. Transporting eroded Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Pleistocene coastal plain deposits, the modern Calcasieu and Sabine River sands in west-central and southwest Louisiana and east Texas, display identical heavy mineral composition to that of the NP. Level Late Pleistocene coastal terrace areas in the east represent the Red River Province (RRP) with dominant epidote, tourmaline, garnet, and zircon. Its mineralogy is influenced significantly by Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary units that frame the drainage basin upstream. Modern Red River sands differ in their spectra both from Red River Pleistocene coastal terrace and valley terrace deposits, interpreted by temporal fluctuations in sediment supply initiating a variable contribution of detritus from different sources. Tributaries that drain formations with high concentrations of high-grade metamorphic minerals also affected Red River valley Pleistocene terrace deposits in west-central Louisiana, enriching them in kyanite and staurolite. The Mississippi Province (MP) occupies the eastern-southeastern area of the low, flat, gently seaward-sloping Prairie coastal terrace. Whereas modern

  11. Isotope provenance of Eastern Himalayan rivers draining to the south into India, Nepal and Bhutan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemignani, Lorenzo; Wijbrans, Jan; Najman, Yani; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The two syntaxis of the Himalaya (Eastern and western) are exhuming anomalously fast compared to the rest of Himalaya , and various hypothesis and models have been proposed to explain this, including coupled tectonic-erosion model of (Tectonic Aneurism)1-2 and ductile extrusion of weak lower crust from beneath Tibet by 'channel flow' 3 . The Namche Barwa metamorphic massif constitutes the eastern syntaxis of the belt and has experienced a complex history of uplift and deformation both influenced by intense fluvial erosion associated with the Yarlung-Tzangpo. Therefore, the Himalayas represent a unique natural laboratory where the interactions between the tectonics, erosion, climate and drainage evolution can be investigated. The purpose of the work is to understand in collaboration with other PhD students and European researchers collaborating in the iTECC Marie Curie Initial training Network the importance of processes involving the complex links and feedbacks between climate, tectonics and erosion. In this multi-disciplinary and multi-technique study the mains goals will be to assess the timing of rapid exhumation, to determine provenance source area exhumation of the syntaxis in relation to the big river capture event that has implicates the Yarlung-Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra, and the effect of the dilution of the syntaxis signal 's downstream. During the work the 40Ar/39Ar dating of single-grain detrital micas technique will be used to analyze smaller and younger grains using newly developed high sensitivity multi-collection noble gas mass spectrometry. Detrital zircon fission-track is perform to provides robust cooling age time of the sources terrains. Input from eastern syntaxis has been identified in the Brahmaputra sedimentary record by the appearance of very young grains (from 10 Ma to 6 Ma)4. To compare and to increase the previously collected data, fifteen samples from the Yarlung-Brahmaputra River system and from tributaries draining the Himalaya, the

  12. Characterization and provenance of the building stones from Pompeii's archaeological site (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balassone, G.; Kastenmeier, P.; di Maio, G.; Mormone, A.; Joachimski, M.

    2009-04-01

    Pompeii is one of the most famous and complex areas of archaeological investigation in the world and with a uniquely favorable state of preservation. Even if many studies have been devoted in time to many archaeological aspects of this ancient city, large-scale and detailed studies aimed at characterizing mineralogy, petrography and isotope geochemistry of the building stones are still lacking. The scope of the present research is to fill this gap, pointing to the definition of the provenance of the stony materials used for ancient constructions of the city of Pompeii and to the possible trade routes. This work is part of a large-scale survey carried out by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut of Berlin, with the purposes of reconstructing the sources of raw materials of various archaeological sites of the Sarno Plain (e.g. Longola-Poggiomarino settlement, Nuceria, Stabiae, etc.) and consequently also the paleo-environments of this area during the Olocene (Seiler, 2006, 2008; Kastemeier and Seiler, 2007). We sampled all the litotypes with different macroscopic characteristics from various buildings according to location, age (time span VI century B.C. - I century A.D.) and utilization; the architectural buildings considered for this study are mainly represented public and religious buildings, houses and funerary monuments. As possible source areas, representative litotypes have been sampled from ancient pits and outcrops surrounding Pompeii as well. A set of 80 samples have been sampled by means of micro-drillings for mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical analyses, comprising optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass, X-ray fluorescence and C-O isotope geochemistry. Minero-petrographic and XRD studies of Pompeii rock samples have shown that at least ten different litologies occur as building stones, belonging to basaltic to tephritic lavas, pyroclasts (tuffs, scoriae, etc.) and sedimentary rocks (limestone, travertines

  13. Seasonal provenance changes in present-day Saharan dust collected in and off Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Carmen A.; van Hateren, Johannes A.; Vogt, Christoph; Fischer, Gerhard; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.

