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Sample records for province north china

  1. A 1.78 Ga large igneous province in the North China craton: The Xiong'er Volcanic Province and the North China dyke swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Zhai, Mingguo; Ernst, Richard E.; Guo, Jinghui; Liu, Fu; Hu, Bo

    2008-03-01

    The 1.78 Ga Xiong'er Volcanic Province (XVP) and coeval North China giant mafic Dyke Swarm (NCDS) are the most important magmatic events occurring after the amalgamation of the North China craton (NCC). The XVP consists of 3-7 km of extrusive volcanics and some feeder dykes/sills located along the southern margin of the NCC and extending over an area > 0.06 M km 2. Compositions vary from basalt to rhyolite, but are predominantly intermediate in terms of silica content. There are also minor sedimentary intercalations and pyroclastic units. The sedimentary interlayers indicate an environment changing from continental-facies to oceanic-facies up-section. The XVP is characterized by fractional crystallization from an EM I type mantle source, and both continental arc (Andean-type) and rift environments have been proposed. The NCDS is widespread in the central NCC with an outcrop area > 0.1 M km 2, and are exposed at variable depths up to 20 km (deepest in the north). Dyke compositions vary from basalt to andesite and dacite, but are dominantly mafic, and comprise two series of magmatism. Previous studies revealed that the NCDS recorded assimilation and fractional crystallization of an EM I type magma source, with a minor DM contribution in the younger magmas. Both syn-collisional and intra-continental anorogenic environments have been proposed. Spatial and petrogenic correlations suggest a cogenetic relationship between the NCDS and XVP, and considered together, they define a Large Igneous Province (LIP) of > 0.1 M km 2 in area and > 0.1 M km 3 in volume, which is also notable for its continuous compositional range from mafic to felsic (with no gap at intermediate compositions). The petrology is explained by a common magma source that undergoes a silica-poor and iron-enriched fractionation trend at depth followed by a silica-rich and iron-poor fractionation trend in shallow-level magma conduits (dykes) and surface lavas. A mantle plume is favored as the cause of this

  2. Sandy desertification change and its driving forces in western Jilin Province, North China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Bai, Zhang; Wei, Su; Yanfen, He; Zongming, Wang; Kaishan, Song; Dianwei, Liu; Zhiming, Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the sandy desertification change between 1986 and 2000 in the western Jilin province, North China. Land use and land cover data were obtained from Landsat TM data by using a supervised classification approach. We summarized the total area of desertified land by each county, as well as the area for each of the four categories of desertified land. The changes of different types of land use and land cover between 1986 and 2000 were calculated and analyzed. Taking Tongyu and Qianan as examples, both human and natural driving forces of the sandy desertification were analyzed. Our analyses indicate that the material sources and windy, warm and dry climate are the immanent causes of potential land desertification, while the irrational human activities, such as deforestation, reclaiming and grazing in the grassland, are the external causes of potential land desertification. However, rational human activities, such as planting trees and restoring grassland can reverse the land desertification process. Furthermore, the countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable development in ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China are put forward.

  3. Giant Mesozoic gold provinces related to the destruction of the North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Wei; Bi, Shi-Jian; Selby, David; Chen, Lei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Thiede, David; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Li, Zhan-Ke; Qiu, Hua-Ning

    2012-10-01

    Lode gold deposits in Precambrian cratons represent the world's major gold source and were mostly generated during formation and stabilization of the cratons. However, there is an extraordinary exception in the North China craton (NCC), where lode gold deposits formed after prolonged stabilization of the craton. Molybdenite Re-Os and hydrothermal sericite and biotite 40Ar/39Ar dating of major gold deposits from the Xiaoqinling district, southern NCC, bracket their emplacement in the range of 154.1±1.1 to 118.9±1.2 Ma (n=23), postdating formation of the craton by more than 1.7 billion years. Fluid inclusions extracted from gold-bearing pyrite have elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.52-0.22 Ra) and mantle-like Ne isotopes (20Ne/22Ne=10.02-9.22 and 21Ne/22Ne=0.033-0.027), indicating presence of mantle-derived fluids in the ore system. Measured δ34S of pyrite and δD and δ18O of hydrothermal micas and fluid inclusion waters in auriferous quartz further confirm a magmatic/mantle source for sulfur and ore fluids. Gold deposits of similar ages also widely occur in the eastern and northern margins of the NCC, which, together with those in the Xiaoqinling district, have a total reserve of ˜2500 t gold, forming the only known giant late Mesozoic gold province in the world's Precambrian cratons. These deposits formed coevally with extensive felsic to mafic magmatism, development of intracontinental rift basins, and exhumation of metamorphic core complexes across the eastern NCC, events interpreted as indicating thinning and destruction of the lithosphere beneath the craton. Rising of asthenosphere coupled with destruction of the lithosphere has generated voluminous mafic and felsic magmas that provided sufficient fluids, sulfur and, by inference, other ore components to form the giant gold provinces.

