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Sample records for provide detection protection

  1. New Zika Vaccine Candidate Provides Powerful Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163384.html New Zika Vaccine Candidate Provides Powerful Protection Made without live ... HealthDay News) -- A single dose of an experimental Zika vaccine protected mice and monkeys from the virus, ...

  2. High strength concrete provides joint protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, P. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a joint fill material applied on the 24-in. pipe used by Iroquois Gas Transmission Project for its 26-mile Long Island Sound crossing which provides effective joint protection. The 3.35-in. joint fill, made of high instant strength concrete, met stringent requirements for both strength and weight coating, and is environmentally clean to protect the sensitive marine ecosystem. The offshore section, from Bridgeport, Conn., to Long Island, was laid by McDermott, Inc. The high instant strength concrete supplied joint strength and protection during the laying operation, and on the barge itself, where pipe joints are most vulnerable to damage. With joint fill density the same as the concrete already on the pipe, the submerged weight was uniform along the entire length of the marine line, for an essentially seamless coating.

  3. Personal Protective Equipment - Protecting Healthcare Providers in an Ebola Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current Ebola epidemic that has devastated West Africa has infected and killed more healthcare providers than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. An improved understanding of pathogen transmission and the institution of strategies to protect infection healthcare providers are needed in infectious disease outbreak. This review connects what is known about Ebola virus transmission with personal protective equipment designed to arrest nosocomial transmission. Methods Articles pertaining to filovirus transmission and personal protective equipment in filovirus outbreaks were reviewed and are presented. Additionally, studies evaluating PPE as well as donning and doffing strategies are also presented. Findings Personal Protective equipment is one step in a comprehensive infection prevention and control strategy that is required to protect healthcare providers. Given that the Ebola virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact of mucous membranes and cuts in the skin with infected patients and/or their bodily fluids, it is necessary to cover these potential portals of infection with PPE as part of a structured and instructed donning and doffing procedure. Implications Current recommendations about PPE and the donning and doffing processes are based on anecdotal experience. However the use of non-human viruses can help provide evidence based guidelines on both PPE and processes. PMID:26452427

  4. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  5. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  6. A Live Attenuated Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Proviral Vaccine with a Modified S2 Gene Provides Protection from Detectable Infection by Intravenous Virulent Virus Challenge of Experimentally Inoculated Horses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Craigo, Jodi K.; Howe, Laryssa; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Cook, Sheila; Issel, Charles; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Previous evaluations of inactivated whole-virus and envelope subunit vaccines to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have revealed a broad spectrum of efficacy ranging from highly type-specific protection to severe enhancement of viral replication and disease in experimentally immunized equids. Among experimental animal lentivirus vaccines, immunizations with live attenuated viral strains have proven most effective, but the vaccine efficacy has been shown to be highly dependent on the nature and severity of the vaccine virus attenuation. We describe here for the first time the characterization of an experimental attenuated proviral vaccine, EIAVUKΔS2, based on inactivation of the S2 accessory gene to down regulate in vivo replication without affecting in vitro growth properties. The results of these studies demonstrated that immunization with EIAVUKΔS2 elicited mature virus-specific immune responses by 6 months and that this vaccine immunity provided protection from disease and detectable infection by intravenous challenge with a reference virulent biological clone, EIAVPV. This level of protection was observed in each of the six experimental horses challenged with the reference virulent EIAVPV by using a low-dose multiple-exposure protocol (three administrations of 10 median horse infectious doses [HID50], intravenous) designed to mimic field exposures and in all three experimentally immunized ponies challenged intravenously with a single inoculation of 3,000 HID50. In contrast, naïve equids subjected to the low- or high-dose challenge develop a detectable infection of challenge virus and acute disease within several weeks. Thus, these data demonstrate that the EIAV S2 gene provides an optimal site for modification to achieve the necessary balance between attenuation to suppress virulence and replication potential to sufficiently drive host immune responses to produce vaccine immunity to viral exposure. PMID:12805423

  7. Lightning Protection and Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A lightning protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of lightning strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.

  8. 25 CFR 20.402 - When are protective services provided?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.402 When are protective services provided? Protective services are provided when children or adults: (a) Are deprived temporarily or permanently of needed supervision by responsible adults; (b) Are neglected, abused or...

  9. 25 CFR 20.402 - When are protective services provided?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.402 When are protective services provided? Protective services are provided when children or adults: (a) Are deprived temporarily or permanently of needed supervision by responsible adults; (b) Are neglected, abused or...

  10. 25 CFR 20.402 - When are protective services provided?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.402 When are protective services provided? Protective services are provided when children or adults: (a) Are deprived temporarily or permanently of needed supervision by responsible adults; (b) Are neglected, abused or...

  11. Force protection demining system (FPDS) detection subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachery, Karen N.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2005-06-01

    This study describes the U.S. Army Force Protection Demining System (FPDS); a remotely-operated, multisensor platform developed for reliable detection and neutralization of both anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. The ongoing development of the prototype multisensor detection subsystem is presented, which integrates an advanced electromagnetic pulsed-induction array and ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar array on a single standoff platform. The FPDS detection subsystem is mounted on a robotic rubber-tracked vehicle and incorporates an accurate and precise navigation/positioning module making it well suited for operation in varied and irregular terrains. Detection sensors are optimally configured to minimize interference without loss in sensitivity or performance. Mine lane test data acquired from the prototype sensors are processed to extract signal- and image-based features for automatic target recognition. Preliminary results using optimal feature and classifier selection indicate the potential of the system to achieve high probabilities of detection while minimizing false alarms. The FPDS detection software system also exploits modern multi-sensor data fusion algorithms to provide real-time detection and discrimination information to the user.

  12. Glass encapsulation provides extra protection for IC semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doelp, W. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Oxide-passivated semiconductor chip is given protective glass coating by means of vapor deposition over metallic substrate of integrated circuit (IC). Method provides more reliable oxide-passivation and hermetic sealing in current use. Chips and scratches incurred during dicing, testing, and assembly are markedly reduced.

  13. Providing health care to improve community perceptions of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; van Bavel, Bianca; Boodman, Carl; Ghai, Ria R; Gogarten, Jan F; Hartter, Joel; Mechak, Lauren E; Omeja, Patrick A; Poonawala, Sofia; Tuli, Dan; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-10-01

    Impoverished communities often turn to illegal extraction of resources from protected areas to alleviate economic pressures or to make monetary gains. Such practices can cause ecological damage and threaten animal populations. These communities also often face a high disease burden and typically do not have access to affordable health care. Here we argue that these two seemingly separate challenges may have a common solution. In particular, providing health care to communities adjacent to protected areas may be an efficient and effective way to reduce the disease burden while also improving local perceptions about protected areas, potentially reducing illegal extraction. We present a case study of a health centre on the edge of Kibale National Park, Uganda. The centre has provided care to c. 7,200 people since 2008 and its outreach programme extends to c. 4,500 schoolchildren each year. Contrasting the provision of health care to other means of improving community perceptions of protected areas suggests that health clinics have potential as a conservation tool in some situations and should be considered in future efforts to manage protected areas.

  14. Providing health care to improve community perceptions of protected areas

    PubMed Central

    van Bavel, Bianca; Boodman, Carl; Ghai, Ria R.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Hartter, Joel; Mechak, Lauren E.; Omeja, Patrick A.; Poonawala, Sofia; Tuli, Dan; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Impoverished communities often turn to illegal extraction of resources from protected areas to alleviate economic pressures or to make monetary gains. Such practices can cause ecological damage and threaten animal populations. These communities also often face a high disease burden and typically do not have access to affordable health care. Here we argue that these two seemingly separate challenges may have a common solution. In particular, providing health care to communities adjacent to protected areas may be an efficient and effective way to reduce the disease burden while also improving local perceptions about protected areas, potentially reducing illegal extraction. We present a case study of a health centre on the edge of Kibale National Park, Uganda. The centre has provided care to c. 7,200 people since 2008 and its outreach programme extends to c. 4,500 schoolchildren each year. Contrasting the provision of health care to other means of improving community perceptions of protected areas suggests that health clinics have potential as a conservation tool in some situations and should be considered in future efforts to manage protected areas. PMID:26456977

  15. Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

  16. An updated Declaration of Helsinki will provide more protection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cecil B

    2013-06-01

    Almost 50 years ago, the World Medical Association adopted the Declaration of Helsinki as an ethical guide for research involving human subjects. There are now proposed revisions under consideration that will provide additional protection for study participants as well as increased clarity regarding the responsibilities of those conducting the research. Making these changes is important in a complex environment where what is ethical is not always self-evident.

  17. From Intrusion Detection to Self Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Frincke, Deb; Wespi, Andreas; Zamboni, Diego

    2007-04-11

    Modern computer systems have become so complex and interdependent that the traditional model of system defense, utilizing layers and including an intrusion detection system that provides alerts to a human who responds to them, is becoming unfeasible. Effective human-guided real-time responses are no longer a reasonable expectation for large scale systems--this is particularly troublesome because a failure to respond correctly and rapidly can have disastrous consequences. In an ideal world, our systems would automatically detect and respond to threats of all kinds, including but not limited to automated attacks, human-guided attacks, and the constant onslaught of unsolicited email (spam). Traditionally, these threats have been dealt with by separate communities--the anti-virus community, the intrusion-detection/firewall community, and the anti-spam community. Today however, we see an increasing need for integrating different technologies toward achieving a common goal. In this special issue, we surveyed the research community with the intent of identifying novel, multidisciplinary and integrated approaches to system defense that contribute towards development of true self-protecting and self-healing systems. The result is reflected in the articles we selected.

  18. Medical Provider Ballistic Protection at Active Shooter Events.

    PubMed

    Stopyra, Jason P; Bozeman, William P; Callaway, David W; Winslow, James; McGinnis, Henderson D; Sempsrott, Justin; Evans-Taylor, Lisa; Alson, Roy L

    2016-01-01

    There is some controversy about whether ballistic protective equipment (body armor) is required for medical responders who may be called to respond to active shooter mass casualty incidents. In this article, we describe the ongoing evolution of recommendations to optimize medical care to injured victims at such an incident. We propose that body armor is not mandatory for medical responders participating in a rapid-response capacity, in keeping with the Hartford Consensus and Arlington Rescue Task Force models. However, we acknowledge that the development and implementation of these programs may benefit from the availability of such equipment as one component of risk mitigation. Many police agencies regularly retire body armor on a defined time schedule before the end of its effective service life. Coordination with law enforcement may allow such retired body armor to be available to other public safety agencies, such as fire and emergency medical services, providing some degree of ballistic protection to medical responders at little or no cost during the rare mass casualty incident. To provide visual demonstration of this concept, we tested three "retired" ballistic vests with ages ranging from 6 to 27 years. The vests were shot at close range using police-issue 9mm, .40 caliber, .45 caliber, and 12-gauge shotgun rounds. Photographs demonstrate that the vests maintained their ballistic protection and defeated all of these rounds. 2016.

  19. An innovative method of providing total breaker failure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, N.T.; Waser, D.

    1995-12-31

    Breaker failure relaying has been generally achieved through the use of a current monitoring relay to determine whether current continues to flow into a fault after a breaker has been instructed to interrupt the circuit. If current continues to flow after a predefined period of time, the circuit breaker is considered to have failed. Steps must then be taken to trip the next set of upstream breakers in the power system to remove the faulted circuit and prevent system damage. However, with industrial power systems, this may be the utility`s breakers on the feeding transmission line. Regardless, breaker failure schemes must be designed to isolate both the faulted circuit and the failed circuit breaker. This paper discusses a new and innovative method of protecting a circuit breaker from the failure described above, plus other failures that go unprotected with conventional schemes, thus providing ``total`` breaker failure protection.

  20. An innovative method of providing total breaker failure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, N.T.; Waser, D.

    1996-09-01

    Breaker failure relaying has been generally achieved through the use of a current monitoring relay to determine whether current continues to flow into a fault after a breaker has been instructed to interrupt the circuit. If current continues to flow after a predefined period of time, the circuit breaker is considered to have failed. Steps must then be taken to trip the next set of upstream breakers in the power system to remove the faulted circuit and prevent system damage. However, with industrial power systems, this may be the utility`s breakers on the feeding transmission line. Regardless, breaker failure schemes must be designed to isolate both the faulted circuit and the failed circuit breaker. This paper discusses a new and innovative method of protecting a circuit breaker from the failure described above, plus other failures that go unprotected with conventional schemes, this providing total breaker failure protection.

  1. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, Forrest B.; Jones, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  2. Corrosion Protection Provided by PV Module Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G. J.; Kempe, M. D.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.

    2005-11-01

    The ability of glass/glass and glass/breathable backsheet constructions laminated with various encapsulant and/or edge seal materials to protect thin-film aluminum coatings deposited onto glass substrates was assessed. Although they provide the best moisture barrier available, glass/glass laminate constructions can trap harmful compounds that catalyze moisture-driven corrosion of the aluminum. Constructions with breathable backsheets allow higher rates of moisture ingress, but also allow egress of deleterious substances that can result in decreased corrosion.

  3. Individual insurance: how much financial protection does it provide?

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon; Dhont, Kelley; Whitmore, Heidi; Pickreign, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the comparative financial protection provided by individual and group health insurance. Data sources include two national surveys of employer-based health plans and e-health insurance listings for individual coverage on the World Wide Web. Data on the use and cost of services are from the National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES), a national household survey of Americans. We estimate that individual insurance pays on average 63 percent of the health care bill, whereas group health insurance pays 75 percent. Deductibles are much higher in individual insurance, and covered benefits are more meager. At 200 percent of poverty, the top 25 percent of health care users with individual coverage would spend 11 percent of their income for out-of-pocket health care expenses, as opposed to 6 percent for persons with group coverage.

  4. Self-contained clothing system provides protection against hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Self-contained clothing system protects personnel against hazardous environments. The clothing has an environmental control system and a complete protection envelope consisting of an outer garment, inner garment, underwear, boots, gloves, and helmet.

  5. Hyperbaric Oxygen Preconditioning Provides Preliminary Protection Against Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Orhan; Karahan, Oguz; Alan, Mustafa; Ekinci, Cenap; Yavuz, Celal; Demirtas, Sinan; Ekinci, Aysun; Caliskan, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin (DOX) is generally recognized to have important cardiotoxic side effects. Studies are contradictory about the interaction between hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy and doxorubicin-induced cardiomyotoxicity. Recent data suggests that HBO2 therapy can lead to preconditioning of myocardium while generating oxidative stress. Herein we have investigated the effect of HBO2 therapy in a DOX-induced cardiomyocyte injury animal model. Methods Twenty-one rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: 1) Group 1 is a control group (without any intervention), used for evaluating the basal cardiac structures and determining the normal value of cardiacs and serum oxidative markers; 2) Group 2 is the doxorubicin group (single dose i.p. 20 mg/kg doxorubicin) for detecting the cardiotoxic and systemic effects of doxorubicin; 3) Group 3 is the doxorubicin and HBO2 group (100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheric for 90 minutes, daily), for evaluating the effect of HBO2 in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. At the end of the protocols, the hearts were harvested and blood samples (2 ml) were obtained. Results The doxorubicin treated animals (Group 2) had increased oxidative stress markers (both cardiac and serum) and severe cardiac injury as compared to the basal findings in the control group. Nevertheless, the highest cardiac oxidative stress index was detected in Group 3 (control vs. Group 3, p = 0.01). However, histological examination revealed that cardiac structures were well preserved in Group 3 when compared with Group 2. Conclusions Our results suggest that HBO2 preconditioning appears to be protective in the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity model. Future studies are required to better elucidate the basis of this preconditioning effect of HBO2. PMID:28344418

  6. EPA Provides $1 Million to Protect Wetlands in New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $1,073,000 to Ocean County College, the New Jersey Sports and Exhibition Authority, and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection to better protect wetlands throughout New Je

  7. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever.

    PubMed

    Warimwe, George M; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K; Al-dubaib, Musaad A; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-02-05

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A 'One Health' vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs.

  8. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Warimwe, George M.; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B. Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K.; Al-dubaib, Musaad A.; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A ‘One Health’ vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs. PMID:26847478

  9. Personal Protective Equipment: Protecting Health Care Providers in an Ebola Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Fischer, William A; Weber, David; Wohl, David A

    2015-11-01

    The recent Ebola epidemic that devastated West Africa has infected and killed more health care providers than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. An improved understanding of pathogen transmission and the institution of strategies to protect health care providers against infection are needed in infectious disease outbreaks. This review connects what is known about Ebola virus transmission with personal protective equipment (PPE) designed to arrest nosocomial transmission. Articles pertaining to filovirus transmission and PPE in filovirus outbreaks were reviewed and findings are presented. In addition, studies that evaluated PPE and donning and doffing strategies are presented. PPE is one step in a comprehensive infection prevention and control strategy that is required to protect health care providers. Given that the Ebola virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact of mucous membranes and cuts in the skin with infected patients and/or their bodily fluids, it is necessary to cover these potential portals of infection with PPE as part of a structured and instructed donning and doffing procedure. Current recommendations about PPE and the donning and doffing processes are based on anecdotal experience. However, the use of non-human viruses can help provide evidence-based guidelines on both PPE and donning and doffing processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Nonintegrative Lentiviral Vector-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Sterile Protection against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Coutant, Frédéric; Sanchez David, Raul Yusef; Félix, Tristan; Boulay, Aude; Caleechurn, Laxmee; Souque, Philippe; Thouvenot, Catherine; Bourgouin, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Trials testing the RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine and radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) have shown that protective immunity against malaria can be induced and that an effective vaccine is not out of reach. However, longer-term protection and higher protection rates are required to eradicate malaria from the endemic regions. It implies that there is still a need to explore new vaccine strategies. Lentiviral vectors are very potent at inducing strong immunological memory. However their integrative status challenges their safety profile. Eliminating the integration step obviates the risk of insertional oncogenesis. Providing they confer sterile immunity, nonintegrative lentiviral vectors (NILV) hold promise as mass pediatric vaccine by meeting high safety standards. In this study, we have assessed the protective efficacy of NILV against malaria in a robust pre-clinical model. Mice were immunized with NILV encoding Plasmodium yoelii Circumsporozoite Protein (Py CSP) and challenged with sporozoites one month later. In two independent protective efficacy studies, 50% (37.5–62.5) of the animals were fully protected (p = 0.0072 and p = 0.0008 respectively when compared to naive mice). The remaining mice with detectable parasitized red blood cells exhibited a prolonged patency and reduced parasitemia. Moreover, protection was long-lasting with 42.8% sterile protection six months after the last immunization (p = 0.0042). Post-challenge CD8+ T cells to CSP, in contrast to anti-CSP antibodies, were associated with protection (r = −0.6615 and p = 0.0004 between the frequency of IFN-g secreting specific T cells in spleen and parasitemia). However, while NILV and RAS immunizations elicited comparable immunity to CSP, only RAS conferred 100% of sterile protection. Given that a better protection can be anticipated from a multi-antigen vaccine and an optimized vector design, NILV appear as a promising malaria vaccine. PMID:23133649

  11. 25 CFR 20.402 - When are protective services provided?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.402 When are protective... or permanently of needed supervision by responsible adults; (b) Are neglected, abused or...

  12. 25 CFR 20.402 - When are protective services provided?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.402 When are protective... or permanently of needed supervision by responsible adults; (b) Are neglected, abused or...

  13. HOW TO PROVIDE AUTOMATIC FIRE PROTECTION FOR YOUR BUILDING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    THE ADVANTAGES OF PROMPT FIRE DETECTION IS DISCUSSED WITH RESPECT TO THE NATURE AND COST OF FIRES. EQUIPMENT IS DESCRIBED, AND DIAGRAMS OF INSTALLATIONS OF DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMS ARE GIVEN FOR SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, COMMERICAL BUILDINGS, INDUSTRIAL PLANTS, AND CAMPUSES. (JT)

  14. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Charlene C.; Day, Jack R.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  15. [Radiation protection agents to provide the radiation safety of astronauts].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Ivanov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complexity of radiation factors and stressogenic factors of non-radiation nature in cosmic flights and prognostic difficulties of radiation situation, the authors propose to distinguish several stages of pharmacological protection for cosmonauts. The preparatory stage is realized on the Earth. The next stage is monitoring and correction of radioresistance during a flight. A possible stage consists of treatment of the radiation damage using a traditional protocol. The permanent stage includes pharmacological prevention of the distant consequences of irradiation.

  16. Dimethylglycine Provides Salt and Temperature Stress Protection to Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Abdallah; Hoffmann, Tamara; Smits, Sander H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycine betaine is a potent osmotic and thermal stress protectant of many microorganisms. Its synthesis from glycine results in the formation of the intermediates monomethylglycine (sarcosine) and dimethylglycine (DMG), and these compounds are also produced when it is catabolized. Bacillus subtilis does not produce sarcosine or DMG, and it cannot metabolize these compounds. Here we have studied the potential of sarcosine and DMG to protect B. subtilis against osmotic, heat, and cold stress. Sarcosine, a compatible solute that possesses considerable protein-stabilizing properties, did not serve as a stress protectant of B. subtilis. DMG, on the other hand, proved to be only moderately effective as an osmotic stress protectant, but it exhibited good heat stress-relieving and excellent cold stress-relieving properties. DMG is imported into B. subtilis cells primarily under osmotic and temperature stress conditions via OpuA, a member of the ABC family of transporters. Ligand-binding studies with the extracellular solute receptor (OpuAC) of the OpuA system showed that OpuAC possesses a moderate affinity for DMG, with a Kd value of approximate 172 μM; its Kd for glycine betaine is about 26 μM. Docking studies using the crystal structures of the OpuAC protein with the sulfur analog of DMG, dimethylsulfonioacetate, as a template suggest a model of how the DMG molecule can be stably accommodated within the aromatic cage of the OpuAC ligand-binding pocket. Collectively, our data show that the ability to acquire DMG from exogenous sources under stressful environmental conditions helps the B. subtilis cell to cope with growth-restricting osmotic and temperature challenges. PMID:24561588

  17. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood...

  18. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood...

  19. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood...

  20. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood...

  1. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood...

  2. Protection from latent inhibition provided by a conditioned inhibitor.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Bridget L; Wheeler, Daniel S; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2009-10-01

    Two conditioned suppression experiments with rats investigated the influence on latent inhibition of compounding a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor with the target cue during preexposure treatment. Results were compared with those of subjects that received conventional latent inhibition training, no preexposure, or preexposure to the target cue in compound with a neutral stimulus. In Experiment 1, greater attenuation of the latent inhibition effect was observed in subjects that received target preexposure in compound with a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor relative to subjects that received preexposure with a neutral stimulus or to the target alone. In Experiment 2, this protection from latent inhibition was attenuated if the excitor that was used to train the conditioned inhibitor was extinguished between preexposure and target training. The results are consistent with an account offered by the extended comparator hypothesis.

  3. Contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment by healthcare providers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Mi; Cha, Won Chul; Chae, Minjung Kathy; Jo, Ik Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to describe the processes of both the donning and the doffing of personal protective equipment for Ebola and evaluate contamination during the doffing process. Methods We recruited study participants among physicians and nurses of the emergency department of Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. Participants were asked to carry out doffing and donning procedures with a helper after a 50-minute brief training and demonstration based on the 2014 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocol. Two separate cameras with high-density capability were set up, and the donning and doffing processes were video-taped. A trained examiner inspected all video recordings and coded for intervals, errors, and contaminations defined as the outside of the equipment touching the clinician’s body surface. Results Overall, 29 participants were enrolled. Twenty (68.9%) were female, and the mean age was 29.2 years. For the donning process, the average interval until the end was 234.2 seconds (standard deviation [SD], 65.7), and the most frequent errors occurred when putting on the outer gloves (27.5%), respirator (20.6%), and hood (20.6%). For the doffing process, the average interval until the end was 183.7 seconds (SD, 38.4), and the most frequent errors occurred during disinfecting the feet (37.9%), discarding the scrubs (17.2%), and putting on gloves (13.7%), respectively. During the doffing process, 65 incidences of contamination occurred (2.2 incidents/person). The most vulnerable processes were removing respirators (79.2%), removing the shoe covers (65.5%), and removal of the hood (41.3%). Conclusion A significant number of contaminations occur during the doffing process of personal protective equipment. PMID:27752591

  4. Respiratory Protection Provided by Five New Contagion Masks

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, H. Gerald; Decker, Herbert M.

    1963-01-01

    The effectiveness of five recently developed contagion masks in filtering air-borne particles (1 to 5 μ diam) has been reported. One mask, available in four sizes, was 99% efficient. This mask can be reused after sterilization. The other four masks are available in only one size and are intended to be used one time only. Two of these four disposable types were more than 90% efficient but the variability of their respective test results was much greater than that for the reusable mask. The two remaining disposable types were less than 80% efficient. Two of these contagion-mask types were worn by hospital personnel for periods of up to 8 hr to determine the effect of such prolonged use on aerosol filtration efficiency. No significant decrease in filtration efficiency was noted. Physicians, nurses, and other hospital personnel who wear masks will benefit from the increased individual respiratory protection afforded by improved contagion masks. Concurrently, the incidence of hospital patient air-borne infections should be greatly reduced. Images FIG. 1 PMID:13951516

  5. Ursolic Acid Provides Kidney Protection in Diabetic Rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chen; Jinping, Lu; Xia, Li; Renyong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal failure. However, the treatment of DN is still a problem in the world. Inflammatory process plays a critical role in the development of DN. Therefore, anti-inflammatory treatment of DN is worth exploring now and in the future. Objective The study aimed to evaluate the impact of ursolic acid (UA) on renal function in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with UA for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. In addition, renal oxidative stress level, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, P-selectin expression, and kidney histopathologic changes were evaluated. Results Sixteen weeks following streptozotocin injection, the rats produced significant alteration in renal function and increased oxidative stress, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression in the kidneys. Interestingly, UA significantly prevented biochemical and histopathologic changes in the kidneys associated with diabetes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, UA treatment lowered urine albumin excretion, renal oxidative stress level, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression. Moreover, UA treatment also improved renal histopathologic changes in rats with diabetes. Conclusions UA treatment exhibited a protective effect on kidneys in diabetic rats, implying that UA could be a potential treatment for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24465045

  6. Ursolic Acid provides kidney protection in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Jinping, Lu; Xia, Li; Renyong, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal failure. However, the treatment of DN is still a problem in the world. Inflammatory process plays a critical role in the development of DN. Therefore, anti-inflammatory treatment of DN is worth exploring now and in the future. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of ursolic acid (UA) on renal function in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with UA for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. In addition, renal oxidative stress level, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, P-selectin expression, and kidney histopathologic changes were evaluated. Sixteen weeks following streptozotocin injection, the rats produced significant alteration in renal function and increased oxidative stress, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression in the kidneys. Interestingly, UA significantly prevented biochemical and histopathologic changes in the kidneys associated with diabetes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, UA treatment lowered urine albumin excretion, renal oxidative stress level, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression. Moreover, UA treatment also improved renal histopathologic changes in rats with diabetes. UA treatment exhibited a protective effect on kidneys in diabetic rats, implying that UA could be a potential treatment for diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  8. Could Heterozygous Beta Thalassemia Provide Protection Against Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Halac, Gulistan; Gultepe, Ilhami; Celik, Kenan; Sekin, Yahya; Eser, Elif Ece; Burhan, Sebnem; Cetin, Guven; Uysal, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterozygous beta thalassemia (HBT) has been proposed to increase the risk of developing autoimmune disease. Our aim in this study was to examine the prevalence of HBT among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Material/Methods HBT frequency was investigated in our MS group (243 patients with MS). Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE) was carried out if MS patients had a mean corpuscular volume of (MCV) <80 fL and a mean corpuscular hemoglobin level of (MCH) <27 pg/L according to a complete blood count (CBC). If MCV was lower than 80 fL, MCH was lower than 27 pg/L, and Hemoglobin A2 equal to or higher than 3.5%, a diagnosis of HBT was established. The frequency of patients with HBT in our MS patient group was statistically compared with the prevalence of HBT in the city of Istanbul, where our MS patients lived. Results The HBT prevalence was 0.823% (2 patients) in the MS patient group. The prevalence of HBT in Istanbul has been reported to be 4.5%. According to the z-test, the HBT prevalence in our MS patient group was significantly lower than that in Istanbul (Z=6.3611, two-sided p value <0.0001, 95% confidence interval of prevalence of HBT in our MS patient group: 0.000998–0.029413). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis at the outset of study, the reduced HBT prevalence in the MS group compared to HBT frequency in the city of Istanbul might indicate that HBT is protective against MS. PMID:27941710

  9. ROBOTIC CRAWLER PROVIDES RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    2002-01-31

    A robotic crawler was deployed into the process cells at the 224-T Building to perform cell characterization. The most significant hazard was the potential for criticality upon introduction of a moderating material. Due to the unknown fissile inventory in the cells and the potential moderation affects of a person, manned entry was considered too high of a risk, and a robotic crawler was determined to be the best option for the initial characterization. The robotic crawler provided maneuverability, allowing access to areas in the cells where debris was found. It provided visual inspection in areas with little light, using a low lux pan and tilt camera system. Also, it provided fissile inventory measurements using a non-destructive assay (NDA) detector. The NDA detector supplied real-time data to maintain criticality control. Other technologies used during the cell characterization were water-cooled suits and a thin water resistant synthetic anti-contamination coverall, used for heat stress reduction. Also, an aluminum framed shelter provided a weather barrier, allowing work to continue under conditions which would have stopped work without it.

  10. Designated "no smoking" areas provide from partial to no protection from environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Cains, T; Cannata, S; Poulos, R; Ferson, M J; Stewart, B W

    2004-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of designated "no smoking" areas in the hospitality industry as a means of providing protection from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and whether certain design features assist in achieving this end. In the greater metropolitan region of Sydney, a representative group of 17 social and gaming clubs, licensed to serve alcoholic beverages and in which, apart from designated areas, smoking occurs, agreed to participate. In each establishment, simultaneous single measurements of atmospheric nicotine, particulate matter (10 microm; PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were measured in a general use area and in a designated "no smoking" area during times of normal operation, together with the levels in outdoor air (PM10 and CO2 only). Analyses were made of these data to assess the extent to which persons using the "no smoking" areas were protected from exposure to ETS. By comparison with levels in general use areas, nicotine and particulate matter levels were significantly less in the "no smoking" areas, but were still readily detectable at higher than ambient levels. For nicotine, mean (SD) levels were 100.5 (45.3) microg/m3 in the areas where smoking occurred and 41.3 (16.1) microg/m3 in the "no smoking" areas. Corresponding PM10 levels were 460 (196) microg/m3 and 210 (210) microg/m3, while outdoor levels were 61 (23) microg/m3. The reduction in pollutants achieved through a separate room being designated "no smoking" was only marginally better than the reduction achieved when a "no smoking" area was contiguous with a smoking area. CO2 levels were relatively uninformative. Provision of designated "no smoking" areas in licensed (gaming) clubs in New South Wales, Australia, provides, at best, partial protection from ETS-typically about a 50% reduction in exposure. The protection afforded is less than users might reasonably have understood and is not comparable with protection afforded by prohibiting smoking on the premises.

  11. Design of Provider-Provisioned Website Protection Scheme against Malware Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Takeshi; Tanimoto, Naoto; Hariu, Takeo; Itoh, Mitsutaka

    Vulnerabilities in web applications expose computer networks to security threats, and many websites are used by attackers as hopping sites to attack other websites and user terminals. These incidents prevent service providers from constructing secure networking environments. To protect websites from attacks exploiting vulnerabilities in web applications, service providers use web application firewalls (WAFs). WAFs filter accesses from attackers by using signatures, which are generated based on the exploit codes of previous attacks. However, WAFs cannot filter unknown attacks because the signatures cannot reflect new types of attacks. In service provider environments, the number of exploit codes has recently increased rapidly because of the spread of vulnerable web applications that have been developed through cloud computing. Thus, generating signatures for all exploit codes is difficult. To solve these problems, our proposed scheme detects and filters malware downloads that are sent from websites which have already received exploit codes. In addition, to collect information for detecting malware downloads, web honeypots, which automatically extract the communication records of exploit codes, are used. According to the results of experiments using a prototype, our scheme can filter attacks automatically so that service providers can provide secure and cost-effective network environments.

  12. How to Provide for Their Future: Suggestions for Parents Concerned with Providing Lifetime Protection for a Child with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The booklet offers suggestions for parents concerned with providing lifetime protection for a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is placed on the interrelationship between the child's prospective needs of social and/or economic supports and the formal mechanisms which can be brought to bear on them. Four major topics are addressed: (1)…

  13. Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Vaccination Provides Long-Term Protection against Nasal Rabbitpox Virus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dorothy I; McGee, Charles E; Sample, Christopher J; Sempowski, Gregory D; Pickup, David J; Staats, Herman F

    2016-07-01

    Modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) is a smallpox vaccine candidate. This study was performed to determine if MVA vaccination provides long-term protection against rabbitpox virus (RPXV) challenge, an animal model of smallpox. Two doses of MVA provided 100% protection against a lethal intranasal RPXV challenge administered 9 months after vaccination.

  14. Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Vaccination Provides Long-Term Protection against Nasal Rabbitpox Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dorothy I.; McGee, Charles E.; Sample, Christopher J.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Pickup, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) is a smallpox vaccine candidate. This study was performed to determine if MVA vaccination provides long-term protection against rabbitpox virus (RPXV) challenge, an animal model of smallpox. Two doses of MVA provided 100% protection against a lethal intranasal RPXV challenge administered 9 months after vaccination. PMID:27146001

  15. 30 CFR 206.62 - Does MMS protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does MMS protect information I provide? 206.62 Section 206.62 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 206.62 Does MMS protect information I provide? The MMS will...

  16. 30 CFR 206.365 - Does MMS protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does MMS protect information I provide? 206.365 Section 206.365 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 206.365 Does MMS protect information I provide? Certain...

  17. 30 CFR 206.108 - Does MMS protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does MMS protect information I provide? 206.108 Section 206.108 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 206.108 Does MMS protect information I provide? Certain...

  18. 75 FR 3939 - Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... BOARD Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs AGENCY..., the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is providing notice of the opportunity to file amicus briefs... eligibility for employment in a sensitive position. Interested parties may submit amicus briefs or other...

  19. Measurements of the UVR protection provided by hats used at school.

    PubMed

    Gies, Peter; Javorniczky, John; Roy, Colin; Henderson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The importance of protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in childhood has lead to SunSmart policies at Australian schools, in particular primary schools, where children are encouraged and in many cases required to wear hats at school. Hat styles change regularly and the UVR protection provided by some of the hat types currently used and recommended for sun protection by the various Australian state cancer councils had not been previously evaluated. The UVR protection of the hats was measured using UVR sensitive polysulphone film badges attached to different facial sites on rotating headforms. The sun protection type hats included in this study were broad-brimmed hats, "bucket hats" and legionnaires hats. Baseball caps, which are very popular, were also included. The broad-brimmed hats and bucket hats provided the most UVR protection for the six different sites about the face and head. Legionnaires hats also provided satisfactory UVR protection, but the caps did not provide UVR protection to many of the facial sites. The highest measured UVR protection factors for facial sites other than the forehead were 8 to 10, indicating that, while some hats can be effective, they need to be used in combination with other forms of UVR protection.

  20. Designated "no smoking" areas provide from partial to no protection from environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cains, T; Cannata, S; Poulos, R; Ferson, M; Stewart, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of designated "no smoking" areas in the hospitality industry as a means of providing protection from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and whether certain design features assist in achieving this end. Methodology: In the greater metropolitan region of Sydney, a representative group of 17 social and gaming clubs, licensed to serve alcoholic beverages and in which, apart from designated areas, smoking occurs, agreed to participate. In each establishment, simultaneous single measurements of atmospheric nicotine, particulate matter (10 µm; PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were measured in a general use area and in a designated "no smoking" area during times of normal operation, together with the levels in outdoor air (PM10 and CO2 only). Analyses were made of these data to assess the extent to which persons using the "no smoking" areas were protected from exposure to ETS. Results: By comparison with levels in general use areas, nicotine and particulate matter levels were significantly less in the "no smoking" areas, but were still readily detectable at higher than ambient levels. For nicotine, mean (SD) levels were 100.5 (45.3) µg/m3 in the areas where smoking occurred and 41.3 (16.1) µg/m3 in the "no smoking" areas. Corresponding PM10 levels were 460 (196) µg/m3 and 210 (210) µg/m3, while outdoor levels were 61 (23) µg/m3. The reduction in pollutants achieved through a separate room being designated "no smoking" was only marginally better than the reduction achieved when a "no smoking" area was contiguous with a smoking area. CO2 levels were relatively uninformative. Conclusion: Provision of designated "no smoking" areas in licensed (gaming) clubs in New South Wales, Australia, provides, at best, partial protection from ETS—typically about a 50% reduction in exposure. The protection afforded is less than users might reasonably have understood and is not comparable with protection afforded by prohibiting smoking on the

  1. 25 CFR 63.24 - What protections must employers provide to applicants, volunteers and employees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What protections must employers provide to applicants, volunteers and employees? 63.24 Section 63.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of...

  2. 25 CFR 63.24 - What protections must employers provide to applicants, volunteers and employees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What protections must employers provide to applicants, volunteers and employees? 63.24 Section 63.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.108 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.108 Section 1206.108 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.108 Does ONRR protect information I...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.62 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.62 Section 1206.62 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.62 Does ONRR protect information I...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.62 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.62 Section 1206.62 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.62 Does ONRR protect information I...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.108 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.108 Section 1206.108 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.108 Does ONRR protect information I...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.365 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.365 Section 1206.365 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.365 Does ONRR protect...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.365 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.365 Section 1206.365 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.365 Does ONRR protect...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.365 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.365 Section 1206.365 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.365 Does ONRR protect...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.108 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.108 Section 1206.108 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.108 Does ONRR protect information I...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.62 - Does ONRR protect information I provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does ONRR protect information I provide? 1206.62 Section 1206.62 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.62 Does ONRR protect information I...

  12. 25 CFR 63.24 - What protections must employers provide to applicants, volunteers and employees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What protections must employers provide to applicants, volunteers and employees? 63.24 Section 63.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character...

  13. New meter probes provide protection from high current power sources at potentials up to 600 volts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H.; Getsug, J.

    1972-01-01

    Meter probes incorporating integral fuse holder which contains limitation fuse of 600 V, 5A, with interruption rating of 50,000 KVA. provide required protection and minimize danger incurred by defective or improperly operated meter.

  14. Regulation for the enforcement of federal health care provider conscience protection laws. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-02-23

    The Department of Health and Human Services issues this final rule which provides that enforcement of the federal statutory health care provider conscience protections will be handled by the Department's Office for Civil Rights, in conjunction with the Department's funding components. This Final Rule rescinds, in part, and revises, the December 19, 2008 Final Rule entitled "Ensuring That Department of Health and Human Services Funds Do Not Support Coercive or Discriminatory Policies or Practices in Violation of Federal Law" (the "2008 Final Rule"). Neither the 2008 final rule, nor this final rule, alters the statutory protections for individuals and health care entities under the federal health care provider conscience protection statutes, including the Church Amendments, Section 245 of the Public Health Service Act, and the Weldon Amendment. These federal statutory health care provider conscience protections remain in effect.

  15. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer cells utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection and attack. Effective immune detection largely relies on the formation of an immune synapse which requires close contact between immune cells and their targets. Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets. Our results indicate that MUC16-mediated inhibition of immune synapse formation is an effective mechanism employed by ovarian tumors to evade immune recognition. Results Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells. MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls. This increased lysis was not due to differences in the expression levels of the ligands for the activating receptors DNAM-1 and NKG2D. The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL), which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls. Tumor cells that survived the NKL challenge expressed higher levels of MUC16 indicating selective lysis of MUC16low targets. The higher csMUC16 levels on the NKL resistant tumor cells correlated with more protection from lysis as compared to target cells that were never exposed to the effectors. Conclusion MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets. Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells. The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in metastasizing within the peritoneal

  16. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jennifer A A; Felder, Mildred; Horibata, Sachi; Belisle, Jennifer A; Kapur, Arvinder; Holden, Helen; Petrie, Sarah; Migneault, Martine; Rancourt, Claudine; Connor, Joseph P; Patankar, Manish S

    2010-01-20

    Cancer cells utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection and attack. Effective immune detection largely relies on the formation of an immune synapse which requires close contact between immune cells and their targets. Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets. Our results indicate that MUC16-mediated inhibition of immune synapse formation is an effective mechanism employed by ovarian tumors to evade immune recognition. Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells. MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls. This increased lysis was not due to differences in the expression levels of the ligands for the activating receptors DNAM-1 and NKG2D. The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL), which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls. Tumor cells that survived the NKL challenge expressed higher levels of MUC16 indicating selective lysis of MUC16(low) targets. The higher csMUC16 levels on the NKL resistant tumor cells correlated with more protection from lysis as compared to target cells that were never exposed to the effectors. MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets. Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells. The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in metastasizing within the peritoneal cavity and also at overcoming

  17. Advax-Adjuvanted Recombinant Protective Antigen Provides Protection against Inhalational Anthrax That Is Further Enhanced by Addition of Murabutide Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy. PMID:24554695

  18. Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-04-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy.

  19. 49 CFR 371.111 - Must I provide individual shippers with Federal consumer protection information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... methods: (1) Provide a hyperlink on your Internet Web site to the FMCSA Web site containing the... section, and elects to access the same information via the hyperlink on the Internet as provided in... protection information on the Internet. (c) You must obtain a signed, dated, electronic or paper...

  20. Balance Billing by Health Care Providers: Assessing Consumer Protections Across States.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Kevin; Hoadley, Jack; Williams, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    ISSUE: Privately insured consumers expect that if they pay premiums and use in-network providers, their insurer will cover the cost of medically necessary care beyond their cost-sharing. However, when obtaining care at emergency departments and in-network hospitals, patients treated by an out-of-network provider may receive an unexpected "balance bill" for an amount beyond what the insurer paid. With no explicit federal protections against balance billing, some states have stepped in to protect consumers from this costly and confusing practice. GOAL: To better understand the scope of state laws to protect consumers from balance billing. METHODS: Analysis of laws in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and interviews with officials in eight states. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Most states do not have laws that directly protect consumers from balance billing by an out-of-network provider for care delivered in an emergency department or in-network hospital. Of the 21 states offering protections, only six have a comprehensive approach to safeguarding consumers in both settings, and gaps remain even in these states. Because a federal policy solution might prove difficult, states may be better positioned in the short term to protect consumers.

  1. Niacinamide leave-on formulation provides long-lasting protection against bacteria in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mathapathi, Mruthyunjaya Swamy; Mallemalla, Prathyusha; Vora, Shilpa; Iyer, Vidula; Tiwari, Jyoti Kumar; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumdar, Amitabha

    2017-01-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) form a part of the skin's innate immune system. Their primary activity is to provide antimicrobial benefits and hence protect from infections. AMPs that are present on human skin include psoriasin (S100A7), RNase 7, lysozyme, LL-37 and defensins. Niacinamide is a well-known cosmetic ingredient that has been used traditionally for multiple skin benefits. Recent data indicate that niacinamide treatment can boost AMPs in human gut epithelial cells and in neutrophils. Treatment with niacinamide in mice also provided protection from skin infections by enhancing AMPs. In this article, we find that treatment with niacinamide formulation provides long-lasting protection against bacteria, potentially through the activation of an AMP response.

  2. Detecting Salient Aspects in Online Reviews of Health Providers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Samuel; Elhadad, Noémie

    2010-01-01

    We present a fully automated method to capture what topics health consumers discuss when reviewing their health providers online. Our method does not rely on any manual tagging of the information, and operates on the text of online reviews. We analyze a large set of reviews and compare the topics discussed when reviewing providers with different specialties. This work provides a complementary view on the traditional qualitative approaches proposed so far to capturing factors for patient satisfaction. Furthermore, our research contributes to understanding in a bottom-up fashion the needs and interests of health consumers online. PMID:21346969

  3. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  4. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  5. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  6. Stand structure influences nekton community composition and provides protection from natural disturbance in Micronesian mangroves

    Treesearch

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Nicole. Cormier

    2012-01-01

    Structurally complex mangrove roots are thought to provide foraging habitat, predation refugia, and typhoon protection for resident fish, shrimp, and crabs. The spatially compact nature of Micronesian mangroves results in model ecosystems to test these ideas. Tidal creek nekton assemblages were compared among mangrove forests impacted by Typhoon Sudal and differing in...

  7. Specific serum antibody responses in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) provide limited protection against Streptococcus ictaluri challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Passive immunization has been shown to provide a spectrum of protection against certain piscine pathogens, and studies were conducted to determine the role of specific antibodies in immunity to Streptococcus ictaluri. Adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were injected i.p. with tryptic soy br...

  8. Nebulized Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Provides Protection in Ferrets at a Reduced Dose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer Humberd; Papania, Mark; Knaus, Darin; Brooks, Paula; Haas, Debra L.; Mair, Raydel; Barry, James; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is delivered to vaccine recipients using a nasal spray syringe. LAIV delivered by this method is immunogenic at current doses; however, improvements in nasal delivery might allow for significant dose reduction. We investigated LAIV vaccination in ferrets using a high efficiency nebulizer designed for nasal delivery. LAIV nasal aerosol elicited high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies and protected ferrets from homologous virus challenge at conventional (107 TCID50) and significantly reduced (103 TCID50) doses. Aerosol LAIV also provided a significant level of subtype-specific cross protection. These results demonstrate the dose-sparing potential of nebulizer-based nasal aerosol LAIV delivery. PMID:22075083

  9. Vaccines based on structure-based design provide protection against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sunil; Luxon, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    Vaccines elicit immune responses, provide protection against microorganisms and are considered as one of the most successful medical interventions against infectious diseases. Vaccines can be produced using attenuated virus or bacteria, recombinant proteins, bacterial polysaccharides, carbohydrates or plasmid DNA. Conventional vaccines rely on the induction of immune responses against antigenic proteins to be effective. The genetic diversity of microorganisms, coupled with the high degree of sequence variability in antigenic proteins, presents a challenge to developing broadly effective conventional vaccines. The observation that whole protein antigens are not necessarily essential for inducing immunity has led to the emergence of a new branch of vaccine design termed 'structural vaccinology'. Structure-based vaccines are designed on the rationale that protective epitopes should be sufficient to induce immune responses and provide protection against pathogens. Recent studies demonstrated that designing structure-based vaccine candidates with multiple epitopes induce a higher immune response. As yet there are no commercial vaccines available based on structure-based design and most of the structure-based vaccine candidates are in the preclinical stages of development. This review focuses on recent advances in structure-based vaccine candidates and their application in providing protection against infectious diseases.

  10. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    PubMed

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P < 0.001), smaller schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P < 0.001) with underdeveloped sun protection policies (62.8% vs 62.2%; P = 0.002). Overall, SunSmart and non-SunSmart school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Protection From Mosquito Biting Provided by Permethrin-Treated Military Fabrics.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P; Sferopoulos, Rodi; Lee, Bin

    2014-11-01

    A study to evaluate the protection provided by permethrin-treated fabric following cold-water washing against biting by mosquitoes is reported. Australian Defense Force (ADF) disruptive pattern combat uniform (DPCU) shirt fabric and entire shirts were treated by dipping in a 0.6% emulsion (Perigen Defense, containing 500 g/liter permethrin), and commercial factory treatment in the United States (Factory A) and Europe (Factory B). Protection was recorded after 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50 washes. The treated fabric provided 100% protection against bites of Anopheles farauti Laveran for at least 50 washes, although only 4.8-19.0% of this species fed through untreated DPCU. The protection provided by each type of permethrin treatment against Aedes aegypti (L.) biting was variable; however, there were no significant differences between the percentage of mosquitoes biting between 1 and 10 washes. A comparison between the two factory treatments for 1-50 washes also showed no statistical difference in Ae. aegypti feeding. Chemical analysis of fabric was conducted using gas chromatography and showed that the initial dose was 0.125 mg/cm(2) for Perigen-treated fabric, which fell to 0.004 mg/cm(2) after 10 washes. By contrast, factory treatments resulted in initial dose rates of 0.20 mg/cm(2) for Factory A and 0.19 mg/cm(2) for Factory B. After 10 washes, Factory A-treated fabric had 0.09 mg/cm(2) and Factory B 0.15 mg/cm(2) of permethrin. Despite the higher concentrations of permethrin in the fabric, there was not a commensurate increase in biting protection provided by the factory-treated fabric, compared with fabric treated by dipping in permethrin emulsion.

  12. t-BHQ Provides Protection against Lead Neurotoxicity via Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiaoyi; Li, Lili; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of lead has been well established, and oxidative stress is strongly associated with lead-induced neurotoxicity. Nrf2 is important for protection against oxidative stress in many disease models. We applied t-BHQ, which is an Nrf2 activator, to investigate the possible role of Nrf2 in the protection against lead neurotoxicity. t-BHQ significantly attenuated the oxidative stress in developmental rats by decreasing MDA level, as well as by increasing SOD activity and GSH content, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal apoptosis was detected by Nissl staining, and Bax expression was inhibited in the t-BHQ-treated group. Results showed that t-BHQ suppressed ROS production and caspase 3/7 activity but increased intracellular GSH content, in SH-SY5Y cells under lead exposure. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro, t-BHQ enhanced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and binding to ARE areas but did not induce Nrf2 transcription. These phenomena were confirmed using RT-PCR, EMSA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. Subsequent upregulation of the expression of HO-1, NQO1, and GCLC was observed. However, knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 adversely affected the protective effects of t-BHQ against lead toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, t-BHQ can protect against lead neurotoxicity, depending on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26798413

  13. GroEL provides protection against Bacillus anthracis infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Kanchan; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) of the HSP60 and HSP70 family are highly conserved and essential to all living organisms. Hsps are immunodominant in numerous microbial infections and have been investigated for their vaccine potential. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of GroEL and DnaK of B. anthracis in murine model. Both Hsps were found to be highly immunogenic with mixed antibody response (both IgG1 and IgG2a), indicating stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Cytokine profile also confirmed robust T-cell response with increase in lymphocyte proliferation. Immunization with GroEL conferred 100% protection to mice against B. anthracis infection whereas DnaK couldn't provide protection.

  14. A new potent natural antioxidant mixture provides global protection against oxidative skin cell damage.

    PubMed

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Lago, J C; de Sá-Rocha, V M; Gesztesi, J; Moreira, P L

    2011-04-01

    Oxidative stress occurs when there is an over production of free radicals and cells are not able to neutralize them by their own antioxidant mechanisms. These excess of free radicals will attack cellular macromolecules leading to cell damage, function impairment or death. Because of that, antioxidant substances have been largely used in products to offer complementary protection. In this study a new mixture of three known antioxidants (cocoa, green tea and alpha-tocopherol) was evaluated and its antioxidant protection was assessed focusing on its capacity to protect main cell macromolecules. Results have shown that it has a high antioxidant capacity by protecting lipids, DNA and proteins against oxidative damage. The antioxidant effect of the mixture on cells was also investigated and it was able to reduce oxidative stress generated by lipopolisacharide in human fibroblasts. Finally, as the mixture has proved to be highly antioxidant, its effect on cell senescence was evaluated, and it was demonstrated that fibroblasts in culture had delayed senescence when treated with these actives on a mixture. All results together provide important data about a new antioxidant mixture that uses a small amount of actives and is able to protect cell against oxidative damages in a global way.

  15. Advanced power system protection and incipient fault detection and protection of spaceborne power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don

    1989-01-01

    This research concentrated on the application of advanced signal processing, expert system, and digital technologies for the detection and control of low grade, incipient faults on spaceborne power systems. The researchers have considerable experience in the application of advanced digital technologies and the protection of terrestrial power systems. This experience was used in the current contracts to develop new approaches for protecting the electrical distribution system in spaceborne applications. The project was divided into three distinct areas: (1) investigate the applicability of fault detection algorithms developed for terrestrial power systems to the detection of faults in spaceborne systems; (2) investigate the digital hardware and architectures required to monitor and control spaceborne power systems with full capability to implement new detection and diagnostic algorithms; and (3) develop a real-time expert operating system for implementing diagnostic and protection algorithms. Significant progress has been made in each of the above areas. Several terrestrial fault detection algorithms were modified to better adapt to spaceborne power system environments. Several digital architectures were developed and evaluated in light of the fault detection algorithms.

  16. Foundations and self-tanning products: Do they provide any protection from the sun?

    PubMed

    Choquenet, Benjamin; Couteau, Céline; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2009-11-01

    As soon as the weather turns sunny, everyone wants a tan. People with skin phototypes III and IV, called melanocompetent, have no problem meeting this fashion requirement. But things are quite different for people with phototypes I and II and so these individuals look for alternative solutions. In essence, light skin burns easily when exposed to the sun. Therefore, light-skinned people are offered a cosmetic solution through self-tanning products or foundations. It seemed interesting to us to evaluate the sun protection power of this type of product. To do this, we used an in vitro method to determine the typical indicators related to sunscreen products, such as sun protection factor (SPF), ultraviolet (UV)-A protection factor (PF-UVA), UV-B/UV-A ratio as well as the critical wavelength because these artificial tanning products could be considered sunscreen products by users. It is important to know whether a self-tanning product and/or a foundation provide sun protection and whether they meet the standards set for other sunscreen products. Protection which is imbalanced for either UV-B or UV-A radiation is potentially harmful for users believing themselves adequately protected. To do this, we assembled the requisite conditions for forming melanoidins in the cosmetic itself. We tested seven amino acids found in the corneal cells of the epidermis. Regardless of the amino acid used, the corresponding SPF was essentially zero (approximately SPF 2). Foundations, on the other hand, proved to be much more interesting because they possess a non-negligible SPF as well as good photostability making these products safe in terms of their mode of application (applied once daily).

  17. Protective materials with real-time puncture detection capability

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, R.E.; Stampfer, J.F.; Valdez-Boyle, L.S.; Ramsey, D.R.

    1996-08-01

    The protection of workers from chemical, biological, or radiological hazards requires the use of protective materials that can maintain their integrity during use. An accidental puncture in the protective material can result in a significant exposure to the worker. A five ply material has been developed that incorporates two layers of an electrically conductive polymer sandwiched between three layers of a nonconductive polymer. A normally open circuit that is connected between the conductive layers will be closed by puncturing the material with either a conductive or nonconductive object. This can be used to activate an audible alarm or visual beacon to warn the worker of a breach in the integrity of the material. The worker is not connected to the circuit, and the puncture can be detected in real-time, even when caused by a nonconductor.

  18. Bullying in medically fragile youth: a review of risks, protective factors, and recommendations for medical providers.