    2017-08-01

    Saharan dust has a crucial influence on the earth climate system and its emission, transport and deposition are intimately related to, e.g., wind speed, precipitation, temperature and vegetation cover. The alteration in the physical and chemical properties of Saharan dust due to environmental changes is often used to reconstruct the climate of the past. However, to better interpret possible climate changes the dust source regions need to be known. By analysing the mineralogical composition of transported or deposited dust, potential dust source areas can be inferred. Summer dust transport off northwest Africa occurs in the Saharan air layer (SAL). In continental dust source areas, dust is also transported in the SAL; however, the predominant dust input occurs from nearby dust sources with the low-level trade winds. Hence, the source regions and related mineralogical tracers differ with season and sampling location. To test this, dust collected in traps onshore and in oceanic sediment traps off Mauritania during 2013 to 2015 was analysed. Meteorological data, particle-size distributions, back-trajectory and mineralogical analyses were compared to derive the dust provenance and dispersal. For the onshore dust samples, the source regions varied according to the seasonal changes in trade-wind direction. Gibbsite and dolomite indicated a Western Saharan and local source during summer, while chlorite, serpentine and rutile indicated a source in Mauritania and Mali during winter. In contrast, for the samples that were collected offshore, dust sources varied according to the seasonal change in the dust transporting air layer. In summer, dust was transported in the SAL from Mauritania, Mali and Libya as indicated by ferroglaucophane and zeolite. In winter, dust was transported with the trades from Western Sahara as indicated by, e.g., fluellite.

  14. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance analysis applied to the onshore Makran accretionary wedge, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Burg, J.; Winkler, W.; Ruh, J. B.; Von Quadt, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Makran is one of the largest accretionary wedges in the world, located in Southeast Iran. The Makran Basin is composed of turbidity sediments ranging in age from late Cretaceous to Holocene. The analysis of detrital zircons is important to interpret the provenance of the sediments and to clarify the geological history of the sedimentary basins and their surrounding source regions. We present about 2777 new U-Pb ages (ICP laser ablation mass spectrometry) from individual detrital zircons of 18 sandstone samples collected throughout the onshore Makran. 101 detrital zircon ages from a late Cretaceous fine grained sandstone ranges from 180-160 Ma (Mid-Jurassic). 478 detrital zircon ages obtained from the mid to late Eocene sandstone reveals different sources for the NE and NW parts of the Makran Basin. Zircon grains in the NE basin belong to two populations peaked at Mid-Jurassic and Mid-Eocene, with the noticeable absence of Cretaceous grains. In the NW basin, detrital zircons are Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. 587 detrital zircon grains from fine to medium grained Oligocene sandstones collected in different parts of the basin range from Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. 1611 detrital zircon age from Early Miocene sandstones collected in the eastern and western parts of the basin show distinctly different detrital zircon ages. They range from Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene in the eastern basin, from Late Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene in the west. Detrital zircon ages from Mid and Late Miocene sandstones rang from Late Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. These new detrital zircon U-Pb age data show that the eastern and western parts of the Makran Basin received sediments from different source areas during Eocene and Early Miocene times. Mid and Late Miocene sediment are recycled (cannibalism) from the Oligocene units of the basin.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of the Miocene eolian deposits in China: Their provenance and climate implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Meiyan; Guo, Zhengtang; Kahmann, A. Julia; Oldfield, Frank