  4. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988–2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age–period–cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate

  5. Responses of tree-ring growth and crop yield to drought indices in the Shanxi province, North China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junyan; Liu, Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationships among the tree-ring chronology, meteorological drought (precipitation), agricultural drought (Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI), hydrological drought (runoff), and agricultural data in the Shanxi province of North China. Correlation analyses indicate that the tree-ring chronology is significantly correlated with all of the drought indices during the main growing season from March to July. Sign test analyses further indicate that the tree-ring chronology shows variation similar to that of the drought indices in both high and low frequencies. Comparisons of the years with narrow tree rings to the severe droughts reflected in all three indices from 1957 to 2008 reveal that the radial growth of the trees in the study region can accurately record the severe drought for which all three indices were in agreement (1972, 1999, 2000, and 2001). Comparisons with the dryness/wetness index indicate that tree-ring growth can properly record the severe droughts in the history. Correlation analyses among agricultural data, tree-ring chronology, and drought indices indicate that the per-unit yield of summer crops is relatively well correlated with the agricultural drought, as indicated by the PDSI. The PDSI is the climatic factor that significantly influences both tree growth and per-unit yield of summer crops in the study region. These results indicate that the PDSI and tree-ring chronology have the potential to be used to monitor and predict the yield of summer crops. Tree-ring chronology is an important tool for drought research and for wider applications in agricultural and hydrological research.

  6. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China. PMID:26125619

  7. Chemical Compositions of Precipitation at Three Non-urban Sites of Hebei Province, North China: Influence of Terrestrial Sources on Ionic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid economic development and increased energy demand have resulted in severe air pollution problems throughout China, and the increasing emissions of SO2 and NOx have led to significant deposition of acid rain in China. Despite high SO2 concentrations are observed in both southern and northern China, acid rain is mainly observed in the south area in history. It is believed that high content of alkaline matters in the soil in the North China is one of the key factors that contribute to the neutralization of acidic ions in the rainwater. However, an increasing trend of the precipitation acidity was observed at many sites in North, Central and East China after 2000, with more pronounced trends in the Beijing-Tianjin region and Bohai Sea surrounding area. In this study, precipitations were collected from April to October in 2008 at three non-urban sites (Chicheng, Huailai and Xuanhua) in Hebei Province, North China. The pH values of precipitation events ranged from 4.08 to 7.53 for the three sampling sites. About 61.8% of the total precipitation had a pH value higher than 6.0. The predominant ions in the precipitation were SO42-, NO3- and Ca2+, and their concentrations were significantly higher than other sites in South China. The high concentration of acidic ions reflects that atmospheric pollution has already been severe in this area. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of major ions and pH value showed obvious seasonal differences, precipitation in dry season had high pH values and VWM concentrations of major ions. According to the equivalent ratio of NP/AP and the results of neutralization factors, the strong acid neutralization is mainly brought about by Ca2+ followed by NH4+ and Mg2+. Using Na as an indicator of marine origin, the proportions of sea salt and non-sea-salt were estimated from elemental ratios. Combining with the results of correlation analysis and enrichment factors, the main acidic ions (SO42- and NO3-) and NH4+ were mainly derived from

  8. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin.

