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Sample records for provide minimal intake

  1. Providing intraosseous anesthesia with minimal invasion.

    PubMed

    Giffin, K M

    1994-08-01

    A new variation of intraosseous anesthesia--crestal anesthesia--that is rapid, site-specific and minimally invasive is presented. The technique uses alveolar crest nutrient canals for anesthetic delivery without penetrating either bone or periodontal ligament.

  2. Oligofructose Provides Laxation for Irregularity Associated with Low Fiber Intake.

    PubMed

    Buddington, Randal K; Kapadia, Cavita; Neumer, Franka; Theis, Stephan

    2017-12-18

    Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary among types of fibers. The present study is a randomized control trial that included healthy adult participants with ≤3 bowel movements/week and a habitual low dietary fiber intake in a parallel design to evaluate the benefits for laxation by supplementing the daily diet with oligofructose (Orafti ® P95; OF), a fermentable source of fiber and established prebiotic ( n = 49); maltodextrin was the placebo ( n = 48). After a run-in phase, OF was initially provided at 5 g/day, then increased to 10 and 15 g/day with four weeks for each phase. Stool frequency (bowel movements per week) for the OF and maltodextrin (MD) groups were initially similar (3.98 ± 1.49 vs. 4.06 ± 1.48), did not change for the placebo group, but increased for the OF group with the difference significant at 15 g/day ( p = 0.023). Stool consistency was similar and remained unchanged at all doses for both groups. Gastrointestinal sensations were low for both groups. Laxation benefits were especially pronounced for participants with >13 g/day habitual dietary fiber intake, with significant laxation at 10 g and 15 g OF/day ( p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively) A daily supplement with a short-chain inulin-type fructan derived from chicory roots, i.e., oligofructose (Orafti ® P95) provided a laxation effect without causing gastrointestinal (GI) distress for healthy participants with irregularity associated with low dietary fiber intake.

  3. Oligofructose Provides Laxation for Irregularity Associated with Low Fiber Intake

    PubMed Central

    Buddington, Randal K.; Kapadia, Cavita; Neumer, Franka

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary among types of fibers. The present study is a randomized control trial that included healthy adult participants with ≤3 bowel movements/week and a habitual low dietary fiber intake in a parallel design to evaluate the benefits for laxation by supplementing the daily diet with oligofructose (Orafti® P95; OF), a fermentable source of fiber and established prebiotic (n = 49); maltodextrin was the placebo (n = 48). After a run-in phase, OF was initially provided at 5 g/day, then increased to 10 and 15 g/day with four weeks for each phase. Stool frequency (bowel movements per week) for the OF and maltodextrin (MD) groups were initially similar (3.98 ± 1.49 vs. 4.06 ± 1.48), did not change for the placebo group, but increased for the OF group with the difference significant at 15 g/day (p = 0.023). Stool consistency was similar and remained unchanged at all doses for both groups. Gastrointestinal sensations were low for both groups. Laxation benefits were especially pronounced for participants with >13 g/day habitual dietary fiber intake, with significant laxation at 10 g and 15 g OF/day (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively) A daily supplement with a short-chain inulin-type fructan derived from chicory roots, i.e., oligofructose (Orafti® P95) provided a laxation effect without causing gastrointestinal (GI) distress for healthy participants with irregularity associated with low dietary fiber intake. PMID:29258261

  4. Local empathy provides global minimization of congestion in communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    We present a mechanism to avoid congestion in complex networks based on a local knowledge of traffic conditions and the ability of routers to self-coordinate their dynamical behavior. In particular, routers make use of local information about traffic conditions to either reject or accept information packets from their neighbors. We show that when nodes are only aware of their own congestion state they self-organize into a hierarchical configuration that delays remarkably the onset of congestion although leading to a sharp first-order-like congestion transition. We also consider the case when nodes are aware of the congestion state of their neighbors. In this case, we show that empathy between nodes is strongly beneficial to the overall performance of the system and it is possible to achieve larger values for the critical load together with a smooth, second-order-like, transition. Finally, we show how local empathy minimize the impact of congestion as much as global minimization. Therefore, here we present an outstanding example of how local dynamical rules can optimize the system’s functioning up to the levels reached using global knowledge.

  5. Intragastric pressure during food intake: a physiological and minimally invasive method to assess gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, P; Verschueren, S; Ly, H Giao; Vos, R; Van Oudenhove, L; Tack, J

    2011-04-01

    The stomach relaxes upon food intake and thereby provides a reservoir while keeping the intragastric pressure (IGP) low. We set out to determine whether we could use IGP as a measurement for stomach accommodation during food intake. In fasted healthy volunteers (n = 7-17) a manometer and an infusion catheter were positioned in the proximal stomach. After a stabilization period a nutrient drink was intragastrically infused at 15, 30 and 60 mL min(-1). To investigate the effect of impaired accommodation the effect of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was examined. The volunteers scored satiation until maximum, when the experiment ended. The IGP was presented as a change from baseline (mean ± SEM) and compared with repeated measures anova. Independent on the ingestion speed, the IGP decreased initially and gradually increased thereafter. Volunteers scored maximal satiation after 699 ± 62, 809 ± 90 and 997 ± 120 mL nutrient drink infused (15, 30 and 60 mL min(-1) respectively; P < 0.01). Maximum IGP decrease was 3.4 ± 0.5 mmHg after 205 ± 28 mL, 5.1 ± 0.7 mmHg after 212 ± 46 mL, and 5.2 ± 0.7 mmHg after 296 ± 28 mL infused volume [15, 30 and 60 mL min(-1) respectively; not significant (ns)]. Post hoc analysis showed significant correlations between IGP and satiation score increase. During L-NMMA infusion IGP was significantly increased while subjects drank significantly less (816 ± 91 vs 1032 ± 71 mL; P < 0.005). Interestingly, the correlation between IGP increase and satiation score increase did not differ after L-NMMA treatment. The IGP during nutrient drink ingestion provides a minimally invasive alternative to the barostat for the assessment of gastric accommodation. These findings furthermore indicate that IGP is a major determinant of satiation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Utilization of food outlets and intake of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods among 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; Retondario, Anabelle; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Hinnig, Patrícia de Fragas; Neves, Janaina das; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-29

    Access to food retailers is an environmental determinant that influences what people consume. This study aimed to test the association between the use of food outlets and schoolchildren's intake of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in public and private schools in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, from September 2012 to June 2013. The sample consisted of randomly selected clusters of schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years, who were attending 30 schools. Parents or guardians provided socioeconomic and demographic data and answered questions about use of food outlets. Dietary intake was surveyed using a dietary recall questionnaire based on the previous day's intake. The foods or food groups were classified according to the level of processing. Negative binomial regression was used for data analysis. We included 2,195 schoolchildren in the study. We found that buying foods from snack bars or fast-food outlets was associated with the intake frequency of ultra-processed foods among 11-14 years old in an adjusted model (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01;1.23). Use of butchers was associated with the intake frequency of unprocessed/minimally processed foods among children 11-14 years old in the crude model (IRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01;1.22) and in the adjusted model (IRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06;1.17). Use of butchers was associated with higher intake of unprocessed/minimally processed foods while use of snack bars or fast-food outlets may have a negative impact on schoolchildren's dietary habits.

  7. Adult Intake of Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables: Associations with Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, David N; Horino, Masako; McCarthy, William J

    2016-09-01

    The US Department of Agriculture launched ChooseMyPlate.gov nutrition recommendations designed to encourage increased fruit and vegetable intake, in part, as a strategy for improving weight control through the consumption of high-satiation foods. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between adults' reported daily intake of fruits and nonstarchy vegetables (ie, those thought to have the lowest energy density) expressed as a proportion of their total daily food intake and objectively measured cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors using data from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Physical activity was included as a moderator variable. This study employed a cross-sectional examination of 2009-2010 NHANES data to assess how daily fruit and nonstarchy vegetable intake was associated with anthropometric measures and cardiometabolic blood chemistry markers. Adults free of cardiac or metabolic disease (n=1,197) participated in 24-hour dietary recalls; a variety of cardiometabolic biomarkers and anthropometric measures were also collected from participants. Among participants with complete data on all variables, the ratio of the combined cup-equivalents of fruit and nonstarchy vegetable intake to the total gram weight of all foods consumed daily (F/V ratio) served as the primary independent variable. Main dependent measures included fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, waist circumference, and body mass index. Demographic and behavioral predictors of the F/V ratio and the association between the F/V ratio and cardiometabolic disease risk factors were examined using multivariate regression. Body mass index (β=-2.58; 95% CI -3.88 to -1.28), waist circumference (β=-6.33; 95% CI -9.81 to -2.84), and insulin (β=-0.21; 95% CI -0.37 to -0.05) were inversely

  8. Adult intake of minimally processed fruits and vegetables: Associations with cardiometabolic disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Horino, Masako; McCarthy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Department of Agriculture launchedChooseMyPlate.gov nutrition recommendations designed to encourage increased fruit and vegetable intake in part as a strategy for improving weight control through the consumption of high satiation foods. Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between adults’ reported daily intake of fruits and non-starchy vegetables (i.e., those thought to have the lowest energy density) expressed as a proportion of their total daily food intake and objectively measured cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors using data from the 2009–2010 National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). Physical activity was included as a moderator variable. Design This study employed a cross-sectional examination of 2009–2010 NHANES data to assess how daily fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake were associated with anthropometric measures and cardiometabolic blood chemistry markers. Participants/setting Adults free of cardiac or metabolic disease (N=1,197) participated in 24-hour dietary recalls; a variety of cardiometabolic biomarkers and anthropometric measures were also collected from participants. Main outcome measures Among participants with complete data on all variables, the ratio of the combined cup equivalents of fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake to the total gram weight of all foods consumed daily (FV ratio) served as the primary independent variable. Main dependent measures included: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, waist circumference, and body mass index. Statistical analyses performed Demographic and behavioral predictors of the FV ratio and the association between the FV ratio and cardiometabolic disease risk factors were examined using multivariate regression. Results BMI (β = −2.58, 95% CI [−3.88, −1.28]), waist circumference (β = −6.33, 95% CI [−9.81, −2.84]), and

  9. Providing choice and/or variety during a meal: Impact on vegetable liking and intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Labouré, Hélène; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Fromentin, Gilles; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-home catering services frequently offer consumers the opportunity to choose their foods from among different proposals and/or provide consumers with a variety of food. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of choice and/or variety on food liking and food intake. Fifty-nine normal-weight adults were recruited under the condition that they equally liked three vegetable recipes (green beans with butter, zucchinis with olive oil, spinach with cream). Volunteers participated in four sessions at lunch time. In the no-choice/no-variety condition, volunteers were served one dish randomly selected from among the three. In the no-choice/variety condition, volunteers were served all three dishes. In the choice/no-variety condition, participants chose one dish from among the three dishes. In the choice/variety condition, volunteers chose as many dishes as they desired from among the three dishes. Results showed that providing choice increased vegetable liking and vegetable intake, while offering a variety of vegetables only increased their liking. No synergy effect between choice and variety was observed on vegetable liking and vegetable intake (i.e. the effect in the choice/variety condition was not significantly higher than the effects in no-choice/variety and the choice/no-variety conditions). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimal residual method provides optimal regularization parameter for diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannath, Ravi Prasad K.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2012-10-01

    The inverse problem in the diffuse optical tomography is known to be nonlinear, ill-posed, and sometimes under-determined, requiring regularization to obtain meaningful results, with Tikhonov-type regularization being the most popular one. The choice of this regularization parameter dictates the reconstructed optical image quality and is typically chosen empirically or based on prior experience. An automated method for optimal selection of regularization parameter that is based on regularized minimal residual method (MRM) is proposed and is compared with the traditional generalized cross-validation method. The results obtained using numerical and gelatin phantom data indicate that the MRM-based method is capable of providing the optimal regularization parameter.

  12. Minimal residual method provides optimal regularization parameter for diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Ravi Prasad K; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2012-10-01

    The inverse problem in the diffuse optical tomography is known to be nonlinear, ill-posed, and sometimes under-determined, requiring regularization to obtain meaningful results, with Tikhonov-type regularization being the most popular one. The choice of this regularization parameter dictates the reconstructed optical image quality and is typically chosen empirically or based on prior experience. An automated method for optimal selection of regularization parameter that is based on regularized minimal residual method (MRM) is proposed and is compared with the traditional generalized cross-validation method. The results obtained using numerical and gelatin phantom data indicate that the MRM-based method is capable of providing the optimal regularization parameter.

  13. Food intake in laboratory rats provided standard and fenbendazole-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek

    2008-11-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.

  14. Food Intake in Laboratory Rats Provided Standard and Fenbendazole-supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Meghan E; Martin, Lisa BE; Daniels, Derek

    2008-01-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague–Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly. PMID:19049253

  15. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The iodized salt programme in Bangalore, India provides adequate iodine intakes in pregnant women and more-than-adequate iodine intakes in their children.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Sharma, Surjeet Kaur; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women and children, and maternal thyroid volume (ultrasound). Antenatal clinic of an urban tertiary-care hospital, which serves a low-income population. Healthy pregnant women in all trimesters, aged 18-35 years, who had healthy children aged 3-15 years. Median (range) iodine concentrations of household powdered and crystal salt were 55·9 (17·2-65·9) ppm and 18·9 (2·2-68·2) ppm, respectively. The contribution of iodine-containing supplements and multi-micronutrient powders to iodine intake in the families was negligible. Adequately iodized salt, together with small amounts of iodine in local foods, were providing adequate iodine during pregnancy: (i) the overall median (range) UIC in women was 172 (5-1024) µg/l; (ii) the median UIC was >150 µg/l in all trimesters; and (iii) thyroid size was not significantly different across trimesters. At the same time, the median (range) UIC in children was 220 (10-782) µg/l, indicating more-than-adequate iodine intake at this age. Median UIC was significantly higher in children than in their mothers (P=0·008). In this selected urban population of southern India, the iodized salt programme provides adequate iodine to women throughout pregnancy, at the expense of higher iodine intake in their children. Thus we suggest that the current cut-off for median UIC in children indicating more-than-adequate intake, recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders may, need to be reconsidered.

  17. Providing Choice in Exercise Influences Food Intake at the Subsequent Meal.

    PubMed

    Beer, Natalya J; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-10-01

    The benefits of regular exercise for health are well established; however, certain behaviors after exercise, such as unhealthy or excessive food consumption, can counteract some of these benefits. To investigate the effect of autonomy support (through the provision of choice) in exercise-relative to a no-choice condition with matched energy expenditure-on appetite and subsequent energy intake. Fifty-eight men and women (body mass index, 22.9 ± 2.3 kg·m; peak oxygen consumption, 52.7 ± 6.4 mL·kg·min) completed one familiarization session and one experimental trial, in which they were randomized to either a choice or no-choice exercise condition using a between-subjects yoked design. Ad libitum energy intake from a laboratory test meal was assessed after exercise, together with perceptions of mood, perceived choice, enjoyment, and value. Despite similar ratings of perceived appetite across conditions (P > 0.05), energy intake was significantly higher after exercise performed under the no-choice condition (2456 ± 1410 kJ) compared with the choice condition (1668 ± 1215 kJ; P = 0.026; d = 0.60). In particular, the proportion of energy intake from unhealthy foods was significantly greater after exercise in the no-choice condition (1412 ± 1304 kJ) compared with the choice condition (790 ± 861 kJ; P = 0.037, d = 0.56). Participants in the choice condition also reported higher perceptions of choice (P < 0.001), enjoyment (P = 0.008), and value (P = 0.009) relating to the exercise session, whereas there were no between-condition differences in mood (P > 0.05). A lack of choice in exercise is associated with greater energy intake from "unhealthy" foods in recovery. This finding highlights the importance of facilitating an autonomy supportive environment during exercise prescription and instruction.

  18. Can Rural Minimally Invasive Surgery Fellowships Provide Operative Experience Similar to Urban Programs?

    PubMed

    Ryan, James Patrick; Borgert, Andrew J; Kallies, Kara J; Carlson, Lea M; McCollister, Howard; Severson, Paul A; Kothari, Shanu N

    2016-01-01

    Operative experience in rural fellowship programs is largely unknown. The 2 of the most rural minimally invasive surgery (MIS)/bariatric fellowships are located in the upper Midwest. We hypothesized that these 2 programs would offer a similar operative experience to other U.S. programs in more urban locations. The 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013 fellowship case logs from 2 rural Midwest programs were compared with case logs from 23 U.S. MIS/bariatric programs. All rural Midwest fellowship graduates completed a survey describing their fellowship experience and current practice. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Setting included the 2 rural Midwest U.S. MIS/bariatric fellowship programs. Graduates from MIS/bariatric fellowship programs participated in the study. Mean volumes for bariatric, foregut, abdominal wall, small intestine, and hepatobiliary cases for rural Midwest fellows vs. other U.S. programs were 123.8 ± 23.7 vs. 150.2 ± 49.2 (p = 0.20); 44.3 ± 19.4 vs. 66.3 ± 35.5 (p = 0.18); 48.3 ± 28.0 vs. 57.9 ± 27.8 (p = 0.58); 11.3 ± 1.9 vs. 12.0 ± 8.7 (p = 0.58); and 55.0 ± 34.8 vs. 48.1 ± 42.6 (p = 0.63), respectively. Mean endoscopy volume was significantly higher among rural Midwest fellows (451.0 ± 395.2 vs. 99.7 ± 83.4; p = 0.05). All rural Midwest fellows reported an adequate number of cases as operating surgeon during fellowship. A total of 60% of fellows currently practice in a rural area. In all, 87% and 13% reported that their fellowship training was extremely or somewhat beneficial to their current practice, respectively. Rural MIS fellowship programs offer a similar operative experience to other U.S. programs. A greater volume of endoscopy cases was observed in rural Midwest fellowships. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of nutritional supplement drinks on providing adequate calorie and protein intake in older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Allen, V; Methven, L; Gosney, M

    2013-09-01

    Investigate the impact of the provision of ONS on protein and energy intake from food and ability to meet protein and calorie requirements in people with dementia. After consent by proxy was obtained, participants took part in a cross over study comparing oral intake on an intervention day to an adjacent control day. The study occurred in Nursing homes and hospitalised settings. Older adults with dementia over the age of 65 were recruited. 26 participants (aged 83.9+/-8.4years, MMSE 13.08+/-8.13) took part. Intervention (if any): On the intervention day nutritional supplement drinks were provided three times. Each drink provided 283.3+/-41.8 Kcal of energy and 13.8+/-4.7g of protein. Supplements were removed approximately 1 hour before meals were served and weighed waste (g) was obtained. Intake of food consumed was determined on intervention and control days using the quartile method (none, quarter, half, three quarters, all) for each meal component. More people achieved their energy and protein requirements with the supplement drink intervention with no sufficient impact on habitual food consumption. Findings from these 26 participants with dementia indicate that supplement drinks may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition within the group as more people meet their nutritional requirements. As the provision of supplement drinks is also demonstrated to have an additive effect to consumption of habitual foods these can be used alongside other measures to also improve oral intake.

  20. Minimal effect on energy intake by additional evening meal for frail elderly service flat residents--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Odlund Olin, A; Koochek, A; Cederholm, T; Ljungqvist, O

    2008-05-01

    Nutritional problems are common in frail elderly individuals receiving municipal care. To evaluate if an additional evening meal could improve total daily food intake, nutritional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in frail elderly service flat (SF) residents. Out of 122 residents in two SF complexes, 60 subjects agreed to participate, of which 49 subjects (median 84 (79-90) years, (25th-75th percentile)) completed the study. For six months 23 residents in one SF complex were served 530 kcal in addition to their regular meals, i.e. intervention group (I-group). Twenty-six residents in the other SF building were controls (C-group). Nutritional status, energy and nutrient intake, length of night time fast, cognitive function and HRQOL was assessed before and after the intervention. At the start, the Mini Nutritional Assessment classified 27% as malnourished and 63% as at risk for malnutrition, with no difference between the groups. After six months the median body weight was unchanged in the I-group, +0.6 (-1.7-+1.6) kg (p=0.72) and the C-group -0.6 (-2.0-+0.5) kg (p=0.15). Weight change ranged from -13% to +15%. The evening meal improved the protein and carbohydrate intake (p<0.01) but the energy intake increased by only 180 kcal/day (p=0.15). The night time fast decreased in the I-group from 15.0 (13.0-16.0) to 13.0 (12.0-14.0) hours (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in cognitive function or HRQOL between the groups. Nine out of ten frail elderly SF residents had nutritional problems. Serving an additional evening meal increased the protein and carbohydrate intake, but the meal had no significant effect on energy intake, body weight or HRQOL. The variation in outcome within each study group was large.

  1. Simultaneous Study of Intake and In-Cylinder IC Engine Flow Fields to Provide an Insight into Intake Induced Cyclic Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justham, T.; Jarvis, S.; Clarke, A.; Garner, C. P.; Hargrave, G. K.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2006-07-01

    Simultaneous intake and in-cylinder digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for a motored spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. Two individual DPIV systems were employed to study the inter-relationship between the intake and in-cylinder flow fields at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. Results for the intake runner velocity field at the time of maximum intake valve lift are compared to incylinder velocity fields later in the same engine cycle. Relationships between flow structures within the runner and cylinder were seen to be strong during the intake stroke but less significant during compression. Cyclic variations within the intake runner were seen to affect the large scale bulk flow motion. The subsequent decay of the large scale motions into smaller scale turbulent structures during the compression stroke appear to reduce the relationship with the intake flow variations.

  2. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  3. Store turnover as a predictor of food and beverage provider turnover and associated dietary intake estimates in very remote Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Wycherley, Thomas; Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; McMahon, Emma; Liberato, Selma; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Determine how very-remote Indigenous community (RIC) food and beverage (F&B) turnover quantities and associated dietary intake estimates derived from only stores, compare with values derived from all community F&B providers. F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake estimates (energy, micro/macronutrients and major contributing food types) were derived from 12-months transaction data of all F&B providers in three RICs (NT, Australia). F&B turnover quantities and dietary intake estimates from only stores (plus only the primary store in multiple-store communities) were expressed as a proportion of complete F&B provider turnover values. Food types and macronutrient distribution (%E) estimates were quantitatively compared. Combined stores F&B turnover accounted for the majority of F&B quantity (98.1%) and absolute dietary intake estimates (energy [97.8%], macronutrients [≥96.7%] and micronutrients [≥83.8%]). Macronutrient distribution estimates from combined stores and only the primary store closely aligned complete provider estimates (≤0.9% absolute). Food types were similar using combined stores, primary store or complete provider turnover. Evaluating combined stores F&B turnover represents an efficient method to estimate total F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake in RICs. In multiple-store communities, evaluating only primary store F&B turnover provides an efficient estimate of macronutrient distribution and major food types. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Explaining the Positive Relationship Between Fourth-Grade Children's Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of…

  5. Peripheral, but not central, CB1 antagonism provides food intake-independent metabolic benefits in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Suchanek, Paula M; Klein, Marcella; Tschöp, Johannes; Caldwell, Charles; Woods, Stephen C; Wittmann, Gabor; Watanabe, Masahiko; Liposits, Zsolt; Fekete, Csaba; Reizes, Ofer; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Francoise; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2008-11-01

    Blockade of the CB1 receptor is one of the promising strategies for the treatment of obesity. Although antagonists suppress food intake and reduce body weight, the role of central versus peripheral CB1 activation on weight loss and related metabolic parameters remains to be elucidated. We therefore specifically assessed and compared the respective potential relevance of central nervous system (CNS) versus peripheral CB1 receptors in the regulation of energy homeostasis and lipid and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Both lean and DIO rats were used for our experiments. The expression of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism was measured by real-time PCR, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were used for insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism studies. Specific CNS-CB1 blockade decreased body weight and food intake but, independent of those effects, had no beneficial influence on peripheral lipid and glucose metabolism. Peripheral treatment with CB1 antagonist (Rimonabant) also reduced food intake and body weight but, in addition, independently triggered lipid mobilization pathways in white adipose tissue and cellular glucose uptake. Insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were enhanced, while hepatic glucose production was decreased during peripheral infusion of the CB1 antagonist. However, these effects depended on the antagonist-elicited reduction of food intake. Several relevant metabolic processes appear to independently benefit from peripheral blockade of CB1, while CNS-CB1 blockade alone predominantly affects food intake and body weight.

  6. Cooling Water Intakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Industries use large volumes of water for cooling. The water intakes pull large numbers of fish and other organisms into the cooling systems. EPA issues regulations on intake structures in order to minimize adverse environmental impacts.

  7. Explaining the Positive Relationship between Fourth-Grade Children’s Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A positive relationship exists between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain this relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals—energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. METHODS We observed children in grade 4 (N=465) eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to 4 days per child. We measured children’s weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). RESULTS BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p < .0001) and increased 8.45 kg/m2 per serving, controlling for other variables in the model. BMI was positively related to energy intake from flavored milk (p = .0041) and increased 0.347 kg/m2 for every 100-kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m2 for every 100-kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. PMID:23517000

  8. Explaining the positive relationship between fourth-grade children's body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals (breakfast and lunch).

    PubMed

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B

    2013-05-01

    A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. Fourth-grade children (N = 465) from Columbia, SC, were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on 1 to 4 days per child. Researchers measured children's weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p < .0001) and increased 8.45 kg/m(2) per serving, controlling for other variables in the model. BMI was positively related to energy intake from flavored milk (p = .0041) and increased 0.347 kg/m(2) for every 100 kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m(2) for every 100 kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  9. Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish.

    PubMed

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Young, Stephen; Wang, Laura; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2012-10-01

    Estimation of the intake of oily fish at a population level is difficult. The measurement of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in biological samples may provide a useful biomarker of intake. We identified the most appropriate biomarkers for the assessment of habitual oily fish intake and changes in intake by elucidating the dose- and time-dependent response of EPA and DHA incorporation into various biological samples that represent roles in fatty acid transport, function, and storage. This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled intervention trial in 204 men and women that lasted 12 mo. EPA and DHA capsules were provided in a manner to reflect sporadic consumption of oily fish (ie, 1, 2, or 4 times/wk). EPA and DHA were assessed at 9 time points over 12 mo in 9 sample types (red blood cells, mononuclear cells, platelets, buccal cells, adipose tissue, plasma phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and nonesterified fatty acids). A dose response (P < 0.05) was observed for EPA and DHA in all pools except for red blood cell EPA (P = 0.057). EPA and DHA measures in plasma phosphatidylcholine and platelets were best for the discrimination between different intakes (P < 0.0001). The rate of incorporation varied between sample types, with the time to maximal incorporation ranging from days (plasma phosphatidylcholine) to months (mononuclear cells) to >12 mo (adipose tissue). Plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA plus DHA was identified as the most suitable biomarker of acute changes in EPA and DHA intake, and platelet and mononuclear cell EPA plus DHA were the most suitable biomarkers of habitual intake.

  10. Whole-grain intake in middle school students achieves dietary guidelines for Americans and MyPlate recommendations when provided as commercially available foods: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Radford, Allyson; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Hughes, Christine; Christman, Mary C; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Boileau, Thomas W; Thielecke, Frank; Dahl, Wendy J

    2014-09-01

    In accordance with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, at least half of total grain intake should be whole grains. Adolescents are currently not consuming the recommended daily intake of whole grains. Research is needed to determine whether whole grains are acceptable to adolescents and whether changing their food environment to include whole-grain foods will improve intake. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of providing refined-grain or whole-grain foods to adolescents, with encouragement to eat three different grain-based foods per day, on total grain and whole-grain intakes. Middle school students (n=83; aged 11 to 15 years) were randomly assigned to either refined-grain or whole-grain foods for 6 weeks. Participants and their families were provided with weekly grains (eg, bread, pasta, and cereals), and participants were provided grain snacks at school. Intake of grains in ounce equivalents (oz eq) was determined through eight baseline and intervention targeted 24-hour diet recalls. Participants consumed 1.1±1.3 oz eq (mean±standard deviation) of whole grains at baseline, out of 5.3±2.4 oz eq of total grains. During intervention, whole-grain intake increased in the whole-grain group (0.9±1.0 to 3.9±1.8 oz eq/day), whereas those in the refined-grain group reduced whole-grain intake (1.3±1.6 to 0.3±0.3 oz eq/day; P<0.002, group by time period interaction). Total grain intake achieved was 6.4±2.1 oz eq/day and did not differ across intervention groups. Providing adolescents with whole-grain foods in their school and home environments was an effective means of achieving recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oceanographic Data in Europe: Minimal Effort for Data Providers, Maximal Ease of Use and Access for Data Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruin, T.

    2017-12-01

    SeaDataCloud/SeaDataNet (SDC/SDN) is both a consortium and a data infrastructure as well as a (series of) European oceanographic data management project(s), allowing data providers to store data at a data centre of their choice (usually a type of National Oceanographic Data Center), while exposing and making the data available for download via a chain of interconnected data portals at local, regional, pan-European and global levels. SDC/SDN as an infrastructure connects over 100 data centers from 35 countries in and around Europe. The infrastructure has been operational since early 2009 and provides the user an overview of all available data as well as the possibility to download the data in an uniform format. This presentation will give a short introduction to the SDC/SDN infrastructure and describe how its development was based on sound data management principles. The emphasis will be on how the system is interconnected with other, non-discipline specific (metadata) portals such as the Group of Earth Observations System of Systems (GEOSS), allowing oceanographic data stored at a local level in a data centre to be exposed at a global level to a wide audience from various disciplines.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial Provides Evidence to Support Aromatherapy to Minimize Anxiety in Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Trambert, Renee; Kowalski, Mildred Ortu; Wu, Betty; Mehta, Nimisha; Friedman, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aromatherapy has been used to reduce anxiety in a variety of settings, but usefulness associated with breast biopsies has not been documented. This study was conducted in women undergoing image-guided breast biopsy. We explored the use of two different aromatherapy scents, compared to placebo, aimed at reducing anxiety with the intent of generating new knowledge. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled study of two different types of external aromatherapy tabs (lavender-sandalwood and orange-peppermint) compared with a matched placebo-control delivery system. Anxiety was self-reported before and after undergoing a breast biopsy using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory Scale. Eighty-seven women participated in this study. There was a statistically significant reduction in self-reported anxiety with the use of the lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy tab compared with the placebo group (p = .032). Aromatherapy tabs reduced anxiety during image-guided breast biopsy. The completion of the biopsy provided some relief from anxiety in all groups. The use of aromatherapy tabs offers an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve adaptation and reduce anxiety for women undergoing breast biopsy. Lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy reduced anxiety and promoted adaptation more than orange-peppermint aromatherapy or placebo. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Physiological and hormonal responses of lambs repeatedly implanted with zeranol and provided two levels of feed intake.

    PubMed

    Hufstedler, G D; Gillman, P L; Carstens, G E; Greene, L W; Turner, N D

    1996-10-01

    Forty crossbred wethers (average weight 30 kg) were implanted with zeranol (12 mg) at 30-d intervals and fed at two levels of intake in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine performance, carcass and bone characteristics, blood metabolites, and hormones. Restricted lambs were fed to gain one-half the BW gained by lambs with ad libitum feed access. Lambs with ad libitum and restricted access to feed were slaughtered after 98 and 154 d, respectively. Zeranol increased ADG (P = .047; 20%), gain to feed (P = .023; 17%), metacarpal length (P = .004; 6%) and weight (P = .013; 13%), and tended to increase carcass crude protein gain (P = .106; 63%) while reducing kidney pelvic fat (P = .001; 33%) and dressing percentage (P = .038; 3%). Restricted feed intake increased the percentage of carcass ash and metacarpal length and weight by 27% (P = .048), 5% (P = .006), and 10% (P = .045), respectively, while reducing quality grade scores (P = .022; 5%), gain to feed (P = .001; 49%), longissimus muscle area (P = .001; 28%), the percentage of kidney pelvic fat (P = .033; 13%), and daily fat gain (P = .001; 54%). Zeranol increased pituitary weight (P = .001; 166%), plasma glucose (P = .036; 13%), mean serum growth hormone (GH; P = .011; 52%), baseline GH (P = .048; 34%), GH pulse amplitude (P = .003; 59%), and IGF-I (P = .001; 53%) concentrations. The results indicate that continuous administration of zeranol from 60 d of age to slaughter increases GH release, which directs nutrient utilization such that a carcass with more desirable lean and fat deposition patterns is obtained when nutrient availability is adequate.

  14. [Minimal provider volume in total knee replacement : an analysis of the external quality assurance program of North Rhine-Westphalia (QS-NRW)].

    PubMed

    Kostuj, T; Schulze-Raestrup, U; Noack, M; Buckup, K; Smektala, R

    2011-05-01

    A minimal provider volume for total knee replacement (TKR) was introduced in 2006. Does this lead to an improvenment in quality or not? The records of treatment in the compulsory external quality assurance program of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia (QS-NRW) were evaluated. A total of 125,324 comparable records from the QS-NRW program were available to determine the appearance of general and surgical complications. In a logistical regression model the risk factors age, gender, ASA classification, comorbidity and duration were taken into account. A significant reduction could only be shown for pneumonia, thrombotic events and lung embolisms as well as vascular injury. In 2006 and 2007 malpositioning of implants was significantly higher and from 2005 to 2008 the number of fractures rose compared to 2004. Deep infections and reoperations did not change significantly during the whole study period. This evaluation could not show an improvement in quality due to the minimal provider volume. Thus the minimal provider volume should not be taken into account as a main criterion to improve quality. Further outcome studies and creating an arthroplasty register in Germany are more useful.

  15. Long-term use of minimal footwear on pain, self-reported function, analgesic intake, and joint loading in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trombini-Souza, Francis; Matias, Alessandra B; Yokota, Mariane; Butugan, Marco K; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia; Fuller, Ricardo; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2015-12-01

    Efforts have been made to retard the progressive debilitating pain and joint dysfunction in patients with knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a low-cost minimalist footwear on pain, function, clinical and gait-biomechanical aspects of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Throughout a randomized, parallel and controlled clinical trial, fifty-six patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to an intervention (n=28) or control group (n=28), and assessed at baseline and after three and six months. The intervention involved wearing Moleca(®) footwear for at least 6h/day, 7 days/week, over 6 months. The pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were the other subscales, Lequesne score, distance walked in 6 min, knee oedema and effusion, knee adduction moment and paracetamol intake. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using two-way casewise ANOVA (< .05) and Cohen's d coefficient. Intervention group showed improvement in pain (effect size: 1.41, p<.001), function (effect size: 1.22, p=.001), stiffness (effect size: 0.76, p=.001), Lequesne score (effect size: 1.07, p<.001), and reduction by 21.8% in the knee adduction moment impulse (p=.017) during gait wearing Moleca(®). The analgesic intake was lower in the intervention group. The long-term use of Moleca(®) footwear relieves pain, improves self-reported function, reduces the knee loading while wearing Moleca(®), refrains the increase of analgesic intake in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered as a conservative mechanical treatment option. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01342458). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of the visual estimation method as a predictor of food intake in Alzheimer's patients provided with different types of food.

    PubMed

    Amano, Nobuko; Nakamura, Tomiyo

    2018-02-01

    The visual estimation method is commonly used in hospitals and other care facilities to evaluate food intake through estimation of plate waste. In Japan, no previous studies have investigated the validity and reliability of this method under the routine conditions of a hospital setting. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the visual estimation method, in long-term inpatients with different levels of eating disability caused by Alzheimer's disease. The patients were provided different therapeutic diets presented in various food types. This study was performed between February and April 2013, and 82 patients with Alzheimer's disease were included. Plate waste was evaluated for the 3 main daily meals, for a total of 21 days, 7 consecutive days during each of the 3 months, originating a total of 4851 meals, from which 3984 were included. Plate waste was measured by the nurses through the visual estimation method, and by the hospital's registered dietitians through the actual measurement method. The actual measurement method was first validated to serve as a reference, and the level of agreement between both methods was then determined. The month, time of day, type of food provided, and patients' physical characteristics were considered for analysis. For the 3984 meals included in the analysis, the level of agreement between the measurement methods was 78.4%. Disagreement of measurements consisted of 3.8% of underestimation and 17.8% of overestimation. Cronbach's α (0.60, P < 0.001) indicated that the reliability of the visual estimation method was within the acceptable range. The visual estimation method was found to be a valid and reliable method for estimating food intake in patients with different levels of eating impairment. The successful implementation and use of the method depends upon adequate training and motivation of the nurses and care staff involved. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism

  17. Providing haptic feedback in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery: a direct optical force-sensing solution for haptic rendering of deformable bodies.

    PubMed

    Ehrampoosh, Shervin; Dave, Mohit; Kia, Michael A; Rablau, Corneliu; Zadeh, Mehrdad H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an enhanced haptic-enabled master-slave teleoperation system which can be used to provide force feedback to surgeons in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). One of the research goals was to develop a combined-control architecture framework that included both direct force reflection (DFR) and position-error-based (PEB) control strategies. To achieve this goal, it was essential to measure accurately the direct contact forces between deformable bodies and a robotic tool tip. To measure the forces at a surgical tool tip and enhance the performance of the teleoperation system, an optical force sensor was designed, prototyped, and added to a robot manipulator. The enhanced teleoperation architecture was formulated by developing mathematical models for the optical force sensor, the extended slave robot manipulator, and the combined-control strategy. Human factor studies were also conducted to (a) examine experimentally the performance of the enhanced teleoperation system with the optical force sensor, and (b) study human haptic perception during the identification of remote object deformability. The first experiment was carried out to discriminate deformability of objects when human subjects were in direct contact with deformable objects by means of a laparoscopic tool. The control parameters were then tuned based on the results of this experiment using a gain-scheduling method. The second experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of the force feedback provided through the enhanced teleoperation system. The results show that the force feedback increased the ability of subjects to correctly identify materials of different deformable types. In addition, the virtual force feedback provided by the teleoperation system comes close to the real force feedback experienced in direct MIS. The experimental results provide design guidelines for choosing and validating the control architecture and the optical force sensor.

  18. Reduced invasive and muscle-sparing operative approaches to the posterolateral chest wall provide an excellent accessibility for the operative stabilization! : Minimized approaches to the posterolateral chest wall.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, A; Oppel, Pascal; Grupp, Sina; Krinner, Sebastian; Pachowsky, Milena; Buder, Thomas; Schulz-Drost, Melanie; Hennig, Friedrich F; Schulz-Drost, Stefan

    2017-11-09

    Stabilizing techniques for flail chest injuries are described through wide surgical approaches to the chest wall, especially in the most affected posterior and lateral regions. Severe morbidity due to these invasive approaches needs to be considered due to dissection of the scapular guiding muscles and the risk of injuries to neurovascular bundles. This study discusses possibilities for minimized approaches to the posterior and lateral regions. Ten fresh-frozen cadavers in lateral decubitus position were observed on both sides. Each surgical arm was kept mobile during the procedure. Approaches were performed following a standard protocol with muscle-sparing incisions starting with 5 cm in length and extending to 10 and 15 cm. The accessible surface comparing the extensions was measured. Visible ribs were counted. In a next step, MatrixRib ® Plates were fixed to those ribs to prove the feasibility of rib stabilization through limited approaches. Combinations of the posterior and lateral minimized approaches allow surgical fixation of 6-9 and 7-11 ribs through 5 and 10 cm incisions, respectively. In the case of an extreme expansion of a rib fracture series, an access extension can be made to 15 cm to be able to adequately supply the entire hemithorax using two approaches. Extensive invasive surgical approaches to the thoracic wall can be replaced by reduced invasive and muscle-sparing access combinations. A free-moving positioning of the arm and an accurate preoperative plan for minimizing approaches are essential. Minimally invasive plate techniques are very helpful adjuncts.

  19. A moderately low phosphate intake may provide health benefits analogous to those conferred by UV light - a further advantage of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2003-01-01

    Although exposure to ultraviolet light is often viewed as pathogenic owing to its role in the genesis of skin cancer and skin aging, there is growing epidemiological evidence that such exposure may decrease risk for a number of more serious cancers, may have a favorable impact on blood pressure and vascular health, and may help to prevent certain autoimmune disorders - in addition to its well-known influence on bone density. Most likely, these health benefits are reflective of improved vitamin D status. Increased synthesis or intake of vitamin D can be expected to down-regulate parathyroid hormone (PTH), and to increase autocrine synthesis of its active metabolite calcitriol in certain tissues; these effects, in turn, may impact cancer risk, vascular health, immune regulation, and bone density through a variety of mechanisms. Presumably, a truly adequate supplemental intake of vitamin D - manyfold higher than the grossly inadequate current RDA - could replicate the benefits of optimal UV exposure, without however damaging the skin. Diets moderately low in bioavailable phosphate - like many vegan diets - might be expected to have a complementary impact on disease risks, inasmuch as serum phosphate suppresses renal calcitriol synthesis while up-regulating that of PTH. A proviso is that the impact of dietary phosphorus on bone health is more equivocal than that of vitamin D. Increased intakes of calcium, on the other hand, down-regulate the production of both PTH and calcitriol - the latter effect may explain why the impact of dietary calcium on cancer risk (excepting colon cancer), hypertension, and autoimmunity is not clearly positive. An overview suggests that a vegan diet supplemented with high-dose vitamin D should increase both systemic and autocrine calcitriol production while suppressing PTH secretion, and thus should represent a highly effective way to achieve the wide-ranging health protection conferred by optimal UV exposure.

  20. Providing In-Service Education at a Minimal Cost for Title XX Early Childhood Caregivers through a Conference, Workshop Series, and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan Anderson

    Due to funding cutbacks resulting from the Title XX Social Services Block Grant, ongoing inservice education for teachers in the Berks County, Pennsylvania, Intermediate Unit Child Care Program had not been provided for over 2 years. To meet the need for inservice training, a practicum was designed and implemented to (1) increase inservice…

  1. Ramjet Intakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    the fixes applied during previous testing of isolated intakes. The outline of this lecture is a brief tour of some historic supersonic intakes...flow elements. 1 INTRODUCTION There is an established format for lectures , books and reviews concerning intakes, with a large section allocated to...and controlling boundary layers are necessarily included. This lecture approaches the subject from a different perspective, here we are less concerned

  2. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  3. Taxonomic minimalism.