    2009-04-01

    In the Loess Plateau in northern China, the Quaternary loess-soil sequences, the Hipparion Red Earth of eolian origin (Red Clay), and the Miocene loess-soil sequences constitute a near-continuous terrestrial record of paleoclimates for the past 22 Ma. In this study, Miocene loess and paleosol samples from Qinan (QA-I) were analyzed for their major, trace, and rare earth element chemistry and compared with the Plio-Pleistocene samples from Xifeng with emphasis on their provenance and paleoclimatic implications. The results show similar geochemical signatures for the eolian deposits of different ages, and they are also comparable to the average composition of the upper continental crust. These suggest that the dust materials were all derived from well-mixed sedimentary protoliths which had undergone numerous upper crustal recycling processes. They also support the notion of broadly similar source areas and dust-transporting trajectories for different periods since the early Neogene. The slightly higher K2O, Fe2O3, and MgO concentrations and loss on ignition values and the lower Na2O content in the Miocene loess samples compared to their Quaternary counterparts are attributable to the finer grain size of the Miocene loess associated with weaker dust-carrying winds. In comparison with some loess in Europe and America with less extensive sources, eolian deposits from northern China show higher Cs and lower Zr and Hf content. This is attributable to the sorting processes from remoter sources during transportation and could be regarded as an indication of the desert origin of the loess deposits. Miocene paleosol samples show higher chemical index of alteration values and lower CaO, MgO, and Na2O concentrations than does the intervening loess, indicating stronger weathering of the paleosols. However, the moderate chemical weathering of the paleosol samples indicates a constant semiarid and subhumid climatic range in northern China since the early Miocene.

  16. Imaging Characteristics of Pathologically Proven Thymic Hyperplasia: Identifying Features That Can Differentiate True From Lymphoid Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Tetsuro; Sholl, Lynette M.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Nishino, Mizuki

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to investigate the imaging characteristics of pathologically proven thymic hyperplasia and to identify features that can differentiate true hyperplasia from lymphoid hyperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-one patients (nine men and 22 women; age range, 20–68 years) with pathologically confirmed thymic hyperplasia (18 true and 13 lymphoid) who underwent preoperative CT (n = 27), PET/CT (n = 5), or MRI (n = 6) were studied. The length and thickness of each thymic lobe and the transverse and anterior-posterior diameters and attenuation of the thymus were measured on CT. Thymic morphologic features and heterogeneity on CT and chemical shift on MRI were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake values were measured on PET. Imaging features between true and lymphoid hyperplasia were compared. RESULTS No significant differences were observed between true and lymphoid hyperplasia in terms of thymic length, thickness, diameters, morphologic features, and other qualitative features (p > 0.16). The length, thickness, and diameters of thymic hyperplasia were significantly larger than the mean values of normal glands in the corresponding age group (p < 0.001). CT attenuation of lymphoid hyperplasia was significantly higher than that of true hyperplasia among 15 patients with contrast-enhanced CT (median, 47.9 vs 31.4 HU; Wilcoxon p = 0.03). The receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded greater than 41.2 HU as the optimal threshold for differentiating lymphoid hyperplasia from true hyperplasia, with 83% sensitivity and 89% specificity. A decrease of signal intensity on opposed-phase images was present in all four cases with in- and opposed-phase imaging. The mean maximum standardized uptake value was 2.66. CONCLUSION CT attenuation of the thymus was significantly higher in lymphoid hyperplasia than in true hyperplasia, with an optimal threshold of greater than 41.2 HU in this cohort of patients with pathologically confirmed

  17. Angiographic appearance of spontaneous coronary artery dissection with intramural hematoma proven on intracoronary imaging.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jacqueline; Mancini, G B John; Humphries, Karin; Fung, Anthony; Boone, Robert; Starovoytov, Andrew; Aymong, Eve

    2016-02-01

    The pathognomonic appearance of multiple radiolucent lumen on angiography is used to diagnose spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). However, this finding is absent in >70% of SCAD, in which case optical coherence tomography (OCT) or intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is useful to assess arterial wall integrity. We report the angiographic appearance of SCAD that were proven on intracoronary imaging with OCT or IVUS. Our angiographic classification and algorithm for SCAD diagnosis was previously reported. Patients with type 1 SCAD (multiple radiolucent lumen) do not require OCT/IVUS, whereas, it was recommended for those with suspected type 2 (diffuse stenosis) or 3 (mimic atherosclerosis) SCAD. Twenty-two consecutive patients with non-type 1 angiographic SCAD in 25 coronary arteries (22 OCT and 4 IVUS) were studied. Mean age was 52.9 ± 9.9 years, 89.5% were women, and 16/22 (72.7%) had underlying fibromuscular dysplasia. Sixteen SCAD arteries were type 2 SCAD, and nine were type 3. All 25 SCAD arteries had intramural hematoma and intimomedial membrane separation with double lumen on OCT or IVUS. The mean visual angiographic stenosis was 74.6 ± 17.5% (range 40-100%). Dissected segments were long with mean qualitative coronary analysis (QCA) length 45.2 ± 29.2 mm, especially in patients with type 2 SCAD (mean QCA length 58.3 ± 29.0 mm). The mean QCA length in type 3 SCAD lesions was 22.1 ± 5.7 mm. Intracoronary imaging confirms that SCAD may appear angiographically without multiple radiolucent lumen. Angiographers should be familiar with angiographic SCAD variants to improve SCAD diagnosis, and utilize intracoronary imaging when the diagnosis is uncertain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA).