  9. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  10. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  11. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingqi; Shao, Xuemei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner’s ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb. PMID:26244548

  12. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  13. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    The Mesozoic Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) of the southeastern Liaoning province, North China, is an asymmetric Cordilleran-style complex with a west-rooting master detachment fault, the Jinzhou fault. A thick sequence of lower plate, fault-related mylonitic and gneissic rocks derived from Archean and Early Cretaceous crystalline protoliths has been transported ESE-ward from mid-crustal depths. U-Pb ages of lower plate syntectonic plutons (ca. 130-120 Ma), 40Ar- 39Ar cooling ages in the mylonitic and gneissic sequence (ca. 120-110 Ma), and a Cretaceous supradetachment basin attest to the Early Cretaceous age of this extensional complex. The recent discovery of the coeval and similarly west-rooting Waziyu mcc in western Liaoning [Darby, B.J., Davis, G.A., Zhang, X., Wu, F., Wilde, S., Yang, J., 2004. The newly discovered Waziyu metamorphic core complex, Yiwulushan, western Liaoning Province, North China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 145-155] indicates that the Gulf of Liaoning, which lies between the two complexes, was the center of a region of major crustal extension. Clockwise crustal rotation of a large region including eastern Liaoning province and the Korean Peninsula with respect to a non-rotated North China block has been conclusively documented by paleomagnetic studies over the past decade. The timing of this rotation and the reasons for it are controversial. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] proposed that a clockwise rotation of 22.5° ± 10.2° was largely post-Early Cretaceous in age, and was the consequence of extension within a crustal domain that tapers southwards towards the Bohai Sea (of which the Gulf of Liaoning is the northernmost part). Paleomagnetic studies of Early Cretaceous strata (ca 134-120 Ma) in the Yixian-Fuxin supradetachment basin of

  14. [Effects of scale-like pit and mulching measures on soil moisture of dryland jujube orchard in North Shaanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Chen; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Gao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Jia-Wen; Shi, Yin-Guang

    2014-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key factor affecting jujube growth in the semiarid Northern Shaanxi Province. The impacts of different engineering and mulching measures on soil moisture were investigated via in situ measurements in a typical dryland jujube orchard. The results showed that the mean soil moistures (0-180 cm) of scale-like pit + branch mulching, scale-like scale + straw mulching, and soil moisture of scale-like pit with no mulching were increased by 14.2%, 9.4%, and 4.8% than control, respectively. Different measures, especially for the scale-like pit + branch mulching, significantly increased the soil moisture in the soil surface (0-20 cm) and the main root zone layer (20-100 cm) during the jujube growth stage. Individual precipitation events had great impacts on soil moisture in the 0-100 cm, while its effect on soil moisture in deep layers was not apparent. There was no significant difference among the soil moistures in different soil depths of scale-like pit with no mulching when compared with the control under high, medium, and low soil humidity conditions. This study indicated that using the clipped jujube branches as mulching could both save materials cost and achieve the goal of reserving more water in dryland jujube orchard in north Shaanxi Province.

  15. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  16. Identification and molecular survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sika deer (Cervus nippon) from Jilin Province, north-eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Bintao; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Junlong; Yin, Hong; Zeng, Qiaoying

    2017-02-01

    Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) is a common disease of domestic animals and wildlife worldwide. Sika deer is first-grade state-protected wildlife animals in China and have economic consequences for humans. It is reported that sika deer may serve as an important reservoir host for several species of B. burgdorferi s.l. and may transmit these species to humans and animals. However, little is known about the presence of Borrelia pathogens in sika deer in China. In this study, the existence and prevalence of Borrelia sp. in sika deer from four regions of Jilin Province in China was assessed. Seventy-one blood samples of sika deer were collected and tested by nested-PCRs based on 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), outer surface protein A (OspA), flagenllin (fla), and 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (5S-23S rRNA) genes of B. burgdorferi s.l. Six (8.45%) samples were positive for Borrelia sp. based on sequences of 4 genes. The positive samples were detected 18 for 16S rRNA, 10 for OspA, 16 for fla and 6 for 5S-23S, with the positive rates 25.35% (95% CI=3.8-35.6), 14.08% (95% CI=3.0-21.6), 22.54% (95% CI=4.3-36.9) and 8.45% (95% CI=1.7-22.9), respectively. Sequence analysis of the positive PCR products revealed that the partial 4 genes sequences in this study were all most similar to the sequences of B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), no other Borrelia genospecies were found. This is the first report of Borrelia pathogens in sika deer in China. The findings in this study indicated that sika deer as potential natural host and may spread Lyme disease pathogen to animals, ticks, and even humans.