    PubMed

    Faith, Melissa A; Reed, Gabriela; Heppner, Celia E; Hamill, Lillian C; Tarkenton, Tahnae R; Donewar, Crista W

    2015-05-01

    Bullying is a common child and adolescent phenomenon that has concurrent and long-term implications for victims' psychological, psychosomatic, social, and academic functioning. Youth with chronic illnesses are at increased risk for being bullied, but few studies have evaluated specific risk and protective factors for medically fragile youth. Despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Society for Adolescent Medicine that pediatric health care providers should contribute to bullying prevention and intervention efforts, researchers also have yet to identify the best ways for providers to intervene with medically fragile youth. In this article, the authors review risk and protective factors for bullying among healthy samples. Then, the authors specifically address the ways in which these risk and protective factors are likely to apply to children with fragile medical conditions, and they provide summaries of extant bullying research for selected examples of medically fragile pediatric populations. Finally, the authors present recommendations for intervening with medically fragile youth and suggest several areas in which additional research is needed.

  19. Survival of lethal poxvirus infection in mice depends on TLR9, and therapeutic vaccination provides protection

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Christofer; Hausmann, Jürgen; Lauterbach, Henning; Schmidt, Michaela; Akira, Shizuo; Wagner, Hermann; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; O’Keeffe, Meredith; Hochrein, Hubertus

    2008-01-01

    Poxviruses such as the causative agent of smallpox have developed multiple strategies to suppress immune responses, including the suppression of DC activation. Since poxviruses are large DNA viruses, we hypothesized that their detection by DCs may involve the endosomal DNA recognition receptor TLR9. Indeed, we have shown here that DC recognition of ectromelia virus (ECTV), the causative agent of mousepox, completely depended on TLR9. The importance of TLR9 was highlighted by the fact that mice lacking TLR9 showed drastically increased susceptibility to infection with ECTV. In contrast, we found that the strongly attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) activated DCs by both TLR9-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore tested whether we could use the broader induction of immune responses by MVA to protect mice from a lethal infection with ECTV. Indeed, MVA given at the same time as a lethal dose of ECTV protected mice from death. Importantly, MVA also rescued TLR9-deficient mice if administered 2 full days after an otherwise lethal infection with ECTV. Therefore, these data suggest an essential role for TLR9 in the defense against poxviruses. In addition, postexposure application of MVA may protect against lethal poxvirus infection. PMID:18398511

  20. Humoral immune response in breeding hens and protective immunity provided by administration of purified Salmonella Gallinarum porins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Verduzco, G; Téllez, G; Quintana, A L; Isibasi, A; Ortiz-Navarrete, V

    2010-03-01

    The current studies were undertaken to assess the ability of humoral immune response in breeding hens to provide protective maternal antibody in the progeny. A highly purified outer membrane protein, 34 kDa, was isolated from a virulent strain of Salmonella Gallinarum. Cross-reactivity was observed between this protein and Salmonella Typhi porins; thus we consider this outer membrane protein as a Salmonella Gallinarum porin. To evaluate passive immunity against Salmonella Gallinarum, 200 broiler breeder hens were immunized with either 10 microg of Salmonella Gallinarum porins, 30 microg of Salmonella Gallinarum porins, or PBS without porins as a control group. Anti-Salmonella Gallinarum porin antibodies were detected in broiler breeder serum and in fertile eggs (P < 0.05). Consequently, chickens from immunized broiler breeder hens were protected between 53 to 70% against challenges of 20 to 500 half-maximal lethal dose of Salmonella Gallinarum (P < 0.001) when compared with control hens that were injected with PBS. These results suggest that Salmonella Gallinarum porins, as those of other Salmonella species, participate in the induction of the passive protective immunity, and the humoral immune response may be one of the mechanisms involved in the establishment of this protection.

  1. Anesthesia Providers Adherence to the Use of Gloves and Eye Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    removing nasogastric /orogastric tubes , nine providers (32.1%) stated that they use gloves 60-79% of the time. Only one provider indicated a use of...eye protection when performing venipuncture, removing an nasogastric /orogastric tube , or when placing a spinal (see Table 9). Less than 15% of...How often do you wear gloves when inserting or removing a nasogastric /orogastric tube ? a. 100% c. 60-79% e. 20-39% b. 80-99% d. 40-59% f. < 20

  2. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Barrera, Tatiana G; Maldonado, Jorge H

    2015-01-01

    Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing) organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  3. Valuing Blue Carbon: Carbon Sequestration Benefits Provided by the Marine Protected Areas in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing) organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit’s demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation. PMID:26018814

  4. A Burkholderia pseudomallei outer membrane vesicle vaccine provides protection against lethal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Petersen, Hailey; Judy, Barbara M; Blumentritt, Carla A; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Roy, Chad J; Torres, Alfredo G; Morici, Lisa A

    2014-05-01

    The environmental Gram-negative encapsulated bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in areas of Southeast Asia and northern Australia in which the disease is endemic. B. pseudomallei is also classified as a tier I select agent due to the high level of lethality of the bacterium and its innate resistance to antibiotics, as well as the lack of an effective vaccine. Gram-negative bacteria, including B. pseudomallei, secrete outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) which are enriched with multiple protein, lipid, and polysaccharide antigens. Previously, we demonstrated that immunization with multivalent B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs protects highly susceptible BALB/c mice against an otherwise lethal aerosol challenge. In this work, we evaluated the protective efficacy of OMV immunization against intraperitoneal challenge with a heterologous strain because systemic infection with phenotypically diverse environmental B. pseudomallei strains poses another hazard and a challenge to vaccine development. We demonstrated that B. pseudomallei OMVs derived from strain 1026b afforded significant protection against septicemic infection with B. pseudomallei strain K96243. OMV immunization induced robust OMV-, lipopolysaccharide-, and capsular polysaccharide-specific serum IgG (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3) and IgM antibody responses. OMV-immune serum promoted bacterial killing in vitro, and passive transfer of B. pseudomallei OMV immune sera protected naive mice against a subsequent challenge. These results indicate that OMV immunization provides antibody-mediated protection against acute, rapidly lethal sepsis in mice. B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs may represent an efficacious multivalent vaccine strategy against melioidosis.

  5. A Burkholderia pseudomallei Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Provides Protection against Lethal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Petersen, Hailey; Judy, Barbara M.; Blumentritt, Carla A.; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Roy, Chad J.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental Gram-negative encapsulated bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in areas of Southeast Asia and northern Australia in which the disease is endemic. B. pseudomallei is also classified as a tier I select agent due to the high level of lethality of the bacterium and its innate resistance to antibiotics, as well as the lack of an effective vaccine. Gram-negative bacteria, including B. pseudomallei, secrete outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) which are enriched with multiple protein, lipid, and polysaccharide antigens. Previously, we demonstrated that immunization with multivalent B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs protects highly susceptible BALB/c mice against an otherwise lethal aerosol challenge. In this work, we evaluated the protective efficacy of OMV immunization against intraperitoneal challenge with a heterologous strain because systemic infection with phenotypically diverse environmental B. pseudomallei strains poses another hazard and a challenge to vaccine development. We demonstrated that B. pseudomallei OMVs derived from strain 1026b afforded significant protection against septicemic infection with B. pseudomallei strain K96243. OMV immunization induced robust OMV-, lipopolysaccharide-, and capsular polysaccharide-specific serum IgG (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3) and IgM antibody responses. OMV-immune serum promoted bacterial killing in vitro, and passive transfer of B. pseudomallei OMV immune sera protected naive mice against a subsequent challenge. These results indicate that OMV immunization provides antibody-mediated protection against acute, rapidly lethal sepsis in mice. B. pseudomallei-derived OMVs may represent an efficacious multivalent vaccine strategy against melioidosis. PMID:24671550

  6. Huperzine A Provides Robust and Sustained Protection against Induced Seizures in Scn1a Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Dutton, Stacey B. B.; Collins, Stephen D.; Schachter, Steven; Escayg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    De novo loss-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) SCN1A (encoding Nav1.1) are the main cause of Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic early-life encephalopathy associated with prolonged and recurrent early-life febrile seizures (FSs), refractory afebrile epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and a 15–20% mortality rate. SCN1A mutations also lead to genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), which is an inherited disorder characterized by early-life FSs and the development of a range of adult epilepsy subtypes. Current antiepileptic drugs often fail to protect against the severe seizures and behavioral and cognitive deficits found in patients with SCN1A mutations. To address the need for more efficacious treatments for SCN1A-derived epilepsies, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A, a naturally occurring reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In CF1 mice, Hup A (0.56 or 1 mg/kg) was found to confer protection against 6 Hz-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. Robust protection against 6 Hz-, MES-, and hyperthermia-induced seizures was also achieved following Hup A administration in mouse models of DS (Scn1a+/−) and GEFS+ (Scn1aRH/+). Furthermore, Hup A-mediated seizure protection was sustained during 3 weeks of daily injections in Scn1aRH/+ mutants. Finally, we determined that muscarinic and GABAA receptors play a role in Hup A-mediated seizure protection. These findings indicate that Hup A might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for increasing seizure resistance in DS and GEFS+, and more broadly, in other forms of refractory epilepsy. PMID:27799911

  7. Providing the full DDF link protection for bus-connected SIEPON based system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, I.-Shyan; Pakpahan, Andrew Fernando; Liem, Andrew Tanny; Nikoukar, AliAkbar

    2016-09-01

    Currently a massive amount of traffic per second is delivered through EPON systems, one of the prominent access network technologies for delivering the next generation network. Therefore, it is vital to keep the EPON optical distribution network (ODN) working by providing the necessity protection mechanism in the deployed devices; otherwise, when failures occur it will cause a great loss for both network operators and business customers. In this paper, we propose a bus-connected architecture to protect and recover distribution drop fiber (DDF) link faults or transceiver failures at ONU(s) in SIEPON system. The proposed architecture provides a cost-effective architecture, which delivers the high fault-tolerance in handling multiple DDF faults, while also providing flexibility in choosing the backup ONU assignments. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture provides the reliability and maintains quality of service (QoS) performance in terms of mean packet delay, system throughput, packet loss and EF jitter when DDF link failures occur.

  8. Combination of ACE inhibitor with nicorandil provides further protection in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Taniguchi, Kei; Higaki, Masato; Ueda, Shuko; Shima, Tomoko; Nagura, Michito; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J; Uchida, Shunya

    2014-12-15

    An inhibition in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most widely used therapies to treat chronic kidney disease. However, its effect is occasionally not sufficient and additional treatments may be required. Recently, we reported that nicorandil exhibited renoprotective effects in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy. Here we examined if nicorandil can provide an additive protection on enalapril in chronic kidney disease. Single treatment with either enalapril or nicorandil significantly ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in the rat remnant kidney while the combination of these two compounds provided additive effects. In addition, an increase in oxidative stress in remnant kidney was also blocked by either enalapril or nicorandil while the combination of the drugs was more potent. A mechanism was likely due for nicorandil to preventing manganase superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and sirtuin (Sirt)3 from being reduced in injured kidneys. A study with cultured podocytes indicated that the antioxidative effect could be mediated through sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) in the mitochondrial KATP channel since blocking SUR with glibenclamide reduced MnSOD and Sirt3 expression in podocytes. In conclusion, nicorandil may synergize with enalapril to provide superior protection in chronic kidney disease.

  9. Activation of the Farnesoid X Receptor Provides Protection against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Florence Ying; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Quad; Chong, Hansook Kim; Zhang, Yanqiao; Liu, Yaping; Jones, Stacey A.; Osborne, Timothy F.; Edwards, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4), is known to regulate cholesterol, bile acid, lipoprotein, and glucose metabolism. In the current study, we provide evidence to support a role for FXR in hepatoprotection from acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity. Pharmacological activation of FXR induces the expression of several genes involved in phase II and phase III xenobiotic metabolism in wild-type, but not Fxr−/− mice. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation-based genome-wide response element analyses coupled with luciferase reporter assays to identify functional FXR response elements within promoters, introns, or intragenic regions of these genes. Consistent with the observed transcriptional changes, FXR gene dosage is positively correlated with the degree of protection from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Further, we demonstrate that pretreatment of wild-type mice with an FXR-specific agonist provides significant protection from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Based on these findings, we propose that FXR plays a role in hepatic xenobiotic metabolism and, when activated, provides hepatoprotection against toxins such as APAP. PMID:20573685

  10. Transferring Xenogenic Mitochondria Provides Neural Protection Against Ischemic Stress in Ischemic Rat Brains.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jui; Kuo, Chi-Chung; Lee, Hsiu-Chin; Shen, Ching-I; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Wu, Shih-Fang; Chang, Jui-Chih; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Liu, Chin-San; Su, Hong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Transferring exogenous mitochondria has therapeutic effects on damaged heart, liver, and lung tissues. Whether this protective effect requires the symbiosis of exogenous mitochondria in host cells remains unknown. Here xenogenic mitochondria derived from a hamster cell line were applied to ischemic rat brains and rat primary cortical neurons. Isolated hamster mitochondria, either through local intracerebral or systemic intra-arterial injection, significantly restored the motor performance of brain-ischemic rats. The brain infarct area and neuronal cell death were both attenuated by the exogenous mitochondria. Although internalized mitochondria could be observed in neurons and astrocytes, the low efficacy of mitochondrial internalization could not completely account for the high rate of rescue of the treated neural cells. We further illustrated that disrupting electron transport or ATPase synthase in mitochondria significantly attenuated the protective effect, suggesting that intact respiratory activity is essential for the mitochondrial potency on neural protection. These results emphasize that nonsymbiotic extracellular mitochondria can provide an effective cell defense against acute injurious ischemic stress in the central nervous system.

  11. Cross-protection provided by live Shigella mutants lacking major antigens.

    PubMed

    Szijártó, Valéria; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Emődy, Levente; Pál, Tibor; Nagy, Gábor

    2013-05-01

    The immune response elicited by Shigella infections is dominated by serotype-specific antibodies recognizing the LPS O-antigens. Although a marked antibody response to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa-s) shared by all virulent strains is also induced, the varying level of immunity elicited by natural infections is serotype-restricted. Previous vaccines have tried to mimic and achieve this serotype-specific, infection-induced immunity. As, however, the four Shigella species can express 50 different types of O-antigens, current approaches with the aim to induce a broad coverage use a mixture of the most common O-antigens combined in single vaccines. In the current study we present data on an alternative approach to generate immunity protective against multiple serotypes. Mutants lacking both major immune-determinant structures (i.e. the Ipa and O-antigens) were not only highly attenuated, but, unlike their avirulent counterparts still expressing these antigens, elicited a protective immune response to heterologous serotypes in a murine model. Evidence is provided that protection was mediated by the enhanced immunogenic potential of minor conserved antigens. Furthermore, the rough, non-invasive double mutants triggered an immune response different from that induced by the smooth, invasive strains regarding the isotype of antibodies generated. These non-invasive, rough mutants may represent promising candidates for further development into live vaccines for the prophylaxis of bacillary dysentery in areas with multiple endemic serotypes.

  12. Multifunctional PEG Retinylamine Conjugate Provides Prolonged Protection against Retinal Degeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) retinylamine (Ret-NH2) conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret with a glycine-phenylalanine-leucine (GFL) spacer was synthesized for controlled oral delivery of Ret-NH2 to treat retinal degenerative diseases, including Stargardt disease (STGD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The peptide spacer was introduced for sustained release of the drug by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetics experiments showed that the PEG conjugate could control the sustained drug release after oral administration and had much lower nonspecific liver drug accumulation than the free drug in wild-type female C57BL mice. In the mean time, the conjugate maintained the same concentration of Ret-NH2 in the eye as the free drug. Also, PEG-GFL-NH-Ret at a Ret-NH2 equivalent dose of 25 mg/kg produced complete protection of Abca4–/–Rdh8–/– mouse retinas against light-induced retinal degeneration for 3 days after oral administration, as revealed by OCT retina imaging, whereas free Ret-NH2 did not provide any protection under identical conditions. The polymer conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret has great potential for controlled delivery of Ret-NH2 to the eye for effective protection against retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25390360

  13. Immunisation with proteins expressed during chronic murine melioidosis provides enhanced protection against disease.

    PubMed

    Champion, Olivia L; Gourlay, Louise J; Scott, Andrew E; Lassaux, Patricia; Conejero, Laura; Perletti, Lucia; Hemsley, Claudia; Prior, Joann; Bancroft, Gregory; Bolognesi, Martino; Titball, Richard W

    2016-03-29

    There is an urgent need for an effective vaccine against human disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, and although a wide range of candidates have been tested in mice none provide high level protection. We considered this might reflect the inability of these vaccine candidates to protect against chronic disease. Using Q-RT PCR we have identified 6 genes which are expressed in bacteria colonising spleens and lungs of chronically infected mice. Three of the genes (BPSL1897, BPSL3369 and BPSL2287) have been expressed in Escherichia coli and the encoded proteins purified. We have also included BPSL2765, a protein known to induce immune responses associated with a reduced incidence of chronic/recurrent disease in humans. Immunisation of mice with a combination of these antigens resulted in the induction of antibody responses against all of the proteins. Compared with mice immunised with capsular polysaccharide or LolC protein, mice immunised with the combination of chronic stage antigens showed enhanced protection against experimental disease in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The solar ultraviolet B radiation protection provided by shading devices with regard to its diffuse component.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-10-01

    The composition of the incident solar global ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation with regard to its beam and diffuse radiation fractions is highly relevant with regard to outdoor sun protection. This is especially true with respect to sun protection during leisure-time outdoor sun exposure at the shore and pools, where people tend to escape the sun under shade trees or different types of shading devices, e.g., umbrellas, overhangs, etc., believing they offer protection from the erythemal solar radiation. The degree of sun protection offered by such devices is directly related to the composition of the solar global UVB radiation, i.e., its beam and diffuse fractions. The composition of the incident solar global UVB radiation can be determined by measuring the global UVB (using Solar Light Co. Inc., Model 501A UV-Biometer) and either of its components. The beam component of the UVB radiation was determined by measuring the normal incidence beam radiation using a prototype, tracking instrument consisting of a Solar Light Co. Inc. Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The horizontal beam component of the global UVB radiation was calculated from the measured normal incidence using a simple geometric correlation and the diffuse component is determined as the difference between global and horizontal beam radiations. Horizontal and vertical surfaces positioned under a horizontal overhang/sunshade or an umbrella are not fully protected from exposure to solar global UVB radiation. They can receive a significant fraction of the UVB radiation, depending on their location beneath the shading device, the umbrella radius and the albedo (reflectance) of the surrounding ground surface in the case of a vertical surface. Shading devices such as an umbrella or horizontal overhang/shade provide relief from the solar global radiation and do block the solar global UVB radiation to some extent; nevertheless, a significant fraction of the solar global UVB

  15. Passive immunization does not provide protection against experimental infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis.

    PubMed

    Sugiarto, Sarah; Spiri, Andrea M; Riond, Barbara; Novacco, Marilisa; Oestmann, Angelina; de Miranda, Luisa H Monteiro; Meli, Marina L; Boretti, Felicitas S; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Willi, Barbara

    2016-08-05

    Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) is the most pathogenic feline hemotropic mycoplasma. Cats infected with Mhf that clear bacteremia are protected from Mhf reinfection, but the mechanisms of protective immunity are unresolved. In the present study we investigated whether the passive transfer of antibodies from Mhf-recovered cats to naïve recipient cats provided protection against bacteremia and clinical disease following homologous challenge with Mhf; moreover, we characterized the immune response in the recipient cats. Ten specified pathogen-free (SPF) cats were transfused with pooled plasma from cats that had cleared Mhf bacteremia; five control cats received plasma from naïve SPF cats. After homologous challenge with Mhf, cats were monitored for 100 days using quantitative PCR, hematology, blood biochemistry, Coombs testing, flow cytometry, DnaK ELISA, and red blood cell (RBC) osmotic fragility (OF) measurement. Passively immunized cats were not protected against Mhf infection but, compared to control cats, showed significantly higher RBC OF and B lymphocyte (CD45R/B220(+)) counts and occasionally higher lymphocyte, monocyte and activated CD4(+) T lymphocyte (CD4(+)CD25(+)) counts; they also showed higher bilirubin, total protein and globulin levels compared to those of control cats. At times of peak bacteremia, a decrease in eosinophils and lymphocytes, as well as subsets thereof (B lymphocytes and CD5(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes), and an increase in monocytes were particularly significant in the passively immunized cats. In conclusion, passive immunization does not prevent bacteremia and clinical disease following homologous challenge with Mhf, but enhances RBC osmotic fragility and induces a pronounced immune response.

  16. PreImplantation factor (PIF) therapy provides comprehensive protection against radiation induced pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Shainer, Reut; Almogi-Hazan, Osnat; Berger, Arye; Hinden, Liad; Mueller, Martin; Brodie, Chaya; Simillion, Cedric; Paidas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) may lead to cancer and death and has few effective countermeasures. Efficacy of synthetic PIF treatment was demonstrated in preclinical autoimmune and transplantation models. PIF protected against inflammation and mortality following lethal irradiation in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) model. Herein, we demonstrate that PIF imparts comprehensive local and systemic protection against lethal and sub-lethal ARS in murine models. PIF treatment 2 h after lethal irradiation led to 100% survival and global hematopoietic recovery at 2 weeks after therapy. At 24 h after irradiation PIF restored hematopoiesis in a semi-allogeneic BMT model. PIF-preconditioning provided improved long-term engraftment. The direct effect of PIF on bone marrow cells was also demonstrated in vitro: PIF promoted pre-B cell differentiation and increased immunoregulatory properties of BM-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. PIF treatment also improved hematopoietic recovery and reduced systemic inflammatory cytokine production after sub-lethal radiation exposure. Here, PIF also prevented colonic crypt and basal membrane damage coupled with reduced nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and increased (B7h1) expression. Global upper GI gene pathway analysis revealed PIF's involvement in protein-RNA interactions, mitochondrial oxidative pathways, and responses to cellular stress. Some effects may be attributed to PIF's influence on macrophage differentiation and function. PIF demonstrated a regulatory effect on irradiated macrophages and on classically activated M1 macrophages, reducing inflammatory gene expression (iNOS, Cox2), promoting protective (Arg1) gene expression and inducing pro-tolerance cytokine secretion. Notably, synthetic PIF is stable for long-term field use. Overall, clinical investigation of PIF for comprehensive ARS protection is warranted. PMID:27449294

  17. Abortive Intrabronchial Infection of Rhesus Macaques with Varicella-Zoster Virus Provides Partial Protection against Simian Varicella Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christine; Engelmann, Flora; Arnold, Nicole; Krah, David L.; ter Meulen, Jan; Haberthur, Kristen; Dewane, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (HZ, shingles). Previously, inoculation of monkeys via the subcutaneous, intratracheal, intravenous, or oral-nasal-conjunctival routes did not recapitulate all the hallmarks of VZV infection, including varicella, immunity, latency, and reactivation. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques (RMs) with simian varicella virus (SVV), a homolog of VZV, recapitulates virologic and immunologic hallmarks of VZV infection in humans. Given that VZV is acquired primarily via the respiratory route, we investigated whether intrabronchial inoculation of RMs with VZV would result in a robust model. Despite the lack of varicella and viral replication in either the lungs or whole blood, all four RMs generated an immune response characterized by the generation of VZV-specific antibodies and T cells. Two of 4 VZV-inoculated RMs were challenged with SVV to determine cross-protection. VZV-immune RMs displayed no varicella rash and had lower SVV viral loads and earlier and stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than controls. In contrast to the results for SVV DNA, no VZV DNA was detected in sensory ganglia at necropsy. In summary, following an abortive VZV infection, RMs developed an adaptive immune response that conferred partial protection against SVV challenge. These data suggest that a replication-incompetent VZV vaccine that does not establish latency may provide sufficient protection against VZV disease and that VZV vaccination of RMs followed by SVV challenge provides a model to evaluate new vaccines and therapeutics against VZV. IMPORTANCE Although VZV vaccine strain Oka is attenuated, it can cause mild varicella, establish latency, and in rare cases, reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ). Moreover, studies suggest that the HZ vaccine (Zostavax) only confers short-lived immunity. The development of more efficacious

  18. A Protection And Detection Surface (PADS) for damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Prasad, Chunchu B.; Biggers, Sherrill B.

    1990-01-01

    A protection and detection surface (PADS) concept was studied for application to composite primary aircraft structures. A Kevlar-epoxy woven face sheet with a Rohacell foam core was found to be the most effective PADS configuration among the configurations evaluated. The weight of the PADS configuration was estimated to be approximately 17 pct of the structural weight. The PADS configuration was bonded to graphite-epoxy base laminates, and up to a 70 pct improvement in compression-after-impact failure strains was observed.

  19. Burkholderia terrae BS001 migrates proficiently with diverse fungal hosts through soil and provides protection from antifungal agents

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Rashid; Tazetdinova, Diana I.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Soil bacteria can benefit from co-occurring soil fungi in respect of the acquisition of carbonaceous nutrients released by fungal hyphae and the access to novel territories in soil. Here, we investigated the capacity of the mycosphere-isolated bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001 to comigrate through soil along with hyphae of the soil fungi Trichoderma asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, F. oxysporum pv lini, Coniochaeta ligniaria, Phanerochaete velutina, and Phallus impudicus. We used Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten as the reference migration-inciting fungus. Bacterial migration through presterilized soil on the extending fungal hyphae was detected with six of the seven test fungi, with only Phallus impudicus not showing any bacterial transport. Much like with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten, intermediate (106–108 CFU g-1 dry soil) to high (>108 CFU g-1 dry soil) strain BS001 cell population sizes were found at the hyphal migration fronts of four fungi, i.e., T. asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, F. oxysporum and F. oxysporum pv lini, whereas for two fungi, Coniochaeta ligniaria and Phanerochaete velutina, the migration responses were retarded and population sizes were lower (103–106 CFU g-1 dry soil). Consistent with previous data obtained with the reference fungus, migration with the migration-inciting fungi occurred only in the direction of the hyphal growth front. Remarkably, Burkholderia terrae BS001 provided protection from several antifungal agents to the canonical host Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. Specifically, this host was protected from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 metabolites, as well as from the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Similar protection by strain BS001was observed for T. asperellum, and, to a lower extent, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. The protective effect may be related to the consistent occurrence of biofilm-like cell layers or agglomerates at the surfaces of the protected fungi. The current study represents

  20. Vitamin E provides protection for bone in mature hindlimb unloaded male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. J.; Lucas, E. A.; Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Lerner, M. R.; Brackett, D. J.; Stoecker, B. J.; Arjmandi, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    The deleterious effects of skeletal unloading on bone mass and strength may, in part, result from increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), a free-radical scavenger with antiinflammatory properties, to protect against bone loss caused by skeletal unloading in mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used with either hindlimb unloading (HU) or normal loading (ambulatory; AMB), and low-dose (LD; 15 IU/kg diet), adequate-dose (AD; 75 IU/kg diet), or high-dose (HD; 500 IU/kg diet) vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate). To optimize the effects of vitamin E on bone, dietary treatments were initiated 9 weeks prior to unloading and continued during the 4-week unloading period, at which time animals were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum vitamin E was dose-dependently increased, confirming the vitamin E status of animals. The HD treatment improved oxidation parameters, as indicated by elevated serum ferric-reducing ability and a trend toward reducing tissue lipid peroxidation. Histomorphometric analysis of the distal femur revealed significant reductions in trabecular thickness (TbTh), double-labeled surface (dLS/BS), and rate of bone formation to bone volume (BFR/BV) due by HU. AMB animals on the HD diet and HU animals on the LD diet had reduced bone surface normalized to tissue volume (BS/TV) and trabecular number (TbN); however, the HD vitamin E protected against these changes in the HU animals. Our findings suggest that vitamin E supplementation provides modest bone protective effects during skeletal unloading.

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  2. Vitamin E provides protection for bone in mature hindlimb unloaded male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. J.; Lucas, E. A.; Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Lerner, M. R.; Brackett, D. J.; Stoecker, B. J.; Arjmandi, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    The deleterious effects of skeletal unloading on bone mass and strength may, in part, result from increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), a free-radical scavenger with antiinflammatory properties, to protect against bone loss caused by skeletal unloading in mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used with either hindlimb unloading (HU) or normal loading (ambulatory; AMB), and low-dose (LD; 15 IU/kg diet), adequate-dose (AD; 75 IU/kg diet), or high-dose (HD; 500 IU/kg diet) vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate). To optimize the effects of vitamin E on bone, dietary treatments were initiated 9 weeks prior to unloading and continued during the 4-week unloading period, at which time animals were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum vitamin E was dose-dependently increased, confirming the vitamin E status of animals. The HD treatment improved oxidation parameters, as indicated by elevated serum ferric-reducing ability and a trend toward reducing tissue lipid peroxidation. Histomorphometric analysis of the distal femur revealed significant reductions in trabecular thickness (TbTh), double-labeled surface (dLS/BS), and rate of bone formation to bone volume (BFR/BV) due by HU. AMB animals on the HD diet and HU animals on the LD diet had reduced bone surface normalized to tissue volume (BS/TV) and trabecular number (TbN); however, the HD vitamin E protected against these changes in the HU animals. Our findings suggest that vitamin E supplementation provides modest bone protective effects during skeletal unloading.

  3. Provide context when reporting on the use of protected and endangered wildlife in ethnopharmacological surveys.

    PubMed

    Nijman, Vincent; Nekaris, K A I

    2016-12-24

    The value of reports on the use of wildlife in ethnopharmacological surveys increases when context is provided on the legality of its use and on the species' conservation status. To evaluate if context is provided when protected and threatened animals are reported as being used in traditional medicine, and to provide recommendations for future reporting. Review of recent papers in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Rarely is information provided on (1) the conservation status of the animals that are used in traditional medicine, (2) whether the parts can be obtained non-invasively or if the animals have to be killed, or (3) whether or not it is legal to use the animals, their parts or derivatives according to national law. When presenting the results of ethnopharmalogical surveys include (1) the conservation status of the species affected, (2) whether or not parts could be harvested non-invasively and (3) the legality of harvesting and / or trading these animals, their parts or their derivatives. Our focus here is on animals, given that more so than in plants or fungi, many of their parts used in natural medicine cannot be obtained non-invasively, but a similar set of guidelines could be developed for other taxa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  5. Dehydration protection provided by a maternal cuticle improves offspring fitness in the moss Funaria hygrometrica

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Jessica M.; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In bryophytes the sporophyte offspring are in contact with, nourished from, and partially surrounded by the maternal gametophyte throughout their lifespan. During early development, the moss sporophyte is covered by the calyptra, a cap of maternal gametophyte tissue that has a multilayered cuticle. In this study the effects on sporophyte offspring fitness of removing the maternal calyptra cuticle, in combination with dehydration stress, is experimentally determined. Methods Using the moss Funaria hygrometrica, calyptra cuticle waxes were removed by chemical extraction and individuals were exposed to a short-term dehydration event. Sporophytes were returned to high humidity to complete development and then aspects of sporophyte survival, development, functional morphology, and reproductive output were measured. Key Results It was found that removal of calyptra cuticle under low humidity results in significant negative impacts to moss sporophyte fitness, resulting in decreased survival, increased tissue damage, incomplete sporophyte development, more peristome malformations, and decreased reproductive output. Conclusions This study represents the strongest evidence to date that the structure of the calyptra cuticle functions in dehydration protection of the immature moss sporophyte. The investment in a maternal calyptra with a multilayered cuticle increases offspring fitness and provides a functional explanation for calyptra retention across mosses. The moss calyptra may represent the earliest occurance of maternal protection via structural provisioning of a cuticle in green plants. PMID:23471009

  6. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection... meet the following requirements: (a) Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess...

  7. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required by...

  8. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection... meet the following requirements: (a) Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess...

  9. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required by...

  10. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection... meet the following requirements: (a) Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess...

  11. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required by...

  12. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required by...

  13. 46 CFR 28.155 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.155... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.155 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required by...

  14. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection... meet the following requirements: (a) Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess...

  15. Measles Vaccination of Nonhuman Primates Provides Partial Protection against Infection with Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Ludlow, Martin; Verburgh, R. Joyce; van Amerongen, Geert; Yüksel, Selma; Nguyen, D. Tien; McQuaid, Stephen; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Duprex, W. Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles virus (MV) is being considered for global eradication, which would likely reduce compliance with MV vaccination. As a result, children will grow up without MV-specific immunity, creating a potential niche for closely related animal morbilliviruses such as canine distemper virus (CDV). Natural CDV infection causing clinical signs has never been reported in humans, but recent outbreaks in captive macaques have shown that CDV can cause disease in primates. We studied the virulence and tropism of recombinant CDV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in naive and measles-vaccinated cynomolgus macaques. In naive animals CDV caused viremia and fever and predominantly infected CD150+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Virus was reisolated from the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but infection of epithelial or neuronal cells was not detectable at the time points examined, and the infections were self-limiting. This demonstrates that CDV readily infects nonhuman primates but suggests that additional mutations are necessary to achieve full virulence in nonnatural hosts. Partial protection against CDV was observed in measles-vaccinated macaques, as demonstrated by accelerated control of virus replication and limited shedding from the upper respiratory tract. While neither CDV infection nor MV vaccination induced detectable cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, MV-specific neutralizing antibody levels of MV-vaccinated macaques were boosted by CDV challenge infection, suggesting that cross-reactive VN epitopes exist. Rapid increases in white blood cell counts in MV-vaccinated macaques following CDV challenge suggested that cross-reactive cellular immune responses were also present. This study demonstrates that zoonotic morbillivirus infections can be controlled by measles vaccination. IMPORTANCE Throughout history viral zoonoses have had a substantial impact on human health. Given the drive toward global eradication of measles, it is essential to

  16. Resveratrol fails to provide prophylactic protection in a rat model of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Yossi; Ravfogel, Shaul; Shiyovich, Arthur; Shrot, Shai; Milk, Nadav; Ophir, Nimrod; Aviram, Michael; Nir, Ishai; Kassirer, Michael; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1, an organophosphorous-hydrolyzing enzyme, was shown to provide protection against organophosphates poisoning in vivo. In vitro findings suggest that the phytoalexin resveratrol can elevate paraoxonase-1 levels and thus may provide protection against organophosphate poisoning. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of prolonged resveratrol intake on paraoxonase-1 levels in rats, and its role as a potential prophylactic treatment in organophosphate poisoning. 30 adult male albino Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: rats receiving no resveratrol (Control group, n = 10), rats treated once daily with oral gavage of ethanol only (Sham group, n = 6), and rats treated once daily with oral gavage of resveratrol (50 mg/kg) (Study group, n = 14). Following 2 weeks of feeding, all rats were exposed to 1.4LD50 paraoxon (450 mg/kg, intramuscular; 0.5 ml/kg) and monitored for severity of clinical signs and mortality. Paraoxonase-1 activity level was recorded in the beginning of the study and 2 weeks later, just before exposure to paraoxon. We found a significant decrease in paraoxonase-1 activity levels in all groups compared to baseline levels (p = 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the study group and the controls (p = 0.7). Following exposure to paraoxon, all animals suffered from severe convulsions and died within minutes. Following resveratrol intake in rats, paraoxonase-1 activity levels decreased. We found no beneficial effects in using resveratrol as a prophylactic medical countermeasure.

  17. EPA Provides $8.5 Million to Protect Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced $8.5 million in research funding to 12 universities to protect air quality from the current and future challenges associated with the impacts of climate change.

  18. Deed Restrictions/Conservation Easements and Appropriate Considerations When Perpetual Protection Is Not Provided

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Basic requirements for mitigation site protection “…mitigation project must be providedlong-term protection through real estate instruments or other available instruments or other available mechanisms, as appropriate.” 33 CFR 332.7(a)(1)

  19. Indian community health insurance schemes provide partial protection against catastrophic health expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Ranson, Kent; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background More than 72% of health expenditure in India is financed by individual households at the time of illness through out-of-pocket payments. This is a highly regressive way of financing health care and sometimes leads to impoverishment. Health insurance is recommended as a measure to protect households from such catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). We studied two Indian community health insurance (CHI) schemes, ACCORD and SEWA, to determine whether insured households are protected from CHE. Methods ACCORD provides health insurance cover for the indigenous population, living in Gudalur, Tamil Nadu. SEWA provides insurance cover for self employed women in the state of Gujarat. Both cover hospitalisation expenses, but only upto a maximum limit of US$23 and US$45, respectively. We reviewed the insurance claims registers in both schemes and identified patients who were hospitalised during the period 01/04/2003 to 31/03/2004. Details of their diagnoses, places and costs of treatment and self-reported annual incomes were obtained. There is no single definition of CHE and none of these have been validated. For this research, we used the following definition; "annual hospital expenditure greater than 10% of annual income," to identify those who experienced CHE. Results There were a total of 683 and 3152 hospital admissions at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. In the absence of the CHI scheme, all of the patients at ACCORD and SEWA would have had to pay OOP for their hospitalisation. With the CHI scheme, 67% and 34% of patients did not have to make any out-of-pocket (OOP) payment for their hospital expenses at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. Both CHI schemes halved the number of households that would have experienced CHE by covering hospital costs. However, despite this, 4% and 23% of households with admissions still experienced CHE at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. This was related to the following conditions: low annual income, benefit packages with low maximum limits

  20. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: what every provider of gynecologic oncology care should know.

    PubMed

    Duska, Linda R; Engelhard, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama in 2010. While initial implementation of the law began shortly thereafter, the full implementation will take place over the next few years. With respect to cancer care, the act was intended to make care more accessible, affordable, and comprehensive across different parts of the country. For our cancer patients and our practices, the ACA has implications that are both positive and negative. The Medicaid expansion and access to insurance exchanges are intended to increase the number of insured patients and thus improve access to care, but many states have decided to opt out of the Medicaid program and in these states access problems will persist. Screening programs will be put in place for insured patients but may supplant federally funded programs that are currently in place for uninsured patients and may not follow current screening guidelines. Both hospice and home health providers will be asked to provide more services with less funding, and quality measures, including readmission rates, will factor into reimbursement. Insured patients will have access to all phases of clinical trial research. There is a need for us as providers of Gynecologic Oncology care to be active in the implementation of the ACA in order to ensure that our patients and our practices can survive and benefit from the changes in health care reimbursement, with the ultimate goals of improving access to care and quality while reducing unsustainable costs.

  1. Novel filter providing human eye and optical sensors protection from the visible into the IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donval, A.; Fisher, T.; Nemet, B.; Oron, R.; Oron, M.; Shvartzer, R.; Eberle, B.; Ritt, G.; Ebert, R.

    2008-04-01

    We introduce into optical systems, susceptible to be interrupted or damaged from laser, novel passive solid-state threshold-triggered Wideband Protection Filter (WPF) that blocks the transmission only if the power exceeds a certain threshold. We present new protection capabilities of our latest filter composed of improved technology. The WPF can be readily used for protection of detectors, cameras, or eye safety.

  2. Protecting Students' Intellectual Property in the Web Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Dyagilev, Vadim; Tskhay, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMS) play a central role in communications in online and distance education. In the digital era, with all the information now accessible at students' fingertips, plagiarism detection services (PDS) have become a must-have part of LMS. Such integration provides a seamless experience for users, allowing PDS to check…

  3. Simultaneous immunization of mice with Omp31 and TF provides protection against Brucella melitensis infection.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Amir; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Mautner, Josef; Salari, Mohammad Hossein; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2015-10-13

    Brucella vaccines consisting of live attenuated Brucella strains are currently used in livestock, but safety concerns preclude their application in humans. Subunit vaccines have recently emerged as safe and efficacious alternatives in both humans and animals. In this study, subunit vaccines were developed that consisted of a recombinant outer membrane protein (rOmp31) and the trigger factor chaperone protein (rTF) of Brucella melitensis, either alone or in combination. BALB/c mice that were immunized with rOmp31+rTF showed comparable but slightly higher TF-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies as compared to mice with rTF alone. Indeed, mice given this combination had titers of rOmp31-specific antibodies similar to those immunized with rOmp31 alone. In lymphocyte reactivation experiments, the splenocytes of immunized mice, whether given either of these antigens alone or as a cocktail, exhibited a strong antigen-specific recall proliferative response and expressed high amounts of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-6. Both rTF and rTF+rOmp31 vaccinated mice exhibited significantly higher CD4 and CD8 levels compared to the PBS group. The combination of rOmp31 and rTF provided protection against B. melitensis infection comparable to that of vaccine strain Rev.1. In comparison to rTF alone, combination of rTF and rOmp31 caused only a slight increase in protection level. Although combination of rTF and rOmp31 caused a non-significant increase in IFN-γ induction, antibody level, proliferation index and CD4 and CD8 frequencies compared to rTF alone, its cumulative effects on aforesaid parameters may be viewed as a better efficacy.

  4. Monotreme lactation protein is highly expressed in monotreme milk and provides antimicrobial protection.

    PubMed

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R; Nicol, Stewart C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2014-09-22

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female's abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Monotreme Lactation Protein Is Highly Expressed in Monotreme Milk and Provides Antimicrobial Protection

    PubMed Central

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R.; Nicol, Stewart C.; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Sharp, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female’s abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  6. Generation of temperature-sensitive human metapneumovirus strains that provide protective immunity in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Herfst, Sander; de Graaf, Miranda; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Sprong, Leo; Hussain, Karim; van den Hoogen, Bernadette G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2008-07-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes acute respiratory tract illness primarily in young children, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly. Vaccines would be desirable to prevent severe illnesses in these risk groups. Here, we describe the generation and evaluation of cold-passage (cp) temperature-sensitive (ts) HMPV strains as vaccine candidates. Repeated passage of HMPV at low temperatures in Vero cells resulted in the accumulation of mutations in the viral genome. Introduction of these mutations in a recombinant HMPV by reverse genetics resulted in a ts-phenotype, judged on the decreased shut-off temperature for virus replication in vitro. As an alternative approach, three previously described cp-respiratory syncytial virus (cp-HRSV) mutations were introduced in a recombinant HMPV, which also resulted in a low shut-off temperature in vitro. Replication of these ts-viruses containing either the cp-HMPV or cp-HRSV mutations was reduced in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and undetectable in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of hamsters. Nevertheless, high titres of HMPV-specific antibodies were induced by both ts-viruses. Upon immunization with the ts-viruses, the LRT of hamsters were completely protected against challenge infection with a heterologous HMPV strain, and URT viral titres were reduced by 10 000-fold. In conclusion, we provide proof-of-principle for two candidate live-attenuated HMPV vaccines that induce cross-protective immunity to prevent infection of the LRT in Syrian golden hamsters. Further mapping of the molecular determinants of attenuation of HMPV should be the subject of future studies.

  7. Collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy provides endogenous protection in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuanming; Liang, Fengyin; Ren, Huixia; Yao, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiang; Li, Mingyue; Qin, Dajiang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing

    2016-11-15

    Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging. Occlusion of the pial arteriole apparently increased the diameter and collateral blood flow of its leptomeningeal anastomoses, which significantly reduced the cortical infarction size. This result suggests that the collateral flow via surface communicating network connected with leptomeningeal anastomoses could greatly impact on the extent of infarction. We then further occluded the target pial arteriole and all of its leptomeningeal anastomoses. Notably, this type of occlusion led to reversals of blood flow in the penetrating arterioles mainly proximal to the occluded pial arteriole in a direction from the subsurface microcirculation network to surface arterioles. Interesting, the cell death in the area of ischemic penumbra was accelerated when we performed occlusion to cease the reversed blood flow in those penetrating arterioles, suggesting that the collateral blood flow from subsurface microcirculation network exerts protective roles in delaying cell death in the ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence that collateral blood vessels at different cerebrovascular hierarchy are endogenously compensatory mechanisms in brain ischemia. This article is protected by

  8. Phosphodiesterase inhibition with tadalafil provides longer and sustained protection of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Haider, Husnain Kh; Lee, Yun-Jung; Jiang, Shujia; Ahmed, Rafeeq P H; Ryon, Mok; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-11-01

    We hypothesized that inhibition of the cGMP-specific enzyme phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) promoted cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) activity to condition stem cells for enhanced survival and proliferation. One-time tadalafil treatment (1 μM for 30 min) of mesenchymal stem cells ((Tada)MSCs) provided sustained protection of cells for 36 h. Higher cGMP activity with concomitantly increased PKG1 activity was observed in (Tada)MSCs, which peaked within 12 h after tadalafil treatment. Pretreatment with PKG1 blockers (1 μM KT-5823 or 20 nM K-252a) or transduction with adenoviral PKG1-short-hairpin RNA abolished tadalafil-induced cytoprotection of the cells. A higher proliferation rate was observed in (Tada)MSCs compared with nontreated MSCs ((Cont)MSCs). In a rat model of acute myocardial infarction, (Tada)MSCs transplanted 0 and 24 h after tadalafil treatment showed higher survival compared with (Cont)MSCs on day 2 and day 4 after engraftment. (Tada)MSCs transplanted 48 h after tadalafil treatment lost their protection on both day 2 and day 4 after engraftment, and their rate of survival was similar to (Cont)MSCs. Reduced terminal dUTP nick end-labeling positivity (P < 0.01 vs. (Cont)MSCs) and higher proliferation of (Tada)MSCs (P < 0.01 vs. (Cont)MSCs) was observed in the infarcted heart. Fluorescence immunostaining revealed neomyogenesis in both the infarct and peri-infarct areas. Blood vessel density was significantly increased in group 2 compared with group 1. Transthoracic echocardiographic heart function revealed significant preservation of the indexes of left ventricle contractility and attenuation of remodeling in (Tada)MSC-engrafted animal hearts (group 2) compared with (Cont)MSCs (group 1). PDE5A inhibition using long-acting tadalafil is an innovative approach to promote stem cell survival and proliferation in the infarcted heart.

  9. Phosphodiesterase inhibition with tadalafil provides longer and sustained protection of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Husnain Kh; Lee, Yun-Jung; Jiang, Shujia; Ahmed, Rafeeq P. H.; Ryon, Mok

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that inhibition of the cGMP-specific enzyme phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) promoted cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) activity to condition stem cells for enhanced survival and proliferation. One-time tadalafil treatment (1 μM for 30 min) of mesenchymal stem cells (TadaMSCs) provided sustained protection of cells for 36 h. Higher cGMP activity with concomitantly increased PKG1 activity was observed in TadaMSCs, which peaked within 12 h after tadalafil treatment. Pretreatment with PKG1 blockers (1 μM KT-5823 or 20 nM K-252a) or transduction with adenoviral PKG1-short-hairpin RNA abolished tadalafil-induced cytoprotection of the cells. A higher proliferation rate was observed in TadaMSCs compared with nontreated MSCs (ContMSCs). In a rat model of acute myocardial infarction, TadaMSCs transplanted 0 and 24 h after tadalafil treatment showed higher survival compared with ContMSCs on day 2 and day 4 after engraftment. TadaMSCs transplanted 48 h after tadalafil treatment lost their protection on both day 2 and day 4 after engraftment, and their rate of survival was similar to ContMSCs. Reduced terminal dUTP nick end-labeling positivity (P < 0.01 vs. ContMSCs) and higher proliferation of TadaMSCs (P < 0.01 vs. ContMSCs) was observed in the infarcted heart. Fluorescence immunostaining revealed neomyogenesis in both the infarct and peri-infarct areas. Blood vessel density was significantly increased in group 2 compared with group 1. Transthoracic echocardiographic heart function revealed significant preservation of the indexes of left ventricle contractility and attenuation of remodeling in TadaMSC-engrafted animal hearts (group 2) compared with ContMSCs (group 1). PDE5A inhibition using long-acting tadalafil is an innovative approach to promote stem cell survival and proliferation in the infarcted heart. PMID:20833962

  10. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: impact on mental health services demand and provider availability.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Shoshannah A

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will greatly increase the demand for mental health (MH) services, as 62.5 million Americans from relatively high-need populations will be newly eligible for MH benefits. Consequently, the supply of MH care provider services is expected to proportionately decrease by 18% to 21% in 2014. ACA funding does not demonstrate the ability to increase turnout of psychiatrists sufficiently to meet the need. Available data indicate that the numbers of advanced practice psychiatric nurses (APPNs) continue to increase at a much greater rate, but information from either a clinical perspective or a market perspective is complicated by the weak distinctions that are made between nurse practitioners (NPs) and other nonphysician care professionals. The following recommendations are made: (a) some of the ACA funding for research into efficient and effective care delivery systems should be allocated to acquiring data on APPNs in leadership roles or clinical settings in which they are ultimately responsible for management of MH care, as differentiated from settings in which they provide support for psychiatrists; and (b) since the available data indicate nurse practitioners achieve good outcomes and are more economically viable than psychiatrists, placement of psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners in community settings should be recognized as a realistic solution to the shortfall of MH services.

  11. The hepatitis B vaccine protects re-exposed health care workers, but does not provide sterilizing immunity.

    PubMed

    Werner, Jens M; Abdalla, Adil; Gara, Naveen; Ghany, Marc G; Rehermann, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be prevented by vaccination with HB surface (HBs) antigen, which induces HBs-specific antibodies and T cells. However, the duration of vaccine-induced protective immunity is poorly defined for health care workers who were vaccinated as adults. We investigated the immune mechanisms (antibody and T-cell responses) of long-term protection by the HBV vaccine in 90 health care workers with or without occupational exposure to HBV, 10-28 years after vaccination. Fifty-nine of 90 health care workers (65%) had levels of antibodies to HBs antigen above the cut-off (>12 mIU/mL) and 30 of 90 (33%) had HBs-specific T cells that produced interferon-gamma. Titers of antibodies to HBs antigen correlated with numbers of HBs-specific interferon-gamma-producing T cells, but not with time after vaccination. Although occupational exposure to HBV after vaccination did not induce antibodies to the HBV core protein (HBcore), the standard biomarker for HBV infection, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells against HBcore and polymerase antigens were detected. Similar numbers of HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected in health care workers with occupational exposure to HBV and in patients who acquired immunity via HBV infection. Most of the HBcore- and polymerase-specific T cells were CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)CD127(-) effector memory cells in exposed health care workers and in patients with acquired immunity. In contrast, most of the vaccine-induced HBs-specific T cells were CD45RO(-)CCR7(-)CD127(-) terminally differentiated cells. HBs antigen vaccine-induced immunity protects against future infection but does not provide sterilizing immunity, as evidenced by HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinated health care workers with occupational exposure to HBV. The presence of HBcore- and HBV polymerase-specific T-cell responses is a more sensitive indicator of HBV exposure than detection of HBcore-specific antibodies

  12. Experimental shielding evaluation of the radiation protection provided by the structurally significant components of residential structures.

    PubMed

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

    2014-03-01

    The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment have been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology. These postulated releases have been researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to provide an updated technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the US housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection from ionising radiation provided by a certain building type. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950s era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments realised today. To analyse a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building types to various radioactive sources and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research analyses the shielding effectiveness of ten structurally significant US housing-stock models (walls and roofs) important for shielding against ionising radiation. The experimental data are used to benchmark computational models to calculate the shielding effectiveness of various building configurations under investigation from two types of realistic environmental source terms. Various combinations of these ten shielding models can be used to develop full-scale computational housing-unit models for building shielding factor calculations representing 69.6 million housing units (61.3%) in the United States. Results produced in this investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology.

  13. Providing earplugs to young adults at risk encourages protective behaviour in music venues.

    PubMed

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan

    2016-06-01

    For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Silymarin-loaded solid nanoparticles provide excellent hepatic protection: physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwan Yeol; Hwang, Du Hyeong; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Shin, Young-Jun; Bae, Ok-Nam; Kim, Yong-II; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop a novel silymarin-loaded solid nanoparticle system with enhanced oral bioavailability and an ability to provide excellent hepatic protection for poorly water-soluble drugs using Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification and a spray-drying technique. Methods A silymarin-loaded liquid nanoemulsion was formulated by applying the SPG membrane emulsification technique. This was further converted into solid state nanosized particles by the spray-drying technique. The physicochemical characteristics of these nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction. Their dissolution, bioavailability, and hepatoprotective activity in rats were assessed by comparison with a commercially available silymarin-loaded product. Results Formulation of a silymarin-loaded nanoemulsion, comprising silymarin, castor oil, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Transcutol HP, Tween 80, and water at a weight ratio of 5/3/3/1.25/1.25/100 was accomplished using an SPG membrane emulsification technique at an agitator speed of 700 rpm, a feed pressure of 15 kPa, and a continuous phase temperature of 25°C. This resulted in generation of comparatively uniform emulsion globules with a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the silymarin-loaded solid nanoparticles, containing silymarin/castor oil/polyvinylpyrrolidone/Transcutol HP/Tween 80 at a weight ratio of 5/3/3/1.25/1.25, improved about 1,300-fold drug solubility and retained a mean size of about 210 nm. Silymarin was located in unaltered crystalline form in the nanoparticles. The drug dissolved rapidly from the nanoparticles, reaching nearly 80% within 15 minutes, indicating three-fold better dissolution than that of the commercial product. Further, the nanoparticles showed a considerably shorter time to peak concentration, a greater area under the concentration-time curve, and a higher maximum concentration of silymarin compared

  15. Acetone Extract of Almond Hulls Provides Protection against Oxidative Damage and Membrane Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Meshkini, Azadeh

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have revealed that among foods, the consumption of edible nuts has beneficial effects on health which are attributed to their high content of potent antioxidants. Among nuts, the whole seed of the almond (Prunus dulcis) has been demonstrated to possess potent free radical scavenging activity, which is related to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the polyphenol content and the antioxidant ability of almond hull, which is an agriculture solid waste. The present results revealed that among different extraction methods, the acetone extract of almond hulls has a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a high antioxidant ability, which were determined by using the phosphomolybdenum method and by measuring the potency of the antioxidant, respectively. Moreover, the experimental data disclosed that the acetone extract of almond hulls provides protection against the oxidative damage and the membrane protein degradation that are caused in human erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide. These phenomena may likely be due to the recruitment of antioxidants by cell membranes and/or translocation to cytosol. Overall, almond hull extract could be considered as a natural source of antioxidants, and its consumption could have a positive effect on human health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Imidapril provides a protective effect on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Li, Meng; Yang, Zhen; Niu, Ming-Fu; Sun, Tong-Wen; Yang, Dan-Li; Kong, Tao; Li, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the role of imidapril on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Ninety chickens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30): a control group, a low-temperature group and an imidapril group. Chickens in the low-temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature from 14 days of age until 45 days of age; chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. The pulmonary arterial pressure, main pulmonary arterial diameter and pulmonary arterial wall thickness were measured, and lung tissue ACE, ACE2 mRNA expression, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and Ang II, Ang (1-7) concentration were evaluated. The pulmonary arterial pressure was higher, the main pulmonary arterial diameter was wider and the pulmonary arterial wall was thicker in the low-temperature group than those in the control group and the imidapril group. ACE mRNA and PCNA-positive cells increased significantly in the low-temperature group compared with the control group and imidapril group; lung tissue Ang II concentration in the low-temperature group was higher, but Ang (1-7) content was lower than that in the control group and imidapril group. Imidapril provides a protective effect on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Simplified microsatellite instability detection protocol provides equivalent sensitivity to robust detection strategies in Lynch syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Hadi; Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Hashemzadeh, Mortaza; Farahani, Najmeh; Salehi, Rasoul

    2017-01-01

    Objective : Germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome (LS). LS is an inherited disease, and an important consequence of MMR deficiency is microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype. MSI phenotype influences the efficacy of 5 fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. Reproducible, cost effective, and easy to perform laboratory tests are required to include MSI detection in routine laboratory practice. Evaluation of CAT25 as monomorphic short tandem repeat sequence enables CAT25 to be an efficient screening tool among hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients compared with other methods used currently. Methods : Based on Amsterdam II criteria, 31 patients in 31 families were shortlisted from a total number of 1,659 colorectal cancer patients. MSI status was examined in these patients using CAT25 and a commercially available Promega MSI five-marker-based detection system as well as immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of four important MMR proteins. Patients were scored as high microsatellite instable (MSI-H), low (MSI-L), or stable (MSS). MSI status determined by CAT25 single mononucleotide marker was compared with that of five mononucleotide markers, Promega commercial kit, and IHC method. Results : MMR protein deficiency was observed on 7/31 probands using IHC methodology and 6/31 categorized as MSI-H using commercial kit or CAT25 single marker. The sensitivity and specificity of the CAT25 single marker were the same as those detected by five-marker Promega commercial kit in our patients. Conclusions : Based on our results, the performance of the CAT25 single mononucleotide marker for MSI status determination in our HNPCC patients is the same as that of the five-marker-based commercial kit. PMID:28607805

  18. Soft Tissue Conduction as a Possible Contributor to the Limited Attenuation Provided by Hearing Protection Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chordekar, Shai; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2016-01-01

    Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC) leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE) and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC). Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a) unprotected ears, (b) ears covered with earmuffs, (c) ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d) ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC) contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study has practical

  19. Desiccation provides photosynthetic protection for crust cyanobacteria Microcoleus vaginatus from high temperature.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shubin; Wu, Li; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-10-01

    As the dominant cyanobacterial species in biological soil crusts (BSCs), Microcoleus vaginatus often suffer from many stress conditions, such as desiccation and high temperature. In this study, the activities of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) and reaction centers of photosystem II (PS II) in crust cyanobacteria M. vaginatus were monitored under high temperature and desiccation conditions using chlorophyll fluorescence technology. The results showed that all the fluorescence signals were significantly inhibited by high temperature or desiccation treatments. Under high temperature conditions, it was further demonstrated that PS II reaction centers were first destructed within the first hour, then the LHCs gradually dissociated and free phycocyanin formed within 1-5 h, and the activities of all the light harvesting and reaction center pigment proteins were fully suppressed after 24 h of high temperature treatment. Furthermore, the high temperature treated M. vaginatus lost its ability to recover photosynthetic activity. On the contrary, although desiccation also led to the loss of photosynthetic activity in M. vaginatus, after rehydration in the light the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm could be well recovered within 12 h. It was concluded that desiccation could provide crust cyanobacteria M. vaginatus some protection from other stresses, such as high temperature demonstrated in this experiment. The combine of temperature change and precipitation pattern in the field provide a guarantee for the alternate metabolism and inactivity in crust cyanobacteria. That may be a very important strategy for the survival of crust cyanobacteria in high temperature regions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. EPA Provides $691,000 to Protect Wetlands throughout New York State

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $690,940 to the Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Research Foundation of SUNY, to better protect wetlands throughout New York.