  19. Towards a Standard for Provenance and Context for Preservation of Data for Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaprian, Hampapuram K.; Moses, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data sets with data from many missions are needed to study trends and validate model results that are typical in Earth System Science research. Data and derived products originate from multiple missions (spaceborne, airborne and/or in situ) and from multiple organizations. During the missions as well as well past their termination, it is essential to preserve the data and products to support future studies. Key aspects of preservation are: preserving bits and ensuring data are uncorrupted, preserving understandability with appropriate documentation, and preserving reproducibility of science with appropriate documentation and other artifacts. Computer technology provides adequate standards to ensure that, with proper engineering, bits are preserved as hardware evolves. However, to ensure understandability and reproducibility, it is essential to plan ahead to preserve all the relevant data and information. There are currently no standards to identify the content that needs to be preserved, leading to non-uniformity in content and users not being sure of whether preserved content is comprehensive. Each project, program or agency can specify the items to be preserved as a part of its data management requirements. However, broader community consensus that cuts across organizational or national boundaries would be needed to ensure comprehensiveness, uniformity and long-term utility of archived data. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), a diverse network of scientists, data stewards and technology developers, has a forum for ESIP members to collaborate on data preservation issues. During early 2011, members discussed the importance of developing a Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS) and developed an initial list of content items. This list is based on the outcome of a NASA and NOAA meeting held in 1998 under the auspices of the USGCRP, documentation requirements from NOAA and our experience with some of the NASA Earth science

  20. Safety of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in patients with suspected or proven coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Poldermans, D; Fioretti, P M; Boersma, E; Forster, T; van Urk, H; Cornel, J H; Arnese, M; Roelandt, R T

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of high-dose dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in patients with suspected or proven coronary artery disease. Six hundred fifty consecutive examinations were completed. Mean age of patients was 61 years; 300 had a previous myocardial infarction. Heart rate increased from 73 to 129 beats/min during stress testing, blood pressure did not change significantly (from 140/81 to 150/80 mm Hg). Atropine was added to dobutamine in 239 patients when no ischemia was induced with dobutamine alone and the peak heart rate was < 85% of the theoretical maximal heart rate. Atropine was more frequently administered to patients taking beta blockers (77 vs 27%, p < 0.001). New wall motion abnormalities developed in 243 patients (37%). Significant or symptomatic cardiac tachyarrhythmias, or both, developed during 24 examinations: 1 patient developed ventricular fibrillation, 3 patients developed sustained ventricular tachycardia, 12 patients experienced nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (< 10 beats) and 8 patients had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Cardiac arrhythmias were more frequent in patients with a history of ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation) (odds ratio 9.9, 2.0 to 45) or left ventricular dysfunction at rest (wall motion score > 1.12) (odds ratio 2.9, 1.1-7.6), but not associated with atropine addition. No death or myocardial infarction occurred. The full dose was not given to 13 patients despite absence of signs or markers of ischemia for limiting side effect, yielding an overall feasibility of the stress test of 98%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Proven high-reliability assembly methods applied to avionics fiber-optics high-speed transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn; Leduc, Lorrain; Bessette, Daniel; Bélanger, Nicolas; Larose, Robert; Dion, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Harsh environment avionics applications require operating temperature ranges that can extend to, and exceed -50 to 115°C. For obvious maintenance, management and cost arguments, product lifetimes as long as 20 years are also sought. This leads to mandatory long-term hermeticity that cannot be obtained with epoxy or silicone sealing; but only with glass seal or metal solder or brazing. A hermetic design can indirectly result in the required RF shielding of the component. For fiber-optics products, these specifications need to be compatible with the smallest possible size, weight and power consumption. The products also need to offer the best possible high-speed performances added to the known EMI immunity in the transmission lines. Fiber-optics transceivers with data rates per fiber channel up to 10Gbps are now starting to be offered on the market for avionics applications. Some of them are being developed by companies involved in the "normal environment" telecommunications market that are trying to ruggedize their products packaging in order to diversify their customer base. Another approach, for which we will present detailed results, is to go back to the drawing boards and design a new product that is adapted to proven MIL-PRF-38534 high-reliability packaging assembly methods. These methods will lead to the introduction of additional requirements at the components level; such as long-term high-temperature resistance for the fiber-optic cables. We will compare both approaches and demonstrate the latter, associated with the redesign, is the preferable one. The performance of the fiber-optic transceiver we have developed, in terms of qualification tests such as temperature cycling, constant acceleration, hermeticity, residual gaz analysis, operation under random vibration and mechanical shocks and accelerated lifetime tests will be presented. The tests are still under way, but so far, we have observed no performance degradation of such a product after more than