    PubMed

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Minimalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the art movement called "Minimalism" discussing why it started and its characteristics. Includes learning activities and information on the artist, Donald Judd. Includes a reproduction of one of his art works and discusses its content. (CMK)

  5. No appetite efficacy of a commercial structured lipid emulsion in minimally processed drinks.

    PubMed

    Smit, H J; Keenan, E; Kovacs, E M R; Wiseman, S A; Mela, D J; Rogers, P J

    2012-09-01

    Fabuless (Olibra) is a commercially structured lipid emulsion, claimed to be a food ingredient that is effective for food intake and appetite reduction. The present study assessed its efficacy in a yoghurt-based mini-drink undergoing low or minimal food manufacturing (thermal and shear) processes. Study 1: Twenty-four healthy volunteers (16 female, 8 male; age: 18-47 years; body mass index (BMI): 17-28 kg m(-2)) took part in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel crossover trial. Consumption of a minimally processed 'preload' mini-drink (containing two different doses of Fabuless or a control fat) at 2 h after breakfast was followed by appetite and mood ratings, and food intake measured in ad libitum meals at 3 and 7 h post consumption of the preload. Study 2: As Study 1 (16 female, 8 male; age: 20-54 years; BMI: 21-30 kg m(-2)). A chilled, virtually unprocessed, preload breakfast mini-drink (containing minimally processed Fabuless or a control fat) was provided 5 min after a standardised breakfast, followed by appetite and mood ratings, and food intake measured in ad libitum meals at 4 and 8 h post consumption of the preload. The structured lipid emulsion tested had no significant effect on the primary measures of food intake or appetite. Even when exposed to minimal food-manufacturing conditions, Fabuless showed no efficacy on measures of appetite and food intake.

  6. Secondary analyses of data from four studies with fourth-grade children show that sex, race, amounts eaten of standardized portions, and energy content given in trades explain the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E.; Tebbs, Joshua M.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a 2012 article showed a positive relationship between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain that positive relationship, secondary analyses investigated 1) whether the relationship differed by sex and race, and 2) the relationship between BMI and six aspects of school-provided meals—amounts eaten of standardized portions, energy content given in trades, energy intake received in trades, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake from a la carte ice cream, and breakfast type. Data were from four studies conducted one per school year (1999–2000 to 2002–2003). Fourth-grade children (n=328; 50% female; 54% Black) from 13 schools total were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to three days per child for 1,178 total meals (50% breakfast). Children were weighed and measured. Marginal regression models were fit using BMI as the dependent variable. For Purpose One, independent variables were energy intake at school-provided meals, sex, race, age, and study; additional models included interaction terms involving energy intake and sex/race. For Purpose Two, independent variables were the six aspects of school-provided meals, sex, race, age, and study. The relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals differed by sex (p<0.0001; stronger for females) and race (p=0.0063; stronger for Black children). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized portions (p<0.0001) and negatively related to energy content given in trades (p=0.0052). Explaining the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals may contribute to school-based obesity prevention efforts. PMID:23084638

  7. Secondary analyses of data from 4 studies with fourth-grade children show that sex, race, amounts eaten of standardized portions, and energy content given in trades explain the positive relationship between body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Tebbs, Joshua M; Royer, Julie A; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    Results from a 2012 article showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain that positive relationship, secondary analyses investigated (1) whether the relationship differed by sex and race and (2) the relationship between BMI and 6 aspects of school-provided meals--amounts eaten of standardized portions, energy content given in trades, energy intake received in trades, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake from a la carte ice cream, and breakfast type. Data were from 4 studies conducted 1 per school year (1999-2000 to 2002-2003). Fourth-grade children (n = 328; 50% female; 54% black) from 13 schools total were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on 1 to 3 days per child for 1178 total meals (50% breakfast). Children were weighed and measured. Marginal regression models were fit using BMI as the dependent variable. For purpose 1, independent variables were energy intake at school-provided meals, sex, race, age, and study; additional models included interaction terms involving energy intake and sex/race. For purpose 2, independent variables were the 6 aspects of school-provided meals, sex, race, age, and study. The relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals differed by sex (P < .0001; stronger for females) and race (P = .0063; stronger for black children). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized portions (P < .0001) and negatively related to energy content given in trades (P = .0052). Explaining the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals may contribute to school-based obesity prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifelong intake of flaxseed or menhaden oil to provide varying n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratios modulate bone microarchitecture during growth, but not after OVX in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Longo, Amanda B; Sullivan, Philip J; Peters, Sandra J; LeBlanc, Paul J; Wohl, Gregory R; Ward, Wendy E

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal health is a lifelong process impacted by environmental factors, including nutrient intake. The n-3 source and PUFA ratio affect bone health in growing rats, or following ovariectomy (OVX), but no study has investigated the longitudinal effect of PUFA-supplementation throughout these periods of bone development. One-month-old, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 98) were randomized to receive one of four diets from 1 through 6 months of age. Diets were modified from AIN-93G to contain a varying amount and source of n-3 (flaxseed versus menhaden oil) to provide an n-6 to n-3 ratio of 10:1 or 5:1. At 3 (prior to SHAM or OVX) and 6 months of age, bone microarchitecture of the tibia was quantified using in vivo micro-computed tomography (SkyScan 1176, Bruker microCT). Providing 5:1 (flaxseed) resulted in lower trabecular thickness and medullary area and greater cortical area fraction during growth compared to diets with a 10:1 PUFA ratio, but many of these differences were not apparent following OVX. PUFA-supplementation at levels attainable in human diet modulates some bone structure outcomes during periods of growth, but is not an adequate strategy for the prevention of OVX-induced bone loss in rats. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. EBUS-TBNA Provides Highest RNA Yield for Multiple Biomarker Testing from Routinely Obtained Small Biopsies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients - A Comparative Study of Three Different Minimal Invasive Sampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Wang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Hongbin; Sun, Hui; Henzler, Thomas; Wang, Hao; Pilz, Lothar R.; Ren, Shengxiang; Zhou, Caicun

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple biomarker testing is necessary to facilitate individualized treatment of lung cancer patients. More than 80% of lung cancers are diagnosed based on very small tumor samples. Often there is not enough tissue for molecular analysis. We compared three minimal invasive sampling methods with respect to RNA quantity for molecular testing. Methods 106 small biopsies were prospectively collected by three different methods forceps biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), and CT-guided core biopsy. Samples were split into two halves. One part was formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for standard pathological evaluation. The other part was put in RNAlater for immediate RNA/DNA extraction. If the pathologist confirmed the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), the following molecular markers were tested: EGFR mutation, ERCC1, RRM1 and BRCA1. Results Overall, RNA-extraction was possible in 101 out of 106 patients (95.3%). We found 49% adenocarcinomas, 38% squamouscarcinomas, and 14% non-otherwise-specified(NOS). The highest RNA yield came from endobronchial ultrasound guided needle aspiration, which was significantly higher than bronchoscopy (37.74±41.09 vs. 13.74±15.53 ng respectively, P = 0.005) and numerically higher than CT-core biopsy (37.74±41.09 vs. 28.72±44.27 ng respectively, P = 0.244). EGFR mutation testing was feasible in 100% of evaluable patients and its incidence was 40.8%, 7.9% and 14.3% in adenocarcinomas, squamouscarcinomas and NSCLC NOS subgroup respectively. There was no difference in the feasibility of molecular testing between the three sampling methods with feasibility rates for ERCC1, RRM1 and BRCA1 of 91%, 87% and 81% respectively. Conclusion All three methods can provide sufficient tumor material for multiple biomarkers testing from routinely obtained small biopsies in lung cancer patients. In our study EBUS guided needle aspiration provided the highest amount of

  10. The minimal axion minimal linear σ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, L.; Pobbe, F.; Rigolin, S.

    2018-05-01

    The minimal SO(5) / SO(4) linear σ model is extended including an additional complex scalar field, singlet under the global SO(5) and the Standard Model gauge symmetries. The presence of this scalar field creates the conditions to generate an axion à la KSVZ, providing a solution to the strong CP problem, or an axion-like-particle. Different choices for the PQ charges are possible and lead to physically distinct Lagrangians. The internal consistency of each model necessarily requires the study of the scalar potential describing the SO(5)→ SO(4), electroweak and PQ symmetry breaking. A single minimal scenario is identified and the associated scalar potential is minimised including counterterms needed to ensure one-loop renormalizability. In the allowed parameter space, phenomenological features of the scalar degrees of freedom, of the exotic fermions and of the axion are illustrated. Two distinct possibilities for the axion arise: either it is a QCD axion with an associated scale larger than ˜ 105 TeV and therefore falling in the category of the invisible axions; or it is a more massive axion-like-particle, such as a 1 GeV axion with an associated scale of ˜ 200 TeV, that may show up in collider searches.

  11. Coffee intake.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake. PMID:24611110

  13. Measuring milk intake in breast-fed babies.

    PubMed

    Coward, W A

    1984-03-01

    The relative merits of test weighing, water turnover methods, and a flowmeter method for the measurement of milk intake in breast-fed babies are reviewed to allow the prospective investigator to choose the method most suited to his or her needs. Provided that measurements are made over 3-4 days to minimize the effects of day-to-day variation in milk intake, test weighing is a satisfactory procedure when feed frequency is low and individual feed volumes are large. However, in developing countries where frequency is high and feed volumes low, test weighing is inherently less accurate and may impose an unfamiliar and unphysiological discipline on the mother and child that severely limits its usefulness. In these circumstances methods based on the measurement of water turnover rates using 2H2O are the only procedures likely to yield useful information. A method in which single doses of 2H2O are given to the mother, and milk intake rates measured over 14 days, is described. Neither test weighing nor water turnover methods provide simultaneous milk intake and composition data. The development of flowmeter methods will make this possible, but their use is likely to limited to metabolic wards rather than the home and widespread use in community studies is not a practical proposition.

  14. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  15. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  16. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency.

  17. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... geta poker friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental ... structure. It focuses on prevention, remineralization, and minimal dentist intervention. Using scientific advances, minimally invasive dentistry allows ...

  18. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    SciTech Connect

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  19. Correlates of minimal dating.

    PubMed

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  20. Hospitalization Costs of Total Knee Arthroplasty With a Continuous Femoral Nerve Block Provided Only in the Hospital Versus on an Ambulatory Basis: A Retrospective, Case-Control, Cost-Minimization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ilfeld, Brian M.; Mariano, Edward R.; Williams, Brian A.; Woodard, Jennifer N.; Macario, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), hospitalization may be shortened by allowing patients to return home with a continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB). This study quantified the hospitalization costs for 10 TKA patients receiving ambulatory CFNB versus a matched cohort of 10 patients who received CFNB only during hospitalization. Methods We examined the medical records (n=125) of patients who underwent a unilateral, primary, tricompartment TKA with a postoperative CFNB by one surgeon at one institution in an 18-month period beginning January 2004. Each of the ten patients discharged home with an ambulatory CFNB (cases) was matched with a patient with a hospital-only CFNB (controls) for age, gender, body mass index, and health status. Financial data were extracted from the hospital micro-costing database. Results Nine patients with ambulatory CFNB (cases) were discharged home on postoperative day (POD) 1, and one on POD 4. Of the controls, 3 were discharged home on POD 3, 6 on POD 4, and 1 on POD 5. The median (range) costs of hospitalization (excluding implant and professional fees) was $5,292 (4,326 – 7,929) for ambulatory cases, compared with $7,974 (6,931 – 9,979) for inpatient controls (difference=$2,682, 34% decrease, P<0.001). The total charges for hospitalization, the implant, and professional fees was $33,646 (31,816 – 38,468) for cases, compared with $39,100 (36,096 – 44,098) for controls (difference=$5,454, 14% decrease, P<0.001). Conclusions This study provides evidence that ambulatory CFNB for selected patients undergoing TKA has the potential to reduce hospital length-of-stay and associated costs and charges. However, the current study has significant inherent limitations based on the study design. Additional research is required to replicate these results in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial and to determine whether any savings exceed additional CFNB costs such as from complications, having caregivers

  1. Racial and ethnic differences in the relationship between antenatal stressful life events and postpartum depression among women in the United States: does provider communication on perinatal depression minimize the risk?

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Fennie, Kristopher; Coxe, Stefany; Madhivanan, Purnima; Trepka, Mary Jo

    2018-07-01

    Multi-state population-based studies exploring the racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression (PPD), which affects 10-20% of women in the US, are rare. The aim of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic disparities in the relationship between antenatal stressful life events and PPD among US women and to explore whether antenatal health care provider communication on perinatal depression was associated with a lower risk. Data from the 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. For each racial/ethnic group, the distribution of PPD was compared according to different levels of the stressors and socio-demographic, pre-pregnancy, antenatal, delivery, and neonatal characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed with PPD as the outcome and all variables that were significant in bivariate analyses as predictors. Eleven percent of 87,565 women met the criteria for PPD with the prevalence ranging from 7.9% among Asian/Pacific Islanders to 14% among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Irrespective of race/ethnicity, having many bills to pay and having more than usual arguments with husband/partner were risk factors for PPD. Among non-Hispanic black (NHB) women, having a husband/partner who did not want the pregnancy was associated with PPD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 1.90), and among non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), drug/drinking problems of someone close was associated with PPD (aOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.55). Provider communication was inversely associated with PPD among NHWs (aOR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.85) and NHBs (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.93). The protective effect of provider communication on PPD suggests the benefit of a simple conversation about perinatal depression during antenatal care. Furthermore, risk factors for PPD varied by race/ethnicity suggesting that these vulnerabilities should be taken into consideration in identifying

  2. Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Logistics 4 Initiative - DoD Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Non- Chrome Primer IIEXAVAJ ENT CHRO:M I~UMI CHROMIUM (VII Oil CrfVli.J CANCEfl HAnRD CD...Management Office of the Secretary of Defense Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  3. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    intakes varied over different phases of preparation, typically being highest in the non-competition (>6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide details on rationale for different dietary intakes. The contribution of diet supplements was also often not reported. When supplements were reported, intakes of some micronutrients were excessive (~1000% of US Recommended Dietary Allowance) and above the tolerable upper limit. This review demonstrates that literature describing the dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders is dated and often of poor quality. Intake reporting required better specificity and details of the rationale underpinning the use. The review suggests that high-quality contemporary research is needed in this area, with the potential to uncover dietary strategies worthy of scientific exploration.

  4. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  5. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  6. Apparent dietary intake in remote aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, A J; O'Dea, K; Mathews, J D

    1994-06-01

    Apparent per capita food and nutrient intake in six remote Australian Aboriginal communities using the 'store-turnover' method is described. The method is based on the analysis of community-store food invoices. The face validity of the method supports the notion that, under the unique circumstances of remote Aboriginal communities, the turnover of foodstuffs from the community store is a useful measure of apparent dietary intake for the community as a whole. In all Aboriginal communities studied, the apparent intake of energy, sugars and fat was excessive, while the apparent intake of dietary fibre and several nutrients, including folic acid, was low. White sugar, flour, bread and meat provided in excess of 50 per cent of the apparent total energy intake. Of the apparent high fat intake, fatty meats contributed nearly 40 per cent in northern coastal communities and over 60 per cent in central desert communities. Sixty per cent of the apparent high intake of sugars was derived from sugar per se in both regions. Compared with national Australian apparent consumption data, intakes of sugar, white flour and sweetened carbonated beverages were much higher in Aboriginal communities, and intakes of wholemeal bread, fruit and vegetables were much lower. Results of the store-turnover method have important implications for community-based nutrition intervention programs.

  7. Eating under observation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect that heightened awareness of observation has on laboratory measured energy intake.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Hardman, Charlotte A; Halford, Jason C G; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory paradigms are commonly used to study human energy intake. However, the extent to which participants believe their eating behavior is being measured may affect energy intake and is a methodologic factor that has received little consideration. Our main objective was to examine available evidence for the effect that heightened awareness of observation has on energy intake in a laboratory setting. We systematically reviewed laboratory studies that allowed for experimental examination of the effect that heightened awareness of observation has on energy intake. From these experimental studies we combined effect estimates using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in energy intake between heightened-awareness and control conditions and qualitatively synthesized potential moderators of this effect. Nine studies, providing 22 comparisons, were eligible for inclusion. These studies largely sampled young women and examined the energy intake of energy-dense snack foods. Evidence indicated that heightened awareness of observation was associated with reduced energy intake when compared with the control condition (random-effects SMD: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.66; P < 0.0001). We found little evidence that the type of experimental manipulation used to heighten awareness moderated the overall effect. The available evidence to date suggests that heightened awareness of observation reduces energy intake in a laboratory setting. These findings suggest that laboratory studies should attempt to minimize the degree to which participants are aware that their eating behavior is being measured. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. The Oral Minimal Model Method

    PubMed Central

    Cobelli, Claudio; Dalla Man, Chiara; Toffolo, Gianna; Basu, Rita; Vella, Adrian; Rizza, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous assessment of insulin action, secretion, and hepatic extraction is key to understanding postprandial glucose metabolism in nondiabetic and diabetic humans. We review the oral minimal method (i.e., models that allow the estimation of insulin sensitivity, β-cell responsivity, and hepatic insulin extraction from a mixed-meal or an oral glucose tolerance test). Both of these oral tests are more physiologic and simpler to administer than those based on an intravenous test (e.g., a glucose clamp or an intravenous glucose tolerance test). The focus of this review is on indices provided by physiological-based models and their validation against the glucose clamp technique. We discuss first the oral minimal model method rationale, data, and protocols. Then we present the three minimal models and the indices they provide. The disposition index paradigm, a widely used β-cell function metric, is revisited in the context of individual versus population modeling. Adding a glucose tracer to the oral dose significantly enhances the assessment of insulin action by segregating insulin sensitivity into its glucose disposal and hepatic components. The oral minimal model method, by quantitatively portraying the complex relationships between the major players of glucose metabolism, is able to provide novel insights regarding the regulation of postprandial metabolism. PMID:24651807

  9. Dietary intake of whole grains.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, L E; Moshfegh, A J; Albertson, A M; Goldman, J D

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide national estimates of whole-grain intake in the United States, identify major dietary sources of whole grains and compare food and nutrient intakes of whole-grain consumers and nonconsumers. Data were collected from 9,323 individuals age 20 years and older in USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals through in-person interviews on two non-consecutive days using a multiple-pass 24-hour recall method. Foods reported by respondents were quantified in servings as defined by the Food Guide Pyramid using a new database developed by the USDA. Whole-grain and nonwhole-grain servings were determined based on the proportion, by weight, of the grain ingredients in each food that were whole grain and nonwhole grain. Sampling weights were applied to provide national probability estimates adjusted for differential rates of selection and nonresponse. Then, t tests were used to assess statistically significant differences in intakes of nutrients and food groups by whole-grain consumers and nonconsumers. According to the 1994-96 survey, U.S. adults consumed an average of 6.7 servings of grain products per day; 1.0 serving was whole grain. Thirty-six percent averaged less than one whole-grain serving per day based on two days of intake data, and only eight percent met the recommendation to eat at least three servings per day. Yeast breads and breakfast cereals each provided almost one-third of the whole-grain servings, grain-based snacks provided about one-fifth, and less than one-tenth came from quick breads, pasta, rice, cakes, cookies, pies, pastries and miscellaneous grains. Whole-grain consumers had significantly better nutrient profiles than nonconsumers, including higher intakes of vitamins and minerals as percentages of 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances and as nutrients per 1,000 kilocalories, and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fat and added sugars as percentages of food energy. Consumers were

  10. The association between red and processed meat consumption and iron intakes and status among British adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Ashwell, Margaret

    2003-06-01

    To examine the association between consumption of red and processed meat (RPM) and iron intakes and status in adults. Further analysis of the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults, a cross-sectional study of 2197 adults aged 16-64 years carried out in 1986/7. Adults (836 men and 838 women) with serum ferritin measurements, who were not taking iron supplements, were classified into four groups according to RPM consumption (from 7-day weighed records). Iron absorbed was estimated from equations based on haem and non-haem iron and the influence of iron stores. Women who ate least meat (<90 g day-1) had three times the risk of a low iron intake (below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake) compared with high consumers of RPM (>140 g day-1). Men who ate no RPM also had a higher risk of low iron intake. Using an estimate of minimal values for iron losses, there was a twofold difference in the potential risk of negative iron balance between women non-RPM consumers and high RPM consumers. Status measurements indicated that, among women, anaemia was least prevalent (6%) among high consumers compared with 12-14% among average RPM consumers. Inverse trends were also observed for serum ferritin in both sexes. Low consumption of RPM has implications for iron intakes and iron status in men and women, since the risk of negative iron balance and its consequences are increased. Dietary messages must consider these implications and provide appropriate advice.

  11. Minimizing medical litigation, part 2.

    PubMed

    Harold, Tan Keng Boon

    2006-01-01

    Provider-patient disputes are inevitable in the healthcare sector. Healthcare providers and regulators should recognize this and plan opportunities to enforce alternative dispute resolution (ADR) a early as possible in the care delivery process. Negotiation is often the main dispute resolution method used by local healthcare providers, failing which litigation would usually follow. The role of mediation in resolving malpractice disputes has been minimal. Healthcare providers, administrators, and regulators should therefore look toward a post-event communication-cum-mediation framework as the key national strategy to resolving malpractice disputes.

  12. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  13. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome; Nil disease; Lipoid nephrosis; Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood ... disease is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children. It is also seen in adults ...

  14. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  15. Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Gaw, Sally; Love, John

    2010-01-01

    Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride concentration of 0.1 mg/L), and the other based on a water supply fluoridated to a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluoride concentration data were taken from historical surveys, while food consumption data were taken from national 24-hour dietary recall surveys or from simulated diets. Mean and 95th percentile estimations of dietary fluoride intake were well below the upper level of intake (UL), whether intakes were calculated on the basis of a non-fluoridated or fluoridated water supply. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes provides additional fluoride intake. For many of the population groups considered, mean fluoride intakes were below the adequate intake (AI) level for caries protection, even after inclusion of the fluoride contribution from toothpaste. Intake of fluoride was driven by consumption of dietary staples (bread, potatoes),beverages (particularly tea, soft drinks, and beer), and the fluoride status of drinking water. Estimates of fluoride intake from the diet and toothpaste did not identify any groups at risk of exceeding the UL, with the exception of infants (6-12 months) living in areas with fluoridated water supplies and using high-fluoride toothpaste. In contrast, much of the adult population may be receiving insufficient fluoride for optimum caries protection from these sources, as represented by the AI.

  16. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  17. Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Massella, Laura; Ruggiero, Barbara; Emma, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is a major cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS), characterized by intense proteinuria leading to edema and intravascular volume depletion. In adults, it accounts for approximately 15% of patients with idiopathic NS, reaching a much higher percentage at younger ages, up to 70%–90% in children >1 year of age. In the pediatric setting, a renal biopsy is usually not performed if presentation is typical and the patient responds to therapy with oral prednisone at conventional doses. Therefore, in this setting steroid-sensitive NS can be considered synonymous with MCD. The pathologic hallmark of disease is absence of visible alterations by light microscopy and effacement of foot processes by electron microscopy. Although the cause is unknown and it is likely that different subgroups of disease recognize a different pathogenesis, immunologic dysregulation and modifications of the podocyte are thought to synergize in altering the integrity of the glomerular basement membrane and therefore determining proteinuria. The mainstay of therapy is prednisone, but steroid-sensitive forms frequently relapse and this leads to a percentage of patients requiring second-line steroid-sparing immunosuppression. The outcome is variable, but forms of MCD that respond to steroids usually do not lead to chronic renal damage, whereas forms that are unresponsive to steroids may subsequently reveal themselves as FSGS. However, in a substantial number of patients the disease is recurrent and requires long-term immunosuppression, with significant morbidity because of side effects. Recent therapeutic advances, such as the use of anti-CD20 antibodies, have provided long-term remission off-therapy and suggest new hypotheses for disease pathogenesis. PMID:27940460

  18. New minimally access hydrocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Saber, Aly

    2011-02-01

    To ascertain the acceptability of minimally access hydrocelectomy through a 2-cm incision and the outcome in terms of morbidity reduction and recurrence rate. Although controversy exists regarding the treatment of hydrocele, hydrocelectomy remains the treatment of choice for hydroceles. However, the standard surgical procedures for hydrocele can cause postoperative discomfort and complications. A total of 42 adult patients, aged 18-56 years, underwent hydrocelectomy as an outpatient procedure using a 2-cm scrotal skin incision and excision of only a small disk of the parietal tunica vaginalis. The operative time was 12-18 minutes (mean 15). The outcome measures included patient satisfaction and postoperative complications. This procedure requires minor dissection and minimal manipulation during treatment. It also resulted in no recurrence and minimal complications and required a short operative time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  20. Minimal Competency Exam Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, E. H.

    The high school minimal competency examination described in this document is part one of a three-part program that requires that all students satisfactorily complete tests in reading, language arts, and mathematics prior to receiving a high school diploma. The document outlines the test development and assessment program and describes the plan for…

  1. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes. PMID:22368356

  2. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  3. Designing optimal food intake patterns to achieve nutritional goals for Japanese adults through the use of linear programming optimization models.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-06-06

    Simultaneous dietary achievement of a full set of nutritional recommendations is difficult. Diet optimization model using linear programming is a useful mathematical means of translating nutrient-based recommendations into realistic nutritionally-optimal food combinations incorporating local and culture-specific foods. We used this approach to explore optimal food intake patterns that meet the nutrient recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) while incorporating typical Japanese food selections. As observed intake values, we used the food and nutrient intake data of 92 women aged 31-69 years and 82 men aged 32-69 years living in three regions of Japan. Dietary data were collected with semi-weighed dietary record on four non-consecutive days in each season of the year (16 days total). The linear programming models were constructed to minimize the differences between observed and optimized food intake patterns while also meeting the DRIs for a set of 28 nutrients, setting energy equal to estimated requirements, and not exceeding typical quantities of each food consumed by each age (30-49 or 50-69 years) and gender group. We successfully developed mathematically optimized food intake patterns that met the DRIs for all 28 nutrients studied in each sex and age group. Achieving nutritional goals required minor modifications of existing diets in older groups, particularly women, while major modifications were required to increase intake of fruit and vegetables in younger groups of both sexes. Across all sex and age groups, optimized food intake patterns demanded greatly increased intake of whole grains and reduced-fat dairy products in place of intake of refined grains and full-fat dairy products. Salt intake goals were the most difficult to achieve, requiring marked reduction of salt-containing seasoning (65-80%) in all sex and age groups. Using a linear programming model, we identified optimal food intake patterns providing practical food choices and

  4. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  5. Calorie intake and short-term survival of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Bender, Andreas; Scheipl, Fabian; Kuppinger, David; Day, Andrew G; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2018-04-18

    The association between calorie supply and outcome of critically ill patients is unclear. Results from observational studies contradict findings of randomized studies, and have been questioned because of unrecognized confounding by indication. The present study wanted to re-examine the associations between the daily amount of calorie intake and short-term survival of critically ill patients using several novel statistical approaches. 9661 critically ill patients from 451 ICUs were extracted from an international database. We examined associations between survival time and three pragmatic nutritional categories (I: <30% of target, II: 30-70%, III: >70%) reflecting different amounts of total daily calorie intake. We compared hazard ratios for the 30-day risk of dying estimated for different hypothetical nutrition support plans (different categories of daily calorie intake during the first 11 days after ICU admission). To minimize indication bias, we used a lag time between nutrition and outcome, we particularly considered daily amounts of calorie intake, and we adjusted results to the route of calorie supply (enteral, parenteral, oral). 1974 patients (20.4%) died in hospital before day 30. Median of daily artificial calorie intake was 1.0 kcal/kg [IQR 0.0-4.1] in category I, 12.3 kcal/kg [9.4-15.4] in category II, and 23.5 kcal/kg [19.5-27.8] in category III. When compared to a plan providing daily minimal amounts of calories (category I), the adjusted minimal hazard ratios for a delayed (from day 5-11) or an early (from day 1-11) mildly hypocaloric nutrition (category II) were 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.94) and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.82), respectively. No substantial hazard change could be detected, when a delayed or an early, near target calorie intake (category III) was compared to an early, mildly hypocaloric nutrition. Compared to a severely hypocaloric nutrition, a mildly hypocaloric nutrition is associated with a decreased risk of death

  6. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  7. Sonic-boom minimization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seebass, R.; George, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    There have been many attempts to reduce or eliminate the sonic boom. Such attempts fall into two categories: (1) aerodynamic minimization and (2) exotic configurations. In the first category changes in the entropy and the Bernoulli constant are neglected and equivalent body shapes required to minimize the overpressure, the shock pressure rise and the impulse are deduced. These results include the beneficial effects of atmospheric stratification. In the second category, the effective length of the aircraft is increased or its base area decreased by modifying the Bernoulli constant a significant fraction of the flow past the aircraft. A figure of merit is introduced which makes it possible to judge the effectiveness of the latter schemes.

  8. Recommended minimal cockpit head motion box dimensions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-26

    This memo provides recommendations for the dimensions of the minimal CHMB based on a study of pilot head motion in actual flight. These recommended dimensions should accommodate the vast majority of the targeted head motion exhibited by the vast majo...

  9. A minimal multiconfigurational technique.

    PubMed

    Fernández Rico, J; Paniagua, M; GarcíA De La Vega, J M; Fernández-Alonso, J I; Fantucci, P

    1986-04-01

    A direct minimization method previously presented by the authors is applied here to biconfigurational wave functions. A very moderate increasing in the time by iteration with respect to the one-determinant calculation and good convergence properties have been found. So qualitatively correct studies on singlet systems with strong biradical character can be performed with a cost similar to that required by Hartree-Fock calculations. Copyright © 1986 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Minimally invasive paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'.

  11. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  12. A Dual-Carbon-and-Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratio Model Is Not Superior to a Single-Carbon Stable Isotope Ratio Model for Predicting Added Sugar Intake in Southwest Virginian Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Zoellner, Jamie M; Jahren, A Hope; Woodford, Natalie A; Bostic, Joshua N; Davy, Brenda M

    2015-01-01

    Background: An objective measure of added sugar (AS) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is needed. The δ13C value of finger-stick blood is a novel validated biomarker of AS/SSB intake; however, nonsweetener corn products and animal protein also carry a δ13C value similar to AS sources, which may affect blood δ13C values. The δ15N value of blood has been proposed as a “correction factor” for animal protein intake. Objectives: The objectives were to 1) identify foods associated with δ13C and δ15N blood values, 2) determine the contribution of nonsweetener corn to the diet relative to AS intake, and 3) determine if the dual-isotope model (δ13C and δ15N) is a better predictor of AS/SSB intake than δ13C alone. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of southwest Virginian adults (n = 257; aged 42 ± 15 y; 74% overweight/obese) underwent dietary intake assessments and provided finger-stick blood samples, which were analyzed for δ13C and δ15N values by using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included ANOVAs, paired-samples t tests, and multiple linear regressions. Results: The mean ± SD daily AS intake was 88 ± 59 g and nonsweetener corn intake was 13 ± 13 g. The mean δ13C value was −19.1 ± 0.9‰, which was significantly correlated with AS and SSB intakes (r = 0.32 and 0.39, respectively; P ≤ 0.01). The δ13C value and nonsweetener corn intake and the δ15N value and animal protein intake were not correlated. AS intake was significantly greater than nonsweetener corn intake (mean difference = 76.2 ± 57.2 g; P ≤ 0.001). The δ13C value was predictive of AS/SSB intake (β range: 0.28–0.35; P ≤ 0.01); however, δ15N was not predictive and minimal increases in R2 values were observed when the δ15N value was added to the model. Conclusions: The data do not provide evidence that the dual-isotope method is superior for predicting AS/SSB intakes within a southwest Virginian population. Our results support

  13. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  14. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  15. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  16. Radial Symmetry of p-Harmonic Minimizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Aleksis; Onninen, Jani

    2018-03-01

    "It is still not known if the radial cavitating minimizers obtained by uc(Ball) (Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 306:557-611, 1982) (and subsequently by many others) are global minimizers of any physically reasonable nonlinearly elastic energy". This quotation is from uc(Sivaloganathan) and uc(Spector) (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré Anal Non Linéaire 25(1):201-213, 2008) and seems to be still accurate. The model case of the p-harmonic energy is considered here. We prove that the planar radial minimizers are indeed the global minimizers provided we prescribe the admissible deformations on the boundary. In the traction free setting, however, even the identity map need not be a global minimizer.

  17. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    intake, but because these adjustments in energy intake are not macronutrient specific, changes in the overall macronutrient composition of children's diets can be obtained. There does not appear to be anything unique or special about the effects of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake; their effects are similar to those produced by other manipulations of macronutrient and energy content accomplished without macronutrient substitutes (e.g., augmenting foods with fat or carbohydrate to produce macronutrient differences). The research also indicates that under conditions that minimize adult attempts to control how much and what children eat, children can adjust their food and energy intake in response to the alterations of macronutrient and energy content of foods. Whether or not young children adjust food intake to compensate for energy-density changes depends upon their opportunity to control their own food intake as opposed to having their intake controlled by others. Young children's ability to adjust intake in response to alterations in the energy density of foods can be readily disrupted by the imposition of controlling child-feeding practices that attempt to regulate what and how much children eat. We believe that early experiences, including child-feeding practices imposed by parents, are major factors contributing to the etiology of individual differences and gender differences in the behavioral controls of food intake that can occur in response to the energy content of foods. The extent to which children respond to energy density of the diet has major implications for the effects of fat and sugar substitutes on children's intake. If children who are responsive to energy density consume substantial amounts of foods containing macronutrient substitutes, they should show some adjustments in intake to compensate for reduced energy, so that the impact of macronutrient substitutes on energy intake may be relatively small. However, changes in macronutrient com

  18. Joint Data Analysis in Nutritional Epidemiology: Identification of Observational Studies and Minimal Requirements.

    PubMed

    Pinart, Mariona; Nimptsch, Katharina; Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O; Yang, Chen; De Cock, Nathalie; Lachat, Carl; Perozzi, Giuditta; Canali, Raffaella; Lombardo, Rosario; D'Archivio, Massimo; Guillaume, Michèle; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Jeran, Stephanie; Linseisen, Jakob; Kleiser, Christina; Nöthlings, Ute; Barbaresko, Janett; Boeing, Heiner; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Heuer, Thorsten; Laird, Eamon; Walton, Janette; Gasparini, Paolo; Robino, Antonietta; Castaño, Luis; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Merino, Jordi; Masana, Luis; Standl, Marie; Schulz, Holger; Biagi, Elena; Nurk, Eha; Matthys, Christophe; Gobbetti, Marco; de Angelis, Maria; Windler, Eberhard; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Tafforeau, Jean; Pischon, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Joint data analysis from multiple nutrition studies may improve the ability to answer complex questions regarding the role of nutritional status and diet in health and disease. The objective was to identify nutritional observational studies from partners participating in the European Nutritional Phenotype Assessment and Data Sharing Initiative (ENPADASI) Consortium, as well as minimal requirements for joint data analysis. A predefined template containing information on study design, exposure measurements (dietary intake, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, anthropometric measures, and sociodemographic and health status), main health-related outcomes, and laboratory measurements (traditional and omics biomarkers) was developed and circulated to those European research groups participating in the ENPADASI under the strategic research area of "diet-related chronic diseases." Information about raw data disposition and metadata sharing was requested. A set of minimal requirements was abstracted from the gathered information. Studies (12 cohort, 12 cross-sectional, and 2 case-control) were identified. Two studies recruited children only and the rest recruited adults. All studies included dietary intake data. Twenty studies collected blood samples. Data on traditional biomarkers were available for 20 studies, of which 17 measured lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin and 13 measured inflammatory biomarkers. Metabolomics, proteomics, and genomics or transcriptomics data were available in 5, 3, and 12 studies, respectively. Although the study authors were willing to share metadata, most refused, were hesitant, or had legal or ethical issues related to sharing raw data. Forty-one descriptors of minimal requirements for the study data were identified to facilitate data integration. Combining study data sets will enable sufficiently powered, refined investigations to increase the knowledge and understanding of the relation between food

  19. Energy Intake from Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.; Han, Euna

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating food away from home and restaurant consumption have increased over the past few decades. Purpose To examine recent changes in calories from fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and to assess characteristics associated with consumption. Methods Analyses of 24-hour dietary recalls from children, adolescents, and adults using nationally representative data from the 2003–2004 through 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, including analysis by gender, ethnicity, income and location of consumption. Multivariate regression analyses of associations between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food and full-service restaurants. Results In 2007–2008, 33%, 41% and 36% of children, adolescents and adults, respectively, consumed foods and/or beverages from fast-food restaurant sources and 12%, 18% and 27% consumed from full-service restaurants. Their respective mean caloric intake from fast food was 191 kcal, 404 kcal, and 315 kcal, down by 25% (p≤0.05), 3% and 9% from 2003–2004; and among consumers, intake was 576 kcal, 988 kcal, and 877 kcal, respectively, down by 12% (p≤0.05), 2% and 7%. There were no changes in daily calories consumed from full-service restaurants. Consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food (adults only) and full-service restaurants (all age groups) were higher when consumed away from home versus at home. There were some demographic and socioeconomic associations with the likelihood of fast-food consumption, but characteristics were generally not associated with the extent of caloric intake among those who consumed from fast-food or from full-service restaurants. Conclusions In 2007–2008, fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption remained prevalent and a source of substantial energy intake. PMID:23079172

  20. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    PubMed

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  1. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  2. Trends in Caffeine Intake Among US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Branum, Amy M.; Rossen, Lauren M.; Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Physicians and policy makers are increasingly interested in caffeine intake among children and adolescents in the advent of increasing energy drink sales. However, there have been no recent descriptions of caffeine or energy drink intake in the United States. We aimed to describe trends in caffeine intake over the past decade among US children and adolescents. METHODS We assessed trends and demographic differences in mean caffeine intake among children and adolescents by using the 24-hour dietary recall data from the 1999–2010 NHANES. In addition, we described the proportion of caffeine consumption attributable to different beverages, including soda, energy drinks, and tea. RESULTS Approximately 73% of children consumed caffeine on a given day. From 1999 to 2010, there were no significant trends in mean caffeine intake overall; however, caffeine intake decreased among 2- to 11-year-olds (P < .01) and Mexican-American children (P = .003). Soda accounted for the majority of caffeine intake, but this contribution declined from 62% to 38% (P < .001). Coffee accounted for 10% of caffeine intake in 1999–2000 but increased to nearly 24% of intake in 2009–2010 (P < .001). Energy drinks did not exist in 1999–2000 but increased to nearly 6% of caffeine intake in 2009–2010. CONCLUSIONS Mean caffeine intake has not increased among children and adolescents in recent years. However, coffee and energy drinks represent a greater proportion of caffeine intake as soda intake has declined. These findings provide a baseline for caffeine intake among US children and young adults during a period of increasing energy drink use. PMID:24515508

  3. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  4. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a Z3 symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general Z3 violating (denoted as =) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper serves as a manual to the NMSSM mode of the program, detailing the approximations and conventions used. Catalogue identifier: ADPM_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPM_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1870890 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, fortran. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Tested on Linux 3.x. Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPM_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 785 Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The solution to the

  5. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  6. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  7. Minimal mirror twin Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2016-11-29

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z 2 parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z 2 breaking, can generate the Z 2 breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism. The theory has constrained and correlated signals i n Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection andmore » Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments, over a region of parameter space where the fine-tuning for the electroweak scale is 10-50%. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z 2 breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B-L breaking fields are also discussed.« less

  8. [Investigation on nutritional intakes for hospitalized children with blood disease].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi-Liang; Wu, Yun-Tang; Sun, Zhong; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Rui; Li, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Yu-Mei; Song, Ji-Chang; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the diet and nutritional status of hospitalized children with blood disease in order to provide nutritional guidelines. The patients' daily dietary intakes, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional meals, were recorded in detail for seven consecutive days. The intake amount of various nutrients was calculated using the dietary database. The majority of children with blood disease showed inadequate intakes of calories [mean 1825.81 kCal/d, 73.62% of the recommended intake (RNI)] and protein (mean 67.68 g/d, 81.34% of RNI). Intakes of vitamin E and riboflavin were adequate, but intakes of vitamin A, thiamine and vitamin C (66.67%, 77.78% and 69.89% of RNI, respectively) were inadequate. Iron and selenium intakes were adequate, but calcium and zinc intakes (41.11% and 56.21% of RNI, respectively) were grossly inadequate. Hospitalized children with blood disease had decreased dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, calcium and zinc. The dietary pattern and nutritional intake need to be improved.

  9. Ransomware: Minimizing the Risks

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Justin

    2016-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to providing information to our readers on managing legal risks associated with medical practice. We invite questions from our readers. The answers are provided by PRMS, Inc. (www.prms.com), a manager of medical professional liability insurance programs with services that include risk management consultation, education and onsite risk management audits, and other resources to healthcare providers to help improve patient outcomes and reduce professional liability risk. The answers published in this column represent those of only one risk management consulting company. Other risk management consulting companies or insurance carriers may provide different advice, and readers should take this into consideration. The information in this column does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, contact your personal attorney. Note: The information and recommendations in this article are applicable to physicians and other healthcare professionals so “clinician” is used to indicate all treatment team members. PMID:28210525

  10. Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

  11. Ransomware: Minimizing the Risks.

    PubMed

    Pope, Justin

    2016-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to providing information to our readers on managing legal risks associated with medical practice. We invite questions from our readers. The answers are provided by PRMS, Inc. (www.prms.com), a manager of medical professional liability insurance programs with services that include risk management consultation, education and onsite risk management audits, and other resources to healthcare providers to help improve patient outcomes and reduce professional liability risk. The answers published in this column represent those of only one risk management consulting company. Other risk management consulting companies or insurance carriers may provide different advice, and readers should take this into consideration. The information in this column does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, contact your personal attorney. Note: The information and recommendations in this article are applicable to physicians and other healthcare professionals so "clinician" is used to indicate all treatment team members.