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayin; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wengting; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Ling; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of angiogenesis and the resulting improvement of cerebral microcirculation are key restorative mechanisms and represent an important therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that post-stroke angiogenesis would be enhanced by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), a major component of dietary fish oil. To this end, we found that transgenic fat-1 mice that overproduce n-3 PUFAs exhibited long-term behavioral and histological protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Importantly, fat-1 transgenic mice also exhibited robust improvements in revascularization and angiogenesis compared to wild type littermates, suggesting a potential role for n-3 fatty acids in post-stroke cerebrovascular remodeling. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs induced upregulation of angiopoietin 2 (Ang 2) in astrocytes after tFCI and stimulated extracellular Ang 2 release from cultured astrocytes after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Ang 2 facilitated endothelial proliferation and barrier formation in vitro by potentiating the effects of VEGF on phospholipase Cγ1 and Src signaling. Consistent with these findings, blockade of Src activity in post-stroke fat-1 mice impaired n-3 PUFA-induced angiogenesis and exacerbated long-term neurological outcomes. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential angiogenic treatment capable of augmenting brain repair and improving long-term functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. PMID:24794156

  2. Motorcycle helmet fixation status is more crucial than helmet type in providing protection to the head.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Roszalina; Oxley, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    In Malaysia, motorcyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The objective of this study was to determine the association between helmet fixation and helmet type with head injury and severity of head injury among Malaysian motorcyclists. The study design was a prospective cross-sectional study. The participants involved injured motorcyclists who were admitted in five selected hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Participants who sustained head injury were selected as the cases while those with injury below the neck (IBN) were selected as the controls. Questionnaire comprising motorcyclist, vehicle, helmet and crash factors was examined. Diagnoses of injuries were obtained from the participants' medical records. The total subjects with head injuries were 404 while those with IBN were 235. Majority of the cases (76.2%) and controls (80.4%) wore the half-head and open-face helmets, followed by the tropical helmets (5.4% and 6.0% of the cases and controls, respectively). Full-face helmets were used by 1.2% of the cases and 4.7% of the controls. 5.7% of the cases and 6.0% of the controls did not wear a helmet. 32.7% of the cases and 77.4% of the controls had their helmets fixed. Motorcyclists with ejected helmets were five times as likely to sustain head injury [adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.73 (95% CI 3.38-9.73)] and four times as likely to sustain severe head injury [AOR of 4.83 (95% CI 2.76-8.45)]. The half head and open face helmets had AOR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.10-0.56) for severe head injury when compared to motorcyclists who did not wear a helmet. Helmet fixation is more effective than helmet type in providing protection to the motorcyclists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Waterborne firm coating for temporary protection of parts, providing controlled lubrication during assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hayner, R.E.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a protective, emulsified oil in water, dispersible, lubricant coating composition having a pH in the range of about 7.0 to 10, and capable of application and flow on a threaded solid substrate consisting essentially of: A. about 65 to 99% by weight of a composition comprising: (1) about 0.5 to 30 parts by weight of organic wax components having a melting point above 50/sup 0/C, the wax container ester groups; (2) about 0.5 to 6 parts of a surfactant comprising 2 to 8% of carboxylic acid and about 1 to 5% of an amine, the acid and the amine forming a salt providing at least a portion of a surfactant; (3) about 10 to 30 parts of a coupling agent comprising a C/sub 5/-C/sub 30/ liquid hydrocarbon coupling component and a C/sub 2/-C/sub 20/ alcohol in the ratio of between 1:1 and 10:1 by weight respectively, selected from the group consisting of: mineral spirits, kerosene, ethylene glycol ether, butyl cellosolve, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monopropyl ether, propyl cellosolve, ethyl cellosolve, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoacetate, diethylene glycol monoproprionate, diethylene glycol monoacetate, propylene glycol monoacetate, ethanol, isopropanol and isobutanol; and (4) about 30 to 97 parts of water the sum of all parts being equal to 100; and (B) about 3.5 to 9% total pigment comprising about 0.4 to 4% by weight carbon black.

  4. Experimental Shielding Evaluation of the Radiation Protection Provided by Residential Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Elijah D.

    The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment has been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology and researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to research and develop the technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the U.S. housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection a certain building-type provides from ionizing radiation. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950's era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments seen today. To analyze a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building-types to various radioactive materials and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research uniquely analyzes the shielding effectiveness of a variety of likely U.S. residential buildings from a realistic source term in a laboratory setting. Results produced in the investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology by applying laboratory measurements to detailed computational models. These models are used to develop a series of validated building shielding factors for generic residential housing units using the computational code MCNP5. For these building shielding factors to be useful in radiologic consequence assessments and emergency response planning, two types of shielding factors have been developed for; (1) the shielding effectiveness of each structure within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material, and (2) the shielding effectiveness of each structure

  5. Mobile detection assessment and response systems (MDARS): a force protection physical security operational success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Goehring, Richard; Moneyhun, Jon; Skibba, Brian

    2006-05-01

    MDARS is a Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle with intrusion detection & assessment, product & barrier assessment payloads. Its functions include surveillance, security, early warning, incident first response and product and barrier status primarily focused on a depot/munitions security mission at structured/semi-structured facilities. MDARS is in Systems Development and Demonstration (SDD) under the Product Manager for Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). MDARS capabilities include semi-autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance, motion detection, day and night imagers, radio frequency tag inventory/barrier assessment and audio challenge and response. Four SDD MDARS Patrol Vehicles have been undergoing operational evaluation at Hawthorne Army Depot, NV (HWAD) since October 2004. Hawthorne personnel were trained to administer, operate and maintain the system in accordance with the US Army Military Police School (USAMPS) Concept of Employment and the PM-FPS MDARS Integrated Logistic Support Plan. The system was subjected to intensive periods of evaluation under the guidance and control of the Army Test and Evaluation Center (ATEC) and PM-FPS. Significantly, in terms of User acceptance, the system has been under the "operational control" of the installation performing security and force protection missions in support of daily operations. This evaluation is intended to assess MDARS operational effectiveness in an operational environment. Initial observations show that MDARS provides enhanced force protection, can potentially reduce manpower requirements by conducting routine tasks within its design capabilities and reduces Soldier exposure in the initial response to emerging incidents and situations. Success of the MDARS program has been instrumental in the design and development of two additional robotic force protection programs. The first was the USAF Force Protection Battle Lab sponsored Remote Detection Challenge & Response (REDCAR) concept demonstration

  6. How do migratory species add ecosystem service value to wilderness? Calculating the spatial subsidies provided by protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Species that migrate through protected and wilderness areas and utilize their resources, deliver ecosystem services to people in faraway locations. The mismatch between the areas that most support a species and those areas where the species provides most benefits to society can lead to underestimation of the true value of protected areas such as wilderness. We present a method to communicate the “off-site” value of wilderness and protected areas in providing habitat to migratory species that, in turn, provide benefits to people in distant locations. Using northern pintail ducks (Anas acuta) as an example, the article provides a method to estimate the amount of subsidy – the value of the ecosystem services provided by a migratory species in one area versus the cost to support the species and its habitat elsewhere.

  7. Dental Care Risk Management Provided by Social Protection Institutions of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Cheikh Mouhamadou Mbacké; Diop, Mbathio; Kanouté, Aida; Diouf, Massamba; Cissé, Daouda; Faye, Daouda; Baldé, Yandé

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays in Senegal, located in West Africa, social protection institutions are confronted with a substantially increased healthcare expenditure in general, and oral care in particular. The ability of the leadership to use techniques to contain the impact of risks they are facing determine their viability. The aim of our study was to analyze the risk management of dental care coverage by those institutions. The study was descriptive, extensive and focused on all active social protection Institutions in Senegal since 2005, at least. Our results showed that, in spite of the implementation of risk management mechanisms such as patient co-payment (97% of institutions), coverage ceiling (26%) and dentist council (15%), healthcare expenditure still growing. For the containment of oral care expenditure increase, it is important to raise awareness among social protection institutions for a greater use of existing risk management mechanisms. PMID:28299147

  8. Does selective beta-1 blockade provide bone marrow protection after trauma/hemorrhagic shock?

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Latha V; Cook, Kristin M; Sifri, Ziad C; Kotamarti, Srinath; Calderon, Gabriel M; Alzate, Walter D; Livingston, David H; Mohr, Alicia M

    2012-09-01

    Previously, nonselective beta-blockade (BB) with propranolol demonstrated protection of the bone marrow (BM) after trauma and hemorrhagic shock (HS). Because selective beta-1 blockers are used commonly for their cardiac protection, the aim of this study was to more clearly define the role of specific beta adrenergic receptors in BM protection after trauma and HS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral lung contusion (LC) followed by HS for 45 minutes. After resuscitation, animals were injected with a selective beta-blocker, atenolol (B1B), butoxamine (B2B), or SR59230A (B3B). Animals were killed at 3 hours or 7 days. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured throughout the study period. BM cellularity, growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in BM, and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were assessed. Treatment with a B2B or B3B after LCHS restored both BM cellularity and BM HPC colony growth at 3 hours and 7 days. In contrast, treatment with a B1B had no effect on BM cellularity or HPC growth but did decrease heart effectively rate throughout the study. Treatment with a B3B after LCHS increased Hb as compared with LCHS alone. After trauma and HS, protection of BM for 7 days was seen with use of either a selective beta-2 or beta-3 blocker. Use of a selective beta-1 blocker was ineffective in protecting the BM despite a physiologic decrease in heart rate. Therefore, the protection of BM is via the beta-2 and beta-3 receptors and it is not via a direct cardiovascular effect. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. YopE specific CD8+ T cells provide protection against systemic and mucosal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Molly A.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies indicated that CD8+ T cells responding to a surrogate single antigen expressed by Y. pseudotuberculosis, ovalbumin, were insufficient to protect against yersiniosis. Herein we tested the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells reactive to the natural Yersinia antigen YopE would be more effective at providing mucosal protection. We first confirmed that immunization with the attenuated ksgA- strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis generated YopE-specific CD8+ T cells. These T cells were protective against challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes expressing secreted YopE. Mice immunized with an attenuated L. monocytogenes YopE+ strain generated large numbers of functional YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, and initially controlled a systemic challenge with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis, yet eventually succumbed to yersiniosis. Mice vaccinated with a YopE peptide and cholera toxin vaccine generated robust T cell responses, providing protection to 60% of the mice challenged mucosally but failed to show complete protection against systemic infection with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis. These studies demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant YopE vaccines can generate YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, that can provide significant mucosal protection but these cells are insufficient to provide sterilizing immunity against systemic Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Our studies have implications for Yersinia vaccine development studies. PMID:28207901

  10. YopE specific CD8+ T cells provide protection against systemic and mucosal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    González-Juarbe, Norberto; Shen, Haiqian; Bergman, Molly A; Orihuela, Carlos J; Dube, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies indicated that CD8+ T cells responding to a surrogate single antigen expressed by Y. pseudotuberculosis, ovalbumin, were insufficient to protect against yersiniosis. Herein we tested the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells reactive to the natural Yersinia antigen YopE would be more effective at providing mucosal protection. We first confirmed that immunization with the attenuated ksgA- strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis generated YopE-specific CD8+ T cells. These T cells were protective against challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes expressing secreted YopE. Mice immunized with an attenuated L. monocytogenes YopE+ strain generated large numbers of functional YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, and initially controlled a systemic challenge with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis, yet eventually succumbed to yersiniosis. Mice vaccinated with a YopE peptide and cholera toxin vaccine generated robust T cell responses, providing protection to 60% of the mice challenged mucosally but failed to show complete protection against systemic infection with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis. These studies demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant YopE vaccines can generate YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, that can provide significant mucosal protection but these cells are insufficient to provide sterilizing immunity against systemic Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Our studies have implications for Yersinia vaccine development studies.

  11. Polyphenol Extract from Phellinus igniarius Protects against Acrolein Toxicity In Vitro and Provides Protection in a Mouse Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi’s group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:25811373

  12. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    PubMed

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke.

  13. Efficient initial attacks: analysis of capacity and funding provides insights to wildfire protection planning

    Treesearch

    Jeremy Fried; Paul. Meznarich

    2014-01-01

    Large wildfires in the United States pose significant challenges to fire management agencies charged with protecting lives, property, and natural resources. A vigorous initial response to a wildfire, a process referred to as "initial attack," can greatly reduce the likelihood of the fire becoming larger and causing substantial damage. Successful...

  14. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  15. Wetland Change Detection in Protected and Unprotected Indus Coastal and Inland Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, M. H. Ali; Sultan, M.; Riaz Khan, M.; Zhang, L.; Kozlova, M.; Malik, N. Abbas; Wang, S.

    2017-09-01

    Worth of wetland sites lies in their ecological importance. They enhance ecosystem via provision of ecological services like improving water quality, groundwater infiltration, flood risk reduction and biodiversity regulation. Like other parts of the world Pakistan is also facing wetlands degradation. Ecological and economic significance of wetlands was recognized officially in 1971 as Pakistan became signatory of Ramsar wetland convention. Wetlands provide habitat to species of ecological and economic importance. Despite being recognized for international importance, Ramsar figures state that almost half of Pakistan's wetlands are at moderate or prominent level threat. Wetlands ecosystems are deteriorating at a rapid rate, if uncontrolled this trend may lead to substantial losses. Therefore, management of these resources demands regular monitoring. Present study is dedicated to assessing levels of change overtime in three distinct types of wetlands in Pakistan i.e. Indus delta a coastal wetland, Uchhali complex an inland wetland which are both protected sites while another site Nurri Lagoon which is not sheltered under any category of protected areas. Remotely sensed data has remarkable applications in change detection. Multitemporal Landsat images were used to map changes occurring from 2006 to 2016. Results reveal that wetland area has considerably decreased for all types. Both protected sites have experienced degradation though impact is comparatively lesser than unprotected Nurri lagoon. Significance of protection strategies cannot be denied, it is recommended that mere declaration of a site protected area is not sufficient. It is equally important to control non-point pollutants and ensuring the compliance of conservation strategy.

  16. Vaccination of ferrets with a recombinant G glycoprotein subunit vaccine provides protection against Nipah virus disease for over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Pallister, Jackie A; Klein, Reuben; Arkinstall, Rachel; Haining, Jessica; Long, Fenella; White, John R; Payne, Jean; Feng, Yan-Ru; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C; Middleton, Deborah

    2013-07-16

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the henipavirus genus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Since NiV was first identified in 1999, outbreaks have continued to occur in humans in Bangladesh and India on an almost annual basis with case fatality rates reported between 40% and 100%. Ferrets were vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with the human use approved adjuvant, CpG, in a prime-boost regime. One half of the ferrets were exposed to NiV at 20 days post boost vaccination and the other at 434 days post vaccination. The presence of virus or viral genome was assessed in ferret fluids and tissues using real-time PCR, virus isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry; serology was also carried out. Non-immunised ferrets were also exposed to virus to confirm the pathogenicity of the inoculum. Ferrets exposed to Nipah virus 20 days post vaccination remained clinically healthy. Virus or viral genome was not detected in any tissues or fluids of the vaccinated ferrets; lesions and antigen were not identified on immunohistological examination of tissues; and there was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with failure of virus replication. Of the ferrets challenged 434 days post vaccination, all five remained well throughout the study period; viral genome - but not virus - was recovered from nasal secretions of one ferret given 20 μg HeVsG and bronchial lymph nodes of the other. There was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with lack of stimulation of a humoral memory response. We have previously shown that ferrets vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with CpG adjuvant, which is currently in several human clinical trials, were protected from HeV disease. Here we show, under similar conditions of use, that the vaccine also provides protection against NiV-induced disease. Such protection persists for at least 12 months post-vaccination, with data supporting

  17. Incorporation of natural uncultivable Legionella pneumophila into potable water biofilms provides a protective niche against chlorination stress.

    PubMed

    Gião, M S; Wilks, S; Azevedo, N F; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

    2009-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen that has been isolated sporadically from drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Resistance to disinfectants is mainly attributed to the association of cells with amoebae, but biofilms are also thought to provide some degree of protection. In the present work, a two-stage chemostat was used to form heterotrophic biofilms from drinking water to study the influence of chlorine on the presence of naturally occurring L. pneumophila. The pathogen was tracked in planktonic and sessile biofilm phases using standard culture recovery techniques for cultivable cells and a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridisation assay for total cells. The results showed that the total number of L. pneumophila cells in biofilms was not affected by the concentrations of chlorine tested, and the presence of L. pneumophila could not be detected by culturing. To restrict the outbreaks of disease caused by this bacterium, efforts need to be concentrated on preventing L. pneumophila from re-entering an infectious state by maintaining residual disinfectant levels through the entire DWDS network so that the resuscitation of cells via contact with amoebae is prevented.

  18. Recombinant BCG prime and PPE protein boost provides potent protection against acute Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Enzhuo; Gu, Jin; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Honghai; Shen, Hongbo; Chen, Zheng W

    2016-04-01

    Since BCG, the only vaccine widely used against tuberculosis (TB) in the world, provides varied protective efficacy and may not be effective for inducing long-term cellular immunity, it is in an urgent need to develop more effective vaccines and more potent immune strategies against TB. Prime-boost is proven to be a good strategy by inducing long-term protection. In this study, we tested the protective effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) challenge of prime-boost strategy by recombinant BCG (rBCG) expressing PPE protein Rv3425 fused with Ag85B and Rv3425. Results showed that the prime-boost strategy could significantly increase the protective efficiency against Mtb infection, characterized by reduction of bacterial load in lung and spleen, attenuation of tuberculosis lesions in lung tissues. Importantly, we found that Rv3425 boost, superior to Ag85B boost, provided better protection against Mtb infection. Further research proved that rBCG prime-Rv3425 boost could obviously increase the expansion of lymphocytes, significantly induce IL-2 production by lymphocytes upon PPD stimulation, and inhibit IL-6 production at an early stage. It implied that rBCG prime-Rv3425 boost opted to induce Th1 immune response and provided a long-term protection against TB. These results implicated that rBCG prime-Rv3425 boost is a potent and promising strategy to prevent acute Mtb infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How Much Financial Protection Do Marketplace Plans Provide in States Not Expanding Medicaid?

    PubMed

    Beutel, Sophie; Gunja, Munira; Collins, Sara R

    2016-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act's premium subsidies and cost-sharing reductions have helped to reduce out-of-pocket costs for low-income people enrolled in marketplace plans. This financial protection has been particularly important for people with incomes above 100 percent of poverty who live in states that have not expanded Medicaid. However, a key question for policymakers is how this protection compares to Medicaid. This brief analyzes a sample of silver plans offered in the largest markets in 18 states that use the federal website for marketplace enrollment and have not expanded Medicaid eligibility. It finds that marketplace enrollees at this income level in most plans analyzed are at risk of incurring premium and out-of-pocket costs that are higher than what they would pay under Medicaid. For people with significant health needs, costs are estimated to be much higher in marketplace plans than what they would be under Medicaid.

  20. Hemoglobin C Trait Provides Protection From Clinical Falciparum Malaria in Malian Children

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Mark A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Laurens, Matthew B.; Dembélé, Ahmadou; Tolo, Youssouf; Koné, Abdoulaye K.; Traoré, Karim; Niangaly, Amadou; Guindo, Aldiouma; Wu, Yukun; Berry, Andrea A.; Jacob, Christopher G.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Adams, Matthew; Shrestha, Biraj; Mu, Amy Z.; Kouriba, Bourema; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Diallo, Dapa A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hemoglobin C trait, like hemoglobin S trait, protects against severe malaria in children, but it is unclear whether hemoglobin C trait also protects against uncomplicated malaria. We hypothesized that Malian children with hemoglobin C trait would have a lower risk of clinical malaria than children with hemoglobin AA. Methods. Three hundred children aged 0–6 years were enrolled in a cohort study of malaria incidence in Bandiagara, Mali, with continuous passive and monthly active follow-up from June 2009 to June 2010. Results. Compared to hemoglobin AA children (n = 242), hemoglobin AC children (n = 39) had a longer time to first clinical malaria episode (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; P = .001; 364 median malaria-free days vs 181 days), fewer episodes of clinical malaria, and a lower cumulative parasite burden. Similarly, hemoglobin AS children (n = 14) had a longer time to first clinical malaria episode than hemoglobin AA children (HR, 0.15; P = .015; 364 median malaria-free days vs 181 days), but experienced the most asymptomatic malaria infections of any group. Conclusions. Both hemoglobin C and S traits exerted a protective effect against clinical malaria episodes, but appeared to do so by mechanisms that differentially affect the response to infecting malaria parasites. PMID:26019283

  1. Sevoflurane at 1 MAC provides optimal myocardial protection during off-pump CABG.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Zheng, Hong; Chen, Chun-Ling; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the myocardial protective effect of sevoflurane in patients receiving off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) and the role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Forty-eight patients receiving elective OPCABG were randomly assigned to a control group, and to 0.75 MAC, 1.0 MAC and 1.5 MAC sevoflurane groups. Blood samples were collected and levels of BNP and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were measured before anesthesia, and immediately, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. Dopamine was necessary to maintain blood pressure in the sevoflurane groups, but not in the control group (p < 0.002). 1.0 MAC sevoflurane significantly decreased post-surgical cTnI levels (p < 0.001). 0.75 MAC had no significant effect, and increasing sevoflurane concentrations to 1.5 MAC caused no further decrease in cTnI concentrations. There was no significant difference in BNP level among the groups (p = 0.227) or between any two groups, although values of BNP showed a significant correlation with cTnI values in control subjects immediately after (r = 0.847) and 24 h after (r = 0.661) surgery. Our results demonstrated that 1.0 MAC and 1.5 MAC sevoflurane can exert a significant myocardial protective effect. BNP cannot be used to predict the myocardial protective effect of sevoflurane in OPCABG.

  2. Ultraviolet absorbing compounds provide a rapid response mechanism for UV protection in some reef fish.

    PubMed

    Braun, C; Reef, R; Siebeck, U E

    2016-07-01

    The external mucus surface of reef fish contains ultraviolet absorbing compounds (UVAC), most prominently Mycosporine-like Amino Acids (MAAs). MAAs in the external mucus of reef fish are thought to act as sunscreens by preventing the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), however, direct evidence for their protective role has been missing. We tested the protective function of UVAC's by exposing fish with naturally low, Pomacentrus amboinensis, and high, Thalassoma lunare, mucus absorption properties to a high dose of UVR (UVB: 13.4W∗m(-2), UVA: 6.1W∗m(-2)) and measuring the resulting DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). For both species, the amount of UV induced DNA damage sustained following the exposure to a 1h pulse of high UVR was negatively correlated with mucus absorbance, a proxy for MAA concentration. Furthermore, a rapid and significant increase in UVAC concentration was observed in P. amboinensis following UV exposure, directly after capture and after ten days in captivity. No such increase was observed in T. lunare, which maintained relatively high levels of UV absorbance at all times. P. amboinensis, in contrast to T. lunare, uses UV communication and thus must maintain UV transparent mucus to be able to display its UV patterns. The ability to rapidly alter the transparency of mucus could be an important adaptation in the trade off between protection from harmful UVR and UV communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Respiratory Protection Toolkit: Providing Guidance Without Changing Requirements-Can We Make an Impact?

    PubMed

    Bien, Elizabeth Ann; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Betcher, Cynthia Ann; Thrasher, Terri L; Mingerink, Donna R

    2016-12-01

    International travel and infectious respiratory illnesses worldwide place health care workers (HCWs) at increasing risk of respiratory exposures. To ensure the highest quality safety initiatives, one health care system used a quality improvement model of Plan-Do-Study-Act and guidance from Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) May 2015 Hospital Respiratory Protection Program (RPP) Toolkit to assess a current program. The toolkit aided in identification of opportunities for improvement within their well-designed RPP. One opportunity was requiring respirator use during aerosol-generating procedures for specific infectious illnesses. Observation data demonstrated opportunities to mitigate controllable risks including strap placement, user seal check, and reuse of disposable N95 filtering facepiece respirators. Subsequent interdisciplinary collaboration resulted in other ideas to decrease risks and increase protection from potentially infectious respiratory illnesses. The toolkit's comprehensive document to evaluate the program showed that while the OSHA standards have not changed, the addition of the toolkit can better protect HCWs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. A population based estimation of the driver protection provided by passenger cars: France 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Lenguerrand, Erik

    2008-11-01

    The technology used in cars to protect occupants is constantly developing. Demonstrating the beneficial effects in the field is complex as the most recent vehicles are generally used by drivers who differ from other drivers and who drive in different traffic conditions. This paper presents an overall estimation of the consequences of changes in the secondary safety of cars, taking account of most of these factors. The data come from information collected about injury road traffic crashes by the police in France between 1996 and 2005. The risk of the driver being killed has been evaluated for the 144,034 drivers involved in two-car crashes and for the 63,621 drivers involved in single-car crashes. The study shows that when a recent car is in collision with an older car the driver of the former is better protected than the driver of the latter. These improvements in secondary safety are not observed in the case of single-car crashes, very probably because of higher impact speeds. Our findings also confirm the need for protection systems to be better adapted to the specific characteristics of users and for an improvement in the crash compatibility of vehicles, in particular to overcome the consequences of differences between the masses of vehicles.

  5. Does the National Health Insurance Scheme provide financial protection to households in Ghana?

    PubMed

    Kusi, Anthony; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Asante, Felix A; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-08-15

    Excessive healthcare payments can impede access to health services and also disrupt the welfare of households with no financial protection. Health insurance is expected to offer financial protection against health shocks. Ghana began the implementation of its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004. The NHIS is aimed at removing the financial barrier to healthcare by limiting direct out-of-pocket health expenditures (OOPHE). The study examines the effect of the NHIS on OOPHE and how it protects households against catastrophic health expenditures. Data was obtained from a cross-sectional representative household survey involving 2,430 households from three districts across Ghana. All OOPHE associated with treatment seeking for reported illness in the household in the last 4 weeks preceding the survey were analysed and compared between insured and uninsured persons. The incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) among households were measured by the catastrophic health payment method. The relative effect of NHIS on the incidence of CHE in the household was estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. About 36% of households reported at least one illness during the 4 weeks period. Insured patients had significantly lower direct OOPHE for out-patient and in-patient care compared to the uninsured. On financial protection, the incidence of CHE was lower among insured households (2.9%) compared to the partially insured (3.7%) and the uninsured (4.0%) at the 40% threshold. The incidence of CHE was however significantly lower among fully insured households (6.0%) which sought healthcare from NHIS accredited health facilities compared to the partially insured (10.1%) and the uninsured households (23.2%). The likelihood of a household incurring CHE was 4.2 times less likely for fully insured and 2.9 times less likely for partially insured households relative to being uninsured. The NHIS has however not completely eliminated OOPHE for the

  6. Cytotoxic T cells are the predominant players providing cross-protective immunity induced by {gamma}-irradiated influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yoichi; Chan, Jennifer; Regner, Matthias; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Kok, Tuckweng; Manavis, Jim; Li, Peng; Müllbacher, Arno; Alsharifi, Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that a single dose of nonadjuvanted intranasal gamma-irradiated influenza A virus can provide robust protection in mice against both homologous and heterosubtypic challenges, including challenge with an H5N1 avian virus strain. We investigated the mechanism behind the observed cross-protection to define which arms of the adaptive immune response are involved in mediating this protection. Studies with gene knockout mice showed the cross-protective immunity to be mediated mainly by T cells and to be dependent on the cytolytic effector molecule perforin. Adoptive transfer of memory T cells from immunized mice, but not of memory B cells, protected naïve recipients against lethal heterosubtypic influenza virus challenge. Furthermore, gamma-irradiated influenza viruses induced cross-reactive Tc-cell responses but not cross-neutralizing or cross-protective antibodies. In addition, histological analysis showed reduced lung inflammation in vaccinated mice compared to that in unvaccinated controls following heterosubtypic challenge. This reduced inflammation was associated with enhanced early recruitment of T cells, both CD4(+) and CD8(+), and with early influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses. Therefore, cross-protective immunity induced by vaccination with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus is mediated mainly by Tc-cell responses.

  7. Influence of fouling on the efficiency of sacrificial anodes in providing cathodic protection in Southeast Asian tropical seawater.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, D J; Lim, C S; Teo, S L M

    2010-10-01

    Aluminum and zinc based sacrificial anodes are routinely used to provide corrosion protection to metals (typically steel) exposed to seawater, for example in steel pipelines and storage tanks. However, the high fouling rates experienced in South East Asia means that both the anodes and the metals to be protected rapidly become coated with macrofoulers, which could potentially prevent the anodes from being effective. The present study, involving exposure tests of up to 18 months, indicates that both aluminum and zinc sacrificial anodes remain effective even after being completely coated with biofouling. Furthermore, it was easier to remove the biofouling on the cathodically protected samples than on their unprotected counterparts, possibly due to the higher local pH produced by cathodic protection at the metal and seawater interface.

  8. Low-Canopy Seagrass Beds Still Provide Important Coastal Protection Services

    PubMed Central

    Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.; Lamers, Leon P. M.; van Leent, Peter J. M.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most frequently quoted ecosystem services of seagrass meadows is their value for coastal protection. Many studies emphasize the role of above-ground shoots in attenuating waves, enhancing sedimentation and preventing erosion. This raises the question if short-leaved, low density (grazed) seagrass meadows with most of their biomass in belowground tissues can also stabilize sediments. We examined this by combining manipulative field experiments and wave measurements along a typical tropical reef flat where green turtles intensively graze upon the seagrass canopy. We experimentally manipulated wave energy and grazing intensity along a transect perpendicular to the beach, and compared sediment bed level change between vegetated and experimentally created bare plots at three distances from the beach. Our experiments showed that i) even the short-leaved, low-biomass and heavily-grazed seagrass vegetation reduced wave-induced sediment erosion up to threefold, and ii) that erosion was a function of location along the vegetated reef flat. Where other studies stress the importance of the seagrass canopy for shoreline protection, our study on open, low-biomass and heavily grazed seagrass beds strongly suggests that belowground biomass also has a major effect on the immobilization of sediment. These results imply that, compared to shallow unvegetated nearshore reef flats, the presence of a short, low-biomass seagrass meadow maintains a higher bed level, attenuating waves before reaching the beach and hence lowering beach erosion rates. We propose that the sole use of aboveground biomass as a proxy for valuing coastal protection services should be reconsidered. PMID:23723969

  9. Low-canopy seagrass beds still provide important coastal protection services.

    PubMed

    Christianen, Marjolijn J A; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M J; van Katwijk, Marieke M; Lamers, Leon P M; van Leent, Peter J M; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2013-01-01

    One of the most frequently quoted ecosystem services of seagrass meadows is their value for coastal protection. Many studies emphasize the role of above-ground shoots in attenuating waves, enhancing sedimentation and preventing erosion. This raises the question if short-leaved, low density (grazed) seagrass meadows with most of their biomass in belowground tissues can also stabilize sediments. We examined this by combining manipulative field experiments and wave measurements along a typical tropical reef flat where green turtles intensively graze upon the seagrass canopy. We experimentally manipulated wave energy and grazing intensity along a transect perpendicular to the beach, and compared sediment bed level change between vegetated and experimentally created bare plots at three distances from the beach. Our experiments showed that i) even the short-leaved, low-biomass and heavily-grazed seagrass vegetation reduced wave-induced sediment erosion up to threefold, and ii) that erosion was a function of location along the vegetated reef flat. Where other studies stress the importance of the seagrass canopy for shoreline protection, our study on open, low-biomass and heavily grazed seagrass beds strongly suggests that belowground biomass also has a major effect on the immobilization of sediment. These results imply that, compared to shallow unvegetated nearshore reef flats, the presence of a short, low-biomass seagrass meadow maintains a higher bed level, attenuating waves before reaching the beach and hence lowering beach erosion rates. We propose that the sole use of aboveground biomass as a proxy for valuing coastal protection services should be reconsidered.

  10. Mucosal Immunization with Vibrio cholerae Outer Membrane Vesicles Provides Maternal Protection Mediated by Antilipopolysaccharide Antibodies That Inhibit Bacterial Motility▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne L.; Schild, Stefan; Patimalla, Bharathi; Klein, Brian; Camilli, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease that remains endemic in many parts of the world and can cause outbreaks wherever sanitation and clean water systems break down. Prevention of disease could be achieved through improved sanitation and clean water provision supported by vaccination. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is the major cause of cholera; O1 serotypes Inaba and Ogawa have similar disease burdens, while O139 is the only non-O1 serogroup to cause epidemics. We showed previously that immunization of adult female mice with purified V. cholerae outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) elicits an antibody response that protect neonates from oral V. cholerae challenge and that suckling from an immunized dam accounts for the majority of protection from V. cholerae colonization. Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major OMV protective antigen. Mucosal immunization with OMVs from Inaba or Ogawa provides significant cross-serotype protection from V. cholerae colonization, although serotype-specific antigens are dominant. OMVs from O1 or O139 do not provide cross-serogroup protection, but by immunization with a mixture of O1 and O139 OMVs, cross-serogroup protection was achieved. Neonatal protection is not associated with significant bacterial death but may involve inhibition of motility, as antibodies from OMV-immunized mice inhibit V. cholerae motility in vitro, with trends that parallel in vivo protection. Motility assays also reveal that a higher antibody titer is required to immobilize O139 compared to O1, a phenotype that is O139 capsule dependent. PMID:20679439

  11. The impact of state laws protecting abortion clinics and reproductive rights on crimes against abortion providers: deterrence, backlash, or neither?

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Freilich, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Since Roe v. Wade, most states have passed laws either restricting or further protecting reproductive rights. During a wave of anti-abortion violence in the early 1990s, several states also enacted legislation protecting abortion clinics, staff, and patients. One hypothesis drawn from the theoretical literature predicts that these laws provide a deterrent effect and thus fewer anti-abortion crimes in states that protect clinics and reproductive rights. An alternative hypothesis drawn from the literature expects a backlash effect from radical members of the movement and thus more crimes in states with protective legislation. We tested these competing hypotheses by taking advantage of unique data sets that gauge the strength of laws protecting clinics and reproductive rights and that provide self-report victimization data from clinics. Employing logistic regression and controlling for several potential covariates, we found null effects and thus no support for either hypothesis. The null findings were consistent across a number of different types of victimization. Our discussion contextualizes these results in terms of previous research on crimes against abortion providers, discusses alternative explanations for the null findings, and considers the implications for future policy development and research.

  12. Perioperative Lung Protection Provided by High-Dose Ambroxol in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Huayong; Zhang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The purpose is to observe the clinical effect of large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride in lung protection during the perioperative period of lung cancer operation. Fifty-six lung cancer patients who have undergone open-thoracic pulmonary lobectomy were divided randomly into two groups, and were given normal and large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride, respectively, during their perioperative period. Statistics based on post-operation clinical observations were analyzed in terms of ease of expectoration and expectoration properties, duration of antibiotics dependence, occurrence of lung complications, and adverse reactions related to ambroxol hydrochloride. On the third and the seventh day, the experimental group showed signs of improvement in terms of ease of expectoration and expectoration properties, compared with the controlled group. In terms of occurrence of post-operation lung complications and duration of antibiotics dependence, the experimental group also performed better. Using large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride would result in better clinical effects than using normal doses in preventing post-operation complications, and its clinical value in lung protection during lung cancer perioperative period calls for further research and promotion.

  13. ATP-sensitive K+ channel activation provides transient protection to the anoxic turtle brain.

    PubMed

    Pék-Scott, M; Lutz, P L

    1998-12-01

    There is wide speculation that ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels serve a protective function in the mammalian brain, being activated during periods of energy failure. The aim of the present study was to determine if KATP channels also have a protective role in the anoxia-tolerant turtle brain. After ouabain administration, rates of change in extracellular K+ were measured in the telencephalon of normoxic and anoxic turtles (Trachemys scripta). The rate of K+ efflux was reduced by 50% within 1 h of anoxia and by 70% at 2 h of anoxia, and no further decrease was seen at 4 h of anoxia. The addition of the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide or 2,3-butanedione monoxime prevented the anoxia-induced decrease in K+ efflux during the first hour of anoxia, but the effect of these blockers was diminished at 2 h of anoxia and was not seen after 4 h of anoxia. This pattern of change in KATP channel blocker sensitivity can be related to a previously established temporary fall and subsequent recovery of tissue ATP during early anoxia. We suggest that activated KATP channels are involved in the downregulation of membrane ion permeability (channel arrest) during the initial energy crisis period but are switched off when the full anoxic state is established and tissue ATP levels have been restored. We also found that, in contrast to those in mammals, KATP channels are not a major route for K+ efflux in the energy-depleted turtle brain.

  14. Ischemic postconditioning provides protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Weiwei; Li, Sheng; Wang, Shanwei; Yan, Aili; Nie, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protective role of ischemic postconditioning (IPOST) against intestine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operation group (S), I/R group (I/R), ischemic preconditioning group (IPC), ischemic postconditioning group (IPOST). After reperfusion, small intestines were resected for histopathologic evaluations. To evaluate DNA fragmentation, resolving agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. To measure cellular apoptotic rates in intestine tissues, we performed TUNEL staining. To examine lipid peroxidation, production of superoxide radicals and tissue neutrophil infiltration, we tested the content of malondialdehyde and activities of superoxidase dismutase and myeloperoxidase in intestine tissues, respectively. Under light microscope, intestinal mucosal impairment in IPOST and IPC groups was found milder than that in I/R group (P < 0.05). The number of apoptosis cells in I/R group was significantly higher than that in IPOST and IPC groups (P < 0.05). The content of malondialdehyde and activity of myeloperoxidase were significantly reduced in IPOST group and IPC group compared with I/R group, but the activity of superoxidase dismutase in IPOST group and IPC group was enhanced compared with I/R group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that IPOST results in protection against intestine I/R injury, which may be related to reduced production of reactive oxygen species, enhanced activities of antioxidant systems and inhibited apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells.

  15. Striatal grafts provide sustained protection from kainic and quinolinic acid-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N; Luo, S Q; Allen, G S; Whetsell, W O

    1988-12-01

    Grafts of neonatal striatal tissue were placed into the striata of adult rats. When challenged immediately with intrastriatal injections of either kainic or quinolinic acid, excitotoxic damage was prevented. Thirty days later these same graft recipients received another injection of excitotoxin. The intrastriatal grafts continued to mitigate toxin-induced damage. It is hypothesized that the grafted cells not only survive, but that they may continue to elaborate some substance or substances that prevent excitotoxin-induced injury for at least 30 days. Previous investigations indicated that grafts of neonatal striatal tissue can protect the recipient striatum from kainic acid toxicity. In the following study it is demonstrated that such grafts also protect the striatum from quinolinic acid, an endogenous excitotoxin which induces kainate-like neuronal degeneration and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. It is postulated that the salutary effect of striatal grafting may be sufficiently long lasting to mitigate a chronic toxic insult. Such grafting may therefore represent a therapy for Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders in which an endogenous or exogenous toxin has been implicated as the pathogenetic agent.

  16. Vaccination with self-adjuvanted protein nanoparticles provides protection against lethal influenza challenge.

    PubMed

    Karch, Christopher P; Li, Jianping; Kulangara, Caroline; Paulillo, Sara M; Raman, Senthil K; Emadi, Sharareh; Tan, Anmin; Helal, Zeinab H; Fan, Qing; Khan, Mazhar I; Burkhard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines should be improved by the addition of universal influenza vaccine antigens in order to protect against multiple virus strains. We used our self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs) to display the two conserved influenza antigens M2e and Helix C in their native oligomerization states. To further improve the immunogenicity of the SAPNs, we designed and incorporated the TLR5 agonist flagellin into the SAPNs to generate self-adjuvanted SAPNs. We demonstrate that addition of flagellin does not affect the ability of SAPNs to self-assemble and that they are able to stimulate TLR5 in a dose-dependent manner. Chickens vaccinated with the self-adjuvanted SAPNs induce significantly higher levels of antibodies than those with unadjuvanted SAPNs and show higher cross-neutralizing activity compared to a commercial inactivated virus vaccine. Upon immunization with self-adjuvanted SAPNs, mice were completely protected against a lethal challenge. Thus, we have generated a self-adjuvanted SAPN with a great potential as a universal influenza vaccine.

  17. Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HACE1-dependent protein degradation provides cardiac protection in response to haemodynamic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liyong; Chen, Xin; Sharma, Parveen; Moon, Mark; Sheftel, Alex D.; Dawood, Fayez; Nghiem, Mai P.; Wu, Jun; Li, Ren-Ke; Gramolini, Anthony O.; Sorensen, Poul H.; Penninger, Josef M.; Brumell, John H.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-03-01

    The HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase HACE1 is a tumour suppressor known to regulate Rac1 activity under stress conditions. HACE1 is increased in the serum of patients with heart failure. Here we show that HACE1 protects the heart under pressure stress by controlling protein degradation. Hace1 deficiency in mice results in accelerated heart failure and increased mortality under haemodynamic stress. Hearts from Hace1-/- mice display abnormal cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction, accumulation of LC3, p62 and ubiquitinated proteins enriched for cytoskeletal species, indicating impaired autophagy. Our data suggest that HACE1 mediates p62-dependent selective autophagic turnover of ubiquitinated proteins by its ankyrin repeat domain through protein-protein interaction, which is independent of its E3 ligase activity. This would classify HACE1 as a dual-function E3 ligase. Our finding that HACE1 has a protective function in the heart in response to haemodynamic stress suggests that HACE1 may be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease.

  19. Oil and water? Lessons from Maryland's effort to protect safety net providers in moving to Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Gold, M; Mittler, J; Lyons, B

    2000-12-01

    Studies have highlighted the tensions that can arise between Medicaid managed care organizations and safety net providers. This article seeks to identify what other states can learn from Maryland's effort to include protections for safety net providers in its Medicaid managed care program--HealthChoice. Under HealthChoice, traditional provider systems can sponsor managed care organizations, historical providers are assured of having a role, patients can self-refer and have open access to certain public health providers, and capitation rates are risk adjusted through the use of adjusted clinical groups and claims data. The article is based on a week-long site visit to Maryland in fall 1998 that was one part of a seven-state study. Maryland's experience suggests that states have much to gain in the way of "good" public policy by considering the impact of their Medicaid managed care programs on the safety net, but states should not underestimate the challenges involved in balancing the need to protect the safety net with the need to contain costs and minimize the administrative burden on providers. No amount of protection can compensate for a poorly designed or implemented program. As the health care environment continues to change, so may the need for and the types of protections change. It also may be most difficult to guarantee adequate protections to those who need it most--among relatively financially insecure providers that have a limited management infrastructure and that depend heavily on Medicaid and the state for funds to care for the uninsured.

  20. Single immunization with MF59-adjuvanted inactivated whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine provides early protection against H7N9 virus challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haiyan; Duan, Jie; Zhou, Peng; Su, Ling; Zheng, Dan; Zhang, Fenghua; Fang, Fang; Li, Xiaoman; Chen, Ze

    2017-09-09

    H7N9 influenza infection in humans would result in severe respiratory illness. Vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza virus. In this paper, we investigated the effect of early protection provided by inactivated whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine in a mouse model. Mice were immunized intramuscularly once with different doses of inactivated whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine alone or in combination with MF59 adjuvant. Specific IgM and IgG antibody titers in sera of mice were detected by ELISA 3, 5 and 7days after immunization. To evaluate the early protection provided by the vaccine, mice were challenged with lethal dose (40LD50) of homologous virus 3, 5 and 7 days after immunization respectively. The survival rate and body weight change of mice during 21 days after challenge and the residual lung virus titer on 3rd day after challenge were determined. The results demonstrated that mice could obtain effective protection 3 days after immunization with the vaccine at a high dose, and 5-7 days after immunization even at a low dose. Thus early immune responses induced by inactivated whole-virion H7N9 vaccine could provide effective protection. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  2. Perfluorinated compounds in the Antarctic region: ocean circulation provides prolonged protection from distant sources.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan; Rintoul, Stephen R; Kawaguchi, So; Staniland, Iain; van den Hoff, John; Tierney, Megan; Bossi, Rossana

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the extent to which Perfluorinated Contaminants (PFCs) have permeated the Southern Ocean food web to date, a range of Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Antarctic-migratory biota were analysed for key ionic PFCs. Based upon the geographical distribution pattern and ecology of biota with detectable vs. non-detectable PFC burdens, an evaluation of the potential contributory roles of alternative system input pathways is made. Our analytical findings, together with previous reports, reveal only the occasional occurrence of PFCs in migratory biota and vertebrate predators with foraging ranges extending into or north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Geographical contamination patterns observed correspond most strongly with those expected from delivery via hydrospheric transport as governed by the unique oceanographic features of the Southern Ocean. We suggest that hydrospheric transport will form a slow, but primary, input pathway of PFCs to the Antarctic region.

  3. AAV-expressed eCD4-Ig provides durable protection from multiple SHIV challenges.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Matthew R; Kattenhorn, Lisa M; Kondur, Hema R; von Schaewen, Markus; Dorfman, Tatyana; Chiang, Jessica J; Haworth, Kevin G; Decker, Julie M; Alpert, Michael D; Bailey, Charles C; Neale, Ernest S; Fellinger, Christoph H; Joshi, Vinita R; Fuchs, Sebastian P; Martinez-Navio, Jose M; Quinlan, Brian D; Yao, Annie Y; Mouquet, Hugo; Gorman, Jason; Zhang, Baoshan; Poignard, Pascal; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Burton, Dennis R; Kwong, Peter D; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Evans, David T; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ploss, Alexander; Cannon, Paula M; Seaman, Michael S; Farzan, Michael

    2015-03-05

    Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, even the best bNAbs neutralize 10-50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) > 5 μg ml(-1)), suggesting that high concentrations of these antibodies would be necessary to achieve general protection. Here we show that eCD4-Ig, a fusion of CD4-Ig with a small CCR5-mimetic sulfopeptide, binds avidly and cooperatively to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is more potent than the best bNAbs (geometric mean half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 0.05 μg ml(-1)). Because eCD4-Ig binds only conserved regions of Env, it is also much broader than any bNAb. For example, eCD4-Ig efficiently neutralized 100% of a diverse panel of neutralization-resistant HIV-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates, including a comprehensive set of isolates resistant to the CD4-binding site bNAbs VRC01, NIH45-46 and 3BNC117. Rhesus macaques inoculated with an AAV vector stably expressed 17-77 μg ml(-1) of fully functional rhesus eCD4-Ig for more than 40 weeks, and these macaques were protected from several infectious challenges with SHIV-AD8. Rhesus eCD4-Ig was also markedly less immunogenic than rhesus forms of four well-characterized bNAbs. Our data suggest that AAV-delivered eCD4-Ig can function like an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  4. AAV-expressed eCD4-Ig provides durable protection from multiple SHIV challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Matthew R.; Kattenhorn, Lisa M.; Kondur, Hema R.; von Schaewen, Markus; Dorfman, Tatyana; Chiang, Jessica J.; Haworth, Kevin G.; Decker, Julie M.; Alpert, Michael D.; Bailey, Charles C.; Neale, Ernest S.; Fellinger, Christoph H.; Joshi, Vinita R.; Fuchs, Sebastian P.; Martinez-Navio, Jose M.; Quinlan, Brian D.; Yao, Annie Y.; Mouquet, Hugo; Gorman, Jason; Zhang, Baoshan; Poignard, Pascal; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Burton, Dennis R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Evans, David T.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ploss, Alexander; Cannon, Paula M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)1,2. However even the best bNAbs neutralize 10–50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (IC80 > 5 μg/ml), suggesting that high concentrations of these antibodies would be necessary to achieve general protection3–6. Here we show that eCD4-Ig, a fusion of CD4-Ig with a small CCR5-mimetic sulfopeptide, binds avidly and cooperatively to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is more potent than the best bNAbs (geometric mean IC50 < 0.05 μg/ml). Because eCD4-Ig binds only conserved regions of Env, it is also much broader than any bNAb. For example, eCD4-Ig efficiently neutralized 100% of a diverse panel of neutralization-resistant HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates, including a comprehensive set of isolates resistant to the CD4-binding site bNAbs VRC01, NIH45-46, and 3BNC117. Rhesus macaques inoculated with an AAV vector stably expressed 17 to 77 μg/ml of fully functional rhesus eCD4-Ig for 40 weeks, and these macaques were protected from multiple infectious challenges with SHIV-AD8. Rhesus eCD4-Ig was also markedly less immunogenic than rhesus forms of four well characterized bNAbs. Our data suggest that AAV-delivered eCD4-Ig can function like an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25707797

  5. Would protecting tropical forest fragments provide carbon and biodiversity cobenefits under REDD+?

    PubMed

    Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, William F; Martins, Sebastião V; Meira-Neto, João Augusto A; Simonelli, Marcelo; Edwards, David P

    2015-09-01

    Tropical forests store vast amounts of carbon and are the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats, yet they are being converted and degraded at alarming rates. Given global shortfalls in the budgets required to prevent carbon and biodiversity loss, we need to seek solutions that simultaneously address both issues. Of particular interest are carbon-based payments under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism to also conserve biodiversity at no additional cost. One potential is for REDD+ to protect forest fragments, especially within biomes where contiguous forest cover has diminished dramatically, but we require empirical tests of the strength of any carbon and biodiversity cobenefits in such fragmented systems. Using the globally threatened Atlantic Forest landscape, we measured above-ground carbon stocks within forest fragments spanning 13 to 23 442 ha in area and with different degrees of isolation. We related these stocks to tree community structure and to the richness and abundance of endemic and IUCN Red-listed species. We found that increasing fragment size has a positive relationship with above-ground carbon stock and with abundance of IUCN Red-listed species and tree community structure. We also found negative relationships between distance from large forest block and tree community structure, endemic species richness and abundance, and IUCN Red-listed species abundance. These resulted in positive congruence between carbon stocks and Red-listed species, and the abundance and richness of endemic species, demonstrating vital cobenefits. As such, protecting forest fragments in hotspots of biodiversity, particularly larger fragments and those closest to sources, offers important carbon and biodiversity cobenefits. More generally, our results suggest that macroscale models of cobenefits under REDD+ have likely overlooked key benefits at small scales, indicating the necessity to apply models that include finer

  6. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (<1 km2), because larval input of reef organisms is largely decoupled from local adult reproduction. We examined the structure of fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5–0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3–6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3–5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260–280% as much coral cover and only 5–25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs. PMID:28122006

  7. Does User Fee Removal Policy Provide Financial Protection from Catastrophic Health Care Payments? Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Masiye, Felix; Kaonga, Oliver; Kirigia, Joses M

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-pocket payments in health care have been shown to impose significant burden on households in Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to constrained access to health care and impoverishment. In an effort to reduce the financial burden imposed on households by user fees, some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished user fees in the health sector. Zambia is one of few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to abolish user fees in primary health care facilities with a view to alleviating financial burden of out-of-pocket payments among the poor. The main aim of this paper was to examine the extent and patterns of financial protection from fees following the decision to abolish user fees in public primary health facilities. Our analysis is based on a nationally representative health expenditure and utilization survey conducted in 2014. We calculated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure based on households' out-of-pocket payments during a visit as a percentage of total household consumption expenditure. We further show the intensity of the problem of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) experienced by households. Our analysis show that following the removal of user fees, a majority of patients who visited public health facilities benefitted from free care at the point of use. Further, seeking care at public primary health facilities is associated with a reduced likelihood of incurring CHE after controlling for economic wellbeing and other covariates. However, 10% of households are shown to suffer financial catastrophe as a result of out-of-pocket payments. Further, there is considerable inequality in the incidence of CHE whereby the poorest expenditure quintile experienced a much higher incidence. Despite the removal of user fees at primary health care level, CHE is high among the poorest sections of the population. This study also shows that cost of transportation is mainly responsible for limiting the protective effectiveness of user fee removal

  8. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S; Hay, Mark E

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (<1 km2), because larval input of reef organisms is largely decoupled from local adult reproduction. We examined the structure of fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5-0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3-6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3-5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260-280% as much coral cover and only 5-25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs.