  17. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  18. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate.

  19. Chemical compositions of precipitation at three non-urban sites of Hebei Province, North China: Influence of terrestrial sources on ionic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yao; Xu, Zhifang; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Xuan; Jiang, Hao; Yu, Chong; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Xiaode

    2016-11-01

    Studies on precipitation chemistry were carried out from April to October in 2008 at three non-urban sites in North China. A total of 122 rainwater samples were collected, and all the samples were analyzed for pH, EC and major ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, K+, Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, and NH4+). The predominant ions in the precipitation were SO42 -, NO3- and Ca2 + at all sampling sites. The low VWM pH value (5.29) reflected the increasing air pollution in this region. But there was still more than 60% of the total precipitation had a pH value higher than 6.0, indicating the considerable neutralizing effects of alkaline aerosols in northern China. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of major ions and pH values showed obvious seasonal differences, the precipitation had higher pH values and VWM concentrations of major ions in dry season. This is mainly attributed to the different sources of air masses in different seasons and the dilution effect on suspended particles. According to the equivalent ratio of [nssCa2 + + NH4+] / [nssSO42- + NO3-] and the results of neutralization factors, the strong acid neutralization was mainly brought about by Ca2 + followed by NH4+ and Mg2 +. Using Na as an indicator of marine origin, the proportions of sea salt and non-sea-salt were estimated from elemental ratios. Combining with the results of correlation analysis, the main acidic ions (SO42 - and NO3-) and NH4+ were mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, and Ca2 + and Mg2 + mostly originated from terrestrial sources. In general, the results reflect that terrestrial source was an important source of major cations in rainwater and strongly influenced the precipitation chemistry, especially in dry season.

  20. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  1. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  2. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  3. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in the Horgos River Watershed in the NorthWestern Ili Basin in Sinkiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. H.; Jiang, J. Y.; Rao, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, hydrogeochemical and stable environmental isotopic (oxygen-18 and deuterium) data of groundwater in the Horgos River watershed in the north-western Ili Basin were examined to determine the groundwater chemical characteristics, as well as the origins of the groundwater and surface water. The quaternary aquifer's structure and spatial distribution is complex. Hydrogeochemical data shows that the groundwater is alkaline due to the presence of bicarbonate as the dominant anion. In the north, the dominant groundwater cation was Ca2+ while Mg2+ ions were highest in the south. In addition, water types varied from HCO3-SO4-Ca and HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg to HCO3-SO4-Mg-Ca and SO4-HCO3-Mg-Ca. Overall, the groundwater in this study showed high total hardness. The dissolving and evaporation inspissation were considered the main controlling factors. Isotopic data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) indicated that the Horgos River was the main recharge source for the groundwater, which rapidly infiltrated across sandstone macropores. Furthermore, surface water and shallow groundwater were significantly affected by evaporation.

  4. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  5. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoarchean North Liaoning tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses of the North China Craton, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maojiang; Liu, Shuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kang; Yan, Ming; Guo, Boran; Bai, Xiang; Guo, Rongrong