  12. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 105. Review Date 5/1/2017 Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, ... the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  13. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  14. Varieties of centralized intake: the Portland Target Cities Project experience.

    PubMed

    Barron, Nancy; McFarland, Bentson H; McCamant, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    To assess the possible influence of centralized intake on client outcomes, initial, six- and twelve-month Addiction Severity Index composite scores (in the alcohol, drug, legal and psychiatric areas) for clients who experienced provider intake were compared with scores for those going through two different models of centralized intake. Centralized intake clients were more likely than provider intake clients to have legal problems, and those legal problems became fewer over time. Clients from in-jail intake, including pretreatment services and accompanied placement, showed a greater initial and lower subsequent prevalence of drug, psychiatric and legal problems than the clients of the freestanding centralized intake. For all clients, psychiatric composite scores were powerful predictors of problems in alcohol, drug medical and legal areas, and psychiatric symptoms decreased over time. Since baseline differences in demographics and service assignment existed among the three groups, it was difficult to identify whether the outcome differences were due to the nature of the participants, the nature of the intake intervention, or both. However, the Portland Target Cities Projects's emphasis on in-jail centralized intake was associated with enhanced client outcomes.

  15. View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered with old flume stock, flattened to protect from debris, animals and daylight, and is supported by wood trestles, as it continues downhill toward the Irving Powerhouse. Truck in photo provides scale. Looking north - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  16. Fluid Intake and Cognitive Performance: Should Schoolchildren Drink during Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Tanja; Lührmann, Petra; Simpson, Faith; Dohnke, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that an insufficient fluid intake impairs cognitive performance. Drinking policies at schools--especially drinking during lessons--is a point of controversy. To provide a scientific base for this debate, more empirical evidence is needed on which aspects of fluid intake are crucial for cognitive performance. This…

  17. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  18. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  19. Usual nutrient intake adequacy among young, rural Zambian children.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Bess L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Siamusantu, Ward; West, Keith P; Palmer, Amanda C

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate nutrient intakes put children at risk for impaired growth and development. We described diet, usual intakes of energy and macro- and micronutrients and prevalence of nutrient intake adequacies among 4-8-year-old Zambian children. Children not yet in school and living in Mkushi District, Central Province, Zambia were enrolled into an efficacy trial of pro-vitamin A biofortified maize. Children in the non-intervened arm were included in this analysis (n 202). Dietary intake data were collected by tablet-based 24-h recall on a monthly basis over the 6-month trial. Observed nutrient intakes were derived from reported food quantities, standard recipes and food composition tables. Usual nutrient intake distributions were modelled based on observed intakes. Prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by comparing the usual nutrient intake distribution to the nutrient requirement distribution. Frequency and quantity of consumption of commonly reported foods were described and key sources of energy and nutrients were identified. Median usual energy intake was 6422 kJ/d (1535 kcal/d). Most childrens' macronutrient intakes fell within recommended ranges (74-98 %). Estimated prevalences of inadequate intakes of Fe, folate, vitamin B12 and Ca were 25, 57, 76 and >99 %, respectively. Estimated prevalences of inadequacy for other micronutrients were low (0·1-2·2 %). Commonly consumed foods included maize, vegetable oil, tomatoes, rape leaves and small fish (>0·6 servings/d), whereas meat, eggs or dairy were rarely eaten (<0·2 servings/d). These findings suggest that the heavily plant-based diet of rural Zambian children provides inadequate Ca, folate, vitamin B12 and Fe to meet recommended nutrient intakes.

  20. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2017-09-01

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  1. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  2. An investigation of maternal food intake and maternal food talk as predictors of child food intake.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Gelman, Susan A; Viechnicki, Gail B; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-08-01

    Though parental modeling is thought to play a critical role in promoting children's healthy eating, little research has examined maternal food intake and maternal food talk as independent predictors of children's food intake. The present study examines maternal food talk during a structured eating protocol, in which mothers and their children had the opportunity to eat a series of familiar and unfamiliar vegetables and desserts. Several aspects of maternal talk during the protocol were coded, including overall food talk, directives, pronoun use, and questions. This study analyzed the predictors of maternal food talk and whether maternal food talk and maternal food intake predicted children's food intake during the protocol. Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) predicted lower amounts of food talk, pronoun use, and questions. Higher child BMI z-scores predicted more first person pronouns and more wh-questions within maternal food talk. Mothers of older children used fewer directives, fewer second person pronouns, and fewer yes/no questions. However, maternal food talk (overall and specific types of food talk) did not predict children's food intake. Instead, the most robust predictor of children's food intake during this protocol was the amount of food that mothers ate while sitting with their children. These findings emphasize the importance of modeling healthy eating through action and have implications for designing interventions to provide parents with more effective tools to promote their children's healthy eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Restriction of oral intake during labor: whither are we bound?

    PubMed

    Sperling, Jeffrey D; Dahlke, Joshua D; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-05-01

    In 1946, Dr Curtis Mendelson suggested that aspiration during general anesthesia for delivery was avoidable by restricting oral intake during labor. This suggestion proved influential, and restriction of oral intake in labor became the norm. These limitations may contribute to fear and feelings of intimidation among parturients. Modern obstetrics, especially in the setting of advances in obstetric anesthesia, does not mirror the clinical landscape of Mendelson; hence, one is left to question if his findings remain relevant or if they should inform current recommendations. The use of general anesthesia at time of cesarean delivery has seen a remarkable decline with increased use of effective neuraxial analgesia as the standard of care in modern obstetric anesthesia. While the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now endorses clear liquids during labor, current recommendations continue to suggest that solid food intake should be avoided. Recent evidence from a systematic review involving 3130 women in active labor suggests that oral intake should not be restricted in women at low risk of complications, given there were no identified benefits or harms of a liberal diet. Aspiration and other adverse maternal outcomes may be unrelated to oral intake in labor and as such, qualitative measures such as patient satisfaction should be paramount. It is time to reassess the impact of oral intake restriction during labor given the minimal risk of aspiration during labor in the setting of modern obstetric anesthesia practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

  6. Minimal scales from an extended Hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kober, Martin; Nicolini, Piero

    2010-12-01

    We consider an extension of the conventional quantum Heisenberg algebra, assuming that coordinates as well as momenta fulfil nontrivial commutation relations. As a consequence, a minimal length and a minimal mass scale are implemented. Our commutators do not depend on positions and momenta and we provide an extension of the coordinate coherent state approach to noncommutative geometry. We explore, as a toy model, the corresponding quantum field theory in a (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. Then we investigate the more realistic case of a (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, foliated into noncommutative planes. As a result, we obtain propagators, which are finite in the ultraviolet as well as the infrared regime.

  7. Minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan

    Well-defined, non-perturbative formulations of the physics of string theories in specific minimal or superminimal model backgrounds can be obtained by solving matrix models in the double scaling limit. They provide us with the first examples of completely solvable string theories. Despite being relatively simple compared to higher dimensional critical string theories, they furnish non-perturbative descriptions of interesting physical phenomena such as geometrical transitions between D-branes and fluxes, tachyon condensation and holography. The physics of these theories in the minimal model backgrounds is succinctly encoded in a non-linear differential equation known as the string equation, along with an associated hierarchy of integrable partial differential equations (PDEs). The bosonic string in (2,2m-1) conformal minimal model backgrounds and the type 0A string in (2,4 m) superconformal minimal model backgrounds have the Korteweg-de Vries system, while type 0B in (2,4m) backgrounds has the Zakharov-Shabat system. The integrable PDE hierarchy governs flows between backgrounds with different m. In this thesis, we explore this interesting connection between minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies further. We uncover the remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of non-linear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain minimal string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A,A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We find that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A,D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several other string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non

  8. Determination of oleanolic acid in human plasma and its association with olive oil intake in healthy Spanish adults within the EPIC Spain cohort study.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Genevieve; Pastor, Antoni; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Travier, Noemie; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Sánchez, Maria-José; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Molinuevo, Amaia; Quirós, José Ramón; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is an important triterpenic compound found in olive oil, however little is known about its concentrations in human plasma. We aimed to determine plasma OA levels in a healthy Spanish population and compare them with estimates of dietary olive oil intake. The final study sample included 141 individuals randomly selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort. Dietary olive oil intake was estimated using validated dietary history questionnaires. OA concentrations were determined in plasma (from the participants' stored blood samples) using a HPLC-MS method. Correlation coefficients between OA and olive oil intake were calculated, adjusting for center; sex; age; consumption of olives, apples, grapes, and red wine; and fasting state. The mean OA concentration in olive oil nonconsumers was 0.72 ng/mL (SD 0.82), while in the high olive oil intake group it was 1.32 ng/mL (SD 1.14). The fully adjusted partial Spearman correlations coefficients reached 0.36 (p-value < 0.001) overall, varying minimally by sex and fasting state. This is the first study providing steady-state concentrations of triterpenes in humans. The results show that there was low-to-moderate correlation between OA concentrations and olive oil intake in this population. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression modeling performed on measurements of selected pesticides in composited duplicate diet samples allowed (1) estimation of pesticide intakes for a defined demographic community, and (2) comparison of dietary pesticide intakes between the composite and individual samples. Extant databases were useful for assigning individual samples to composites, but they could not provide the breadth of information needed to facilitate measurable levels in every composite. Composite sample measurements were found to be good predictors of pyrethroid pesticide levels in their individual sample constituents where sufficient measurements are available above the method detection limit. Statistical inference shows little evidence of differences between individual and composite measurements and suggests that regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples may provide an effective tool for estimating dietary pesticide intake for a defined population. The research presented in the journal article will improve community's ability to determine exposures through the dietary route with a less burdensome and costly method.

  10. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  11. Minimal invasive treatments for liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Franco; Varano, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Minimal invasive therapies have proved useful in the management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. The most relevant aspects of all these therapies are their minimal toxicity profiles and highly effective tumor responses without affecting the normal hepatic parenchyma. These unique characteristics coupled with their minimally invasive nature provide an attractive therapeutic option for patients who previously may have had few alternatives. Combination of these therapies might extend indications to bring curative treatment to a wider selected population. The results of various ongoing combination trials of intraarterial therapies with targeted therapies are awaited to further improve survival in this patient group. This review focuses on the application of ablative and intra-arterial therapies in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic colorectal metastasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Factors for Healthy Food or Less-Healthy Food Intake among Taiwanese Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence and risk factors for less-healthy food intake among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to provide the information of healthy or less-healthy food intake among Taiwanese adolescents with ID and to examine the risk factors to their food intake. A cross-sectional data on 1419…

  14. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  15. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  16. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  17. Calcium intake trends and health consequences from childhood through adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A

    2003-10-01

    Issues involving low calcium intake and dairy product consumption are currently the focus of much debate and discussion at both the scientific and lay community levels. In this review, we examine the following major areas of interest: (1). the role of calcium intake and dairy product consumption in chronic diseases, (2). nutritional qualities of milk and other dairy products, (3). trends in calcium intake and dairy product consumption, (4). current status of calcium intakes and dairy product consumption in children, (5). tracking of calcium intake and diary product consumption, (6). the impact of school meal participation on calcium intake and dairy product consumption, (7). concerns related to calcium-fortified foods and beverages and (8). factors influencing children's milk consumption. To date, the findings indicate that calcium intake and dairy product consumption have beneficial roles in a variety of chronic diseases; dairy products provide an abundant source of vitamins and minerals; calcium intakes of children have increased over time, yet intakes are not meeting the current adequate intake (AI) calcium recommendations; dairy consumption has decreased, and soft drink consumption and, possibly, consumption of calcium-fortified products have increased; consumption of dairy products have a positive nutritional impact on diets of children, particularly from school meals, and there are many factors which influence children's milk consumption, all of which need to be considered in our efforts to promote adequate calcium intakes by children. Based on this review, areas that need immediate attention and future research imperatives are summarized in an effort to further our understanding on what we already know and what we need to know to promote healthier eating habits early in life.

  18. NAVAIR Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    NAVAIR  Hexavalent  Chromium Minimization Status  SERDP/ESTCP Symposium 2010 Cr6+ Session Bill C Nickerson AIR 4.3.4 Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAVAIR Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Status 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ANSI Std Z39-18 Minimizing Hexavalent Chromium Use in DoD Operations Technical Session No. 2B C-39 NAVAIR NON-CHROMATE MATERIALS STATUS MR

  19. Test Duration for Water Intake, Average Daily Gain, and Dry Matter Intake in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, C M; Allwardt, K; Broocks, A; Bruno, K; McPhillips, L; Taylor, A; Krehbiel, C R; Calvo-Lorenzo, M; Richards, C J; Place, S E; DeSilva, U; VanOverbeke, D L; Mateescu, R G; Kuehn, L A; Weaber, R L; Bormann, J M; Rolf, M M

    2018-05-22

    Water is an essential nutrient, but the effect it has on performance generally receives little attention. There are few systems and guidelines for collection of water intake phenotypes in beef cattle, which makes large-scale research on water intake a challenge. The Beef Improvement Federation has established guidelines for feed intake and average daily gain tests, but no guidelines exist for water intake. The goal of this study was to determine the test duration necessary for collection of accurate water intake phenotypes. To facilitate this goal, individual daily water intake (WI) and feed intake (FI) records were collected on 578 crossbred steers for a total of 70 d using an Insentec system at the Oklahoma State University Willard Sparks Beef Research Unit. Steers were fed in 5 groups and were individually weighed every 14 days. Within each group, steers were blocked by body weight (low and high) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 pens containing approximately 30 steers per pen. Each pen provided 103.0 m2 of shade and included an Insentec system containing 6 feed bunks and 1 water bunk. Steers were fed a constant diet across groups and dry matter intake was calculated using the average of weekly percent dry matter within group. Average feed and water intakes for each animal were computed for increasingly large test durations (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 d), and ADG was calculated using a regression formed from body weights (BW) taken every14 d (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 d). Intervals for all traits were computed starting from both the beginning (d 0) and the end of the testing period (d 70). Pearson and Spearman correlations were computed for phenotypes from each shortened test period and for the full 70-d test. Minimum test duration was determined when the Pearson correlations were greater than 0.95 for each trait. Our results indicated that minimum test duration for WI, DMI, and ADG were 35, 42, and 70 d, respectively. No comparable studies exist for

  20. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  1. [Development and future of minimally invasive surgery in western China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiwu; Hao, Yingxue

    2017-03-25

    There are vast land and lots of people in western China, but the economy developing is relatively slow. However, the minimally invasive surgery was carried out firstly in China. Moreover, the type, number and difficulty of the minimally invasive surgery increased year by year. Especially, in the western area of China, Dr Zhou Zongguang, Yu Peiwu and Zheng Shuguo et al. have performed much pioneering work in laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, gastric cancer and laparoscopic liver resection. They led the standard development of minimally invasive in China. In the future, western China should continue to strengthen the standardized training of minimally invasive surgery, make great effort to carry out evidence-based research of minimally invasive surgery, provide evidences of high level of clinical application in minimally invasive surgery. At the same time, we should carry out the robotic and 3D laparoscopic surgery actively, leading the development of minimally invasive surgery more standardized and more widespread in western China.

  2. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  3. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  4. Food choice and nutrient intake amongst homeless people.

    PubMed

    Sprake, E F; Russell, J M; Barker, M E

    2014-06-01

    Homeless people in the UK and elsewhere have typically been found to consume a nutritionally inadequate diet. There is need for contemporary research to update our understanding within this field. The present study aimed to provide an insight into the nutrient intake and food choice of a sample of homeless adults. In this mixed-methods study, 24 homeless individuals accessing two charitable meal services in Sheffield, UK, participated in up to four 24-h dietary recalls between April and August 2012. Twelve individuals took part in a semi-structured interview focusing on food choice. Energy intake was significantly lower than the estimated average requirement. Median intakes of vitamin A, zinc, magnesium, potassium and selenium were significantly lower than reference nutrient intakes. Contributions of saturated fat and nonmilk extrinsic sugars to total energy intake were significantly higher, whereas dietary fibre was significantly lower, than population average intakes. Charitable meals made an important contribution to intakes of energy and most micronutrients. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts revealed three major themes: food aspirations; constraints over food choice; and food representing survival. The present study reveals risk of dietary inadequacies amongst homeless people alongside a lack of control over food choices. Charitable meal services are suggested as a vehicle for improving the dietary intake and nutritional health of homeless people. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Relationship between Sodium Intake and Water Intake: The False and the True.

    PubMed

    Bankir, Lise; Perucca, Julie; Norsk, Peter; Bouby, Nadine; Damgaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Generally, eating salty food items increases thirst. Thirst is also stimulated by the experimental infusion of hypertonic saline. But, in steady state, does the kidney need a higher amount of water to excrete sodium on a high than on a low sodium intake? This issue is still controversial. The purpose of this review is to provide examples of how the kidney handles water in relation to salt intake/output. It is based on re-analysis of previously published studies in which salt intake was adjusted to several different levels in the same subjects, and in databases of epidemiologic studies in populations on an ad libitum diet. Summary and Key Messages: These re-analyses allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) In a steady state situation, the urine volume (and thus the fluid intake) remains unchanged over a large range of sodium intakes. The adaptation to a higher sodium excretion rests only on changes in urinary sodium concentration. However, above a certain limit, this concentration cannot increase further and the urine volume may then increase. (2) In population studies, it is not legitimate to assume that sodium is responsible for changes in urine volume, since people who eat more sodium also eat more of other nutrients leading to an increase in the excretion of potassium, urea and other solutes, besides sodium. (3) After an abrupt increase in sodium intake, fluid intake is increased in the first few days, but urine volume does not change. The extra fluid drunk is responsible for an increase in body weight. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Increased protein intake in military special operations.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Arny A

    2013-11-01

    Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20-25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ∼ 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent.

  7. Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow. Your valve has developed an infection (infectious endocarditis). You have severe mitral valve prolapse that is ... function. Damage to your heart valve from infection (endocarditis). A minimally invasive procedure has many benefits. There ...

  8. Three-dimensional transient numerical simulation for intake process in the engine intake port-valve-cylinder system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ma-Ji; Chen, Guo-Hua; Ma, Yuan-Hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a KIVA-3 code based numerical model for three-dimensional transient intake flow in the intake port-valve-cylinder system of internal combustion engine using body-fitted technique, which can be used in numerical study on internal combustion engine with vertical and inclined valves, and has higher calculation precision. A numerical simulation (on the intake process of a two-valve engine with a semi-sphere combustion chamber and a radial intake port) is provided for analysis of the velocity field and pressure field of different plane at different crank angles. The results revealed the formation of the tumble motion, the evolution of flow field parameters and the variation of tumble ratios as important information for the design of engine intake system.

  9. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K; Zock, Peter L

    2015-09-01

    1The development of food-based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20-35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6-11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food-based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low-fat instead of full-fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the recommended 6

  10. Variation in nutrient digestibility and energy intake are key contributors to differences in postweaning growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Patience, J F

    2014-05-01

    for gain, energy retained as tissue, and retained GE. The calculated to actual ME intake ratio differed (P < 0.03), supposedly because of differences in thermoneutrality, and therefore maintenance requirements. Reduced postweaning ADG appears to be driven by a combination of poor nutrient digestibility, energy intake, and, possibly, cold stress, which may provide avenues for more directed pig management strategies in the future to minimize variation within a group.

  11. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  12. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-09

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  13. A Case Study on Hydrodynamic Modeling and Design Improvement Evaluation to Manage Debris and Sediment Interference at a Water Intake Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crissman, B. J.; Cunderlik, J. M.; Wong, R. P. L.; Pinero, A.

    2017-12-01

    Waterford 3 nuclear plant, located in Killona, Louisiana, provides approximately 10% of the state's electricity need. Located along the south bank of the Mississippi River, two miles upstream of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, the plant's single pass through cooling system continuously draws up to 1,000,000 gpm water from the river. On behalf of Entergy Louisiana, the project team evaluated options to improve the aging water intake structure with chronic debris and sediment entrainment issues. The highly complex and dynamic environment in the river coupled with regulatory constraints limited available improvement options: varying river stages allow debris to overflow the intake structure, but the maximum new wall height is restricted to minimize aesthetic intrusion and alteration to levee tie-back; bow waves push debris into the downstream intake wall, but the wall needs to maintain an opening to flush debris out from the intake structure; the river delivers significant sediment load, but any proposed intake structure cannot significantly alter existing bathymetry; EPA Clean Water Act Section 316(b) limited maximum velocity at the intake structure to 0.5 fps for entrainment prevention. To expedite alternative evaluation while providing sufficient data to inform management decision, instead of developing physical models, the project team developed a two-tier approach utilizing the TELEMAC hydrodynamic program to prepare screening analysis in 2D modeling and final evaluation in 3D modeling. The model was built upon the USACE ERDC ADH model, calibrated with river gauge data and peer reviewed by ERDC. TELEMAC, developed by EDF, provides novel features for modeling improvement options, including the recommended design concept, which is a hydraulically optimized intake geometry configured to maintain uniform intake flow while streamlining river flowline for debris and sediment deflection. The design includes submerged inlets with upstream and downstream walls to block

  14. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  15. Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Kerry L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, chocolate, red wine, fruit, and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoids in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. The objective was to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged >75 y. All-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortalities were assessed over 5 y of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Two estimates of flavonoid intake (total flavonoidUSDA and total flavonoidPE) were determined by using food composition data from the USDA and the Phenol-Explorer (PE) databases, respectively. During the 5-y follow-up period, 129 (12%) deaths were documented. Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relations were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]. Using the most comprehensive flavonoid databases, we provide evidence that high consumption of flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of mortality in older women. The benefits of flavonoids may extend to the etiology of cancer and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Marzola, Luca; Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu; Racioppi, Antonio

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  17. Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure.

    PubMed

    Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased fruit and vegetable intake has no discernible effect on weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Shikany, James M; Mattes, Richard D; Allison, David B

    2014-01-01

    Background: A common dietary recommendation for weight loss, especially in lay public outlets, is to eat more fruit and vegetables (F/Vs). Without a compensatory reduction in total energy intake, significant weight loss would be unlikely. Objective: We aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of the general recommendation to eat more F/Vs for weight loss or the prevention of weight gain. Design: We searched multiple databases for human randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of increased F/V intake on body weight. Inclusion criteria were as follows: ≥15 subjects/ treatment arm, ≥8-wk intervention, a stated primary or secondary outcome of body weight, the stated goal of the intervention was weight or fat loss or the prevention of weight or fat gain, and food intake provided or prescribed was of a variety of F/Vs that remained minimally processed. Results: Two studies met all criteria; 5 other studies met all criteria but one. The primary analysis indicated an effect size of weight change (outcome of interest) from baseline [standardized mean difference (SMD) for studies that met all criteria] of −0.16 (95% CI: −0.78, 0.46) (P = 0.60). The SMD for 7 studies that met all or most criteria was 0.04 (95% CI: −0.10, 0.17) (P = 0.62). Conclusions: Studies to date do not support the proposition that recommendations to increase F/V intake or the home delivery or provision of F/Vs will cause weight loss. On the basis of the current evidence, recommending increased F/V consumption to treat or prevent obesity without explicitly combining this approach with efforts to reduce intake of other energy sources is unwarranted. This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ as CRD42013004688 PMID:24965308

  19. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  20. Nonlinear transient analysis via energy minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Knight, N. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The formulation basis for nonlinear transient analysis of finite element models of structures using energy minimization is provided. Geometric and material nonlinearities are included. The development is restricted to simple one and two dimensional finite elements which are regarded as being the basic elements for modeling full aircraft-like structures under crash conditions. The results indicate the effectiveness of the technique as a viable tool for this purpose.

  1. Does Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Minimize Surgical Site Infections?

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Arvind Gopalrao; Patel, Ravish Shammi; Dutta, Shumayou

    2016-12-01

    Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) in a cohort of patients and compare with available historical data on SSI in open spinal surgery cohorts, and to evaluate additional direct costs incurred due to SSI. SSI can lead to prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended hospitalization, repeated operations, and implant removal. Small incisions and minimal dissection intrinsic to MISS may minimize the risk of postoperative infections. However, there is a dearth of literature on infections after MISS and their additional direct financial implications. All patients from January 2007 to January 2015 undergoing posterior spinal surgery with tubular retractor system and microscope in our institution were included. The procedures performed included tubular discectomies, tubular decompressions for spinal stenosis and minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The incidence of postoperative SSI was calculated and compared to the range of cited SSI rates from published studies. Direct costs were calculated from medical billing for index cases and for patients with SSI. A total of 1,043 patients underwent 763 noninstrumented surgeries (discectomies, decompressions) and 280 instrumented (TLIF) procedures. The mean age was 52.2 years with male:female ratio of 1.08:1. Three infections were encountered with fusion surgeries (mean detection time, 7 days). All three required wound wash and debridement with one patient requiring unilateral implant removal. Additional direct cost due to infection was $2,678 per 100 MISS-TLIF. SSI increased hospital expenditure per patient 1.5-fold after instrumented MISS. Overall infection rate after MISS was 0.29%, with SSI rate of 0% in non-instrumented MISS and 1.07% with instrumented MISS. MISS can markedly reduce the SSI rate and can be an effective tool to minimize hospital costs.

  2. The Spectrum of Reversible Minimizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, Antonio J.

    2018-05-01

    Poincaré and, later on, Carathéodory, showed that the Floquet multipliers of 1-dimensional periodic curves minimizing the Lagrangian action are real and positive. Even though Carathéodory himself observed that this result loses its validity in the general higherdimensional case, we shall show that it remains true for systems which are reversible in time. In this way, we also generalize a previous result by Offin on the hyperbolicity of nondegenerate symmetric minimizers. Our arguments rely on the higher-dimensional generalizations of the Sturm theory which were developed during the second half of the twentieth century by several authors, including Hartman, Morse or Arnol'd.

  3. Shapes of embedded minimal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Colding, Tobias H.; Minicozzi, William P.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces that locally minimize area have been extensively used to model physical phenomena, including soap films, black holes, compound polymers, protein folding, etc. The mathematical field dates to the 1740s but has recently become an area of intense mathematical and scientific study, specifically in the areas of molecular engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology because of their many anticipated applications. In this work, we show that all minimal surfaces are built out of pieces of the surfaces in Figs. 1 and 2. PMID:16847265

  4. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  5. Many Denjoy minimal sets for monotone recurrence relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Qin, Wen-Xin

    2014-09-01

    We extend Mather's work (1985 Comment. Math. Helv. 60 508-57) to high-dimensional cylinder maps defined by monotone recurrence relations, e.g. the generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model with finite range interactions. We construct uncountably many Denjoy minimal sets provided that the Birkhoff minimizers with some irrational rotation number ω do not form a foliation.

  6. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  7. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  8. Ramadan and sport: minimizing effects upon the observant athlete.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2013-12-01

    The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Much of the available information on this subject has been collected from sedentary subjects or low-level competitors, often without well matched controls. Other issues requiring clearer definition include the duration of fasting, the local environment, the timing of observations, and changes in training, diet and sleep patterns. Sleep may be shortened or made good with daytime naps. Circadian rhythms of temperature, metabolism, hormonal secretions and physical performance may be disrupted and incidental activities curtailed. Disturbances of psychomotor performance include daytime sleepiness, impaired vigilance and slower reactions. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Sedentary individuals sometimes exploit Ramadan to reduce body fat stores. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Protein intake must allow for gluconeogenesis, and provide quality protein ingested around training times. Blood sugar levels are likely to fall over a long and active day, even if morning glycogen reserves are maximized. Metabolism of fat should be encouraged, beginning prior to Ramadan; inclusion of fat in the pre-dawn meal also slows gastric emptying. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat, but the immediate deficit can usually be made good at night. Some studies show an initial fluid depletion, with recovery as Ramadan continues, possibly reflecting changes in urine and sweat production. Top athletes can maintain training throughout Ramadan, although coaches sometimes reduce demands through a pre-competitive tapering of effort. Late night or early morning training requires negotiation with players who are not observing Ramadan, and dietary adjustments to maintain optimal plasma amino acid levels when training. Performance of repeated anaerobic

  9. Gravitational Instantons and Minimal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutku, Y.

    1996-12-01

    We show that for every minimal surface in E3 there is a gravitational instanton, an exact solution of the Einstein field equations with Euclidean signature and anti-self-dual curvature. The explicit metric establishing this correspondence is presented and a new class of exact solutions are obtained.

  10. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  11. Anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Mahajan, Charu; Kapoor, Indu

    2017-10-01

    With an ultimate aim of improving patients overall outcome and satisfaction, minimally invasive surgical approach is becoming more of a norm. The related anesthetic evidence has not expanded at the same rate as surgical and technological advancement. This article reviews the recent evidence on anesthesia and perioperative concerns for patients undergoing minimally invasive neurosurgery. Minimally invasive cranial and spinal surgeries have been made possible only by vast technological development. Points of surgical interest can be precisely located with the help of stereotaxy and neuronavigation and special endoscopes which decrease the tissue trauma. The principles of neuroanethesia remain the same, but few concerns are specific for each technique. Dexmedetomidine has a favorable profile for procedures carried out under sedation technique. As the new surgical techniques are coming up, lesser known anesthetic concerns may also come into light. Over the last year, little new information has been added to existing literature regarding anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgeries. Neuroanesthesia goals remain the same and less invasive surgical techniques do not translate into safe anesthesia. Specific concerns for each procedure should be taken into consideration.

  12. Seismic Analysis of Intake Towers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Experiment Station (WES) under the sponsorship of the Directorate of Civil Works of the Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army. The work was funded under...the structural capacity of the intake S,-tower are contained in Engineer Technical Letter (ETL) 1110-2-265 " Civil Systems Incorporated, "Dynamic...Berkeley, Calif. " ___ 1975. "Earthquake Resistant Design of Intake-Outlet Towers," Journal of the Structural Division_ American Society of Civil

  13. High waste contributes to low food intake in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Roosemalen, Martin M; Weijs, Peter J M; Langius, Jacqueline A E

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in hospital inpatients is high; many patients do not meet individual nutrition requirements while hospitalized. To better understand the reasons for inadequate nutrition intake, this study describes patient satisfaction, food provision, food intake, and waste of hospital meals. Over 6 days, 150 hospital meals were weighed and nutrient composition was calculated. On return from the wards, waste was weighed. In addition, nutrition intake was compared to nutrition requirements in 42 patients. In a separate study, the authors studied patient satisfaction with the hospital food service using interviews (n = 112). The 3 main meals accounted for a mean of 1809 ± 143 kcal and 76 ± 13 g of protein per day. In total, 38% of the food provided by the kitchen was wasted. As a consequence, the main meals supplied an average of 1105 ± 594 kcal and 47 ± 27 g of protein to patients. Sixty-one percent of patients had an energy intake <90% and 75% had a protein intake <90% of requirements. Most patients were satisfied or fairly satisfied with the choices, taste, and presentation of the main meals. Satisfaction with snack meals and information was inadequate. The standard meals provided by the hospital kitchen provide adequate amounts of energy and protein. However, most patients do not consume complete meals. It may be concluded that food waste is largely attributed to the inadequate intake of many hospitalized patients. Patients who experienced the worst health status ate the least.

  14. A review of family meal influence on adolescents' dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2008-01-01

    Recent concerns about adolescent nutrition and unhealthy weights have prompted an examination of the myriad influences on dietary intake during adolescence. Included here are a summary of the literature on family influence on dietary intake, specifically during adolescence and within the family context, a summary of family meal patterns, and a systematic review of the known influences of family meals on dietary intake. Because of the complexity of families in today's society, models were developed to depict the broad context of familial influences on adolescent nutritional behaviours and attitudes and to describe what is known and not known about family meal influences on adolescent dietary intake and quality. A systematic review of the literature revealed seven articles specifically related to adolescents, family meals, and dietary intake, which were analyzed for strength of evidence and plausibility. In spite of data collection methods relying on self-report, results suggested that family meals were associated with improved dietary intakes. Families in today's societies are complex. Nevertheless, parents have the potential to influence positively, through family meals, what food is provided, where it is provided (e.g., home, restaurant), and within what type of atmosphere it is provided.

  15. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  16. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    PubMed

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  17. Graph cuts via l1 norm minimization.

    PubMed

    Bhusnurmath, Arvind; Taylor, Camillo J

    2008-10-01

    Graph cuts have become an increasingly important tool for solving a number of energy minimization problems in computer vision and other fields. In this paper, the graph cut problem is reformulated as an unconstrained l1 norm minimization that can be solved effectively using interior point methods. This reformulation exposes connections between the graph cuts and other related continuous optimization problems. Eventually the problem is reduced to solving a sequence of sparse linear systems involving the Laplacian of the underlying graph. The proposed procedure exploits the structure of these linear systems in a manner that is easily amenable to parallel implementations. Experimental results obtained by applying the procedure to graphs derived from image processing problems are provided.

  18. Intake Procedures in Colorado Animal Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Fagre, Anna; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Many animal shelters receive animals from different regions of the United States; particularly following natural disasters or other mass displacements. After Hurricane Katrina; Colorado experienced a surge of animal intakes from regions of the country possessing higher parasitic burden. Little is known about the extent to which shelters tailor their infectious disease screening procedures and other intake protocols based on animal origin. Using a questionnaire; shelter personnel from across the state of Colorado provided information on shelter characteristics including where they receive animals from; general intake procedures; and perceptions on infectious disease risk. We found that more shelters that take dogs in from out of state screen for heartworm and other parasitic diseases than do shelters that only take animals from within the state. No difference was seen for feline screening procedures. We also found that few shelters use widespread screening protocols and instead screen based on suspicion. Lastly; many vaccination protocols in shelters do not comply with The Association of Shelter Veterinarians Guidelines for Standards of Care in Animal Shelters. This study highlights the importance of tailoring animal intake procedures based on where the animal was transferred from. Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe intake procedures in Colorado animal shelters, compare infectious disease screening protocols in shelters taking in animals from out-of-state to shelters only accepting animals from Colorado, and analyze perceived risk of diseases in Colorado by responding shelter personnel. A questionnaire was designed and administered to shelter personnel across the state of Colorado via the survey tool SurveyMonkey© (http://www.surveymonkey.com) or a mailed hard copy. Information collected concerned general shelter characteristics and intake procedures performed in various circumstances as reported by responding shelter personnel. Only

  19. Validity and reliability of beverage intake questionnaire: evaluating hydration status.

    PubMed

    Karabudak, Efsun; Koksal, Eda

    2016-09-20

    The purpose of this investigation is to test the validity and reliability the assessment methods for the true beverage consumption of adults. This cross-sectional study was carried out 291 healthy volunteers. The beverage intake questionnaire (BIQ) was prepared in combination with a new one which is developed based on basic principles and the existing one developed for the beverages consumed the most with respect to frequency and amount by Turkish populations. During the initial visit the participants completed BIQ1 and then provided a urine sample to determine urinary specific gravity(USG). For validity, participants recorded the type and quantity of foods and beverages consumed on the same day and previous two days. Two weeks later, for reliability, participants completed the same beverage intake questionnaire (BIQ2). Mean daily total fluid intake was estimated at 1,773 ± 49.4mL using the dietary intake record (DIR), 2,120 ± 49.5 mL with BIQ1 and 1,990 ± 46.3 mL for BIQ2. The largest contribution to total fluid intake was plain water. The response on the two assessment tools (DIR and BIQ1) all beverage intakes were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) except for alcoholic beverage intake. One could see a significant correlation between BIQ1 and BIQ2 in relation to total fluid intakes (r = 0.838,p < 0.01). The USG measurement was negatively correlated with three assessment tools (DIR, BIQ1 and BIQ2), the amount of plain water and the amount of total fluid intake. The self-administered instrument described in this study may be useful for researchers interested in assessing habitual beverage consumption patterns or evaluating hydration status for adults.

  20. Minimally invasive functional approach for cholesteatoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Bassem M; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Guo, Lee J; Lin, Huang; Guidi, Jessica; Poe, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Report the efficacy of a functional minimally invasive approach for cholesteatoma surgery. Retrospective review of surgical cases performed between 1996 and 2008. One hundred sixty-nine patient charts were reviewed in which ears with primary cholesteatomas that extended beyond the mesotympanum were operated on with a plan for canal wall up (CWU) mastoidectomy. The surgical approach consisted of progressive exposure from transcanal to postauricular tympanoplasty to CWU mastoidectomy, as needed, to identify and lyse the fibrous attachments that bind the capsule to the surrounding mucosa. Endoscopic guidance was employed as appropriate to minimize exposure needs. Any planned second-stage operations were attempted with a transcanal approach if appropriate and with endoscopic assistance. One hundred eighty-four ears of 169 patients were included. The median age was 32 years (range, 1-79 years). The mean follow-up was 3.2 years (range, 1-11 years). Eighty-three (45%) were planned for a second-look operation, and three (2%) required unplanned second operations. The overall recurrence rate was 24/184 (13%), and the unexpected residual rate was 5/184 (3%). The residual rate with endoscopy (5/119, 4%,) or without endoscopy (1/65, 2%), were not significantly different. Hearing results in 156 ears improved significantly, from a preoperative pure-tone average (PTA) of 41 dB to a postoperative PTA average of 29 dB (P < .0001). A functional minimally invasive approach to cholesteatoma surgery provided equivalent residual rates but higher recurrence rates compared to published canal wall down mastoidectomy. Endoscopic techniques were helpful in providing adequate views while minimizing exposure. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Predicting forage intake by grazing beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The control of feed intake by ruminants is complex, and developing a cohesive theory of intake control in ruminants continues to be a challenge. Because our understanding of factors that regulate intake by cattle is inadequate, predicting feed intake, even under the best of circumstances, is diffic...

  2. [Dietary fiber--adequate intake and effects on metabolism health].

    PubMed

    Bernaud, Fernanda Sarmento Rolla; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2013-08-01

    The positive effects of dietary fiber are related, in part, to the fact that a portion of the fermentation of components takes place in the large intestine, which has an impact on the speed of digestion, pH of the colon, and production of by-products with important physiological functions. Individuals with high fiber intake seem to have lower risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and colon cancer. The increase in fiber intake reduces serum cholesterol, improves blood glucose in patients with diabetes, reduces body weight, and is associated with lower serum ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Increased fiber intake and intake of more fiber than the currently recommended level (14 g/1,000 kcal) may provide greater health benefits, including reducing low-grade inflammation.

  3. Quantifying Drosophila food intake: comparative analysis of current methodology

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sonali A.; Carvalho, Gil B.; Amador, Ariadna; Phillips, Angela M.; Hoxha, Sany; Lizotte, Keith J.; Ja, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Food intake is a fundamental parameter in animal studies. Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila in laboratory research, precise measurements of food intake remain challenging in this model organism. Here, we compare several common Drosophila feeding assays: the Capillary Feeder (CAFE), food-labeling with a radioactive tracer or a colorimetric dye, and observations of proboscis extension (PE). We show that the CAFE and radioisotope-labeling provide the most consistent results, have the highest sensitivity, and can resolve differences in feeding that dye-labeling and PE fail to distinguish. We conclude that performing the radiolabeling and CAFE assays in parallel is currently the best approach for quantifying Drosophila food intake. Understanding the strengths and limitations of food intake methodology will greatly advance Drosophila studies of nutrition, behavior, and disease. PMID:24681694

  4. Effects of aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages on postprandial glucose, insulin and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Tey, S L; Salleh, N B; Henry, J; Forde, C G

    2017-03-01

    Substituting sweeteners with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) may aid in glycaemic control and body weight management. Limited studies have investigated energy compensation, glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to artificial and natural NNS. This study compared the effects of consuming NNS (artificial versus natural) and sucrose (65 g) on energy intake, blood glucose and insulin responses. Thirty healthy male subjects took part in this randomised, crossover study with four treatments: aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages. On each test day, participants were asked to consume a standardised breakfast in the morning, and they were provided with test beverage as a preload in mid-morning and ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after test beverage consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured every 15 min within the first hour of preload consumption and every 30 min for the subsequent 2 h. Participants left the study site 3 h after preload consumption and completed a food diary for the rest of the day. Ad libitum lunch intake was significantly higher for the NNS treatments compared with sucrose (P=0.010). The energy 'saved' from replacing sucrose with NNS was fully compensated for at subsequent meals; hence, no difference in total daily energy intake was found between the treatments (P=0.831). The sucrose-sweetened beverage led to large spikes in blood glucose and insulin responses within the first hour, whereas these responses were higher for all three NNS beverages following the test lunch. Thus, there were no differences in total area under the curve (AUC) for glucose (P=0.960) and insulin (P=0.216) over 3 h between the four test beverages. The consumption of calorie-free beverages sweetened with artificial and natural NNS have minimal influences on total daily energy intake, postprandial glucose and insulin compared with a sucrose-sweetened beverage.

  5. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Gravitational instantons from minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, A. N.; Hortaçsu, M.; Kalayci, J.; Nutku, Y.

    1999-02-01

    Physical properties of gravitational instantons which are derivable from minimal surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space are examined using the Newman-Penrose formalism for Euclidean signature. The gravitational instanton that corresponds to the helicoid minimal surface is investigated in detail. This is a metric of Bianchi type 0264-9381/16/2/024/img9, or E(2), which admits a hidden symmetry due to the existence of a quadratic Killing tensor. It leads to a complete separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for geodesics, as well as in Laplace's equation for a massless scalar field. The scalar Green function can be obtained in closed form, which enables us to calculate the vacuum fluctuations of a massless scalar field in the background of this instanton.