  2. Composition and provenance of the Puente Formation (Miocene), Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Critelli, S. ); Rumelhart, P.E.; Ingersoll, R.V. )

    1994-04-01

    The Puente Formation (PFm) is a middle to upper Miocene clastic unit lying unconformably on the middle to lower Miocene El Modeno Volcanics and Topanga Group, within the Los Angeles basin (LAB). The PFm, about 3900m thick, is composed of sandstone, conglomerate, and mudrock deposited on a submarine fan at bathyal depths. Several intrabasinal discordances suggest active tectonics during deposition. The succession consists of two main upward thickening and coarsening megacycles reflecting submarine fan progradation. The PFm is characterized up-section by: (1) thin-bedded fine sandstone and shale (La Vida M.) grading to thick-bedded coarse sandstone an conglomerate (soquel M.); (2) thin-bedded siltstone, mudrock and sandstone (Yorba M.) grading to thick- to very thick-bedded coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate (Sycamore Canyon M.). Sandstones of the PFm are quartzofeldspathic and suggest a probable local provenance from the plutonic, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks of the San Gabriel Mountains. Petrological parameters, however, suggest variable contribution of these source rock units through time. Coarse-grained plutonic rock fragments are abundant for the entire succession and consist of plagioclase-rich plutonic rocks perhaps sourced from the Lowe granodiorite. Microlitic, lathwork to felsitic volcanic lithic grains are also present in the lower and middle part. In the Yorba M. there is a local increase of volcanic detritus (Lv/L - 0.80), represented by larger volcanic lithics and abundant volcaniclastic matrix. Metamorphic detritus is not very abundant; it is concentrated in the La Vida M. the PFm represents sedimentation during tectonically active time in the evolution of southern California.

  3. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  4. Heavy-mineral analysis and provenance of Yellow River sediments around the China Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Baotian; Pang, Hongli; Gao, Hongshan; Garzanti, Eduardo; Zou, Yu; Liu, Xiaopeng; Li, Fuqiang; Jia, Yunxia

    2016-09-01

    In its upper-middle reaches the Yellow River has high sand contents after traversing through large areas of desert and the China Loess Plateau. Understanding riverbed sediment composition in the channel is critical for the interpretation of the potential provenance, aeolian sand transport and the linkage between the Loess Plateau and the Yellow River. To address these issues, we collected 52 samples from the modern riverbed, proximal deserts, and major tributaries and used analyses of grain size, grain morphology, and heavy-mineral compositions, to establish the spatial distribution and characteristics of source regions and riverbed sediments. The heavy-mineral assemblages demonstrate significant variations for the different sections of the Yellow River. The riverbed samples from the upper reach are dominated by opaque minerals (limonite and magnetite), amphibole and epidote, with minor zircon, tourmaline and rutile. Riverbed sediments from the middle reach are garnet-rich, reflecting the widespread distribution of Mesozoic sandstones. This variability closely reflects the source regions. Our data show that seasonal tributaries (the ;Ten Great Gullies;) carrying detritus from the Ordos Plateau may account for the localized high garnet concentrations in the Inner Mongolia section of the upper reach. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of quartz grains show that the river sediments are characterized by composite microtextures acquired in both fluvial and eolian environments of the Hedong, Ulan Buh and Kubuq Deserts. The mineralogical composition in the upper reach (Lanzhou-Yinchuan) is similar to that of sediments in the Loess Plateau and Northeast Tibet Plateau (Western Lanzhou). However, the composition differs markedly from that in the Inner Mongolia section of the upper and middle reaches. This variation indicates that in the upper reach the Northeast Tibet Plateau contributes significant volumes of sediment to the Yellow River and Loess Plateau, but

  5. Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate: proven clinical value?