  9. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio. Copyright © 2015

  10. Does User Fee Removal Policy Provide Financial Protection from Catastrophic Health Care Payments? Evidence from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Masiye, Felix; Kaonga, Oliver; Kirigia, Joses M

    2016-01-01

    Background Out-of-pocket payments in health care have been shown to impose significant burden on households in Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to constrained access to health care and impoverishment. In an effort to reduce the financial burden imposed on households by user fees, some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished user fees in the health sector. Zambia is one of few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to abolish user fees in primary health care facilities with a view to alleviating financial burden of out-of-pocket payments among the poor. The main aim of this paper was to examine the extent and patterns of financial protection from fees following the decision to abolish user fees in public primary health facilities. Methods Our analysis is based on a nationally representative health expenditure and utilization survey conducted in 2014. We calculated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure based on households’ out-of-pocket payments during a visit as a percentage of total household consumption expenditure. We further show the intensity of the problem of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) experienced by households. Results Our analysis show that following the removal of user fees, a majority of patients who visited public health facilities benefitted from free care at the point of use. Further, seeking care at public primary health facilities is associated with a reduced likelihood of incurring CHE after controlling for economic wellbeing and other covariates. However, 10% of households are shown to suffer financial catastrophe as a result of out-of-pocket payments. Further, there is considerable inequality in the incidence of CHE whereby the poorest expenditure quintile experienced a much higher incidence. Conclusion Despite the removal of user fees at primary health care level, CHE is high among the poorest sections of the population. This study also shows that cost of transportation is mainly responsible for limiting the

  11. Fish oil provides protection against the oxidative stress in pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nejm, Mariana B; Haidar, André A; Marques, Márcia J G; Hirata, Aparecida E; Nogueira, Fernando N; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy is often resistant to pharmacological treatment. Neuronal loss observed in epileptic brain may be result of an overproduction of free radicals (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is characterized by an imbalance between antioxidant defenses and oxidizing agents (free radicals), which can lead to tissue injury. The n-3 PUFAs are important for the development and maintenance of central nervous system functions. Research by our group has shown that chronic treatment with fish oil, immediately after status epilepticus (SE), exhibits both neuroprotective effects and effects on neuroplasticity. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate if fish oil exhibits a protective effect against oxidative stress. Animals were subjected to TLE model by pilocarpine administration. After 3 h of SE they were randomly divided into the following groups: control animals treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil and animals with epilepsy treated daily with vehicle or with 85 mg/kg of fish oil. After 90 days, superoxide anion production, enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and protein expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p47(PHOX) and gp91(PHOX)) were analyzed. Our results showed evidences that reactive oxygen species are increased in animals with epilepsy and that fish oil supplementation could counteract it. Fish oil supplementation promoted protection against oxidative stress by multiple ways, which involved the reduction of activity and expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits and increased the activity and expression of antioxidants enzymes, contributing to well-known neuroprotective effect in epilepsy.

  12. Acetylsalicylic acid provides cerebrovascular protection from oxidant damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki

    2008-03-26

    Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

  13. TELMISARATAN PROVIDES BETTER RENAL PROTECTION THAN VALSARTAN IN A RAT MODEL OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Hye; Imig, John D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Angiotension receptor blockers (ARB), telmisartan and valsartan were compared for renal protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed high fat diet. We hypothesized that in cardiometabolic syndrome, telmisartan an ARB with PPAR-γ activity will offer better renal protection. METHODS SHR were fed either normal (SHR-NF, 7% fat) or high fat (SHR-HF, 36% fat) diet and treated with an ARB for 10 weeks. RESULTS Blood pressure was similar between SHR-NF (190±3 mmHg) and SHR-HF (192±4 mmHg) at the end of the 10 week period. Telmisartan and valsartan decreased blood pressure to similar extents in SHR-NF and SHR-HF groups. Body weight was significantly higher in SHR-HF (368±5g) compared to SHR-NF (328±7g). Telmisartan but not valsartan significantly reduced the body weight gain in SHR-HF. Telmisartan was also more effective than valsartan in improving glycemic and lipid status in SHR-HF. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an inflammatory marker, was higher in SHR-HF (24±2 ng/d) compared to SHR-NF (14±5 ng/d). Telmisartan reduced MCP-1 excretion in both SHR-HF and SHR-NF to a greater extent than valsartan. An indicator of renal injury, urinary albumin excretion increased to 85±8 mg/d in SHR-HF compared to 54±9 mg/d in SHR-NF. Telmisartan (23±5 mg/d) was more effective than valsartan (45±3 mg/d) in lowering urinary albumin excretion in SHR-HF. Moreover, telmisartan reduced glomerular damage to a greater extent than valsartan in the SHR-HF. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our data demonstrate that telmisartan was more effective than valsartan in reducing body weight gain, renal inflammation, and renal injury in a rat model of cardiometabolic syndrome. PMID:21415842

  14. Validation of protection provided by one brand of filtering facepiece respirator

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, John Rose

    1995-05-01

    A previous laboratory study of a widely used disposable dust / mist (D/M) respirator (3M™8710) utilized a challenge agent that had high penetration values for D/M filter media. Therefore, measured protection factors (PFs) reflected both filter and faceseal penetration, and would be lower than that expected for faceseal penetration only. The purpose of this study was to determine a PF for this brand of disposable D/M respirator using a challenge agent that has low filter penetration for this type of filter. Methodology involved qualitatively (QLFT) and quantitatively (QNFT) fit testing 15 males and 15 females while wearing the respirator. One QLFT was done per subject using the saccharin method. Three QNFTs were performed on each subject utilizing a 2.5 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) monodisperse challenge aerosol. Measured PF`s were corrected for lung deposition of this size aerosol. The average fit for each subject was the arithmetic mean of the three PFs. The PFs were found to be approximately log-normally distributed, so logs of PFs were used in the statistical analysis. The exponent of the 95% lower tolerance level (LTL) of the fifth percentile of the log PFs was 50. This compares to an exponent of the 95% LTL of the fifth percentile of the log PFs of two determined in a previous study and to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Assigned Protection Factor (APF) of ten. No significant difference of average fit between males and females was found. The sensitivity of the saccharin QLFT was 42.9%, and specificity could not be evaluated.

  15. Adenovirus-Mediated Human Paraoxonase 1 Gene Transfer to Provide Protection Against the Toxicity of the Organophosphorus Pesticide Toxicant Diazoxon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    tested whether PON1 gene transfer using adenovirus provides protection against the toxicity of the OP diazoxon. Using an adenovirus construct...expressed PON1 at 600-3480 U ml(-1) on day 5 post-treatment, which is 8-50 fold above endogenous. Six mice expressing hPON1 survived 2LD(50) doses of diazoxon

  16. Vaginally delivered tenofovir disoproxil fumarate provides greater protection than tenofovir against genital herpes in a murine model of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Briana; Jandl, Thomas; Teller, Ryan S; Taneva, Ekaterina; Wang, Yanhua; Nagaraja, Umadevi; Kiser, Patrick F; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to genital herpes in medroxyprogesterone-treated mice may provide a surrogate of increased HIV risk and a preclinical biomarker of topical preexposure prophylaxis safety. We evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in this murine model because an intravaginal ring eluting this drug is being advanced into clinical trials. To avoid the complications of surgically inserting a ring, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-stable formulations of TDF were prepared. One week of twice-daily 0.3% TDF gel was well tolerated and did not result in any increase in HSV-2 susceptibility but protected mice from herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) disease compared to mice treated with the HEC placebo gel. No significant increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines in vaginal washes or change in cytokine, chemokine, or mitochondrial gene expression in RNA extracted from genital tract tissue was detected. To further evaluate efficacy, mice were treated with gel once daily beginning 12 h prior to high-dose HSV-2 challenge or 2 h before and after viral challenge (BAT24 dosing). The 0.3% TDF gel provided significant protection compared to the HEC gel following either daily (in 9/10 versus 1/10 mice, P < 0.01) or BAT24 (in 14/20 versus 4/20 mice, P < 0.01) dosing. In contrast, 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel protected only 4/10 mice treated with either regimen. Significant protection was also observed with daily 0.03% TDF compared to HEC. Protection was associated with greater murine cellular permeability of radiolabeled TDF than of TFV. Together, these findings suggest that TDF is safe, may provide substantially greater protection against HSV than TFV, and support the further clinical development of a TDF ring.

  17. Overexpression of CYP2J2 provides protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfang; El-Sikhry, Haitham; Chaudhary, Ketul R.; Batchu, Sri Nagarjun; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Jukar, Taibeh Orujy; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Graves, Joan P.; DeGraff, Laura M.; Myers, Page; Rouse, Douglas C.; Foley, Julie; Nyska, Abraham; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Seubert, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Human cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2J2 is abundant in heart and active in biosynthesis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Recently, we demonstrated that these eicosanoid products protect myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study utilized transgenic (Tr) mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of human CYP2J2 to investigate protection toward toxicity resulting from acute (0, 5, or 15 mg/kg daily for 3 days, followed by 24-h recovery) or chronic (0, 1.5, or 3.0 mg/kg biweekly for 5 wk, followed by 2-wk recovery) doxorubicin (Dox) administration. Acute treatment resulted in marked elevations of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase levels that were significantly greater in wild-type (WT) than CYP2J2 Tr mice. Acute treatment also resulted in less activation of stress response enzymes in CYP2J2 Tr mice (catalase 750% vs. 300% of baseline, caspase-3 235% vs. 165% of baseline in WT vs. CYP2J2 Tr mice). Moreover, CYP2J2 Tr hearts exhibited less Dox-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis (measured by TUNEL) compared with WT hearts. After chronic treatment, comparable decreases in body weight were observed in WT and CYP2J2 Tr mice. However, cardiac function, assessed by measurement of fractional shortening with M-mode transthoracic echocardiography, was significantly higher in CYP2J2 Tr than WT hearts after chronic Dox treatment (WT 37 ± 2%, CYP2J2 Tr 47 ± 1%). WT mice also had larger increases in β-myosin heavy chain and cardiac ankryin repeat protein compared with CYP2J2 Tr mice. CYP2J2 Tr hearts had a significantly higher rate of Dox metabolism than WT hearts (2.2 ± 0.25 vs. 1.6 ± 0.50 ng·min−1·100 μg protein−1). In vitro data from H9c2 cells demonstrated that EETs attenuated Dox-induced mitochondrial damage. Together, these data suggest that cardiac-specific overexpression of CYP2J2 limited Dox-induced toxicity. PMID:19429816

  18. Xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum cells provides antioxidant and antimicrobial protection upon biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Gregory; Conceição, Luis F R; Kombrink, Erich; Dias, Alberto C P

    2009-01-01

    Xanthone production in Hypericum perforatum (HP) suspension cultures in response to elicitation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens co-cultivation has been studied. RNA blot analyses of HP cells co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens have shown a rapid up-regulation of genes encoding important enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway (PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase) and xanthone biosynthesis (BPS, benzophenone synthase). Analyses of HPLC chromatograms of methanolic extracts of control and elicited cells (HP cells that were co-cultivated for 24h with A. tumefaciens) have revealed a 12-fold increase in total xanthone concentration and also the emergence of many xanthones after elicitation. Methanolic extract of elicited cells exhibited significantly higher antioxidant and antimicrobial competence than the equivalent extract of control HP cells indicating that these properties have been significantly increased in HP cells after elicitation. Four major de novo synthesized xanthones have been identified as 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenyl xanthone, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2-prenyl xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-8-prenyl xanthone and paxanthone. Antioxidant and antimicrobial characterization of these de novo xanthones have revealed that xanthones play dual function in plant cells during biotic stress: (1) as antioxidants to protect the cells from oxidative damage and (2) as phytoalexins to impair the pathogen growth.

  19. Architecture and material properties of diatom shells provide effective mechanical protection.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christian E; Merkel, Rudolf; Springer, Olaf; Jurkojc, Piotr; Maier, Christian; Prechtel, Kathrin; Smetacek, Victor

    2003-02-20

    Diatoms are the major contributors to phytoplankton blooms in lakes and in the sea and hence are central in aquatic ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. All free-living diatoms differ from other phytoplankton groups in having silicified cell walls in the form of two 'shells' (the frustule) of manifold shape and intricate architecture whose function and role, if any, in contributing to the evolutionary success of diatoms is under debate. We explored the defence potential of the frustules as armour against predators by measuring their strength. Real and virtual loading tests (using calibrated glass microneedles and finite element analysis) were performed on centric and pennate diatom cells. Here we show that the frustules are remarkably strong by virtue of their architecture and the material properties of the diatom silica. We conclude that diatom frustules have evolved as mechanical protection for the cells because exceptional force is required to break them. The evolutionary arms race between diatoms and their specialized predators will have had considerable influence in structuring pelagic food webs and biogeochemical cycles.

  20. The acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium provides protection against organic acids.

    PubMed

    Baik, H S; Bearson, S; Dunbar, S; Foster, J W

    1996-11-01

    Salmonella typhimurium encounters a variety of acid stress situations during pathogenesis and in the natural environment. These include the extreme low pH encountered in the stomach and a less acidic intestinal environment containing large amounts of organic weak acids (volatile fatty acids). The acid tolerance response (ATR) is a complex defence system that can minimize the lethal effects of extreme low pH (pH3). The data presented illustrate that the ATR can also defend against weak acids such as butyric, acetic or propionic acids. Although an acid shock of pH 4.4 induced the ATR, growth in subinhibitory concentrations of weak acids did not. Various mutations shown to affect tolerance to extreme acid conditions (pH 3) were tested for their effects on tolerance to weak acids. An rpoS mutant lacking the alternative sigma factor sigma s failed to protect cells against weak acids as well as extreme acid pH. The fur (ferric uptake regulator) and atp (Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase) mutants defective in extreme acid tolerance showed no defects in their tolerance to weak acids. Curiously, the atbR mutant that exhibits increased tolerance to extreme acid pH proved sensitive to weak acids. Several insertions that rendered cells sensitive to organic acids were isolated, all of which proved to be linked to the rpoS locus.

  1. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Julie M.; Limpus, Colin J.; Hofmeister, Kate M.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Burnett, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland’s southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas) over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs) was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19–52%) of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0–4%). Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches. PMID:28187181

  2. Ablation of Cbl-b provides protection against transplanted and spontaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Jeffrey Y.; Jang, Ihn Kyung; Hodes, Richard; Gu, Hua

    2007-01-01

    A significant challenge to efforts aimed at inducing effective antitumor immune responses is that CD8+ T cells, which play a prominent role in these responses, may be unable to respond to tumors that lack costimulatory signals and that are protected by an immune suppressive environment such as that mediated by TGF-β produced by tumor cells themselves or by infiltrating Tregs, often resulting in tolerance or anergy of tumor-specific T cells. Here we show that the in vitro activation of Cblb–/– CD8+ T cells does not depend on CD28 costimulation and is resistant to TGF-β suppression. In vivo studies further demonstrated that Cblb–/– mice, but not WT controls, efficiently rejected inoculated E.G7 and EL4 lymphomas that did not express B7 ligands and that introduction of the Cblb–/– mutation into tumor-prone ataxia telangiectasia mutated–deficient mice markedly reduced the incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphomas. Immunohistological study showed that E.G7 tumors from Cblb–/– mice contained massively infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Adoptive transfer of purified Cblb–/– CD8+ T cells into E.G7 tumor-bearing mice led to efficient eradication of established tumors. Thus, our data indicate that ablation of Cbl-b can be an efficient strategy for eliciting immune responses against both inoculated and spontaneous tumors. PMID:17364027

  3. Combined Preconditioning and Postconditioning Provides Synergistic Protection against Liver Ischemic Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ning; XU, Hongde; Cao, Liu; Zhang, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury (IRI) is a major cause of liver damage during liver surgery and transplantation. Ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning are strategies that can reduce IRI. In this study, different combined types of pre- and postconditioning procedures were tested in a murine warm hepatic IRI model to evaluate their protective effects. Proanthocyanidins derived from grape seed was used before ischemia process as pharmacological preconditioning to combine with technical preconditioning and postconditioning. Three pathways related to IRI, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and hypoxia responses were examined in hepatic IRI model. Individual and combined pre- and postconditioning protocols significantly reduce liver injury by decreasing the liver ROS and cytokine levels, as well as enhancing the hypoxia tolerance response. Our data also suggested that in addition to individual preconditioning or postconditioning, the combination of these two treatments could reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury more effectively by increasing the activity of ROS scavengers and antioxidants. The utilization of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) could improve the oxidation resistance in combined pre- and postconditioning groups. The combined protocol also further increased the liver HIF-1 alpha protein level, but had no effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines release compared to solo treatment. PMID:22701341

  4. Scaffolded Antigens in Yeast Cell Particle Vaccines Provide Protection against Systemic Polyoma Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tipper, Donald J.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background. U65, a self-aggregating peptide scaffold, traps fused protein antigens in yeast cells. Conversion to Yeast Cell Particle (YCP) vaccines by partial removal of surface mannoproteins exposes β-glucan, mediating efficient uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). YCP vaccines are inexpensive, capable of rapid large-scale production and have potential for both parenteral and oral use. Results. YCP processing by alkaline hydrolysis exposes up to 20% of the glucan but converts scaffolded antigen and internal yeast proteins into a common aggregate, preventing selective yeast protein removal. For U65-green fluorescent protein (GFP) or U65-Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) subcutaneous vaccines, maximal IgG responses in mice required 10% glucan exposure. IgG responses to yeast proteins were 5-fold lower. Proteolytic mannoprotein removal produced YCPs with only 6% glucan exposure, insufficiently porous for selective removal of even native yeast proteins. Vaccine efficacy was reduced 10-fold. Current YCP formulations, therefore, are not suitable for human use but have considerable potential for use in feed animal vaccines. Significantly, a YCP vaccine expressing a GFP fusion to VP1, the murine polyoma virus major capsid protein, after either oral or subcutaneous administration, protected mice against an intraperitoneal polyoma virus challenge, reducing viral DNA levels in spleen and liver by >98%. PMID:27213160

  5. Architecture and material properties of diatom shells provide effective mechanical protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Christian E.; Merkel, Rudolf; Springer, Olaf; Jurkojc, Piotr; Maier, Christian; Prechtel, Kathrin; Smetacek, Victor

    2003-02-01

    Diatoms are the major contributors to phytoplankton blooms in lakes and in the sea and hence are central in aquatic ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. All free-living diatoms differ from other phytoplankton groups in having silicified cell walls in the form of two `shells' (the frustule) of manifold shape and intricate architecture whose function and role, if any, in contributing to the evolutionary success of diatoms is under debate. We explored the defence potential of the frustules as armour against predators by measuring their strength. Real and virtual loading tests (using calibrated glass microneedles and finite element analysis) were performed on centric and pennate diatom cells. Here we show that the frustules are remarkably strong by virtue of their architecture and the material properties of the diatom silica. We conclude that diatom frustules have evolved as mechanical protection for the cells because exceptional force is required to break them. The evolutionary arms race between diatoms and their specialized predators will have had considerable influence in structuring pelagic food webs and biogeochemical cycles.

  6. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Julie M; Limpus, Colin J; Hofmeister, Kate M; Allen, Benjamin L; Burnett, Scott E

    2017-01-01

    The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland's southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas) over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs) was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19-52%) of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0-4%). Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches.

  7. SDF-1 provides morphological and functional protection against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Stokman, Geurt; Stroo, Ingrid; Claessen, Nike; Teske, Gwendoline J D; Florquin, Sandrine; Leemans, Jaklien C

    2010-12-01

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is thought to be involved in mediating tissue repair by promoting migration of bone marrow stem or progenitor cells to the site of injury. Increased levels of renal SDF-1 are found after kidney injury. However, recently, we showed that SDF-1 does not play an important role in the migration of haematopoietic stem cells to the post-ischaemic kidney. The function of increased post-ischaemic renal SDF-1 expression in modulating renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury remains, therefore, unknown. We studied the role of SDF-1 in renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury by locally decreasing SDF-1 expression and subsequent SDF-1 signalling in the corticomedullary region of the kidney using antisense oligonucleotide treatment in mice. Renal SDF-1 protein increased significantly in the early phase of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Antisense treatment resulted in a reduction of corticomedullary SDF-1 expression which was accompanied by severely increased tubular injury and decreased renal function. We did not observe any difference in mobilization or retention of CXCR4-positive haematopoietic stem or progenitor cells after induction of renal ischaemia. Rather, antisense-treated animals showed markedly increased apoptosis of the tubular epithelium accompanied by an increased renal inflammatory response. Conclusions. These data indicate a new role for SDF-1 in renal pathogenesis by mediating tubular epithelial protection against ischaemic injury and suggest that SDF-1 by itself is not crucial for the influx of haematopoietic stem or progenitor cells towards the ischaemic injured kidney.

  8. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function.

  9. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus single-chain variable region fragments provide protection against mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading causative agent of bovine mastitis, which can result in significant economic losses to the dairy industry. However, available vaccines against bovine mastitis do not confer adequate protection, although passive immunization with antibodies may be useful to prevent disease. Hence, we constructed a bovine single-chain variable region fragment (scFv) phage display library using cDNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes of cows with S. aureus-induced mastitis. After four rounds of selection, eight scFvs that bound S. aureus antigens with high affinity were obtained. The framework regions of the variable domains (VH and VL) of the eight scFvs were highly conserved, and the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) displayed significant diversity, especially CDR3 of the VH domain. All eight scFvs inhibited S. aureus growth in culture medium. Lactating mice were challenged by injecting S. aureus into the fourth mammary gland. Histopathological analysis showed that treatment with these scFvs prior to bacterial challenge maintained the structure of the mammary acini, decreased infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, increased levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in mammary tissues, as compared with mice treatment with physiological saline (P < 0.05). These novel bovine scFvs may be suitable candidates for therapeutic agents for the prevention of S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.

  10. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moan, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary C SPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future: Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  11. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-12-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary COSPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  12. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Providing Password Protection and Limited Access to Models and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2007-08-09

    One of the most important concerns for regulatory agencies is the concept of reproducibility (i.e., reproducibility means credibility) of an assessment. One aspect of reproducibility deals with tampering of the assessment. In other words, when multiple groups are engaged in an assessment, it is important to lock down the problem that is to be solved and/or to restrict the models that are to be used to solve the problem. The objective of this effort is to provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with a means to limit user access to models and to provide a mechanism to constrain the conceptual site models (CSMs) when appropriate. The purpose is to provide the user (i.e., NRC) with the ability to “lock down” the CSM (i.e., picture containing linked icons), restrict access to certain models, or both.

  13. Financial protection of patients through compensation of providers: the impact of Health Equity Funds in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; Men, Chean R; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2013-12-01

    Public providers have no financial incentive to respect their legal obligation to exempt the poor from user fees. Health Equity Funds (HEFs) aim to make exemptions effective by giving NGOs responsibility for assessing eligibility and compensating providers for lost revenue. We use the geographic spread of HEFs over time in Cambodia to identify their impact on out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Among households with some OOP payment, HEFs reduce the amount paid by 35%, on average. The effect is larger for households that are poorer and mainly use public health care. Reimbursement of providers through a government operated scheme also reduces household OOP payments but the effect is not as well targeted on the poor. Both compensation models raise household non-medical consumption but have no impact on health-related debt. HEFs reduce the probability of primarily seeking care in the private sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aminosyn PF or trophamine: which provides more protection from cholestasis associated with total parenteral nutrition?

    PubMed

    Forchielli, M L; Gura, K M; Sandler, R; Lo, C

    1995-11-01

    Cholestasis often occurs in infants on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for long periods. Amino acid formulations developed specifically for infants, namely Aminosyn PF and Trophamine, may protect against cholestasis associated with total parenteral nutrition (CATPN). The development of cholestasis may also be caused by other risk factors such as prematurity, surgery, sepsis, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). To evaluate the relative effectiveness of the pediatric amino acid formulations in reducing CATPN, the courses of 70 infants < 1 year of age who received TPN for at least 14 days were reviewed. Cholestasis was defined as a conjugated serum bilirubin > or = 2 mg/dl subsequent to the initiation of TPN; CATPN was considered present when other factors related to cholestasis were ruled out. Liver function tests were recorded 24 h before starting TPN and at day 7, 15, and 21 during TPN infusion. Thirty infants (42.8%) developed cholestasis. CATPN was judged to have occurred in 15 (21.4%) of 70 infants, while 15 (21.4%) developed cholestasis secondary to other factors. Of the 15 CATPN patients, 7 had received Trophamine, 6 had received Aminosyn PF, and 2 had received both solutions. Aminosyn PF and Trophamine, along with other potential risk factors for CATPN such as antecedent surgery, sepsis, ECMO, prematurity, and nitrogen/calorie intake were analyzed by regression-analysis methods. None was statistically significant except the length of TPN (p = 0.0063). In conclusion, we cannot support the view that Trophamine is more effective than Aminosyn PF in the prevention of CATPN.

  15. Preconditioning Triggered by Carbon Monoxide (CO) Provides Neuronal Protection Following Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Widerøe, Marius; Alves, Paula M.; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of acute mortality in newborns and cognitive and motor impairments in children. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia leads to excitotoxicity and necrotic and apoptotic cell death, in which mitochondria play a major role. Increased resistance against major damage can be achieved by preconditioning triggered by subtle insults. CO, a toxic molecule that is also generated endogenously, may have a role in preconditioning as low doses can protect against inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CO-induced preconditioning on neurons was addressed in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 1 h of CO treatment on neuronal death (plasmatic membrane permeabilization and chromatin condensation) and bcl-2 expression was studied in cerebellar granule cells undergoing to glutamate-induced apoptosis. CO's role was studied in vivo in the Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (common carotid artery ligature +75 min at 8% oxygen). Apoptotic cells, assessed by Nissl staining were counted with a stereological approach and cleaved caspase 3-positive profiles in the hippocampus were assessed. Apoptotic hallmarks were analyzed in hippocampal extracts by Western Blot. CO inhibited excitotoxicity-induced cell death and increased Bcl-2 mRNA in primary cultures of neurons. In vivo, CO prevented hypoxia-ischemia induced apoptosis in the hippocampus, limited cytochrome c released from mitochondria and reduced activation of caspase-3. Still, Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in hippocampus of CO pre-treated rat pups. Our results show that CO preconditioning elicits a molecular cascade that limits neuronal apoptosis. This could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy for high-risk cerebral hypoxia-ischemia patients, in particular neonates. PMID:22952602

  16. Small-molecule quinolinol inhibitor identified provides protection against BoNT/A in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Padma; Singh, Manglesh Kumar; Chaudhary, Dilip; Chauhan, Vinita; Bharadwaj, Pranay; Pandey, Apurva; Upadhyay, Nisha; Dhaked, Ram Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), etiological agents of the life threatening neuroparalytic disease botulism, are the most toxic substances currently known. The potential for the use as bioweapon makes the development of small-molecule inhibitor against these deadly toxins is a top priority. Currently, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for BoNT intoxication. Although an effective vaccine/immunotherapy is available for immuno-prophylaxis but this cannot reverse the effects of toxin inside neurons. A small-molecule pharmacological intervention, especially one that would be effective against the light chain protease, would be highly desirable. Similarity search was carried out from ChemBridge and NSC libraries to the hit (7-(phenyl(8-quinolinylamino)methyl)-8-quinolinol; NSC 84096) to mine its analogs. Several hits obtained were screened for in silico inhibition using AutoDock 4.1 and 19 new molecules selected based on binding energy and Ki. Among these, eleven quinolinol derivatives potently inhibited in vitro endopeptidase activity of botulinum neurotoxin type A light chain (rBoNT/A-LC) on synaptosomes isolated from rat brain which simulate the in vivo system. Five of these inhibitor molecules exhibited IC(50) values ranging from 3.0 nM to 10.0 µM. NSC 84087 is the most potent inhibitor reported so far, found to be a promising lead for therapeutic development, as it exhibits no toxicity, and is able to protect animals from pre and post challenge of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A).

  17. Small-Molecule Quinolinol Inhibitor Identified Provides Protection against BoNT/A in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Padma; Singh, Manglesh Kumar; Chaudhary, Dilip; Chauhan, Vinita; Bharadwaj, Pranay; Pandey, Apurva; Upadhyay, Nisha; Dhaked, Ram Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), etiological agents of the life threatening neuroparalytic disease botulism, are the most toxic substances currently known. The potential for the use as bioweapon makes the development of small-molecule inhibitor against these deadly toxins is a top priority. Currently, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for BoNT intoxication. Although an effective vaccine/immunotherapy is available for immuno-prophylaxis but this cannot reverse the effects of toxin inside neurons. A small-molecule pharmacological intervention, especially one that would be effective against the light chain protease, would be highly desirable. Similarity search was carried out from ChemBridge and NSC libraries to the hit (7-(phenyl(8-quinolinylamino)methyl)-8-quinolinol; NSC 84096) to mine its analogs. Several hits obtained were screened for in silico inhibition using AutoDock 4.1 and 19 new molecules selected based on binding energy and Ki. Among these, eleven quinolinol derivatives potently inhibited in vitro endopeptidase activity of botulinum neurotoxin type A light chain (rBoNT/A-LC) on synaptosomes isolated from rat brain which simulate the in vivo system. Five of these inhibitor molecules exhibited IC50 values ranging from 3.0 nM to 10.0 µM. NSC 84087 is the most potent inhibitor reported so far, found to be a promising lead for therapeutic development, as it exhibits no toxicity, and is able to protect animals from pre and post challenge of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A). PMID:23071727

  18. 76 FR 9968 - Regulation for the Enforcement of Federal Health Care Provider Conscience Protection Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... performing abortions. While Federal health care provider conscience statutes have been in effect for decades... receipt of Federal funds did not require the recipients of such funds to perform abortions or... or an abortion, if it would be contrary to the individual's religious beliefs or moral convictions; 2...

  19. Increase in use of protective earplugs by Rock and Roll concert attendees when provided for free at concert venues.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jieun; Smukler, Simon R; Chung, Yuan; House, Ron; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hearing protection use among attendees of Rock and Roll concerts at baseline and in concerts where earplugs are provided for free at concert venue entrances. Six concerts performed at two music venues in Toronto, Canada were evaluated. Study personnel observed and recorded the use of hearing protection at three concerts where no earplugs were distributed, and three concerts where earplugs were provided for free at the concert venue entrance. A total of 955 individuals over the age of 18 were observed at six concerts. Six hundred and thirty-seven individuals (64% male) were observed at concerts where no earplugs were provided, and 318 individuals (68% male) were observed at concerts where free earplugs were provided. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated a significant increase in hearing protection usage at concerts where earplugs were provided for free at the concert venue entrance, odds ratio 7.27 (95% CI: 3.24-16.30). The provision of free earplugs at concert venues may be a simple and inexpensive intervention that could be a component of a larger public health campaign to prevent non-occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

  20. Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201, an avirulent strain to humans, provides protection against bubonic plague in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Qi, Zhizhen; Zhang, Xuecan; Wu, Xiaohong; Qiu, Yefeng; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Youquan; He, Jian; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus is considered to be a virulent to larger mammals, including guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. It may be used as live attenuated plague vaccine candidates in terms of its low virulence. However, the Microtus strain’s protection against plague has yet to be demonstrated in larger mammals. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the Microtus strain 201 as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. Our results show that this strain is highly attenuated by subcutaneous route, elicits an F1-specific antibody titer similar to the EV and provides a protective efficacy similar to the EV against bubonic plague in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The Microtus strain 201 could induce elevated secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6), as well as chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. However, the protected animals developed skin ulcer at challenge site with different severity in most of the immunized and some of the EV-immunized monkeys. Generally, the Microtus strain 201 represented a good plague vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as its good protection against high dose of subcutaneous virulent Y. pestis challenge. PMID:24225642

  1. Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201, an avirulent strain to humans, provides protection against bubonic plague in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Qi, Zhizhen; Zhang, Xuecan; Wu, Xiaohong; Qiu, Yefeng; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Youquan; He, Jian; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus is considered to be a virulent to larger mammals, including guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. It may be used as live attenuated plague vaccine candidates in terms of its low virulence. However, the Microtus strain's protection against plague has yet to be demonstrated in larger mammals. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the Microtus strain 201 as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. Our results show that this strain is highly attenuated by subcutaneous route, elicits an F1-specific antibody titer similar to the EV and provides a protective efficacy similar to the EV against bubonic plague in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The Microtus strain 201 could induce elevated secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6), as well as chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. However, the protected animals developed skin ulcer at challenge site with different severity in most of the immunized and some of the EV-immunized monkeys. Generally, the Microtus strain 201 represented a good plague vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as its good protection against high dose of subcutaneous virulent Y. pestis challenge.

  2. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  3. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

    1997-12-16

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

  4. Statistics provide guidance for indigenous organic carbon detection on Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Sephton, Mark A; Carter, Jonathan N

    2014-08-01

    Data from the Viking and Mars Science Laboratory missions indicate the presence of organic compounds that are not definitively martian in origin. Both contamination and confounding mineralogies have been suggested as alternatives to indigenous organic carbon. Intuitive thought suggests that we are repeatedly obtaining data that confirms the same level of uncertainty. Bayesian statistics may suggest otherwise. If an organic detection method has a true positive to false positive ratio greater than one, then repeated organic matter detection progressively increases the probability of indigeneity. Bayesian statistics also reveal that methods with higher ratios of true positives to false positives give higher overall probabilities and that detection of organic matter in a sample with a higher prior probability of indigenous organic carbon produces greater confidence. Bayesian statistics, therefore, provide guidance for the planning and operation of organic carbon detection activities on Mars. Suggestions for future organic carbon detection missions and instruments are as follows: (i) On Earth, instruments should be tested with analog samples of known organic content to determine their true positive to false positive ratios. (ii) On the mission, for an instrument with a true positive to false positive ratio above one, it should be recognized that each positive detection of organic carbon will result in a progressive increase in the probability of indigenous organic carbon being present; repeated measurements, therefore, can overcome some of the deficiencies of a less-than-definitive test. (iii) For a fixed number of analyses, the highest true positive to false positive ratio method or instrument will provide the greatest probability that indigenous organic carbon is present. (iv) On Mars, analyses should concentrate on samples with highest prior probability of indigenous organic carbon; intuitive desires to contrast samples of high prior probability and low prior

  5. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  6. Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis A virus and norovirus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

    2014-11-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Radiation Protection in the Application of Active Detection Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    DTRA) in the Department of Defense (DoD) support programs to develop and field an Active Detection Technology (ADT) system. This Commentary focuses...locate materials or rapid data acquisition if the materials are moving quickly across a detection field . Nuclear weapons, which can be small (~1 m in...neutron-nucleus interactions from neutrons released when the protons interact with the SNM or shielding material. Radiation fields associated

  8. Broad-spectrum sunscreens provide better protection from solar ultraviolet-simulated radiation and natural sunlight-induced immunosuppression in human beings.

    PubMed

    Moyal, Dominique D; Fourtanier, Anny M

    2008-05-01

    It is well established that ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces immunomodulatory effects that may be involved in skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation are immunosuppressive. As a result, sunscreens, which mainly absorb UVB, may be less effective in preventing UV radiation-induced immunosuppression than broad-spectrum products. We sought to study the effects of UVA exposure on human delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and compare the efficacy of sunscreens having different levels of sun-protection factor (SPF) and UVA protection against both solar-simulated radiation and outdoor real-life sunlight exposure conditions. DTH was assessed using a kit which includes 7 recall antigens that most of the participants encountered during childhood immunization. Evaluation of DTH test response was made 48 hours after test application before and after UV exposure with or without sunscreens. In unprotected participants, the response to DTH tests was significantly reduced irrespective of UV types of exposure (full-spectrum UVA, long UVA, solar-simulated radiation). A UVB sunscreen failed to protect from solar-simulated radiation-induced immunosuppression. In contrast, a broad-spectrum sunscreen with the same SPF but providing a high protection in the UVA range significantly reduced local UV-induced immunosuppression and prevented the distant effects. In the outdoor study, as compared with DTH responses obtained before sun exposure, no alteration of immune response was detected when the skin was protected by a broad-spectrum sunscreen having a high protection level in the UVA (SPF 25, UVA protection factor 14). Conversely a broad-spectrum sunscreen with lower protection against UVA (SPF 25, UVA protection factor 6) failed to prevent UV-impaired response. These results have been obtained after repeated exposure. Additional experiments obtained under acute exposure are in progress. These findings clearly demonstrated the

  9. Poloxamer-188 and citicoline provide neuronal membrane integrity and protect membrane stability in cortical spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Timur; Eylen, Alpaslan; Lule, Sevda; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Vural, Atay; Karatas, Hulya; Ozveren, Mehmet Faik; Dalkara, Turgay; Gursoy-Ozdemir, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Under pathological conditions such as brain trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke, cortical spreading depression (CSD) or peri-infarct depolarizations contribute to brain damage in animal models of neurological disorders as well as in human neurological diseases. CSD causes transient megachannel opening on the neuronal membrane, which may compromise neuronal survival under pathological conditions. Poloxamer-188 (P-188) and citicoline are neuroprotectants with membrane sealing properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of P-188 and citicoline on the neuronal megachannel opening induced by CSD in the mouse brain. We have monitored megachannel opening with propidium iodide, a membrane impermeable fluorescent dye and, demonstrate that P-188 and citicoline strikingly decreased CSD-induced neuronal PI influx in cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus. Therefore, these agents may be providing neuroprotection by blocking megachannel opening, which may be related to their membrane sealing action and warrant further investigation for treatment of traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke.

  10. Delayed argon administration provides robust protection against cardiac arrest-induced neurological damage.

    PubMed

    Brücken, Anne; Kurnaz, Pinar; Bleilevens, Christian; Derwall, Matthias; Weis, Joachim; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Fries, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Argon at a dosage of 70 % is neuroprotective, when given 1 h after cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. We investigated if a neuroprotective effect of argon would also be observed, when administration was delayed. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 400 and 500 g were subjected to 7 min of CA and 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Animals were randomized to receive either 1 h of 70 % argon ventilation 1 h (n = 8) or 3 h (n = 8) after return of spontaneous circulation or no argon treatment (n = 8). For all animals, a neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for 7 days following the experiment. On day 8, rats were re-anesthetized and transcardially perfused before brains were harvested for histopathological analyses. All animals survived. Control animals exhibited severe neurologic dysfunction at all time points as measured with the NDS. Argon-treated animals showed significant improvements in the NDS through all postoperative days, even when argon administration was delayed for 3 h. This was paralleled by a significant reduction in the neuronal damage index in the neocortex and the hippocampal CA 3/4 region in argon-treated animals, regardless of the timing of argon administration. However, animals of the delayed argon administration group additionally showed significant reductions in the basal ganglia in comparison with control animals. Our study demonstrates that a 1-h application of argon provided a significant reduction in histopathological damage, associated with a marked improvement in functional neurologic recovery even when treatment was delayed for 3 h. This is highly significant with regard to clinical situations, where argon treatment cannot be provided timely.

  11. Inactivated Influenza Vaccine That Provides Rapid, Innate-Immune-System-Mediated Protection and Subsequent Long-Term Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chinn Yi; Mifsud, Edin J.; Edenborough, Kathryn M.; Sekiya, Toshiki; Tan, Amabel C. L.; Mercuri, Francesca; Rockman, Steve; Chen, Weisan; Turner, Stephen J.; Doherty, Peter C.; Kelso, Anne; Brown, Lorena E.; Jackson, David C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The continual threat to global health posed by influenza has led to increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines for use in epidemics and pandemics. We show in this study that formulation of a low dose of inactivated detergent-split influenza vaccine with a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist-based lipopeptide adjuvant (R4Pam2Cys) provides (i) immediate, antigen-independent immunity mediated by the innate immune system and (ii) significant enhancement of antigen-dependent immunity which exhibits an increased breadth of effector function. Intranasal administration of mice with vaccine formulated with R4Pam2Cys but not vaccine alone provides protection against both homologous and serologically distinct (heterologous) viral strains within a day of administration. Vaccination in the presence of R4Pam2Cys subsequently also induces high levels of systemic IgM, IgG1, and IgG2b antibodies and pulmonary IgA antibodies that inhibit hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) activities of homologous but not heterologous virus. Improved primary virus nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ T cell responses are also induced by the use of R4Pam2Cys and are associated with robust recall responses to provide heterologous protection. These protective effects are demonstrated in wild-type and antibody-deficient animals but not in those depleted of CD8+ T cells. Using a contact-dependent virus transmission model, we also found that heterologous virus transmission from vaccinated mice to naive mice is significantly reduced. These results demonstrate the potential of adding a TLR2 agonist to an existing seasonal influenza vaccine to improve its utility by inducing immediate short-term nonspecific antiviral protection and also antigen-specific responses to provide homologous and heterologous immunity. PMID:26507227

  12. The protein PprI provides protection against radiation injury in human and mouse cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Wu, Wei; Qiao, Huiping; Yue, Ling; Ren, Lili; Zhang, Shuyu; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute radiation injuries are both very lethal and exceptionally difficult to treat. Though the radioresistant bacterium D. radiodurans was first characterized in 1956, genes and proteins key to its radioprotection have not yet to be applied in radiation injury therapy for humans. In this work, we express the D. radiodurans protein PprI in Pichia pastoris yeast cells transfected with the designed vector plasmid pHBM905A-pprI. We then treat human umbilical endothelial vein cells and BALB/c mouse cells with the yeast-derived PprI and elucidate the radioprotective effects the protein provides upon gamma irradiation. We see that PprI significantly increases the survival rate, antioxidant viability, and DNA-repair capacity in irradiated cells and decreases concomitant apoptosis rates and counts of damage-indicative γH2AX foci. Furthermore, we find that PprI reduces mortality and enhances bone marrow cell clone formation and white blood cell and platelet counts in irradiated mice. PprI also seems to alleviate pathological injuries to multiple organs and improve antioxidant viability in some tissues. Our results thus suggest that PprI has crucial radioprotective effects on irradiated human and mouse cells. PMID:27222438

  13. Immunization with Pneumococcal Surface Protein K of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Provides Protection in a Mouse Model of Colonization.

    PubMed

    Keller, Lance E; Luo, Xiao; Thornton, Justin A; Seo, Keun-Seok; Moon, Bo Youn; Robinson, D Ashley; McDaniel, Larry S

    2015-11-01

    Current vaccinations are effective against encapsulated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, but they do not protect against nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp), which is increasing in colonization and incidence of pneumococcal disease. Vaccination with pneumococcal proteins has been assessed for its ability to protect against pneumococcal disease, but several of these proteins are not expressed by NESp. Pneumococcal surface protein K (PspK), an NESp virulence factor, has not been assessed for immunogenic potential or host modulatory effects. Mammalian cytokine expression was determined in an in vivo mouse model and in an in vitro cell culture system. Systemic and mucosal mouse immunization studies were performed to determine the immunogenic potential of PspK. Murine serum and saliva were collected to quantitate specific antibody isotype responses and the ability of antibody and various proteins to inhibit epithelial cell adhesion. Host cytokine response was not reduced by PspK. NESp was able to colonize the mouse nasopharynx as effectively as encapsulated pneumococci. Systemic and mucosal immunization provided protection from colonization by PspK-positive (PspK(+)) NESp. Anti-PspK antibodies were recovered from immunized mice and significantly reduced the ability of NESp to adhere to human epithelial cells. A protein-based pneumococcal vaccine is needed to provide broad protection against encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance and vaccine escape mutants. We demonstrate that PspK may serve as an NESp target for next-generation pneumococcal vaccines. Immunization with PspK protected against pneumococcal colonization, which is requisite for pneumococcal disease.

  14. Characterization of the UVA protection provided by avobenzone, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide in broad-spectrum sunscreen products.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Donathan G; Meyer, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Solar UV radiation (UVR) is composed of UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths. Only two sunscreen active ingredients approved in the US, avobenzone (butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane) and zinc oxide (ZnO), provide true broad-spectrum protection against UVA wavelengths >360 nm. Although effective against shorter UVR wavelengths <360 nm, titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is also often believed to confer broad-spectrum protection and is substituted for ZnO or avobenzone. To sustain its absorption capacity within a sunscreen film during UVR exposure, avobenzone needs to be formulated into sunscreen products using sound formulation strategies. To characterize the efficacy of avobenzone, ZnO, and TiO(2) in terms of their abilities to provide broad UVA protection and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the different formulation strategies used today to maintain the efficacy of avobenzone even during prolonged exposures to UVR. UVA efficacy was assessed by measuring absorbance profiles in vitro using Vitro Skin® (IMS Inc., Orange, CT, USA) as an inert substrate and by determining UVA protection factors (PFA) on human skin. The impact of avobenzone loss on sun protection factor (SPF) and PFA values was evaluated by serially reducing avobenzone concentrations in an otherwise photostable product. The photostabilizing influence of specific formulation ingredients was monitored by measuring the extent to which they prevented UVR-induced degradation of avobenzone, whereas photostability of commercial sunscreen products was quantified by measuring the percentage change in absorbance within the UVB and UVA spectral regions following irradiation of thin product films on inert substrates. Model formulations containing 3% avobenzone or 5% ZnO provided superior attenuation of UVA wavelengths >360 nm compared with formulas containing 5% TiO(2). Additionally, sunscreen products of similar SPF containing avobenzone or ZnO exhibited significantly higher PFA values than those

  15. Infrared sensor for the detection and protection of wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschberger, Peter; Bundschuh, Michael; Tank, Volker

    1996-03-01

    A new application of IR sensors for the detection of game is presented. The device detects wildlife (mammals, birds) by using the difference in IR radiation of wildlife and its environment (meadow, field). The system can be used to save the animals' lives during mowing actions as well as for wildlife management purposes such as surveying and registration. The aspects of development and system layout are explained. The design is based on a model that describes the scenario (radiation, dynamics) and the features of important components (optics, detector, electronics). With reference to the simulation results, the device is constructed and basic optoelectronic parameters are investigated. First experiences concerning field measurements are given.

  16. Bioactive glass combined with bisphosphonates provides protection against biofilms formed by the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Anna K; Skogman, Malena E; Rosenqvist, Kirsi; Juvonen, Helka; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Juppo, Anne; Fallarero, Adyary

    2016-03-30

    Biofilms play a pivotal role in the progression of periodontitis and they can be treated with antiseptics (i.e. chlorhexidine) or antibiotics, but these therapeutic alternatives are unable of ameliorating periodontal alveolar bone loss, which has been, on the other hand, successfully treated with bone-preserving agents. The improved bone formation achieved in animal models by the combination of two such agents: bioactive glass (BAG) and bisphosphonates has attracted the interest for further exploring dental applications. However, the antimicrobial effects that may result from combining them have not been yet investigated. Here, our aim was to explore the anti-biofilm effects that could result from combining BAG with bisphosphonates, particularly in a dental biofilm model. The experiments were performed with an oral cavity single-specie (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) biofilm assay, which was optimized in this contribution. Risedronate displayed an intrinsic anti-biofilm effect, and all bisphosphonates, except clodronate, reduced biofilm formation when combined with BAG. In particular, the anti-biofilm activity of risedronate was significantly increased by the combination with BAG. Since it has been proposed that some of the antimicrobial effects of BAG are caused by local pH changes, studies of pH variations were performed to gain a mechanistic understanding. However, the observed anti-biofilm effects could not be explained with lowered pHs. Overall, these results do provide further support for the promising use of bisphosphonate-BAG combinations in dental applications. These findings are particularly relevant for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or osteoporotic patients, which are known to be more vulnerable to periodontitis. In such cases, bisphosphonate treatment could play a double positive effect: local treatment of periodontitis (in combination with BAG) and systemic treatment of osteoporosis, prevention of hypercalcemia and metastases

  17. Vaccine adjuvants aluminum and monophosphoryl lipid A provide distinct signals to generate protective cytotoxic memory CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Megan K. L.; McKee, Amy S.; David, Alexandria; Wang, Jieru; Mason, Robert; Kappler, John W.; Marrack, Philippa

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines can greatly reduce the spread of and deaths from many infectious diseases. However, many infections have no successful vaccines. Better understanding of the generation of protective CD8 memory T cells by vaccination is essential for the rational design of new vaccines that aim to prime cellular immune responses. Here we demonstrate that the combination of two adjuvants that are currently licensed for use in humans can be used to prime long-lived memory CD8 T cells that protect mice from viral challenge. The universally used adjuvant, aluminum salts, primed long-lived memory CD8 T cells; however, effective cytotoxic T-cell differentiation occurred only in the presence of an additional adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). MPL-induced IL-6 was required for cytotoxic differentiation. The IL-6 acted by inducing granzyme B production and reducing expression of inhibitory molecule PD1 on the surface of the primed CD8 T cells. CD8 memory T cells generated by antigen delivered with both aluminum salts and MPL provided significant protection from influenza A challenge. These adjuvants could be used in human vaccines to prime protective memory CD8 T cells. PMID:21518876

  18. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors.

  19. Compton Scattering by Internal Shields Based on Melanin-Containing Mushrooms Provides Protection of Gastrointestinal Tract from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C.; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Bryan, Ruth A.; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors. PMID:23113595

  20. An Ice Protection and Detection Systems Manufacturer's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Accomplishments include: World Class Aircraft Icing Research Center and Facility. Primary Sponsor/Partner - Aircraft Icing Consortia/Meetings. Icing Research Tunnel. Icing Test Aircraft. Icing Codes - LEWICE/Scaling, et al. Development of New Technologies (SBIR, STTR, et al). Example: Look Ahead Ice Detection. Pilot Training Materials. Full Cooperation with Academia, Government and Industry.

  1. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  2. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  3. [Coordination of governmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection].

    PubMed

    Rakitin, I A; Zel'din, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article covers features of govenmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection. Based on analysis of contemporary legislation, the authors evaluated terms "control" and "supervision", having different legal nature. The authors determined specific traits and define subjects and objects for public control in relationships aimed to provide sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population, evaluated legislative basis of citizens' claims to Rospotrebnadzor, pointed at difficulties in implementation of public control in connection with necessity to create new organizational and legal mechanisms widening control possibilities.

  4. A Rule-based Track Anomaly Detection Algorithm for Maritime Force Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Rule- based Track Anomaly Detection Algorithm for Maritime Force Protection S.Boinepalli and...detection tool using a Rule- based Algorithm that can detect anomalies in a set of pre-recorded tracks using their curvature, speed and weave. We...Australia 2014 AR 016-049 August 2014 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Rule- based Track Anomaly Detection

  5. Chitosan-Alginate Microcapsules Provide Gastric Protection and Intestinal Release of ICAM-1-Targeting Nanocarriers, Enabling GI Targeting In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ghaffarian, Rasa; Herrero, Edgar Pérez; Oh, Hyuntaek; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Muro, Silvia

    2016-05-24

    When administered intravenously, active targeting of drug nanocarriers (NCs) improves biodistribution and endocytosis. Targeting may also improve oral delivery of NCs to treat gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies or for systemic absoption. However, GI instability of targeting moieties compromises this strategy. We explored whether encapsulation of antibody-coated NCs in microcapsules would protect against gastric degradation, providing NCs release and targeting in intestinal conditions. We used nanoparticles coated with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (anti-ICAM) or non-specific IgG. NCs (~160-nm) were encapsulated in ~180-μm microcapsules with an alginate core, in the absence or presence of a chitosan shell. We found >95% NC encapsulation within microcapsules and <10% NC release from microcapsules in storage. There was minimal NC release at gastric pH (<10%) and burst release at intestinal pH (75-85%), slightly attenuated by chitosan. Encapsulated NCs afforded increased protection against degradation (3-4 fold) and increased cell targeting (8-20 fold) after release vs. non-encapsulated NCs. Mouse oral gavage showed that microencapsulation provided 38-65% greater protection of anti-ICAM NCs in the GI tract, 40% lower gastric retention, and 4-9-fold enhanced intestinal biodistribution vs. non-encapsulated NCs. Therefore, microencapsulation of antibody-targeted NCs may enable active targeting strategies to be effective in the context of oral drug delivery.

  6. Human Exposure to Early Morning Anopheles funestus Biting Behavior and Personal Protection Provided by Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets

    PubMed Central

    Moiroux, Nicolas; Damien, Georgia B.; Egrot, Marc; Djenontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Killeen, Gerry F.; Pennetier, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    A shift towards early morning biting behavior of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus have been observed in two villages in south Benin following distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), but the impact of these changes on the personal protection efficacy of LLINs was not evaluated. Data from human and An. funestus behavioral surveys were used to measure the human exposure to An. funestus bites through previously described mathematical models. We estimated the personal protection efficacy provided by LLINs and the proportions of exposure to bite occurring indoors and/or in the early morning. Average personal protection provided by using of LLIN was high (≥80% of the total exposure to bite), but for LLIN users, a large part of remaining exposure occurred outdoors (45.1% in Tokoli-V and 68.7% in Lokohoué) and/or in the early morning (38.5% in Tokoli-V and 69.4% in Lokohoué). This study highlights the crucial role of LLIN use and the possible need to develop new vector control strategies targeting malaria vectors with outdoor and early morning biting behavior. This multidisciplinary approach that supplements entomology with social science and mathematical modeling illustrates just how important it is to assess where and when humans are actually exposed to malaria vectors before vector control program managers, policy-makers and funders conclude what entomological observations imply. PMID:25115830

  7. Automatic detection of protected health information from clinic narratives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a natural language processing (NLP) system that was designed to participate in the 2014 i2b2 de-identification challenge. The challenge task aims to identify and classify seven main Protected Health Information (PHI) categories and 25 associated sub-categories. A hybrid model was proposed which combines machine learning techniques with keyword-based and rule-based approaches to deal with the complexity inherent in PHI categories. Our proposed approaches exploit a rich set of linguistic features, both syntactic and word surface-oriented, which are further enriched by task-specific features and regular expression template patterns to characterize the semantics of various PHI categories. Our system achieved promising accuracy on the challenge test data with an overall micro-averaged F-measure of 93.6%, which was the winner of this de-identification challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen...A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen...AND SUBTITLE A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective

  9. Video copy protection and detection framework (VPD) for e-learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZandI, Babak; Doustarmoghaddam, Danial; Pour, Mahsa R.

    2013-03-01

    This Article reviews and compares the copyright issues related to the digital video files, which can be categorized as contended based and Digital watermarking copy Detection. Then we describe how to protect a digital video by using a special Video data hiding method and algorithm. We also discuss how to detect the copy right of the file, Based on expounding Direction of the technology of the video copy detection, and Combining with the own research results, brings forward a new video protection and copy detection approach in terms of plagiarism and e-learning systems using the video data hiding technology. Finally we introduce a framework for Video protection and detection in e-learning systems (VPD Framework).