  7. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  8. Accelerating bridge construction to minimize traffic disruption : research spotlight.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    Since 2008, MDOT has been using accelerated bridge construction, which utilizes prefabricated components and structural placements, to minimize traffic disruptions during bridge replacement or rehabilitation. A recent project provided MDOT with a new...

  9. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance.

  10. Encouraging healthy beverage intake in child care and school settings.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha I; Cabana, Michael D

    2010-12-01

    Inappropriate intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and whole milk is associated with obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. As numerous children spend many hours in schools and child care, these settings provide a potential means for general pediatricians to reach children and their parents with interventions to encourage intake of guideline-recommended beverages. This review describes the beverages currently offered within child care facilities and schools and summarizes school and child care-based interventions and policies to encourage healthy beverage intake. The major sources of beverages available in schools and child care include beverages provided through federal programs, competitive beverages (e.g., beverages for purchase through vending machines), water from drinking fountains, and beverages brought into facilities. Policies governing the types of beverages available in schools and child care settings have increased, but still vary in scope and jurisdiction. Although there are no child care-based interventions that exclusively target beverage intake, there are examples of school-based interventions to encourage healthy beverage consumption. Although interventions and policies to encourage healthy beverage intake in schools and child care are increasing, there is a need for additional research, programs, and policies to guide beverage availability and intake in these settings.

  11. Minimizing liability during internal investigations.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Today's security professional must appreciate the potential landmines in any investigative effort and work collaboratively with others to minimize liability risks, the author points out. In this article he examines six civil torts that commonly arise from unprofessionally planned or poorly executed internal investigations-defamation, false imprisonment. intentional infliction of emotional distress, assault and battery, invasion of privacy, and malicious prosecution and abuse of process.

  12. [Minimally invasive coronary artery surgery].

    PubMed

    Zalaquett, R; Howard, M; Irarrázaval, M J; Morán, S; Maturana, G; Becker, P; Medel, J; Sacco, C; Lema, G; Canessa, R; Cruz, F

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing interest to perform a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) on a beating heart through a minimally invasive access to the chest cavity. To report the experience with minimally invasive coronary artery surgery. Analysis of 11 patients aged 48 to 79 years old with single vessel disease that, between 1996 and 1997, had a LIMA graft to the LAD performed through a minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy, without cardiopulmonary bypass. A 6 to 10 cm left parasternal incision was done. The LIMA to the LAD anastomosis was done after pharmacological heart rate and blood pressure control and a period of ischemic pre conditioning. Graft patency was confirmed intraoperatively by standard Doppler techniques. Patients were followed for a mean of 11.6 months (7-15 months). All patients were extubated in the operating room and transferred out of the intensive care unit on the next morning. Seven patients were discharged on the third postoperative day. Duplex scanning confirmed graft patency in all patients before discharge; in two patients, it was confirmed additionally by arteriography. There was no hospital mortality, no perioperative myocardial infarction and no bleeding problems. After follow up, ten patients were free of angina, in functional class I and pleased with the surgical and cosmetic results. One patient developed atypical angina on the seventh postoperative month and a selective arteriography confirmed stenosis of the anastomosis. A successful angioplasty of the original LAD lesion was carried out. A minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy is a good surgical access to perform a successful LIMA to LAD graft without cardiopulmonary bypass, allowing a shorter hospital stay and earlier postoperative recovery. However, a larger experience and a longer follow up is required to define its role in the treatment of coronary artery disease.

  13. Optimizing Processes to Minimize Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, David

    2017-01-01

    NASA, like the other hazardous industries, has suffered very catastrophic losses. Human error will likely never be completely eliminated as a factor in our failures. When you can't eliminate risk, focus on mitigating the worst consequences and recovering operations. Bolstering processes to emphasize the role of integration and problem solving is key to success. Building an effective Safety Culture bolsters skill-based performance that minimizes risk and encourages successful engagement.

  14. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  15. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  16. Minimizing Statistical Bias with Queries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-14

    method for optimally selecting these points would o er enormous savings in time and money. An active learning system will typically attempt to select data...research in active learning assumes that the sec- ond term of Equation 2 is approximately zero, that is, that the learner is unbiased. If this is the case...outperforms the variance- minimizing algorithm and random exploration. and e ective strategy for active learning . I have given empirical evidence that, with

  17. Construction schedules slack time minimizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.

  18. Intake flow modeling in a four stroke diesel using KIVA3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessel, R. P.; Rutland, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Intake flow for a dual intake valved diesel engine is modeled using moving valves and realistic geometries. The objectives are to obtain accurate initial conditions for combustion calculations and to provide a tool for studying intake processes. Global simulation parameters are compared with experimental results and show good agreement. The intake process shows a 30 percent difference in mass flows and average swirl in opposite directions across the two intake valves. The effect of the intake process on the flow field at the end of compression is examined. Modeling the intake flow results in swirl and turbulence characteristics that are quite different from those obtained by conventional methods in which compression stroke initial conditions are assumed.

  19. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:8312776

  20. Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments.

    PubMed

    Wickham, J E

    1994-01-15

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery means that there will be fundamental changes in interventional treatment. Technological advances will allow new minimally invasive procedures to be developed. Application of robotics will allow some procedures to be done automatically, and coupling of slave robotic instruments with virtual reality images will allow surgeons to perform operations by remote control. Miniature motors and instruments designed by microengineering could be introduced into body cavities to perform operations that are currently impossible. New materials will allow changes in instrument construction, such as use of memory metals to make heat activated scissors or forceps. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, fewer operations will require long hospital stays. Traditional surgical wards will become largely redundant, and hospitals will need to cope with increased through-put of patients. Operating theatres will have to be equipped with complex high technology equipment, and hospital staff will need to be trained to manage it. Conventional nursing care will be carried out more in the community. Many traditional specialties will be merged, and surgical training will need fundamental revision to ensure that surgeons are competent to carry out the new procedures.

  1. Effects of Previous Fruit Intake, Descriptive Majority Norms, and Message Framing on Fruit Intake Intentions and Behaviors in Dutch Adults Across a 1-Week Period.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Ilse; Mollen, Saar

    2015-01-01

    To test the effects of descriptive norm and message framing on fruit intake (intentions) in Dutch adults. Randomized pretest-posttest study using a 2 × 2 design. Internet-based. Dutch adults recruited via leaflets and announcements on intranet and Internet and who provided immediate intention (n = 294) and 1-week follow-up intention and fruit intake data (n = 177). Messages combining information on intake of others (low vs high intake) with information about positive or negative outcomes of (in)sufficient fruit intake. Fruit intake intentions and fruit intake. Analyses of covariance. Those already consuming sufficient fruit and receiving negative information about insufficient fruit intake increased their motivation to consume sufficient fruit immediately (P = .03), but not at 1-week follow-up. Those who read positive information about sufficient fruit intake reported higher fruit consumption than those who read negative information about insufficient fruit intake (P = .03). This was stronger in those already consuming sufficient fruit. There were no effects of descriptive norm information (P > .19). Information about outcomes was more persuasive than descriptive majority norm information. Effects were generally stronger in those already consuming sufficient fruit. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Breakfast intake among adults with type 2 diabetes: is bigger better?

    PubMed Central

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Schootman, Mario; Racette, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between breakfast energy and total daily energy intake among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional study. Daily energy intake was computed from a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association between daily energy intake (dependent variable) and quartiles of energy intake at breakfast (independent variable) expressed as either absolute or relative (% of total daily energy intake) terms. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to test for linear and quadratic trends. Models were controlled for sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity and smoking. In addition, we used separate multiple regression models to test the effect of quartiles of absolute and relative breakfast energy on intake at lunch, dinner, and snacks. Setting The 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Subjects Participants aged ≥ 30 years with self-reported history of diabetes (N = 1,146). Results Daily energy intake increased as absolute breakfast energy intake increased (linear trend, P < 0.0001; quadratic trend, P = 0.02), but decreased as relative breakfast energy intake increased (linear trend, P < 0.0001). In addition, while higher quartiles of absolute breakfast intake had no associations with energy intake at subsequent meals, higher quartiles of relative breakfast intake were associated with lower energy intake during all subsequent meals and snacks (P < 0.05). Conclusions Consuming a breakfast that provided less energy or comprised a greater proportion of daily energy intake was associated with lower total daily energy intake in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25529061

  3. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A.; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Solah, Vicky; Binns, Colin W.; Prince, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day) for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg) compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg). The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed. PMID:22254072

  4. The void in using urine concentration to assess population fluid intake adequacy or hydration status.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kenefick, Robert W

    2016-09-01

    Urine concentration can be used to assess fluid intake adequacy or to diagnose dehydration. However, too often urine concentration is used inappropriately to draw dubious conclusions that could have harmful health and economic consequences. Inappropriate uses of urine concentration relate primarily to convenience sampling (timing) and problems related to convenience sampling (misapplication of thresholds), but a conceptual problem also exists with using urine concentration in isolation. The purpose of this Perspective article is to briefly explain the problematic nature of current practices and to offer a possible solution to improve practice with minimal added complication. When urine is used exclusively to assess fluid intake adequacy and hydration status in adults, we propose that only when urine concentration is high (>850 mmol/kg) and urine excretion rate is low (<850 mL/24 h) should suspicion of inadequate drinking or impending dehydration be considered. Prospective tests of the 850 × 850 thresholds will provide supporting evidence and/or help refine the best thresholds for men and women, young and old. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  6. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  7. Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kovalskys, Irina; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Sanabria, Lilia Yadira Cortés; García, Martha Cecilia Yépez; Torres, Rossina Gabriella Pareja; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael; Aznar, Luis A. Moreno; Guajardo, Viviana; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira

    2018-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL) and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15–65 years) were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS), a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country’s health intervention proposals. PMID:29565308

  8. Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Fisberg, Mauro; Kovalskys, Irina; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Sanabria, Lilia Yadira Cortés; García, Martha Cecilia Yépez; Torres, Rossina Gabriella Pareja; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael; Aznar, Luis A Moreno; Guajardo, Viviana; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira

    2018-03-22

    Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization's recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL) and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15-65 years) were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS), a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country's health intervention proposals.

  9. Food sold in school vending machines is associated with overall student dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alisha J; Nansel, Tonja R; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between food sold in school vending machines and the dietary behaviors of students. The 2005-2006 U.S. Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Dietary intake in students was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. School administrators completed questions regarding food sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence, and school poverty index. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th-10th grades. In all, 83% of the schools (152 schools; 5,930 students) had vending machines that primarily sold food of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips, and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruit and/or vegetables and chocolate and/or sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty index providing an explanation for 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit and/or vegetable consumption and 71.7% in sweets consumption. Among the older grades, there was no significant effect of food available in vending machines on reported consumption of those food. Vending machines are widely available in public schools in the United States. In younger grades, school vending machines were either positively or negatively related to the diets of the students, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence the diets of children; therefore, attention to the food sold at school is necessary to try to improve their diets. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimal non-abelian supersymmetric Twin Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Badziak, Marcin; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2017-10-17

    We propose a minimal supersymmetric Twin Higgs model that can accommodate tuning of the electroweak scale for heavy stops better than 10% with high mediation scales of supersymmetry breaking. A crucial ingredient of this model is a new SU(2) X gauge symmetry which provides a D-term potential that generates a large SU(4) invariant coupling for the Higgs sector and only small set of particles charged under SU(2) X , which allows the model to be perturbative around the Planck scale. The new gauge interaction drives the top yukawa coupling small at higher energy scales, which also reduces the tuning.

  11. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  12. Intake and sources of added sugars among Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Rangan, Anna M; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Timothy P

    2016-12-01

    To examine the intake and sources of added sugars (AS) of Australian children and adolescents, and compare their intake of free sugars (FS) to the recommended limit set by the World Health Organization (<10 % energy from FS). Data of 4140 children and adolescents aged 2-16 years with plausible intakes based on 2 × 24 h recalls from the 2007 Australian National Children Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. AS content of foods was estimated based on a published method. Intakes of AS and FS, as well as food sources of AS, were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for comparisons between age groups and gender. The mean (SD) AS intake was 58.9 (35.1) g/day, representing 11.9 (5.6) % of daily energy intake and 46.9 (17.5) % of daily total sugars intake. More than 80 % of the subjects had % energy from FS > 10 %. Significant increasing trends for AS intake, % energy from AS, % energy from FS across age groups were observed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (19.6 %), cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (14.3 %), and sugar and sweet spreads (10.5 %) were the top three contributors of AS intake in the whole sample. Higher contribution of AS from sugar-sweetened beverages was observed in adolescents (p trend  < 0.001). A large proportion of Australian youths are consuming excessive amounts of energy from AS. Since the main sources of AS were energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, interventions which target the reduction in these foods would reduce energy and AS intake with minimal impact to core nutrient intake.

  13. MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1998-04-01

    Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

  14. Minimally invasive PCNL-MIP.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefano Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Gallioli, Andrea; Talso, Michele; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) has increased in popularity in recent years and is now widely used to overcome the therapeutic gap between conventional PCNL and less-invasive procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of renal stones. However, despite its minimally invasive nature, the superiority in terms of safety, as well as the similar efficacy of mini-PCNL compared to conventional procedures, is still under debate. The aim of this chapter is to present one of the most recent advancements in terms of mini-PCNL: the Karl Storz "minimally invasive PCNL" (MIP). A literature search for original and review articles either published or e-published up to December 2016 was performed using Google and the PubMed database. Keywords included: minimally invasive PCNL; MIP. The retrieved articles were gathered and examined. The complete MIP set is composed of different sized rigid metallic fiber-optic nephroscopes and different sized metallic operating sheaths, according to which the MIP is categorized into extra-small (XS), small (S), medium (M) and large (L). Dilation can be performed either in one-step or with a progressive technique, as needed. The reusable devices of the MIP and vacuum cleaner efect make PCNL with this set a cheap procedure. The possibility to shift from a small to a larger instrument within the same set (Matrioska technique) makes MIP a very versatile technique suitable for the treatment of almost any stone. Studies in the literature have shown that MIP is equally effective, with comparable rates of post-operative complications, as conventional PCNL, independently from stone size. MIP does not represent a new technique, but rather a combination of the last ten years of PCNL improvements in a single system that can transversally cover all available techniques in the panorama of percutaneous stone treatment.

  15. The minimal scenario of leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2012-12-01

    We review the main features and results of thermal leptogenesis within the type I seesaw mechanism, the minimal extension of the Standard Model explaining neutrino masses and mixing. After presenting the simplest approach, the vanilla scenario, we discuss various important developments of recent years, such as the inclusion of lepton and heavy neutrino flavour effects, a description beyond a hierarchical heavy neutrino mass spectrum and an improved kinetic description within the density matrix and the closed-time-path formalisms. We also discuss how leptogenesis can ultimately represent an important phenomenological tool to test the seesaw mechanism and the underlying model of new physics.

  16. Interpersonal Complementarity in the Mental Health Intake: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel C.; Miller, Alisa B.; Nakash, Ora; Halperin, Lucila; Alegria, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    The study examined which socio-demographic differences between clients and providers influenced interpersonal complementarity during an initial intake session; that is, behaviors that facilitate harmonious interactions between client and provider. Complementarity was assessed using blinded ratings of 114 videotaped intake sessions by trained…

  17. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  18. Novel dietary intake assessment in populations with poor literacy.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Thrift, Amanda G; Evans, Roger G; Arabshahi, Simin; Suresh, Oduru; Kartik, Kamakshi; Kalyanram, Kartik; Walker, Karen Z

    2016-01-01

    Cultural and/or environmental barriers make the assessment of dietary intake in rural populations challenging. We aimed to assess the accuracy of a meal recall questionnaire, adapted for use with impoverished South Indian populations living in rural areas. Dietary data collected by recall versus weighed meals were compared. Data were obtained from 45 adults aged 19-85 years, living in rural Andhra Pradesh, who were recruited by convenience sampling. Weighed meal records (WMRs) were conducted in the household by a researcher aided by a trained field worker. The following day, field workers conducted a recall interview with the same participant. Eight life size photographs of portions of South Indian foods were created to aid each participant's recall and a database of nutrients was developed to calculate nutrient intake. Pearson correlations were used to assess the strength of associations between intake of energy and nutrients calculated from meal recalls versus WMRs. Least products regression was conducted to examine fixed and proportional bias. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to measure systematic or differential bias. Significant correlations were observed between estimates for energy and nutrients obtained by the two methods (r2=0.19-0.67, p<0.001). No systematic bias was detected by Bland-Altman plots. Recall method underestimated the intake of protein and fat in a manner proportional to the level of intake. Our culturally adapted meal recall questionnaire provides an accurate measure for assessment of the intake of energy, macronutrients and some micronutrients in rural Indian populations.

  19. Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Akhavan, Tina; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ingredient for weight management is of current interest. At present, the role of individual whey proteins and peptides in contributing to food intake regulation has not been fully defined. However, Whey protein reduces short-term food intake relative to placebo, carbohydrate and other proteins. Whey protein affects satiation and satiety by the actions of: (1) whey protein fractions per se; (2) bioactive peptides; (3) amino-acids released after digestion; (4) combined action of whey protein and/or peptides and/or amino acids with other milk constituents. Whey ingestion activates many components of the food intake regulatory system. Whey protein is insulinotropic, and whey-born peptides affect the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore whey protein has potential as physiologically functional food component for persons with obesity and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes, hyper- and dislipidemia). It remains unclear, however, if the favourable effects of whey on food intake, subjective satiety and intake regulatory mechanisms in humans are obtained from usual serving sizes of dairy products. The effects described have been observed in short-term experiments and when whey is consumed in much higher amounts.

  20. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed that intake of the two snacks differed significantly by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (p<0.0001); subjects consumed 21% less weight and energy (70±17 kcal) of the more-aerated snack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239±24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks. PMID:17188782

  1. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake.

    PubMed

    Osterholt, Kathrin M; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more-aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed significant differences in intake of the two snacks by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (p<0.0001); subjects consumed 21% less weight and energy (70+/-17 kcal) of the more-aerated snack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239+/-24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks.

  2. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social

  3. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    PubMed

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  4. Symmetry breaking for drag minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Squires, Todd M.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2005-11-01

    For locomotion at high Reynolds numbers drag minimization favors fore-aft asymmetric slender shapes with blunt noses and sharp trailing edges. On the other hand, in an inertialess fluid the drag experienced by a body is independent of whether it travels forward or backward through the fluid, so there is no advantage to having a single preferred swimming direction. In fact numerically determined minimum drag shapes are known to exhibit almost no fore-aft asymmetry even at moderate Re. We show that asymmetry persists, albeit extremely weakly, down to vanishingly small Re, scaling asymptotically as Re^3. The need to minimize drag to maximize speed for a given propulsive capacity gives one possible mechanism for the increasing asymmetry in the body plans seen in nature, as organisms increase in size and swimming speed from bacteria like E-Coli up to pursuit predator fish such as tuna. If it is the dominant mechanism, then this signature scaling will be observed in the shapes of motile micro-organisms.

  5. Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William

    2004-05-01

    We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non

  6. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    PubMed

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  7. CALL-FOR-ABSTRACTS: SYMPOSIUM ON TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROTECTING AQUATIC ORGANISMS FROM COOLING WATER INTAKE STRUCTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires EPA to ensure that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impacts. In February 2002, the EPA approved a proposed ...

  8. Tailoring Messages to Individual Differences in Monitoring-Blunting Styles to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Latimer, Amy E.; Katulak, Nicole A.; Cox, Ashley; Silvera, Stephanie A. N.; Mowad, Linda; Salovey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether messages matched to individuals' monitoring-blunting coping styles (MBCS) are more effective in increasing fruit and vegetable intake than mismatched messages. MBCS refers to the tendency to either attend to and amplify, or distract oneself from and minimize threatening information. Design/Setting: Randomly assigned…

  9. Dietary intake in the dependent elderly: evaluation of the risk of nutritional deficit.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Martín, N; Canela, T; García-Barco, M; Basora, J; Arija, V

    2016-04-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care programme provided by primary care centers in Tarragona (Spain), at nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment: 17-23.5 points). Food consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy intake was compared with the Spanish dietary reference intake (DRI) and nutritional intakes with the DRI of the American Institute of Medicine. Mean (SD) age was 85.0 (7.2) years (67.5% female). The food items consumed were varied but lower than the recommended portions for cereals, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Energy intake was 7454.2 (1553.9 kJ day(-1)) [1781.6 (371.4) kcal day(-1)] (97.7% of recommended dietary allowance; RDA) and protein intake was 1.0 (0.4) g kg(-1) of weight (121.4% of RDA). Proteins provided 13.3%, carbohydrates provided 39.9% and fats provided 45.8% of energy intake. The intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates were less than two-thirds of the RDA and their probability of inadequate intake was >85%. Dietary intakes of elderly dependent patients at nutritional risk were well balanced. In general, energy and protein intakes meet the recommendations. The diet was high in energy density, low in complex carbohydrates, high in simple carbohydrates and excessive in fats. The dependent elderly had inadequate intake of micronutrients often related to fragility, such as calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Whole grain intake of Australians estimated from a cross-sectional analysis of dietary intake data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Galea, Leanne M; Beck, Eleanor J; Probst, Yasmine C; Cashman, Chris J

    2017-08-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend Australians choose mostly whole-grain and/or high-fibre varieties within the grains (cereal) foods category, with other groups specifying a whole grain Daily Target Intake of 48 g for Australians aged 9 years or above. The USA and UK report estimates of whole grain intake that are low and declining, and no comprehensive studies on whole grain intake in the Australian population are available. The present study aimed to determine national estimates of whole grain intake, compared with current recommendations. A recently updated whole grain database was applied to the most current population dietary intake data. Single 24 h dietary recall intake data were reviewed against age group, sex, relative to energy intake and whole grain recommendations. Australia. Australians (2-85 years) participating in the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (n 12 153). The median daily whole grain intake was 21 g for adults (19-85 years) and 17 g for children/adolescents (2-18 years), or 28 and 23 g/10 MJ per d, respectively. Approximately 30 % of children/adolescents consumed no whole grains on the day of the survey. Whole grain intake was lowest for the age group 14-18 years (8·7 g/d). Of all participants aged ≥9 years, 73 % did not reach the recommended Daily Target Intake of 48 g. Whole grain intake in Australia is below recommendations in all age groups. Adolescents may be a key target for campaigns to increase whole grain consumption. This study provides the first quantification of absolute whole grain intake from all food sources in a national sample of Australians.

  11. Should intake of carbon monoxide be used as a guide to intake of other smoke constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, H; Stepney, R; Thompson, J W

    1981-01-01

    The relation between blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) and plasma nicotine concentrations was studied in a group of 12 smokers smoking cigarettes of three levels of standard delivery. While the intake of carbon monoxide from a single cigarette was unrelated to the intake of nicotine, presmoking "trough" concentrations of the two substances (reflecting longer-term exposure) were highly correlated. Various other measures of nicotine exposure were at best only moderately correlated with blood nicotine concentrations. Thus trough COHb concentrations might be used to provide a reliable indication of the exposure to nicotine of individual smokers smoking the same type of cigarette, and of the relative exposure to nicotine of populations smoking cigarettes of different standard deliveries. PMID:6778547

  12. Deanol in minimal brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J A; Lewis, B S

    1977-12-01

    The literature on minimal brain dysfunction is confused, confusing and controversial. The statements that the condition exists, needs treatment, and that treatment may be pharmacological, are more expressions of faith than accepted fact. We believe they are true (within limits not discussed in the article). Furthermore, there is evidence that some patients with MBD are hypo-aroused, while others are not. The role of deanol in the treatment of MBD is still unclear, because of the complexities of identifying appropriate patients in terms of levels of arousal, as well as identifying appropriate measures of response. There is sufficient support for an effect of deanol in the literature to justify further investigation. Further studies should attend to important methodological problems as discussed.

  13. Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  14. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  15. Study of constrained minimal supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, G. L.; Kolda, Chris; Roszkowski, Leszek; Wells, James D.

    1994-06-01

    Taking seriously the phenomenological indications for supersymmetry we have made a detailed study of unified minimal SUSY, including many effects at the few percent level in a consistent fashion. We report here a general analysis of what can be studied without choosing a particular gauge group at the unification scale. Firstly, we find that the encouraging SUSY unification results of recent years do survive the challenge of a more complete and accurate analysis. Taking into account effects at the 5-10 % level leads to several improvements of previous results and allows us to sharpen our predictions for SUSY in the light of unification. We perform a thorough study of the parameter space and look for patterns to indicate SUSY predictions, so that they do not depend on arbitrary choices of some parameters or untested assumptions. Our results can be viewed as a fully constrained minimal SUSY standard model. The resulting model forms a well-defined basis for comparing the physics potential of different facilities. Very little of the acceptable parameter space has been excluded by CERN LEP or Fermilab so far, but a significant fraction can be covered when these accelerators are upgraded. A number of initial applications to the understanding of the values of mh and mt, the SUSY spectrum, detectability of SUSY at LEP II or Fermilab, B(b-->sγ), Γ(Z-->bb¯), dark matter, etc., are included in a separate section that might be of more interest to some readers than the technical aspects of model building. We formulate an approach to extracting SUSY parameters from data when superpartners are detected. For small tanβ or large mt both m1/2 and m0 are entirely bounded from above at ~1 TeV without having to use a fine-tuning constraint.

  16. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  17. Short Sleep Duration and Dietary Intake: Epidemiologic Evidence, Mechanisms, and Health Implications12

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Hassan S; Scheer, Frank AJL; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Ordovás, José M

    2015-01-01

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in adults from 16 cross-sectional studies. The studies have observed consistent associations between short sleep duration and higher total energy intake and higher total fat intake, and limited evidence for lower fruit intake, and lower quality diets. Evidence also suggests that short sleepers may have irregular eating behavior deviating from the traditional 3 meals/d to fewer main meals and more frequent, smaller, energy-dense, and highly palatable snacks at night. Although the impact of short sleep duration on dietary intake tends to be small, if chronic, it may contribute to an increased risk of obesity and related chronic disease. Mechanisms mediating the associations between sleep duration and dietary intake are likely to be multifactorial and include differences in the appetite-related hormones leptin and ghrelin, hedonic pathways, extended hours for intake, and altered time of intake. Taking into account these epidemiologic relations and the evidence for causal relations between sleep loss and metabolism and cardiovascular function, health promotion strategies should emphasize improved sleep as an additional factor in health and weight management. Moreover, future sleep interventions in controlled studies and sleep extension trials in chronic short sleepers are imperative for establishing whether there is a causal relation between short sleep duration and changes in dietary intake. PMID:26567190

  18. Challenges in the assessment of total fluid intake in children and adolescents: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Warren, Janet; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Livingstone, Barbara; Potischman, Nancy; Nelson, Michael; Foster, Emma; Holmes, Bridget

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, evidence has emerged about the importance of healthy fluid intake in children for physical and mental performance and health, and in the prevention of obesity. Accurate data on water intake are needed to inform researchers and policymakers and for setting dietary reference values. However, to date, there are few published data on fluid or water intakes in children. This is due partly to the fact that drinking water is not always reported in dietary surveys. The aim of this paper is to review the current status of the literature and highlight the challenges of assessing total fluid intake in children and adolescents. From the dietary assessment literature it is apparent that children present unique challenges to assessing intake due to ongoing cognitive capacity development, limited literacy skills, difficulties in estimating portion sizes and multiple caregivers during any 1 day making it difficult to track intakes. As such, many issues should be considered when assessing total fluid intakes in children or adolescents. Various methods to assess fluid intakes exist, each with its own strengths and weaknesses; the ultimate choice of method depends on the research question and resources available. Based on the literature review, it is apparent that if the research focus is to assess only fluid intake, a fluid-specific method, such as a diary or record, appears to be a feasible approach to provide an accurate estimate of intakes.

  19. [Intake of dietary fiber in the Central American isthmus: nutritional implications].

    PubMed

    Acevedo, E; Bressani, R

    1989-09-01

    Mean intakes of dietary fiber (DF) were estimated in the population of Central America and Panama, using the results of dietary surveys conducted in 1969 and 1986 both in rural and urban areas, as well as data on the DF content of foods as consumed in the region. Data on preschool children were also estimated. The results indicated that DF intake in urban areas is lower than that of rural areas, particularly in Costa Rica and Panama. In 1969, intake varied from 32g in El Salvador to 15g in Panama in urban areas, while in rural areas intake was from 45g in El Salvador to 13g in Panama. The foods which contributed most to the total intake in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras were tortillas and beans, while in Costa Rica and Panama, beans provided the largest intake. In preeschool children, intake was 12.5g in El Salvador and 5.4g in Costa Rica in 1969, which is the same tendency as that found for adults. From more recent data on food intake, it was found that DF intake had decreased in the rural areas of El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica, being between 4 and 9% in the first two countries and 12% in Costa Rica. In the urban area of the latter, from 1969 to 1986 a decrease in DF intake of around 20% has taken place.

  20. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  1. Intake Procedures in College Counseling Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, James P.; And Others

    Intake procedures is the common subject of four papers presented in this booklet. James P. Pappas discusses trends, a decision theory model, information and issues in his article "Intake Procedures in Counseling Centers--Trends and Theory." In the second article "The Utilization of Standardized Tests in Intake Procedures or 'Where's the Post…

  2. A minimally processed dietary pattern is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Lebanese adults.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Tamim, Hani; Itani, Leila; Nasrallah, Mona P; Isma'eel, Hussain; Nakhoul, Nancy F; Abou-Rizk, Joana; Naja, Farah

    2018-01-01

    To (i) estimate the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods in a sample of Lebanese adults; (ii) explore patterns of intakes of these food groups; and (iii) investigate the association of the derived patterns with cardiometabolic risk. Cross-sectional survey. Data collection included dietary assessment using an FFQ and biochemical, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Food items were categorized into twenty-five groups based on the NOVA food classification. The contribution of each food group to total energy intake (TEI) was estimated. Patterns of intakes of these food groups were examined using exploratory factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of derived patterns with cardiometabolic risk factors. Greater Beirut area, Lebanon. Adults ≥18 years (n 302) with no prior history of chronic diseases. Of TEI, 36·53 and 27·10 % were contributed by ultra-processed and minimally processed foods, respectively. Two dietary patterns were identified: the 'ultra-processed' and the 'minimally processed/processed'. The 'ultra-processed' consisted mainly of fast foods, snacks, meat, nuts, sweets and liquor, while the 'minimally processed/processed' consisted mostly of fruits, vegetables, legumes, breads, cheeses, sugar and fats. Participants in the highest quartile of the 'minimally processed/processed' pattern had significantly lower odds for metabolic syndrome (OR=0·18, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·77), hyperglycaemia (OR=0·25, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·98) and low HDL cholesterol (OR=0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·60). The study findings may be used for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at encouraging the consumption of minimally processed foods.

  3. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Dodd, Kevin W; Goldman, Joseph A; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Sempos, Christopher T; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged >or=1 y using NHANES 2003-2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005-2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual nutrient intake from dietary sources. The mean daily nutrient intake from supplemental sources was added to the adjusted dietary intake estimates to produce total usual nutrient intakes for calcium and vitamin D. A total of 53% of the U.S. population reported using any dietary supplement (2003-2006), 43% used calcium (2003-2006), and 37% used vitamin D (2005-2006). For users, dietary supplements provided the adequate intake (AI) recommendation for calcium intake for approximately 12% of those >or=71 y. Males and females aged 1-3 y had the highest prevalence of meeting the AI from dietary and total calcium intakes. For total vitamin D intake, males and females >or=71, and females 14-18 y had the lowest prevalence of meeting the AI. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Monitoring usual total nutrient intake is necessary to adequately characterize and evaluate the population's nutritional status and adherence to recommendations for nutrient intake.

  4. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: usability study.

    PubMed

    Casperson, Shanon L; Sieling, Jared; Moon, Jon; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N; Whigham, Leah

    2015-03-13

    Mobile technologies are emerging as valuable tools to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; thus, a food record app (FRapp) may be a useful tool to better understand adolescents' dietary intake and eating patterns. We sought to determine the amenability of adolescents, in a free-living environment with minimal parental input, to use the FRapp to record their dietary intake. Eighteen community-dwelling adolescents (11-14 years) received detailed instructions to record their dietary intake for 3-7 days using the FRapp. Participants were instructed to capture before and after images of all foods and beverages consumed and to include a fiducial marker in the image. Participants were also asked to provide text descriptors including amount and type of all foods and beverages consumed. Eight of 18 participants were able to follow all instructions: included pre- and post-meal images, a fiducial marker, and a text descriptor and collected diet records on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Dietary intake was recorded on average for 3.2 (SD 1.3 days; 68% weekdays and 32% weekend days) with an average of 2.2 (SD 1.1) eating events per day per participant. A total of 143 eating events were recorded, of which 109 had at least one associated image and 34 were recorded with text only. Of the 109 eating events with images, 66 included all foods, beverages and a fiducial marker and 44 included both a pre- and post-meal image. Text was included with 78 of the captured images. Of the meals recorded, 36, 33, 35, and 39 were breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks, respectively. These data suggest that mobile devices equipped with an app to record dietary intake will be used by adolescents in a free-living environment; however, a minority of participants followed all directions. User-friendly mobile food record apps may increase participant amenability, increasing our understanding of adolescent dietary intake and eating patterns. To

  5. Cyclone Simulation via Action Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, D. A.; Weare, J.; Abbot, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    A postulated impact of climate change is an increase in intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs). This hypothesized effect results from the fact that TCs are powered subsaturated boundary layer air picking up water vapor from the surface ocean as it flows inwards towards the eye. This water vapor serves as the energy input for TCs, which can be idealized as heat engines. The inflowing air has a nearly identical temperature as the surface ocean; therefore, warming of the surface leads to a warmer atmospheric boundary layer. By the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, warmer boundary layer air can hold more water vapor and thus results in more energetic storms. Changes in TC intensity are difficult to predict due to the presence of fine structures (e.g. convective structures and rainbands) with length scales of less than 1 km, while general circulation models (GCMs) generally have horizontal resolutions of tens of kilometers. The models are therefore unable to capture these features, which are critical to accurately simulating cyclone structure and intensity. Further, strong TCs are rare events, meaning that long multi-decadal simulations are necessary to generate meaningful statistics about intense TC activity. This adds to the computational expense, making it yet more difficult to generate accurate statistics about long-term changes in TC intensity due to global warming via direct simulation. We take an alternative approach, applying action minimization techniques developed in molecular dynamics to the WRF weather/climate model. We construct artificial model trajectories that lead from quiescent (TC-free) states to TC states, then minimize the deviation of these trajectories from true model dynamics. We can thus create Monte Carlo model ensembles that are biased towards cyclogenesis, which reduces computational expense by limiting time spent in non-TC states. This allows for: 1) selective interrogation of model states with TCs; 2) finding the likeliest paths for

  6. Evaluation of dietary intake data using the tolerable upper intake levels.

    PubMed

    Carriquiry, Alicia L; Camaño-Garcia, Gabriel

    2006-02-01

    We discuss the problem of assessing nutrient intake relative to the tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for the nutrient proposed by the Institute of Medicine and focus on 2 important topics: the estimation of usual nutrient intake distributions and the extent to which intakes above the UL can be considered risky. With the information that is currently available for most nutrients, it is not possible to estimate the proportion of individuals in a group with intakes that place them at risk. This is because the shape of the dose-response curve needed to carry out a risk assessment is unknown for most nutrients. Thus, intakes above UL cannot be declared to be unsafe. Intakes below the UL, however, are likely to pose no risk to individuals in the group. Because determining the proportion of individuals with intakes below the UL requires estimation of an upper-tail percentile of the intake distribution, the use of 1-d intake data or otherwise unadjusted intake data are likely to lead to severely biased estimates. It is important to remove within-individual variance in intakes from daily intakes so that the tails of the usual intake distribution are accurately estimated. Underreporting of the amount of nutrients consumed will tend to shift the estimated usual nutrient intake distribution downwards. In this case, the true proportion of individuals with intakes below the UL is likely to be overestimated.

  7. A generic minimization random allocation and blinding system on web.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongwei; Xia, Jielai; Xu, Dezhong; Gao, Donghuai; Yan, Yongping

    2006-12-01

    Minimization is a dynamic randomization method for clinical trials. Although recommended by many researchers, the utilization of minimization has been seldom reported in randomized trials mainly because of the controversy surrounding the validity of conventional analyses and its complexity in implementation. However, both the statistical and clinical validity of minimization were demonstrated in recent studies. Minimization random allocation system integrated with blinding function that could facilitate the implementation of this method in general clinical trials has not been reported. SYSTEM OVERVIEW: The system is a web-based random allocation system using Pocock and Simon minimization method. It also supports multiple treatment arms within a trial, multiple simultaneous trials, and blinding without further programming. This system was constructed with generic database schema design method, Pocock and Simon minimization method and blinding method. It was coded with Microsoft Visual Basic and Active Server Pages (ASP) programming languages. And all dataset were managed with a Microsoft SQL Server database. Some critical programming codes were also provided. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS: Two clinical trials were simulated simultaneously to test the system's applicability. Not only balanced groups but also blinded allocation results were achieved in both trials. Practical considerations for minimization method, the benefits, general applicability and drawbacks of the technique implemented in this system are discussed. Promising features of the proposed system are also summarized.

  8. Qualifying and quantifying minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha Y; Amodio, Piero; Cook, Nicola A; Jackson, Clive D; Kircheis, Gerald; Lauridsen, Mette M; Montagnese, Sara; Schiff, Sami; Weissenborn, Karin

    2016-12-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of this syndrome. As these patients have, by definition, no recognizable clinical features of brain dysfunction, the primary prerequisite for the diagnosis is careful exclusion of clinical symptoms and signs. A large number of psychometric tests/test systems have been evaluated in this patient group. Of these the best known and validated is the Portal Systemic Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) derived from a test battery of five paper and pencil tests; normative reference data are available in several countries. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy since the 1950s but, once popular, the technology is not as accessible now as it once was. The performance characteristics of the EEG are critically dependent on the type of analysis undertaken; spectral analysis has better performance characteristics than visual analysis; evolving analytical techniques may provide better diagnostic information while the advent of portable wireless headsets may facilitate more widespread use. A large number of other diagnostic tools have been validated for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy including Critical Flicker Frequency, the Inhibitory Control Test, the Stroop test, the Scan package and the Continuous Reaction Time; each has its pros and cons; strengths and weaknesses; protagonists and detractors. Recent AASLD/EASL Practice Guidelines suggest that the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy should be based on the PHES test together with one of the validated alternative techniques or the EEG. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy has a detrimental effect on the well-being of patients and their care

  9. Reducing robotic prostatectomy costs by minimizing instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Delto, Joan C; Wayne, George; Yanes, Rafael; Nieder, Alan M; Bhandari, Akshay

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of robotic surgery for radical prostatectomy, the cost-benefit of this technology has been under scrutiny. While robotic surgery professes to offer multiple advantages, including reduced blood loss, reduced length of stay, and expedient recovery, the associated costs tend to be significantly higher, secondary to the fixed cost of the robot as well as the variable costs associated with instrumentation. This study provides a simple framework for the careful consideration of costs during the selection of equipment and materials. Two experienced robotic surgeons at our institution as well as several at other institutions were queried about their preferred instrument usage for robot-assisted prostatectomy. Costs of instruments and materials were obtained and clustered by type and price. A minimal set of instruments was identified and compared against alternative instrumentation. A retrospective review of 125 patients who underwent robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy for prostate cancer at our institution was performed to compare estimated blood loss (EBL), operative times, and intraoperative complications for both surgeons. Our surgeons now conceptualize instrument costs as proportional changes to the cost of the baseline minimal combination. Robotic costs at our institution were reduced by eliminating an energy source like the Ligasure or vessel sealer, exploiting instrument versatility, and utilizing inexpensive tools such as Hem-o-lok clips. Such modifications reduced surgeon 1's cost of instrumentation to ∼40% less compared with surgeon 2 and up to 32% less than instrumentation used by surgeons at other institutions. Surgeon 1's combination may not be optimal for all robotic surgeons; however, it establishes a minimally viable toolbox for our institution through a rudimentary cost analysis. A similar analysis may aid others in better conceptualizing long-term costs not as nominal, often unwieldy prices, but as percent changes in

  10. Minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT): indications and results.

    PubMed

    Docimo, Giovanni; Salvatore Tolone, Salvatore; Gili, Simona; d'Alessandro, A; Casalino, G; Brusciano, L; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    To establish if the indication for different approaches for thyroidectomy and the incision length provided by means of pre-operative assessment of gland volume and size of nodules resulted in safe and effective outcomes and in any notable aesthetic or quality-of-life impact on patients. Ninehundred eightytwo consecutive patients, undergoing total thyroidectomy, were enrolled. The thyroid volume and maximal nodule diameter were measured by means of ultrasounds. Based on ultrasounds findings, patients were divided into three groups: minimally invasive video assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT) and conventional thyroidectomy (CT) groups. The data concerning the following parameters were collected: operative time, postoperative complications, postoperative pain and cosmetic results. The MIVAT group included 179 patients, MIT group included 592 patients and CT group included 211 patients. Incidence of complications did not differ significantly in each group. In MIVAT and MIT group, the perception of postoperative pain was less intense than CT group. The patients in the MIVAT (7±1.5) and MIT (8±2) groups were more satisfied with the cosmetic results than those in CT group (5±1.3) (p= <0.05). The MIT is a technique totally reproducible, and easily convertible to perform surgical procedures in respect of the patient, without additional complications, increased costs, and with better aesthetic results.