    2016-12-01

    Tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses are dominant lithological assemblages in Archean high grade metamorphic terranes in the world. These TTG gneisses preserve important information in formation and evolution of Archean continental crust. Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock in North Liaoning Province (NLP) is one of the major Neoarchean metamorphic basement terranes in the northeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock is composed mainly of Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses, subordinate granodioritic to monzogranitic association (GMA) and minor supracrustal rocks. The tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses are divided into high MgO Group (HMG) and low MgO Group (LMG) based on their chemical compositions. Detailed petrogenetic investigations suggest that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and contaminated by the overlying mantle wedge during its ascent; whereas, magmatic precursors of the LMG samples were derived from the juvenile lower crust. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating analyses reveal that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were formed at 2553-2531 Ma. An older HMG tonalitic gneiss sample was discovered at Sandaoguan in the southmost of the studied area, with its magmatic precursor emplaced at 2680 Ma. The magmatic precursors of the LMG samples emplaced at 2595-2583 Ma. Combined with previous credible chronological data, our newly obtained zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that three episodes of magmatism at ∼2700-2680 Ma, ∼2600-2570 Ma and ∼2550-2510 Ma occurred in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock, and the TT gneisses in this microblock were subjected to generally amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼2520-2470 Ma. Based on the above Neoarchean crust-mantle thermal-dynamic processes, we propose that the Neoarchean magmatism and metamorphism in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock of North Liaoning Province occurred in

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  7. Clinical malaria along the China-Myanmar border, Yunnan Province, China, January 2011-August 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guofa; Sun, Ling; Xia, Rongji; Duan, Yizhong; Xu, Jianwei; Yang, Henglin; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Xiang, Zheng; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2014-04-01

    Passive surveillance for malaria cases was conducted in Yunnan Province, China, along the China-Myanmar border. Infection with Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum protozoa accounted for 69% and 28% of the cases, respectively. Most patients were adult men. Cross-border travel into Myanmar was a key risk factor for P. falciparum malaria in China.

  8. Geographic mapping of Crohn's disease and its relation to affluence in jiangsu province, an eastern coastal province of china.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD.

  9. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in goats in Hunan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fen; Wang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Chang-Jian; He, Shi-Cheng; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. In the present investigation, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China between March 2014 and December 2015. A total of 1,028 serum samples collected from 14 administrative regions of Hunan province were evaluated by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for the detection of specific antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 124 serum samples (12%). The T. gondii seroprevalence ranged from 1.7% to 19% among different regions in subtropical China, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results of the present survey indicated that T. gondii infection is prevalent in goats in Hunan, which poses a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this province. PMID:27762212

  11. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  13. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Chi, Yuanyuan; Cui, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Yan; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22-October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%).

  14. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  15. Study on the origin of kaolin tonsteins in North China and its processing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojie; Liu Qinfu; Li Qijun

    1998-12-31

    Kaolin Tonstein, occurring in Permo-Carboniferous Coal measures in North China, is a kind of kaolinitic clay material, which is different from that in Germany, France, Russia, US. and other European-American Countries, featuring thick-bedded, wide-spread and good quality coal. The thickness of kaolin tonsteins in North China is 70 cm or so, but that in the above-mentioned countries only 3 cm. From Hunjiang County, Jilin Province to Handan County, Gansu Province, from Huainan and Huaibei coal field to Inner Mongolia coalfield, kaolin tonstein deposits are scattered over vast areas on the North China Platform with great proved reserves of 1.6 billion tons. It is of great interest and high significance to study the mineralization mechanism of kaolin tonsteins for its processing and utilization. By means of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and organic chemistry, the origin of kaolin tonsteins has been systematically deliberated and the origin model of it has been proposed. On the basis of this, the processing technology of kaolin tonsteins has been put forward, which has been successfully employed in China.

  16. Change in rainfall drives malaria re-emergence in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Wang, Li-Ping; Liang, Song; Liu, Yong-Xiao; Tong, Shi-Lu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Li, Ya-Pin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Hong; Ma, Jia-Qi; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is re-emerging in Anhui Province, China after a decade long' low level of endemicity. The number of human cases has increased rapidly since 2000 and reached its peak in 2006. That year, the malaria cases accounted for 54.5% of total cases in mainland China. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of human cases and factors underlying the re-emergence remain unclear. We established a database containing 20 years' (1990-2009) records of monthly reported malaria cases and meteorological parameters. Spearman correlations were used to assess the crude association between malaria incidence and meteorological variables, and a polynomial distributed lag (PDL) time-series regression was performed to examine contribution of meteorological factors to malaria transmission in three geographic regions (northern, mid and southern Anhui Province), respectively. Then, a two-year (2008-2009) prediction was performed to validate the PDL model that was created by using the data collected from 1990 to 2007. We found that malaria incidence decreased in Anhui Province in 1990s. However, the incidence has dramatically increased in the north since 2000, while the transmission has remained at a relatively low level in the mid and south. Spearman correlation analyses showed that the monthly incidences of malaria were significantly associated with temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, and the multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation index with lags of 0-2 months in all three regions. The PDL model revealed that only rainfall with a 1-2 month lag was significantly associated with malaria incidence in all three regions. The model validation showed a high accuracy for the prediction of monthly incidence over a 2-year predictive period. Malaria epidemics showed a high spatial heterogeneity in Anhui Province during the 1990-2009 study periods. The change in rainfall drives the reemergence of malaria in the northern Anhui Province.