  10. Mentha piperita (Linn) leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Samarth, R M; Saini, M R; Maharwal, J; Dhaka, A; Kumar, Ashok

    2002-11-01

    Intestinal protection in mice against radiation injury by M. piperita (1 g/kg body weight/day) was studied from day 1 to day 20 after whole body gamma irradiation (8 Gy). Villus height, goblet cells/villus section, total cells, mitotic cells and dead cells/crypt section in the jejunum are good parameters for the assessment of radiation damage. There was significant decrease in the villus height, number of total cells and mitotic cells/crypt section, whereas goblet cells and dead cells showed significant increase after irradiation. Mentha pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in villus height, total cells and mitotic cells, whereas goblet cells and dead cells showed a significant decrease from respective irradiated controls at each autopsy day. The results suggest that Mentha pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss albino mice.

  11. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P; Kashentseva, Elena A; Yeh, Anthony J; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Curiel, David T; Leppla, Stephen; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2016-01-06

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Kashentseva, Elena A.; Yeh, Anthony J.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Curiel, David T.; Leppla, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. PMID:26740390

  13. Maternal immunization with respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein formulated with a novel combination adjuvant provides protection from RSV in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Garg, R; Latimer, L; Wang, Y; Simko, E; Gerdts, V; Potter, A; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S

    2016-01-04

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the causative agent of serious upper and lower respiratory tract infections in newborns and infants. Protection from RSV is crucial for neonates, and maternal immunization is one approach that holds promise for providing immediate protection to young infants against severe RSV infection. We previously reported efficacy of a subunit vaccine consisting of the fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (ΔF/TriAdj) in neonates. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the ΔF/TriAdj as a maternal vaccine. Pregnant ewes were vaccinated intramuscularly with ΔF/TriAdj or PBS six weeks prior to lambing, and re-vaccinated four weeks later, which resulted in transfer of maternal antibodies (MatAbs) to the newborn lambs through the colostrum. Significantly higher levels of RSV ΔF-specific serum IgG were detected in vaccinated pregnant ewes and their lambs when compared to control animals, which revealed that MatAbs were passively transferred to the offspring. All newborn lambs were challenged with RSV at three days of age. After RSV challenge, virus production and lung pathology were significantly lower in lambs that had received passively transferred antibodies than in control animals. These results indicate that maternal immunization with ΔF/TriAdj might be an alternative, safe and effective approach to provide protection against RSV in newborn and young infants.

  14. Does intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation provide equivalent myocardial protection compared to cardioplegia in patients undergoing bypass graft revascularisation?

    PubMed

    Scarci, Marco; Fallouh, Hazem B; Young, Christopher P; Chambers, David J

    2009-11-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: does intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation provide equivalent myocardial protection compared to cardioplegia in patients undergoing bypass graft revascularisation? Altogether, 58 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. We identified 13 studies, of which eight were randomised prospective trials. None of these studies found increased mortality, seven analyzed serum cardiac enzymes and showed that intermittent ischemic arrest provides equal or better protection compared to cardioplegic techniques. Two studies found an increased usage of inotropes and intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) in the intermittent ischemic arrest group. We conclude that intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation is a versatile and cost-effective method of myocardial protection, with the immediate postoperative outcome comparable to cardioplegic arrest in first-time coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The ischaemic duration associated with intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation is invariably shorter than that associated with cardioplegic arrest, and this may be one explanation for the comparable outcomes. There may also be an element of preconditioning protection during the intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation method, as has been shown experimentally. During elective CABG in patients with no clinical evidence of aortic or cerebro-vascular disease, the incidence of peri-operative microemboli (ME) and postoperative neuropsychological disturbances are shown to be comparable with both techniques of myocardial preservation.

  15. Co-Activation of Th17 and Antibody Responses Provides Efficient Protection against Mucosal Infection by Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianyang; Li, Ning; Bi, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Beinan

    2016-01-01

    Conserved protein antigens among serotypes of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) have been focused for vaccine development because of the diversity of GAS serotypes and risks of autoimmunity post-GAS infection. Precise delineation of protective immune response to each of GAS antigens is critical for vaccine efficacy and safety. We recently reported that immunization with SrtA of GAS provides Th17-dependent clearance of heterologous serotypes of GAS in NALT. SCPA is a surface virulence molecule of GAS and known to induce antibody-mediated protection against GAS. We hypothesized that co-immunization with SrtA and SCPA would provide more efficient protection by eliciting combined Th17 and antibody responses. The present study showed that mice that were intranasally co-immunized with SrtA/SCPA cleared GAS more efficiently than the mice that were immunized with either SrtA or SCPA individually, and as efficient as the mice that experienced repeated GAS infections. The co-immunization induced Th17 and robust SCPA antibody responses, accompanied by a rapid influx of neutrophils and high myeloperoxidase activity in NALT, suggesting that simultaneous induction of mucosal Th17 and neutralizing antibody responses offers more effective GAS elimination through rapid infiltration and activation of neutrophils. Moreover, Th17 response was strongly induced in mice that experienced repeated GAS-infection and maintained at a high level even after the bacteria were cleared; whereas, it was moderately induced and promptly returned to baseline following bacterial elimination in SrtA/SCPA co-immunized mice. Additional results showed that the survival rate of systemic challenge was significantly higher in infection experienced than in co-immunized mice, indicating that more immune elements are required for protection against systemic than mucosal GAS infection. PMID:28030629

  16. Salt shield: intracellular salts provide cellular protection against ionizing radiation in the halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1.

    PubMed

    Kish, A; Kirkali, G; Robinson, C; Rosenblatt, R; Jaruga, P; Dizdaroglu, M; DiRuggiero, J

    2009-05-01

    The halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 was used as a model system to investigate cellular damage induced by exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation (IR). Oxidative damages are the main lesions from IR and result from free radicals production via radiolysis of water. This is the first study to quantify DNA base modification in a prokaryote, revealing a direct relationship between yield of DNA lesions and IR dose. Most importantly, our data demonstrate the significance of DNA radiation damage other than strand breaks on cell survival. We also report the first in vivo evidence of reactive oxygen species scavenging by intracellular halides in H. salinarum NRC-1, resulting in increased protection against nucleotide modification and carbonylation of protein residues. Bromide ions, which are highly reactive with hydroxyl radicals, provided the greatest protection to cellular macromolecules. Modified DNA bases were repaired in 2 h post irradiation, indicating effective DNA repair systems. In addition, measurements of H. salinarum NRC-1 cell interior revealed a high Mn/Fe ratio similar to that of Deinococcus radiodurans and other radiation-resistant microorganisms, which has been shown to provide a measure of protection for proteins against oxidative damage. The work presented here supports previous studies showing that radiation resistance is the product of mechanisms for cellular protection and detoxification, as well as for the repair of oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules. The finding that not only Mn/Fe but also the presence of halides can decrease the oxidative damage to DNA and proteins emphasizes the significance of the intracellular milieu in determining microbial radiation resistance.

  17. Security protection of DICOM medical images using dual-layer reversible watermarking with tamper detection capability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun Kiat; Ng, Jason Changwei; Xu, Xiaotian; Poh, Chueh Loo; Guan, Yong Liang; Sheah, Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    Teleradiology applications and universal availability of patient records using web-based technology are rapidly gaining importance. Consequently, digital medical image security has become an important issue when images and their pertinent patient information are transmitted across public networks, such as the Internet. Health mandates such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act require healthcare providers to adhere to security measures in order to protect sensitive patient information. This paper presents a fully reversible, dual-layer watermarking scheme with tamper detection capability for medical images. The scheme utilizes concepts of public-key cryptography and reversible data-hiding technique. The scheme was tested using medical images in DICOM format. The results show that the scheme is able to ensure image authenticity and integrity, and to locate tampered regions in the images.

  18. Paternity protection can provide a kick-start for the evolution of male-only parental care.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Andrew T; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Sperm competition and uncertainty of paternity hamper the evolution of male parental care. Thus, maternal care predominates in most taxa. What if males can, however, limit cuckoldry by guarding the eggs postmating? Here, we show that this provides a reason to reconsider an old and nowadays rather discredited hypothesis: that external fertilization is associated with male care because the parent who releases its gametes first can depart leaving the other in a "cruel bind," having to care for the offspring. In our model, protection of paternity provides an additional incentive for the male to stay associated with its young. When we then assume that offspring survive better if guarded, paternity protection proves enough to kick-start the evolution of male-only parental care from a scenario with no care. This fits with data from fishes, where male-only care is associated with external fertilization, whereas female-only care almost always evolves after an initial transition to internal fertilization. Our model unifies disparate hypotheses regarding parental care roles and provides support for the idea that care roles can be influenced by sex differences in selection to be physically close to the offspring, including selection that is initially not based on offspring survival.

  19. Long-Term Endothelin-A Receptor Antagonism Provides Robust Renal Protection in Humanized Sickle Cell Disease Mice.

    PubMed

    Kasztan, Malgorzata; Fox, Brandon M; Speed, Joshua S; De Miguel, Carmen; Gohar, Eman Y; Townes, Tim M; Kutlar, Abdullah; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2017-03-27

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated nephropathy is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients because of the lack of efficacious treatments targeting renal manifestations of the disease. Here, we describe a long-term treatment strategy with the selective endothelin-A receptor (ETA) antagonist, ambrisentan, designed to interfere with the development of nephropathy in a humanized mouse model of SCD. Ambrisentan preserved GFR at the level of nondisease controls and prevented the development of proteinuria, albuminuria, and nephrinuria. Microscopy studies demonstrated prevention of podocyte loss and structural alterations, the absence of vascular congestion, and attenuation of glomerulosclerosis in treated mice. Studies in isolated glomeruli showed that treatment reduced inflammation and oxidative stress. At the level of renal tubules, ambrisentan treatment prevented the increased excretion of urinary tubular injury biomarkers. Additionally, the treatment strategy prevented tubular brush border loss, diminished tubular iron deposition, blocked the development of interstitial fibrosis, and prevented immune cell infiltration. Furthermore, the prevention of albuminuria in treated mice was associated with preservation of cortical megalin expression. In a separate series of identical experiments, combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism provided only some of the protection observed with ambrisentan, highlighting the importance of exclusively targeting the ETA receptor in SCD. Our results demonstrate that ambrisentan treatment provides robust protection from diverse renal pathologies in SCD mice, and suggest that long-term ETA receptor antagonism may provide a strategy for the prevention of renal complications of SCD.

  20. Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium delivery of a novel DNA vaccine induces immune responses and provides protection against duck enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueyan; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Kangpeng; Li, Pei; Liu, Qiong; Zhao, Xinxin; Kong, Qingke

    2016-04-15

    DNA vaccines are widely used to prevent and treat infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmune diseases; however, their relatively low immunogenicity is an obstacle to their use. In this study, we constructed a novel and universal DNA vaccine vector (pSS898) that can be used to build DNA vaccines against duck enteritis virus (DEV) and other viruses that require DNA vaccines to provide protection. This vaccine vector has many advantages, including innate immunogenicity, efficient nuclear trafficking and resistance to attack from nucleases. UL24 and tgB from DEV were chosen as the antigens, and the heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) from Escherichia coli and the IL-2 gene (DuIL-2) from duck were used as adjuvants for the construction of DNA vaccine plasmids. Ducklings that were orally immunized with S739 (Salmonella Typhimurium Δasd-66 Δcrp-24 Δcya-25) and harboring these DEV DNA vaccines produced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses, and they resisted an otherwise lethal DEV challenge. More importantly, S739 (UL24-LTB) provided 90% protection after a priming-boost immunization. This study shows that our novel and universal DNA vaccine vector can be used efficiently in practical applications and may provide a promising method of orally inoculating ducks with a DEV DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium for prevention of DVE.

  1. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades. PMID:27117478

  2. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-04-27

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades.

  3. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine provides early protective antibody responses in children after related and unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Roland; Kuypers, Lisa; Dirksen, Uta; Schubert, Ralf; Gruhn, Bernd; Strauss, Gabriele; Beutel, Karin; Groll, Andreas H; Duffner, Ulrich; Blütters-Sawatzki, Renate; Holter, Wolfgang; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Grüttner, Hans-Peter; Schroten, Horst; Zielen, Stefan; Ohmann, Christian; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Dilloo, Dagmar

    2007-03-15

    Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), children are at risk of life-threatening pneumococcal infections. Whereas vaccination with polysaccharide vaccines fails to elicit protective immunity in most alloHSC transplant recipients, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines may effectively prevent invasive disease by eliciting T-cell-dependent antibody responses. Here, we report safety and immunogenicity in 53 children immunized with a regimen of 3 consecutive doses of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) in monthly intervals starting 6 to 9 months after alloHSCT. Immunization was well tolerated with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Serologic response rates evaluable in 43 patients ranged from 41.9% to 86.0% and 58.1% to 93.0% after 2 and 3 vaccinations, respectively, with 55.8% and 74.4% of patients achieving protective antibody levels to all 7 vaccine serotypes. Our study provides the first evidence that vaccination with 7vPCV is safe and elicits protective antipneumococcal antibody responses in pediatric recipients of related or unrelated donor alloHSC transplants within the first year following transplantation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00169728.

  4. Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific effector CD4+ T cells provides antiviral protection from murine CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Jeitziner, Sanja Mandaric; Walton, Senta M; Torti, Nicole; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects a majority of the human population and establishes a life-long persistence. CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but the virus carries pathogenic potential and causes severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. T-cell-mediated immunity plays an essential role in control of CMV infection and adoptive transfer of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells restores viral immunity in immunosuppressed patients but a role for CD4(+) T cells remains elusive. Here, we analyzed in adoptive transfer studies the features and antiviral functions of virus-specific CD4(+) T cells during primary murine CMV (MCMV) infection. MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells expanded upon MCMV infection and displayed an effector phenotype and function. Adoptive transfer of in vivo activated MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells to immune-compromised mice was protective during pathogenic MCMV infection and IFN-γ was a crucial mediator of this protective capacity. Moreover, co-transfer of low doses of both MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells synergized in control of lytic viral replication in immune-compromised mice. Our data reveal a pivotal antiviral role for virus-specific CD4(+) T cells in protection from pathogenic CMV infection and provide evidence for their antiviral therapeutic potential.

  5. A cytomegalovirus-based vaccine provides long-lasting protection against lethal Ebola virus challenge after a single dose.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshimi; Parkins, Christopher J; Caposio, Patrizia; Feldmann, Friederike; Botto, Sara; Ball, Susan; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Feldmann, Heinz; Jarvis, Michael A

    2015-05-05

    Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus; EBOV) is a highly lethal hemorrhagic disease virus that most recently was responsible for two independent 2014 outbreaks in multiple countries in Western Africa, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, respectively. Herein, we show that a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccine provides durable protective immunity from Ebola virus following a single vaccine dose. This study has implications for human vaccination against ebolaviruses, as well as for development of a 'disseminating' vaccine to target these viruses in wild African great apes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Plant-Derived Monoclonal Antibodies Provides Protection in Rhesus Macaques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-15

    Delayed treatment of Ebola virus infection with plant -derived monoclonal antibodies provides protection in rhesus macaques Gene Garrard Olinger, Jr.a...Michael Paulyb, Kevin J. Whaleyb, Calli M. Leara, Julia E. Bigginsa, Corinne Scullya, Lisa Hensleya,3, and Larry Zeitlinb,2 aDivision of Virology , United...three anti-Ebola virus mouse/human chimeric mAbs (c13C6, h-13F6, and c6D8) were produced in Chinese hamster ovary and in whole plant

  7. Novel protective antigens expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes provide immunity to mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Eduardo L V; Claser, Carla; Haolla, Filipe A B; Zanella, Luiz G; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2008-08-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated in A/Sn mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease protective immunity against lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection elicited by vaccination with an open reading frame (ORF) expressed by amastigotes. In our experiments, we used this mouse model to search for other amastigote-expressed ORFs with a similar property. Fourteen ORFs previously determined to be expressed in this developmental stage were individually inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector containing a nucleotide sequence that encoded a mammalian secretory signal peptide. Immunization with 13 of the 14 ORFs induced specific antibodies which recognized the amastigotes. Three of those immune sera also reacted with trypomastigotes and epimastigotes. After a lethal challenge with Y strain trypomastigotes, the vast majority of plasmid-injected mice succumbed to infection. In some cases, a significant delay in mortality was observed. Only two of these ORFs provided protective immunity against the otherwise lethal infection caused by trypomastigotes of the Y or Colombia strain. These ORFs encode members of the trans-sialidase family of surface antigens related to the previously described protective antigen amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2). Nevertheless, at the level of antibody recognition, no cross-reactivity was observed between the ORFs and the previously described ASP-2 from the Y strain. In immunofluorescence analyses, we observed the presence of epitopes related to both proteins expressed by amastigotes of seven different strains. In conclusion, our approach allowed us to successfully identify two novel protective ORFs which we consider interesting for future studies on the immune response to Chagas' disease.

  8. Novel Protective Antigens Expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigotes Provide Immunity to Mice Highly Susceptible to Chagas' Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Eduardo L. V.; Claser, Carla; Haolla, Filipe A. B.; Zanella, Luiz G.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated in A/Sn mice highly susceptible to Chagas' disease protective immunity against lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection elicited by vaccination with an open reading frame (ORF) expressed by amastigotes. In our experiments, we used this mouse model to search for other amastigote-expressed ORFs with a similar property. Fourteen ORFs previously determined to be expressed in this developmental stage were individually inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector containing a nucleotide sequence that encoded a mammalian secretory signal peptide. Immunization with 13 of the 14 ORFs induced specific antibodies which recognized the amastigotes. Three of those immune sera also reacted with trypomastigotes and epimastigotes. After a lethal challenge with Y strain trypomastigotes, the vast majority of plasmid-injected mice succumbed to infection. In some cases, a significant delay in mortality was observed. Only two of these ORFs provided protective immunity against the otherwise lethal infection caused by trypomastigotes of the Y or Colombia strain. These ORFs encode members of the trans-sialidase family of surface antigens related to the previously described protective antigen amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2). Nevertheless, at the level of antibody recognition, no cross-reactivity was observed between the ORFs and the previously described ASP-2 from the Y strain. In immunofluorescence analyses, we observed the presence of epitopes related to both proteins expressed by amastigotes of seven different strains. In conclusion, our approach allowed us to successfully identify two novel protective ORFs which we consider interesting for future studies on the immune response to Chagas' disease. PMID:18579696

  9. The successful induction of T-cell and antibody responses by a recombinant measles virus-vectored tetravalent dengue vaccine provides partial protection against dengue-2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Chung, Han-Hsuan; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Pan, Chien-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue has a major impact on global public health, and the use of dengue vaccine is very limited. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a dengue vaccine made from a recombinant measles virus (MV) that expresses envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue-1 to 4. Following immunization with the MV-vectored dengue vaccine, mice developed specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses against dengue virus and MV. Neutralizing antibodies against MV and dengue viruses were also induced, and protective levels of FRNT50 ≥ 10 to 4 serotypes of dengue viruses were detected in the MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice. In addition, specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses to dengue viruses were still induced by the MV-vectored dengue vaccine in mice that were pre-infected with MV. This finding suggests that the pre-existing immunity to MV did not block the initiation of immune responses. By contrast, mice that were pre-infected with dengue-3 exhibited no effect in terms of their antibody responses to MV and dengue viruses, but a dominant dengue-3-specific T-cell response was observed. After injection with dengue-2, a detectable but significantly lower viremia and a higher titer of anti-dengue-2 neutralizing antibodies were observed in MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice versus the vector control, suggesting that an anamnestic antibody response that provided partial protection against dengue-2 was elicited. Our results with regard to T-cell responses and the effect of pre-immunity to MV or dengue viruses provide clues for the future applications of an MV-vectored dengue vaccine. PMID:26901482

  10. A Method to have Multi-Layer Thermal Insulation Provide Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Jones, Thomas W.; Shams, Qamar A.; Lyons, Frankel; Henderson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Design and testing of a multi-layer thermal insulation system that also provides debris and micrometeorite damage detection is presented. One layer of the insulation is designed as an array of passive open-circuit electrically conductive spiral trace sensors. The sensors are a new class of sensors that are electrically open-circuits that have no electrical connections thereby eliminating one cause of failure to circuits. The sensors are powered using external oscillating magnetic fields. Once electrically active, they produce their own harmonic magnetic fields. The responding field frequency changes if any sensor is damaged. When the sensors are used together in close proximity, the inductive coupling between sensors provides a means of telemetry. The spiral trace design using reflective electrically conductive material provides sufficient area coverage for the sensor array to serves as a layer of thermal insulation. The other insulation layers are designed to allow the sensor s magnetic field to permeate the insulation layers while having total reflective surface area to reduce thermal energy transfer. Results of characterizing individual sensors and the sensor array s response to punctures are presented. Results of hypervelocity impact testing using projectiles of 1-3.6 millimeter diameter having speeds ranging from 6.7-7.1 kilometers per second are also presented.

  11. Combined morphine and limb remote ischemic perconditioning provides an enhanced protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by antiapoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Yu; Cui, Xin-Long; Xue, Fu-Shan; Duan, Ran; Li, Rui-Ping; Liu, Gao-Pu; Yang, Gui-Zhen; Sun, Chao

    2016-05-01

    Both morphine and limb remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPer) can protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This experiment was designed to assess whether combined morphine and limb RIPer could provide and enhanced protection against myocardial IRI in an in vivo rat model. One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups: sham, ischemia/reperfusion (IR), ischemic preconditioning, RIPer, morphine (M), and combined morphine and remote ischemic perconditioning (M + RIPer). Ventricular arrhythmias that occurred during ischemia and early reperfusion were scored, and serum creatine kinase isoenzyme and cardiac troponin I levels were assayed. The infarct size was determined by Evans blue and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. The apoptosis in the myocardial ischemic core, ischemic border, and nonischemic areas was assessed through real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bax and Bcl-2 and with the transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling assay. The infarct size, serum cardiac troponin I level, incidence, and score of the arrhythmias during the initial reperfusion were significantly reduced in the M + RIPer group compared with the IR group but did not differ significantly between the ischemic preconditioning and M + RIPer groups. Transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells were significantly decreased, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly increased in the M + RIPer group compared with the IR group. This experiment demonstrates that combined morphine and limb RIPer provides an enhanced protection against myocardial IRI by the Bcl-2-linked apoptotic signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A universal design for a DNA probe providing ratiometric fluorescence detection by generation of silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Vong, Daniel; Pennathur, Sumita; Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    2016-08-14

    DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs), the fluorescence emission of which can rival that of typical organic fluorophores, have made possible a new class of label-free molecular beacons for the detection of single-stranded DNA. Like fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons (FQ-MBs) AgNC-based molecular beacons (AgNC-MBs) are based on a single-stranded DNA that undergoes a conformational change upon binding a target sequence. The new conformation exposes a stretch of single-stranded DNA capable of hosting a fluorescent AgNC upon reduction in the presence of Ag(+) ions. The utility of AgNC-MBs has been limited, however, because changing the target binding sequence unpredictably alters cluster fluorescence. Here we show that the original AgNC-MB design depends on bases in the target-binding (loop) domain to stabilize its AgNC. We then rationally alter the design to overcome this limitation. By separating and lengthening the AgNC-stabilizing domain, we create an AgNC-hairpin probe with consistent performance for arbitrary target sequence. This new design supports ratiometric fluorescence measurements of DNA target concentration, thereby providing a more sensitive, responsive and stable signal compared to turn-on AgNC probes. Using the new design, we demonstrate AgNC-MBs with nanomolar sensitivity and singe-nucleotide specificity, expanding the breadth of applicability of these cost-effective probes for biomolecular detection.

  13. The role of micro health insurance in providing financial risk protection in developing countries--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Habib, Shifa Salman; Perveen, Shagufta; Khuwaja, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed

    2016-03-22

    Out of pocket payments are the predominant method of financing healthcare in many developing countries, which can result in impoverishment and financial catastrophe for those affected. In 2010, WHO estimated that approximately 100 million people are pushed below the poverty line each year by payments for healthcare. Micro health insurance (MHI) has been used in some countries as means of risk pooling and reducing out of pocket health expenditure. A systematic review was conducted to assess the extent to which MHI has contributed to providing financial risk protection to low-income households in developing countries, and suggest how the findings can be applied in the Pakistani setting. We conducted a systematic search for published literature using the search terms "Community based health insurance AND developing countries", "Micro health insurance AND developing countries", "Mutual health insurance AND developing countries", "mutual OR micro OR community based health insurance" "Health insurance AND impact AND poor" "Health insurance AND financial protection" and "mutual health organizations" on three databases, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct (Elsevier). Only those records that were published in the last ten years, in English language with their full texts available free of cost, were considered for inclusion in this review. Hand searching was carried out on the reference lists of the retrieved articles and webpages of international organizations like World Bank, World Health Organization and International Labour Organization. Twenty-three articles were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review (14 from Asia and 9 from Africa). Our analysis shows that MHI, in the majority of cases, has been found to contribute to the financial protection of its beneficiaries, by reducing out of pocket health expenditure, catastrophic health expenditure, total health expenditure, household borrowings and poverty. MHI also had a positive safeguarding effect on

  14. Radical scavenging activity of a sunscreen enriched by antioxidants providing protection in the whole solar spectral range.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Campos, Patrícia Maia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-03-21

    The literature claims that incorporation of antioxidants into sunscreens provides additional skin photoprotection by scavenging free radicals formed due to sun radiation, but there are limited in vivo studies that support this hypothesis. This study aims to examine whether addition of antioxidants to a broad-spectrum sunscreen increases its photoprotective effect in real-use conditions. Sunscreen formulations composed of stable UV filters (Tinosorb® S, Tinosorb® M, Uvinul® APlus, and Uvinul® T150) alone or in combination with antioxidants (Spirulina and dimethylmethoxy chromanol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles) were developed and their appearance, odor, rheological behavior, Sun Protection Factor (SPF), and UVA protection were analyzed. Next, it was conducted a 3-month, single-blind clinical study with 44 healthy subjects (30-50years). Before and 28, 54, and 84days after twice-daily self application of the sunscreens on the face, the stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, dermis echogenicity, and skin elasticity and pigmentation were measured. At the end of the study period, the volunteers answered a questionnaire containing terms related to sensory characteristics of the formulations. All formulations were stable and exhibited non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic behavior, in vivo SPF 30, and good UVA protection. Antioxidant supplementation to the sunscreen formulation significantly improved the skin pigmentation, the collagen degradation on the dermis and thereby the skin net elasticity after 84days of treatment compared to the sunscreen alone. Concerning safety, all formulations were considered non-irritant according to the sensorial analyses, whose results agreed with the clinical study findings.

  15. Novel method for screening of radioprotective agents providing protection to DNA ligase against gamma radiation induced damage.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saurabh; Malhotra, Poonam; Gupta, Ashutosh K; Singh, Praveen K; Mishra, Anil K; Javed, Saleem; Kumar, Raj

    2014-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and novel method was developed to screen out potential agents able to protect functional activity of DNA ligase against gamma irradiation-induced damage. Repeatability, authenticity and sensitivity of the method was verified by analyzing DNA ligase protecting activities of well-known radioprotectors such as amifostine, trolox, melatonin, semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) and an antioxidant gallic acid in extremely low concentration (1 μg/reaction). Two different sets (Set A and B) of T4 DNA ligase (1 unit/set) were prepared. Set 'A' (negative control) was exposed to different doses (3-5 kGy) of gamma radiation in the absence of radioprotective compounds. Set B (test) was exposed to similar doses of gamma radiation in the presence of radioprotective compounds. Following irradiation, DNA ligase was mixed with λ DNA (250 ng) pre-digested with Hind III restriction endonuclease. Ligation reaction was performed in both sets simultaneously at 22°C for 20 min and reaction product was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. Complete DNA ligation was observed in samples where DNA ligase was irradiated in the presence of radioprotectective compounds, i.e., amifostine, trolox, melatonin and a natural radioprotector semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) individually, while, functional impairment in ligation activity of DNA ligase was evident in samples in which DNA ligase was irradiated in the absence of a radioprotective compound. The current method was able to provide significant input to screen out radioprotective compounds able to protect DNA ligase functional activity against gamma radiation-induced functional impairment.

  16. Helium breathing provides modest antiinflammatory, but no endothelial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lucchinetti, Eliana; Wacker, Johannes; Maurer, Christian; Keel, Marius; Härter, Luc; Zaugg, Kathrin; Zaugg, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The noble gas helium is devoid of anesthetic effects, and it elicits cardiac preconditioning. We hypothesized that inhalation of helium provides protection against postocclusive endothelial dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion of the forearm in humans. Eight healthy male subjects were enrolled in this study with a crossover design. Each volunteer was randomly exposed to 15 min of forearm ischemia in the presence or absence of helium inhalation. Helium was inhaled at an end-tidal concentration of 50 vol% from 15 min before ischemia until 5 min after the onset of reperfusion ("helium conditioning"). Hyperemic reaction, a marker of nitric oxide bioavailability and endothelial function, was determined at 15 and 30 min of reperfusion on the forearm using venous occlusion plethysmography. Expression of the proinflammatory markers CD11b, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, and L-selectin (CD62L) on leukocytes and P-selectin (CD62P), PSGL-1, and CD42b on platelets were measured by flow cytometry during reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion consistently reduced the postocclusive endothelium-dependent hyperemic reaction at 15 and 30 min of reperfusion. Periischemic inhalation of helium at 50 vol% did not improve postocclusive hyperemic reaction. Helium decreased expression of the proinflammatory marker CD11b and ICAM-1 on leukocytes and attenuated the expression of the procoagulant markers CD42b and PSGL-1 on platelets. Although inhalation of helium diminished the postischemic inflammatory reaction, our data indicate that human endothelium, which is a component of all vital organs, is not amenable to protection by helium at 50 vol% in vivo. This is in contrast to sevoflurane, which protects human endothelium at low subanesthetic concentrations.

  17. Application research of rail transit safety protection based on laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhifei

    2016-10-01

    Platform screen door can not only prevent the passengers fell or jumped the track danger, to passengers bring comfortable waiting environment, but also has the function of environmental protection and energy saving. But platform screen door and train the full-length gap region is insecure in the system design of a hidden, such as passengers for some reason (grab the train) in the interstitial region retention, is sandwiched between the intercity safety door and the door, and such as the region lacks security detection and alarm system, once the passengers in the gap region retention (caught), bring more serious threat to the safety of passengers and traffic safety. This paper from the point of view of the design presents the physical, infrared, laser three safety protection device setting schemes. Domestic intelligence of between rail transit shield door and train security clearance processing used is screen door system standard configuration, the obstacle detection function for avoid passengers stranded in the clearance has strong prevention function. Laser detection research and development projects can access to prevent shield door and train gap clamp safety measures. Rail safety protection method are studied applying laser detection technique. According to the laser reflection equation of foreign body, the characteristics of laser detection of foreign bodies are given in theory. By using statistical analysis method, the workflow of laser detection system is established. On this basis, protection methods is proposed. Finally the simulation and test results show that the laser detection technology in the rail traffic safety protection reliability and stability, And the future laser detection technology in is discussed the development of rail transit.

  18. A universal design for a DNA probe providing ratiometric fluorescence detection by generation of silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Vong, Daniel; Pennathur, Sumita; Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    2016-07-01

    DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs), the fluorescence emission of which can rival that of typical organic fluorophores, have made possible a new class of label-free molecular beacons for the detection of single-stranded DNA. Like fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons (FQ-MBs) AgNC-based molecular beacons (AgNC-MBs) are based on a single-stranded DNA that undergoes a conformational change upon binding a target sequence. The new conformation exposes a stretch of single-stranded DNA capable of hosting a fluorescent AgNC upon reduction in the presence of Ag+ ions. The utility of AgNC-MBs has been limited, however, because changing the target binding sequence unpredictably alters cluster fluorescence. Here we show that the original AgNC-MB design depends on bases in the target-binding (loop) domain to stabilize its AgNC. We then rationally alter the design to overcome this limitation. By separating and lengthening the AgNC-stabilizing domain, we create an AgNC-hairpin probe with consistent performance for arbitrary target sequence. This new design supports ratiometric fluorescence measurements of DNA target concentration, thereby providing a more sensitive, responsive and stable signal compared to turn-on AgNC probes. Using the new design, we demonstrate AgNC-MBs with nanomolar sensitivity and singe-nucleotide specificity, expanding the breadth of applicability of these cost-effective probes for biomolecular detection.DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs), the fluorescence emission of which can rival that of typical organic fluorophores, have made possible a new class of label-free molecular beacons for the detection of single-stranded DNA. Like fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons (FQ-MBs) AgNC-based molecular beacons (AgNC-MBs) are based on a single-stranded DNA that undergoes a conformational change upon binding a target sequence. The new conformation exposes a stretch of single-stranded DNA capable of hosting a fluorescent AgNC upon reduction in the

  19. Hepatitis B virus vaccination booster does not provide additional protection in adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Chieh; Wang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Jun-Song; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-09-23

    Current consensus does not support the use of a universal booster of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine because there is an anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant HBV vaccination. We aimed to provide a booster strategy among adolescents as a result of their changes in lifestyle and sexual activity. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in four age groups between 2004 and 2012. The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its reciprocal antibody (anti-HBs) for each age group were collected. There were two parts to this study; age-specific HBV seroepidemiology and subgroup analysis, including effects of different vaccine types, booster response for immunogenicity at 15 years of age, and longitudinal follow-up to identify possible additional protection by HBV booster. Within the study period, data on serum anti-HBs and HBsAg in a total of 6950 students from four age groups were collected. The overall anti-HBs and HBsAg seropositivity rates were 44.3% and 1.2%, respectively. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate in the plasma-derived subgroup was significantly higher in both 15- and 18-year age groups. Overall response rate in the double-seronegative recipients at 15 years of age was 92.5% at 6 weeks following one recombinant HBV booster dose. Among the 24 recipients showing anti-HBs seroconversion at 6 weeks after booster, seven subjects (29.2%) had lost their anti-HBs seropositivity again within 3 years. Increased seropositivity rates and titers of anti-HBs did not provide additional protective effects among subjects comprehensively vaccinated against HBV in infancy. HBV booster strategy at 15 years of age was the main contributor to the unique age-related phenomenon of anti-HBs seropositivity rate and titer. No increase in HBsAg seropositivity rates within different age groups was observed. Vaccination with plasma-derived HBV vaccines in infancy provided higher

  20. Oral administration of Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ayaka; Suzuki, Kengo; Asayama, Yuta; Konno, Makoto; Saito, Keita; Yamazaki, Noriyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki

    2017-09-30

    Euglena gracilis Z is a micro-algae that is used as a food or nutritional supplement. Paramylon, the carbohydrate storage substance of Euglena gracilis Z has β-1, 3-glucan structure. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon are reported to affect the immune system. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon against influenza virus infection in mice. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon were administered to mice as a 2% dietary mixture ad libitum. At 2 weeks after initiation of dietary administration, mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Survival rate was monitored 10 days after infection. In adition, we performed virus titer and cytokine profiles in the lung. High survival rates were observed for Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group. Significantly lower virus titer in the lung was observed in the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group from day 1 after infection. Higher amount of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ, and IL-10 was observed in the paramylon groups compared to the control group. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon which provides protection against influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Protection Provided by a Gabexate Mesylate Thermo-Sensitive In Situ Gel for Rats with Grade III Pancreatic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hanjing; Song, Qing; Lv, Faqin; Wang, Shan; Wang, Yiru; Li, Xiaoyan; Luo, Yukun; Mei, Xingguo; Tang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims This study investigated the protection provided by gabexate mesylate thermo-sensitive in-situ gel (GMTI) against grade III pancreatic trauma in rats. Methods A grade III pancreatic trauma model with main pancreatic duct dividing was established, and the pancreas anatomical diagram, ascites, and serum biochemical indices, including amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were examined. The pancreas was sliced and stained with hematoxylin eosin and subjected to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results Ascites, serum amylase, lipase, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the pancreas trauma (PT) groups with prolonged trauma time and were significantly decreased after GMTI treatment. The morphological structure of the pancreas was loose, the acinus was significantly damaged, the nuclei were irregular and hyperchromatic, and there was inflammatory cell invasion in the PT group compared to the control. After GMTI treatment, the morphological structure of the pancreas was restored, and the damaged acinus and inflammatory cell invasion were decreased compared to the PT group. Moreover, the cell apoptosis index was significantly increased in the PT group and restored to the same levels as the control group after GMTI treatment. Conclusions GMTI, a novel formulation and drug delivery method, exhibited specific effective protection against PT with acute pancreatitis therapy and has potential value as a minimally invasive adjuvant therapy for PT with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27646597

  2. Skin effector memory T cells do not recirculate and provide immune protection in alemtuzumab-treated CTCL patients

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rachael A.; Watanabe, Rei; Teague, Jessica E.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Tawa, Marianne C.; Adams, Natalie; Dorosario, Andrew A.; Chaney, Keri S.; Cutler, Corey S.; LeBoeuf, Nicole R.; Carter, Joi B.; Fisher, David C.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    CTCL is a cancer of skin homing T cells with variants that include leukemic CTCL (L-CTCL), a malignancy of central memory T cells (TCM), and mycosis fungoides (MF), a malignancy of skin resident effector memory T cells (TEM). We report that low-dose alemtuzumab (αCD52) effectively treated patients with refractory L-CTCL but not MF. Alemtuzumab depleted all T cells in blood and depleted both benign and malignant TCM from skin, but a diverse population of skin resident TEM remained in skin after therapy. T-cell depletion with alemtuzumab required the presence of neutrophils, a cell type frequent in blood but rare in normal skin. These data suggest that TCM were depleted because they recirculate between the blood and skin whereas skin resident TEM were spared because they are sessile and non-recirculating. After alemtuzumab treatment, skin T cells produced lower amounts of IL-4 and higher amounts of IFNγ. Moreover, there was a marked lack of infections in alemtuzumab-treated L-CTCL patients despite the complete absence of T cells in blood, suggesting that skin resident TEM can protect the skin from pathogens even in the absence of T cell recruitment from the circulation. Together, these data suggest that alemtuzumab may treat refractory L-CTCL without severely compromising the immune response to infection by depleting circulating TCM but sparing the skin resident TEM that provide local immune protection of the skin. PMID:22261031

  3. Providing data for serrated polyp detection rate benchmarks: an analysis of the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Butterly, Lynn F; Weiss, Julia E; Robinson, Christina M

    2017-06-01

    Similar to achieving adenoma detection rate (ADR) benchmarks to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC), achieving adequate serrated polyp detection rates (SDRs) may be essential to the prevention of CRC associated with the serrated pathway. Previous studies have been based on data from high-volume endoscopists at single academic centers. Based on a hypothesis that ADR is correlated with SDR, we stratified a large, diverse group of endoscopists (n = 77 practicing at 28 centers) into high performers and low performers, based on ADR, to provide data for corresponding target SDR benchmarks. By using colonoscopies in adults aged ≥50 years (4/09-12/14), we stratified endoscopists by high and low ADRs (<15%, 15%-<25%, 25%-<35%, ≥35%) to determine corresponding SDRs by using 2 SDR measures, for screening and surveillance colonoscopies separately: (1) Clinically significant SDR (CSSDR), meaning colonoscopies with any sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P), traditional serrated adenoma (TSA), or hyperplastic polyp (HP) >1 cm anywhere in the colon or HP >5 mm in the proximal colon only divided by the total number of screening and surveillance colonoscopies, respectively. (2) Proximal SDR (PSDR) meaning colonoscopies with any serrated polyp (SSA/P, HP, TSA) of any size proximal to the sigmoid colon divided by the total number of screening and surveillance colonoscopies, respectively. A total of 45,996 (29,960 screening) colonoscopies by 77 endoscopists (28 facilities) were included. Moderately strong positive correlation coefficients were observed for screening ADR/CSSDR (P = .69) and ADR/PSDR (P = .79) and a strong positive correlation (P = .82) for CSSDR/PSDR (P < .0001 for all) was observed. For ADR ≥25%, endoscopists' median (interquartile range) screening CSSDR was 6.8% (4.3%-8.6%) and PSDR was 10.8% (8.6%-16.1%). Derived from ADR, the primary colonoscopy quality indicator, our results suggest potential SDR benchmarks (CSSDR = 7% and PSDR = 11%) that may guide

  4. An Intrusion Detection System for the Protection of Railway Assets Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology. PMID:25268920

  5. An intrusion detection system for the protection of railway assets using Fiber Bragg Grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-09-29

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology.

  6. Target-protecting dumbbell molecular probe against exonucleases digestion for sensitive detection of ATP and streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Liu, Yucheng; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a versatile dumbbell molecular (DM) probe was designed and employed in the sensitively homogeneous bioassay. In the presence of target molecule, the DM probe was protected from the digestion of exonucleases. Subsequently, the protected DM probe specifically bound to the intercalation dye and resulted in obvious fluorescence signal which was used to determine the target molecule in return. This design allows specific and versatile detection of diverse targets with easy operation and no sophisticated fluorescence labeling. Integrating the idea of target-protecting DM probe with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) involved ligation reaction, the DM probe with 5'-end phosphorylation was successfully constructed for ATP detection, and the limitation of detection was found to be 4.8 pM. Thanks to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, this sensing strategy was used to detect ATP spiked in human serum as well as cellular ATP. Moreover, the proposed strategy was also applied in the visual detection of ATP in droplet-based microfluidic platform with satisfactory results. Similarly, combining the principle of target-protecting DM probe with streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction, the DM probe with 3'-end biotinylation was developed for selective and sensitive SA determination, which demonstrated the robustness and versatility of this design.

  7. EPA Provides $2.3 Million to Two Universities in Atlanta to Protect Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced $8.5 million in research funding to 12 universities to protect air quality from the current and future challenges associated with the impacts of climate change.

  8. Enhanced herbicide metabolism induced by 2,4-D in herbicide susceptible Lolium rigidum provides protection against diclofop-methyl.

    PubMed

    Han, Heping; Yu, Qin; Cawthray, Gregory R; Powles, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    The auxinic herbicide 2,4-D amine is known, in vitro, as a cytochrome P450 inducer. The current study uses 2,4-D pre-treatment, at the whole plant level, to study mechanism(s) of non-target site based herbicide resistance to the ACCase-inhibiting herbicide diclofop-methyl in Lolium rigidum. The 2,4-D pre-treatment caused up to 10-fold shift in LD50 and GR50 in dose-response to subsequently applied diclofop-methyl in a herbicide susceptible L. rigidum population. Foliar uptake and translocation of (14) C-diclofop-methyl did not differ in 2,4-D pre-treated versus untreated plants. HPLC analysis revealed that de-esterification of diclofop-methyl to toxic diclofop acid was similar, but further metabolism of diclofop acid to non-toxic metabolites was significantly (1.8-fold) faster in 2,4-D pre-treated than untreated plants. HPLC profile of major polar metabolites was similar when L. rigidum and diclofop-methyl tolerant wheat were compared, but wheat metabolised diclofop acid three-fold faster than L. rigidum. In addition, 2,4-D pre-treatment also induced cross-protection against the ALS-inhibiting herbicide chlorsulfuron, and the known P450 inhibitor malathion can reverse this effect. Protection against diclofop-methyl provided by 2,4-D pre-treatment in susceptible L. rigidum is associated with higher rates of herbicide metabolism, mirroring that identified in field-evolved, non-target site-based diclofop-methyl resistant populations. 2,4-D may induce higher level expression of herbicide-metabolising genes hence providing protection, and therefore, this 2,4-D induction system can be used, in combination with other genomic approaches, to assist isolating cytochrome P450 and other genes that are involved in herbicide metabolism and endow herbicide resistance in L. rigidum. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Raising sun protection and early detection awareness among Florida high schoolers.

    PubMed

    Geller, Alan C; Shamban, Jill; O'Riordan, David L; Slygh, Carolyn; Kinney, John P; Rosenberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Changing adolescents' sun protection behaviors remains a challenge, and the need for effective interventions targeting this group is a priority, particularly in warmer climates where emphasis on appropriate sun protection remains a year-round concern. However, there has been little prospective research on the effect of school-based sun protection interventions, particularly on adolescents, especially teens aged 15 to 18. High school science students in Palm Beach County, Florida, received a seven-lesson sun protection and early detection curriculum preceded by pretests and followed with post-tests 6 months later. The main outcome measures were student knowledge and sun protection practices, including adherence to sunscreen recommendations. Of 344 students completing the baseline surveys, 184 students completed the postintervention questionnaire. Overall, there were significant improvements from baseline to follow-up for many of the knowledge questions. Greatest change scores were seen in the children's ability to correctly define the five rules of early detection of skin cancer (27-60%, p<0.001) with improved change scores by gender and race persisting after 6 months. No significant differences were found in reported use of sunscreen, hat wearing, or sunglasses, although there was a slight decrease in the reported use of always wearing sun protective clothing (p=0.03). In conclusion, in this study, a skin cancer prevention and detection curriculum integrated into high school biology, resulted in knowledge gains maintained at least 6 months after classroom teaching. For example, procedural knowledge (e.g., knowing ways to identify early malignant moles) obtained in this study improved in 6 months, and may lay the foundation for future behavioral change. Sun protection activities in the United States have met with many challenges and obstacles and thus, further work is needed to better understand what combination of knowledge-based information, activity

  10. Reverse genetics based rgH5N2 vaccine provides protection against high dose challenge of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, S; Khandia, R; Sood, R; Bhat, S; Siddiqui, A; Jahagirdhar, G; Mishra, S; Mishra, A; Pateriya, A K; Kulkarni, D D

    2016-08-01

    An inactivated vaccine was developed using the rgH5N2 virus (6 + 2 reassortant) generated by plasmid based reverse genetics system (RGS) with WSN/33/H1N1 as backbone virus. Following mutation of the basic amino acid cleavage site RRRKKR*GLF to IETR*GLF, the H5-HA (haemagglutinin) gene of the selected donor H5N1 virus (A/chicken/West Bengal/80995/2008) of antigenic clade 2.2 was used along with the N2-NA gene from H9N2 field isolate (A/chicken/Uttar Pradesh/2543/2004) for generation of the rgH5N2 virus. A single dose (0.5 ml/bird) of the inactivated rgH5N2 vaccine protected 100% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 28(th) dpv (early challenge) and 90% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 200(th) dpv (late challenge) against high dose challenge with HPAI virus (10(9) EID50/bird). Challenge virus shedding via oropharynx and cloaca of the vaccinated chickens was detectable by realtime RT-PCR during 1-5 dpc and 1-9 days dpc in the early and the late challenge, respectively. The protective level of antibodies (mean HI titre > 128) was maintained without booster vaccination for 200 days. The present study provides the experimental evidence about the extent of protection provided by a reverse genetics based vaccine for clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses against challenge with high dose of field virus at two different time points (28 dpv and 200 dpv). The challenge study is uniquely different from the previous similar experiments on account of 1000 times higher dose of challenge and protection at 200 dpv. The protection and virus shedding data of the study may be useful for countries planning to use H5 vaccine in poultry especially against the clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses.

  11. Rosuvastatin, but not simvastatin, provides end-organ protection in stroke-prone rats by antiinflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Luigi; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Gelosa, Paolo; Guerrini, Uliano; Nobili, Elena; Gianella, Anita; Cremonesi, Benedetta; Paoletti, Rodolfo; Tremoli, Elena

    2005-03-01

    Brain abnormalities, preceded by a systemic inflammation, develop in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). In this model, we investigated whether the hydrophilic statin, rosuvastatin, influences the development of inflammation associated with brain abnormalities. Because differences in hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity contribute to the differences in statin pharmacology, we also evaluated the effects of simvastatin, a lipophilic molecule SHRSP, fed a high-salt diet, were treated long-term with vehicle or rosuvastatin (1 and 10 mg/kg per day). Brain abnormalities developed after 40+/-5 days and after 60+/-5 days of salt loading, in vehicle-treated and in rosuvastatin-treated (1 mg/kg per day) SHRSP, respectively. After 100 days of treatment, no damage was detectable in 30% of the rats treated with the highest dose of the drug. In comparison with vehicle-treated SHRSP, rosuvastatin treatment attenuated the transcription of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-beta1, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the kidney, and of P-selectin in brain vessels and increased the transcription of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA in the aorta. Urinary excretion of acute-phase proteins increased with time in vehicle-treated animals but remained negligible in drug-treated animals. These effects are independent of changes in physiological parameters. Treatment of SHRSP with simvastatin (2 to 20 mg/kg per day) did not exert any protective effect. Rosuvastatin attenuates inflammatory processes associated with cerebrovascular disease.

  12. Fully networked remote intrusion detection sensors for border monitoring and protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barry; McQuiddy, John; McQuiddy, Brian

    2006-05-01

    Protection of the Nation's borders in the post-911 era has taken on increased importance while it has become more technically challenging due to dramatic increases in the number of illegal aliens attempting unauthorized border crossings. Unattended ground sensors, used in large numbers, have been a key element of the US Border Patrol's inventory of sensing systems that are deployed along the borders to alert agents to intrusions. The legacy sensors are based upon decades old technology and limited in their ability to be networked and integrated into a cohesive web that can provide timely information that can be readily integrated into the Border Patrol and DHS information networks. This paper presents an introduction to a system developed by McQ for border monitoring and intrusion detection that provides full networked capability, from the sensor to the display. The paper also includes results of testing and integration with DHS information systems. The significance of Internet protocol based information generation at the sensor level and real time distribution of data is emphasized, including resource and infrastructure sharing and scalability to nationwide scope will also be discussed.

  13. Oral immunization with cholera toxin provides protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    PubMed

    Albert, M John; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Islam, Anjum; Haridas, Shilpa

    2013-05-07

    a common protective antigen(s) present in all C. jejuni serotypes is expected to provide broad protection. In our previous study, we showed that antibody to cholera toxin (CT) reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) from different strains of C. jejuni. We assumed that the B subunit of the toxin (CT-B), which is nontoxic and a component of licensed oral cholera vaccines, might be the component that cross-reacts with MOMP. In the current study, we showed that orally immunizing mice with CT protected them against colonization upon challenge with different serotypes of C. jejuni. We also showed that CT-B is the component mediating cross-reaction. Therefore, it might be possible to use cholera vaccines to prevent C. jejuni diarrhea. This could result in significant savings in vaccine development and treatment of the disease.

  14. Targeting the HA2 subunit of influenza A virus hemagglutinin via CD40L provides universal protection against diverse subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, X; Hashem, A M; Chen, Z; Li, C; Doyle, T; Zhang, Y; Yi, Y; Farnsworth, A; Xu, K; Li, Z; He, R; Li, X; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    The influenza viral hemagglutinin (HA) is comprised of two subunits. Current influenza vaccine predominantly induces neutralizing antibodies (Abs) against the HA1 subunit, which is constantly evolving in unpredictable fashion. The other subunit, HA2, however, is highly conserved but largely shielded by the HA head domain. Thus, enhancing immune response against HA2 could potentially elicit broadly inhibitory Abs. We generated a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) encoding secreted fusion protein, consisting of codon-optimized HA2 subunit of influenza A/California/7/2009(H1N1) virus fused to a trimerized form of murine CD40L, and determined its ability of inducing protective immunity upon intranasal administration. We found that mice immunized with this recombinant viral vaccine were completely protected against lethal challenge with divergent influenza A virus subtypes including H1N1, H3N2, and H9N2. Codon-optimization of HA2 as well as the use of CD40L as a targeting ligand/molecular adjuvant were indispensable to enhance HA2-specific mucosal IgA and serum IgG levels. Moreover, induction of HA2-specific T-cell responses was dependent on CD40L, as rAd secreting HA2 subunit without CD40L failed to induce any significant levels of T-cell cytokines. Finally, sera obtained from immunized mice were capable of inhibiting 13 subtypes of influenza A viruses in vitro. These results provide proof of concept for a prototype HA2-based universal influenza vaccine. PMID:25052763

  15. A copper-induced quinone degradation pathway provides protection against combined copper/quinone stress in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K; Gonskikh, Yulia; Solioz, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Quinones are ubiquitous in the environment. They occur naturally but are also in widespread use in human and industrial activities. Quinones alone are relatively benign to bacteria, but in combination with copper, they become toxic by a mechanism that leads to intracellular thiol depletion. Here, it was shown that the yahCD-yaiAB operon of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 provides resistance to combined copper/quinone stress. The operon is under the control of CopR, which also regulates expression of the copRZA copper resistance operon as well as other L. lactis genes. Expression of the yahCD-yaiAB operon is induced by copper but not by quinones. Two of the proteins encoded by the operon appear to play key roles in alleviating quinone/copper stress: YaiB is a flavoprotein that converts p-benzoquinones to less toxic hydroquinones, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as reductant; YaiA is a hydroquinone dioxygenase that converts hydroquinone putatively to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in an oxygen-consuming reaction. Hydroquinone and methylhydroquinone are both substrates of YaiA. Deletion of yaiB causes increased sensitivity of L. lactis to quinones and complete growth arrest under combined quinone and copper stress. Copper induction of the yahCD-yaiAB operon offers protection to copper/quinone toxicity and could provide a growth advantage to L. lactis in some environments.

  16. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  17. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection... accordance with an appropriate industry standard for design, installation, testing, and maintenance. (b) An... is to be locked, a key to the space or enclosure shall be in a break-glass-type box...

  18. A lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an IL-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Nfon, Charles; Bowden, Timothy R; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Sheep and goat pox continue to be important livestock diseases that pose a major threat to the livestock industry in many regions in Africa and Asia. Currently, several live attenuated vaccines are available and used in endemic countries to control these diseases. One of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), KS-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox. However, when used in highly stressed dairy cattle to protect against lumpy skin disease (LSD) the vaccine can cause clinical disease. In order to develop safer vaccines effective against all three diseases, a pathogenic strain of LSDV (Warmbaths [WB], South Africa) was attenuated by removing a putative virulence factor gene (IL-10-like) using gene knockout (KO) technology. This construct (LSDV WB005KO) was then evaluated as a vaccine for sheep and goats against virulent capripoxvirus challenge. Sheep and goats were vaccinated with the construct and the animals were observed for 21days. The vaccine appeared to be safe, and did not cause disease, although it induced minor inflammation at the injection site similar to that caused by other attenuated sheep and goat pox vaccines. In addition, no virus replication was detected in blood, oral or nasal swabs using real-time PCR following vaccination and low levels of neutralising antibodies were detected in both sheep and goats. Leukocytes isolated from vaccinated animals following vaccination elicited capripoxvirus-specific IFN-γ secretion, suggesting that immunity was also T-cell mediated. Following challenge with virulent capripoxvirus, vaccinated sheep and goats were found to be completely protected and exhibited no clinical disease. Furthermore, real-time PCR of blood samples at various time points suggested that viremia was absent in both groups of vaccinated animals, as opposed to capripoxvirus-related clinical disease and viremia observed in the unvaccinated animals. These findings suggest that this

  19. Economic valuation of the ecosystem services provided by a protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado: application of the contingent valuation method.