  11. Specialized minimal PDFs for optimized LHC calculations.

    PubMed

    Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We present a methodology for the construction of parton distribution functions (PDFs) designed to provide an accurate representation of PDF uncertainties for specific processes or classes of processes with a minimal number of PDF error sets: specialized minimal PDF sets, or SM-PDFs. We construct these SM-PDFs in such a way that sets corresponding to different input processes can be combined without losing information, specifically as regards their correlations, and that they are robust upon smooth variations of the kinematic cuts. The proposed strategy never discards information, so that the SM-PDF sets can be enlarged by the addition of new processes, until the prior PDF set is eventually recovered for a large enough set of processes. We illustrate the method by producing SM-PDFs tailored to Higgs, top-quark pair, and electroweak gauge boson physics, and we determine that, when the PDF4LHC15 combined set is used as the prior, around 11, 4, and 11 Hessian eigenvectors, respectively, are enough to fully describe the corresponding processes.

  12. Metabolic effects of altering the 24 h energy intake in man, using direct and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J

    1980-03-01

    expenditure of over-feeding for only 1 d do not differ markedly from those estimated by some other workers after several weeks of increasing the energy intake: (b) the resting metabolic rate, measured at least 14 h after the last meal, can be affected by the previous day's energy intake; (c) the zone of ambient temperature within which metabolism is minimal is probably altered by the level of energy intake.

  13. Viscosity of fiber preloads affects food intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vuksan, V; Panahi, S; Lyon, M; Rogovik, A L; Jenkins, A L; Leiter, L A

    2009-09-01

    Dietary fiber that develops viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract is capable of addressing various aspects of food intake control. The aim of this study was to assess subsequent food intake and appetite in relation to the level of viscosity following three liquid preloads each containing 5 g of either a high (novel viscous polysaccharide; NVP), medium (glucomannan; GLM), or low (cellulose; CE) viscosity fiber. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled and crossover trial, 31 healthy weight adolescents (25 F:6 M; age 16.1+/-0.6 years; BMI 22.2+/-3.7 kg/m(2)) consumed one of the three preloads 90 min prior to an ad libitum pizza meal. Preloads were identical in taste, appearance, nutrient content and quantity of fiber, but different in their viscosities (10, 410, and 700 poise for CE, GLM, and NVP, respectively). Pizza intake was significantly lower (p=0.008) after consumption of the high-viscosity NVP (278+/-111 g) compared to the medium-viscosity GLM (313+/-123 g) and low-viscosity CE (316+/-138 g) preloads, with no difference between the GLM and CE preloads. Appetite scores, physical symptoms and 24-h intake did not differ among treatment groups. A highly viscous NVP preload leads to reduced subsequent food intake, in terms of both gram weight and calories, in healthy weight adolescents. This study provides preliminary evidence of an independent contribution of viscosity on food intake and may form a basis for further studies on factors influencing food intake in adolescents.

  14. Socio-economic determinants of micronutrient intake and status in Europe: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Novaković, Romana; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Geelen, Anouk; Nikolić, Marina; Altaba, Iris Iglesia; Viñas, Blanca Roman; Ngo, Joy; Golsorkhi, Mana; Medina, Marisol Warthon; Brzozowska, Anna; Szczecinska, Anna; de Cock, Diederik; Vansant, Greet; Renkema, Marianne; Majem, Lluís Serra; Moreno, Luis Aznar; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; van't Veer, Pieter; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2014-05-01

    To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for intake. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched to collect original studies that: (i) were published from 1990 to 2011; (ii) involved >100 subjects; (iii) had assessed dietary intake at the individual level; and/or (iv) included best practice biomarkers reflecting micronutrient status. We estimated relative differences in mean micronutrient intake and/or status between the lowest and highest socio-economic groups to: (i) evaluate variation in intake and status between socio-economic groups; and (ii) report on data availability. Europe. Children, adults and elderly. Data from eighteen publications originating primarily from Western Europe showed that there is a positive association between indicators of socio-economic status and micronutrient intake and/or status. The largest differences were observed for intake of vitamin C in eleven out of twelve studies (5-47 %) and for vitamin D in total of four studies (4-31 %). The positive association observed between micronutrient intake and socio-economic status should complement existing evidence on socio-economic inequalities in diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe. These findings could provide clues for further research and have implications for public health policy aimed at improving the intake of micronutrients and diet-related diseases.

  15. Minimal measures on surfaces of higher genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang

    We study the minimal measures for positive definite autonomous Lagrangian systems defined on the tangent bundles of compact surfaces with genus greater than one. We present some results on the structure of minimal measures on compact surfaces. Specifically, we give a finer description of the structure of minimal measures with rational rotation vectors for geodesic flows on compact surfaces.

  16. Minimalism through intraoperative functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Berger, M S

    1996-01-01

    Intraoperative stimulation mapping may be used to avoid unnecessary risk to functional regions subserving language and sensori-motor pathways. Based on the data presented here, language localization is variable in the entire population, with only certainty existing for the inferior frontal region responsible for motor speech. Anatomical landmarks such as the anterior temporal tip for temporal lobe language sites and the posterior aspect of the lateral sphenoid wing for the frontal lobe language zones are unreliable in avoiding postoperative aphasias. Thus, individual mapping to identify essential language sites has the greatest likelihood of avoiding permanent deficits in naming, reading, and motor speech. In a similar approach, motor and sensory pathways from the cortex and underlying white matter may be reliably stimulated and mapped in both awake and asleep patients. Although these techniques require an additional operative time and equipment nominally priced, the result is often gratifying, as postoperative morbidity has been greatly reduced in the process of incorporating these surgical strategies. The patients quality of life is improved in terms of seizure control, with or without antiepileptic drugs. This avoids having to perform a second costly operative procedure, which is routinely done when extraoperative stimulation and recording is done via subdural grids. In addition, an aggressive tumor resection at the initial operation lengthens the time to tumor recurrence and often obviates the need for a subsequent reoperation. Thus, intraoperative functional mapping may be best alluded to as a surgical technique that results in "minimalism in the long term".

  17. Renormalization of minimally doubled fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitani, Stefano; Creutz, Michael; Weber, Johannes; Wittig, Hartmut

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the renormalization properties of minimally doubled fermions, at one loop in perturbation theory. Our study is based on the two particular realizations of Boriçi-Creutz and Karsten-Wilczek. A common feature of both formulations is the breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry, which requires that the lattice actions are supplemented by suitable counterterms. We show that three counterterms are required in each case and determine their coefficients to one loop in perturbation theory. For both actions we compute the vacuum polarization of the gluon. It is shown that no power divergences appear and that all contributions which arise from the breaking of Lorentz symmetry are cancelled by the counterterms. We also derive the conserved vector and axial-vector currents for Karsten-Wilczek fermions. Like in the case of the previously studied Boriçi-Creutz action, one obtains simple expressions, involving only nearest-neighbour sites. We suggest methods how to fix the coefficients of the counterterms non-perturbatively and discuss the implications of our findings for practical simulations.

  18. Multiple Myeloma Minimal Residual Disease.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Bruno; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F

    Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) is becoming standard diagnostic care for potentially curable neoplasms such as some acute leukemias as well as chronic myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia. Although multiple myeloma (MM) remains as an incurable disease, around half of the patients achieve complete remission (CR), and recent data suggests increasing rates of curability with "total-therapy-like" programs. This landscape is likely to be improved with the advent of new antibodies and small molecules. Therefore, conventional serological and morphological techniques have become suboptimal for sensitive evaluation of highly effective treatment strategies. Although, existing data suggests that MRD could be used as a biomarker to evaluate treatment efficacy, help on therapeutic decisions, and act as surrogate for overall survival, the role of MRD in MM is still a matter of extensive debate. Here, we review the different levels of remission used to define depth of response in MM and their clinical significance, as well as the prognostic value and unique characteristics of MRD detection using immunophenotypic, molecular, and imaging techniques. Key facts The higher efficacy of new treatment strategies for MM demand the incorporation of highly sensitive techniques to monitor treatment efficacy MRD could be used as a more potent surrogate biomarker for survival than standard CR We need to understand the pros and cons of the different MRD techniques The time has come to incorporate highly sensitive, cost-effective, readily available, and standardized MRD techniques into clinical trials to assess its role in therapeutic decisions.

  19. ISASS Policy 2016 Update – Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Morgan P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The index 2014 ISASS Policy Statement - Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion was generated out of necessity to provide an ICD9-based background and emphasize tools to ensure correct diagnosis. A timely ICD10-based 2016 Update provides a granular threshold selection with improved level of evidence and a more robust, relevant database. PMID:27652197

  20. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P < 0.001) following their higher training time (P < 0.001) when compared to adolescents engaged in strength-skill or mixed sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( < 5 %) presented adequate intake for calcium, fibre, drinking water and beverages. For micronutrients, prevalence of adequacies were lower for females than males, except for liquids and water. Nutrition guidance is needed to help adolescents fulfil specific guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  1. Dietary intake of polyphenols and major food sources in an institutionalised elderly population.

    PubMed

    González, S; Fernández, M; Cuervo, A; Lasheras, C

    2014-04-01

    Polyphenols are bioactive compounds widely found in fruit, vegetables and beverages of plant origin. Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between polyphenol intake and health; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities may contribute to these beneficially protective effects. To date, most epidemiological studies describing polyphenol intake have been limited by the information available in nutrient databases. The present study aimed to determine the total and individual polyphenol intake among institutionalised elderly people living in Asturias (North of Spain) and to identify the major dietary sources of polyphenol classes and subclasses. The study sample comprised 304 subjects with a mean age of 73.2 years for men and 76.8 years for women. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire. Phenol content was estimated from the Phenol-Explorer database, as developed at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. The contribution of each food to the total and subgroup intake of polyphenols was calculated as a percentage. Except for flavonones, total polyphenol intake, groups and subgroups, was higher in men than women. The main polyphenol groups contributing to total polyphenol intake were flavonoids (62%) and phenolic acids (35.5%). We identified red wine, coffee, apples, oranges and green beans as the major food sources providing total polyphenol intake. Flavonoid and lignan intake was lower for those aged >80 years. Smoking habit, red wine consumption, physical activity and a Mediterranean diet score were associated with a greater polyphenol intake. The present study provides information on polyphenol intake in an elderly Mediterranean population with a level of detail that has not been achieved previously. The identification of age and lifestyle factors associated with the intake of polyphenols may be useful in future studies regarding polyphenols. © 2013 The Authors Journal

  2. How to start a minimal access mitral valve program.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Steven

    2013-11-01

    The seven pillars of governance established by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom provide a useful framework for the process of introducing new procedures to a hospital. Drawing from local experience, the author present guidance for institutions considering establishing a minimal access mitral valve program. The seven pillars of governance apply to the practice of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, based on the principle of patient-centred practice. The author delineate the benefits of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in terms of: "clinical effectiveness", including reduced length of hospital stay, "risk management effectiveness", including conversion to sternotomy and aortic dissection, "patient experience" including improved cosmesis and quicker recovery, and the effectiveness of communication, resources and strategies in the implementation of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Finally, the author have identified seven learning curves experienced by surgeons involved in introducing a minimal access mitral valve program. The learning curves are defined as: techniques of mitral valve repair, Transoesophageal Echocardiography-guided cannulation, incisions, instruments, visualization, aortic occlusion and cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. From local experience, the author provide advice on how to reduce the learning curves, such as practising with the specialised instruments and visualization techniques during sternotomy cases. Underpinning the NHS pillars are the principles of systems awareness, teamwork, communication, ownership and leadership, all of which are paramount to performing any surgery but more so with minimal access surgery, as will be highlighted throughout this paper.

  3. How to start a minimal access mitral valve program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The seven pillars of governance established by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom provide a useful framework for the process of introducing new procedures to a hospital. Drawing from local experience, the author present guidance for institutions considering establishing a minimal access mitral valve program. The seven pillars of governance apply to the practice of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, based on the principle of patient-centred practice. The author delineate the benefits of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in terms of: “clinical effectiveness”, including reduced length of hospital stay, “risk management effectiveness”, including conversion to sternotomy and aortic dissection, “patient experience” including improved cosmesis and quicker recovery, and the effectiveness of communication, resources and strategies in the implementation of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Finally, the author have identified seven learning curves experienced by surgeons involved in introducing a minimal access mitral valve program. The learning curves are defined as: techniques of mitral valve repair, Transoesophageal Echocardiography-guided cannulation, incisions, instruments, visualization, aortic occlusion and cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. From local experience, the author provide advice on how to reduce the learning curves, such as practising with the specialised instruments and visualization techniques during sternotomy cases. Underpinning the NHS pillars are the principles of systems awareness, teamwork, communication, ownership and leadership, all of which are paramount to performing any surgery but more so with minimal access surgery, as will be highlighted throughout this paper. PMID:24349981

  4. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...

  5. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  6. Comparisons of Adolescent and Parent Willingness to Participate in Minimal and Above Minimal Risk Pediatric Asthma Research Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Janet L.; Annett, Robert D.; Scherer, David G.; Perryman, Mandy L.; Cofrin, Keely M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Much has been written about conceptual concern for voluntary assent with children and adolescents. However, little empirical data exists examining the frequency with which, or context in which, adolescents and parents disagree on research participation decisions. The purpose of this study was to compare parent and adolescent willingness to participate in minimal and above minimal risk pediatric asthma research protocols. Method 36 adolescents diagnosed with asthma and one of their parents independently rated their willingness to participate in 9 pediatric asthma research protocol vignettes. The selected protocols were chosen by an expert panel as representative of typical minimal and above minimal risk pediatric asthma studies. Results Parents and adolescents were significantly less likely to agree to enroll in above minimal risk studies. However, this was qualified by a finding that adolescents were significantly more willing than parents to enroll in above minimal risk research. Across all 9 studies, parents and adolescents held concordant views on participation decisions approximately 60% of the time. Perception of potential study benefit was the most frequent reason provided for participation decisions by both parents and adolescents. Conclusion Parents and their adolescents report a consistent 40% discordance in their views about participating in asthma research across a variety of asthma research protocols, with adolescents more willing than their parents to enroll in above minimal risk studies. These differences of opinion highlight the need to carefully consider the process by which families are offered the option of adolescent research participation. PMID:16109343

  7. Minimally invasive technology in the management of breast disease.

    PubMed

    Hung, W K; Ying, M; Chan, C M; Lam, H S; Mak, K L

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is gaining popularity around the world because it achieves the same or even superior results when compared to standard surgery but with less morbidity. Minimally invasive breast surgery is a broad concept encompassing new developments in the field of breast surgery that work on this minimally invasive principle. In this regard, breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy are good illustrations of this concept. There are three major areas of progress in the minimally invasive management of breast disease. First, percutaneous excisional devices are now available that can replace the surgical excision of breast mass lesions. Second, various ablative treatments are capable of destroying breast cancers in situ instead of surgical excision. Third, mammary ductoscopy provides a new approach to the investigation of mammary duct pathology. Clinical experience and potential applications of these new technologies are reviewed.

  8. [Total hip arthroplasty through anterior "minimal invasive" approach].

    PubMed

    Moerenhout, Kevin G; Cherix, Stéphane; Rüdiger, Hannes A

    2012-12-19

    Total hip replacement has seen a tremendous development and has become one of the most successful surgical interventions in orthopaedics. While during the first decades of development of total hip arthroplasty the fixation of the implant into the bone was the main concern, the focus has shifted towards surgical technique and soft tissue handling. In order to avoid permanent soft tissue damage, muscular dysfunction and concerns in regards to cosmetics, minimal invasive and anatomic approaches have been developed. We here provide a short overview on various methods of total hip replacements and we describe our technique through a minimal invasive direct anterior approach. While muscle and nerve damage is minimal, this technique allows for a rapid rehabilitation and is associated with an excellent functional outcome and a minimal risk for dislocation.

  9. Local Risk-Minimization for Defaultable Claims with Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, Francesca, E-mail: biagini@mathematik.uni-muenchen.de; Cretarola, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.cretarola@dmi.unipg.it

    We study the local risk-minimization approach for defaultable claims with random recovery at default time, seen as payment streams on the random interval [0,{tau} Logical-And T], where T denotes the fixed time-horizon. We find the pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy in the case when the agent information takes into account the possibility of a default event (local risk-minimization with G-strategies) and we provide an application in the case of a corporate bond. We also discuss the problem of finding a pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy if we suppose the agent obtains her information only by observing the non-defaultable assets.

  10. Improving the performance of minimizers and winnowing schemes

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Pellow, David; Bork, Daniel; Orenstein, Yaron; Shamir, Ron; Kingsford, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: The minimizers scheme is a method for selecting k-mers from sequences. It is used in many bioinformatics software tools to bin comparable sequences or to sample a sequence in a deterministic fashion at approximately regular intervals, in order to reduce memory consumption and processing time. Although very useful, the minimizers selection procedure has undesirable behaviors (e.g. too many k-mers are selected when processing certain sequences). Some of these problems were already known to the authors of the minimizers technique, and the natural lexicographic ordering of k-mers used by minimizers was recognized as their origin. Many software tools using minimizers employ ad hoc variations of the lexicographic order to alleviate those issues. Results: We provide an in-depth analysis of the effect of k-mer ordering on the performance of the minimizers technique. By using small universal hitting sets (a recently defined concept), we show how to significantly improve the performance of minimizers and avoid some of its worse behaviors. Based on these results, we encourage bioinformatics software developers to use an ordering based on a universal hitting set or, if not possible, a randomized ordering, rather than the lexicographic order. This analysis also settles negatively a conjecture (by Schleimer et al.) on the expected density of minimizers in a random sequence. Availability and Implementation: The software used for this analysis is available on GitHub: https://github.com/gmarcais/minimizers.git. Contact: gmarcais@cs.cmu.edu or carlk@cs.cmu.edu PMID:28881970

  11. Improving the performance of minimizers and winnowing schemes.

    PubMed

    Marçais, Guillaume; Pellow, David; Bork, Daniel; Orenstein, Yaron; Shamir, Ron; Kingsford, Carl

    2017-07-15

    The minimizers scheme is a method for selecting k -mers from sequences. It is used in many bioinformatics software tools to bin comparable sequences or to sample a sequence in a deterministic fashion at approximately regular intervals, in order to reduce memory consumption and processing time. Although very useful, the minimizers selection procedure has undesirable behaviors (e.g. too many k -mers are selected when processing certain sequences). Some of these problems were already known to the authors of the minimizers technique, and the natural lexicographic ordering of k -mers used by minimizers was recognized as their origin. Many software tools using minimizers employ ad hoc variations of the lexicographic order to alleviate those issues. We provide an in-depth analysis of the effect of k -mer ordering on the performance of the minimizers technique. By using small universal hitting sets (a recently defined concept), we show how to significantly improve the performance of minimizers and avoid some of its worse behaviors. Based on these results, we encourage bioinformatics software developers to use an ordering based on a universal hitting set or, if not possible, a randomized ordering, rather than the lexicographic order. This analysis also settles negatively a conjecture (by Schleimer et al. ) on the expected density of minimizers in a random sequence. The software used for this analysis is available on GitHub: https://github.com/gmarcais/minimizers.git . gmarcais@cs.cmu.edu or carlk@cs.cmu.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  13. Barriers to Fruit and Vegetable Intake among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Evangeline Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that most college students consume inadequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. In turn, such poor dietary habits predispose collegians to develop obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. Fruit and vegetable intake provides psychological benefits throughout the lifespan; reduces the risks for heart disease, stroke, and…

  14. Urinary Sugars—A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies. PMID:26184307

  15. Temporal patterns of caffeine intake in the United States.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Richardson, Philip; Roberts, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether caffeine intake among adolescents and adults in the U.S. varies across the week or throughout the day, data from a 7-day online beverage consumption survey (2010-2011) were analyzed. Mean (206.8-213.0 mg/day) and 90th percentile (437.4-452.6 mg/day) daily caffeine intakes among consumers 13 years and older were relatively constant across the week with no marked difference among weekdays versus weekend days. Percent consumers of caffeinated beverages likewise remained stable across the week. Mean daily caffeine intake for coffee and energy drink consumers 13 years and older was higher than contributions for tea and carbonated soft drink consumers. Caffeinated beverage consumers (13 + yrs) consumed most of their caffeine in the morning (61% versus 21% and 18% in the afternoon and evening) which was driven by coffee. Caffeinated beverage consumption patterns among adolescents (13-17 yrs) - who typically consume less daily caffeine - were more evenly distributed throughout the day. These findings provide insight into U.S. temporal caffeine consumption patterns among specific caffeinated beverage consumers and different age brackets. These data suggest that while caffeine intakes do not vary from day-to-day, mornings generally drive the daily caffeine intake of adults and is predominantly attributed to coffee. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-15

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  17. Dietary fibre intakes of individuals with different eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Davies, G J; Crowder, M; Dickerson, J W

    1985-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide evidence of the variation in the diet necessary to incorporate a high fibre content. Food intakes were measured for seven days by 51 subjects who were either omnivores, vegetarians or vegans. Omnivores consumed the least fibre (23 g), vegetarians significantly more (37 g) and vegans the most (47 g). Men had higher intakes (44 g) than women (30.5 g). Vegans ate the most cereal fibre, but high intake of fibre by both vegetarian groups were due to their preference for unrefined foods, particularly bread. Higher intakes of vegetable fibre by both vegetarian groups were due to high consumption of pulses. Total dietary fibre was significantly related to cereal fibre. As the percentage of fibre increased, the percentage of energy derived from protein decreased. Fat contributed less energy (34 per cent) to the vegan than to the omnivore diet (41 per cent). This study showed that high fibre intake can be achieved on an omnivorous diet and the observation that high fibre diets are possible when the energy content is low, is of relevance to slimming regimes.

  18. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    PubMed

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.

    PubMed

    Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2017-06-19

    Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.

  20. Minimally invasive options for salivary calculi.

    PubMed

    Witt, Robert L; Iro, Heinrich; Koch, Michael; McGurk, Mark; Nahlieli, Oded; Zenk, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the advantages, limitations, and international interdisciplinary expert perspectives and contrasts of salivary gland endoscopy and transoral techniques in the diagnosis and management of salivary gland calculi and their adaptation in North America. The transition from transcervical approaches to strictly sialendoscopic approaches is a broad chasm and often not feasible. Sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, intraoral, and transcervical approaches all have surgical value. Diagnostic sialendoscopy, interventional sialendoscopy, sialendoscopy-assisted, and transoral techniques have been a major step forward, not only in providing an accurate means of diagnosing and locating intraductal obstructions, but also in permitting minimally invasive surgical treatment that can successfully manage blockages precluding sialoadenectomy in most cases. A flexible methodology is required. Multiple or combined measured may prove effective. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Error minimizing algorithms for nearest eighbor classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don; Zimmer, G. Beate

    2011-01-03

    Stack Filters define a large class of discrete nonlinear filter first introd uced in image and signal processing for noise removal. In recent years we have suggested their application to classification problems, and investigated their relationship to other types of discrete classifiers such as Decision Trees. In this paper we focus on a continuous domain version of Stack Filter Classifiers which we call Ordered Hypothesis Machines (OHM), and investigate their relationship to Nearest Neighbor classifiers. We show that OHM classifiers provide a novel framework in which to train Nearest Neighbor type classifiers by minimizing empirical error based loss functions. Wemore » use the framework to investigate a new cost sensitive loss function that allows us to train a Nearest Neighbor type classifier for low false alarm rate applications. We report results on both synthetic data and real-world image data.« less

  2. Discontinuity minimization for omnidirectional video projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav

    2017-09-01

    Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.

  3. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery.

  4. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  5. Minimal complexity control law synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Nett, Carl N.

    1989-01-01

    A paradigm for control law design for modern engineering systems is proposed: Minimize control law complexity subject to the achievement of a specified accuracy in the face of a specified level of uncertainty. Correspondingly, the overall goal is to make progress towards the development of a control law design methodology which supports this paradigm. Researchers achieve this goal by developing a general theory of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback compensation, where here constrained-structure means that the dynamic-structure (e.g., dynamic order, pole locations, zero locations, etc.) of the output feedback compensation is constrained in some way. By applying this theory in an innovative fashion, where here the indicated iteration occurs over the choice of the compensator dynamic-structure, the paradigm stated above can, in principle, be realized. The optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problem is formulated in general terms. An elegant method for reducing optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems to optimal static output feedback problems is then developed. This reduction procedure makes use of star products, linear fractional transformations, and linear fractional decompositions, and yields as a byproduct a complete characterization of the class of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems which can be reduced to optimal static output feedback problems. Issues such as operational/physical constraints, operating-point variations, and processor throughput/memory limitations are considered, and it is shown how anti-windup/bumpless transfer, gain-scheduling, and digital processor implementation can be facilitated by constraining the controller dynamic-structure in an appropriate fashion.

  6. Minimal nuclear energy density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Jin, Shi; Perez, Rodrigo Navarro; Schunck, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    We present a minimal nuclear energy density functional (NEDF) called "SeaLL1" that has the smallest number of possible phenomenological parameters to date. SeaLL1 is defined by seven significant phenomenological parameters, each related to a specific nuclear property. It describes the nuclear masses of even-even nuclei with a mean energy error of 0.97 MeV and a standard deviation of 1.46 MeV , two-neutron and two-proton separation energies with rms errors of 0.69 MeV and 0.59 MeV respectively, and the charge radii of 345 even-even nuclei with a mean error ɛr=0.022 fm and a standard deviation σr=0.025 fm . SeaLL1 incorporates constraints on the equation of state (EoS) of pure neutron matter from quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory two-body (NN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) level and three-body (NNN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) level. Two of the seven parameters are related to the saturation density and the energy per particle of the homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter, one is related to the nuclear surface tension, two are related to the symmetry energy and its density dependence, one is related to the strength of the spin-orbit interaction, and one is the coupling constant of the pairing interaction. We identify additional phenomenological parameters that have little effect on ground-state properties but can be used to fine-tune features such as the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, the excitation energy of the giant dipole and Gamow-Teller resonances, the static dipole electric polarizability, and the neutron skin thickness.

  7. Minimal nuclear energy density functional

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Jin, Shi

    Inmore » this paper, we present a minimal nuclear energy density functional (NEDF) called “SeaLL1” that has the smallest number of possible phenomenological parameters to date. SeaLL1 is defined by seven significant phenomenological parameters, each related to a specific nuclear property. It describes the nuclear masses of even-even nuclei with a mean energy error of 0.97 MeV and a standard deviation of 1.46 MeV , two-neutron and two-proton separation energies with rms errors of 0.69 MeV and 0.59 MeV respectively, and the charge radii of 345 even-even nuclei with a mean error ε r = 0.022 fm and a standard deviation σ r = 0.025 fm . SeaLL1 incorporates constraints on the equation of state (EoS) of pure neutron matter from quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory two-body ( NN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) level and three-body ( NNN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) level. Two of the seven parameters are related to the saturation density and the energy per particle of the homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter, one is related to the nuclear surface tension, two are related to the symmetry energy and its density dependence, one is related to the strength of the spin-orbit interaction, and one is the coupling constant of the pairing interaction. Finally, we identify additional phenomenological parameters that have little effect on ground-state properties but can be used to fine-tune features such as the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, the excitation energy of the giant dipole and Gamow-Teller resonances, the static dipole electric polarizability, and the neutron skin thickness.« less

  8. Minimal nuclear energy density functional

    DOE PAGES

    Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Jin, Shi; ...

    2018-04-17

    Inmore » this paper, we present a minimal nuclear energy density functional (NEDF) called “SeaLL1” that has the smallest number of possible phenomenological parameters to date. SeaLL1 is defined by seven significant phenomenological parameters, each related to a specific nuclear property. It describes the nuclear masses of even-even nuclei with a mean energy error of 0.97 MeV and a standard deviation of 1.46 MeV , two-neutron and two-proton separation energies with rms errors of 0.69 MeV and 0.59 MeV respectively, and the charge radii of 345 even-even nuclei with a mean error ε r = 0.022 fm and a standard deviation σ r = 0.025 fm . SeaLL1 incorporates constraints on the equation of state (EoS) of pure neutron matter from quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory two-body ( NN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) level and three-body ( NNN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) level. Two of the seven parameters are related to the saturation density and the energy per particle of the homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter, one is related to the nuclear surface tension, two are related to the symmetry energy and its density dependence, one is related to the strength of the spin-orbit interaction, and one is the coupling constant of the pairing interaction. Finally, we identify additional phenomenological parameters that have little effect on ground-state properties but can be used to fine-tune features such as the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, the excitation energy of the giant dipole and Gamow-Teller resonances, the static dipole electric polarizability, and the neutron skin thickness.« less

  9. Polyphenols excreted in urine as biomarkers of total polyphenol intake.

    PubMed

    Medina-Remón, Alexander; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Arranz, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2012-11-01

    Nutritional biomarkers have several advantages in acquiring data for epidemiological and clinical studies over traditional dietary assessment tools, such as food frequency questionnaires. While food frequency questionnaires constitute a subjective methodology, biomarkers can provide a less biased and more accurate measure of specific nutritional intake. A precise estimation of polyphenol consumption requires blood or urine sample biomarkers, although their association is usually highly complex. This article reviews recent research on urinary polyphenols as potential biomarkers of polyphenol intake, focusing on clinical and epidemiological studies. We also report a potentially useful methodology to assess total polyphenols in urine samples, which allows a rapid, simultaneous determination of total phenols in a large number of samples. This methodology can be applied in studies evaluating the utility of urinary polyphenols as markers of polyphenol intake, bioavailability and accumulation in the body.

  10. Controlling the Intake of Calories With the Intake of Food

    PubMed Central

    Broomes, E. L. C.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a dietary program for weight reduction based not on the substitution of a low calorie meal for a high calorie meal, but on the pre-meal ingestion of low calorie bulk beverages that are pleasant to taste and space filling, thereby compromising the capacity of the stomach to accommodate much of the higher calorie foods of the regular meals. This method makes any form of fasting unnecessary, as the intake of calories is already limited. Because of this method, few changes need to be made in food selection for regular meals. PMID:3508220

  11. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake <11am) to evening hours (energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p < 0.04). Difference in total daily energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A prospective study of caffeine and coffee intake and premenstrual syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinically significant premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects 15–20% of premenopausal women, substantially reducing quality of life. Women with PMS often are counseled to minimize caffeine intake, although only limited evidence supports this recommendation. Objective: We evaluated the association between total caffeine, coffee, and tea intake and the development of PMS in a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses’ Health Study II. Design: All participants were free from PMS at baseline (1991). PMS cases reported a new clinician-made diagnosis of PMS on biennial questionnaires between 1993 and 2005, and then confirmed symptom timing and moderate-to-severe impact and severity of symptoms with the use of a retrospective questionnaire (n = 1234). Controls did not report PMS and confirmed experiencing no symptoms or few mild symptoms with limited personal impact (n = 2426). Caffeine, coffee, and tea intake was measured by food-frequency questionnaires every 4 y, and data on smoking, body weight, and other factors were updated every 2–4 y. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of total caffeine intake and frequency of coffee and tea consumption with PMS. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, total caffeine intake was not associated with PMS. The OR comparing women with the highest (quintile median = 543 mg/d) to the lowest (quintile median = 18 mg/d) caffeine intake was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.04; P-trend = 0.31). High caffeinated coffee intake also was not associated with risk of PMS or specific symptoms, including breast tenderness (OR for ≥4 cups/d compared with <1/mo: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.12; P-trend = 0.44). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that caffeine intake is not associated with PMS, and that current recommendations for women to reduce caffeine intake may not help prevent the development of PMS. PMID:27385613

  13. A prospective study of caffeine and coffee intake and premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2016-08-01

    Clinically significant premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects 15-20% of premenopausal women, substantially reducing quality of life. Women with PMS often are counseled to minimize caffeine intake, although only limited evidence supports this recommendation. We evaluated the association between total caffeine, coffee, and tea intake and the development of PMS in a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II. All participants were free from PMS at baseline (1991). PMS cases reported a new clinician-made diagnosis of PMS on biennial questionnaires between 1993 and 2005, and then confirmed symptom timing and moderate-to-severe impact and severity of symptoms with the use of a retrospective questionnaire (n = 1234). Controls did not report PMS and confirmed experiencing no symptoms or few mild symptoms with limited personal impact (n = 2426). Caffeine, coffee, and tea intake was measured by food-frequency questionnaires every 4 y, and data on smoking, body weight, and other factors were updated every 2-4 y. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of total caffeine intake and frequency of coffee and tea consumption with PMS. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, total caffeine intake was not associated with PMS. The OR comparing women with the highest (quintile median = 543 mg/d) to the lowest (quintile median = 18 mg/d) caffeine intake was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.04; P-trend = 0.31). High caffeinated coffee intake also was not associated with risk of PMS or specific symptoms, including breast tenderness (OR for ≥4 cups/d compared with <1/mo: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.12; P-trend = 0.44). Our findings suggest that caffeine intake is not associated with PMS, and that current recommendations for women to reduce caffeine intake may not help prevent the development of PMS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Calorie intake and gambling: is fat and sugar consumption ‘impulsive’?

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Methods Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Results Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. Conclusions These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature

  15. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all P<0·001). For %ETS the associations with nutrient intakes were inconsistent; even then they were smaller than that for %EAS. In general, higher intakes of added sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  16. A Culture-Specific Nutrient Intake Assessment Instrument in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Frediani, Jennifer K.; Tukvadze, Nestani; Sanikidze, Ekaterina; Kipiani, Maia; Hebbar, Gautam; Easley, Kirk A.; Shenvi, Neeta; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Tangpricha, Vin; Blumberg, Henry M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim To develop and evaluate a culture-specific nutrient intake assessment tool for use in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Tbilisi, Georgia. Methods We developed an instrument to measure food intake over 3 consecutive days using a questionnaire format. The tool was then compared to 24 hour food recalls. Food intake data from 31 subjects with TB were analyzed using the Nutrient Database System for Research (NDS-R) dietary analysis program. Paired t-tests, Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the agreement between the two methods of dietary intake for calculated nutrient intakes. Results The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean daily caloric intake between the 2 methods was 0.37 (P = 0.04) with a mean difference of 171 kcals/day (p = 0.34). The ICC was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.64) suggesting the within-patient variability may be larger than between-patient variability. Results for mean daily intake of total fat, total carbohydrate, total protein, retinol, vitamins D and E, thiamine, calcium, sodium, iron, selenium, copper, and zinc between the two assessment methods were also similar. Conclusions This novel nutrient intake assessment tool provided quantitative nutrient intake data from TB patients. These pilot data can inform larger studies in similar populations. PMID:23541173

  17. Dietary flavonoids of Spanish youth: intakes, sources, and association with the Mediterranean diet

    PubMed Central

    Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Cárdenas, Gabriela; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2017-01-01

    Background Plant-based diets have been linked to high diet quality and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The health impact of plant-based diets might be partially explained by the concomitant intake of flavonoids. Estimation of flavonoids intake in adults has been important for the development of dietary recommendations and interventions for the prevention of weight gain and its consequences. However, estimation of flavonoids intake in children and adolescents is limited. Methods Average daily intake and sources of flavonoids were estimated for a representative national sample of 3,534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2–24 years. The data was collected between 1998 and 2000 by 24-h recalls. The Phenol-Explorer database and the USDA database on flavonoids content were used. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the KIDMED index. Results The mean and median intakes of total flavonoids were 70.7 and 48.1 mg/day, respectively. The most abundant flavonoid class was flavan-3-ols (35.7%), with fruit being the top food source of flavonoids intake (42.8%). Total flavonoids intake was positively associated with the KIDMED index (p < 0.001). Conclusion The results of this study provide primary information about flavonoids intake and main food sources in Spanish children, adolescents and young adults. Participants with high daily mean intake of flavonoids have higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet. PMID:28533962

  18. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (<1%). Black tea was the major flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians.

  19. Global Estimates of Dietary Intake of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid in Developing and Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Stewart; Gautier, Sheila; Salem, Norman

    2016-01-01

    For international recommendations on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) dietary intake to be valid, there needs to be a greater understanding of dietary patterns across both the developed and developing world. The aim of this investigation was to provide a global overview of dietary intake of DHA and ARA. Food balance sheets from the Food and Agriculture Organisation Statistics Division and fatty acid composition data from Australian food composition tables in Nutrient Tables 2010 were utilised to generate median per capita intake estimates for DHA and ARA in 175 countries worldwide. Estimated dietary intake per capita for DHA and ARA in 47 developed and 128 developing countries demonstrated that 48% of the 175 countries have an ARA intake of <150 mg/day and 64% have a dietary DHA intake of <200 mg/day. There was a direct relationship between dietary ARA and DHA intake and the per capita gross national income of the country. Regional analysis showed the lowest ARA and DHA dietary intake in Sub-Saharan Africa and Central and Southern Asian populations. This study demonstrates there are many populations worldwide that have ARA and DHA intake that do not reflect current international recommendations, and the public health consequences of this global inadequacy need to be urgently considered. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to improve micronutrient intake in Asia: a review of simulation, nutrient retention and sensory studies.

    PubMed

    Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

  1. An objective estimate of energy intake during weight gain using the intake-balance method123

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L Anne; Ravussin, Eric; Bray, George A; Han, Hongmei; Redman, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimates of energy intake (EI) in humans have limited validity. Objective: The objective was to test the accuracy and precision of the intake-balance method to estimate EI during weight gain induced by overfeeding. Design: In 2 studies of controlled overfeeding (1 inpatient study and 1 outpatient study), baseline energy requirements were determined by a doubly labeled water study and caloric titration to weight maintenance. Overfeeding was prescribed as 140% of baseline energy requirements for 56 d. Changes in weight, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) were used to estimate change in energy stores (ΔES). Overfeeding EI was estimated as the sum of baseline energy requirements, thermic effect of food, and ΔES. The estimated overfeeding EI was then compared with the actual EI consumed in the metabolic chamber during the last week of overfeeding. Results: In inpatient individuals, calculated EI during overfeeding determined from ΔES in FM and FFM was (mean ± SD) 3461 ± 848 kcal/d, which was not significantly (−29 ± 273 kcal/d or 0.8%; limits of agreement: −564, 505 kcal/d; P = 0.78) different from the actual EI provided (3490 ± 729 kcal/d). Estimated EI determined from ΔES in weight closely estimated actual intake (−7 ± 193 kcal/d or 0.2%; limits of agreement: −386, 370 kcal/d; P = 0.9). In free-living individuals, estimated EI during overfeeding determined from ΔES in FM and FFM was 4123 ± 500 kcal/d and underestimated actual EI (4286 ± 488 kcal/d; −162 ± 301 kcal or 3.8%; limits of agreement: −751, 427 kcal/d; P = 0.003). Estimated EI determined from ΔES in weight also underestimated actual intake (−159 ± 270 kcal/d or 3.7%; limits of agreement: −688, 370 kcal/d; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The intake-balance method can be used to estimate EI during a period of weight gain as a result of 40% overfeeding in individuals who are inpatients or free-living with only a slight underestimate of actual EI by 0.2–3.8%. This trial

  2. What energy functions can be minimized via graph cuts?

    PubMed

    Kolmogorov, Vladimir; Zabih, Ramin

    2004-02-01

    In the last few years, several new algorithms based on graph cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the graph also minimizes the energy. Yet, because these graph constructions are complex and highly specific to a particular energy function, graph cuts have seen limited application to date. In this paper, we give a characterization of the energy functions that can be minimized by graph cuts. Our results are restricted to functions of binary variables. However, our work generalizes many previous constructions and is easily applicable to vision problems that involve large numbers of labels, such as stereo, motion, image restoration, and scene reconstruction. We give a precise characterization of what energy functions can be minimized using graph cuts, among the energy functions that can be written as a sum of terms containing three or fewer binary variables. We also provide a general-purpose construction to minimize such an energy function. Finally, we give a necessary condition for any energy function of binary variables to be minimized by graph cuts. Researchers who are considering the use of graph cuts to optimize a particular energy function can use our results to determine if this is possible and then follow our construction to create the appropriate graph. A software implementation is freely available.

  3. Stroop interference and food intake.

    PubMed

    Overduin, J; Jansen, A; Louwerse, E

    1995-11-01

    The Stroop task is aimed at assessing attentional bias. Words are displayed one by one on a computer screen and subjects are instructed to name the color in which every word is printed. The attentional bias is supposed to be reflected in the extent to which the word meanings interfere with the speed of color naming: The longer the color naming latency, the larger the attentional bias. Experiments using this task have demonstrated attentional bias for eating and body shape-related words in bulimic, anorexic, and restrained subjects. Explanations of these results have generally been formulated in terms of restricted food intake or emotional concerns about food and body shape-related themes. In contrast, in the present article it was proposed that Stroop interference might reflect a tendency either to withdraw or approach food or body shape-related stimuli. Fifty-one subjects (25 unrestrained, 26 restrained) were administered a Stroop task containing neutral, food, and body shape-related words. There were two conditions to which subjects were randomly allocated: the "appetizer" and "no-appetizer" condition. The appetizer was a bit of pudding to be ingested by the subject just before the Stroop task. Following the Stroop task an ice cream taste test was presented in which the subjects were allowed to eat as much as they liked. The amount of ice cream eaten was registered secretly. The results show that in unrestrained subjects Stroop interference for food words was found only in the appetizer condition. Restrained subjects, however, showed a permanent interference for food words. A significant correlation of .58 between Stroop food-word interference and ice cream intake was found only in unrestrained subjects. In restrained eaters the correlation was near 0. No effect of condition or restraint was found on Stroop body shape-word interference. The findings indicate that (1) ingestion of an appetizer seems to have evoked an attentional bias for food words in

  4. Processed meat intake is unfavorably and fish intake favorably associated with semen quality indicators among men attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Toth, Thomas L; Wright, Diane L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-07-01

    Emerging literature suggests that men's diets may affect spermatogenesis as reflected in semen quality indicators, but literature on the relation between meat intake and semen quality is limited. Our objective was to prospectively examine the relation between meat intake and indicators of semen quality. Men in subfertile couples presenting for evaluation at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center were invited to participate in an ongoing study of environmental factors and fertility. A total of 155 men completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and subsequently provided 338 semen samples over an 18-mo period from 2007-2012. We used linear mixed regression models to examine the relation between meat intake and semen quality indicators (total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, and semen volume) while adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for within-person variability across repeat semen samples. Among the 155 men (median age: 36.1 y; 83% white, non-Hispanic), processed meat intake was inversely related to sperm morphology. Men in the highest quartile of processed meat intake had, on average, 1.7 percentage units (95% CI: -3.3, -0.04) fewer morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (P-trend = 0.02). Fish intake was related to higher sperm count and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. The adjusted mean total sperm count increased from 102 million (95% CI: 80, 131) in the lowest quartile to 168 million (95% CI: 136, 207) sperm in the highest quartile of fish intake (P-trend = 0.005). Similarly, the adjusted mean percentages of morphologically normal sperm for men in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 5.9 (95% CI: 5.0, 6.8), 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3), 6.3 (95% CI: 5.2, 7.4), and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.5, 8.5) (P-trend = 0.01). Consuming fish may have a positive impact on sperm counts and morphology, particularly when consumed instead of processed red meats. © 2014 American

  5. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe.