  17. Change in Rainfall Drives Malaria Re-Emergence in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Xiao; Tong, Shi-Lu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Li, Ya-Pin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Hong; Ma, Jia-Qi; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is re-emerging in Anhui Province, China after a decade long’ low level of endemicity. The number of human cases has increased rapidly since 2000 and reached its peak in 2006. That year, the malaria cases accounted for 54.5% of total cases in mainland China. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of human cases and factors underlying the re-emergence remain unclear. We established a database containing 20 years’ (1990–2009) records of monthly reported malaria cases and meteorological parameters. Spearman correlations were used to assess the crude association between malaria incidence and meteorological variables, and a polynomial distributed lag (PDL) time-series regression was performed to examine contribution of meteorological factors to malaria transmission in three geographic regions (northern, mid and southern Anhui Province), respectively. Then, a two-year (2008–2009) prediction was performed to validate the PDL model that was created by using the data collected from 1990 to 2007. We found that malaria incidence decreased in Anhui Province in 1990s. However, the incidence has dramatically increased in the north since 2000, while the transmission has remained at a relatively low level in the mid and south. Spearman correlation analyses showed that the monthly incidences of malaria were significantly associated with temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, and the multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation index with lags of 0–2 months in all three regions. The PDL model revealed that only rainfall with a 1–2 month lag was significantly associated with malaria incidence in all three regions. The model validation showed a high accuracy for the prediction of monthly incidence over a 2-year predictive period. Malaria epidemics showed a high spatial heterogeneity in Anhui Province during the 1990–2009 study periods. The change in rainfall drives the reemergence of malaria in the northern Anhui Province. PMID:22928015

  18. Paleomagnetism of large igneous provinces: case-study from West Greenland, North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, Janna; Riisager, Peter; Pedersen, Asger Ken

    2003-09-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model stereo photogrammetry data from lava sequences in the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). The joint analyses of paleomagnetic and photogrammetric data yield a well-defined paleomagnetic pole located at Lat=73.6°N, Long=160.5°E ( N=44, α95=6.2°, K=13.1; age ˜61-55 Ma), which is statistically indistinguishable from a pole recently obtained for the Eurasian part of the NAIP on Faroe Islands [Riisager et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276]. Combining the two datasets we obtain a joint NAIP paleomagnetic pole in Greenland coordinates: Lat=71.1°N, Long=161.1°E ( N=87, α95=4.3°, K=13.6; age ˜61-54 Ma). The results presented here represent the first study in which photogrammetry profiles were photographed at the exact same locations where paleomagnetic fieldwork was carried out, and a direct flow-to-flow comparison of the two datasets is possible. Photogrammetry is shown to be particularly useful because of (i) highly precise dip/strike measurements and (ii) detailed 'field observations' that can be made in the laboratory. Highly precise determination of the structural attitude of well-exposed Kanisut Mb lava sequences demonstrates that their apparently reliable in-field dip/strike measurements typically are up to ˜6° wrong. Erroneous dip/strike readings are particularly problematic as they offset paleomagnetic poles without affecting their confidence limits. Perhaps more important for large igneous provinces is the recognition of a variable temporal relationship between consecutive lava flows. We demonstrate how correct interpretation of paleosecular variation, facilitated by the detailed photogrammetry analysis, is crucial for the rapidly emplaced Vaigat Formation lavas. Inaccurate tectonic correction, non-averaged paleosecular variation and unrecognized excursional directions may, perhaps, explain why coeval paleomagnetic poles from large igneous provinces are often