    PubMed

    Resende, F M; Fernandes, G W; Andrade, D C; Néder, H D

    2017-11-01

    Considering that the economic valuation of ecosystem services is a useful approach to support the conservation of natural areas, we aimed to estimate the monetary value of the benefits provided by a protected area in southeast Brazil, the Serra do Cipó National Park. We calculated the visitor's willingness to pay to conserve the ecosystems of the protected area using the contingent valuation method. Located in a region under intense anthropogenic pressure, the Serra do Cipó National Park is mostly composed of rupestrian grassland ecosystems, in addition to other Cerrado physiognomies. We conducted a survey consisting of 514 interviews with visitors of the region and found that the mean willingness to pay was R$ 7.16 year-1, which corresponds to a total of approximately R$ 716,000.00 year-1. We detected that per capita income, the household size, the level of interest in environmental issues and the place of origin influenced the likelihood that individuals are willing to contribute to the conservation of the park, as well as the value of the stated willingness to pay. This study conveys the importance of conserving rupestrian grassland and other Cerrado physiognomies to decision makers and society.

  20. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Wintenberg, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  1. Prior Inoculation with Type B Strains of Francisella tularensis Provides Partial Protection against Virulent Type A Strains in Cottontail Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Vienna R.; Adney, Danielle R.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Bowen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterium that is capable of causing severe disease (tularemia) in a wide range of species. This organism is characterized into two distinct subspecies: tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) which vary in several crucial ways, with some type A strains having been found to be considerably more virulent in humans and laboratory animals. Cottontail rabbits have been widely implicated as a reservoir species for this subspecies; however, experimental inoculation in our laboratory revealed type A organisms to be highly virulent, resulting in 100% mortality following challenge with 50–100 organisms. Inoculation of cottontail rabbits with the same number of organisms from type B strains of bacteria was found to be rarely lethal and to result in a robust humoral immune response. The objective of this study was to characterize the protection afforded by a prior challenge with type B strains against a later inoculation with a type A strain in North American cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp). Previous infection with a type B strain of organism was found to lengthen survival time and in some cases prevent death following inoculation with a type A2 strain of F. tularensis. In contrast, inoculation of a type A1b strain was uniformly lethal in cottontail rabbits irrespective of a prior type B inoculation. These findings provide important insight about the role cottontail rabbits may play in environmental maintenance and transmission of this organism. PMID:26474413

  2. Enterobacterial Common Antigen Mutants of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Establish a Persistent Infection and Provide Protection against Subsequent Lethal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Colvocoresses Dodds, Jennifer; Rick, Paul D.; Soloski, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella spp. is a significant source of disease globally. A substantial proportion of these infections are caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here, we characterize the role of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), a surface glycolipid ubiquitous among enteric bacteria, in S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Construction of a defined mutation in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene, wecA, in two clinically relevant strains of S. Typhimurium, TML and SL1344, resulted in strains that were unable to produce ECA. Loss of ECA did not affect the gross cell surface ultrastructure, production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagella, or motility. However, the wecA mutant strains were attenuated in both oral and intraperitoneal mouse models of infection (P < 0.001 for both routes of infection; log rank test), and virulence could be restored by complementation of the wecA gene in trans. Despite the avirulence of the ECA-deficient strains, the wecA mutant strains were able to persistently colonize systemic sites (spleen and liver) at moderate levels for up to 70 days postinfection. Moreover, immunization with the wecA mutant strains provided protection against a subsequent lethal oral or intraperitoneal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium. Thus, wecA mutant (ECA-negative) strains of Salmonella may be useful as live attenuated vaccine strains or as vehicles for heterologous antigen expression. PMID:22025511

  3. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide an Antibiotic-Protective Niche for Persistent Viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis that Survive Antibiotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Gillian; Major, Samuel; Das, Bikul; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During tuberculosis (TB), some Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli persist in the presence of an active immunity and antibiotics that are used to treat the disease. Herein, by using the Cornell model of TB persistence, we further explored our recent finding that suggested that M. tuberculosis can escape therapy by residing in the bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells. We initially showed that M. tuberculosis rapidly disseminates to the mouse BM after aerosol exposure and maintained a stable burden for at least 220 days. In contrast, in the lungs, the M. tuberculosis burden peaked at 28 days and subsequently declined approximately 10-fold. More important, treatment of the mice with the antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid, as expected, resulted in effective clearance of M. tuberculosis from the lungs and spleen. In contrast, M. tuberculosis persisted, albeit at low numbers, in the BM of antibiotic-treated mice. Moreover, most viable M. tuberculosis was recovered from the bone marrow CD271+CD45−-enriched cell fraction, and only few viable bacteria could be isolated from the CD271−CD45+ cell fraction. These results clearly show that BM mesenchymal stem cells provide an antibiotic-protective niche for M. tuberculosis and suggest that unraveling the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon will enhance our understanding of M. tuberculosis persistence in treated TB patients. PMID:25451154

  4. Archeological treasures protection based on early forest wildfire multi-band imaging detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouverneur, B.; Verstockt, S.; Pauwels, E.; Han, J.; de Zeeuw, P. M.; Vermeiren, J.

    2012-10-01

    Various visible and infrared cameras have been tested for the early detection of wildfires to protect archeological treasures. This analysis was possible thanks to the EU Firesense project (FP7-244088). Although visible cameras are low cost and give good results during daytime for smoke detection, they fall short under bad visibility conditions. In order to improve the fire detection probability and reduce the false alarms, several infrared bands are tested ranging from the NIR to the LWIR. The SWIR and the LWIR band are helpful to locate the fire through smoke if there is a direct Line Of Sight. The Emphasis is also put on the physical and the electro-optical system modeling for forest fire detection at short and longer ranges. The fusion in three bands (Visible, SWIR, LWIR) is discussed at the pixel level for image enhancement and for fire detection.

  5. Health Gains and Financial Protection Provided by the Ethiopian Mental Health Strategy: an Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Kjell Arne; Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Fekadu, Abebaw; Chisholm, Dan

    2017-04-01

    Mental and neurological (MN) health care has long been neglected in low-income settings. This paper estimates health and non-health impacts of fully publicly financed care for selected key interventions in the National Mental Health Strategy in Ethiopia for depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and epilepsy. A methodology of extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) is applied to MN health care in Ethiopia. The impact of providing a package of selected MN interventions free of charge in Ethiopia is estimated for: epilepsy (75% coverage, phenobarbital), depression (30% coverage, fluoxetine, cognitive therapy and proactive case management), bipolar affective disorder (50% coverage, valproate and psychosocial therapy) and schizophrenia (75% coverage, haloperidol plus psychosocial treatment). Multiple outcomes are estimated and disaggregated across wealth quintiles: (1) healthy-life-years (HALYs) gained; (2) household out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures averted; (3) expected financial risk protection (FRP); and (4) productivity impact. The MN package is expected to cost US$177 million and gain 155,000 HALYs (epilepsy US$37m and 64,500 HALYs; depression US$65m and 61,300 HALYs; bipolar disorder US$44m and 20,300 HALYs; and schizophrenia US$31m and 8,900 HALYs) annually. The health benefits would be concentrated among the poorest groups for all interventions. Universal public finance averts little household OOP expenditures and provides minimal FRP because of the low current utilization of these MN services in Ethiopia. In addition, economic benefits of US$ 51 million annually are expected from depression treatment in Ethiopia as a result of productivity gains, equivalent to 78% of the investment cost. The total MN package in Ethiopia is estimated to cost equivalent to US$1.8 per capita and yields large progressive health benefits. The expected productivity gain is substantially higher than the expected FRP. The ECEA approach seems to fit well with the current

  6. Bioaerosols laser-induced fluorescence provides specific robust signatures for standoff detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Déry, Bernard; Roy, Gilles; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Ho, Jim; McFee, John

    2006-10-01

    One of today's primary security challenges is the emerging biological threat due to the increased accessibility to biological warfare technology and the limited efficiency of detection against such menace. At the end of the 90s, Defence R&D Canada developed a standoff bioaerosol sensor, SINBAHD, based on intensified range-gated spectrometric detection of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) with an excitation at 351 nm. This LIDAR system generates specific spectrally wide fluorescence signals originating from inelastic interactions with complex molecules forming the building blocks of most bioaerosols. This LIF signal is spectrally collected by a combination of a dispersive element and a range-gated ICCD that limits the spectral information within a selected atmospheric cell. The system can detect and classify bioaerosols in real-time, with the help of a data exploitation process based on a least-square fit of the acquired fluorescence signal by a linear combination of normalized spectral signatures. The detection and classification processes are hence directly dependant on the accuracy of these signatures to represent the intrinsic fluorescence of bioaerosols and their discrepancy. Comparisons of spectral signatures acquired at Suffield in 2001 and at Dugway in 2005 of bioaerosol simulants, Bacillius subtilis var globiggi (BG) and Erwinia herbicola (EH), having different origin, preparation protocol and/or dissemination modes, has been made and demonstrates the robustness of the obtained spectral signatures in these particular cases. Specific spectral signatures and their minimum detectable concentrations for different simulants/interferents obtained at the Joint Biological Standoff Detection System (JBSDS) increment II field demonstration trial, Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) in June 2005, are also presented.

  7. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-05-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete's biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4-80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping.

  8. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete’s biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4–80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping. PMID:24632537

  9. Endothelial VWF promotes blood-brain barrier flexibility and provides protection from hypoxia and seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Brill, Alexander; De Meyer, Simon F.; Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Cabral, Jessica E.; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aberrant blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is a hallmark pathology of many central nervous system diseases. von Willebrand factor (VWF) is stored in endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies from where it is released upon activation into plasma and basement membrane. VWF’s role in endothelial homeostasis is unclear. The goal of this study was to assess the role of VWF in disease models associated with increased BBB permeability. Approach and Results We did not find any differences in BBB permeability to Evan’s blue dye at baseline between wild-type (WT) and VWF−/− animals. We next utilized two models presenting with increased BBB permeability, hypoxia/reoxygenation and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, to assess the response of VWF−/− animals. In both models, VWF−/− mice maintained a tighter BBB than WT. VWF−/− mice fared worse in both conditions with nearly 100% of VWF−/− mice dying within 120 minutes after pilocarpine administration while more than 80% of WT animals survived. Investigation into the status of tight junction proteins revealed that VWF−/− mice expressed more claudin-5 at baseline. In vitro work confirmed that the presence of subendothelial VWF is inhibitory to claudin-5 expression. Conclusions VWF-deficiency confers partial preservation of BBB integrity after hypoxia/reoxygenation and seizures. Surprisingly, this decrease in BBB permeability did not result in protection of the animals as they demonstrated more severe pathology in both models when compared to WT animals. These data suggest that a rigid BBB is detrimental (to the organism) during certain disease states and that VWF release may provide desired flexibility under stress. PMID:23825365

  10. Novel synthetic plasmid and Doggybone™ DNA vaccines induce neutralizing antibodies and provide protection from lethal influenza challenge in mice

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Veronica L; Patel, Ami; Villarreal, Daniel O; Hensley, Scott E; Ragwan, Edwin; Yan, Jian; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Rothwell, Paul J; Extance, Jonathan P; Caproni, Lisa J; Weiner, David B

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based vaccines (NAVs) are a promising alternative to conventional influenza vaccines with the potential to increase influenza vaccine availability due to their simplicity in design and rapid speed of production. NAVs can also target multiple influenza antigens and control flu variants. Traditionally NAVs have been DNA plasmids however, we are continuing to explore new methods that may enhance vaccine efficacy. Recently new focus has been on RNA cassettes as NAVs. RNA vaccines combine conceptual advantages in that they focus on delivery of only the coding cassette. However, RNA vaccines have a short half-life and cause interferon-induced fevers. Here we describe a new NAV approach where we study delivery of a linear DNA cassette [Doggybone™ linear closed DNA [(dbDNA™)] produced by an enzymatic process that yields an antigen expression cassette comprising a promoter, DNA antigen, poly A tail, and telomeric ends. This focused approach has many of the advantages of plasmid DNA as well as a minimal cassette size similar to RNA strategies. For this study, we characterized the specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and determined the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers induced by dbDNA™ and compared the responses with those of an optimized plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine encoding the same H1N1 influenza A/PR/8/34 HA gene. Immunizations with the constructs resulted in similar humoral and cellular immune responses. Both constructs induced high-titer HI antibodies and fully protected animals from lethal viral challenge. The data obtained from this study provides important validation for further development of novel vector approaches. PMID:26091432

  11. Chilling acclimation provides immunity to stress by altering regulatory networks and inducing genes with protective functions in cassava.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changying; Chen, Zheng; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Kevin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yufei; Bo, Weiping; Song, Shun; Deng, Deli; Guo, Xin; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Junfei; Peng, Hai; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Zhang, Weixiong

    2014-08-05

    Stress acclimation is an effective mechanism that plants acquired for adaption to dynamic environment. Even though generally considered to be sensitive to low temperature, Cassava, a major tropical crop, can be tolerant to much lower temperature after chilling acclimation. Improvement to chilling resistance could be beneficial to breeding. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects of chilling acclimation on chilling tolerance remain largely unexplored. In order to understand the mechanism of chilling acclimation, we profiled and analyzed the transcriptome and microRNAome of Cassava, using high-throughput deep sequencing, across the normal condition, a moderate chilling stress (14°C), a harsh stress (4°C) after chilling acclimation (14°C), and a chilling shock from 24°C to 4°C. The results revealed that moderate stress and chilling shock triggered comparable degrees of transcriptional perturbation, and more importantly, about two thirds of differentially expressed genes reversed their expression from up-regulation to down-regulation or vice versa in response to hash stress after experiencing moderate stress. In addition, microRNAs played important roles in the process of this massive genetic circuitry rewiring. Furthermore, function analysis revealed that chilling acclimation helped the plant develop immunity to further harsh stress by exclusively inducing genes with function for nutrient reservation therefore providing protection, whereas chilling shock induced genes with function for viral reproduction therefore causing damage. Our study revealed, for the first time, the molecular basis of chilling acclimation, and showed potential regulation role of microRNA in chilling response and acclimation in Euphorbia.

  12. Moderate exercise training provides modest protection against adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression in response to high‐fat feeding

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Melissa A.; Pincu, Yair; Martin, Stephen A.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Baynard, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As white adipose tissue (WAT) expands under obesogenic conditions, local WAT hypoxia may contribute to the chronic low‐grade inflammation observed in obesity. Aerobic exercise training is beneficial in treating WAT inflammation after obesity is established, but it remains unknown whether exercise training, while on a concomitant high‐fat (HF) diet, influences WAT inflammation during the development of obesity. We sought to determine the effects of 4, 8, and 12 weeks of HF feeding and/or moderate intensity treadmill exercise training (EX) on the relationship between inflammatory and hypoxic gene expression within mouse WAT. Male C57Bl6/J mice (n = 113) were randomized into low‐fat (LF)/sedentary (SED), LF/EX, HF/SED, or HF/EX groups. The low‐fat and high‐fat diets contained 10% and 60% energy from fat, respectively. Exercise training consisted of treadmill running 5 days/week at 12 m/min, 8% incline, 40 min/day. Quantitative real‐time PCR was used to assess gene expression. HF diet impaired glucose regulation, and upregulated WAT gene expression of inflammation (IL‐1β, IL‐1ra, TNFα), macrophage recruitment and infiltration (F4/80 and monocyte chemoattractant protein), and M1 (CD11c) and M2 (CD206 and Arginase‐1) macrophage polarization markers. Treadmill training resulted in a modest reduction of WAT macrophage and inflammatory gene expression. HF diet had little effect on hypoxia‐inducible factor‐1α and vascular endothelial growth factor, suggesting that WAT inflammatory gene expression may not be driven by hypoxia within the adipocytes. Treadmill training may provide protection by preventing WAT expansion and macrophage recruitment. PMID:25347855

  13. Chilling acclimation provides immunity to stress by altering regulatory networks and inducing genes with protective functions in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress acclimation is an effective mechanism that plants acquired for adaption to dynamic environment. Even though generally considered to be sensitive to low temperature, Cassava, a major tropical crop, can be tolerant to much lower temperature after chilling acclimation. Improvement to chilling resistance could be beneficial to breeding. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects of chilling acclimation on chilling tolerance remain largely unexplored. Results In order to understand the mechanism of chilling acclimation, we profiled and analyzed the transcriptome and microRNAome of Cassava, using high-throughput deep sequencing, across the normal condition, a moderate chilling stress (14°C), a harsh stress (4°C) after chilling acclimation (14°C), and a chilling shock from 24°C to 4°C. The results revealed that moderate stress and chilling shock triggered comparable degrees of transcriptional perturbation, and more importantly, about two thirds of differentially expressed genes reversed their expression from up-regulation to down-regulation or vice versa in response to hash stress after experiencing moderate stress. In addition, microRNAs played important roles in the process of this massive genetic circuitry rewiring. Furthermore, function analysis revealed that chilling acclimation helped the plant develop immunity to further harsh stress by exclusively inducing genes with function for nutrient reservation therefore providing protection, whereas chilling shock induced genes with function for viral reproduction therefore causing damage. Conclusions Our study revealed, for the first time, the molecular basis of chilling acclimation, and showed potential regulation role of microRNA in chilling response and acclimation in Euphorbia. PMID:25090992

  14. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  15. Human Polyclonal Antibodies Produced through DNA Vaccination of Transchromosomal Cattle Provide Mice with Post-Exposure Protection against Lethal Zaire and Sudan Ebolaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bounds, Callie E.; Kwilas, Steven A.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Brannan, Jennifer M.; Bakken, Russell R.; Dye, John M.; Hooper, Jay W.; Dupuy, Lesley C.; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccination of transchromosomal bovines (TcBs) with DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized (co) glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) produce fully human polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) that recognize both viruses and demonstrate robust neutralizing activity. Each TcB was vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP) a total of four times and at each administration received 10 mg of the EBOV-GPco DNA vaccine and 10 mg of the SUDV-GPco DNA vaccine at two sites on the left and right sides, respectively. After two vaccinations, robust antibody responses (titers > 1000) were detected by ELISA against whole irradiated EBOV or SUDV and recombinant EBOV-GP or SUDV-GP (rGP) antigens, with higher titers observed for the rGP antigens. Strong, virus neutralizing antibody responses (titers >1000) were detected after three vaccinations when measured by vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA). Maximal neutralizing antibody responses were identified by traditional plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) after four vaccinations. Neutralizing activity of human immunoglobulins (IgG) purified from TcB plasma collected after three vaccinations and injected intraperitoneally (IP) into mice at a 100 mg/kg dose was detected in the serum by PsVNA up to 14 days after administration. Passive transfer by IP injection of the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) to groups of BALB/c mice one day after IP challenge with mouse adapted (ma) EBOV resulted in 80% protection while all mice treated with non-specific pAbs succumbed. Similarly, interferon receptor 1 knockout (IFNAR -/-) mice receiving the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) by IP injection one day after IP challenge with wild type SUDV resulted in 89% survival. These results are the first to demonstrate that filovirus GP DNA vaccines administered to TcBs by IM-EP can elicit neutralizing antibodies that provide post-exposure protection. Additionally, these data describe

  16. Human Polyclonal Antibodies Produced through DNA Vaccination of Transchromosomal Cattle Provide Mice with Post-Exposure Protection against Lethal Zaire and Sudan Ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bounds, Callie E; Kwilas, Steven A; Kuehne, Ana I; Brannan, Jennifer M; Bakken, Russell R; Dye, John M; Hooper, Jay W; Dupuy, Lesley C; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Sullivan, Eddie J; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccination of transchromosomal bovines (TcBs) with DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized (co) glycoprotein (GP) genes of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) produce fully human polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) that recognize both viruses and demonstrate robust neutralizing activity. Each TcB was vaccinated by intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP) a total of four times and at each administration received 10 mg of the EBOV-GPco DNA vaccine and 10 mg of the SUDV-GPco DNA vaccine at two sites on the left and right sides, respectively. After two vaccinations, robust antibody responses (titers > 1000) were detected by ELISA against whole irradiated EBOV or SUDV and recombinant EBOV-GP or SUDV-GP (rGP) antigens, with higher titers observed for the rGP antigens. Strong, virus neutralizing antibody responses (titers >1000) were detected after three vaccinations when measured by vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA). Maximal neutralizing antibody responses were identified by traditional plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) after four vaccinations. Neutralizing activity of human immunoglobulins (IgG) purified from TcB plasma collected after three vaccinations and injected intraperitoneally (IP) into mice at a 100 mg/kg dose was detected in the serum by PsVNA up to 14 days after administration. Passive transfer by IP injection of the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) to groups of BALB/c mice one day after IP challenge with mouse adapted (ma) EBOV resulted in 80% protection while all mice treated with non-specific pAbs succumbed. Similarly, interferon receptor 1 knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice receiving the purified IgG (100 mg/kg) by IP injection one day after IP challenge with wild type SUDV resulted in 89% survival. These results are the first to demonstrate that filovirus GP DNA vaccines administered to TcBs by IM-EP can elicit neutralizing antibodies that provide post-exposure protection. Additionally, these data describe

  17. Recombinant Isfahan Virus and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine Vectors Provide Durable, Multivalent, Single-Dose Protection against Lethal Alphavirus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Matassov, Demetrius; Seymour, Robert L.; Latham, Theresa; Gorchakov, Rodion V.; Nowak, Rebecca M.; Leal, Grace; Hamm, Stefan; Eldridge, John H.; Tesh, Robert B.; Clarke, David K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The demonstrated clinical efficacy of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine vector has stimulated the investigation of additional serologically distinct Vesiculovirus vectors as therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccine vectors to combat emerging viral diseases. Among these viral threats are the encephalitic alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), which have demonstrated potential for natural disease outbreaks, yet no licensed vaccines are available in the event of an epidemic. Here we report the rescue of recombinant Isfahan virus (rISFV) from genomic cDNA as a potential new vaccine vector platform. The rISFV genome was modified to attenuate virulence and express the VEEV and EEEV E2/E1 surface glycoproteins as vaccine antigens. A single dose of the rISFV vaccine vectors elicited neutralizing antibody responses and protected mice from lethal VEEV and EEEV challenges at 1 month postvaccination as well as lethal VEEV challenge at 8 months postvaccination. A mixture of rISFV vectors expressing the VEEV and EEEV E2/E1 glycoproteins also provided durable, single-dose protection from lethal VEEV and EEEV challenges, demonstrating the potential for a multivalent vaccine formulation. These findings were paralleled in studies with an attenuated form of rVSV expressing the VEEV E2/E1 glycoproteins. Both the rVSV and rISFV vectors were attenuated by using an approach that has demonstrated safety in human trials of an rVSV/HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccines based on either of these vaccine vector platforms may present a safe and effective approach to prevent alphavirus-induced disease in humans. IMPORTANCE This work introduces rISFV as a novel vaccine vector platform that is serologically distinct and phylogenetically distant from VSV. The rISFV vector has been attenuated by an approach used for an rVSV vector that has demonstrated safety in clinical studies. The vaccine potential of the rISFV vector

  18. Alpha-beta T cells provide protection against lethal encephalitis in the murine model of VEEV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Paessler, Slobodan Yun, Nadezhda E.; Judy, Barbara M.; Dziuba, Natallia; Zacks, Michele A.; Grund, Anna H.; Frolov, Ilya; Campbell, Gerald A.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estes, D. Mark

    2007-10-25

    We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidate in mice with selective immunodeficiencies. This vaccine candidate was highly attenuated in mice with deficiencies in the B and T cell compartments, as well as in mice with deficient gamma-interferon responsiveness. However, the level of protection varied among the strains tested. Wild type mice were protected against lethal VEEV challenge. In contrast, alpha/beta ({alpha}{beta}) TCR-deficient mice developed lethal encephalitis following VEEV challenge, while mice deficient in gamma/delta ({gamma}{delta}) T cells were protected. Surprisingly, the vaccine potency was diminished by 50% in animals lacking interferon-gamma receptor alpha chain (R1)-chain and a minority of vaccinated immunoglobulin heavy chain-deficient ({mu}MT) mice survived challenge, which suggests that neutralizing antibody may not be absolutely required for protection. Prolonged replication of encephalitic VEEV in the brain of pre-immunized mice is not lethal and adoptive transfer experiments indicate that CD3{sup +} T cells are required for protection.

  19. Artocarpin-enriched (Artocarpus altilis) Heartwood Extract Provides Protection Against UVB-induced Mechanical Damage in Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tiraravesit, Narisara; Humbert, Philippe; Robin, Sophie; Tissot, Marion; Viennet, Céline; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of artocarpin-enriched (Artocarpus altilis) heartwood extract on the mechanical properties of UVB-irradiated fibroblasts. Human skin fibroblasts were pretreated with 50 μg/mL(-1) extract and later irradiated with UVB (200 mJ/cm(-2) ). They were then cultured within three-dimensional of free-floating and tense collagen lattices. The pretreatment of fibroblasts with the extract prior to UVB radiation showed cells protection against UVB-induced suppression of α-SMA expression, fibroblast migration and contraction. These results reveal that the extract prevents mechanical damages induced by UVB irradiation in fibroblast-embedded collagen lattices, and therefore, has a potential as a natural photo-protectant. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. First peptide vaccine providing protection against viral infection in the target animal: studies of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, J P; Casal, J I; Osterhaus, A D; Cortés, E; de Swart, R; Vela, C; Dalsgaard, K; Puijk, W C; Schaaper, W M; Meloen, R H

    1994-01-01

    A synthetic peptide vaccine which protects dogs against challenge with virulent canine parvovirus is described. The amino acid sequence used was discovered in previous studies on the immunogenic properties of previously mapped antigenic sites and represents the amino-terminal region of viral protein VP2. As with marker vaccines, it is possible to discriminate between vaccinated dogs that have not been exposed to the virus and dogs that have been infected with the virus. The protective mechanism can be explained by a humoral response against the peptide aided by T-cell epitopes contained in the carrier protein used for peptide coupling. This is the first example of a synthetic peptide vaccine that induces protection in target animals. PMID:8207825

  1. Melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) provide protection against whole-body ɣ-irradiation in mice via restoration of hematopoietic tissues.

    PubMed

    Rageh, Monira M; El-Gebaly, Reem H; Abou-Shady, H; Amin, Doaa G

    2015-01-01

    During radiotherapy, ionizing irradiation interacts with biological systems to produce free radicals, which attack various cellular components. The hematopoietic system is easily recognized to be radiosensitive and its damage may be severe. Melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) act as free radical scavengers prepared by polymerization of dopamine. In this study, a total of 110 male BALB/C mice were divided into five equal groups. Each group contained 22 mice. Mice of group A did not receive MNPs or irradiation (control group), group B was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 mg/kg MNPs. Mice of group C and D were exposed to a dose of 7 Gy ɣ-irradiation and injected with the same dose of MNPs as in group B either 30 min pre- or post-irradiation, and group E was exposed to a dose of 7 Gy ɣ-irradiation only. The impact of MNPs on peripheral blood, spleen, and DNA damage induced by irradiation was evaluated by blood count, histopathology of the spleen, and comet assay for the DNA in the bone marrow at 1, 4, 8, and 12 days post-irradiation. Results of group E compared with control group (A) showed a significant depression in complete blood count. Additionally, histopathological observation showed the absence of megakaryocytes with delayed time post-irradiation, deposition of eosinophilic protein of their spleen appeared, as well as a remarkable decrease in spleen size was observed. Moreover, ɣ-irradiation-induced DNA damage as can be inferred from a significant increase by about 5-10 folds in all comet parameters (% of DNA, tail length, tail moment, and olive moment) in the DNA of the bone marrow. In contrast, pre-post treatment with MNPs protected hematopoietic tissues against radiation damage, and therefore, enhanced the survival of mice with 40 % in groups (C&D) compared with 10 % to group (E) till 30 days post-irradiation. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that synthetic MNPs provide significant radioprotection to the hematopoietic tissues.

  2. Non-caloric sweetener provides magnetic resonance imaging contrast for cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Puneet; Haris, Mohammad; D'Aquilla, Kevin; Wilson, Neil E; Marincola, Francesco M; Schnall, Mitchell D; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2017-05-30

    Image contrast enhanced by exogenous contrast agents plays a crucial role in the early detection, characterization, and determination of the precise location of cancers. Here, we investigate the feasibility of using a non-nutritive sweetener, sucralose (commercial name, Splenda), as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for cancer studies. High-resolution nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and MR studies on sucralose solution phantom were performed to detect the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) property of sucralose hydroxyl protons with bulk water (sucCEST). For the animal experiments, female Fisher rats (F344/NCR) were used to generate 9L-gliosarcoma model. MRI with CEST experiments were performed on anesthetized rats at 9.4 T MR scanner. Following the baseline CEST scans, sucralose solution was intravenously administered in control and tumor bearing rats. CEST acquisitions were continued during and following the administration of sucralose. Following the sucCEST, Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid was injected to perform Gd-enhanced imaging for visualizing the tumor. The sucCEST contrast in vitro was found to correlate positively with the sucralose concentration and negatively with the pH, indicating the potential of this technique in cancer imaging. In a control animal, the CEST contrast from the brain was found to be unaffected following the administration of sucralose, demonstrating its blood-brain barrier impermeability. In a 9L glioma model, enhanced localized sucCEST contrast in the tumor region was detected while the unaffected brain region showed unaltered CEST effect implying the specificity of sucralose toward the tumorous tissue. The CEST asymmetry plots acquired from the tumor region before and after the sucralose infusion showed elevation of asymmetry at 1 ppm, pointing towards the role of sucralose in increased contrast. We show the feasibility of using sucralose and sucCEST in study of preclinical models of

  3. Engaging private providers and Ayurvedic practitioners in Bilaspur, India: did it increase TB case detection?

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R R; Oeltmann, J E; Ravichandra, C; Chadda, V K; Das, M; Kumar, A M V

    2016-06-21

    To find 'missing' tuberculosis (TB) cases, in November 2014 we trained private practitioners (PPs) and Ayurvedic practitioners (APs; Indian system of medicine) in Bilaspur district, India, to identify patients with presumptive TB and refer them to sputum microscopy centres. To reinforce this training, we sent weekly text message reminders during January-March 2015. All 50 APs and 23 of 29 PPs participated. The number of patients with presumptive TB referred by the PPs and APs increased from 38 (January-March 2014) to 104 (January-March 2015), and the number of smear-positive TB patients diagnosed increased from 5 to 16, a 220% increase. While the intervention increased the number of referrals, it did not impact case detection at district level, due to the short duration of the intervention and the non-dominant private sector.

  4. Medicare Letters To Curb Overprescribing Of Controlled Substances Had No Detectable Effect On Providers.

    PubMed

    Sacarny, Adam; Yokum, David; Finkelstein, Amy; Agrawal, Shantanu

    2016-03-01

    Inappropriate prescribing is a rising threat to the health of Medicare beneficiaries and a drain on Medicare's finances. In this study we used a randomized controlled trial approach to evaluate a low-cost, light-touch intervention aimed at reducing the inappropriate provision of Schedule II controlled substances in the Medicare Part D program. Potential overprescribers were sent a letter explaining that their practice patterns were highly unlike those of their peers. Using rich administrative data, we were unable to detect an effect of these letters on prescribing. We describe ongoing efforts to build on this null result with alternative interventions. Learning about the potential of light-touch interventions, both effective and ineffective, will help produce a better toolkit for policy makers to improve the value and safety of health care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Guidelines for the Detection and Management of Lead Poisoning for Physicians and Health Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    These Illinois guidelines provide information on the medical management and treatment of children with lead poisoning, based on Federal guidelines (revised in 1991) for determining lead poisoning at lower levels. The guidelines outline the effects of lead poisoning, sources of lead, estimated incidence of lead poisoning in Illinois, screening…

  6. Community Childcare Providers' Role in the Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Diane; Vigil, Debra C.; Bingham, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The first few years of life represent a crucial period for optimal brain development for young children. Therefore, it is important to identify children at-risk for developmental delays, including autism spectrum disorders, at the earliest age possible. An argument for utilizing community childcare providers for universal developmental screening…

  7. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Future Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there yet a planetary protection category for human missions. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  8. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Dina A.; Scarff, Jennifer M.; Garcia, Preston P.; Cassidy, Sara K. B.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Waag, David M.; Inzana, Thomas J.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine. PMID:26148026

  9. Enteric coated spheres produced by extrusion/spheronization provide effective gastric protection and efficient release of live therapeutic bacteria.

    PubMed

    de Barros, João M S; Lechner, Tabea; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Edwards, Alexander D

    2015-09-30

    We present a novel but simple enteric coated sphere formulation containing probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Oral delivery of live bacterial cells (LBC) requires live cells to survive firstly manufacturing processes and secondly GI microbicidal defenses including gastric acid. We incorporated live L. casei directly in the granulation liquid, followed by granulation, extrusion, spheronization, drying and spray coating to produce dried live probiotic spheres. A blend of MCC, calcium-crosslinked alginate, and lactose was developed that gave improved live cell survival during manufacturing, and gave excellent protection from gastric acid plus rapid release in intestinal conditions. No significant loss of viability was observed in all steps except drying, which resulted in approximately 1 log loss of viable cells. Eudragit coating was used to protect dried live cells from acid, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was combined with sodium alginate to achieve efficient sphere disintegration leading to rapid and complete bacterial cell release in intestinal conditions. Viability and release of L. casei was evaluated in vitro in simulated GI conditions. Uncoated spheres gave partial acid protection, but enteric coated spheres effectively protected dried probiotic LBC from acid for 2h, and subsequently released all viable cells within 1h of transfer into simulated intestinal fluid.

  10. A Computationally Designed Hemagglutinin Stem-Binding Protein Provides In Vivo Protection from Influenza Independent of a Host Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Koday, Merika Treants; Nelson, Jorgen; Chevalier, Aaron; Koday, Michael; Kalinoski, Hannah; Stewart, Lance; Carter, Lauren; Nieusma, Travis; Lee, Peter S.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Dagley, Ashley; Smee, Donald F.; Baker, David; Fuller, Deborah Heydenburg

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting a highly conserved region in the hemagglutinin (HA) stem protect against influenza infection. Here, we investigate the protective efficacy of a protein (HB36.6) computationally designed to bind with high affinity to the same region in the HA stem. We show that intranasal delivery of HB36.6 affords protection in mice lethally challenged with diverse strains of influenza independent of Fc-mediated effector functions or a host antiviral immune response. This designed protein prevents infection when given as a single dose of 6.0 mg/kg up to 48 hours before viral challenge and significantly reduces disease when administered as a daily therapeutic after challenge. A single dose of 10.0 mg/kg HB36.6 administered 1-day post-challenge resulted in substantially better protection than 10 doses of oseltamivir administered twice daily for 5 days. Thus, binding of HB36.6 to the influenza HA stem region alone, independent of a host response, is sufficient to reduce viral infection and replication in vivo. These studies demonstrate the potential of computationally designed binding proteins as a new class of antivirals for influenza. PMID:26845438

  11. Passive transfer of serum from tilapia vaccinated with a Vibrio vulnificus vaccine provides protection from specific pathogen challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been associated with disease losses in some aquaculture reared fish species. Vaccination has proven effective for reducing the impact of this disease and research has suggested that specific antibodies are important for protective immunity. The...

  12. Synthetic cationic peptide IDR-1002 provides protection against bacterial infections through chemokine induction and enhanced leukocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Nijnik, Anastasia; Madera, Laurence; Ma, Shuhua; Waldbrook, Matthew; Elliott, Melissa R; Easton, Donna M; Mayer, Matthew L; Mullaly, Sarah C; Kindrachuk, Jason; Jenssen, Håvard; Hancock, Robert E W

    2010-03-01

    With the rapid rise in the incidence of multidrug resistant infections, there is substantial interest in host defense peptides as templates for production of new antimicrobial therapeutics. Natural peptides are multifunctional mediators of the innate immune response, with some direct antimicrobial activity and diverse immunomodulatory properties. We have previously developed an innate defense regulator (IDR) 1, with protective activity against bacterial infection mediated entirely through its effects on the immunity of the host, as a novel approach to anti-infective therapy. In this study, an immunomodulatory peptide IDR-1002 was selected from a library of bactenecin derivatives based on its substantially more potent ability to induce chemokines in human PBMCs. The enhanced chemokine induction activity of the peptide in vitro correlated with stronger protective activity in vivo in the Staphylococcus aureus-invasive infection model, with a >5-fold reduction in the protective dose in direct comparison with IDR-1. IDR-1002 also afforded protection against the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli. Chemokine induction by IDR-1002 was found to be mediated through a Gi-coupled receptor and the PI3K, NF-kappaB, and MAPK signaling pathways. The protective activity of the peptide was associated with in vivo augmentation of chemokine production and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of infection. These results highlight the importance of the chemokine induction activity of host defense peptides and demonstrate that the optimization of the ex vivo chemokine-induction properties of peptides is a promising method for the rational development of immunomodulatory IDR peptides with enhanced anti-infective activity.

  13. [The results of a trial in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam of clothing providing mechanical protection against the bites of blood-sucking Diptera].

    PubMed

    Gornostaeva, R M; Zhukova, L I

    1993-01-01

    The tested overalls for protection in hot climate may be recommended only for the protection of people engaged in work involving little movement (fishermen, watchmen, etc.). For wider use of such overalls in hot regions the design should be changed, the alterations are described in the paper. Further trials of the overalls should be carried out with its modified design; this costume provides adequate mechanical protection from the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking Diptera and it will be widely used in the tropics, where blood-sucking Diptera contribute much to infection transmission.

  14. Sensitive and selective detection of copper ions with highly stable polyethyleneimine-protected silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhiqin; Cai, Na; Du, Yi; He, Yan; Yeung, Edward S

    2014-01-07

    Copper is a highly toxic environmental pollutant with bioaccumulative properties. Therefore, sensitive Cu(2+) detection is very important to prevent over-ingestion, and visual detection using unaugmented vision is preferred for practical applications. In this study, hyperbranched polyethyleneimine-protected silver nanoclusters (hPEI-AgNCs) were successfully synthesized using a facile, one-pot reaction under mild conditions. The hPEI-AgNCs were very stable against extreme pH, ionic strength, temperature, and photoillumination and could act as sensitive and selective Cu(2+) sensing nanoprobes in aqueous solutions with a 10 nM limit of detection. In addition, hPEI-AgNCs-doped agarose hydrogels were developed as an instrument-free and regenerable platform for visual Cu(2+) and water quality monitoring.

  15. Natural History Traits Associated with Detecting Mortality Within Residential Bird Communities: Can Citizen Science Provide Insights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Caren Beth; Loyd, Kerrie Anne Therese; Murante, Tessa; Savoca, Matthew; Dickinson, Janis

    2012-07-01

    Cat predation of birds in residential landscapes is ephemeral, unpredictable, and spatially dispersed, and thus requires many person-hours to observe. We sought to identify whether specific behaviors, traits, or feeding ecologies of birds contribute to their probability of cat-caused mortality around residences across temperate North America. In addressing this question, we evaluated citizen science data with respect to peer-reviewed species accounts (Birds of North America, BNA). Using information on cat predation from the BNA, we found that species that glean their prey from the ground or breed in nest boxes were three times more likely to be depredated by cats, while birds that hawk were over two times less likely to become cat prey than would be predicted by random chance. Data from citizen science sources also showed that birds using nest boxes had increased susceptibility to cat predation, as did those that use feeders and that glean from foliage. We caution that observations of predation by citizen science volunteers may be biased towards detection at feeders. Future research should focus on developing volunteer survey techniques for improving estimates of bird mortality rates and sources.

  16. Natural history traits associated with detecting mortality within residential bird communities: can citizen science provide insights?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caren Beth; Loyd, Kerrie Anne Therese; Murante, Tessa; Savoca, Matthew; Dickinson, Janis

    2012-07-01

    Cat predation of birds in residential landscapes is ephemeral, unpredictable, and spatially dispersed, and thus requires many person-hours to observe. We sought to identify whether specific behaviors, traits, or feeding ecologies of birds contribute to their probability of cat-caused mortality around residences across temperate North America. In addressing this question, we evaluated citizen science data with respect to peer-reviewed species accounts (Birds of North America, BNA). Using information on cat predation from the BNA, we found that species that glean their prey from the ground or breed in nest boxes were three times more likely to be depredated by cats, while birds that hawk were over two times less likely to become cat prey than would be predicted by random chance. Data from citizen science sources also showed that birds using nest boxes had increased susceptibility to cat predation, as did those that use feeders and that glean from foliage. We caution that observations of predation by citizen science volunteers may be biased towards detection at feeders. Future research should focus on developing volunteer survey techniques for improving estimates of bird mortality rates and sources.

  17. A CpG-Ficoll Nanoparticle Adjuvant for Anthrax Protective Antigen Enhances Immunogenicity and Provides Single-Immunization Protection against Inhaled Anthrax in Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kachura, Melissa A; Hickle, Colin; Kell, Sariah A; Sathe, Atul; Calacsan, Carlo; Kiwan, Radwan; Hall, Brian; Milley, Robert; Ott, Gary; Coffman, Robert L; Kanzler, Holger; Campbell, John D

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems for vaccine adjuvants, designed to enhance targeting of secondary lymphoid organs and activation of APCs, have shown substantial promise for enhanced immunopotentiation. We investigated the adjuvant activity of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG-rich motifs linked to the sucrose polymer Ficoll, forming soluble 50-nm particles (DV230-Ficoll), each containing >100 molecules of the TLR9 ligand, DV230. DV230-Ficoll was evaluated as an adjuvant for a candidate vaccine for anthrax using recombinant protective Ag (rPA) from Bacillus anthracis. A single immunization with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll induced 10-fold higher titers of toxin-neutralizing Abs in cynomolgus monkeys at 2 wk compared with animals immunized with equivalent amounts of monomeric DV230. Monkeys immunized either once or twice with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll were completely protected from challenge with 200 LD50 aerosolized anthrax spores. In mice, DV230-Ficoll was more potent than DV230 for the induction of innate immune responses at the injection site and draining lymph nodes. DV230-Ficoll was preferentially colocalized with rPA in key APC populations and induced greater maturation marker expression (CD69 and CD86) on these cells and stronger germinal center B and T cell responses, relative to DV230. DV230-Ficoll was also preferentially retained at the injection site and draining lymph nodes and produced fewer systemic inflammatory responses. These findings support the development of DV230-Ficoll as an adjuvant platform, particularly for vaccines such as for anthrax, for which rapid induction of protective immunity and memory with a single injection is very important. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. A CpG-Ficoll Nanoparticle Adjuvant for Anthrax Protective Antigen Enhances Immunogenicity and Provides Single-immunization Protection against Inhaled Anthrax in Monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Kachura, Melissa A.; Hickle, Colin; Kell, Sariah A.; Sathe, Atul; Calacsan, Carlo; Kiwan, Radwan; Hall, Brian; Milley, Robert; Ott, Gary; Coffman, Robert L.; Kanzler, Holger; Campbell, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems for vaccine adjuvants, designed to enhance targeting of secondary lymphoid organs and activation of APCs, have shown substantial promise for enhanced immunopotentiation. We investigated the adjuvant activity of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG-rich motifs (CpG-ODN) linked to the sucrose polymer Ficoll, forming soluble 50 nm particles (DV230-Ficoll), each containing over 100 molecules of the TLR9 ligand, DV230. DV230-Ficoll was evaluated as an adjuvant for a candidate vaccine for anthrax using a recombinant form of protective antigen (rPA) from Bacillus anthracis. A single immunization with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll induced 10-fold higher titers of toxin-neutralizing antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys at 2 weeks compared with animals immunized with equivalent amounts of monomeric DV230. Monkeys immunized either once or twice with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll were completely protected from challenge with 200 LD50 aerosolized anthrax spores. In mice, DV230-Ficoll was more potent than DV230 for the induction of innate immune responses at the injection site and draining lymph nodes. DV230-Ficoll was preferentially co-localized with rPA in key antigen-presenting cell populations and induced greater maturation marker expression (CD69 and CD86) on these cells and stronger germinal center B and T cell responses, relative to DV230. DV230-Ficoll was also preferentially retained at the injection site and draining lymph nodes and produced fewer systemic inflammatory responses. These findings support the development of DV230-Ficoll as an adjuvant platform, particularly for vaccines such as for anthrax, for which rapid induction of protective immunity and memory with a single injection is very important. PMID:26608924

  19. Immune response and protection provided by live tachyzoites and native antigens from the NC-6 Argentina strain of Neospora caninum in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Y P; Moore, D P; Quattrocchi, V; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Verna, A; Leunda, M R; Morrell, E; Ortega-Mora, L M; Zamorano, P; Venturini, M C; Campero, C M

    2013-11-08

    The aim of the present study was to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of live tachyzoites and native antigen extract obtained from the NC-6 Argentina strain against vertical transmission of Neospora caninum, following experimental challenge in pregnant heifers with the NC-1 strain. Sixteen pregnant heifers were divided in 4 groups of 4 animals, each receiving different inoculation before mating: group A animals were intravenously (iv) inoculated with 6.25×10(7) live tachyzoites of the NC-6 strain, group B heifers were inoculated twice subcutaneously (sc) with N. caninum native antigen extract formulated with ISCOMs, group C heifers were sc injected with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and group D heifers received sc ISCOM-matrix (ISCOMs without antigen). All groups were iv challenged with the NC-1 strain at 70 days of gestation. Serum and heparinized blood samples were collected eight times on weeks 0, 2, 3, 5, 9, 13, 16 and 17 post-inoculation. Dams were slaughtered at the 17th week of experiment (104 days of pregnancy) and placental and fetal tissue samples were collected. Specific antibody responses in heifers were tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The cellular immune response in dams was assessed by quantifying IFN-γ production and the percentages of T-cells (CD4(+), CD8(+) and γδ(+)) and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Fetal fluids and tissue samples were tested using the indirect fluorescence antibody test, western blot, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and nested-PCR. A significant increase in N. caninum antibody response was detected in heifers of groups A and B from week 3 after inoculation (P<0.001). IFN-γ production was similar in groups A and B at week 13 (P>0.05). All fetuses were viable at necropsy. Specific IgG against N. caninum was detected in 1/4 fetal fluids recovered from groups A, C and D heifers and 3/4 fetal fluids from group B. Transplacental transmission

  20. Frequent Embolization in Peripheral Angioplasty: Detection with an Embolism Protection Device (Angio Guard) and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Claudius W. Pusich, Benjamin; Tepe, Gunnar; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Hahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Wilke; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.

    2003-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the deliverability and protection capabilities of an embolism protection filter in angioplasty of peripheral arteries. Methods: The Angioguard emboli capture guidewire system was applied in 11 patients with femoropopliteal lesions (6 stenoses, 3 occlusions, 2 controls).Data on lesion crossing, flow deceleration and macroembolization were recorded. Filter membranes were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: System delivery was successful in all patients. Primary lesion crossing was feasible in four of six stenoses; predilatation was required in two of six. Marked flow deceleration was recorded in six patients. Emboli next to the filter were detected in each patient with concentric plaques, but could not reliably be removed with the filter. Downstream macroembolization was also present in all patients with concentric stenoses, but in none with chronic occlusion. None of the patients had clinical signs of ischemia. SEM analysis demonstrated only small particles on control group filters and non-obliterating fibrinous conglomerates on filters used in chronic occlusion. Substantial obliteration was seen on several filters used in stenotic lesions. Conclusion:Microembolization of fibrin aggregates is a common incident in balloon angioplasty of femoropopliteal stenoses. Macroembolization occurred more frequently than previously reported. The use of embolism protection filters aided in the detection but not in the removal of larger emboli.

  1. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  2. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  3. Nasal IgA Provides Protection against Human Influenza Challenge in Volunteers with Low Serum Influenza Antibody Titre

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Victoria M. W.; Francis, James N.; Anderson, Katie J.; Georges, Bertrand; Cope, Alethea V.; Tregoning, John S.

    2017-01-01

    In spite of there being a number of vaccines, influenza remains a significant global cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding more about natural and vaccine induced immune protection against influenza infection would help to develop better vaccines. Virus specific IgG is a known correlate of protection, but other factors may help to reduce viral load or disease severity, for example IgA. In the current study we measured influenza specific responses in a controlled human infection model using influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) as the challenge agent. Volunteers were pre-selected with low haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titres in order to ensure a higher proportion of infection; this allowed us to explore the role of other immune correlates. In spite of HAI being uniformly low, there were variable levels of H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection. There was also a range of disease severity in volunteers allowing us to compare whether differences in systemic and local H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection affected disease outcome. H1N1 specific IgG level before challenge did not correlate with protection, probably due to the pre-screening for individuals with low HAI. However, the length of time infectious virus was recovered from the nose was reduced in patients with higher pre-existing H1N1 influenza specific nasal IgA or serum IgA. Therefore, IgA contributes to protection against influenza and should be targeted in vaccines. PMID:28567036

  4. Nasal IgA Provides Protection against Human Influenza Challenge in Volunteers with Low Serum Influenza Antibody Titre.

    PubMed

    Gould, Victoria M W; Francis, James N; Anderson, Katie J; Georges, Bertrand; Cope, Alethea V; Tregoning, John S

    2017-01-01

    In spite of there being a number of vaccines, influenza remains a significant global cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding more about natural and vaccine induced immune protection against influenza infection would help to develop better vaccines. Virus specific IgG is a known correlate of protection, but other factors may help to reduce viral load or disease severity, for example IgA. In the current study we measured influenza specific responses in a controlled human infection model using influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) as the challenge agent. Volunteers were pre-selected with low haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titres in order to ensure a higher proportion of infection; this allowed us to explore the role of other immune correlates. In spite of HAI being uniformly low, there were variable levels of H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection. There was also a range of disease severity in volunteers allowing us to compare whether differences in systemic and local H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection affected disease outcome. H1N1 specific IgG level before challenge did not correlate with protection, probably due to the pre-screening for individuals with low HAI. However, the length of time infectious virus was recovered from the nose was reduced in patients with higher pre-existing H1N1 influenza specific nasal IgA or serum IgA. Therefore, IgA contributes to protection against influenza and should be targeted in vaccines.

  5. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening

    PubMed Central

    Grimberg, Brian T.; Grimberg, Kerry O.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites’ waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test. PMID:27530228

  6. The N-terminal domain of Schmallenberg virus envelope protein Gc is highly immunogenic and can provide protection from infection

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Aebischer, Andrea; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is transmitted by insect vectors, and therefore vaccination is one of the most important tools of disease control. In our study, novel subunit vaccines on the basis of an amino-terminal domain of SBV Gc of 234 amino acids (“Gc Amino”) first were tested and selected using a lethal small animal challenge model and then the best performing formulations also were tested in cattle. We could show that neither E. coli expressed nor the reduced form of “Gc Amino” protected from SBV infection. In contrast, both, immunization with “Gc Amino”-encoding DNA plasmids and “Gc-amino” expressed in a mammalian system, conferred protection in up to 66% of the animals. Interestingly, the best performance was achieved with a multivalent antigen containing the covalently linked Gc domains of both, SBV and the related Akabane virus. All vaccinated cattle and mice were fully protected against SBV challenge infection. Furthermore, in the absence of antibodies against the viral N-protein, differentiation between vaccinated and field-infected animals allows an SBV marker vaccination concept. Moreover, the presented vaccine design also could be tested for other members of the Simbu serogroup and might allow the inclusion of additional immunogenic domains. PMID:28211908

  7. Vaccination with a recombinant fragment of collagen adhesin provides protection against Staphylococcus aureus-mediated septic death.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, I M; Patti, J M; Bremell, T; Höök, M; Tarkowski, A

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Morbidity and mortality due to infections such as sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and invasive endocarditis remain high despite the use of antibiotics. The emergence of antibiotic resistant super bugs mandates that alternative strategies for the prevention and treatment of S. aureus infections are developed. We investigated the ability of vaccination with a recombinant fragment of the S. aureus collagen adhesin to protect mice against sepsis-induced death. Actively immunized NMRI mice were intravenously inoculated with the S. aureus clinical isolate strain Phillips. 14 d after inoculation, mortality in the collagen adhesin-vaccinated group was only 13%, compared with 87% in the control antigen immunized group (P < 0.001). To determine if the protective effect was antibody mediated, we passively immunized naive mice with collagen adhesin-specific antibodies. Similar to the active immunization strategy, passive transfer of collagen adhesin-specific antibodies protected mice against sepsis-induced death. In vitro experiments indicated that S. aureus opsonized with sera from collagen adhesin immunized mice promoted phagocytic uptake and enhanced intracellular killing compared with bacteria opsonized with sera from control animals. These results indicate that the collagen adhesin is a viable target in the development of immunotherapeutics against S. aureus. PMID:9637697

  8. The N-terminal domain of Schmallenberg virus envelope protein Gc is highly immunogenic and can provide protection from infection.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Aebischer, Andrea; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Beer, Martin

    2017-02-13

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is transmitted by insect vectors, and therefore vaccination is one of the most important tools of disease control. In our study, novel subunit vaccines on the basis of an amino-terminal domain of SBV Gc of 234 amino acids ("Gc Amino") first were tested and selected using a lethal small animal challenge model and then the best performing formulations also were tested in cattle. We could show that neither E. coli expressed nor the reduced form of "Gc Amino" protected from SBV infection. In contrast, both, immunization with "Gc Amino"-encoding DNA plasmids and "Gc-amino" expressed in a mammalian system, conferred protection in up to 66% of the animals. Interestingly, the best performance was achieved with a multivalent antigen containing the covalently linked Gc domains of both, SBV and the related Akabane virus. All vaccinated cattle and mice were fully protected against SBV challenge infection. Furthermore, in the absence of antibodies against the viral N-protein, differentiation between vaccinated and field-infected animals allows an SBV marker vaccination concept. Moreover, the presented vaccine design also could be tested for other members of the Simbu serogroup and might allow the inclusion of additional immunogenic domains.