    PubMed

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-01-21

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children than in adults: total sugars ranged between 15 and 21% of energy intake in adults and between 16 and 26% in children. Added sugars (or non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), in the UK) contributed 7 to 11% of total energy intake in adults and represented a higher proportion of children's energy intake (11 to 17%). Educational level did not significantly affect intakes of total or added sugars in France and the Netherlands. Sweet products (e.g. confectionery, chocolates, cakes and biscuits, sugar, and jam) were major contributors to total sugars intake in all countries, genders and age groups, followed by fruits, beverages and dairy products. Fruits contributed more and beverages contributed less to adults' total sugars intakes than to children's. Added sugars were provided mostly by sweet products (36 to 61% in adults and 40 to 50% in children), followed by beverages (12 to 31% in adults and 20 to 34% in children, fruit juices excluded), then by dairy products (4 to 15% in adults and 6 to 18% in children). Caution is needed, however, as survey methodologies differ on important items such as dietary data collection, food composition tables or estimation of added sugars. Cross-country comparisons are thus not meaningful and overall information might thus not be robust enough to provide a solid basis for implementation of policy measures. Data nevertheless confirm that intakes of total and added sugars are high in the European countries considered, especially in children, and point to

  6. Short term impacts provide a management window for minimizing invasions from bioenergy crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In anticipation of the expansion of perennial bioenergy cultivation, we experimentally introduced Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus × giganteus (two non-native candidate bioenergy species) into two different non-crop habitats (old field and flood-plain forest) to evaluate their establishment succes...

  7. Why Minimal Multiple Rules Provide a Unique Window into UG and L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article clarifies some ideas presented in this issue's keynote article (Amaral and Roeper, this issue) and discusses several issues raised by the contributors' comments on the nature of the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory. One of the key goals of the article is to unequivocally state that MG is not a parametric theory and that its…

  8. Communication in Pipes Using Acoustic Modems that Provide Minimal Obstruction to Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Archer, Eric D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plurality of phased array acoustic communication devices are used to communicate data along a tubulation, such as a well. The phased array acoustic communication devices employ phased arrays of acoustic transducers, such as piezoelectric transducers, to direct acoustic energy in desired directions along the tubulation. The system is controlled by a computer-based controller. Information, including data and commands, is communicated using digital signaling.

  9. Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Yunus; Akpolat, Tekin; Derici, Ülver; Şengül, Şule; Ertürk, Şehsuvar; Ulusoy, Şükrü; Altun, Bülent; Arıcı, Mustafa

    2017-08-24

    Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group ( n = 657) was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya). A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall) on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71%) provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70%) provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day) and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day) ( p < 0.001). On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake ( r = 0.277, p < 0.001). Bread was the main source of salt (34%) followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%), salt from various processed foods (21%), and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%). Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food

  10. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID).

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders. Evaluation and management strategies are also discussed. No data yet exist regarding ARFID׳s prognosis and prevention; however, recommendations to guide parents in establishing appropriate infant and child feeding practices are provided. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On inflation with non-minimal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.

    2010-11-01

    A simple realization of inflation consists of adding the following operators to the Einstein-Hilbert action: ( ∂ϕ)2, λϕ 4, and ξϕ 2 R , with ξ a large non-minimal coupling. Recently there has been much discussion as to whether such theories make sense quantum mechanically and if the inflaton ϕ can also be the Standard Model Higgs. In this work we answer these questions. Firstly, for a single scalar ϕ, we show that the quantum field theory is well behaved in the pure gravity and kinetic sectors, since the quantum generated corrections are small. However, the theory likely breaks down at m Pl /ξ due to scattering provided by the self-interacting potential λϕ 4. Secondly, we show that the theory changes for multiple scalars overrightarrow φ with non-minimal coupling ξ overrightarrow φ \\cdot overrightarrow φ mathcal{R} , since this introduces qualitatively new interactions which manifestly generate large quantum corrections even in the gravity and kinetic sectors, spoiling the theory for energies ≳ m Pl /ξ. Since the Higgs doublet of the Standard Model includes the Higgs boson and 3 Goldstone bosons, it falls into the latter category and therefore its validity is manifestly spoiled. We show that these conclusions hold in both the Jordan and Einstein frames and describe an intuitive analogy in the form of the pion Lagrangian. We also examine the recent claim that curvature-squared inflation models fail quantum mechanically. Our work appears to go beyond the recent discussions.

  12. A comprehensive program to minimize platelet outdating.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Alice K; Uglik, Kristin M; Braine, Hayden G; King, Karen E

    2011-07-01

    Platelet (PLT) transfusions are essential for patients who are bleeding or have an increased risk of bleeding due to a decreased number or abnormal function of circulating PLTs. A shelf life of 5 days for PLT products presents an inventory management challenge. In 2006, greater than 10% of apheresis PLTs made in the United States outdated. It is imperative to have a sufficient number of products for patients requiring transfusion, but outdating PLTs is a financial burden and a waste of a resource. We present the approach used in our institution to anticipate inventory needs based on current patient census and usage. Strategies to predict usage and to identify changes in anticipated usage are examined. Annual outdating is reviewed for a 10-year period from 2000 through 2009. From January 1, 2000, through December 2009, there were 128,207 PLT transfusions given to 15,265 patients. The methods used to anticipate usage and adjust inventory resulted in an annual outdate rate of approximately 1% for the 10-year period reviewed. In addition we have not faced situations where inventory was inadequate to meet the needs of the patients requiring transfusions. We have identified three elements of our transfusion service that can minimize outdate: a knowledgeable proactive staff dedicated to PLT management, a comprehensive computer-based transfusion history for each patient, and a strong two-way relationship with the primary product supplier. Through our comprehensive program, based on the principles of providing optimal patient care, we have minimized PLT outdating for more than 10 years. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Plateau inflation from random non-minimal coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Broy, Benedict J.; Coone, Dries; Theoretische Natuurkunde,Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels

    A generic non-minimal coupling can push any higher-order terms of the scalar potential sufficiently far out in field space to yield observationally viable plateau inflation. We provide analytic and numerical evidence that this generically happens for a non-minimal coupling strength ξ of the order N{sub e}{sup 2}. In this regime, the non-minimally coupled field is sub-Planckian during inflation and is thus protected from most higher-order terms. For larger values of ξ, the inflationary predictions converge towards the sweet spot of PLANCK. The latter includes ξ≃10{sup 4} obtained from CMB normalization arguments, thus providing a natural explanation for the inflationary observablesmore » measured.« less

  14. A New Database Facilitates Characterization of Flavonoid Intake, Sources, and Positive Associations with Diet Quality among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Martin, Carrie L; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Murayi, Theophile; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007-2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P < 0.001) intakes of total flavonoids (275 mg/d) than non-Hispanic blacks (176 mg/d) and Hispanics (139 mg/d). Tea was the primary source (80%) of flavonoid intake. Regardless of whether the flavonoid contribution of tea was included, total HEI score and component scores for total fruit, whole fruit, total vegetables, greens and beans, seafood and plant proteins, refined grains, and empty calories increased (P < 0.001) across flavonoid intake quartiles. A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and health. Findings suggest that diet quality, as measured by HEI

  15. A New Database Facilitates Characterization of Flavonoid Intake, Sources, and Positive Associations with Diet Quality among US Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Martin, Carrie L; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Murayi, Theophile; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Objectives: Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. Methods: One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007–2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007–2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Results: Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P < 0.001) intakes of total flavonoids (275 mg/d) than non-Hispanic blacks (176 mg/d) and Hispanics (139 mg/d). Tea was the primary source (80%) of flavonoid intake. Regardless of whether the flavonoid contribution of tea was included, total HEI score and component scores for total fruit, whole fruit, total vegetables, greens and beans, seafood and plant proteins, refined grains, and empty calories increased (P < 0.001) across flavonoid intake quartiles. Conclusions: A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007–2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and

  16. Stereoscopic Configurations To Minimize Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed television system provides two stereoscopic displays. Two-camera, two-monitor system used in various camera configurations and with stereoscopic images on monitors magnified to various degrees. Designed to satisfy observer's need to perceive spatial relationships accurately throughout workspace or to perceive them at high resolution in small region of workspace. Potential applications include industrial, medical, and entertainment imaging and monitoring and control of telemanipulators, telerobots, and remotely piloted vehicles.

  17. Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China123

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shufa; Neiman, Andrea; Batis, Carolina; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jiguo; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. Objective: We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. Design: The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20–60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Results: Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Conclusions: Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options. PMID:24257724

  18. A new approach on anti-vortex devices at water intakes including a submerged water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahershamsi, Ahmad; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Monshizadeh, Morteza; Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2018-04-01

    A new approach on anti-vortex methods as hydraulic-based anti-vortex was investigated experimentally in the present study. In the investigated method, a submerged water jet is used as the anti-vortex mechanism. The added jet acts as a source of external momentum. This leads to change the intake-induced hydrodynamic pattern in the near-field of the intake structure, which can prevent formation of undesirable intake vortices. The experiments were carried out on a horizontal pipe intake. By performing 570 test cases in two different categories, including the inclined jet with respect to the axis of the intake, and the inclined jet with respect to the water surface, the effects of the jet inclination angle on the anti-vortex performance were investigated. It was found that the inclined jet with respect to the water surface is the best alternative to consider as the water jet injection pattern. Results showed that using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface can simply reduce the amounts of the expected water jet momentum more than 50% compared to that of the similar condition of the horizontal injection pattern. Moreover, it was concluded that the intake critical submergence can easily be minimized using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface.

  19. Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum.

    PubMed

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Hayakawa, Mariko; Minami, Tadayasu; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Wakabayashi, Kazuo

    2015-05-14

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P < 0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P < 0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control.

  20. Social modeling effects on young women's breakfast intake.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Herman, C Peter; Larsen, Junilla K; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the presence of others influences young women's food intake. They eat more when the other eats more, and eat less when the other eats less. However, most of these studies have focused on snack situations. The present study assesses the degree to which young women model the breakfast intake of a same-sex peer in a semi-naturalistic setting. The study took place in a laboratory setting at the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, during the period January to April 2009. After completing three cover tasks, normal-weight participants (n=57) spent a 20-minute break with a peer who ate a large amount or a small amount of breakfast or no breakfast at all. The participants' total amount of energy consumed (in kilocalories) during the break was measured. An analysis of variance was used to examine whether young women modeled the breakfast intake of same-sex peers. Results indicate a main effect of breakfast condition, F(2,54)=8.44; P<0.01. Participants exposed to a peer eating nothing ate less than did participants exposed to a peer eating a small amount (d=0.85) or large amount of breakfast (d=1.23). Intake in the Small-Breakfast condition did not differ substantially from intake in the Large-Breakfast condition. The findings from the present study provide evidence that modeling effects of food intake are weaker in eating contexts in which scripts or routines guide an individual's eating behavior. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake in the Czech child population.

    PubMed

    Jakubikova, Marie; Dofkova, Marcela; Ruprich, Jiri

    2011-06-01

    To describe fruit and vegetable intake of pre-school and school children in the Czech Republic and to provide information about their preferences and dietary habits. Cross-sectional dietary survey conducted by the method of repeated 24 h recall on two non-consecutive days. Usual intakes were calculated for three age categories (4-6, 7-10 and 11-14 years). The whole area of the Czech Republic. A subgroup of 602 children aged 4-14 years was extracted from the representative sample of respondents participating in a national dietary survey (SISP) realized in the years 2003 and 2004. Estimated average usual intakes of fruit and vegetables were 209 (sd 69) g/d in children aged 4-6 years, 230 (sd 84) g/d in children aged 7-10 years, and 284 (sd 133) g/d and 261 (sd 140) g/d respectively in boys and girls aged 11-14 years. Only 22 % of children had total daily intake of fruit and vegetables of five or more servings on the day of the survey. Fruits were consumed almost two times more often than vegetables in all age groups studied. The majority of fruit consumption comprised apples and bananas, which made up more than 60 % of the whole fruit intake. Fruiting vegetables were the most frequently consumed group of vegetables. Fruit and vegetable intakes in all age categories were under recommended levels and the diversity of fruit and vegetables consumed by the Czech children was relatively low.

  2. Species tree inference by minimizing deep coalescences.

    PubMed

    Than, Cuong; Nakhleh, Luay

    2009-09-01

    In a 1997 seminal paper, W. Maddison proposed minimizing deep coalescences, or MDC, as an optimization criterion for inferring the species tree from a set of incongruent gene trees, assuming the incongruence is exclusively due to lineage sorting. In a subsequent paper, Maddison and Knowles provided and implemented a search heuristic for optimizing the MDC criterion, given a set of gene trees. However, the heuristic is not guaranteed to compute optimal solutions, and its hill-climbing search makes it slow in practice. In this paper, we provide two exact solutions to the problem of inferring the species tree from a set of gene trees under the MDC criterion. In other words, our solutions are guaranteed to find the tree that minimizes the total number of deep coalescences from a set of gene trees. One solution is based on a novel integer linear programming (ILP) formulation, and another is based on a simple dynamic programming (DP) approach. Powerful ILP solvers, such as CPLEX, make the first solution appealing, particularly for very large-scale instances of the problem, whereas the DP-based solution eliminates dependence on proprietary tools, and its simplicity makes it easy to integrate with other genomic events that may cause gene tree incongruence. Using the exact solutions, we analyze a data set of 106 loci from eight yeast species, a data set of 268 loci from eight Apicomplexan species, and several simulated data sets. We show that the MDC criterion provides very accurate estimates of the species tree topologies, and that our solutions are very fast, thus allowing for the accurate analysis of genome-scale data sets. Further, the efficiency of the solutions allow for quick exploration of sub-optimal solutions, which is important for a parsimony-based criterion such as MDC, as we show. We show that searching for the species tree in the compatibility graph of the clusters induced by the gene trees may be sufficient in practice, a finding that helps ameliorate the

  3. Comparison of flavonoid intake assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Kerry L; Croft, Kevin; Prince, Richard L; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-14

    Flavonoids are a diverse group of polyphenolic compounds found in high concentrations in many plant foods and beverages. High flavonoid intake has been associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. To date, population based studies have used the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food content database to determine habitual flavonoid intake. More recently, a new flavonoid food content database, Phenol-Explorer (PE), has been developed. However, the level of agreement between the two databases is yet to be explored. To compare the methods used to create each database, and to explore the level of agreement between the flavonoid intake estimates derived from USDA and PE data. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged over 75 years. Two separate intake estimates were determined using food composition data from the USDA and the PE databases. There were many similarities in methods used to create each database; however, there are several methodological differences that manifest themselves in differences in flavonoid intake estimates between the 2 databases. Despite differences in net estimates, there was a strong level of agreement between total-flavonoid, flavanol, flavanone and anthocyanidin intake estimates derived from each database. Intake estimates for flavanol monomers showed greater agreement than flavanol polymers. The level of agreement between the two databases was the weakest for the flavonol and flavone intake estimates. In this population, the application of USDA and PE source data yielded highly correlated intake estimates for total-flavonoids, flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanidins. For these sub-classes, the USDA and PE databases may be used interchangeably in epidemiological investigations. There was poorer correlation between intake estimates for flavonols and flavones due to differences in USDA and PE methodologies. Individual flavonoid compound groups that comprise flavonoid sub-classes had varying levels of

  4. Minimalism in inflation model building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we demand that a successful inflationary scenario should follow from a model entirely motivated by particle physics considerations. We show that such a connection is indeed possible within the framework of concrete supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories where the doublet-triplet splitting problem is naturally solved. The Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term of a gauge U(1)ξ symmetry, which plays a crucial role in the solution of the doublet-triplet splitting problem, simultaneously provides a built-in inflationary slope protected from dangerous supergravity corrections.

  5. Minimizing medical litigation, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Harold, Tan Keng Boon

    2006-01-01

    The global rise in medical litigation has led to defensive medical practices and rising malpractice insurance premiums. There is a need to review all possible factors influencing litigiousness of the society and to develop strategies to control such factors. Some of the contributory causes of rising litigiousness include higher patients' expectations, poor provider-patient communication, and adversarial legalism of the society. A good combination of system, professional, and legislative strategies may keep medical litigation in check. Part 2 of this article will address the development of a dispute resolution framework.

  6. Hemochromatosis caused by excessive vitamin iron intake.

    PubMed Central

    Hennigar, G. R.; Greene, W. B.; Walker, E. M.; de Saussure, C.

    1979-01-01

    Rare cases of hemochromatosis have been reported in patients who underwent prolonged oral iron therapy for hemolytic anemia or prolonged self-treatment with iron pills. A proportionately large segment of the South African Bantu tribe, who ingest large quantities of an alcoholic beverage brewed in iron pots, are found to have the disease. Reports of health fadists developing hemochromatosis due to excessive dietary iron intake, however, are extremely rare. This report presents clinical considerations and pathologic findings in a compulsive health fadist who consumed large numbers of vitamins containing iron. Clinical findings included the development and progression of cirrhosis of the liver, bronzing of the skin, and diabetes mellitus, all consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Light microscopy of liver biopsies taken late in the course of the disease revealed a massive buildup of iron in the hepatocytes, less in the Kupffer cells, and sparse deposition in the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Minimal periportal fibrosis was noted. Electron microscopy showed numerous pleomorphic siderosomes with varying degrees of crystallization and ferritin attached at uniform intervals to the membranes of residual bodies. Abundant free ferritin was observed in most cells. The aggregated and membrane-associated ferritin was verified by non-dispersive x-ray analysis. An additional finding, noted only by electron microscopy, was the presence of many fat-storing cells of Ito, which are thought to be involved in the onset of fibrosis. Images Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:474711

  7. NATIONAL HEALTH PROVIDER INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health Provider Inventory provides data on services, location, staff, capacity, and other characteristics of selected health care providers in the United States. Information is collected via mail questionnaire with telephone follow up to all providers (100% census) o...

  8. New markers of dietary added sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Davy, Brenda; Jahren, Hope

    2016-07-01

    Added sugar consumption is associated with adverse health outcomes, including weight gain and cardio-metabolic disease, yet the reliance on self-reported methods to determine added sugar intake continues to be a significant research limitation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in the development of two potential predictive biomarkers of added sugar intake: δC and urinary sugar excretion. The results of numerous cross-sectional investigations have indicated modest associations of the δC sugar biomarker measured in a variety of sample types (e.g., fingerstick blood, serum, red blood cells, and hair) with self-reported added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and δC values have been reported to change over time with changes in reported sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Results from large-scale trials have suggested modest associations of urinary sugar excretion with reported sugar intake, and a dose-response relation has been demonstrated between urinary sugar excretion and actual sugar intake. Valid markers of sugar intake are urgently needed to more definitively determine the health consequences of added sugar intake. Adequately powered controlled feeding studies are needed to validate and compare these two biomarkers of sugar intake, and to determine what individual characteristics and conditions impact biomarker results.

  9. New Markers of Dietary Added Sugar Intake

    PubMed Central

    Davy, Brenda; Jahren, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Added sugar (AS) consumption is associated with adverse health outcomes including weight gain and cardio-metabolic disease, yet the reliance on self-reported methods to determine AS intake continues to be a significant research limitation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in the development of two potential predictive biomarkers of added sugar intake: δ13C and urinary sugar excretion. Recent findings The results of numerous cross-sectional investigations have indicated modest associations of the δ13C sugar biomarker measured in a variety of sample types (e.g., fingerstick blood, serum, red blood cells, hair) with self-reported AS and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, and δ13C values have been reported to change over time with changes in reported SSB intake. Results from large-scale trials have suggested modest associations of urinary sugar excretion with reported sugar intake, and a dose-response relation has been demonstrated between urinary sugar excretion and actual sugar intake. Summary Valid markers of sugar intake are urgently needed to more definitively determine the health consequences of AS intake. Adequately-powered controlled feeding studies are needed to validate and compare these two biomarkers of sugar intake, and to determine what individual characteristics and conditions impact biomarker results. PMID:27137898

  10. Minimizing traffic-related work zone crashes in Illinois.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a research project to study and develop recommendations to minimize work : zone crashes in Illinois. The objectives of this project were (1) to provide in-depth comprehensive review of the : latest literature on t...

  11. Higher Integrability for Minimizers of the Mumford-Shah Functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Philippis, Guido; Figalli, Alessio

    2014-08-01

    We prove higher integrability for the gradient of local minimizers of the Mumford-Shah energy functional, providing a positive answer to a conjecture of De Giorgi (Free discontinuity problems in calculus of variations. Frontiers in pure and applied mathematics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 55-62, 1991).

  12. Minimal Impact Education: A New Approach To Walking Softly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauchop, Deborah; Parkin, Danny

    2000-01-01

    Introduces protected areas as opportunities for outdoor education and considers the possibility that outdoor education may contribute to the ecological degradation of these areas through overuse or poor outdoor practices. Provides a new approach to minimal impact education through the promotion of individual change. (Contains 24 references.)…

  13. Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. I-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…

  14. The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Áine; Browne, Fiona; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2017-04-01

    suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food consumption data of Irish preschool children provide the ideal starting point for modelling of fortification scenarios to identify which foods and levels of addition will ensure effective and safe increases in vitamin D intake.

  15. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    PubMed

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Roces, F

    2003-04-01

    energy intake rates in mg sucrose per unit time, licking was shown to be a more advantageous technique at higher sugar concentrations than sucking, whereas sucking provided a higher energy intake rate at lower sugar concentrations.

  17. The use of mHealth to deliver tailored messages reduces reported energy and fat intake

    PubMed Central

    Ambeba, Erica J.; Ye, Lei; Sereika, Susan M.; Styn, Mindi A.; Acharya, Sushama D.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Ewing, Linda J.; Conroy, Molly B.; Glanz, Karen; Zheng, Yaguang; Goode, Rachel W.; Mattos, Meghan; Burke, Lora E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence supports the role of feedback in reinforcing motivation for behavior change. Feedback that provides reinforcement has the potential to increase dietary self-monitoring and enhance attainment of recommended dietary intake. Objective To examine the impact of daily feedback (DFB) messages, delivered remotely, on changes in dietary intake. Methods A secondary analysis of the SMART trial, a single-center, 24-month randomized clinical trial of behavioral treatment for weight loss. Participants included 210 obese adults (mean body mass index=34.0 kg/m2) who were randomized to either a paper diary (PD), personal digital assistant (PDA), or PDA plus daily, tailored feedback messages (PDA+FB). To determine the role of daily tailored feedback in dietary intake, we compared the self-monitoring with daily feedback group (DFB, n=70) to the self-monitoring without daily feedback group (No-DFB, n=140). All participants received a standard behavioral intervention for weight loss. Self-reported changes in dietary intake were compared between the DFB and No-DFB groups and were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine percent changes in dietary intake from baseline. Results Compared to the No-DFB group, the DFB group achieved a larger reduction in energy (−22.8% vs. −14.0%, p=0.02) and saturated fat (−11.3% vs. −0.5%, p=0.03) intake, and a trend toward a greater decrease in total fat intake (−10.4% vs. −4.7%, p=0.09). There were significant improvements over time in carbohydrate intake and total fat intake for both groups (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Daily, tailored feedback messages, designed to target energy and fat intake and delivered remotely in real-time using mobile devices, may play an important role in the reduction of energy and fat intake. PMID:24434827

  18. The Minimal Cost of Life in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdale, A.; Rutkze, C.; Albright, L.; Ladue, R.

    Life in space requires protection from the external environment, provision of a suitable internal environment, provision of consumables to maintain life, and removal of wastes. Protection from the external environment will mainly require shielding from radiation and meteoroids. Provision of a suitable environment inside the spacecraft will require provision of suitable air pressure and composition, temperature, and protection from environmental toxins (trace contaminants) and pathogenic micro-organisms. Gravity may be needed for longer missions to avoid excessive changes such as decalcification and muscle degeneration. Similarly, the volume required per crewmember will increase as the mission duration increases. Consumables required include oxygen, food, and water. Nitrogen might be required, depending on the total pressure and non-metabolic losses. We normally provide these consumables from the Earth, with a greater or lesser degree of regeneration. In principle, all consumables can be regenerated. Water and air are easiest to regenerate. At the present time, food can only be regenerated by using plants, and higher plants at that. Waste must be removed, including carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste as well as trash such as food packaging, filters, and expended spare parts. This can be done by dumping or regeneration. The minimal cost of life in space would be to use a synthesis process or system to regenerate all consumables from wastes. As the efficiency of the various processes rises, the minimal cost of life support will fall. However, real world regeneration requires significant equipment, power, and crew time. Make-up will be required for those items that cannot be economically regenerated. For very inefficient processes, it might be cheaper to ship all or part of the consumables. We are currently far down the development curve, and for short missions it is cheaper to ship consumables. For longer duration missions, greater closure is cost effective

  19. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  20. General minimal surface solution for gravitational instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, A. N.; Kalaycı, J.; Nutku, Y.

    1997-07-01

    We construct the general instanton metric obtained from Weierstrass' general local solution for minimal surfaces using the correspondence between minimal surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space and gravitational instantons admitting two Killing vectors. The resulting metric contains one arbitrary analytic function and we show that it can be transformed to the Gibbons-Hawking form of an instanton metric that was reported earlier.

  1. Flattening the inflaton potential beyond minimal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Min

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of the Starobinsky-like models for inflation beyond minimal gravity and discuss the unitarity problem due to the presence of a large non-minimal gravity coupling. We show that the induced gravity models allow for a self-consistent description of inflation and discuss the implications of the inflaton couplings to the Higgs field in the Standard Model.

  2. Making the Most of Minimalism in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiersbach, Frederick J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the minimalist movement in music. Discusses generations of minimalist musicians and, in general, the minimalist approach. Considers various ways that minimalist strategies can be integrated into the music classroom focusing on (1) minimalism and (2) student-centered composition and principles of minimalism for use with elementary band…

  3. Matthew Arnold and Minimal Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuman, Myron C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents arguments by Robert Lowe and Matthew Arnold on the 19th century British "Payment by Results" Plan, whereby schools received funds for students who passed minimal competency tests. Emphasizes that the Victorian experience produced acrimonious teachers with low morale and encourages contemporary minimal testing advocates not to…

  4. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  5. Declining oral intake towards the end of life: how to talk about it? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jean; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Allan, Simon; Zuylen, Lia van; Heide, Agnes van der

    2017-02-02

    Decreasing oral intake is common towards the end of life and a potential source of distress and concern for patients, relatives, whānau and clinicians. This paper provides insight to inform practice regarding clinicians' perceptions, practices, responses and communication with patients and their companions regarding declining oral intake towards the end of life. In this qualitative study ten specialist palliative care staff participated in semi-structured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: declining oral intake was a natural part of the dying process; responding empathetically; and clinicians described specific aims and ways regarding communication. Insight into clinicians' endeavours to manage declining oral intake and support the wellbeing of patients, families, and whānau can inform practice. However the perspectives of family, whānau and health professionals continue to show significant variation regarding the communication given and received around declining oral intake towards the end of life.

  6. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-05-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.

  7. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  8. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources.

    PubMed

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J; Van Loon, Luc J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-11-25

    Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60%) with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80%) provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, while during breakfast and lunch a large proportion of

  9. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Boudville, Neil; Rangan, Anna; Moody, Harry

    2003-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Attempts to improve nutritional status with enteral supplements have yielded poor results. We performed a crossover-design trial on 13 PD patients to investigate whether these patients reduce their food intake after drinking oral nutritional supplements. Patients attended three visits in which they were administered a standard oral nutritional supplement either 2 hours or 30 minutes before lunch or a placebo drink 30 minutes before lunch. Lunch was provided as a self-select buffet-style meal, and food intake was measured. Total intake was calculated by adding the nutritional content of the oral supplement. Patients showed poor food intake, with mean values equaling only 18% of the recommended daily intake for calories and 34% for protein. Drinking the supplement 2 hours before lunch resulted in a significant increase compared with the placebo visit in total caloric (430 to 843 kcal; P < 0.001) and protein intake (27.6 to 41.3 g; P = 0.006). No significant difference in total intake was detected between drinking the supplement 2 hours versus 30 minutes before lunch. These results indicate that oral nutritional supplements administered before a meal may significantly increase caloric and protein intakes of PD patients. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  11. Dietary sources and determinants of soy isoflavone intake among midlife Chinese Women in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sieu-gaen; Ho, Suzanne C; Kreiger, Nancy; Darlington, Gerarda; So, Kam F; Chong, Portia Y Y

    2007-11-01

    The dietary sources, intake levels, and determinants of soy isoflavone intake were examined using 3217 dietary recalls (DR) collected from 141 Hong Kong Chinese women aged 50-61 y. Multiple-pass 24-h DR were administered by phone by trained interviewers on 23 random, nonconsecutive days to participants over a 12-mo period from 2001 to 2002. We calculated isoflavone intake using analytical values in the Chinese University of Hong Kong Soy Isoflavone Database. Results indicated that the daily intake of total isoflavones was 7.8 +/- 5.6 mg in the study population. Non-Cantonese women had a higher intake of 10.7 +/- 7.6 mg compared with 7.3 +/- 5.0 mg in Cantonese women (P = 0.04). Altogether, 22 foods contributed approximately 90% of the total isoflavone intake. Soft tofu alone accounted for approximately 21% of the isoflavone intake, followed by bean curd skin (7.1%), name-brand soybean milk (6.3%), homemade soybean milk (6.2%), and generic soybean milk (5.8%). Combined, these 5 food items contributed 46% of the total dietary isoflavones. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated dialect group, self-reported health, and age group were significant independent predictors of soy isoflavone consumption. The data provide the basis for elucidating the patterns, determinants, and assessment of dietary soy isoflavone intake in Asian women.

  12. Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F(2,102)=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f(2)=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrient intake of children with intractable epilepsy compared with healthy children.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella L; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2007-06-01

    Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.0 to 3.9 and 4.0 to 8.9 years, to correspond with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Forty-three children with intractable epilepsy, mean age=4.7+/-2.2 years, had significantly lower intakes (P<0.05) of total energy; protein; carbohydrate; fat; dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, B-6, and B-12; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; zinc; copper; and selenium compared with healthy children. Thirty percent or more of the children with intractable epilepsy in both age groups had intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins D, E, and K; folate; calcium; linoleic acid; and alpha-linolenic acid. Health care professionals caring for children with intractable epilepsy should be aware of this pattern of decreased nutrient intake and educate families to provide an adequate diet and/or consider vitamin/mineral supplementation.

  14. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  15. Quantifying the association between obesity, automobile travel, and caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Banafsheh; King, Douglas M; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between average adult body mass index (BMI), automobile travel, and caloric intake in the US in order to predict future trends of adult obesity. Annual BMI data (1984-2010) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), vehicle miles traveled data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, licensed drivers data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, and adult average daily caloric intake data (1970-2009) from the US Department of Agriculture were collected. A statistical model is proposed to capture multicollinearity across the independent variables. The proposed statistical model provides an estimate of changes in the average adult BMI associated with changes in automobile travel and caloric intake. According to this model, reducing daily automobile travel by one mile per driver would be associated with a 0.21 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after six years. Reducing daily caloric intake by 100 calories per person would be associated with a 0.16 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after three years. Making small changes in travel or diet choices may lead to comparable obesity interventions, implying that travel-based interventions may be as effective as dietary interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral intake during labor: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review evidence and practices within and beyond the United States related to the practice of maternal fasting during labor. Fasting in labor became standard policy in the United States after findings of a 1946 study suggested that pulmonary aspiration during general anesthesia was an avoidable risk. Today general anesthesia is rarely used in childbirth and its associated maternal mortality usually results from difficulty in intubation. Healthcare professionals have debated the risks and benefits of restricting oral intake during labor for decades, and practice varies internationally. Research from the United States, Australia, and Europe suggests that oral intake may be beneficial, and adverse events associated with oral intake such as vomiting and prolongation of labor do not seem to be associated with alterations in maternal or infant outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends that healthcare providers should not interfere in women's eating and drinking during labor when no risk factors are evident. Nurses in intrapartum settings are encouraged to work in multidisciplinary teams to revise policies that are unnecessarily restrictive regarding oral intake during labor among low-risk women.

  17. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.

  18. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  19. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    PubMed

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  20. Minimally invasive microneedles for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Thakur Singh, Raghu Raj; Tekko, Ismaiel; McAvoy, Kathryn; McMillan, Hannah; Jones, David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2017-04-01

    Anterior and posterior segment eye diseases are highly challenging to treat, due to the barrier properties and relative inaccessibility of the ocular tissues. Topical eye drops and systemically delivered treatments result in low bioavailability. Alternatively, direct injection of medication into the ocular tissues is clinically employed to overcome the barrier properties, but injections cause significant tissue damage and are associated with a number of untoward side effects and poor patient compliance. Microneedles (MNs) has been recently introduced as a minimally invasive means for localizing drug formulation within the target ocular tissues with greater precision and accuracy than the hypodermic needles. Areas covered: This review article seeks to provide an overview of a range of challenges that are often faced to achieve efficient ocular drug levels within targeted tissue(s) of the eye. It also describes the problems encountered using conventional hypodermic needle-based ocular injections for anterior and posterior segment drug delivery. It discusses research carried out in the field of MNs, to date. Expert opinion: MNs can aid in localization of drug delivery systems within the selected ocular tissue. And, hold the potential to revolutionize the way drug formulations are administered to the eye. However, the current limitations and challenges of MNs application warrant further research in this field to enable its widespread clinical application.

  1. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Fiocco, Daniela; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Gallone, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. PMID:19742126

  2. Minimal model for tag-based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, Arne; Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2003-10-01

    Recently, Riolo et al. [Nature (London) 414, 441 (2001)] showed by computer simulations that cooperation can arise without reciprocity when agents donate only to partners who are sufficiently similar to themselves. One striking outcome of their simulations was the observation that the number of tolerant agents that support a wide range of players was not constant in time, but showed characteristic fluctuations. The cause and robustness of these tides of tolerance remained to be explored. Here we clarify the situation by solving a minimal version of the model of Riolo et al. It allows us to identify a net surplus of random changes from intolerant to tolerant agents as a necessary mechanism that produces these oscillations of tolerance, which segregate different agents in time. This provides a new mechanism for maintaining different agents, i.e., for creating biodiversity. In our model the transition to the oscillating state is caused by a saddle node bifurcation. The frequency of the oscillations increases linearly with the transition rate from tolerant to intolerant agents.

  3. Minimally invasive surgery for intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Benjamin; Hanley, Daniel F; Carhuapoma, Juan R

    2014-04-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) imposes a significant health and economic burden on society. Despite this, ICH remains the only stroke subtype without a definitive treatment. Without a clearly identified and effective treatment for spontaneous ICH, clinical practice varies greatly from aggressive surgery to supportive care alone. This review will discuss the current modalities of treatments for ICH including preliminary experience and investigative efforts to advance the care of these patients. Open surgery (craniotomy), prothrombotic agents and other therapeutic interventions have failed to significantly improve the outcome of these stroke victims. Recently, the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH) II assessed the surgical management of patients with superficial intraparenchymal haematomas with negative results. MISTIE II and other trials of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have shown promise for improving patient outcomes and a phase III trial started in late 2013. ICH lacks a definitive primary treatment as well as a therapy targeting surrounding perihematomal oedema and associated secondary damage. An ongoing phase III trial using MIS techniques shows promise for providing treatment for these patients.

  4. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  5. Skill qualifications in pediatric minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Iwanaka, Tadashi; Morikawa, Yasuhide; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Nio, Masaki; Segawa, Osamu; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Sato, Masahito; Terakura, Hirotsugu; Take, Hiroshi; Hirose, Ryuichiro; Yagi, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    In 2006, The Japanese Society of Pediatric Endoscopic Surgeons devised a plan to develop a pediatric endoscopic surgical skill qualification (ESSQ) system. This system is controlled by The Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery. The standard requirement for skills qualification is the ability of each applicant to complete common types of laparoscopic surgery. The main goal of the system is to decrease complications of laparoscopic surgery by evaluating the surgical skills of each applicant and subsequently certify surgeons with adequate skills to perform laparoscopic operations safely. A committee of pediatric ESSQ created a checklist to assess the applicant's laparoscopic surgical skills. Skills are assessed in a double-blinded fashion by evaluating an unedited video recording of a fundoplication for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. The initial pediatric ESSQ system was started in 2008. In 2008 and 2009, respectively, 9 out of 17 (53%) and 6 out of 12 (50%) applicants were certified as expert pediatric laparoscopic surgeons. Our ultimate goal is to provide safe and appropriate pediatric minimally invasive procedures and to avoid severe complications. To prove the predictive validity of this system, a survey of the outcomes of operations performed by certified pediatric surgeons is required.

  6. Minimally invasive versus conventional extracorporeal circulation in minimally invasive cardiac valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Hardy; Rustenbach, Christian; Michaelsen, Jens; Hipp, Gernot; Pressmar, Markus; Leinweber, Marco; Franke, Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation (MECC) technology was applied predominantly in coronary surgery. Data regarding the application of MECC in minimally invasive valve surgery are missing largely. Patients undergoing isolated minimally invasive mitral or aortic valve procedures were allocated either to conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC) group (n = 63) or MECC group (n = 105), and their prospectively generated data were analyzed. Demographic data were comparable between the groups regarding age (CECC vs. MECC: 71.0 ± 7.5 vs. 66.2 ± 10.1 years, p = 0.091) and logistic EuroSCORE I (6.2 ± 2.5 vs. 5.4 ± 3.0, p = 0.707). Hospital mortality was one patient in each group (1.6 vs. 1.0%, p = 0.688). The levels of leukocytes were lower in the MECC group (11.6 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.3 109/L, p = 0.040). Levels of platelets (137.2 ± 45.5 vs. 152.4 ± 50.3 109/L, p = 0.015) and hemoglobin (103.3 ± 11.3 vs. 107.3 ± 14.7 g/L, p = 0.017) were higher in the MECC group. Renal function was better preserved (creatinine: 1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL, p = 0.019). We were able to validate shorter time of postoperative ventilation (9.5 ± 15.1 vs. 6.3 ± 3.4 h, p = 0.054) as well as significantly shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 1.2 ± 1.0 d, p = 0.005) for MECC patients. The course of C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. We were able to prove the feasibility of MECC even in minimally invasive performed mitral and aortic valve procedures. In addition, the use of MECC provides decreased platelet consumption and less hemodilution. The use of MECC in these selected patients lead to a shorter ventilation time and ICU stay. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Dietary Phosphorus Intake and the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alex R.; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria. Although serum phosphorus is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and death, limited data exist linking high phosphorus intake directly to adverse clinical outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether phosphorus intake is a modifiable risk factor for kidney disease. PMID:28613982

  8. Assessment of a Self-Reported Drinks Diary for the Estimation of Drinks Intake by Care Home Residents: Fluid Intake Study in the Elderly (FISE).

    PubMed

    Jimoh, F O; Bunn, D; Hooper, L

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a newly developed self-completed Drinks Diary in care home residents and compared it with direct observation and fluid intake charts. Observational study. Residential care homes in Norfolk, UK. 22 elderly people (18 women, mean age 86.6 years SD 8.6, 12 with MMSE scores <27). Participants recorded their own drinks intake over 24 hours using the Drinks Diary while care staff used the homes' usual fluid intake chart to record drinks intake. These records were compared with drinks intake assessed by researcher direct observation (reference method), during waking hours (6am to 10pm), while drinks taken from 10pm to 6am were self-reported and checked with staff. Drinks intake assessed by the Drinks Diary was highly correlated with researcher direct observation (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.93, p<0.001, mean difference -163ml/day) while few staff-completed fluid charts were returned and correlation was low (r=0.122, p=0.818, mean difference 702ml/day). The Drinks Diary classified 19 of 22 participants correctly as drinking enough or not using both the European Food Safety Authority and US recommendations. The Drinks Diary estimate of drinks intake was comparable with direct observation and more accurate (and reliably completed) than staff records. The Drinks Diary can provide a reliable estimate of drinks intake in elderly care home residents physically and cognitively able to complete it. It may be useful for researchers, care staff and practitioners needing to monitor drinks intake of elderly people, to help them avoid dehydration.