    PubMed

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    The baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) is a key mechanism contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed so far to assess BRS by analyzing the spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. These methods are inherently simple, non-invasive and low-cost. This study is an attempt to address the question of whether spontaneous baroreflex methods have proven to be of value in the clinical setting. In the first part of this article, we critically review most representative clinical studies using spontaneous BRS techniques either for risk stratification or treatment evaluation, these being major issues in the clinical management of the patients. In the second part, we address two important aspects of spontaneous BRS measurements: measurability and reliability. Estimation of BRS in the studies selected for the review was performed according to the sequence, transfer function, alpha-index and phase-rectified signal averaging method. Arterial blood pressure was recorded non-invasively during supine, short-term (<30 min) laboratory recordings. The conclusion from this review is that spontaneous BRS techniques have been shown to be of great value in clinical practice but further work is needed to confirm the validity of previous findings and to widen the field of clinical applications. Measurability and reliability can be a major issue in the measurement of spontaneous BRS, particularly in some patient populations like post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patents. Main causes of poor measurability are: non-sinus rhythm, a high rate of ectopic beats and the need for recorded time series of RR interval and arterial blood pressure to satisfy the constraints of the different BRS estimation algorithms. As for reliability, within-subject variability is rather high in the measurements of spontaneous BRS and, therefore, should be carefully taken into account

  6. Modeling Cobble Transport in a Fluvial System for Provenance Studies: The Cement Mixer Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, K. S.; Heldberg, H.

    2016-12-01

    In order to model the rate at which cobbles of resistant rock are abraded during transport, a set of 17 cubes ( 13 cm edges) of igneous and metamorphic rock (granite, syenite, tonalite, gabbro, diorite, gneiss, schist) were placed in a cement mixer with a 248 liter (9 ft3) drum together with quartz sand and water ballast; 20-28 liters of water and 1-2 liters of quartz sand were used. The cement mixer was run in 1-hour increments, with the rocks traveling between 1.62 and 2.11 km/hr. The mass and volume of each `cube' as well as their long- intermediate- and short- axes were measured each hour. Fragmentation, rounding and other abrasion-related features were also recorded. The experiment was run in order to provide data that would assist in provenance studies in ancient conglomerates. The amount of rounding and the particle size is typically used as a proxy for distance travelled from source. Preliminary results show the cubes to be reduced to 35% - 80% of their original mass, and 36%-80% of their original volume after 7 hours (11.34 km - 14.74 km) of transport. In order to determine transport distances and rates in a gravel-bedded river, flow rates of 100 cm/sec - 350 cm/sec ( 3.28 - 11.48 ft/sec) are required to transport cobbles via saltation. Stream data from five Alaskan gravel-bedded rivers are used to approximate the likely transport distances associated with moderately- to well-rounded cobbles and pebbles.

  7. Typhoon impacts on chemical weathering source provenance of a High Standing Island watershed, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kevin J.; Carey, Anne E.; You, Chen-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Chemical weathering source provenance changes associated with Typhoon Mindulle (2004) were identified for the Choshui River Watershed in west-central Taiwan using radiogenic Sr isotope (87Sr/86Sr) and major ion chemistry analysis of water samples collected before, during, and following the storm event. Storm water sampling over 72 h was conducted in 3 h intervals, allowing for novel insight into weathering regime changes in response to intense rainfall events. Chemical weathering sources were determined to be bulk silicate and disseminated carbonate minerals at the surface and silicate contributions from deep thermal waters. Loss on ignition analysis of collected rock samples indicate disseminated carbonate can compose over 25% by weight of surface mineralogy, but typically makes up ∼2-3% of watershed rock. 87Sr/86Sr and major element molar ratios indicate that Typhoon Mindulle caused a weathering regime switch from normal flow incorporating a deep thermal signature to that of a system dominated by surface weathering. The data suggest r