  9. Hydroferrate Fluid, MRN-100, Provides Protection against Chemical-Induced Gastric and Esophageal Cancer in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh H.; Badr El-Din, Nariman K.; Abdel Fattah, Salma M.; Pan, Deyu; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the protective effect of hydroferrate fluid MRN-100 against the carcinogen methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric and esophageal cancer in rats. MRN-100 is an iron-based compound composed of bivalent and trivalent ferrates. At 33 weeks post treatment with MNNG, rats were killed and examined for the histopathology of esophagus and stomach; liver, spleen, and total body weight; and antioxidant levels in the blood and stomach tissues. Results showed that 17/20 (85%) gastroesophageal tissues from carcinogen MNNG-treated rats developed dysplasia and cancer, as compared to 8/20 (40%) rats treated with MNNG plus MRN-100. In addition, MRN-100 exerted an antioxidant effect in both the blood and stomach tissues by increasing levels of GSH, antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPx, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level. This was accompanied by a reduction in the total free-radical and malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, MRN-100 protected against body and organ weight loss. Thus, MRN-100 exhibited significant cancer chemopreventive activity by protecting tissues against oxidative damage in rats, which may suggest its effectiveness as an adjuvant for the treatment of gastric/esophageal carcinoma. PMID:25678848

  10. Nano-silymarin provides protection against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Manish; Arora, Rajesh

    2015-10-01

    Radiation can produce biological damage, mainly oxidative stress, via production of free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nanoparticles are of interest as radioprotective agents, particularly due to their high solubility and bioavailability. Silymarin is a hepatoprotective agent but has poor oral bioavailability. Silymarin was formulated as a nanoemulsion with the aim of improving its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) formulated with surfactants and co-surfactants. Nano-silymarin was characterized by estimating % transmittance, globule size, and polydispersity index, and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-silymarin obtained was in the range of 3-8nm diameter. With regard to DNA damage, measured by a plasmid relaxation assay, maximum protection was obtained at 10μg/mL. Cytotoxicity of nano-silymarin to human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Protective efficacy against γ-radiation was assessed by reduction in micronucleus frequency and ROS generation, using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) assay. Radiation-induced apoptosis was estimated by microscopic analysis and cell-cycle estimation. Nano-silymarin was radioprotective, supporting the possibility of developing new approaches to radiation protection via nanotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, provides protection against chemical-induced gastric and esophageal cancer in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh H; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Abdel Fattah, Salma M; Pan, Deyu; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the protective effect of hydroferrate fluid MRN-100 against the carcinogen methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric and esophageal cancer in rats. MRN-100 is an iron-based compound composed of bivalent and trivalent ferrates. At 33 weeks post treatment with MNNG, rats were killed and examined for the histopathology of esophagus and stomach; liver, spleen, and total body weight; and antioxidant levels in the blood and stomach tissues. Results showed that 17/20 (85%) gastroesophageal tissues from carcinogen MNNG-treated rats developed dysplasia and cancer, as compared to 8/20 (40%) rats treated with MNNG plus MRN-100. In addition, MRN-100 exerted an antioxidant effect in both the blood and stomach tissues by increasing levels of GSH, antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPx, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level. This was accompanied by a reduction in the total free-radical and malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, MRN-100 protected against body and organ weight loss. Thus, MRN-100 exhibited significant cancer chemopreventive activity by protecting tissues against oxidative damage in rats, which may suggest its effectiveness as an adjuvant for the treatment of gastric/esophageal carcinoma.

  12. Detection of Electrographic Seizures by Critical Care Providers Using Color Density Spectral Array After Cardiac Arrest is Feasible

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A; Fry, Michael; Jawad, Abbas F.; Herman, Susan T; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Ichord, Rebecca; Berg, Robert A; Dlugos, Dennis J.; Abend, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy and reliability of electroencephalographic seizure detection by critical care providers using color density spectral array (CDSA) electroencephalography (EEG). Participants Critical care providers (attending physicians, fellow trainees and nurses.) Interventions A standardized powerpoint CDSA tutorial followed by classification of 200 CDSA images as displaying seizures or not displaying seizures. Measurements and Main Results Using conventional EEG recordings obtained from patients who underwent EEG monitoring after cardiac arrest, we created 100 CDSA images, 30% of which displayed seizures. The gold standard for seizure category was electroencephalographer determination from the full montage conventional EEG. Participants did not have access to the conventional EEG tracings. After completing a standardized CDSA tutorial, images were presented to participants in duplicate and in random order. Twenty critical care physicians (12 attendings and 8 fellows) and 19 critical care nurses classified the CDSA images as having any seizure(s) or no seizures. The 39 critical care providers had a CDSA seizure detection sensitivity of 70% [95% CI: 67%, 73%], specificity of 68% [95% CI: 67%, 70%], positive predictive value of 46%, and negative predictive value of 86%. The sensitivity of CDSA detection of status epilepticus was 72% [95% CI: 69%, 74%]. Conclusion Determining which post-cardiac arrest patients experience electrographic seizures by critical care providers is feasible after a brief training. There is moderate sensitivity for seizure and status epilepticus detection and a high negative predictive value. PMID:25651050

  13. Cytotoxic T Cells Are the Predominant Players Providing Cross-Protective Immunity Induced by γ-Irradiated Influenza A Viruses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Yoichi; Chan, Jennifer; Regner, Matthias; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Kok, Tuckweng; Manavis, Jim; Li, Peng; Müllbacher, Arno; Alsharifi, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a single dose of nonadjuvanted intranasal γ-irradiated influenza A virus can provide robust protection in mice against both homologous and heterosubtypic challenges, including challenge with an H5N1 avian virus strain. We investigated the mechanism behind the observed cross-protection to define which arms of the adaptive immune response are involved in mediating this protection. Studies with gene knockout mice showed the cross-protective immunity to be mediated mainly by T cells and to be dependent on the cytolytic effector molecule perforin. Adoptive transfer of memory T cells from immunized mice, but not of memory B cells, protected naïve recipients against lethal heterosubtypic influenza virus challenge. Furthermore, γ-irradiated influenza viruses induced cross-reactive Tc-cell responses but not cross-neutralizing or cross-protective antibodies. In addition, histological analysis showed reduced lung inflammation in vaccinated mice compared to that in unvaccinated controls following heterosubtypic challenge. This reduced inflammation was associated with enhanced early recruitment of T cells, both CD4+ and CD8+, and with early influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses. Therefore, cross-protective immunity induced by vaccination with γ-irradiated influenza A virus is mediated mainly by Tc-cell responses. PMID:20164231

  14. TOP2A and EZH2 provide early detection of an aggressive prostate cancer subgroup.

    PubMed

    Labbé, David P; Sweeney, Christopher J; Brown, Myles; Galbo, Phillip; Rosario, Spencer; Wadosky, Kristine M; Ku, Sheng-Yu; Sjöström, Martin; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Schaeffer, Edward M; Jenkins, Robert B; Den, Robert B; Ross, Ashley E; Bowden, Michaela; Huang, Ying; Gray, Kathryn P; Feng, Felix Y; Spratt, Daniel E; Goodrich, David W; Eng, Kevin H; Ellis, Leigh

    2017-09-12

    Current clinical parameters do not stratify indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Aggressive PCa, defined by the progression from localized disease to metastasis, is responsible for the majority of PCa-associated mortality. Recent gene expression profiling has proven successful in predicting the outcome of PCa patients, however they have yet to provide targeted therapy approaches that could inhibit a patient's progression to metastatic disease. We have interrogated a total of seven primary PCa cohorts (N = 1,900), two metastatic castration resistant PCa datasets (N = 293) and one prospective cohort (N = 1,385) to assess the impact of TOP2A and EZH2 expression on PCa cellular program and patient outcomes. We also performed immunohistochemical staining for TOP2A and EZH2 in a cohort of primary PCa patients (N = 89) with known outcome. Finally, we explored the therapeutic potential of a combination therapy targeting both TOP2A and EZH2 using novel PCa-derived murine cell lines. We demonstrate by genome-wide analysis of independent primary and metastatic PCa datasets that concurrent TOP2A and EZH2 mRNA and protein up-regulation selected for a subgroup of primary and metastatic patients with more aggressive disease and notable overlap of genes involved in mitotic regulation. Importantly, TOP2A and EZH2 in PCa cells act as key driving oncogenes, a fact highlighted by sensitivity to combination-targeted therapy. Overall, our data supports further assessment of TOP2A and EZH2 as biomarkers for early identification of patients with increased metastatic potential that may benefit from adjuvant or neo-adjuvant targeted therapy approaches. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Selenium provides protection to the liver but not the reproductive organs in an atrazine-model of experimental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Adesiyan, Adebukola C; Oyejola, Titilola O; Abarikwu, Sunny O; Oyeyemi, Matthew O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of selenium against atrazine-induced toxicity in the liver and reproductive system of rats. Atrazine administered to rats orally at a dose of 120 mg/kg caused an inhibition in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase and an increase in malondialdehyde formation in the liver, testis and epididymis. Superoxide dismutase decreased in the liver and testis but was increased in the epididymis. Furthermore, hepatic glutathione and lactate dehydrogenase activity increased while epididymal catalase, ascorbate content, hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione peroxidase activities in all the tissues decreased in the atrazine-treated animals. Hepatic, testicular and epididymal alanine aminotransferase activities were not affected by atrazine (p>0.05). Decreased epididymal and testicular sperm number, sperm motility, daily sperm production and increased number of dead and abnormal sperm were observed in atrazine-treated rats. Treatment of rats orally with selenium at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg did not prevent atrazine-induced changes in sperm characteristics and had no protective effects against atrazine-induced biochemical alterations in the testis and epididymis except testicular lactate dehydrogenase. Catalase activity and ascorbate contents were unchanged in these groups of animals. However, selenium effectively protected against atrazine-induced changes in biochemical indices in the liver. In rats treated with selenium alone, glutathione peroxidase in all the tissues, hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase, testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and ascorbate content increased, while hepatic catalase activities decreased (p<0.05). Our data suggest that selenium effectively attenuated the toxic effects of atrazine-induced liver changes but not in the reproductive organs and sperms of rats. Selenium might therefore be useful in ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  16. Comparison of corrosion protection provided by a non-volatile organic compound epoxy and a marine epoxy primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kendig, M.W.; Ryang, H.S.; Liao, T.L.; Jeanjaquet, S.L.

    1999-03-01

    An epoxy resin formulation completely free of organic solvent was applied to carbon steel coupons using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as the volatile solvent. Steel coupons coated in this manner were compared to coupons coated with a standard military specification marine primer (MIL-P-24441) during exposure to aerated 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl). The solvent-free coating protected the steel from corrosion in this environment as well, if not better than, the solvent-based primer.

  17. Delayed treatment of Ebola virus infection with plant-derived monoclonal antibodies provides protection in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Olinger, Gene Garrard; Pettitt, James; Kim, Do; Working, Cara; Bohorov, Ognian; Bratcher, Barry; Hiatt, Ernie; Hume, Steven D; Johnson, Ashley K; Morton, Josh; Pauly, Michael; Whaley, Kevin J; Lear, Calli M; Biggins, Julia E; Scully, Corinne; Hensley, Lisa; Zeitlin, Larry

    2012-10-30

    Filovirus infections can cause a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates, including great apes. Here, three anti-Ebola virus mouse/human chimeric mAbs (c13C6, h-13F6, and c6D8) were produced in Chinese hamster ovary and in whole plant (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. In pilot experiments testing a mixture of the three mAbs (MB-003), we found that MB-003 produced in both manufacturing systems protected rhesus macaques from lethal challenge when administered 1 h postinfection. In a pivotal follow-up experiment, we found significant protection (P < 0.05) when MB-003 treatment began 24 or 48 h postinfection (four of six survived vs. zero of two controls). In all experiments, surviving animals that received MB-003 experienced little to no viremia and had few, if any, of the clinical symptoms observed in the controls. The results represent successful postexposure in vivo efficacy by a mAb mixture and suggest that this immunoprotectant should be further pursued as a postexposure and potential therapeutic for Ebola virus exposure.

  18. SAG4 DNA and Peptide Vaccination Provides Partial Protection against T. gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can lead to congenital infections in human. Surface antigen protein 4 (SAG4) of T. gondii is a potential stimulator for humoral and cellular immune responses. In the present study, a DNA vaccine encoding SAG4 from T. gondii was constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice with peptide to evaluate the protective efficacy of the vaccine. The productions of IgG antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon) from the vaccine (pSAG4/peptide) group were significantly higher than pSAG4 or peptide groups. After a lethal challenge by 1 × 10(4) tachyzoites from the I strain (RH), the survival time of mice immunized by pSAG4/peptide was longer than that of pSAG4 or peptide immunized mice or control mice. Moreover, after challenging by 20 cysts of the II strain (PRU) of T. gondii, the number of brain cysts from pSAG4/peptide vaccinated mice was only 31% of the number in PBS injected mice. The findings suggested the SAG4 DNA vaccine with peptide led significant immune responses and improved the protection against T. gondii challenges.

  19. Landscape mapping at sub-Antarctic South Georgia provides a protocol for underpinning large-scale marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Oliver T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Dorschel, Boris; Linse, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (105-106  km2) MPA designations. We have developed a new high-resolution (100 m) digital elevation model (DEM) of the region and integrated this DEM with bathymetry-derived parameters, modelled oceanographic data, and satellite primary productivity data. These interdisciplinary datasets were used to apply an objective statistical approach to hierarchically partition and map the benthic environment into physical habitats types. We assess the potential application of physical habitat classifications as proxies for biological structuring and the application of the landscape mapping for informing on marine spatial planning.

  20. Landscape mapping at sub-Antarctic South Georgia provides a protocol for underpinning large-scale marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Oliver T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Griffiths, Huw J; Dorschel, Boris; Linse, Katrin

    2016-10-03

    Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (10(5)-10(6)  km(2)) MPA designations. We have developed a new high-resolution (100 m) digital elevation model (DEM) of the region and integrated this DEM with bathymetry-derived parameters, modelled oceanographic data, and satellite primary productivity data. These interdisciplinary datasets were used to apply an objective statistical approach to hierarchically partition and map the benthic environment into physical habitats types. We assess the potential application of physical habitat classifications as proxies for biological structuring and the application of the landscape mapping for informing on marine spatial planning.

  1. Delayed treatment of Ebola virus infection with plant-derived monoclonal antibodies provides protection in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Olinger, Gene Garrard; Pettitt, James; Kim, Do; Working, Cara; Bohorov, Ognian; Bratcher, Barry; Hiatt, Ernie; Hume, Steven D.; Johnson, Ashley K.; Morton, Josh; Pauly, Michael; Whaley, Kevin J.; Lear, Calli M.; Biggins, Julia E.; Scully, Corinne; Hensley, Lisa; Zeitlin, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Filovirus infections can cause a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates, including great apes. Here, three anti-Ebola virus mouse/human chimeric mAbs (c13C6, h-13F6, and c6D8) were produced in Chinese hamster ovary and in whole plant (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. In pilot experiments testing a mixture of the three mAbs (MB-003), we found that MB-003 produced in both manufacturing systems protected rhesus macaques from lethal challenge when administered 1 h postinfection. In a pivotal follow-up experiment, we found significant protection (P < 0.05) when MB-003 treatment began 24 or 48 h postinfection (four of six survived vs. zero of two controls). In all experiments, surviving animals that received MB-003 experienced little to no viremia and had few, if any, of the clinical symptoms observed in the controls. The results represent successful postexposure in vivo efficacy by a mAb mixture and suggest that this immunoprotectant should be further pursued as a postexposure and potential therapeutic for Ebola virus exposure. PMID:23071322

  2. Protective immunity provided by HLA-A2 epitopes for fusion and hemagglutinin proteins of measles virus

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sang Kon . E-mail: sangkono@baylorhealth.edu; Stegman, Brian; Pendleton, C. David; Ota, Martin O.; Pan, C.-H.; Griffin, Diane E.; Burke, Donald S.; Berzofsky, Jay A. . E-mail: berzofsk@helix.nih.gov

    2006-09-01

    Natural infection and vaccination with a live-attenuated measles virus (MV) induce CD8{sup +} T-cell-mediated immune responses that may play a central role in controlling MV infection. In this study, we show that newly identified human HLA-A2 epitopes from MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins induced protective immunity in HLA-A2 transgenic mice challenged with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing F or H protein. HLA-A2 epitopes were predicted and synthesized. Five and four peptides from H and F, respectively, bound to HLA-A2 molecules in a T2-binding assay, and four from H and two from F could induce peptide-specific CD8{sup +} T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Further experiments proved that three peptides from H (H9-567, H10-250, and H10-516) and one from F protein (F9-57) were endogenously processed and presented on HLA-A2 molecules. All peptides tested in this study are common to 5 different strains of MV including Edmonston. In both A2K{sup b} and HHD-2 mice, the identified peptide epitopes induced protective immunity against recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing H or F. Because F and H proteins induce neutralizing antibodies, they are major components of new vaccine strategies, and therefore data from this study will contribute to the development of new vaccines against MV infection.

  3. SAG4 DNA and Peptide Vaccination Provides Partial Protection against T. gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can lead to congenital infections in human. Surface antigen protein 4 (SAG4) of T. gondii is a potential stimulator for humoral and cellular immune responses. In the present study, a DNA vaccine encoding SAG4 from T. gondii was constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice with peptide to evaluate the protective efficacy of the vaccine. The productions of IgG antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon) from the vaccine (pSAG4/peptide) group were significantly higher than pSAG4 or peptide groups. After a lethal challenge by 1 × 104 tachyzoites from the I strain (RH), the survival time of mice immunized by pSAG4/peptide was longer than that of pSAG4 or peptide immunized mice or control mice. Moreover, after challenging by 20 cysts of the II strain (PRU) of T. gondii, the number of brain cysts from pSAG4/peptide vaccinated mice was only 31% of the number in PBS injected mice. The findings suggested the SAG4 DNA vaccine with peptide led significant immune responses and improved the protection against T. gondii challenges. PMID:28936207

  4. Landscape mapping at sub-Antarctic South Georgia provides a protocol for underpinning large-scale marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Oliver T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Dorschel, Boris; Linse, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (105–106  km2) MPA designations. We have developed a new high-resolution (100 m) digital elevation model (DEM) of the region and integrated this DEM with bathymetry-derived parameters, modelled oceanographic data, and satellite primary productivity data. These interdisciplinary datasets were used to apply an objective statistical approach to hierarchically partition and map the benthic environment into physical habitats types. We assess the potential application of physical habitat classifications as proxies for biological structuring and the application of the landscape mapping for informing on marine spatial planning. PMID:27694889

  5. DnaN clamp zones provide a platform for spatiotemporal coupling of mismatch detection to DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Justin S; Sharma, Anushi; Hingorani, Manju M; Simmons, Lyle A

    2013-02-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) increases the fidelity of DNA replication by identifying and correcting replication errors. Processivity clamps are vital components of DNA replication and MMR, yet the mechanism and extent to which they participate in MMR remains unclear. We investigated the role of the Bacillus subtilis processivity clamp DnaN, and found that it serves as a platform for mismatch detection and coupling of repair to DNA replication. By visualizing functional MutS fluorescent fusions in vivo, we find that MutS forms foci independent of mismatch detection at sites of replication (i.e. the replisome). These MutS foci are directed to the replisome by DnaN clamp zones that aid mismatch detection by targeting the search to nascent DNA. Following mismatch detection, MutS disengages from the replisome, facilitating repair. We tested the functional importance of DnaN-mediated mismatch detection for MMR, and found that it accounts for 90% of repair. This high dependence on DnaN can be bypassed by increasing MutS concentration within the cell, indicating a secondary mode of detection in vivo whereby MutS directly finds mismatches without associating with the replisome. Overall, our results provide new insight into the mechanism by which DnaN couples mismatch recognition to DNA replication in living cells. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Radiological Health Protection Issues Associated with Use of Active Detection Technology Systems for Detection of Radioactive Threat Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Z such as carbon (graphite) or beryllium oxide . Proton interactions with the target material produce secondary charged pions. If the proton kinetic...cadmium- zinc telluride (CZT), or cadmium telluride (CdTe) that will provide a suitable detection efficiency. The output of the crystalline detectors...radioactivity may also be generated in lubricating materials or other environmental contaminates (especially if ADT systems are operated in dirty environments

  7. An attenuated Shigella mutant lacking the RNA-binding protein Hfq provides cross-protection against Shigella strains of broad serotype.

    PubMed

    Mitobe, Jiro; Sinha, Ritam; Mitra, Soma; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Saito, Noriko; Shimuta, Ken; Koizumi, Nobuo; Koley, Hemanta

    2017-07-01

    Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.

  8. An Implementation of Privacy Protection for a Surveillance Camera Using ROI Coding of JPEG2000 with Face Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneyasu, Mitsuji; Odani, Shuhei; Kitaura, Yoshihiro; Namba, Hitoshi

    On the use of a surveillance camera, there is a case where privacy protection should be considered. This paper proposes a new privacy protection method by automatically degrading the face region in surveillance images. The proposed method consists of ROI coding of JPEG2000 and a face detection method based on template matching. The experimental result shows that the face region can be detected and hidden correctly.

  9. A Kunjin Replicon Virus-like Particle Vaccine Provides Protection Against Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Pyankov, Oleg V.; Bodnev, Sergey A.; Pyankova, Olga G.; Solodkyi, Vladislav V.; Pyankov, Stepan A.; Setoh, Yin Xiang; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Suhrbier, Andreas; Volchkov, Viktor V.; Agafonov, Alexander A.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease in West Africa has demonstrated the urgent need for a vaccine. Here, we describe the evaluation of an EBOV vaccine candidate based on Kunjin replicon virus-like particles (KUN VLPs) encoding EBOV glycoprotein with a D637L mutation (GP/D637L) in nonhuman primates. Four African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were injected subcutaneously with a dose of 109 KUN VLPs per animal twice with an interval of 4 weeks, and animals were challenged 3 weeks later intramuscularly with 600 plaque-forming units of Zaire EBOV. Three animals were completely protected against EBOV challenge, while one vaccinated animal and the control animal died from infection. We suggest that KUN VLPs encoding GP/D637L represent a viable EBOV vaccine candidate. PMID:25732811

  10. Poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) nanoparticles markedly improve immunological protection provided by peptide P10 against murine paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André C; Marques, Alexandre F; Muñoz, Julián E; Bocca, Anamélia L; Simioni, Andreza R; Tedesco, Antonio C; Morais, Paulo C; Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The present study reports on the preparation and testing of a sustained delivery system for the immunomodulatory peptide P10 aimed at reducing the in vivo degradation of the peptide and the amount required to elicit a protective immune response against paracoccidioidomycosis. Experimental approach: BALB/c mice were infected with the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to mimic the chronic form of paracoccidioidomycosis. The animals were treated daily with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim alone or combined with peptide P10, either emulsified in Freund's adjuvant or entrapped in poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles at different concentrations (1 µg, 5 µg, 10 µg, 20 µg or 40 µg·50 µL−1). Therapeutic efficacy was assessed as fungal burden in tissues and the immune response by quantitative determination of cytokines. Key results: Animals given combined chemotherapy and P10 nanotherapy presented a marked reduction of fungal load in the lungs, compared with the non-treated animals. After 30 days of treatment, P10 entrapped within PLGA (1 µg·50 µL−1) was more effective than ‘free’ P10 emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (20 µg·50 µL−1), as an adjuvant to chemotherapy. After treatment for 90 days, the higher doses of P10 entrapped within PLGA (5 or 10 µg·50 µL−1) were most effective. Treatment with P10 emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (20 µg·50 µL−1) or P10 entrapped within PLGA (1 µg·50 µL−1) were accompanied by high levels of interferon-gamma in lung. Conclusions and implications: Combination of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim with the P10 peptide entrapped within PLGA demonstrated increased therapeutic efficacy against paracoccidioidomycosis. P10 incorporation into PLGA nanoparticles dramatically reduced the peptide amount necessary to elicit a protective effect. PMID:20136827

  11. Immunization with lipopolysaccharide-deficient whole cells provides protective immunity in an experimental mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

    PubMed

    García-Quintanilla, Meritxell; Pulido, Marina R; Pachón, Jerónimo; McConnell, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The increasing clinical importance of infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii warrants the development of novel approaches for prevention and treatment. In this context, vaccination of certain patient populations may contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria based on inactivated bacterial cells are highly immunogenic and have been shown to produce protective immunity against a number of bacterial species. However, the high endotoxin levels present in these vaccines due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide complicates their use in human vaccination. In the present study, we used a laboratory-derived strain of A. baumannii that completely lacks lipopolysaccharide due to a mutation in the lpxD gene (IB010), one of the genes involved in the first steps of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, for vaccination. We demonstrate that IB010 has greatly reduced endotoxin content (<1.0 endotoxin unit/106 cells) compared to wild type cells. Immunization with formalin inactivated IB010 produced a robust antibody response consisting of both IgG1 and IgG2c subtypes. Mice immunized with IB010 had significantly lower post-infection tissue bacterial loads and significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to control mice in a mouse model of disseminated A. baumannii infection. Importantly, immunized mice were protected from infection with the ATCC 19606 strain and an A. baumannii clinical isolate. These data suggest that immunization with inactivated A. baumannii whole cells deficient in lipopolysaccharide could serve as the basis for a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused by A. baumannii.

  12. An in vitro attenuated strain of Histomonas meleagridis provides cross-protective immunity in turkeys against heterologous virulent isolates.

    PubMed

    Sulejmanovic, T; Bilic, I; Hess, M; Liebhart, D

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, cross-protective immunity induced by a well-defined clonal strain of Histomonas meleagridis, attenuated by prolonged in vitro cultivation against different clonal heterologous isolates of the same parasite was investigated. For this purpose, 86 turkey poults were assigned to groups consisting of 9-10 birds. Birds of four groups were vaccinated on their 1st day of life followed by re-vaccination on their 14th day of life when the remaining turkeys were left untreated. The challenge was performed using four strains of H. meleagridis that were isolated from chickens or turkeys from different outbreaks of histomonosis in Europe and three of them showed diversities in their genome. Hence, every strain used for the challenge was applied to a group of vaccinated and a group of non-vaccinated birds while birds of the negative control group were sham inoculated. Non-vaccinated birds suffered from severe histomonosis due to the challenge with fatalities reaching from 5 to 10 turkeys per group. Vaccinated birds did not contract clinical signs of the disease following challenge and the increase in weight was unaffected compared to birds of the negative control group. A significant difference in lesion scores was recorded between vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, with very few instances of liver involvement in the former groups. Livers of vaccinated birds that were without recordable macroscopic lesions were also found negative by immunohistochemical investigation. According to the data obtained, the present study demonstrates, for the first time, the cross-protective capability of a tentative vaccine strain of H. meleagridis attenuated in vitro against heterologous virulent isolates of different origin.

  13. Topical nicotinamide modulates cellular energy metabolism and provides broad-spectrum protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression in humans.

    PubMed

    Sivapirabu, G; Yiasemides, E; Halliday, G M; Park, J; Damian, D L

    2009-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can profoundly suppress the cutaneous immune system, thus enhancing carcinogenesis. Agents that prevent UV-induced immunosuppression may thus reduce skin cancer. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) prevents UV-induced immunosuppression and carcinogenesis in mice, and solar-simulated (ss) UV-induced immunosuppression in humans. Its effectiveness against different UV wavebands and mechanism of action is as yet unknown. To determine the effects and mechanisms of topical nicotinamide on UV-induced suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in humans. Healthy Mantoux-positive volunteers in four randomised, double-blinded studies were irradiated with solar-simulated (ss)UV (UVB + UVA) or narrowband UVB (300 nm) or UVA (385 nm). Topical nicotinamide (0.2% or 5%) or its vehicle were applied immediately after each irradiation. Mantoux testing was performed at irradiated sites and adjacent unirradiated control sites 48 h after the first irradiation and measured 72 h later. Immunosuppression was calculated as the difference in Mantoux-induced erythema and induration at test sites compared to control sites. Human keratinocyte cell cultures, with and without ssUV and nicotinamide, were used for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assessment of TP53 and enzymes that regulate oxidative phosphorylation. Nicotinamide cooperated with ssUV to increase enzymes involved in cellular energy metabolism and p53, and significantly protected against immunosuppression caused by UVB, longwave UVA and single and repeated ssUV exposures. Longwave UVA, which is poorly filtered by most sunscreens, was highly immune suppressive even at doses equivalent to 20 min of sun exposure. Nicotinamide, which protected against both UVB and UVA, is a promising agent for skin cancer prevention.

  14. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energy’s support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombia’s national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy

  15. Oral Immunization with Cholera Toxin Provides Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M. John; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Islam, Anjum; Haridas, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunity to Campylobacter jejuni, a major diarrheal pathogen, is largely Penner serotype specific. For broad protection, a vaccine should be based on a common antigen(s) present in all strains. In our previous study (M. J. Albert, S. Haridas, D. Steer, G. S. Dhaunsi, A. I. Smith, and B. Adler, Infect. Immun. 75:3070–3073, 2007), we demonstrated that antibody to cholera toxin (CT) cross-reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) of all Campylobacter jejuni strains tested. In the current study, we investigated whether immunization with CT protects against intestinal colonization by C. jejuni in an adult mouse model and whether the nontoxic subunit of CT (CT-B) is the portion mediating cross-reaction. Mice were orally immunized with CT and later challenged with C. jejuni strains (48, 75, and 111) of different serotypes. Control animals were immunized with phosphate-buffered saline. Fecal shedding of challenge organisms was studied daily for 9 days. Serum and fecal antibody responses were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. The cross-reactivity of rabbit CT-B antibody to MOMP was studied by immunoblotting. The reactivity of 21 overlapping 30-mer oligopeptides (based on MOMP’s sequence) against rabbit CT antibody was tested by ELISA. Test animals produced antibodies to CT and MMP in serum and feces and showed resistance to colonization, the vaccine efficacies being 49% (for strain 48), 37% (for strain 75), and 34% (for strain 111) (P, ≤0.05 to ≤0.001). One peptide corresponding to a variable region of MOMP showed significant reactivity. CT-B antibody cross-reacted with MOMP. Since CT-B is a component of oral cholera vaccines, it might be possible to control C. jejuni diarrhea with these vaccines. PMID:23653448

  16. Bio-protective microbial agents from rhizosphere eco-systems trigger plant defense responses provide protection against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai B; Malviya, Deepti; Wasiullah; Singh, Shailendra; Pradhan, Jatindra K; Singh, Bhanu P; Roy, Manish; Imram, Mohd; Pathak, Neelam; Baisyal, B M; Rai, Jai P; Sarma, B K; Singh, Rajiv K; Sharma, P K; Kaur, Saman Deep; Manna, M C; Sharma, Sushil K; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-11-01

    Sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. However, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. The present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum as model agents for biocontrol. Initially 25, 5 and 5 strains of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum, respectively, were screened for their biocontrol potential. Out of which, six strains with higher value of percent inhibition of fungal mycelium in dual plate assay were selected. The role of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum were investigated in induction and bioaccumulation of natural antioxidants, defence-related biomolecules and other changes in plant which lead not only to growth promotion but also protection from pathogenic stress conditions in rice. The two most promising strains, P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 selected on the basis of in planta evaluation, when applied individually or in combination, significantly enhanced the accumulation of defence-related biomolecules, enzymes and exhibited biocontrol potential against R. solani. A modified/newly developed delivery system was applied for the first time in the experiments involving inoculation of plants with both bioagents, viz. P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501. Results suggested that application of P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 alone or in combination, not only helps in control of the disease but also increases plant growth along with reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides.

  17. Live attenuated influenza vaccine provides superior protection from heterologous infection in pigs with maternal antibodies without inducing vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in the US is hindered since inactivated vaccines do not provide robust cross-protection against the multiple antigenic variants co-circulating in the field. Vaccine efficacy can be further limited when administered to young pigs that possess maternally deriv...

  18. EPA Reducing Air Pollution from Old Diesel Engines, Grants Provide $1.18 Million to Protect People from Harmful Air Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is supporting local efforts to reduce air pollution in the New York City metropolitan area by providing a total of $1.18 million to help two organizations replace old, dirty diesel engines on boats

  19. Bone Marrow Dendritic Cells from Mice with an Altered Microbiota Provide Interleukin 17A-Dependent Protection against Entamoeba histolytica Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Stacey L.; Buonomo, Erica; Carey, Maureen; Cowardin, Carrie; Naylor, Caitlin; Noor, Zannatun; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is an emerging paradigm that the human microbiome is central to many aspects of health and may have a role in preventing enteric infection. Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of amebic diarrhea in developing countries. It colonizes the colon lumen in close proximity to the gut microbiota. Interestingly, not all individuals are equally susceptible to E. histolytica infection. Therefore, as the microbiota is highly variable within individuals, we sought to determine if a component of the microbiota could regulate susceptibility to infection. In studies utilizing a murine model, we demonstrated that colonization of the gut with the commensal Clostridia-related bacteria known as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) is protective during  E. histolytica infection. SFB colonization in this model was associated with elevated cecal levels of interleukin 17A (IL-17A), dendritic cells, and neutrophils. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from SFB-colonized mice had higher levels of IL-23 production in response to stimulation with trophozoites. Adoptive transfer of BMDCs from an SFB+ to an SFB− mouse was sufficient to provide protection against E. histolytica. IL-17A induction during BMDC transfer was necessary for this protection. This work demonstrates that intestinal colonization with a specific commensal bacterium can provide protection during amebiasis in a murine model. Most importantly, this work demonstrates that the microbiome can mediate protection against an enteric infection via extraintestinal effects on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. PMID:25370489

  20. Recombinant PorA, the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni, provides heterologous protection in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anjum; Raghupathy, Raj; Albert, M John

    2010-11-01

    Immunity against Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing diarrhea, is largely serotype specific. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni, PorA, is a common antigen with the potential to provide broad protection. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused to PorA prepared from Campylobacter jejuni C31 (O:6,7) (GST-PorA) combined with a modified heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant and later orally challenged with C31 strain or three heterologous strains: 48 (O:19), 75 (O:3), and 111 (O:1,44). Protection from colonization with the challenge organism was studied by fecal screening daily for 9 days. Serum and intestinal lavage fluid antibodies against the vaccine and Sarkosyl-purified MOMP from C31 were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The vaccine produced robust antibody responses against both antigens in serum and secretion. Since strain C31 was a poor colonizer, homologous protection could not be studied. The protective efficacies of heterologous strains were 43% (for strain 48, P < 0.001), 29% (for strain 75, P < 0.005), and 42% (for strain 111, P < 0.001) for the 9-day period compared to control mice given phosphate-buffered saline. Thus, PorA provided appreciable protection against colonization with heterologous serotypes.

  1. Provider report of the existence of detection and care of perinatal depression: quantitative evidence from public obstetric units in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro, Filipa de; Place, Jean Marie; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Billings, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    To provide evidence on perinatal mental healthcare in Mexico. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of data from a cross-sectional probabilistic survey of 211 public obstetric units. Over half (64.0%) of units offer mental healthcare; fewer offer perinatal depression (PND) detection (37.1%) and care (40.3%). More units had protocols/guidelines for PND detection and for care, respectively, in Mexico City-Mexico state (76.7%; 78.1%) than in Southern (26.5%; 36.4%), Northern (27.3%; 28.1%) and Central Mexico (50.0%; 52.7%). Protocols and provider training in PND, implementation of brief screening tools and psychosocial interventions delivered by non-clinical personnel are needed.

  2. 76 FR 32236 - Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB or Board) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... agency further asserts that in 1984 it provided notice in the Federal Register that it would be... called for the use of the ``tie-breaker'' principle that has been in effect from 1984 through the...

  3. Immunity after natural exposure to enteric canine coronavirus does not provide complete protection against infection with the new pantropic CB/05 strain.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Campolo, Marco; Mari, Viviana; Desario, Costantina; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Kanellos, Theofanis; Gibbons, Rachel H; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-01-08

    Recently, an outbreak of fatal infection caused by a pantropic variant (strain CB/05) of canine coronavirus (CCoV) has been reported. In this study, evidence is provided that immunity induced by natural exposure to enteric CCoV is not fully protective against strain CB/05. Twenty-two, 10-week-old beagles with a recent natural infection by enteric CCoV were randomly distributed in two experimental groups of eight (groups A and B) and one control group of six (group C) dogs. Dogs in groups A and B were inoculated oronasally with different doses (4 x 10(5) or 4 x 10(3)TCID(50)) of the pantropic strain CB/05, whereas dogs in group C were used as negative controls. Clinical, post-mortem and virological investigations showed that, despite the high serum antibody titres induced by the prior natural infection with enteric CCoV, dogs were susceptible to experimental infection with strain CB/05. This was shown by the occurrence of faecal shedding, and dogs displaying moderate clinical signs, mainly vomiting and diarrhoea. Involvement of the lymphoid tissues was evident as demonstrated by the acute lymphopenia (below 70% of the initial counts), gross lesions in spleen and lymph nodes and detection of CB/05 RNA in thymus, spleen and lymph nodes of some infected dogs. The presence of viral RNA in lymphoid tissues was observed only in dogs euthanised in the early stages of infection and the clinical course of the infection was unrelated to the viral dose administered. The present study demonstrates that strain CB/05 is able to induce infection and disease in dogs seropositive to enteric CCoV, thus highlighting the need for extensive epidemiological investigation and for the possible development of novel antigenically relevant vaccines.

  4. Immunization with Hexon Modified Adenoviral Vectors Integrated with gp83 Epitope Provides Protection against Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Linlin; Krendelchtchikova, Valentina; Nde, Pius N.; Pratap, Siddharth; Lima, Maria F.; Villalta, Fernando; Matthews, Qiana L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Chagas disease is an endemic infection that affects over 8 million people throughout Latin America and now has become a global challenge. The current pharmacological treatment of patients is unsuccessful in most cases, highly toxic, and no vaccines are available. The results of inadequate treatment could lead to heart failure resulting in death. Therefore, a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses and protection against Chagas disease is necessary. Methodology/Principal Findings The “antigen capsid-incorporation” strategy is based upon the display of the T. cruzi epitope as an integral component of the adenovirus' capsid rather than an encoded transgene. This strategy is predicted to induce a robust humoral immune response to the presented antigen, similar to the response provoked by native Ad capsid proteins. The antigen chosen was T. cruzi gp83, a ligand that is used by T. cruzi to attach to host cells to initiate infection. The gp83 epitope, recognized by the neutralizing MAb 4A4, along with His6 were incorporated into the Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) vector to generate the vector Ad5-HVR1-gp83-18 (Ad5-gp83). This vector was evaluated by molecular and immunological analyses. Vectors were injected to elicit immune responses against gp83 in mouse models. Our findings indicate that mice immunized with the vector Ad5-gp83 and challenged with a lethal dose of T. cruzi trypomastigotes confer strong immunoprotection with significant reduction in parasitemia levels, increased survival rate and induction of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions/Significance This data demonstrates that immunization with adenovirus containing capsid-incorporated T. cruzi antigen elicits a significant anti-gp83-specific response in two different mouse models, and protection against T. cruzi infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses

  5. High-SPF sunscreens (SPF ≥ 70) may provide ultraviolet protection above minimal recommended levels by adequately compensating for lower sunscreen user application amounts.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Hao; Stanfield, Joseph; Cole, Curtis; Appa, Yohini; Rigel, Darrell

    2012-12-01

    The manner in which consumers apply sunscreens is often inadequate for ultraviolet protection according to the labeled sun protection factor (SPF). Although sunscreen SPFs are labeled by testing at an application density of 2 mg/cm(2), the actual protection received is often substantially less because of consumer application densities ranging from 0.5 to 1 mg/cm(2). High-SPF sunscreens may provide more adequate protection even when applied by consumers at inadequate amounts. We sought to measure the actual SPF values of various sunscreens (labeled SPF 30-100) applied in amounts typical of those used by consumers. Actual SPF values were measured on human volunteers for 6 sunscreen products with labeled SPF values ranging from 30 to 100, applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/cm(2). There was a linear relationship between application density and the actual SPF; sunscreens with labeled SPF values of 70 and above provided significant protection, even at the low application densities typically applied by consumers. Sunscreens labeled SPF 70 and 100 applied at 0.5 mg/cm(2) provided an actual SPF value of, respectively, 19 and 27. The study was conducted in a laboratory setting under standardized conditions and results are extrapolated to actual in-use situations. Sunscreens with SPF 70 and above add additional clinical benefits when applied by consumers at typically used amounts, by delivering an actual SPF that meets the minimum SPF levels recommended for skin cancer and photodamage prevention. In contrast, sunscreens with SPF 30 or 50 may not produce sufficient protection at actual consumer usage levels. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Dietzia natronolimnaea modulates the expression of stress responsive genes providing protection of wheat from salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Nidhi; Pandey, Shiv Shanker; Barnawal, Deepti; Patel, Vikas Kumar; Kalra, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) hold promising future for sustainable agriculture. Here, we demonstrate a carotenoid producing halotolerant PGPR Dietzia natronolimnaea STR1 protecting wheat plants from salt stress by modulating the transcriptional machinery responsible for salinity tolerance in plants. The expression studies confirmed the involvement of ABA-signalling cascade, as TaABARE and TaOPR1 were upregulated in PGPR inoculated plants leading to induction of TaMYB and TaWRKY expression followed by stimulation of expression of a plethora of stress related genes. Enhanced expression of TaST, a salt stress-induced gene, associated with promoting salinity tolerance was observed in PGPR inoculated plants in comparison to uninoculated control plants. Expression of SOS pathway related genes (SOS1 and SOS4) was modulated in PGPR-applied wheat shoots and root systems. Tissue-specific responses of ion transporters TaNHX1, TaHAK, and TaHKT1, were observed in PGPR-inoculated plants. The enhanced gene expression of various antioxidant enzymes such as APX, MnSOD, CAT, POD, GPX and GR and higher proline content in PGPR-inoculated wheat plants contributed to increased tolerance to salinity stress. Overall, these results indicate that halotolerant PGPR-mediated salinity tolerance is a complex phenomenon that involves modulation of ABA-signalling, SOS pathway, ion transporters and antioxidant machinery. PMID:27708387

  7. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Dietzia natronolimnaea modulates the expression of stress responsive genes providing protection of wheat from salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Nidhi; Pandey, Shiv Shanker; Barnawal, Deepti; Patel, Vikas Kumar; Kalra, Alok

    2016-10-06

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) hold promising future for sustainable agriculture. Here, we demonstrate a carotenoid producing halotolerant PGPR Dietzia natronolimnaea STR1 protecting wheat plants from salt stress by modulating the transcriptional machinery responsible for salinity tolerance in plants. The expression studies confirmed the involvement of ABA-signalling cascade, as TaABARE and TaOPR1 were upregulated in PGPR inoculated plants leading to induction of TaMYB and TaWRKY expression followed by stimulation of expression of a plethora of stress related genes. Enhanced expression of TaST, a salt stress-induced gene, associated with promoting salinity tolerance was observed in PGPR inoculated plants in comparison to uninoculated control plants. Expression of SOS pathway related genes (SOS1 and SOS4) was modulated in PGPR-applied wheat shoots and root systems. Tissue-specific responses of ion transporters TaNHX1, TaHAK, and TaHKT1, were observed in PGPR-inoculated plants. The enhanced gene expression of various antioxidant enzymes such as APX, MnSOD, CAT, POD, GPX and GR and higher proline content in PGPR-inoculated wheat plants contributed to increased tolerance to salinity stress. Overall, these results indicate that halotolerant PGPR-mediated salinity tolerance is a complex phenomenon that involves modulation of ABA-signalling, SOS pathway, ion transporters and antioxidant machinery.

  8. Inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation provides neural protection in dopaminergic system in a Parkinson's disease model induced by MPTP.

    PubMed

    Filichia, Emily; Hoffer, Barry; Qi, Xin; Luo, Yu

    2016-09-13

    Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro. However, whether Drp1 inhibition can lead to long term stable preservation of dopaminergic neurons in PD-related mouse models remains unknown. In this study, using a classical MPTP animal PD model, we showed for the first time Drp1 activation and mitochondrial translocation in vivo after MPTP administration. Inhibition of Drp1 activation by a selective peptide inhibitor P110, blocked MPTP-induced Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and attenuated dopaminergic neuronal loss, dopaminergic nerve terminal damage and behavioral deficits caused by MPTP. MPTP-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis were not affected by P110 treatment. Instead, inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation diminished MPTP-induced p53, BAX and PUMA mitochondrial translocation. This study demonstrates that inhibition of Drp1 hyperactivation by a Drp1 peptide inhibitor P110 is neuroprotective in a MPTP animal model. Our data also suggest that the protective effects of P110 treatment might be mediated by inhibiting the p53 mediated apoptotic pathways in neurons through inhibition of Drp1-dependent p53 mitochondrial translocation.

  9. Insecticide-treated nets provide protection against malaria to children in an area of insecticide resistance in Southern Benin.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, Aurore; Cornélie, Sylvie; Fassinou, Jacob; de Tove, Yolande Sissinto Savi; Adéothy, Adicath Adéola; Tokponnon, Filémon T; Makoutode, Patrick; Adechoubou, Alioun; Legba, Thibaut; Houansou, Telesphore; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothée; Akogbeto, Martin C; Massougbodji, Achille; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Donnelly, Martin; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2017-05-26

    Malaria control is heavily reliant on insecticides, especially pyrethroids. Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides may threaten the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control and lead to a resurgence of malaria in Africa. In 21 villages in Southern Benin with high levels of insecticide resistance, the resistance status of local vectors was measured at the same time as the prevalence of malaria infection in resident children. Children who used LLINs had lower levels of malaria infection [odds ratio = 0.76 (95% CI 0.59, 0.98, p = 0.033)]. There was no evidence that the effectiveness of nets was different in high and low resistance locations (p = 0.513). There was no association between village level resistance and village level malaria prevalence (p = 0.999). LLINs continue to offer individual protection against malaria infection in an area of high resistance. Insecticide resistance is not a reason to stop efforts to increase coverage of LLINs in Africa.

  10. Immediate Short-Duration Hypothermia Provides Long-Term Protection in an in Vivo Model of Traumatic Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Marek; Matthews, Brian T.; Lampe, Joshua W.; Meaney, David F.; Shofer, Frances S.; Neumar, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial did not demonstrate improved outcomes in severe traumatic brain injured patients treated with mild hypothermia (Clifton, et al., 2001). However, the mean time to target temperature was over 8 hours and patient inclusion was based on Glasgow Coma Scale score so brain pathology was likely diverse. There remains significant interest in the benefits of hypothermia after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and, in particular, traumatic axonal injury (TAI), which is believed to significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality of TBI patients. The long-term beneficial effect of mild hypothermia on TAI has not been established. To address this issue, we developed an in vivo rat optic nerve stretch model of TAI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral optic nerve stretch at 6, 7 or 8 mm piston displacement. The increased number of axonal swellings and bulbs immunopositive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament (SMI-32) seen four days after injury was statistically significant after 8 mm displacement. Ultrastructural analysis 2 weeks after 8 mm displacement revealed a 45.0% decrease (p<0.0001) in myelinated axonal density in the optic nerve core. There was loss of axons regardless of axon size. Immediate post-injury hypothermia (32°C) for 3 hours reduced axonal degeneration in the core (p=0.027). There was no differential protection based on axon size. These results support further clinical investigation of temporally optimized therapeutic hypothermia after traumatic brain injury. PMID:18977220

  11. The emotional impact of errors or adverse events on healthcare providers in the NICU: The protective role of coworker support.

    PubMed

    Winning, Adrien M; Merandi, Jenna M; Lewe, Dorcas; Stepney, Lois M C; Liao, Nancy N; Fortney, Christine A; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2017-07-26

    To examine the impact of errors or adverse events on emotional distress and professional quality of life in healthcare providers in the neonatal intensive care unit, and the moderating role of coworker support. Errors or adverse events can result in negative outcomes for healthcare providers. However, the role of coworker support in improving emotional and professional outcomes has not been examined. A cross-sectional online survey from a quality improvement initiative to train peer supporters in a neonatal intensive care unit. During 2015, 463 healthcare providers in a neonatal intensive care unit completed a survey assessing their experiences with an error or adverse event, anxiety, depression, professional quality of life and coworker support. Compared with those who did not experience an error or adverse event (58%), healthcare providers who observed (23%) or were involved (19%) in an incident reported higher levels of anxiety and secondary traumatic stress. Those who were involved in an event reported higher levels of depression and burnout. Differences between the three groups (no event, observation and involvement) for compassion satisfaction were non-significant. Perceived coworker support moderated the association between experiencing an event and both anxiety and depression. Specifically, experiencing an event was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression when coworkers were perceived as low in supportiveness, but not when they were viewed as highly supportive. Findings suggest that errors or adverse events can have a harmful impact on healthcare providers and that coworker support may reduce emotional distress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-ADVAX) formulated with delta inulin adjuvant provides robust heterologous protection against West Nile encephalitis via cross-protective memory B cells and neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Larena, Maximilian; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Prow, Natalie A; Hall, Roy A; Lobigs, Mario; Morrey, John

    2013-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), currently the cause of a serious U.S. epidemic, is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and member of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) serocomplex. There is currently no approved human WNV vaccine, and treatment options remain limited, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity from human infection. Given the availability of approved human JE vaccines, this study asked whether the JE-ADVAX vaccine, which contains an inactivated cell culture JE virus antigen formulated with Advax delta inulin adjuvant, could provide heterologous protection against WNV infection in wild-type and β2-microglobulin-deficient (β2m(-/-)) murine models. Mice immunized twice or even once with JE-ADVAX were protected against lethal WNV challenge even when mice had low or absent serum cross-neutralizing WNV titers prior to challenge. Similarly, β2m(-/-) mice immunized with JE-ADVAX were protected against lethal WNV challenge in the absence of CD8(+) T cells and prechallenge WNV antibody titers. Protection against WNV could be adoptively transferred to naive mice by memory B cells from JE-ADVAX-immunized animals. Hence, in addition to increasing serum cross-neutralizing antibody titers, JE-ADVAX induced a memory B-cell population able to provide heterologous protection against WNV challenge. Heterologous protection was reduced when JE vaccine antigen was administered alone without Advax, confirming the importance of the adjuvant to induction of cross-protective immunity. In the absence of an approved human WNV vaccine, JE-ADVAX could provide an alternative approach for control of a major human WNV epidemic.

  13. Comparison of protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome field viruses against homologous and heterologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) against homologous and heterologous challenge based on clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological analysis. At 3 and 8 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 1 PRRSV or 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 2 PRRSV. The homologous challenges resulted in a significant boost of the neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to heterologous challenges. The reduction of secondary challenging PRRSV viremia coincided with the appearance of homologous PRRSV-specific NA and IFN-γ-SC. Homologous challenge reduced the severity of lung lesions and levels of PRRSV viremia significantly in pigs in comparison with heterologous challenge. The differences in homologous and heterologous NA and IFN-γ-SC response may explain the differences in protection against homologous and heterologous challenge between type 1 and type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge (immunization) with type 1 PRRSV provided protection against the secondary homologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV but failed to provide protection against the secondary heterologous challenge of type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge with type 2 PRRSV provided protection against both the secondary homologous challenge with type 2 PRRSV and the secondary heterologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A DNA Vaccine Formulated with Chemical Adjuvant Provides Partial Protection against Bovine Herpes Virus Infection in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, Valeria; Soria, Ivana; Langellotti, Cecilia Ana; Gnazzo, Victoria; Gammella, Mariela; Moore, Dadin P; Zamorano, Patricia I

    2017-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis, an important disease worldwide. Although conventional BoHV-1 vaccines, including those based on the use of modified live virus and also inactivated vaccines, are currently used in many countries, they have several disadvantages. DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach since they have the potential to induce both humoral and cellular immune response; nevertheless, it is largely known that potency of naked DNA vaccines is limited. We demonstrated previously, in the murine model, that the use of adjuvants in combination with a DNA vaccine against BoHV-1 is immunologically beneficial. In this study, we evaluate the immune response and protection against challenge elicited in bovines, by a DNA vaccine carrying the sequence of secreted version of glycoprotein D (gD) of BoHV-1 formulated with chemical adjuvants. Bovines were vaccinated with formulations containing the sequence of gD alone or in combination with adjuvants ESSAI 903110 or Montanide™ 1113101PR. After prime vaccination and two boosters, animals were challenged with infectious BoHV-1. Formulations containing adjuvants Montanide™ 1113101PR and ESSAI 903110 were both, capable of increasing humoral immune response against the virus and diminishing clinical symptoms. Nevertheless, only formulations containing adjuvant Montanide™ 1113101PR was capable of improving cellular immune response and diminishing viral excretion. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a BoHV-1 DNA vaccine is combined with adjuvants and tested in cattle. These results could be useful to design a vaccine for the control of bovine rhinotracheitis.

  15. A DNA Vaccine Formulated with Chemical Adjuvant Provides Partial Protection against Bovine Herpes Virus Infection in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocchi, Valeria; Soria, Ivana; Langellotti, Cecilia Ana; Gnazzo, Victoria; Gammella, Mariela; Moore, Dadin P.; Zamorano, Patricia I.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis, an important disease worldwide. Although conventional BoHV-1 vaccines, including those based on the use of modified live virus and also inactivated vaccines, are currently used in many countries, they have several disadvantages. DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach since they have the potential to induce both humoral and cellular immune response; nevertheless, it is largely known that potency of naked DNA vaccines is limited. We demonstrated previously, in the murine model, that the use of adjuvants in combination with a DNA vaccine against BoHV-1 is immunologically beneficial. In this study, we evaluate the immune response and protection against challenge elicited in bovines, by a DNA vaccine carrying the sequence of secreted version of glycoprotein D (gD) of BoHV-1 formulated with chemical adjuvants. Bovines were vaccinated with formulations containing the sequence of gD alone or in combination with adjuvants ESSAI 903110 or Montanide™ 1113101PR. After prime vaccination and two boosters, animals were challenged with infectious BoHV-1. Formulations containing adjuvants Montanide™ 1113101PR and ESSAI 903110 were both, capable of increasing humoral immune response against the virus and diminishing clinical symptoms. Nevertheless, only formulations containing adjuvant Montanide™ 1113101PR was capable of improving cellular immune response and diminishing viral excretion. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a BoHV-1 DNA vaccine is combined with adjuvants and tested in cattle. These results could be useful to design a vaccine for the control of bovine rhinotracheitis. PMID:28179907

  16. Nupr1-aurora kinase A pathway provides protection against metabolic stress-mediated autophagic-associated cell death.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Tewfik; Cano, Carla E; Grasso, Daniel; Garcia, Maria Noé; Sandi, Maria José; Calvo, Ezequiel L; Dagorn, Jean-Charles; Lomberk, Gwen; Urrutia, Raul; Goruppi, Sandro; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Velasco, Guillermo; Iovanna, Juan L

    2012-10-01

    The limited supply of oxygen and nutrients is thought to result in rigorous selection of cells that will eventually form the tumor. Nupr1 expression pattern was analyzed in human tissue microarray (TMA) and correlated with survival time of the patient. Microarray analysis was conducted on MiaPaCa2 cells subjected to metabolic stress in Nupr1-silenced conditions. DNA repair and cell cycle-associated gene expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Nupr1 and AURKA protective role were analyzed using RNA interference (RNAi) silencing or overexpression. DNA damage and autophagy were analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. We showed that both Nupr1 and HIF1α are coexpressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) samples and negatively correlate with survival time. PDAC-derived cells submitted to hypoxia and/or glucose starvation induce DNA damage-dependent cell death concomitantly to the overexpression of stress protein Nupr1. Affymetrix-based transcriptoma analysis reveals that Nupr1 knockdown enhances DNA damage and alters the expression of several genes involved in DNA repair and cell-cycle progression. Expression of some of these genes is common to hypoxia and glucose starvation, such as Aurka gene, suggesting that Nupr1 overexpression counteracts the transcriptional changes occurring under metabolic stress. The molecular mechanism by which hypoxia and glucose starvation induce cell death involves autophagy-associated, but not caspase-dependent, cell death. Finally, we have found that AURKA expression is partially regulated by Nupr1 and plays a major role in this response. Our data reveal that Nupr1 is involved in a defense mechanism that promotes pancreatic cancer cell survival when exposed to metabolic stress.