  9. Energy and protein intakes and their association with a decline in functional capacity among diabetic older adults from the NuAge cohort.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Berna; Morais, José A; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic older adults (OA) are at greater risk of muscle strength (MS) loss and functional capacity (FC) decline than non-diabetics. Protein and energy intakes are important determinants of muscle mass and MS maintenance and indirectly affect FC. The study sought to determine whether low protein and energy intakes were associated with FC decline and whether this association was mediated by MS in diabetic OA over a 3-year follow-up, in secondary analyses of the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging. In 172 diabetic OA (62 % men, mean age = 75 years), FC decline was defined as the change between SMAF (Système de Mesure de l'Autonomie Fonctionnelle) scores at baseline (T1) and 3 years later (T4). Baseline adequate protein and energy intakes were set at ≥1 g/kg BW and ≥30 kcal/kg BW, respectively. Sex-stratified linear regressions were controlled for confounding variables. Mean body weight (BW) was 85.42 ± 13.8 in men and 79.7 ± 11.5 in women (p ≤ .001). Adequate protein intake in women was associated with lesser FC decline (mean ± SE) (2.11 ± 0.81 vs. 4.91 ± 0.72; p = .029), while adequate energy intake was not associated with FC decline either in men or in women. In women, 1 g protein/kg BW helped maintain MS, hence minimizing FC decline. These results demonstrate that protein intake is important in maintaining FC in diabetic OA, albeit with sex differences. This study provides further evidence that protein requirements may be greater than the 0.8 g/kg BW currently recommended for OA. Future research in larger samples over longer follow-up is needed to confirm these results.

  10. Graphical approach for multiple values logic minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    1999-03-01

    Multiple valued logic (MVL) is sought for designing high complexity, highly compact, parallel digital circuits. However, the practical realization of an MVL-based system is dependent on optimization of cost, which directly affects the optical setup. We propose a minimization technique for MVL logic optimization based on graphical visualization, such as a Karnaugh map. The proposed method is utilized to solve signed-digit binary and trinary logic minimization problems. The usefulness of the minimization technique is demonstrated for the optical implementation of MVL circuits.

  11. Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wetherbee, Erin E; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sisson, Joseph H; Lindberg, Sarah M; Connett, John E; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (<1 drink/month), light-to-moderate (1-60 drinks/month), or heavy alcohol users (>60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Of the 1,142 enrolled participants, 1,082 completed baseline alcohol questionnaires and were included in this analysis. Six hundred and forty-five participants reported minimal alcohol intake, 363 reported light-to-moderate intake, and 74 reported heavy intake. There were no statistically significant differences in median time to first AECOPD among minimal (195 days), light-to-moderate (241 days), and heavy drinkers (288 days) (P=0.11). The mean crude rate of AECOPD did not significantly differ between minimal (1.62 events per year) and light-to-moderate (1.44 events per year) (P=0.095), or heavy drinkers (1.68 events per year) (P=0.796). There were no significant differences in hazard ratios for AECOPD after adjustment for multiple covariates. Among persons with COPD at high risk of exacerbation, we found no significant relationship between self-reported baseline alcohol intake and subsequent exacerbations. The number of patients reporting heavy alcohol intake was small and further study is needed to determine the effect of heavy alcohol intake on AECOPD risk.

  12. Provide, provide: the economics of aging.

    PubMed

    1998-06-26

    Most older persons face two potentially serious economic problems: (a) declining earning power and (b) declining health that can be partly offset by increased utilization of health care. The decline in earning power is largely attributable to physiological changes and to obsolescence of skills and knowledge. These adverse effects are exacerbated by public and private policies that reduce the incentives of older persons to continue work and increase the cost to employers of employing older workers. The problems of earnings replacement and health care payment are usually discussed separately, but there are several reasons why they should be considered together. First, there are often tradeoffs between the two. Money is money, and for most people there is never enough to go around. This is self-evident where private funds are concerned. Low-income elderly, for instance, frequently must choose between expensive prescription drugs and an adequate diet. For middle-income elderly, the choice may be between saving on medigap insurance or forgoing an airplane trip to a grandchild's graduation. Difficult choices are also inherent in the allocation of public funds. The same tax receipts that could be used to maintain or increase retirement benefits could be used to fund additional care, and vice versa. In discussing these tradeoffs, some analysts assert that people will gladly give up other goods and services for medical care that cures illness, relieves pain, or restores function. Others believe that some people would forgo some health insurance in order to maintain access to other goods and services. A second reason for looking at the two problems together is that they pose similar questions for public policy. How much should each generation provide for its own needs in old age, and how much should be provided by the generations that follow? How much provision should be voluntary, how much compulsory? How much intra-generational redistribution is appropriate after age 65

  13. Pulque intake during pregnancy and lactation in rural Mexico: alcohol and child growth from 1 to 57 months.

    PubMed

    Backstrand, J R; Goodman, A H; Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    2004-12-01

    To examine maternal intake of a mildly alcoholic beverage (pulque) during pregnancy and lactation, and its potential effect on postpartum child growth and attained size. A prospective cohort study that followed mothers (during pregnancy and lactation) and their offspring (from birth to approximately 57 months of age). Six villages in rural, central Mexico. Subjects are 58 mother-child pairs. Pulque intake was measured as part of a dietary assessment that was conducted for 2days/month during pregnancy and early lactation. Most mothers consumed pulque during pregnancy (69.0%) and lactation (72.4%). Among pulque drinkers, the average ethanol intake was 125.1 g/week during pregnancy and 113.8 g/week during lactation. Greater pulque intake during lactation, independent of intake during pregnancy, was associated with slower weight and linear growth from 1 to 57 months, and smaller attained size at 57 months. Low-to-moderate pulque intake during pregnancy, in comparison to either nonconsumption or heavy intake, was also associated with greater stature at 57 months. Pulque intake during lactation may have adversely influenced postnatal growth in this population. Public health interventions are urgently needed in Mexico to reduce heavy intake of pulque by pregnant and lactating women, and to replace intake with foods that provide the vitamins and minerals present in the traditional alcoholic beverage.

  14. Beverage intake of girls at age 5 y predicts adiposity and weight status in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Laura M; Marini, Michele; Francis, Lori A; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L

    2009-10-01

    Increased consumption of sweetened beverage has been linked to higher energy intake and adiposity in childhood. The objective was to assess whether beverage intake at age 5 y predicted energy intake, adiposity, and weight status across childhood and adolescence. Participants were part of a longitudinal study of non-Hispanic white girls and their parents (n = 170) who were assessed biennially from age 5 to 15 y. At each assessment, beverage intake (milk, fruit juice, and sweetened beverages) and energy intake were assessed by using three 24-h recalls. Percentage body fat and waist circumference were measured. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate body mass index. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict the girls' adiposity. In addition, at age 5 y, girls were categorized as consuming <1, > or =1 and <2, or > or =2 servings of sweetened beverages. A mixed modeling approach was used to assess longitudinal differences and patterns of change in sweetened beverage and energy intake, adiposity, and weight status by frequency of sweetened beverage intake. Sweetened beverage intake at age 5 y, but not milk or fruit juice intake, was positively associated with adiposity from age 5 to 15 y. Greater consumption of sweetened beverages at age 5 y (> or =2 servings/d) was associated with a higher percentage body fat, waist circumference, and weight status from age 5 to 15 y. These findings provide new longitudinal evidence that early intake of sweetened beverages predicts adiposity and weight status across childhood and adolescence.

  15. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess

  16. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age

  17. Assembling Precise Truss Structures With Minimal Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    Improved method of assembling precise truss structures involves use of simple devices. Tapered pins that fit in tapered holes indicate deviations from prescribed lengths. Method both helps to ensure precision of finished structures and minimizes residual stresses within structures.

  18. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  19. Space filling minimal surfaces and sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Veit

    1994-05-01

    A space filling minimal surface is defined to be any embedded minimal surface without boundary with the property that the area and genus enclosed by any large spherical region scales in proportion to the volume of the region. The triply periodic minimal surfaces are one realization, but not necessarily the only one. By using the genus per unit volume of the surface, a meaningful comparison of surface areas can be made even in cases where there is no unit cell. Of the known periodic minimal surfaces this measure of the surface area is smallest for Schoen's FRD surface. This surface is one of several that is closely related to packings of spheres. Its low area is largely due to the fact that the corresponding sphere packing (fcc) has the maximal kissing number.

  20. Minimization of reflection cracks in flexible pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the performance of fabrics used under overlays in an effort to minimize longitudinal and alligator cracking in flexible pavements. It is concluded, although the sample size is small, that the treatments will extend the pavement ...

  1. Degreasing of titanium to minimize stress corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Stress corrosion of titanium and its alloys at elevated temperatures is minimized by replacing trichloroethylene with methanol or methyl ethyl ketone as a degreasing agent. Wearing cotton gloves reduces stress corrosion from perspiration before the metal components are processed.

  2. EPA WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a waste minimization research program within the Office of Research and Development's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory which is the primary contact for pollution prevention research efforts concentrating on source ...

  3. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest . 2012;141(2 ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol ...

  4. Meal Microstructure Characterization from Sensor-Based Food Intake Detection.

    PubMed

    Doulah, Abul; Farooq, Muhammad; Yang, Xin; Parton, Jason; McCrory, Megan A; Higgins, Janine A; Sazonov, Edward

    2017-01-01

    To avoid the pitfalls of self-reported dietary intake, wearable sensors can be used. Many food ingestion sensors offer the ability to automatically detect food intake using time resolutions that range from 23 ms to 8 min. There is no defined standard time resolution to accurately measure ingestive behavior or a meal microstructure. This paper aims to estimate the time resolution needed to accurately represent the microstructure of meals such as duration of eating episode, the duration of actual ingestion, and number of eating events. Twelve participants wore the automatic ingestion monitor (AIM) and kept a standard diet diary to report their food intake in free-living conditions for 24 h. As a reference, participants were also asked to mark food intake with a push button sampled every 0.1 s. The duration of eating episodes, duration of ingestion, and number of eating events were computed from the food diary, AIM, and the push button resampled at different time resolutions (0.1-30s). ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that the duration of eating episodes estimated from the diary differed significantly from that estimated by the AIM and the push button ( p -value <0.001). There were no significant differences in the number of eating events for push button resolutions of 0.1, 1, and 5 s, but there were significant differences in resolutions of 10-30s ( p -value <0.05). The results suggest that the desired time resolution of sensor-based food intake detection should be ≤5 s to accurately detect meal microstructure. Furthermore, the AIM provides more accurate measurement of the eating episode duration than the diet diary.

  5. Meal Microstructure Characterization from Sensor-Based Food Intake Detection

    PubMed Central

    Doulah, Abul; Farooq, Muhammad; Yang, Xin; Parton, Jason; McCrory, Megan A.; Higgins, Janine A.; Sazonov, Edward

    2017-01-01

    To avoid the pitfalls of self-reported dietary intake, wearable sensors can be used. Many food ingestion sensors offer the ability to automatically detect food intake using time resolutions that range from 23 ms to 8 min. There is no defined standard time resolution to accurately measure ingestive behavior or a meal microstructure. This paper aims to estimate the time resolution needed to accurately represent the microstructure of meals such as duration of eating episode, the duration of actual ingestion, and number of eating events. Twelve participants wore the automatic ingestion monitor (AIM) and kept a standard diet diary to report their food intake in free-living conditions for 24 h. As a reference, participants were also asked to mark food intake with a push button sampled every 0.1 s. The duration of eating episodes, duration of ingestion, and number of eating events were computed from the food diary, AIM, and the push button resampled at different time resolutions (0.1–30s). ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that the duration of eating episodes estimated from the diary differed significantly from that estimated by the AIM and the push button (p-value <0.001). There were no significant differences in the number of eating events for push button resolutions of 0.1, 1, and 5 s, but there were significant differences in resolutions of 10–30s (p-value <0.05). The results suggest that the desired time resolution of sensor-based food intake detection should be ≤5 s to accurately detect meal microstructure. Furthermore, the AIM provides more accurate measurement of the eating episode duration than the diet diary. PMID:28770206

  6. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L.; Valentine, Elizabeth R.; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E.; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D.; Solis, Gregory M.; Williamson, James R.; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism. PMID:25903497

  8. Suboptimal Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Inadequate Iodine Intake among Lactating Women in Norway.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Aakre, Inger; Dudareva, Anna; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2017-06-22

    Breastfed infants depend on sufficient maternal iodine intake for optimal growth and neurological development. Despite this, few studies have assessed iodine concentrations in human milk and there is currently no published data on iodine status among lactating women in Norway. The aim of this study was to assess iodine concentrations in breast milk (BMIC) in lactating women and estimate iodine intake. Five Mother and Child Health Centres in Oslo were randomly selected during 2016, and 175 lactating women between 2nd and 28th weeks postpartum participated. Each of the women provided four breastmilk samples which were pooled and analysed for iodine concentrations. Participants also provided information on iodine intake from food and supplements covering the last 24 h and the habitual iodine intake (food frequency questionnaire). The median (p25, p75 percentiles) BMIC was 68 (45, 98) µg/L and 76% had BMIC <100 µg/L. Only 19% had taken an iodine-containing supplement during the last 24 h. The median 24 h iodine intake from food (p25, p75) was 121 (82, 162) µg/day and the total intake (food and supplements) was 134 (95, 222) µg/day. The majority of lactating women had suboptimal BMIC and inadequate intake of iodine from food and supplements.

  9. Suboptimal Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Inadequate Iodine Intake among Lactating Women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Henjum, Sigrun; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Aakre, Inger; Dudareva, Anna; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2017-01-01

    Breastfed infants depend on sufficient maternal iodine intake for optimal growth and neurological development. Despite this, few studies have assessed iodine concentrations in human milk and there is currently no published data on iodine status among lactating women in Norway. The aim of this study was to assess iodine concentrations in breast milk (BMIC) in lactating women and estimate iodine intake. Five Mother and Child Health Centres in Oslo were randomly selected during 2016, and 175 lactating women between 2nd and 28th weeks postpartum participated. Each of the women provided four breastmilk samples which were pooled and analysed for iodine concentrations. Participants also provided information on iodine intake from food and supplements covering the last 24 h and the habitual iodine intake (food frequency questionnaire). The median (p25, p75 percentiles) BMIC was 68 (45, 98) µg/L and 76% had BMIC <100 µg/L. Only 19% had taken an iodine-containing supplement during the last 24 h. The median 24 h iodine intake from food (p25, p75) was 121 (82, 162) µg/day and the total intake (food and supplements) was 134 (95, 222) µg/day. The majority of lactating women had suboptimal BMIC and inadequate intake of iodine from food and supplements. PMID:28640217

  10. Mesonic spectroscopy of minimal walking technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the structure and the novel emerging features of the mesonic nonsinglet spectrum of the minimal walking technicolor theory. Precision measurements in the nonsinglet pseudoscalar and vector channels are compared to the expectations for an IR-conformal field theory and a QCD-like theory. Our results favor a scenario in which minimal walking technicolor is (almost) conformal in the infrared, while spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking seems less plausible.

  11. Future of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647

  12. New Stochastic Annual Limits on Intake for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    Annual limits on intake (ALI) have historically been tabulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., ICRP 1979, 1961) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). These compilations have been rendered obsolete by more recent ICRP dosimetry methods, and, rather than provide new ALIs, the ICRP has opted instead to provide committed dose coefficients from which an ALI can be determined by a user for a specific set of conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy historically has referenced compilations of ALIs and has defined their method of calculation in its radiation protection regulation (10 CFDR 835), butmore » has never provided a specific compilation. Under June 2007 amendments to 10 CFR 835, ALIs can be calculated by dividing an appropriate dose limit, either 5-rem (0.05 Sv) effective dose or 50 rem (0.5 Sv) equivalent dose to an individual organ or tissue, by an appropriate committed dose coefficient. When based on effective dose, the ALI is often referred to as a stochastic annual limit on intake (SALI), and when based on the individual organ or tissue equivalent limit, it has often been called a deterministic annual limit on intake (DALI).« less

  13. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-03-18

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures.

  14. Fat intake and injury in female runners.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

    2008-01-03

    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 +/- 20 vs. 80 +/- 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 +/- 5 vs. 30 +/- 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  15. [ENERGY AND MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IN FEMALE ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Bernad Asencio, Laura; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Objetive: to determine the adequate intake of macronutrients to improve the nutritional status of women athletes and their sports performance. a search was performed in four databases: EBSCO, Proquest, Pubmed and OvidSP, using the keywords "protein intake" AND "athletes", "endurance athletes" AND "nutrition". original articles about protein intake in female athletes, published between 2009 and 2014, and whose source are indexed scientific journals. 722 articles were identified, of which only 1.4% were considered to be included. 100% were completed clinical trials and published abroad, 50% in the US. 20% were exclusive studies of female athletes and 80% included men and women in the sample. In 70% of studies female athletes presented energy deficiencies; in protein intake, 70% met the dietary recommendations; carbohydrate intake was inadequate in 90% of clinical trials and in 50% of cases women had a high intake of fat. there is lack about nutrition in female athletes in Europe and internationally. Female athletes consume less energy and macronutrients that male athletes. There is no consensus on the recommended protein range and there are differences in consumption depending on the type of exercise being performed. It is recommended to carry out an agreement between scientific institutions about energy intake and macronutrient in sport, with particular emphasis on women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiscale Spatial Modeling of Human Exposure from Local Sources to Global Intake.

    PubMed

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-16

    Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals, are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea, an innovative multiscale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France. Results for three chemicals with distinct physicochemical properties are expressed as the evolution of the population intake fraction through inhalation and ingestion as a function of the distance from sources. For substances with atmospheric half-lives longer than a week, less than 20% of the global population intake through inhalation (median of 126 emission scenarios) can occur within a 100 km radius from the source. This suggests that, by neglecting distant low-level exposure, local assessments might only account for fractions of global cumulative intakes. We also study ∼10 000 emission locations covering France more densely to determine per chemical and exposure route which locations minimize global intakes. Maps of global intake fractions associated with each emission location show clear patterns associated with population and agriculture production densities.

  17. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  18. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  19. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Jessica A; Davis, Kyle F; Emery, Kyle A; Leach, Allison M; Galloway, James N; Pace, Michael L

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  20. Perturbed Yukawa textures in the minimal seesaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, Thomas; Schmitz, Kai

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the minimal seesaw model, i.e., the type-I seesaw mechanism involving only two right-handed neutrinos. This model represents an important minimal benchmark scenario for future experimental updates on neutrino oscillations. It features four real parameters that cannot be fixed by the current data: two CP -violating phases, δ and σ, as well as one complex parameter, z, that is experimentally inaccessible at low energies. The parameter z controls the structure of the neutrino Yukawa matrix at high energies, which is why it may be regarded as a label or index for all UV completions of the minimal seesaw model. The fact that z encompasses only two real degrees of freedom allows us to systematically scan the minimal seesaw model over all of its possible UV completions. In doing so, we address the following question: suppose δ and σ should be measured at particular values in the future — to what extent is one then still able to realize approximate textures in the neutrino Yukawa matrix? Our analysis, thus, generalizes previous studies of the minimal seesaw model based on the assumption of exact texture zeros. In particular, our study allows us to assess the theoretical uncertainty inherent to the common texture ansatz. One of our main results is that a normal light-neutrino mass hierarchy is, in fact, still consistent with a two-zero Yukawa texture, provided that the two texture zeros receive corrections at the level of O (10%). While our numerical results pertain to the minimal seesaw model only, our general procedure appears to be applicable to other neutrino mass models as well.

  1. Minimally invasive management of hepatic cysts: indications and complications.

    PubMed

    Vardakostas, D; Damaskos, C; Garmpis, N; Antoniou, E A; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G; Dimitroulis, D

    2018-03-01

    Liver cysts are divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital cystic lesions include polycystic liver disease, simple cysts, duct related and ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. Acquired cystic lesions are divided into infectious and non-infectious. The infectious cysts are the hydatid cyst, the amoebic abscess, and the pyogenic abscess, whereas the non-infectious cysts are neoplastic cysts and false cysts. While modern medicine provides a lot of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities, there has emerged a pressing need for understanding the various types of liver cysts, the possible minimal therapeutic options along with their indications and complications. We aim is to clarify the role of minimally invasive techniques in the management of hepatic cysts. A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE database. The search terms were: liver cyst, minimally invasive, laparoscopic, percutaneous, drainage and fenestration. We reviewed 82 English language publications articles, published until October 2017. Minimally invasive management of liver LC is an emerging field including many therapeutic modalities ranging from the percutaneous aspiration of pyogenic abscesses to laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatic cystadenomas. The most used techniques are percutaneous drainage, laparoscopic fenestration, and laparoscopic hepatectomy. The application of the various minimally invasive approaches, as well as their indication and complications, depend on the type of the cystic lesion, its size and its position in the liver. Percutaneous drainage is mostly used in simple cysts, hydatid cysts, pyogenic abscesses and bilomas. Laparoscopic fenestration is mostly used in simple cysts and polycystic liver disease. Finally, laparoscopic hepatectomy is mostly used in polycystic liver disease, hydatid cysts, and cystadenomas.

  2. Sequentially reweighted TV minimization for CT metal artifact reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Xing, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Metal artifact reduction has long been an important topic in x-ray CT image reconstruction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative method that sequentially minimizes a reweighted total variation (TV) of the image and produces substantially artifact-reduced reconstructions. A sequentially reweighted TV minimization algorithm is proposed to fully exploit the sparseness of image gradients (IG). The authors first formulate a constrained optimization model that minimizes a weighted TV of the image, subject to the constraint that the estimated projection data are within a specified tolerance of the available projection measurements, with image non-negativity enforced. The authors then solve a sequence of weighted TV minimization problems where weights used for the next iteration are computed from the current solution. Using the complete projection data, the algorithm first reconstructs an image from which a binary metal image can be extracted. Forward projection of the binary image identifies metal traces in the projection space. The metal-free background image is then reconstructed from the metal-trace-excluded projection data by employing a different set of weights. Each minimization problem is solved using a gradient method that alternates projection-onto-convex-sets and steepest descent. A series of simulation and experimental studies are performed to evaluate the proposed approach. Our study shows that the sequentially reweighted scheme, by altering a single parameter in the weighting function, flexibly controls the sparsity of the IG and reconstructs artifacts-free images in a two-stage process. It successfully produces images with significantly reduced streak artifacts, suppressed noise and well-preserved contrast and edge properties. The sequentially reweighed TV minimization provides a systematic approach for suppressing CT metal artifacts. The technique can also be generalized to other "missing data" problems in CT image reconstruction.

  3. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3–6 (6–7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34–37%). Except for women aged 60–64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1–4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium. PMID:28800115

  4. Energy, macronutrient, and food intakes in relation to energy compensation in consumers who drink different types of milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Gerrior, S A; Smith, J A

    1998-04-01

    To examine whether total fat intake is actually lower in reduced-fat (low-fat and skim) milk drinkers and whether reduced-fat-milk drinkers compensate for energy intake we compared the intakes of foods, energy, and energy-yielding nutrients in reduced-fat-milk drinkers and whole milk drinkers by using the US Department of Agriculture's 1989-1991 nationwide food intake database, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. This database represents a national stratified sample population of 15 128 individuals. Of the survey population, approximately one-third consumed whole milk, one-third consumed low-fat milk, one-tenth consumed skim milk, and one-tenth consumed mixed types of milk. The data provided the following information: 1) total fat intake of reduced-fat-milk drinkers is significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower than that of whole milk drinkers; 2) in general, males but not females compensate for energy by increasing their carbohydrate intake; 3) reduced-fat-milk drinkers consume more fruit and vegetables (P < or = 0.05) and less red meat and sweets (P < or = 0.05) than whole milk drinkers; 4) through their reduction in total fat intake, several age groups of skim milk drinkers have achieved the US dietary goal for fat intake, ie, < or = 30% of energy intake from fat; 5) teenagers compensate for energy intake the least of all age groups; and 6) with advancing age, fewer people drink milk and fewer drink whole milk. The data indicate significant sex differences in energy compensation, that reduced-fat-milk drinkers consume significantly (P < or = 0.05) less fat than whole milk drinkers, and that the US dietary goal for fat intake may be practically achieved by consuming reduced-fat foods such as skim milk and limiting intakes of high-fat foods such as red meat.

  5. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Moyersoen, Isabelle; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-08-11

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey ( n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3-6 (6-7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34-37%). Except for women aged 60-64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1-4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium.

  6. Food patterns, flour fortification, and intakes of calcium and vitamin D: a longitudinal study of Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Osler, M.; Heitmann, B. L.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D intakes are involved in the aetiology of osteoporosis, and health authorities recommend that the population consume a diet providing sufficient calcium and vitamin D. However, in 1987 the Danish Government withdrew a mandatory fortification of flour with calcium. This study examines intakes of calcium and vitamin D over time, in relation to food patterns, recommendations, and legislation. DESIGN: Food and nutrient intakes were measured by a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a thorough diet history interview, in 1987/88, and again six years later. SETTING: Copenhagen County, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 329 men and women, aged 35-65 years at first examination in 1987/88. RESULTS: At both examinations the non-enriched median intakes of calcium in men as well as women were above the recommended 600 mg/day. However, apparently the fortification of flour supplied up to 30% of the total calcium intake, and without the mandatory fortification, the percentage of adults with intakes below this recommendation increased from 6% to 22%. This group of subjects consumed cheese, milk, and oatmeal less often than those who had calcium intakes over 600 mg/day. During the study period the median intakes of vitamin D, which were well below the recommended 5 micrograms/day, did not change significantly. Associations between foods and vitamin D intakes were, in general, weak and insignificant, except for a positive association with fish intake. CONCLUSIONS: Data on calcium intakes suggest that the decision to stop the mandatory fortification of flour with calcium may have been premature. The short FFQ may be used for a rough classification of people in relation to their calcium intake, while this method seems insufficient for ranking vitamin D intakes.   PMID:9616420

  7. Ethnic differences in the nutrient intake adequacy of premenopausal US women: results from the Third National Health Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Carriquiry, Alicia; Steck-Scott, Susan; Gaudet, Mia M

    2003-08-01

    To examine the adequacy of dietary intake of calcium; folate; and vitamins C, D, E, B-6, and B-12 in premenopausal US women of differing ethnicity. Analyses of single and duplicate 24-hour recalls were conducted to determine dietary intake during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Three thousand five hundred eighty-five randomly selected women aged 20 to 50 years from across the United States who were not pregnant or lactating were examined between 1988 and 1994. Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University method for adjustment of the distribution. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to determine the proportion of women with inadequate intake for each nutrient in each ethnic group. More than 75% of women irrespective of ethnic group had usual intakes of calcium lower than the new Adequate Intake. More than 90% of the women had inadequate intakes of folate and vitamin E from food sources alone. More than half of smokers had inadequate intakes of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were low in less than 10% of these women. This article provides evidence that a high proportion of premenopausal US women are underconsuming a variety of nutrients. Dietary intakes alone are not currently adequate to meet the new recommended intakes. Nutritional supplement use is widespread and effective, but does not eliminate the concerns for at-risk populations. Awareness of the general inadequacies in intakes of vitamin E and folic acid at large, and in many women vitamin C as well, can help direct individual dietary recommendations and place the emphasis in group counseling on nutrients that are of widespread concern. In addition, foods rich in vitamins B-6 and of general nutritional benefit should be emphasized among African American women in the United States as a substantial proportion of this group is still showing inadequate intakes from foods.

  8. Flavonoid intake and incident hypertension in women.

    PubMed

    Lajous, Martin; Rossignol, Emilie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Scalbert, Augustin; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-04-01

    Intake of flavonoid-containing food has been shown to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure in short-term randomized trials. There are limited data on total flavonoid and flavonoid-subclass consumption over a long period of time and the corresponding incidence of hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the relation between flavonoid subclasses and total flavonoid intakes and incidence of hypertension. In a prospective cohort of 40,574 disease-free French women who responded to a validated dietary questionnaire, we observed 9350 incident cases of hypertension between 1993 and 2008. Cases were identified through self-reports of diagnosed or treated hypertension. Multivariate Cox regression models were adjusted for age, family history of hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hormone therapy, and alcohol, caffeine, magnesium, potassium, omega-3 (n-3), and processed meat intakes. Women in the highest quintile of flavonol intake had a 10% lower rate of hypertension than women in the lowest quintile (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.97;P-trend = 0.031). Similarly, there was a 9% lower rate for women in the highest category of intake than for women in the lowest category of intake for both anthocyanins and proanthocyanidin polymers [HRs: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.97;P-trend = 0.0075) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.97;P-trend = 0.0051), respectively]. An inverse association for total flavonoid intake was observed with a similar magnitude. In this large prospective cohort of French middle-aged women, participants with greater flavonol, anthocyanin, and polymeric flavonoid intakes and greater total flavonoid intake were less likely to develop hypertension. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Ultra-processed foods, protein leverage and energy intake in the USA.

    PubMed

    Martínez Steele, Euridice; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that human macronutrient regulation minimizes variation in absolute protein intake and consequently energy intake varies passively with dietary protein density ('protein leverage'). According to the 'protein leverage hypothesis' (PLH), protein leverage interacts with a reduction in dietary protein density to drive energy overconsumption and obesity. Worldwide increase in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been hypothesized to be an important determinant of dietary protein dilution, and consequently an ecological driving force of energy overconsumption and the obesity pandemic. The present study examined the relationships between dietary contribution of UPF, dietary proportional protein content and the absolute intakes of protein and energy. National representative cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Participants (n 9042) aged ≥2 years with at least one day of 24 h dietary recall data. We found a strong inverse relationship between consumption of UPF and dietary protein density, with mean protein content dropping from 18·2 to 13·3 % between the lowest and highest quintiles of dietary contribution of UPF. Consistent with the PLH, increase in the dietary contribution of UPF (previously shown to be inversely associated with protein density) was also associated with a rise in total energy intake, while absolute protein intake remained relatively constant. The protein-diluting effect of UPF might be one mechanism accounting for their association with excess energy intake. Reducing UPF contribution in the US diet may be an effective way to increase its dietary protein concentration and prevent excessive energy intake.

  10. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Food intake in women two years or more after bariatric surgery meets adequate intake requirements.

    PubMed

    Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Marin, Flávia Andréia; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques

    2012-05-01

    Restricted food intake after bariatric surgery can be an important factor both in the long-term control of body weight and in the onset of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the adequacy of food intake in women two or more years after bariatric surgery according to the excess weight lost. A group of 141 women who underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was divided according to the percentage of excess weight they lost (%EWL)<50; 50┤75; = 75. The habitual energy and nutrient intakes were determined by a 24-hour recall over two days and the probability of adequate intake was based on the Dietary Reference Intake. The mean total estimated energy requirement (EER) as well as energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intakes did not differ among the groups. Only the %EWL<50 group had an intake equal to their EER, but they presented a higher number of inadequacies, such as low levels of magnesium, folic acid and vitamins C and E. Calcium and dietary fiber intakes were extremely low in all three groups. In conclusion, weight loss after surgery is associated with food habits that favor energy intake over micronutrient intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Medical service provider networks.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Nursing home medication administration cost minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamrick, Irene; Nye, Ann Marie; Gardner, Casey K

    2007-03-01

    To assess the time it takes nurses to administer medications in the nursing home setting, to calculate nursing cost of medication administration, and to determine whether using extended-release products are justified by decreasing nursing costs. Cost-minimization analysis using observational data from a time-motion analysis. Two 150-bed nursing homes in rural eastern North Carolina. Nurses working during first and second shifts. Nurses were timed as they each administered medications to 12 patients. The mean time required to administer each dosage form was calculated. The cost of nursing time was based on the average nursing staff salary of $20.45 per hour as reported by the directors of nursing. Time and cost to dispense one more medication during an existing medication pass and an additional medication pass are calculated. The time to administer an additional dose of an oral medication to one patient was 45.01 seconds during an already scheduled medication pass and 63.05 seconds during a new medication pass. The cost of adding an oral medication once a day for a patient will cost $7.67 per month if administered at the same time as other medications or $10.74 per month if a new medication pass is required. The administration of other dosage forms, such as crushed, percutaneous enteroscopic gastrostomy, injection, and patch was more time involved and, thus, costlier. Formulas are provided to calculate medication administration cost based on local salary. Nursing time and costs for medication administration in the nursing home are great and should be considered when selecting a product. This may justify the selection of higher cost extended-release products.

  14. Validation of biomarkers of food intake-critical assessment of candidate biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dragsted, L O; Gao, Q; Scalbert, A; Vergères, G; Kolehmainen, M; Manach, C; Brennan, L; Afman, L A; Wishart, D S; Andres Lacueva, C; Garcia-Aloy, M; Verhagen, H; Feskens, E J M; Praticò, G

    2018-01-01

    Biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) are a promising tool for limiting misclassification in nutrition research where more subjective dietary assessment instruments are used. They may also be used to assess compliance to dietary guidelines or to a dietary intervention. Biomarkers therefore hold promise for direct and objective measurement of food intake. However, the number of comprehensively validated biomarkers of food intake is limited to just a few. Many new candidate biomarkers emerge from metabolic profiling studies and from advances in food chemistry. Furthermore, candidate food intake biomarkers may also be identified based on extensive literature reviews such as described in the guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev). To systematically and critically assess the validity of candidate biomarkers of food intake, it is necessary to outline and streamline an optimal and reproducible validation process. A consensus-based procedure was used to provide and evaluate a set of the most important criteria for systematic validation of BFIs. As a result, a validation procedure was developed including eight criteria, plausibility, dose-response, time-response, robustness, reliability, stability, analytical performance, and inter-laboratory reproducibility. The validation has a dual purpose: (1) to estimate the current level of validation of candidate biomarkers of food intake based on an objective and systematic approach and (2) to pinpoint which additional studies are needed to provide full validation of each candidate biomarker of food intake. This position paper on biomarker of food intake validation outlines the second step of the BFIRev procedure but may also be used as such for validation of new candidate biomarkers identified, e.g., in food metabolomic studies.

  15. Minimalism in Art, Medical Science and Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Okten, Ali Ihsan

    2018-01-01

    The word "minimalism" is a word derived from French the word "minimum". Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is "the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something", its expression in mathematics can be described as "the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal". Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other. A periodic schools or teaching in one of them can take the others into itself, so, they proceed on their ways empowering each other. It is also true for the minimalism in art and the minimal invasive surgical approaches in science. Concepts like doing with less, avoiding unnecessary materials and reducing the number of the elements in order to increase the effect in the expression which are the main elements of the minimalism in art found their equivalents in medicine and neurosurgery. Their equivalents in medicine or neurosurgery have been to protect the physical integrity of the patient with less iatrogenic injury, minimum damage and the same therapeutic effect in the most effective way and to enable the patient to regain his health in the shortest span of time. As an anticipation, we can consider that the minimal approaches started by Richard Wollheim and Barbara Rose in art and Lars Leksell, Gazi Yaşargil and other neurosurgeons in neurosurgery in the 1960s are the present day equivalents of the minimalist approaches perhaps unconsciously started by Kazimir Malevich in art and Victor Darwin L"Espinasse in neurosurgery in the early 1900s. We can also consider that they have developed interacting with each other, not by chance.

  16. Applications of minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mammillary models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis when only blood or plasma data are available. Such models depend on the quality of the drug disposition data and have vague biological features. An alternative minimal-physiologically-based PK (minimal-PBPK) modeling approach is proposed which inherits and lumps major physiologic attributes from whole-body PBPK models. The body and model are represented as actual blood and tissue usually total body weight) volumes, fractions (fd) of cardiac output with Fick’s Law of Perfusion, tissue/blood partitioning (Kp), and systemic or intrinsic clearance. Analyzing only blood or plasma concentrations versus time, the minimal-PBPK models parsimoniously generate physiologically-relevant PK parameters which are more easily interpreted than those from mam-millary models. The minimal-PBPK models were applied to four types of therapeutic agents and conditions. The models well captured the human PK profiles of 22 selected beta-lactam antibiotics allowing comparison of fitted and calculated Kp values. Adding a classical hepatic compartment with hepatic blood flow allowed joint fitting of oral and intravenous (IV) data for four hepatic elimination drugs (dihydrocodeine, verapamil, repaglinide, midazolam) providing separate estimates of hepatic intrinsic clearance, non-hepatic clearance, and pre-hepatic bioavailability. The basic model was integrated with allometric scaling principles to simultaneously describe moxifloxacin PK in five species with common Kp and fd values. A basic model assigning clearance to the tissue compartment well characterized plasma concentrations of six monoclonal antibodies in human subjects, providing good concordance of predictions with expected tissue kinetics. The proposed minimal-PBPK modeling approach offers an alternative and more rational basis for assessing PK than compartmental models. PMID:23179857

  17. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  18. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A

    2015-02-01

    In-vitro and rodent studies, and short-term human trials suggest that compounds in chocolate can enhance insulin sensitivity. Also, a recent prospective Japanese epidemiological analysis found that long-term chocolate consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk. The objective of the present analysis was to test the epidemiological association between long-term chocolate consumption and diabetes risk in a U.S. cohort. Multivariable prospective Cox Regression analysis with time-dependent covariates was used to examine data from 7802 participants in the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cohort. The data included 861 new diabetes cases during 98,543 person-years of follow up (mean = 13.3 years). Compared to participants who ate 1 oz of chocolate less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times/month, 2-6 times/week and ≥ 1 time/day had relative risks of being diagnosed with diabetes that were lower by 13% (95% confidence interval: -2%, 25%), 34% (18%, 47%) and 18% (-10%, 38%). These relative risks applied to participants without evidence of preexisting serious chronic disease that included diabetes, heart attacks, stroke or cancer. In conclusion, the risk of diabetes decreased as the frequency of chocolate intake increased, up to 2-6 servings (1 oz) per week. Consuming ≥ 1 serving per day did not yield significantly lower relative risk. These results suggest that consuming moderate amount of chocolate may reduce the risk of diabetes. Further research is required to confirm and explore these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Image denoising by a direct variational minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janev, Marko; Atanacković, Teodor; Pilipović, Stevan; Obradović, Radovan

    2011-12-01

    In this article we introduce a novel method for the image de-noising which combines a mathematically well-posdenes of the variational modeling with the efficiency of a patch-based approach in the field of image processing. It based on a direct minimization of an energy functional containing a minimal surface regularizer that uses fractional gradient. The minimization is obtained on every predefined patch of the image, independently. By doing so, we avoid the use of an artificial time PDE model with its inherent problems of finding optimal stopping time, as well as the optimal time step. Moreover, we control the level of image smoothing on each patch (and thus on the whole image) by adapting the Lagrange multiplier using the information on the level of discontinuities on a particular patch, which we obtain by pre-processing. In order to reduce the average number of vectors in the approximation generator and still to obtain the minimal degradation, we combine a Ritz variational method for the actual minimization on a patch, and a complementary fractional variational principle. Thus, the proposed method becomes computationally feasible and applicable for practical purposes. We confirm our claims with experimental results, by comparing the proposed method with a couple of PDE-based methods, where we get significantly better denoising results specially on the oscillatory regions.

  20. Minimally conscious state or cortically mediated state?

    PubMed

    Naccache, Lionel

    2018-04-01

    Durable impairments of consciousness are currently classified in three main neurological categories: comatose state, vegetative state (also recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state. While the introduction of minimally conscious state, in 2002, was a major progress to help clinicians recognize complex non-reflexive behaviours in the absence of functional communication, it raises several problems. The most important issue related to minimally conscious state lies in its criteria: while behavioural definition of minimally conscious state lacks any direct evidence of patient's conscious content or conscious state, it includes the adjective 'conscious'. I discuss this major problem in this review and propose a novel interpretation of minimally conscious state: its criteria do not inform us about the potential residual consciousness of patients, but they do inform us with certainty about the presence of a cortically mediated state. Based on this constructive criticism review, I suggest three proposals aiming at improving the way we describe the subjective and cognitive state of non-communicating patients. In particular, I present a tentative new classification of impairments of consciousness that combines behavioural evidence with functional brain imaging data, in order to probe directly and univocally residual conscious processes.

  1. Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine.

  2. Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

  3. An efficient graph theory based method to identify every minimal reaction set in a metabolic network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of cells with minimal metabolic functionality is gaining importance due to their efficiency in producing chemicals and fuels. Existing computational methods to identify minimal reaction sets in metabolic networks are computationally expensive. Further, they identify only one of the several possible minimal reaction sets. Results In this paper, we propose an efficient graph theory based recursive optimization approach to identify all minimal reaction sets. Graph theoretical insights offer systematic methods to not only reduce the number of variables in math programming and increase its computational efficiency, but also provide efficient ways to find multiple optimal solutions. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated using case studies from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In case study 1, the proposed method identified three minimal reaction sets each containing 38 reactions in Escherichia coli central metabolic network with 77 reactions. Analysis of these three minimal reaction sets revealed that one of them is more suitable for developing minimal metabolism cell compared to other two due to practically achievable internal flux distribution. In case study 2, the proposed method identified 256 minimal reaction sets from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome scale metabolic network with 620 reactions. The proposed method required only 4.5 hours to identify all the 256 minimal reaction sets and has shown a significant reduction (approximately 80%) in the solution time when compared to the existing methods for finding minimal reaction set. Conclusions Identification of all minimal reactions sets in metabolic networks is essential since different minimal reaction sets have different properties that effect the bioprocess development. The proposed method correctly identified all minimal reaction sets in a both the case studies. The proposed method is computationally efficient compared to other methods for finding minimal

  4. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  5. What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health? The effects of fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L; Miller, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children's dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children's health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children's health through increased dietary fiber.