  19. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  20. Lung cancer burden has increased during the last 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Li, Daojuan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2011, Hebei Province, located in North China with a population of 71 794 239, accounted for approximately 6% of the national population. It is well known as a heavily air polluted area. This study reports the lung cancer burden and mortality trend in Hebei Province from 1973 to 2011. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. The proportions, cumulative incidence/mortality rates, and median age at death of lung cancer were calculated. Lung cancer mortality data of 1973–1975, 1990–1992, and 2004–2005 were extracted from national death surveys. Data of lung cancer from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population‐based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated numbers of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province were 32 623 and 27 612, respectively. The crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 45.44/100 000. The age‐standardized incidence rate by world standard population was 39.01/100 000, ranking second among all cancers. The lung cancer mortality rate was 38.46/100 000, ranking first among all cancer deaths, with a significantly increasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973–1975 to 2010–2011, with an increased rate of 189.15%. Conclusion Hebei Province suffers a heavy disease burden of lung cancer and an obvious increasing trend has been observed over the past 40 years. Preventive and control strategies should be encouraged. PMID:27148418

  1. Evaluation of Health Care System Reform in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the “Result Chain” logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  2. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  3. Dust storm as an environmental problem in north China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yufu; Cai, Qiangguo; Tang, Haiping

    2003-10-01

    Dust storms in north China, which are associated with land deterioration from increasing human pressures, have intensified over the past decades. Although synoptic meteorological conditions and sedimental environments dictate the occurrence of dust storms, their increase in frequency in north China due to human activities can be expected. Sand stabilization and control projects may be compromised by the pursuit of short-term economic returns and lack of systematic and integrated understanding of land degradation. Two actions are recommended as positive responses to escalating dust storms in north China. A policy of long-term ecologically sustainable development strategies is needed as well as a scientific research initiative combining biophysical and socioeconomic aspects.

  4. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  5. Spatiotemporal Trends and Climatic Factors of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Epidemic in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Li; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Qian, Quan; Li, Ya-Pin; Wei, Lan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. Methods and Findings Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV) transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV) transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it remained high in the

  6. Genetic characterization of Shigella flexneri isolates in Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mackenzie Delta province, North America, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitchell E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 40 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered nonassociated gas, a mean of 10.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil (with 46.6 trillion cubic feet of associated gas), and a mean of 4.0 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Mackenzie Delta Province of North America, exclusive of the unassessed deep-water portion of the province.

  8. Taming the Red Dragon: Peace Operations in North China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Warfighting Publication 5-1: Marine Corps Planning Process. Quantico, VA: U.S. Goverment Printing Office, 2010. US Congress. House of Representatives...World War II, they directed US Marine forces to land in North China, accept the surrender of a large Japanese force, and supervise their...repatriation. Upon completion in 1946, they remained in China to assist General Marshall in his efforts to fulfill the US goal of a unified democratic China

  9. Mantle Redox Conditions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Gras, M. A.; Lesher, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    The North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) has long been viewed as a region of anomalous mantle upwelling related to plume activity, continental rifting, and a heterogeneous mantle source. Prior to continental rifting in the Tertiary, the northern portion of the region was the site of closure of the Iapetus ocean basin. This tectonic event may have contributed to heterogeneities within the upper mantle and altered its oxidation state relative to the ambient mantle. Vanadium has been shown to be a useful indicator of redox conditions due to its multiple valence states (e.g. [1-2]). In mantle minerals, vanadium becomes increasingly incompatible under more oxidizing conditions [3]. Because both scandium and vanadium are moderately incompatible during melting, the Sc/V ratio of primitive basalts can be used to investigate the oxidation state of the mantle [1-3]. We have examined the Sc/V ratios of primitive lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR), Iceland, and the East Greenland margin to determine if there are spatial or temporal variations in the oxidation state of the NAIP mantle. The Sc/V ratios for MAR basalts are 0.13-0.20 (GEOROC chemical database); while Icelandic basalts range from 0.10-0.25 with an average of 0.16 (1 σ =0.05). The entire range of Sc/V ratios of the Paleogene East Greenland basalts is 0.07-0.17 with an average of 0.10 (1 σ = 0.05). The Sc/V ratios of Icelandic basalts are similar to MAR basalts, but the East Greenland lavas are distinctly lower than both the MAR and Iceland. The Sc/V ratio also can vary as a function of mean pressure of melting (i.e. spinel versus garnet lherzolite). To test the relative importance of melting systematics, source composition, and oxygen fugacity on the Sc/V systematics for NAIP basalts, we incorporated the oxygen-fugacity-dependent V mineral-melt partitioning data of [3] into the polybaric decompression melting model REEBOX [4]. The best-fit model parameters for the majority of the Iceland and MAR basalts