  17. Intermittent cardiac overload results in adaptive hypertrophy and provides protection against left ventricular acute pressure overload insult.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Fonseca, Hélder; Ferreira, Rita; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Vieira, Sara; Silva, Ana Filipa; Amado, Francisco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Duarte, José Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether a chronic intermittent workload could induce an adaptive cardiac phenotype Chronic intermittent workload induced features of adaptive hypertrophy This was paralleled by protection against acute pressure overload insult The heart may adapt favourably to balanced demands, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. The present study aimed to test whether submitting the healthy heart to intermittent and tolerable amounts of workload, independently of its nature, could result in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Male Wistar rats were subjected to treadmill running (Ex) (n = 20), intermittent cardiac overload with dobutamine (ITO) (2 mg kg(-1) , s.c.; n = 20) or placebo administration (Cont) (n = 20) for 5 days week(-1) for 8 weeks. Animals were then killed for histological and biochemical analysis or subjected to left ventricular haemodynamic evaluation under baseline conditions, in response to isovolumetric contractions and to sustained LV acute pressure overload (35% increase in peak systolic pressure maintained for 2 h). Baseline cardiac function was enhanced only in Ex, whereas the response to isovolumetric heartbeats was improved in both ITO and Ex. By contrast to the Cont group, in which rats developed diastolic dysfunction with sustained acute pressure overload, ITO and Ex showed increased tolerance to this stress test. Both ITO and Ex developed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without fibrosis, no overexpression of osteopontin-1 or β-myosin heavy chain, and increased expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) protein. Regarding hypertrophic pathways, ITO and Ex showed activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway but not calcineurin. Mitochondrial complex IV and V activities were also increased in ITO and Ex. Chronic submission to controlled intermittent cardiac overload, independently of its nature, results in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Features of the cardiac overload, such as the duration and

  18. Bone marrow dendritic cells from mice with an altered microbiota provide interleukin 17A-dependent protection against Entamoeba histolytica colitis.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Stacey L; Buonomo, Erica; Carey, Maureen; Cowardin, Carrie; Naylor, Caitlin; Noor, Zannatun; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Petri, William A

    2014-11-04

    There is an emerging paradigm that the human microbiome is central to many aspects of health and may have a role in preventing enteric infection. Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of amebic diarrhea in developing countries. It colonizes the colon lumen in close proximity to the gut microbiota. Interestingly, not all individuals are equally susceptible to E. histolytica infection. Therefore, as the microbiota is highly variable within individuals, we sought to determine if a component of the microbiota could regulate susceptibility to infection. In studies utilizing a murine model, we demonstrated that colonization of the gut with the commensal Clostridia-related bacteria known as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) is protective during E. histolytica infection. SFB colonization in this model was associated with elevated cecal levels of interleukin 17A (IL-17A), dendritic cells, and neutrophils. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from SFB-colonized mice had higher levels of IL-23 production in response to stimulation with trophozoites. Adoptive transfer of BMDCs from an SFB(+) to an SFB(-) mouse was sufficient to provide protection against E. histolytica. IL-17A induction during BMDC transfer was necessary for this protection. This work demonstrates that intestinal colonization with a specific commensal bacterium can provide protection during amebiasis in a murine model. Most importantly, this work demonstrates that the microbiome can mediate protection against an enteric infection via extraintestinal effects on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, an infectious disease that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea in the developing world. We showed in a murine model that colonization with the commensal members of the Clostridia known as SFB provides protection against E. histolytica and that dendritic cells from SFB-colonized mice alone can recapitulate protection

  19. Inactivated vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) emulsified with squalene and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant provides long term protection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Kim, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2013-09-23

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) remains an unsolved health problem in Korean aquaculture. Vaccination plays a significant role in modern aquaculture, and the duration of protection provided is of vital importance. Here, we have demonstrated the efficacy, duration of protection and safety of an inactivated vaccine emulsified with squalene (5%) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5%). The inactivated VHS vaccine provided a moderate protection of 37% and 47% relative percent survival (RPS) at 4 and 10 weeks post vaccination (wpv). Addition of squalene and aluminum hydroxide into inactivated VHS vaccine clearly enhanced the level of protection showing 58% and 83% RPS at 4 and 10 wpv, respectively, indicating the need for adjuvants to enhance the efficacy. The vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 40 wpv (except week 57) than non-vaccinated fish to an intraperitoneal challenge of 10(7.1)TCID₅₀/fish at 15 °C, with RPS of 60%, 64%, 71%, 55%, 52% and 50% (45% at 57 week), respectively, covering the duration of natural outbreak. Fish challenged at 18 wpv at 6 °C showed 56% RPS and protection at a low temperature. The antibody titer was high at 3 wpv with an OD of 1.08 ± 0.13, but decreased gradually and was undetectable by 24 wpv. The vaccine formulation was safe without injection site reactions, adhesions, or pigmentation observed at 6, 12, 18, or 24 wpv. Inflammatory reactions were observed in the spleen intestine at 6 and 12 wpv but were similar as control by 24 wpv. These results confirm that this vaccine is efficient and safe for olive flounder and could offer an appropriate strategy to prevent VHS without causing side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) provides protection against whole-body γ-irradiation in mice via restoration of hematopoietic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K.; Abdel Fattah, Salma M.; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the protective effect of MGN-3 on overall maintenance of hematopoietic tissue after γ-irradiation. MGN-3 is an arabinoxylan from rice bran that has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant and immune modulator. Swiss albino mice were treated with MGN-3 prior to irradiation and continued to receive MGN-3 for 1 or 4 weeks. Results were compared with mice that received radiation (5 Gy γ rays) only, MGN-3 (40 mg/kg) only and control mice (receiving neither radiation nor MGN-3). At 1 and 4 weeks post-irradiation, different hematological, histopathological and biochemical parameters were examined. Mice exposed to irradiation alone showed significant depression in their complete blood count (CBC) except for neutrophilia. Additionally, histopathological studies showed hypocellularity of their bone marrow, as well as a remarkable decrease in splenic weight/relative size and in number of megakaryocytes. In contrast, pre-treatment with MGN-3 resulted in protection against irradiation-induced damage to the CBC parameters associated with complete bone marrow cellularity, as well as protection of the aforementioned splenic changes. Furthermore, MGN-3 exerted antioxidative activity in whole-body irradiated mice, and provided protection from irradiation-induced loss of body and organ weight. In conclusion, MGN-3 has the potential to protect progenitor cells in the bone marrow, which suggests the possible use of MGN-3/Biobran as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the severe adverse side effects associated with radiation therapy. PMID:23287771

  1. Chimeric Anti-Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Antibodies and Lovastatin Act Synergistically to Provide In Vivo Protection against Lethal Doses of SEB

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Mulualem E.; Kwan, Alan; Natarajan, Kannan; Quinn, Megan; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; Xie, Chen; Margulies, David H.; Osborne, Barbara A.; Goldsby, Richard A.; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of a family of toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that act as superantigens, activating a large fraction of the T-cell population and inducing production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines that can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and death. Extracellular engagement of the TCR of T-cells and class II MHC of antigen presenting cells by SEB triggers the activation of many intracellular signaling processes. We engineered chimeric antibodies to block the extracellular engagement of cellular receptors by SEB and used a statin to inhibit intracellular signaling. Chimeric human-mouse antibodies directed against different neutralizing epitopes of SEB synergistically inhibited its activation of human T-cells in vitro. In the in vivo model of lethal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice, two of these antibodies conferred significant partial protection when administered individually, but offered complete protection in a synergistic manner when given together. Similarly, in vivo, lovastatin alone conferred only partial protection from TSS similar to single anti-SEB antibodies. However, used in combination with one chimeric neutralizing anti-SEB antibody, lovastatin provided complete protection against lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. These experiments demonstrate that in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB can be achieved by a statin of proven clinical safety and chimeric human-mouse antibodies, agents now widely used and known to be of low immunogenicity in human hosts. PMID:22102880

  2. Vaccination with a single CD4 T cell peptide epitope from a Salmonella type III-secreted effector protein provides protection against lethal infection.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Jonathan R; Petersen, Hailey E; Frederick, Daniel R; Morici, Lisa A; McLachlan, James B

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella infections affect millions worldwide and remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It is known from mouse studies that CD4 T cells are essential mediators of immunity against Salmonella infection, yet it is not clear whether targeting CD4 T cell responses directly with peptide vaccines against Salmonella can be effective in combating infection. Additionally, it is not known whether T cell responses elicited against Salmonella secreted effector proteins can provide protective immunity against infection. In this study, we investigated both of these possibilities using prime-boost immunization of susceptible mice with a single CD4 T cell peptide epitope from Salmonella secreted effector protein I (SseI), a component of the Salmonella type III secretion system. This immunization conferred significant protection against lethal oral infection, equivalent to that conferred by whole heat-killed Salmonella bacteria. Surprisingly, a well-characterized T cell epitope from the flagellar protein FliC afforded no protection compared to immunization with an irrelevant control peptide. The protective response appeared to be most associated with polyfunctional CD4 T cells raised against the SseI peptide, since no antibodies were produced against any of the peptides and very little CD8 T cell response was observed. Overall, this study demonstrates that eliciting CD4 T cell responses against components of the Salmonella type III secretion system can contribute to protection against infection and should be considered in the design of future Salmonella subunit vaccines.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Fallout-Radiation Protection Provided by Selected Structures in the Los Angeles Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-02-26

    CIVIL EFFECTS TEST OPERATIONS U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 140 "to¸ NOTICE This report is published in the interest of providing information which may...prove of value to the reader in his study of effects data derived principally from nuclear weapons tests and from experiments designed to duplicate...Branch Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc. Las Vegas, Nevada June 1962 TECHNICAL PARTICIPANTS Civil Effects Test Operations, Division of Biology and

  4. DNA Vaccination of the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) Provides Partial Protection Against Lethal Challenge with West Nile Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    North America, West Nile virus (WNV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has caused a series of outbreaks since its discovery in 1999, resulting in...encephalitis virus (SLEV). For challenge studies , the crows were moved to an animal biosafety level–3 (ABSL-3) facility, where they were placed in... studies . Birds were provided fresh water and a mixture of dog food, cat food, and cracked corn ad libitum, with supplementation including fresh fruits and

  5. Cyclic electron flow may provide some protection against PSII photoinhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Essemine, Jemaa; Xiao, Yi; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-04-01

    Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress. We observed a stepwise alteration in the shape of Chl a fluorescence induction (OJIP) with increasing temperature treatment. The effect of 44°C treatment on the damping in Chl a fluorescence was more pronounced in C4023 than in Q4149. Likewise, we noted a disruption in the I-step, a decline in the Fv due to a strong damping in the Fm, and a slight increase in the F0. Normalized data demonstrated that the I-step seems more susceptible to 44°C in C4023 than in Q4149. We also measured the redox states of plastocyanin (PC) and P700 by monitoring the transmission changes at 820nm (I820), and observed a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction kinetics of PC and P700. The decline in the amplitude of their oxidation was shown to be about 29% and 13% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The electropotential component (Δφ) of ms-DLE appeared more sensitive to temperature stress than the chemical component (ΔpH), and the impact of heat was more evident and drastic in C4023 than in Q4149. Under heat stress, we noticed a concomitant decline in the primary photochemistry of PSII as well as in both the membrane energization process and the lumen protonation for both accessions, and it is evident that heat affects these parameters more in C4023 than in Q4149. All these data suggest that higher CET can confer higher photoprotection to PSII in rice lines, which can be a desirable trait during rice breeding, especially in the context of a "warming

  6. Human intravenous immunoglobulin provides protection against Aβ toxicity by multiple mechanisms in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Purified intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) obtained from the plasma of healthy humans is indicated for the treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with defects in humoral immunity. IVIG contains naturally occurring auto-antibodies, including antibodies (Abs) against β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides accumulating in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. IVIG has been shown to alleviate AD pathology when studied with mildly affected AD patients. Although its mechanisms-of-action have been broadly studied, it remains unresolved how IVIG affects the removal of natively formed brain Aβ deposits by primary astrocytes and microglia, two major cell types involved in the neuroinflammatory responses. Methods We first determined the effect of IVIG on Aβ toxicity in primary neuronal cell culture. The mechanisms-of-action of IVIG in reduction of Aβ burden was analyzed with ex vivo assay. We studied whether IVIG solubilizes natively formed Aβ deposits from brain sections of APP/PS1 mice or promotes Aβ removal by primary glial cells. We determined the role of lysosomal degradation pathway and Aβ Abs in the IVIG-promoted reduction of Aβ. Finally, we studied the penetration of IVIG into the brain parenchyma and interaction with brain deposits of human Aβ in a mouse model of AD in vivo. Results IVIG was protective against Aβ toxicity in a primary mouse hippocampal neuron culture. IVIG modestly inhibited the fibrillization of synthetic Aβ1-42 but did not solubilize natively formed brain Aβ deposits ex vivo. IVIG enhanced microglia-mediated Aβ clearance ex vivo, with a mechanism linked to Aβ Abs and lysosomal degradation. The IVIG-enhanced Aβ clearance appears specific for microglia since IVIG did not affect Aβ clearance by astrocytes. The cellular mechanisms of Aβ clearance we observed have potential relevance in vivo since after peripheral administration IVIG penetrated to mouse brain tissue reaching highest concentrations in the

  7. The cercal organ may provide singing tettigoniids a backup sensory system for the detection of eavesdropping bats.

    PubMed

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Ofner, Elisabeth; Grossauer, Viktoria; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-09-13

    Conspicuous signals, such as the calling songs of tettigoniids, are intended to attract mates but may also unintentionally attract predators. Among them bats that listen to prey-generated sounds constitute a predation pressure for many acoustically communicating insects as well as frogs. As an adaptation to protect against bat predation many insect species evolved auditory sensitivity to bat-emitted echolocation signals. Recently, the European mouse-eared bat species Myotis myotis and M. blythii oxygnathus were found to eavesdrop on calling songs of the tettigoniid Tettigonia cantans. These gleaning bats emit rather faint echolocation signals when approaching prey and singing insects may have difficulty detecting acoustic predator-related signals. The aim of this study was to determine (1) if loud self-generated sound produced by European tettigoniids impairs the detection of pulsed ultrasound and (2) if wind-sensors on the cercal organ function as a sensory backup system for bat detection in tettigoniids. We addressed these questions by combining a behavioral approach to study the response of two European tettigoniid species to pulsed ultrasound, together with an electrophysiological approach to record the activity of wind-sensitive interneurons during real attacks of the European mouse-eared bat species Myotis myotis. Results showed that singing T. cantans males did not respond to sequences of ultrasound pulses, whereas singing T. viridissima did respond with predominantly brief song pauses when ultrasound pulses fell into silent intervals or were coincident with the production of soft hemi-syllables. This result, however, strongly depended on ambient temperature with a lower probability for song interruption observable at 21°C compared to 28°C. Using extracellular recordings, dorsal giant interneurons of tettigoniids were shown to fire regular bursts in response to attacking bats. Between the first response of wind-sensitive interneurons and contact, a mean

  8. The Cercal Organ May Provide Singing Tettigoniids a Backup Sensory System for the Detection of Eavesdropping Bats

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Ofner, Elisabeth; Grossauer, Viktoria; Siemers, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    Conspicuous signals, such as the calling songs of tettigoniids, are intended to attract mates but may also unintentionally attract predators. Among them bats that listen to prey-generated sounds constitute a predation pressure for many acoustically communicating insects as well as frogs. As an adaptation to protect against bat predation many insect species evolved auditory sensitivity to bat-emitted echolocation signals. Recently, the European mouse-eared bat species Myotis myotis and M. blythii oxygnathus were found to eavesdrop on calling songs of the tettigoniid Tettigonia cantans. These gleaning bats emit rather faint echolocation signals when approaching prey and singing insects may have difficulty detecting acoustic predator-related signals. The aim of this study was to determine (1) if loud self-generated sound produced by European tettigoniids impairs the detection of pulsed ultrasound and (2) if wind-sensors on the cercal organ function as a sensory backup system for bat detection in tettigoniids. We addressed these questions by combining a behavioral approach to study the response of two European tettigoniid species to pulsed ultrasound, together with an electrophysiological approach to record the activity of wind-sensitive interneurons during real attacks of the European mouse-eared bat species Myotis myotis. Results showed that singing T. cantans males did not respond to sequences of ultrasound pulses, whereas singing T. viridissima did respond with predominantly brief song pauses when ultrasound pulses fell into silent intervals or were coincident with the production of soft hemi-syllables. This result, however, strongly depended on ambient temperature with a lower probability for song interruption observable at 21°C compared to 28°C. Using extracellular recordings, dorsal giant interneurons of tettigoniids were shown to fire regular bursts in response to attacking bats. Between the first response of wind-sensitive interneurons and contact, a mean

  9. A Duck Enteritis Virus-Vectored Bivalent Live Vaccine Provides Fast and Complete Protection against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Ducks ▿ † §

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-01-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 106 PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks. PMID:21865383

  10. A duck enteritis virus-vectored bivalent live vaccine provides fast and complete protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-11-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 10(6) PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks.

  11. Recombinant Marek’s disease virus type 1 provides full protection against very virulent Marek’s and infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Liu, Yongzhen; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Li; Zhang, Yanping; Cui, Hongyu; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Zhong, Li; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a preferred vector in the construction of recombinant vaccines. However, bivalent vaccine based on MDV that confers full protection against both very virulent Marek’s and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infections in chickens has not been produced. Here we developed a system utilizing overlapping fosmid DNAs transfection that rescues an MDV type 1 (MDV1) vaccine strain. Using this system, we inserted the IBDV VP2 gene at MDV1 genome sites UL41, US10 and US2. The VP2 protein was stably expressed in the recombinant MDV-infected cells and self-assembled into IBDV subviral particles. Insertion of the VP2 gene did not affect the replication phenotype of MDV in cell cultures, nor did it increase the virulence of the MDV vaccine strain in chickens. After challenge with very virulent IBDV, r814US2VP2 conferred full protection, whereas r814UL41VP2 and r814US10VP2 provided partial or no protection. All the three recombinant vaccines provided full protection against very virulent MDV challenge in chickens. These results demonstrated that r814US2VP2 could be used as a promising bivalent vaccine against both Marek’s and infectious bursal diseases in chickens. PMID:27982090

  12. Pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, provides comparable protection to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril against adriamycin nephropathy in rat.

    PubMed

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Mesarosova, Lucia; Cernecka, Hana; Klimas, Jan; Krenek, Peter; Goris, Maaike; van Dokkum, Richard P E; Henning, Robert H; Kyselovic, Jan

    2014-05-05

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists have been shown to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy, but much less are known about their effects in non-diabetic nephropathies. In the present study, metabolic parameters, blood pressure, aortic endothelial function along with molecular and structural markers of glomerular and tubulointerstitial renal damage, were studied in a rat model of normotensive nephropathy induced by adriamycin and treated with PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (12mg/kg, po), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ramipril (1mg/kg, po) or their combination. Pioglitazone had no effect on systolic blood pressure, marginally reduced glycemia and improved aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation. In the kidney, pioglitazone prevented the development of proteinuria and focal glomerulosclerosis to the similar extent as blood-pressure lowering ramipril. Renoprotection provided by either treatment was associated with a reduction in the cortical expression of profibrotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and microvascular damage-inducing endothelin-1, and a limitation of interstitial macrophage influx. Treatment with PPARγ agonist, as well as ACE inhibitor comparably affected renal expression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, normalizing increased renal expression of ACE and enhancing the expression of Mas receptor. Interestingly, combined pioglitazone and ramipril treatment did not provide any additional renoprotection. These results demonstrate that in a nondiabetic renal disease, such as adriamycin-induced nephropathy, PPARγ agonist pioglitazone provides renoprotection to a similar extent as an ACE inhibitor by interfering with the expression of local RAS components and attenuating related profibrotic and inflammatory mechanisms. The combination of the both agents, however, does not lead to any additional renal benefit.

  13. Rotor burst protection program: Experimentation to provide guidelines for the design of turbine rotor burst fragment containment rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, G. J.; Salvino, J. T.; Delucia, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Empirical guidelines for the design of minimum weight turbine rotor disk fragment containment rings made from a monolithic metal were generated by experimentally establishing the relationship between a variable that provides a measure of containment ring capability and several other variables that both characterized the configurational aspects of the rotor fragments and containment ring, and had been found from exploratory testing to have had significant influence on the containment process. Test methodology and data analysis techniques are described. Results are presented in graphs and tables.

  14. DNA Vaccination Affords Significant Protection against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection without Inducing Detectable Antiviral Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, Margaret J.; Flynn, J. Norman; Rigby, Mark A.; Cannon, Celia; Dunsford, Thomas; Mackay, Nancy A.; Argyle, David; Willett, Brian J.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Onions, David E.; Jarrett, Oswald; Neil, James C.

    1998-01-01

    To test the potential of a multigene DNA vaccine against lentivirus infection, we generated a defective mutant provirus of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) with an in-frame deletion in pol (FIVΔRT). In a first experiment, FIVΔRT DNA was administered intramuscularly to 10 animals, half of which also received feline gamma interferon (IFN-γ) DNA. The DNA was administered in four 100-μg doses at 0, 10, and 23 weeks. Immunization with FIVΔRT elicited cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses to FIV Gag and Env in the absence of a serological response. After challenge with homologous virus at week 26, all 10 of the control animals became seropositive and viremic but 4 of the 10 vaccinates remained seronegative and virus free. Furthermore, quantitative virus isolation and quantitative PCR analysis of viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed significantly lower virus loads in the FIVΔRT vaccinates than in the controls. Immunization with FIVΔRT in conjunction with IFN-γ gave the highest proportion of protected cats, with only two of five vaccinates showing evidence of infection following challenge. In a second experiment involving two groups (FIVΔRT plus IFN-γ and IFN-γ alone), the immunization schedule was reduced to 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Once again, CTL responses were seen prior to challenge in the absence of detectable antibodies. Two of five cats receiving the proviral DNA vaccine were protected against infection, with an overall reduction in virus load compared to the five infected controls. These findings demonstrate that DNA vaccination can elicit protection against lentivirus infection in the absence of a serological response and suggest the need to reconsider efficacy criteria for lentivirus vaccines. PMID:9696827

  15. A monoclonal antibody targeting a highly conserved epitope in influenza B neuraminidase provides protection against drug resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Tracey M; Li, Changgui; Bucher, Doris J; Hashem, Anwar M; Van Domselaar, Gary; Wang, Junzhi; Farnsworth, Aaron; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry; He, Runtao; Brown, Earl G; Hurt, Aeron C; Li, Xuguang

    2013-11-08

    All influenza viral neuraminidases (NA) of both type A and B viruses have only one universally conserved sequence located between amino acids 222-230. A monoclonal antibody against this region has been previously reported to provide broad inhibition against all nine subtypes of influenza A NA; yet its inhibitory effect against influenza B viral NA remained unknown. Here, we report that the monoclonal antibody provides a broad inhibition against various strains of influenza B viruses of both Victoria and Yamagata genetic lineage. Moreover, the growth and NA enzymatic activity of two drug resistant influenza B strains (E117D and D197E) are also inhibited by the antibody even though these two mutations are conformationally proximal to the universal epitope. Collectively, these data suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral NA is exposed sufficiently to allow access by inhibitory antibody during the course of infection; it could represent a potential target for antiviral agents and vaccine-induced immune responses against diverse strains of type B influenza virus.

  16. Lead field theory provides a powerful tool for designing microelectrode array impedance measurements for biological cell detection and observation.

    PubMed

    Böttrich, Marcel; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2017-06-26

    Our aim is to introduce a method to enhance the design process of microelectrode array (MEA) based electric bioimpedance measurement systems for improved detection and viability assessment of living cells and tissues. We propose the application of electromagnetic lead field theory and reciprocity for MEA design and measurement result interpretation. Further, we simulated impedance spectroscopy (IS) with two- and four-electrode setups and a biological cell to illustrate the tool in the assessment of the capabilities of given MEA electrode constellations for detecting cells on or in the vicinity of the microelectrodes. The results show the power of the lead field theory in electromagnetic simulations of cell-microelectrode systems depicting the fundamental differences of two- and four-electrode IS measurement configurations to detect cells. Accordingly, the use in MEA system design is demonstrated by assessing the differences between the two- and four-electrode IS configurations. Further, our results show how cells affect the lead fields in these MEA system, and how we can utilize the differences of the two- and four-electrode setups in cell detection. The COMSOL simulator model is provided freely in public domain as open source. Lead field theory can be successfully applied in MEA design for the IS based assessment of biological cells providing the necessary visualization and insight for MEA design. The proposed method is expected to enhance the design and usability of automated cell and tissue manipulation systems required for bioreactors, which are intended for the automated production of cell and tissue grafts for medical purposes. MEA systems are also intended for toxicology to assess the effects of chemicals on living cells. Our results demonstrate that lead field concept is expected to enhance also the development of such methods and devices.

  17. Yeast expressed classical swine fever E2 subunit vaccine candidate provides complete protection against lethal challenge infection and prevents horizontal virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guang-Jan; Deng, Ming-Chung; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Liu, Ting-Yu; Wu, Ching-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Yuan; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chienjin

    2012-03-16

    Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious swine disease resulting in large economical losses worldwide. The viral envelope glycoprotein E(rns) and E2 are major targets for eliciting antibodies against CSFV in infected animals. A Pichia pastoris yeast expressed E2 protein (yE2) has been shown to induce a protective immune response against CSFV challenge. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal dose of yE2 and its efficacy on the prevention of virus horizontal transmission. A yeast-expressed E(rns) (yE(rns)) protein was also included to evaluate its immunogenicity. The yE(rns) vaccinated pigs seroconverted to CSFV-E(rns)-specific antibody but no neutralizing antibody was detected and none survived after challenge infection, suggesting yE(rns) and yE2 retain correct immunogenicity but only the yE2 is able to induce a protective immune response. All three doses of yE2 (200, 300, and 400μg) could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies and protective responses after challenge. The yE2/200 group demonstrated a mild fever response but recovered soon, and none of the yE2/300 and yE2/400 pigs became febrile. The optimal dose of yE2 was recommended to be 300μg of the total amount of secreted proteins. In addition, the yE2 vaccine could cross-protect from all three genotypes of viruses. Further, the yE2 vaccine efficacy in preventing virus horizontal transmission was evaluated by cohabitation of unimmunized sentinels 3 days after challenge infection. All the sentinel pigs were alive and had no clinical symptoms confirming yE2 vaccine could confer a protective immune response and prevent horizontal transmission of CSFV.

  18. Micheliolide provides protection of mice against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA infection by down-regulating inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinru; Wang, Yuli; Qin, Yifei; He, Weigang; Benlahrech, Adel; Zhang, Qingwen; Jiang, Xin; Lu, Zhenhui; Ji, Guang; Zheng, Yuejuan

    2017-01-01

    A major obstacle to therapy in intensive care units is sepsis caused by severe infection. In recent years gram-positive (G+) bacteria, most commonly staphylococci, are thought to be the main pathogens. Micheliolide (MCL) was demonstrated to provide a therapeutic role in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main component of G− bacterial cell wall) induced septic shock. We proved here that MCL played an anti-inflammatory role in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) induced peritonitis. It inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with peptidoglycan (PGN, the main cell wall composition of G+ bacteria). PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways account for the anti-inflammatory role of MCL after PGN stimulation. MCL reduced IL-6 secretion through down-regulating NF-κB activation and improved the survival status in mice challenged with a lethal dose of S. aureus. In MRSA infection mouse model, MCL down-regulated the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1/CCL2 and IFN-γ in sera, and ameliorated the organ damage of liver and kidney. In conclusion, MCL can help maintain immune equilibrium and decrease PGN, S. aureus and MRSA-triggered inflammatory response. These provide the rationality for the potential usage of MCL in sepsis caused by G+ bacteria (e.g., S. aureus) and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., MRSA). PMID:28165033

  19. Pension reforms in Hong Kong: using residual and collaborative strategies to deal with the government's financial responsibility in providing retirement protection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sam Wai-Kam

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, the Hong Kong government introduced the first compulsory retirement saving scheme intended to protect the entire workforce, the Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF). Prior to the introduction of this scheme, the government's main measure for giving financial protection to retirees was the Comprehensive Social Security Assistance (CSSA) scheme, which is a noncontributory, means-tested financial assistance scheme. This paper studies the government's attempt to introduce the MPF on top of the CSSA scheme as a means to illustrate how governments might address their financial responsibilities in providing pension schemes by adopting both the residual strategy-centered reform approach and the collaborative strategy-centered reform approach. The former approach is concerned with developing noncontributory schemes using residual strategies, and the latter is concerned with developing contributory schemes using collaborative strategies. The paper shows the difficulties involved in carrying out these two reform approaches simultaneously.

  20. Previous infection with West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses provides cross protection during reinfection in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K

    2006-09-01

    House finches are competent hosts for both West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses and frequently become infected during outbreaks. In the current study, House finches were infected initially with either West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented mortality upon challenge with West Nile virus. Prior infection with West Nile virus provided sterilizing immunity against both viruses, whereas prior infection with St. Louis encephalitis virus prevented viremia from St. Louis encephalitis virus, but only reduced West Nile virus viremia titers. Immunologic responses were measured by enzyme immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Heterologous challenge with West Nile virus in birds previously infected with St. Louis encephalitis virus produced the greatest immunologic response, markedly boosting antibody levels against St. Louis encephalitis virus. Our data have broad implications for free-ranging avian serological diagnostics and possibly for the recent disappearance of St. Louis encephalitis virus from California.

  1. Gamma-linolenic acid provides additional protection against ventricular fibrillation in aged rats fed linoleic acid rich diets.

    PubMed

    Charnock, J S

    2000-02-01

    Ligation of the coronary artery in rats produces severe ventricular fibrillation (VF) and malignant cardiac arrhythmia. Mortality increases with the age of the animal. Diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SF) but low in linoleic acid (LA) increase, but diets high in LA and low in SF decrease the severity of VF and mortality in older animals. The effects of an LA enriched diet can be blocked by inhibition of cyclooxygenase suggesting that conversion of LA to eicosanoids is central to the development of VF. Conversion of LA to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) via delta-6 desaturase is the first step in the process. The activity of delta-6 desaturase declines with age. Thus inclusion of GLA in the diet of older animals may provide an additional benefit over LA alone. Dietary supplements of evening primrose oil (EPO) to one year old rats reduced ischaemic VF more than a supplement of sunflower seed oil (SSO) without GLA. Substitution of borage oil (more GLA than EPO but less LA than either EPO or SSO) was without additional benefit.

  2. Antigen-specific B-1a antibodies induced by Francisella tularensis LPS provide long-term protection against F. tularensis LVS challenge

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Leah E.; Yang, Yang; Elkins, Karen L.; Fernandez, Ellen T.; Qureshi, Nilofer; Shlomchik, Mark J.; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis (Ft), a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium, is the etiologic agent of tularemia. Infection of mice with <10 Ft Live Vaccine Strain (Ft LVS) organisms i.p. causes a lethal infection that resembles human tularemia. Here, we show that immunization with as little as 0.1 ng Ft LVS lipopolysaccharide (Ft-LPS), but not Ft lipid A, generates a rapid antibody response that protects wild-type (WT) mice against lethal Ft LVS challenge. Protection is not induced in Ft-LPS-immunized B cell-deficient mice (μMT or JhD), male xid mice, or Ig transgenic mice that produce a single IgH (not reactive with Ft-LPS). Focusing on the cellular mechanisms that underlie this protective response, we show that Ft-LPS specifically stimulates proliferation of B-1a lymphocytes that bind fluorochrome-labeled Ft-LPS and the differentiation of these cells to plasma cells that secrete antibodies specific for Ft-LPS. This exclusively B-1a antibody response is equivalent in WT, T-deficient (TCRαβ−/−, TCRγδ−/−), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient (TLR4−/−) mice and thus is not dependent on T cells or typical inflammatory processes. Serum antibody levels peak ≈5 days after Ft-LPS immunization and persist at low levels for months. Thus, immunization with Ft-LPS activates a rare population of antigen-specific B-1a cells to produce a persistent T-independent antibody response that provides long-term protection against lethal Ft LVS infection. These data support the possibility of creating effective, minimally invasive vaccines that can provide effective protection against pathogen invasion. PMID:19251656

  3. Antibodies biotinylated using a synthetic Z-domain from protein A provide stringent in situ protein detection.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sandra; Konrad, Anna; Ashok, Nikhil; Pontén, Fredrik; Hober, Sophia; Asplund, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Antibody-based protein profiling on a global scale using immunohistochemistry constitutes an emerging strategy for mapping of the human proteome, which is crucial for an increased understanding of biological processes in the cell. Immunohistochemistry is often performed indirectly using secondary antibodies for detection, with the benefit of signal amplification. Direct immunohistochemistry instead brings the advantage of multiplexing; however, it requires labeling of the primary antibody. Many antibody-labeling kits do not specifically target IgG and may therefore cause labeling of stabilizing proteins present in the antibody solution. A new conjugation method has been developed that utilizes a modified Z-domain of protein A (ZBPA) to specifically target the Fc part of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ZBPA conjugation method and a commercially available labeling kit, Lightning-Link, for in situ protein detection. Fourteen antibodies were biotinylated with each method and stained using immunohistochemistry. For all antibodies tested, ZBPA biotinylation resulted in distinct immunoreactivity without off-target staining, regardless of the presence of stabilizing proteins in the buffer, whereas the majority of the Lightning-Link biotinylated antibodies displayed a characteristic pattern of nonspecific staining. We conclude that biotinylated ZBPA domain provides a stringent method for antibody biotinylation, advantageous for in situ protein detection in tissues.

  4. Antibodies Biotinylated Using a Synthetic Z-domain from Protein A Provide Stringent In Situ Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Anna; Ashok, Nikhil; Pontén, Fredrik; Hober, Sophia; Asplund, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-based protein profiling on a global scale using immunohistochemistry constitutes an emerging strategy for mapping of the human proteome, which is crucial for an increased understanding of biological processes in the cell. Immunohistochemistry is often performed indirectly using secondary antibodies for detection, with the benefit of signal amplification. Direct immunohistochemistry instead brings the advantage of multiplexing; however, it requires labeling of the primary antibody. Many antibody-labeling kits do not specifically target IgG and may therefore cause labeling of stabilizing proteins present in the antibody solution. A new conjugation method has been developed that utilizes a modified Z-domain of protein A (ZBPA) to specifically target the Fc part of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ZBPA conjugation method and a commercially available labeling kit, Lightning-Link, for in situ protein detection. Fourteen antibodies were biotinylated with each method and stained using immunohistochemistry. For all antibodies tested, ZBPA biotinylation resulted in distinct immunoreactivity without off-target staining, regardless of the presence of stabilizing proteins in the buffer, whereas the majority of the Lightning-Link biotinylated antibodies displayed a characteristic pattern of nonspecific staining. We conclude that biotinylated ZBPA domain provides a stringent method for antibody biotinylation, advantageous for in situ protein detection in tissues. PMID:23920108

  5. High resolution FTIR imaging provides automated discrimination and detection of single malaria parasite infected erythrocytes on glass.

    PubMed

    Perez-Guaita, David; Andrew, Dean; Heraud, Philip; Beeson, James; Anderson, David; Richards, Jack; Wood, Bayden R

    2016-06-23

    New highly sensitive tools for malaria diagnostics are urgently needed to enable the detection of infection in asymptomatic carriers and patients with low parasitemia. In pursuit of a highly sensitive diagnostic tool that can identify parasite infections at the single cell level, we have been exploring Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy using a Focal Plane Array (FPA) imaging detector. Here we report for the first time the application of a new optic configuration developed by Agilent that incorporates 25× condenser and objective Cassegrain optics with a high numerical aperture (NA = 0.81) along with additional high magnification optics within the microscope to provide 0.66 micron pixel resolution (total IR system magnification of 61×) to diagnose malaria parasites at the single cell level on a conventional glass microscope slide. The high quality images clearly resolve the parasite's digestive vacuole demonstrating sub-cellular resolution using this approach. Moreover, we have developed an algorithm that first detects the cells in the infrared image, and secondly extracts the average spectrum. The average spectrum is then run through a model based on Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), which diagnoses unequivocally the infected from normal cells. The high quality images, and the fact this measurement can be achieved without a synchrotron source on a conventional glass slide, shows promise as a potential gold standard for malaria detection at the single cell level.

  6. A recombinant 63-kDa form of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen produced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides protection in rabbit and primate inhalational challenge models of anthrax infection.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Robert W; Kelly, Rosemarie; McNeely, Tessie B; Fan, Hongxia; Losada, Maria C; George, Hugh A; Woods, Andrea; Cope, Leslie D; Bansal, Alka; Cook, James C; Zang, Gina; Cohen, Steven L; Wei, Xiaorong; Keller, Paul M; Leffel, Elizabeth; Joyce, Joseph G; Pitt, Louise; Schultz, Loren D; Jansen, Kathrin U; Kurtz, Myra

    2006-03-06

    Infection by Bacillus anthracis is preventable by prophylactic vaccination with several naturally derived and recombinant vaccine preparations. Existing data suggests that protection is mediated by antibodies directed against the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxin complex. PA is an 83-kDa protein cleaved in vivo to yield a biologically active 63-kDa protein. In an effort to evaluate the potential of yeast as an expression system for the production of recombinant PA, and to determine if the yeast-purified rPA63 can protect from a lethal inhalational challenge, the sequence of the 63-kDa form of PA was codon-optimized and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Highly purified rPA63 isolated from Saccharomyces under denaturing conditions demonstrated reduced biological activity in a macrophage-killing assay compared to non-denatured rPA83 purified from Escherichia coli. Rabbits and non-human primates (NHP) immunized with rPA63 and later challenged with a lethal dose of B. anthracis spores were generally protected from infection. These results indicate that epitopes present in the 63-kDa from of PA can protect rabbits and non-human primates from a lethal spore challenge, and further suggest that a fully functional rPA63 is not required in order to provide these epitopes.

  7. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  8. [Who Should Provide Persons with Familial Risk of Colorectal Cancer with Information on Early Detection? - The View of those Affected].

    PubMed

    Plath, Jasper; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Schulz-Rothe, Sylvia; Güthlin, Corina

    2017-06-19

    Background Colonoscopy is recommended for persons with a familial risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) before they reach 55 years of age. The aim of this analysis was to ask affected persons aged 40-54 years whether they had found out about early detection of CRC and from which institutions and media they would like to obtain such information. Methods Analysis of data from a cross-sectional study: In a general practice setting, those with a positive family history of CRC were asked to provide written information. Results In total, 191 persons with a positive family history of CRC participated in the study: 59.6% had already found out about early detection of CRC. Out of this, 67.0% had received information from their physicians. Most of the participants wanted information on early detection of CRC to be provided by the general practitioner (98.9% completely or mostly agree), and by health insurers (74.5% completely or mostly agree). The participants would rather not prefer to receive information from public institutions such as the public health department (69.5% not or mostly not agree) and private organizations such as self-help groups (80.9% not or mostly not agree). Approximately half would prefer to receive such information via TV. More men than women would prefer to source such information from the internet (completely or mostly agree: 66.7 vs. 43.8%), or newspapers and magazines (completely or mostly agree: 53.6 vs. 41.8%). Conclusion A survey in a general practice setting found that more than half of persons with familial risk of CRC had already obtained information on early detection. The setting of the survey on preferred information sources possibly encouraged participants to put general practitioners in the first place. Furthermore, the results of this nationwide unique cohort of persons aged 40-54 with a familial risk of CRC show that their information-seeking behavior was not more pronounced than average and that men and women can be provided with

  9. SadA, a Trimeric Autotransporter from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Can Promote Biofilm Formation and Provides Limited Protection against Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Raghunathan, Dhaarini; Wells, Timothy J.; Morris, Faye C.; Shaw, Robert K.; Bobat, Saeeda; Peters, Sarah E.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Jensen, Karina Tveen; Leyton, Denisse L.; Blair, Jessica M. A.; Browning, Douglas F.; Pravin, John; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Hitchcock, Jessica R.; Moraes, Claudia T. P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Webber, Mark A.; May, Robin C.; MacLennan, Calman A.; Piddock, Laura J.; Cunningham, Adam F.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and mortality in children and immunocompromised individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. Outer membrane proteins of Salmonella are of significance because they are at the interface between the pathogen and the host, they can contribute to adherence, colonization, and virulence, and they are frequently targets of antibody-mediated immunity. In this study, the properties of SadA, a purported trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were examined. We demonstrated that SadA is exposed on the Salmonella cell surface in vitro and in vivo during infection of mice. Expression of SadA resulted in cell aggregation, biofilm formation, and increased adhesion to human intestinal Caco-2 epithelial cells. Immunization of mice with folded, full-length, purified SadA elicited an IgG response which provided limited protection against bacterial challenge. When anti-SadA IgG titers were enhanced by administering alum-precipitated protein, a modest additional protection was afforded. Therefore, despite SadA having pleiotropic functions, it is not a dominant, protective antigen for antibody-mediated protection against Salmonella. PMID:21859856

  10. Outer membrane vesicles from flagellin-deficient Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium induce cross-reactive immunity and provide cross-protection against heterologous Salmonella challenge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Xiangmin; Curtiss, Roy; Kong, Qingke

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) isolated from Salmonella Typhimurium are potentially useful for developing subunit vaccines because of high immunogenicity and protective efficacy. However, flagella might remain in OMV pellets following OMV purification, resulting in non-essential immune responses and counteraction of bacterial protective immune responses when developing a vaccine against infection of multiple serotypes Salmonella. In this study, a flagellin-deficient S. Typhimurium mutant was constructed. Lipopolysaccharide profiles, protein profiles and cryo-electron microscopy revealed that there were no significant differences between the wild-type and mutant OMVs, with the exception of a large amount of flagellin in the wild-type OMVs. Neither the wild-type OMVs nor the non-flagellin OMVs were toxic to macrophages. Mice immunized with the non-flagellin OMVs produced high concentrations of IgG. The non-flagellin OMVs elicited strong mucosal antibody responses in mice when administered via the intranasal route in addition to provoking higher cross-reactive immune responses against OMPs isolated from S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis. Both intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization with the non-flagellin OMVs provided efficient protection against heterologous S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis challenge. Our results indicate that the flagellin-deficient OMVs may represent a new vaccine platform that could be exploited to facilitate the production of a broadly protective vaccine. PMID:27698383

  11. Effects of Wearing NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) Protective Clothing in the Heat on Detection of Visual Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    agents, as well as nuclear weaponry. In the face of’ such threats, the United States Army has developed equinment and clothing systems designed to...AD_ REPORT NO. T7185 EFFECTS OF WEARING NBC PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN THE HEAT ON DETECTION OF VISUAL SIGNALS U S ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE N OF...CATALOG NUMBER T7/•5 ( 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Effects of Wearing NBC Protective Clothing in the Technical Report Heat

  12. A live attenuated strain of Yersinia pestis ΔyscB provides protection against bubonic and pneumonic plagues in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuecan; Qi, Zhizhen; Du, Zongmin; Bi, Yujing; Zhang, Qingwen; Tan, Yafang; Yang, Huiying; Xin, Youquan; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2013-05-24

    To develop a safe and effective live plague vaccine, the ΔyscB mutant was constructed based on Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201 that is avirulent to humans, but virulent to mice. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the ΔyscB mutant were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the ΔyscB mutant was severely attenuated, elicited a higher F1-specific antibody titer and provided protective efficacy against bubonic and pneumonic plague in mouse model. The ΔyscB mutant could induce the secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Taken together, the ΔyscB mutant represented a potential vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and to provide good protection against both subcutaneous and intranasal Y. pestis challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States.

  14. A live attenuated BCG vaccine overexpressing multistage antigens Ag85B and HspX provides superior protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuefeng; Teng, Xindong; Jing, Yukai; Ma, Jilei; Tian, Maopeng; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Ruibo; Wang, Weihua; Li, Li; Fan, Xionglin

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most menacing infectious diseases, although attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has been widely used to protect children against primary TB. There are increasing evidences that rapid growing and dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) coexist in vivo after infection. However, BCG vaccine only elicits cell-mediated immune responses to secretory antigens expressed by rapid growing pathogen. BCG vaccine is thus unable to thwart the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and its protection wanes over age after neonatal immunization. In order to extend its ability for a durable protection, a novel recombinant BCG (rBCG) strain, named rBCG::XB, was constructed by overexpressing immunodominant multistage antigens of Ag85B and HspX, which are expressed by both rapid replicating and dormant M. tuberculosis. Long-term protective effect and immunogenicity of rBCG::XB were compared with the parental BCG in vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that rBCG::XB provided the stronger and long-lasting protection against M. tuberculosis H37Rv intranasal infection than BCG. The rBCG::XB not only elicited the more durable multistage antigen-specific CD4(+)Th1-biased immune responses and specific polyfunctional CD4(+)T cells but also augmented the CD8(+) CTL effects against Ag85B in vivo. In particular, higher levels of CD4(+) TEM and CD8(+) TCM cells, dominated by IL2(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCM cells, were obtained in the spleen of rBCG::XB vaccinated mice. Therefore, our findings indicate that rBCG::XB is a promising candidate to improve the efficacy of BCG.

  15. Bean α-amylase inhibitor 1 in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) provides complete protection from pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Roger L.; Schroeder, Hart E.; Bateman, Kaye S.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Eric; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two α-amylase inhibitors, called αAI-1 and αAI-2, that share 78% amino acid sequence identity and have a differential specificity toward mammalian and insect α-amylases are present in different accessions of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using greenhouse-grown transgenic peas (Pisum sativum), we have shown previously that expression of αAI-1 in pea seeds can provide complete protection against the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). Here, we report that αAI-1 also protects peas from the weevil under field conditions. The high degree of protection is explained by our finding that αAI-1 inhibits pea bruchid α-amylase by 80% over a broad pH range (pH 4.5–6.5). αAI-2, on the other hand, is a much less effective inhibitor of pea bruchid α-amylase, inhibiting the enzyme by only 40%, and only in the pH 4.0–4.5 range. Nevertheless, this inhibitor was still partially effective in protecting field-grown transgenic peas against pea weevils. The primary effect of αAI-2 appeared to be a delay in the maturation of the larvae. This contrasts with the effect of αAI-1, which results in larval mortality at the first or second instar. These results are discussed in relationship to the use of amylase inhibitors with different specificities to bring about protection of crops from their insect pests or to decrease insect pest populations below the economic injury level. PMID:10759552

  16. Protection provided by Rispens CVI988 vaccine against Marek's disease virus isolates of different pathotypes and early prediction of vaccine take and MD outcome.

    PubMed

    Ralapanawe, Sithara; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Renz, Katrin G; Islam, A F M Fakhrul

    2016-01-01

    We tested the level of protection provided by the Rispens CVI988 (Rispens) vaccine against challenge with a virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV) pathotype (vMDV) and a very virulent pathotype (vvMDV) and the accuracy of a range of predictive measures of Marek's disease (MD) incidence and vaccine take. Commercial layer chicks (n = 236) were vaccinated (or not) with 4000 plaque-forming units (pfu) of Rispens vaccine at hatch and challenged (or not) with 500 pfu of each challenge virus five days post vaccination. The vvMDV pathotype FT158 induced higher MD incidence (65%) and mortality (33%) when compared with the vMDV pathotype MPF57 (39% and 8%, respectively). The protective index provided by the Rispens vaccine against FT158 (61%) did not differ significantly from that against MPF57 (66%). This provides additional evidence that protection provided by the Rispens vaccine is not influenced by pathotype determined in studies using vaccines of other Mardivirus species. The challenge viruses did not differ in MDV or Rispens viral load in spleen at 14 dpc (days post challenge) determined by specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction test. MDV load in peripheral blood leucocytes at 7 and 14 dpc, splenocytes at 14 dpc, feather cells at 14 and 21 dpc and isolator dust at 21 dpc were significant early indicators of subsequent MD incidence to 56 dpc. These are potentially useful as the sampling can be carried out well before the onset of MD and some measures are non-invasive. The Rispens viral load in both invasive and non-invasive samples was more useful as a measure of vaccine take.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a programme to detect and provide better care for female victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Norman, Richard; Spencer, Anne; Eldridge, Sandra; Feder, Gene

    2010-07-01

    Primary care clinicians often fail to detect women who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Our aim was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of a programme in primary care to detect and support such women. We developed a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of education and support for primary care clinicians to increase their identification of survivors of IPV and to refer them to a specialist advocacy agency or a psychologist with specialist skills. The programme was implemented in three general practices in the United Kingdom (with an additional practice acting as a control) and provided cost data and rates of identification and referral. Other cost data and the effectiveness of IPV advocacy came from published sources. The model gave an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of approximately pounds sterling 2,450 per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Although the ratio increased in some of the sensitivity analyses, most were under a conventional willingness to pay threshold (pounds sterling 30,000/QALY). While there is considerable uncertainty in the underlying parameters, a training programme for primary care teams to increase identification and referral of women experiencing IPV is likely to be cost-effective.

  18. An excitatory amacrine cell detects object motion and provides feature-selective input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tahnbee; Soto, Florentina; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Retinal circuits detect salient features of the visual world and report them to the brain through spike trains of retinal ganglion cells. The most abundant ganglion cell type in mice, the so-called W3 ganglion cell, selectively responds to movements of small objects. Where and how object motion sensitivity arises in the retina is incompletely understood. In this study, we use 2-photon-guided patch-clamp recordings to characterize responses of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3)-expressing amacrine cells (ACs) to a broad set of visual stimuli. We find that these ACs are object motion sensitive and analyze the synaptic mechanisms underlying this computation. Anatomical circuit reconstructions suggest that VGluT3-expressing ACs form glutamatergic synapses with W3 ganglion cells, and targeted recordings show that the tuning of W3 ganglion cells' excitatory input matches that of VGluT3-expressing ACs' responses. Synaptic excitation of W3 ganglion cells is diminished, and responses to object motion are suppressed in mice lacking VGluT3. Object motion, thus, is first detected by VGluT3-expressing ACs, which provide feature-selective excitatory input to W3 ganglion cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08025.001 PMID:25988808

  19. Whole-Genome Relationships among Francisella Bacteria of Diverse Origins Define New Species and Provide Specific Regions for Detection

    PubMed Central

    Challacombe, Jean F.; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Hodge, David; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen that causes tularemia and, because of weaponization efforts in past world wars, is considered a tier 1 biothreat agent. Detection and surveillance of F. tularensis may be confounded by the presence of uncharacterized, closely related organisms. Through DNA-based diagnostics and environmental surveys, novel clinical and environmental Francisella isolates have been obtained in recent years. Here we present 7 new Francisella genomes and a comparison of their characteristics to each other and to 24 publicly available genomes as well as a comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and sdhA genes from over 90 Francisella strains. Delineation of new species in bacteria is challenging, especially when isolates having very close genomic characteristics exhibit different physiological features—for example, when some are virulent pathogens in humans and animals while others are nonpathogenic or are opportunistic pathogens. Species resolution within Francisella varies with analyses of single genes, multiple gene or protein sets, or whole-genome comparisons of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences. Analyses focusing on single genes (16S rRNA, sdhA), multiple gene sets (virulence genes, lipopolysaccharide [LPS] biosynthesis genes, pathogenicity island), and whole-genome comparisons (nucleotide and protein) gave congruent results, but with different levels of discrimination confidence. We designate four new species within the genus; Francisella opportunistica sp. nov. (MA06-7296), Francisella salina sp. nov. (TX07-7308), Francisella uliginis sp. nov. (TX07-7310), and Francisella frigiditurris sp. nov. (CA97-1460). This study provides a robust comparative framework to discern species and virulence features of newly detected Francisella bacteria. IMPORTANCE DNA-based detection and sequencing methods have identified thousands of new bacteria in the human body and the environment. In most cases, there are no cultured

  20. Cyber-Critical Infrastructure Protection Using Real-Time Payload-Based Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düssel, Patrick; Gehl, Christian; Laskov, Pavel; Bußer, Jens-Uwe; Störmann, Christof; Kästner, Jan

    With an increasing demand of inter-connectivity and protocol standardization modern cyber-critical infrastructures are exposed to a multitude of serious threats that may give rise to severe damage for life and assets without the implementation of proper safeguards. Thus, we propose a method that is capable to reliably detect unknown, exploit-based attacks on cyber-critical infrastructures carried out over the network. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments on network traffic that can be found in modern industrial control systems. Moreover, we provide results of a throughput measuring which demonstrate the real-time capabilities of our system.

  1. Detection of bolt loosening in C C composite thermal protection panels: II. Experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-04-01

    The research presented in this paper is motivated by the need for reliable inspection technology for the detection of bolt loosening in carbon-carbon (C-C) thermal protection system (TPS) panels using minimal human intervention. Based on the diagnostic scheme proposed in part I of the study, a new PZT (lead zirconate titanate)-embedded sensor washer was developed to constitute the sensor network. The sensor suite was included in the C-C TPS prototype without jeopardizing the integrity of the original fastening components. The sensor-embedded washer enhances the remote sensing capability and achieves sufficient sensitivity by guiding the diagnostic waves to propagate primarily through the inspection areas. After evolution of the sensor design and appropriate algorithm development, the verification tests were conducted using a shaker which simulated the acoustic environments during the re-entry process. The test results revealed that the proposed system successfully identified the loss of the preload for the bolted joints under loosening and gave the correct diagnostic results. The sensors were found to be durable under cyclic mechanical loads without major failures, and the diagnostic scheme was capable of locating a loosened bracket as well as discriminating major failure modes 1 and 2: panel and bracket loosening in the bracket.

  2. Detection of bolt loosening in C C composite thermal protection panels: I. Diagnostic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-04-01

    A concept demonstrator of the structural health monitoring (SHM) system was developed to autonomously detect the degradation of the mechanical integrity of the standoff carbon-carbon (C-C) thermal protection system (TPS) panels. This system enables us to identify the location of the loosened bolts, as well as to predict the torque levels of those bolts accordingly. In the process of building the proposed SHM prototype, efforts have been focused primarily on developing a trustworthy diagnostic scheme and a responsive sensor suite. In part I of the study, an attenuation-based diagnostic method was proposed to assess the fastener integrity by observing the attenuation patterns of the resultant sensor signals. The attenuation-based method is based on the damping phenomena of ultrasonic waves across the bolted joints. The major advantage of the attenuation-based method over the conventional diagnostic methods is its local sensing capability of loosened brackets. The method can further discriminate the two major failure modes within a bracket: panel-joint loosening and bracket-joint loosening. The theoretical explanation of the attenuation-based method is performed using micro-contact theory and structural/internal damping principles, followed by parametric model studies and appropriate hypothesis testing.