  6. What Do We Know about Dietary Fiber Intake in Children and Health? The Effects of Fiber Intake on Constipation, Obesity, and Diabetes in Children1

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L.; Miller, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children’s dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children’s health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children’s health through increased dietary fiber. PMID:22332100

  7. PROP taster status not related to reported cruciferous vegetable intake among ethnically diverse children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter tasting chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children, but not middle aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (i.e. a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across three days in two age groups of youth (9–10 years and 17–18 year), while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability and reporting bias. Cross sectional design was employed with a multi-ethnic (White, African American, Hispanic, and Other) sample of 843 males and females. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. BMI was calculated and expressed in z-scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by three telephone conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR) and 5 days of Actigraph activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. PROP sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship. PMID:21925344

  8. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  9. Minimally invasive surgical treatment of Bertolotti's Syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Ugokwe, Kene T; Chen, Tsu-Lee; Klineberg, Eric; Steinmetz, Michael P

    2008-05-01

    This article aims to provide more insight into the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Bertolotti's syndrome, which is a rare spinal disorder that is very difficult to recognize and diagnose correctly. The syndrome was first described by Bertolotti in 1917 and affects approximately 4 to 8% of the population. It is characterized by an enlarged transverse process at the most caudal lumbar vertebra with a pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and the sacral ala. It tends to present with low back pain and may be confused with facet and sacroiliac joint disease. In this case report, we describe a 40-year-old man who presented with low back pain and was eventually diagnosed with Bertolotti's syndrome. The correct diagnosis was made based on imaging studies which included computed tomographic scans, plain x-rays, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. The patient experienced temporary relief when the abnormal pseudoarticulation was injected with a cocktail consisting of lidocaine and steroids. In order to minimize the trauma associated with surgical treatment, a minimally invasive approach was chosen to resect the anomalous transverse process with the accompanying pseudoarticulation. The patient did well postoperatively and had 97% resolution of his pain at 6 months after surgery. As with conventional surgical approaches, a complete knowledge of anatomy is required for minimally invasive spine surgery. This case is an example of the expanding utility of minimally invasive approaches in treating spinal disorders.

  10. Free time minimizers for the three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeckel, Richard; Montgomery, Richard; Sánchez Morgado, Héctor

    2018-03-01

    Free time minimizers of the action (called "semi-static" solutions by Mañe in International congress on dynamical systems in Montevideo (a tribute to Ricardo Mañé), vol 362, pp 120-131, 1996) play a central role in the theory of weak KAM solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (Fathi in Weak KAM Theorem in Lagrangian Dynamics Preliminary Version Number 10, 2017). We prove that any solution to Newton's three-body problem which is asymptotic to Lagrange's parabolic homothetic solution is eventually a free time minimizer. Conversely, we prove that every free time minimizer tends to Lagrange's solution, provided the mass ratios lie in a certain large open set of mass ratios. We were inspired by the work of Da Luz and Maderna (Math Proc Camb Philos Soc 156:209-227, 1980) which showed that every free time minimizer for the N-body problem is parabolic and therefore must be asymptotic to the set of central configurations. We exclude being asymptotic to Euler's central configurations by a second variation argument. Central configurations correspond to rest points for the McGehee blown-up dynamics. The large open set of mass ratios are those for which the linearized dynamics at each Euler rest point has a complex eigenvalue.

  11. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Likelihood Analysis of the Minimal AMSB Model

    DOE PAGES

    Bagnaschi, E.; Borsato, M.; Sakurai, K.; ...

    2017-04-27

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the minimal Anomaly-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (mAMSB) model using constraints from cosmology and accelerator experiments. We find that a wino-like or a Higgsino-like neutralino LSP,more » $$m_{\\tilde \\chi^0_{1}}$$, may provide the cold dark matter (DM) with similar likelihood. The upper limit on the DM density from Planck and other experiments enforces $$m_{\\tilde \\chi^0_{1}} \\lesssim 3~TeV$$ after the inclusion of Sommerfeld enhancement in its annihilations. If most of the cold DM density is provided by the $$\\tilde \\chi_0^1$$, the measured value of the Higgs mass favours a limited range of $$\\tan \\beta \\sim 5$$ (or for $$\\mu > 0$$, $$\\tan \\beta \\sim 45$$) but the scalar mass $$m_0$$ is poorly constrained. In the wino-LSP case, $$m_{3/2}$$ is constrained to about $900~TeV$ and $${m_{\\tilde \\chi^0_{1}}}$$ to $$2.9\\pm0.1~TeV$$, whereas in the Higgsino-LSP case $$m_{3/2}$$ has just a lower limit $$\\gtrsim 650TeV$$ ($$\\gtrsim 480TeV$$) and $$m_{\\tilde \\chi^0_{1}}$$ is constrained to $$1.12 ~(1.13) \\pm0.02~TeV$$ in the $$\\mu>0$$ ($$\\mu<0$$) scenario. In neither case can the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, $${(g-2)_\\mu}$$, be improved significantly relative to its Standard Model (SM) value, nor do flavour measurements constrain the model significantly, and there are poor prospects for discovering supersymmetric particles at the LHC, {though there} are some prospects for direct DM detection. On the other hand, if the $${m_{\\tilde \\chi^0_{1}}}$$ contributes only a fraction of the cold DM density, {future LHC $$E_T$$-based searches for gluinos, squarks and heavier chargino and neutralino states as well as disappearing track searches in the wino-like LSP region will be relevant}, and interference effects enable $${\\rm BR}(B_{s, d} \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-)$$ to agree with the data better than in the SM in the case of wino-like DM with $$\\mu > 0$$.« less

  13. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-03-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

  14. Arizona's Application Service Provider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Darla

    2002-01-01

    Describes the U.S.'s first statewide K-12 application service provider (ASP). The ASP, implemented by the Arizona School Facilities Board, provides access to productivity, communications, and education software programs from any Internet-enabled device, whether in the classroom or home. (EV)

  15. [Iodine intake in Portuguese school children].

    PubMed

    Limbert, Edward; Prazeres, Susana; São Pedro, Márcia; Madureira, Deolinda; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Manuel; Carrilho, Francisco; Jácome de Castro, J; Lopes, Maria Santana; Cardoso, João; Carvalho, Andre; Oliveira, Maria João; Reguengo, Henrique; Borges, Fátima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate iodine intake in portuguese school children in order to inform health authorities of eventual measures to be implemented. Iodine is the key element for thyroid hormone synthesis and its deficiency even mild, as found in other European countries, may have deleterious effects in pregnancy resulting in cognitive problems of offsprings. In Portugal there are no recent data on iodine intake in schoolchildren. 3680 children aged 6-12 years of both sexes, from 78 different schools were studied. Iodine intake was evaluated trough urine iodine (UI) determinations using a colorimetic method. The global median UI value was 105.5 µg/L; the percentage of children with UI <100 µg/L was 47.1%, corresponding to 41% of the studied schools. The percentage of values <50 µg/L was 11.8%. The male gender, the south region of the country and the distribution of milk in school were significantly linked with a higher iodine elimination. Our global results point to a borderline/ mildly insufficient iodine intake in the portuguese school population. However 47% of the children had UI under 100 µg /L. The comparison of our results with the available data from 30 years ago, point to a considerable improvement, due to silent prophylaxis. Male gender, geographical area and milk distribution influenced positively iodine intake.The importance of milk has been referred in numerous papers. The study of UI in the Portuguese school population points to a borderline iodine intake. However, in 47% of children iodine intake was inadequate. Compared with data from the eighties, a considerable increase in iodine elimination was found. Taking into account the potencial deleterious effects of inadequate iodine intake, a global prophylaxis with salt iodization has to be considered.

  16. Variable Cycle Intake for Reverse Core Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Jesse M (Inventor); Staubach, Joseph B (Inventor); Suciu, Gabriel L (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas generator for a reverse core engine propulsion system has a variable cycle intake for the gas generator, which variable cycle intake includes a duct system. The duct system is configured for being selectively disposed in a first position and a second position, wherein free stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the first position, and fan stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the second position.

  17. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate <0.88 or >2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  18. TELMA: Technology-enhanced learning environment for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Patricia; Burgos, Daniel; Oropesa, Ignacio; Romero, Vicente; Albacete, Antonio; Sánchez-Peralta, Luisa F; Noguera, José F; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive skills training for minimally invasive surgery has traditionally relied upon diverse tools, such as seminars or lectures. Web technologies for e-learning have been adopted to provide ubiquitous training and serve as structured repositories for the vast amount of laparoscopic video sources available. However, these technologies fail to offer such features as formative and summative evaluation, guided learning, or collaborative interaction between users. The "TELMA" environment is presented as a new technology-enhanced learning platform that increases the user's experience using a four-pillared architecture: (1) an authoring tool for the creation of didactic contents; (2) a learning content and knowledge management system that incorporates a modular and scalable system to capture, catalogue, search, and retrieve multimedia content; (3) an evaluation module that provides learning feedback to users; and (4) a professional network for collaborative learning between users. Face validation of the environment and the authoring tool are presented. Face validation of TELMA reveals the positive perception of surgeons regarding the implementation of TELMA and their willingness to use it as a cognitive skills training tool. Preliminary validation data also reflect the importance of providing an easy-to-use, functional authoring tool to create didactic content. The TELMA environment is currently installed and used at the Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre and several other Spanish hospitals. Face validation results ascertain the acceptance and usefulness of this new minimally invasive surgery training environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Minimal-change nephropathy and malignant thymoma.

    PubMed

    Varsano, S; Bruderman, I; Bernheim, J L; Rathaus, M; Griffel, B

    1980-05-01

    A 56-year-old man had fever, precordial pain, and a mediastinal mass. The mass disappeared two months later and the patient remained asymptomatic for 2 1/2 years. At that time a full-blown nephrotic syndrome developed, with minimal-change glomerulopathy. The chest x-ray film showed the reappearance of a giant mediastinal mass. On biopsy of the mass, malignant thymoma was diagnosed. Association between minimal-change disease and Hodgkin's disease is well known, while the association with malignant thymoma has not been previously reported. The relationship between malignant thymoma and minimal-change disease is discussed, and a possible pathogenic mechanism involving cell-mediated immunity is proposed.

  20. Minimal perceptrons for memorizing complex patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Marissa; Song, Juyong; Hoang, Danh-Tai; Jo, Junghyo

    2016-11-01

    Feedforward neural networks have been investigated to understand learning and memory, as well as applied to numerous practical problems in pattern classification. It is a rule of thumb that more complex tasks require larger networks. However, the design of optimal network architectures for specific tasks is still an unsolved fundamental problem. In this study, we consider three-layered neural networks for memorizing binary patterns. We developed a new complexity measure of binary patterns, and estimated the minimal network size for memorizing them as a function of their complexity. We formulated the minimal network size for regular, random, and complex patterns. In particular, the minimal size for complex patterns, which are neither ordered nor disordered, was predicted by measuring their Hamming distances from known ordered patterns. Our predictions agree with simulations based on the back-propagation algorithm.

  1. Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements.

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, Alex; Collins, Peter; Fong, Davis; Ladouceur, Robert; Nower, Lia; Shaffer, Howard J; Tavares, Hermano; Venisse, Jean-Luc

    2011-12-01

    Many international jurisdictions have introduced responsible gambling programs. These programs intend to minimize negative consequences of excessive gambling, but vary considerably in their aims, focus, and content. Many responsible gambling programs lack a conceptual framework and, in the absence of empirical data, their components are based only on general considerations and impressions. This paper outlines the consensus viewpoint of an international group of researchers suggesting fundamental responsible gambling principles, roles of key stakeholders, and minimal requirements that stakeholders can use to frame and inform responsible gambling programs across jurisdictions. Such a framework does not purport to offer value statements regarding the legal status of gambling or its expansion. Rather, it proposes gambling-related initiatives aimed at government, industry, and individuals to promote responsible gambling and consumer protection. This paper argues that there is a set of basic principles and minimal requirements that should form the basis for every responsible gambling program.

  2. Minimal entropy approximation for cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukś, Henryk

    2014-02-01

    We present a method for the construction of approximate orbits of measures under the action of cellular automata which is complementary to the local structure theory. The local structure theory is based on the idea of Bayesian extension, that is, construction of a probability measure consistent with given block probabilities and maximizing entropy. If instead of maximizing entropy one minimizes it, one can develop another method for the construction of approximate orbits, at the heart of which is the iteration of finite-dimensional maps, called minimal entropy maps. We present numerical evidence that the minimal entropy approximation sometimes outperforms the local structure theory in characterizing the properties of cellular automata. The density response curve for elementary CA rule 26 is used to illustrate this claim.

  3. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  4. Cogging Torque Minimization in Transverse Flux Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Tausif; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz

    2017-02-16

    This paper presents the design considerations in cogging torque minimization in two types of transverse flux machines. The machines have a double stator-single rotor configuration with flux concentrating ferrite magnets. One of the machines has pole windings across each leg of an E-Core stator. Another machine has quasi-U-shaped stator cores and a ring winding. The flux in the stator back iron is transverse in both machines. Different methods of cogging torque minimization are investigated. Key methods of cogging torque minimization are identified and used as design variables for optimization using a design of experiments (DOE) based on the Taguchi method.more » A three-level DOE is performed to reach an optimum solution with minimum simulations. Finite element analysis is used to study the different effects. Two prototypes are being fabricated for experimental verification.« less

  5. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O.; Tuzhilin, Alexey A.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  6. Minimally invasive optical biopsy for oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Putten, Marieke A.; Brewer, James M.; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2017-02-01

    The study of localised oxygen saturation in blood vessels can shed light on the etiology and progression of many diseases with which hypoxia is associated. For example, hypoxia in the tendon has been linked to early stages of rheumatoid arthritis, an auto-immune inflammatory disease. Vascular oximetry of deep tissue presents significant challenges as vessels are not optically accessible. In this paper, we present a novel multispectral imaging technique for vascular oximetry, and recent developments made towards its adaptation for minimally invasive imaging. We present proof-of-concept of the system and illumination scheme as well as the analysis technique. We present results of a validation study performed in vivo on mice with acutely inflamed tendons. Adaptation of the technique for minimally invasive microendoscopy is also presented, along with preliminary results of minimally invasive ex vivo vascular oximetry.

  7. Best practices for minimally invasive procedures.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Brenda C

    2010-05-01

    Techniques and instrumentation for minimally invasive surgical procedures originated in gynecologic surgery, but the benefits of surgery with small incisions or no incisions at all have prompted the expansion of these techniques into numerous specialties. Technologies such as robotic assistance, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have led to the continued expansion of minimally invasive surgery into new specialties. With this expansion, perioperative nurses and other members of the surgical team are required to continue to learn about new technology and instrumentation, as well as the techniques and challenges involved in using new technology, to help ensure the safety of their patients. This article explores the development of minimally invasive procedures and offers suggestions for increasing patient safety. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    PubMed

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  9. Non-minimal gravitational reheating during kination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Markkanen, Tommi

    2018-06-01

    A new mechanism is presented which can reheat the Universe in non-oscillatory models of inflation, where the inflation period is followed by a period dominated by the kinetic density for the inflaton field (kination). The mechanism considers an auxiliary field non-minimally coupled to gravity. The auxiliary field is a spectator during inflation, rendered heavy by the non-minimal coupling to gravity. During kination however, the non-minimal coupling generates a tachyonic mass, which displaces the field, until its bare mass becomes important, leading to coherent oscillations. Then, the field decays into the radiation bath of the hot big bang. The model is generic and predictive, in that the resulting reheating temperature is a function only of the model parameters (masses and couplings) and not of initial conditions. It is shown that reheating can be very efficient also when considering only the Standard Model.

  10. Coffee Intake and Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lopez, David S; Liu, Lydia; Rimm, Eric B; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Coffee intake is suggested to have a positive impact on chronic diseases, yet its role in urological diseases such as erectile dysfunction (ED) remains unclear. We investigated the association of coffee intake with incidence of ED by conducting the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective analysis of 21,403 men aged 40-75 years old. Total, regular, and decaffeinated coffee intakes were self-reported on food frequency questionnaires. ED was assessed by mean values of questionnaires in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios for patients with incident ED (n = 7,298). No significant differences were identified for patients with incident ED after comparing highest (≥4 cups/day) with lowest (0 cups/day) categories of total (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11) and regular coffee intakes (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.13). When comparing the highest category with lowest category of decaffeinated coffee intake, we found a 37% increased risk of ED (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.73), with a significant trend (P trend = 0.02). Stratified analyses also showed an association among current smokers (P trend = 0.005). Overall, long-term coffee intake was not associated with risk of ED in a prospective cohort study.

  11. Epidemiology of dietary nutrient intake in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Shinaberger, Christian S; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2010-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is one of the strongest risk factors of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. One important determinant of PEW in this patient population is an inadequate amount of protein and energy intake. Compounding the problem are the many qualitative nutritional deficiencies that arise because of the altered dietary habits of dialysis patients. Many of these alterations are iatrogenically induced, and albeit well intentioned, they could induce unintended harmful effects. In order to determine the best possible diet in ESRD patients, one must first understand the complex interplay between the quantity and quality of nutrient intake in these patients, and their impact on relevant clinical outcomes. We review available studies examining the association of nutritional intake with clinical outcomes in ESRD, stressing the complicated and often difficult-to-study inter-relationship between quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake in nutritional epidemiology. The currently recommended higher protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day may be associated with a higher phosphorus and potassium burden and with worsening hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia, whereas dietary control of phosphorus and potassium by restricting protein intake may increase the risk of PEW. We assess the relevance of associative studies by examining the biologic plausibility of underlying mechanisms of action and emphasize areas in need of further research.

  12. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  13. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Lyu, Chen; Gao, Jian; Du, Li; Shan, Boer; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua-Ying; Gao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since body fatness is a convincing risk factor for endometrial cancer, dietary fat intake was speculated to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, epidemiological studies are inconclusive. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of science databases updated to September 2015. In total, 7 cohort and 14 case–control studies were included. Pooled analysis of case–control studies suggested that endometrial cancer risk was significantly increased by 5% per 10% kilocalories from total fat intake (P=0.02) and by 17% per 10 g/1000 kcal of saturated fat intake (P < 0.001). Summary of 3 cohort studies showed significant inverse association between monounsaturated fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.73–0.98) with a total of 524583 participants and 3503 incident cases. No significant associations were found for polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid. In conclusion, positive associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for total fat and saturated fat intake in the case–control studies. Results from the cohort studies suggested higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake was significantly associated with lower endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27399120

  14. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids.

  15. Higher versus lower amino acid intake in parenteral nutrition for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David A; Schindler, Tim; Jones, Lisa J; Sinn, John Kh; Bolisetty, Srinivas

    2018-03-05

    Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition.Secondary objectives include determining whether:• higher versus lower starting or initial intake of amino acids is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects;• higher versus lower intake of amino acids at maximal intake is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects; and• increased amino acid intake should replace non-protein energy intake (glucose and lipid), should be added to non-protein energy intake, or should be provided simultaneously with non-protein energy intake.We conducted subgroup analyses to look for any differences in the effects of higher versus lower intake of amino acids according to gestational age, birth weight, age at commencement, and condition of the infant, or concomitant increases in fluid intake. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2 June 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 2 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 2 June 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 2 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and citations of articles. Randomised controlled trials of higher versus lower intake of AAs as parenteral nutrition in newborn infants. Comparisons of higher intake at commencement, at maximal intake, and at both commencement and maximal

  16. Communicating with healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L; Ragain, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Studies of risk communication have identified healthcare providers, especially physicians, as the source of information most trusted by the public on issues of environmental health. Nothing in medical, nursing or most healthcare provider training actually prepares practitioners to play this role and healthcare providers are generally more oriented toward treatment and medical care than prevention and public health. Healthcare providers require education in order to play this role but rarely seek it. Gaps in the knowledge of professional on the issue of Cryptosporidium illustrate the problem. For members of the professional water community, communicating with healthcare providers is best done when messages are delivered in familiar settings, such as hospital Grand Rounds (a universal format for teaching conferences) and provided in a narrative (case-based) form but gaining access is difficult if the topic is not obviously clinical in nature. In addition to being a critically important target group itself, public health professionals are easier to reach and may mediate good working relationships with medical practitioners. We suggest a strategy for water utilities based on partnerships with academic public health and providing education through well-recognized formats in continuing medical and nursing education.

  17. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  18. Optimal minimal measurements of mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, G.; Latorre, J. I.; Pascual, P.; Tarrach, R.

    1999-07-01

    The optimal and minimal measuring strategy is obtained for a two-state system prepared in a mixed state with a probability given by any isotropic a priori distribution. We explicitly construct the specific optimal and minimal generalized measurements, which turn out to be independent of the a priori probability distribution, obtaining the best guesses for the unknown state as well as a closed expression for the maximal mean-average fidelity. We do this for up to three copies of the unknown state in a way that leads to the generalization to any number of copies, which we then present and prove.

  19. The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2015-05-01

    In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.

  20. Evolved Minimal Frustration in Multifunctional Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Röder, Konstantin; Wales, David J

    2018-05-25

    Protein folding is often viewed in terms of a funnelled potential or free energy landscape. A variety of experiments now indicate the existence of multifunnel landscapes, associated with multifunctional biomolecules. Here, we present evidence that these systems have evolved to exhibit the minimal number of funnels required to fulfil their cellular functions, suggesting an extension to the principle of minimum frustration. We find that minimal disruptive mutations result in additional funnels, and the associated structural ensembles become more diverse. The same trends are observed in an atomic cluster. These observations suggest guidelines for rational design of engineered multifunctional biomolecules.

  1. Minimally invasive therapy of primary breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David S.

    2000-01-01

    Treating disease with little alteration has long been a goal of medical science. During the past quarter century, technological advances have brought forth minimally invasive approaches to the surgical diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In the domain of breast cancer, a less invasive sentinel lymph node biopsy may replace axillary lymphadenectomy for many patients, and image guided core biopsies have minimalized the degree of surgical intervention needed for tissue diagnosis. This mirrors the primary treatment of breast cancer that over the past century has progressed from mastectomy to breast preservation with a progressively diminishing operative field.

  2. Carotene-rich plant foods ingested with minimal dietary fat enhance the total-body vitamin A pool size in Filipino schoolchildren as assessed by stable-isotope-dilution methodology.

    PubMed

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Maramag, Cherry C; Tengco, Lorena W; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Solon, Florentino S

    2007-04-01

    Strategies for improving the vitamin A status of vulnerable populations are needed. We studied the influence of the amounts of dietary fat on the effectiveness of carotene-rich plant foods in improving vitamin A status. Schoolchildren aged 9-12 y were fed standardized meals 3 times/d, 5 d/wk, for 9 wk. The meals provided 4.2 mg provitamin A carotenoids/d (mainly beta-carotene) from yellow and green leafy vegetables [carrots, pechay (bok choy), squash, and kangkong (swamp cabbage)] and 7, 15, or 29 g fat/d (2.4, 5, or 10 g fat/meal) in groups A, B, and C (n = 39, 39, and 38, respectively). Other self-selected foods eaten were recorded daily. Before and after the intervention, total-body vitamin A pool sizes and liver vitamin A concentrations were measured with the deuterated-retinol-dilution method; serum retinol and carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Similar increases in mean serum beta-carotene (5-fold), alpha-carotene (19-fold), and beta-cryptoxanthin (2-fold) concentrations; total-body vitamin A pool size (2-fold); and liver vitamin A (2-fold) concentrations were observed after 9 wk in the 3 study groups; mean serum retinol concentrations did not change significantly. The total daily beta-carotene intake from study meals plus self-selected foods was similar between the 3 groups and was 14 times the usual intake; total fat intake was 0.9, 1.4, or 2.0 times the usual intake in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The overall prevalence of low liver vitamin A (<0.07 mumol/g) decreased from 35% to 7%. Carotene-rich yellow and green leafy vegetables, when ingested with minimal fat, enhance serum carotenoids and the total-body vitamin A pool size and can restore low liver vitamin A concentrations to normal concentrations.

  3. Dietary assessment of adolescents undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: macro- and micronutrient, fiber and supplement intake

    PubMed Central

    Jeffreys, Renee M.; Hrovat, Kathleen; Woo, Jessica G.; Schmidt, Marcia; Inge, Thomas H.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, there are as yet no data available which describe the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient’s diet pre- and post-operatively. Objective Assess the 1-year change in dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital Methods Twenty-seven subjects [67% female, 77% white, age 16.7 ± 1.4 years, baseline body mass index (BMI) 60.1 ± 14.1 kg/m2] were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study one month prior to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) between August 2005 and March 2008. Three-day dietary intake was recorded at baseline (n=24), at 2 weeks (n=16), 3 months (n=11), and 1 year (n=9) post-operatively. Dietary record data were verified by structured interview and compared with Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for ages 14–18. Results By 1 year post-surgery, mean caloric intake adjusted for BMI was 1015 ± 182 kcal/day, a 35% reduction from baseline. The proportion of fat, protein and carbohydrate intake did not differ from baseline. However, protein intake was lower than recommended postoperatively. Calcium and fiber intake was also persistently lower than recommended. Calcium and vitamin B12 supplementation increased the likelihood of meeting daily minimal recommendations (p≤0.02). Conclusions One year after RYGB, adolescents’ caloric intake remained restricted with satisfactory macronutrient composition, but with lower than desirable intake of calcium, fiber and protein. PMID:22260884

  4. Dietary assessment of adolescents undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: macro- and micronutrient, fiber, and supplement intake.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Renee M; Hrovat, Kathleen; Woo, Jessica G; Schmidt, Marcia; Inge, Thomas H; Xanthakos, Stavra A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, as yet, no data are available describing the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient's diet pre- and postoperatively. Our objective was to assess the 1-year change in the dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery at a tertiary care children's hospital. A total of 27 subjects (67% female, 77% white, age 16.7 ± 1.4 yr, baseline body mass index 60.1 ± 14.1 kg/m(2)) were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study 1 month before undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from August 2005 to March 2008. The 3-day dietary intake was recorded at baseline (n = 24) and 2 weeks (n = 16), 3 months (n = 11), and 1 year (n = 9) postoperatively. The dietary record data were verified by structured interview and compared with the Dietary Reference Intake values for ages 14-18 years. By 1 year after surgery, the mean caloric intake, adjusted for body mass index was 1015 ± 182 kcal/d, a 35% reduction from baseline. The proportion of fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake did not differ from baseline. However, the protein intake was lower than recommended postoperatively. The calcium and fiber intake was also persistently lower than recommended. Calcium and vitamin B(12) supplementation increased the likelihood of meeting the daily minimal recommendations (P ≤ .02). At 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the adolescents' caloric intake remained restricted, with satisfactory macronutrient composition but a lower than desirable intake of calcium, fiber, and protein. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  6. 77 FR 74196 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... document, which addresses safety achieved through drug product design, is the first in a series of planned...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication Errors... Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' The draft guidance provides sponsors of...

  7. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dillitzer, N; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2016-10-01

    A post hoc analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet dogs from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (Years 2007-2011) was carried out to identify if current ME recommendations are suitable for pet dogs. Data on 586 adult dogs were available (median age 5.5, median deviation from ideal weight 0.0), 55 of them were healthy; the others had various diseases. For ration calculation, a standardized questionnaire and the software diet-check Munich(™) was used. ME was predicted according to NRC (2006). Data were evaluated for the factors disease, breed, size, age, gender and type of feeding. The mean ME intake of all adult dogs amounted to 0.410 ± 0.121 MJ/kg metabolic body weight (BW(0.75) ) (n = 586). There was no effect of size and disease. Overweight dogs ate 0.360 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) , and underweight dogs ate 0.494 ± 0.159 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . Older dogs (>7 years, n = 149, 0.389 ± 0.105 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ) had a lower ME intake than younger ones (n = 313, 0.419 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ), and intact males had a higher ME intake than the others (p < 0.001). Some breeds were above average: Jack Russell Terrier, Dalmatian, small Munsterlander and Magyar Viszla, Bearded Collies, Sight Hounds, German Boxers, English foxhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks and Flat-Coated Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.473 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The following breeds were below average: Dachshunds, Bichons, West highland White Terrier, Collies except Bearded Collies, Airedale Terriers, American Staffordshire terriers and Golden Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.343 ± 0.096 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The mean maintenance energy requirements of pet dogs are similar to that of kennel dogs which do not exercise very much. These results suggest that opportunity and stimulus to exercise provided for pet dogs are lower than for kennel dogs. Lower activity in pet dogs may reduce part of potential effects of breed, medical history and age

  8. You and Your Provider

    MedlinePlus

    ... VA – Work with Your Provider HIV.gov on Twitter 1 day 1 hour ago. HIV.gov @HIVGov # ... routine. #HIVTestingDay Reply Retweet Favorite HIV.gov on Twitter Search Find HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Connect ...

  9. Optimising nutritional intake to promote growth and development in children.

    PubMed

    Burton-Shepherd, Alison

    2012-08-01

    Eating habits may be formed at a young age and once entrenched, tend to track across childhood and beyond (Tsuji et al, 2012). Although parents have a significant role in the development of their child's dietary intake (Clarke et al, 2007), Harris (2010) argues that the diets and feeding habits of young children are now no longer the sole responsibility of parents but other childcare professionals, including nannies and nursery staff. The aim of this article is to provide parents and professionals with guidance to help encourage parents, and other members of the multidisciplinary team, to provide children with a healthy diet.

  10. Protein Enrichment of Familiar Foods as an Innovative Strategy to Increase Protein Intake in Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Beelen, J; de Roos, N M; de Groot, L C P G M

    2017-01-01

    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to reach a protein intake of 1.2 gram per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d). Intervention study with one treatment group (no control group). Dietary assessment was done before and at the end of a 10-day intervention. Two care facilities in Gelderland, the Netherlands: a residential care home and a rehabilitation center. 22 elderly subjects (13 women, 9 men; mean age 83.0±9.4 years). We used a variety of newly developed protein enriched regular foods and drinks, including bread, soups, fruit juices, and instant mashed potatoes. Dietary intake was assessed on two consecutive days before and at the end of the intervention, using food records filled out by research assistants. Energy and macronutrient intake was calculated using the 2013 Dutch food composition database. Changes in protein intake were evaluated using paired t-tests. Protein intake increased by 11.8 g/d (P=0.003); from 0.96 to 1.14 g/kg/d (P=0.002). This increase is comparable to protein provided by one standard portion of ONS. The intake of energy and other macronutrients did not change significantly. At the end of the intervention more elderly reached a protein intake level of 1.2 g/kg/d than before (9 vs 4). Protein intake significantly increased during breakfast (+3.7 g) and during the evening (+2.2 g). Including familiar protein enriched foods and drinks in the menu helped to meet protein recommendations in institutionalized elderly.

  11. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries.

  12. Dairy intake and related self-regulation improved in college students using online nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Anderson-Bill, Eileen S; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Duncan, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    Dairy intake by college students is markedly lower than recommendations. Interventions to improve dairy intake based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) have potential to successfully change behavior by improving mediators that influence dietary choices. We aimed to use SCT to improve social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college students. We conducted a randomized nutrition education intervention. Participants included 211 college students (mean age 20.2 ± 0.1 years; 63% women and 37% men) recruited from a university campus. Participants in the intervention group (n=107) and comparison group (n=104) received an 8-week dairy intake or stress management intervention, respectively, via electronic mail. Data collection included dairy intake from 7-day food records and SCT variables from questionnaires administered during January 2008 and April 2008. Changes in dairy intake and SCT variables (ie, social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation). Multivariate analysis of covariance, with age and sex as covariates (P<0.05). Ninety-one percent of participants (n=97 intervention, n=94 comparison) provided data; complete data were analyzed for 85% of participants (n=90 intervention, n=89 comparison). Participants in the intervention group reported higher intake of total dairy foods (P=0.012) and improved use of self-regulation strategies for consuming three servings per day of total dairy (P=0.000) and low-fat dairy foods (P=0.002) following the intervention. Nutrition education via electronic mail based on an SCT model improved total dairy intake and self-regulation. Participants reported increased dairy intake and better use of self-regulation strategies. Future interventions should focus on benefits of consuming low-fat vs higher-fat dairy foods. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    PubMed Central

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  14. Excess dietary sodium and inadequate potassium intake in Italy: results of the MINISAL study.

    PubMed

    Donfrancesco, C; Ippolito, R; Lo Noce, C; Palmieri, L; Iacone, R; Russo, O; Vanuzzo, D; Galletti, F; Galeone, D; Giampaoli, S; Strazzullo, P

    2013-09-01

    As excess sodium and inadequate potassium intake are causally related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the MINISAL-GIRCSI Program aimed to provide reliable estimates of dietary sodium and potassium intake in representative samples of the Italian population. Random samples of adult population were collected from 12 Italian regions, including 1168 men and 1112 women aged 35-79 yrs. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections and creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometric indices were measured with standardised procedures. The average sodium excretion was 189 mmol (or 10.9 g of salt/day) among men and 147 mmol (or 8.5 g) among women (range 27-472 and 36-471 mmol, respectively). Ninety-seven % of men and 87% of women had a consumption higher than the WHO recommended target of 5g/day. The 24 h average potassium excretion was 63 and 55 mmol, respectively (range 17-171 and 20-126 mmol), 96% of men and 99% of women having an intake lower than 100 mmol/day (European and American guideline recommendation). The mean sodium/potassium ratio was 3.1 and 2.8 respectively, i.e. over threefold greater than the desirable level of 0.85. The highest sodium intake was observed in Southern regions. Sodium and potassium excretion were both progressively higher the higher the BMI (p < 0.0001). These MINISAL preliminary results indicate that in all the Italian regions thus far surveyed dietary sodium intake was largely higher and potassium intake lower than the recommended intakes. They also highlight the critical association between overweight and excess salt intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  16. Estimating trajectories of energy intake through childhood and adolescence using linear-spline multilevel models.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emma L; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Northstone, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2013-07-01

    Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped. We demonstrate the use of linear-spline multilevel models to summarize energy-intake trajectories through childhood and adolescence and their application as exposures, outcomes, or mediators. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children assessed children's dietary intake several times between ages 3 and 13 years, using both food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 3-day food diaries. We estimated energy-intake trajectories for 12,032 children using linear-spline multilevel models. We then assessed the associations of these trajectories with maternal body mass index (BMI), and later offspring BMI, and also their role in mediating the relation between maternal and offspring BMIs. Models estimated average and individual energy intake at 3 years, and linear changes in energy intake from age 3 to 7 years and from age 7 to 13 years. By including the exposure (in this example, maternal BMI) in the multilevel model, we were able to estimate the average energy-intake trajectories across levels of the exposure. When energy-intake trajectories are the exposure for a later outcome (in this case offspring BMI) or a mediator (between maternal and offspring BMI), results were similar, whether using a two-step process (exporting individual-level intercepts and slopes from multilevel models and using these in linear regression/path analysis), or a single-step process (multivariate multilevel models). Trajectories were similar when FFQs and food diaries were assessed either separately, or when combined into one model. Linear-spline multilevel models provide useful summaries of trajectories of dietary intake that can be used as an exposure, outcome, or mediator.

  17. Parental eating behaviours, home food environment and adolescent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods: longitudinal findings from Project EAT.

    PubMed

    Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; van den Berg, Patricia; Story, Mary; Larson, Nicole

    2007-11-01

    To examine longitudinal associations of parental report of household food availability and parent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods with adolescent intakes of the same foods. This study expands upon the limited research of longitudinal studies examining the role of parents and household food availability in adolescent dietary intakes. Longitudinal study. Project EAT-II followed an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of adolescents from 1999 (time 1) to 2004 (time 2). In addition to the Project EAT survey, adolescents completed the Youth Adolescent Food-Frequency Questionnaire in both time periods, and parents of adolescents completed a telephone survey at time 1. General linear modelling was used to examine the relationship between parent intake and home availability and adolescent intake, adjusting for time 1 adolescent intakes. Associations were examined separately for the high school and young adult cohorts and separately for males and females in combined cohorts. The sample included 509 pairs of parents/guardians and adolescents. Vegetables served at dinner significantly predicted adolescent intakes of vegetables for males (P = 0.037), females (P = 0.009), high school (P = 0.033) and young adults (P = 0.05) at 5-year follow-up. Among young adults, serving milk at dinner predicted dairy intake (P = 0.002). Time 1 parental intakes significantly predicted intakes of young adults for fruit (P = 0.044), vegetables (P = 0.041) and dairy foods (P = 0.008). Parental intake predicted intake of dairy for females (P = 0.02). The findings suggest the importance of providing parents of adolescents with knowledge and skills to enhance the home food environment and improve their own eating behaviours.

  18. Intake of essential fatty acids in Indonesian children: secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Djuwita, Ratna; Otten-Hofman, Anke; Nurdiani, Reisi; Garczarek, Ursula; Sulaeman, Ahmad; Zock, Peter L; Eilander, Ans

    2016-02-28

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) such as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are needed for healthy growth and development of children. Worldwide, reliable intake data of EFA are often lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary intake of EFA in Indonesian children. Dietary intake data of 4-12-year-old children (n 45,821) from a nationally representative Indonesian survey were used to estimate median intake and distribution of population fatty acid intake. Missing data on individual fatty acids in the Indonesian food composition table were complemented through chemical analyses of national representative food samples and imputation of data from the US nutrient database. Nutrient adequacy ratios were calculated as a percentage of FAO/WHO intake recommendations. The medians of total fat intake of the children was 26·7 (10th-90th percentile 11·2-40·0) percentage of total daily energy (%E). Intakes of fatty acids were 4·05 (10th-90th percentile 1·83-7·22) %E for total PUFA, 3·36 (10th-90th percentile 1·14-6·29) %E for LA and 0·20 (10th-90th percentile 0·07-0·66) %E for ALA. Median intake of PUFA was 67 % and that of ALA 40 % of the minimum amounts recommended by FAO/WHO. These data indicate that a majority of Indonesian children has intakes of PUFA and specifically ALA that are lower than recommended intake levels. Total fat and LA intakes may be suboptimal for a smaller yet considerable proportion of children. Public health initiatives should provide practical guidelines to promote consumption of PUFA-rich foods.

  19. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - the OTAP2009 study. IV. Macroelement intake of the Hungarian population].

    PubMed

    Martos, Eva; Bakacs, Márta; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Ráczkevy, Tímea; Zentai, Andrea; Baldauf, Zsolt; Illés, Eva; Lugasi, Andrea

    2012-07-22

    The adequate intake of minerals is basically important for healthy nutrition. The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - joining to the European Health Interview Survey - studied the dietary habits of the Hungarian population. The present publication describes the macroelement intake. The salt intake is unusually high (17.2 g in men and 12.0 g in women), the potassium intake remains well below the recommendation. These factors substantially increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases including high blood-pressure. The calcium intake stays below the recommendation except in the youngest males, the oldest men and women are at risk from this point of view. While magnesium intake suited the recommendation, the intake of phosphorus exceeded it twice. Focusing on marcroelements, high sodium/salt intake represents the highest public health risk. The implementation of STOP SALT! National Salt Reducing Programme, i.e. decrease the salt content of processed food and provide proper information to the population about excessive salt consumption, should result in a beneficial change of salt intake and ameliorate the public health conditions.

  20. Food and beverage intake in Australian children aged 12-16 months participating in the NOURISH and SAIDI studies.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Rebecca; Magarey, Anthea; Daniels, Lynne

    2014-08-01

    To describe the quantity and diversity of food and beverage intake in Australian children aged 12-16 months and to determine if the amount and type of milk intake is associated with dietary diversity. Mothers participating in the NOURISH and South Australian Infant Dietary Intake (SAIDI) studies completed a single 24-hour recall of their child's food intake, when children (n=551) were aged 12-16 months. The relationship between dietary diversity and intake of cow's milk, formula or breastmilk was examined using one-way ANOVA. Dairy and cereal were the most commonly consumed food groups and the greatest contributors to daily energy intake. Most children ate fruit (87%) and vegetables (77%) on the day of the 24-hour recall while 91% ate discretionary items. Half the sample ate less than 30 g of meat/alternatives. A quarter of the children were breastfeeding while formula was consumed by 32% of the sample, providing 29% of daily energy intake. Lower dietary diversity was associated with increased formula intake. The quality of dietary intake in this group of young children is highly variable. Most toddlers were consuming a diverse diet, though almost all ate discretionary items. The amount and type of meat/alternatives consumed was poor. Health professionals should advise parents to offer iron-rich foods, while limiting discretionary choices and use of formula at an age critical in the development of long-term food preferences. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  2. Inadequate dietary intake in patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ellen B; Xu, Yan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Odame, Isaac; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Neufeld, Ellis J; Thompson, Alexis A; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Quinn, Charles T; Vichinsky, Elliott P

    2012-07-01

    Patients with thalassemia have low circulating levels of many nutrients, but the contribution of dietary intake has not been assessed. Our objective was to assess dietary intake in a large contemporary sample of subjects with thalassemia. A prospective, longitudinal cohort study using a validated food frequency questionnaire was conducted. Two hundred and twenty-one subjects (19.7±11.3 years, 106 were female) were categorized into the following age groups: young children (3 to 7.9 years), older children/adolescents (8 to 18.9 years), and adults (19 years or older); 78.8% had β-thalassemia and 90% were chronically transfused. This study took place at 10 hematology outpatient clinics in the United States and Canada. We conducted a comparison of intake with US Dietary Reference Intakes and correlated dietary intake of vitamin D with serum 25-OH vitamin D and dietary iron with total body iron stores. Intake was defined as inadequate if it was less than the estimated average requirement. χ(2), Fisher's exact, and Student's t test were used to compare intake between age categories and logistic regression analysis to test the relationship between intake and outcomes, controlling for age, sex, and race. More than 30% of subjects consumed inadequate levels of vitamin A, D, E, K, folate, calcium, and magnesium. The only nutrients for which >90% of subjects consumed adequate amounts were riboflavin, vitamin B-12, and selenium. Dietary inadequacy increased with increasing age group (P<0.01) for vitamins A, C, E, B-6, folate, thiamin, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. More than half of the sample took additional supplements of calcium and vitamin D, although circulating levels of 25-OH vitamin D remained insufficient in 61% of subjects. Dietary iron intake was not related to total body iron stores. Subjects with thalassemia have reduced intake of many key nutrients. These preliminary findings of dietary inadequacy are concerning and support the need for nutritional monitoring to