  10. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  11. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing; Guo, Tiankang; Bao, Guoxian

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments.

  12. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment.

  13. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-02-02

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition.

  14. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  15. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  16. Resurgence of vivax malaria in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, A. C.; Liu, X. L.; Jackson, S.; Li, P.; Shang, L. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Henan Province (population, 90 million) in China has nonstable endemic malaria. After 1970 when 10.2 million cases of malaria were reported in the province, a huge control programme was undertaken, and in the mid-1980s indoor spraying and bednet impregnation with pyrethroids began. By 1992 only 318 cases were reported. In 1992 Henan declared "basic elimination of malaria" and in consequence spraying and bednet impregnation ceased after 1994. Subsequently, malaria broke out again in southern Henan. In 1995 we conducted a household survey for malaria transmission in southern Henan. Blood smears and serum samples for immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing were collected from 2329 people and 3.1% (73/2329) were positive for infection with Plasmodium vivax and 13% (301/2329) positive for malaria (titre > or = 1:20). All age groups were affected. Exophilic Anopheles sinensis occurs throughout the province; endo-anthropophilic A. anthropophagus, whose vectorial capacity is 20 times greater than that of A. sinensis, occurs mainly in southern Henan (S of latitude 33 degrees N) and was greatly reduced in numbers during 1985-92. Comparison of 1995 entomological data with historical data showed that A. anthropophagus increased in proportion to other anophelines after spraying activities and impregnation of bednets ceased. Over 10% of 9377 residents reported having malaria. The true number affected among the at-risk population of 700,000 must be larger. We conclude that impregnated bednets and malaria surveillance should continue even after an area is declared to have "basically eliminated" malaria. PMID:9744246

  17. Assessment of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiongfen; Yao, Yufeng; Shen, Yunsong; Cao, Danfeng; Li, Yalin; Zhang, Shuqiong; Cun, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Yu, Jiankun; Shi, Li; Dong, Shaozhong

    2016-12-23

    Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population. Genotype 3 was predominant, with a distribution frequency of 0.484, followed by genotype 1 (0.283), genotype 6 (0.133) and genotype 2 (0.100). HCV subtypes 3b (frequency 0.292) and 1b (frequency 0.283) were the most common subtypes. A comparison of the current data with previous results reported for IDUs showed that the distribution frequencies of genotypes 1, 2 and 6 were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDUs (P < 0.05). Among the HCV subtypes, the distribution frequencies of 1b, 2a, 6a, and 6n were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDU groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, Phylogenetic analyses showed that HCV subtype 6a strains isolated from IDUs and the GP were intermixed and not separately clustered. HCV subtype 6a was predominant not only among IDUs but also among those in the GP in the Guangdong Province and Vietnam. However, HCV subtype 6a was predominant only among IDUs and not among those in the GP in the Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces. Our results indicate that the HCV subtype 6a could rapidly spread across China.

  18. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  19. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  20. Special Data Collection System Event Report. Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-20

    SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM EVENT REPORT Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977 Michael S. Dawkins Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne...fi,PECIAL ,PATA 5 OLLECTION SYSTEM ~ ~~~~ ( ~ Technical rep*~’. J~ ~i~Southern Sinkiang Province , China ~~~~~~~~ -- -——9 ______________ 5...Southern Sinkiang Province, China, (l6 F~~~~ar~~~977 2 This event report contains seismic data~ from the Special Data Collection System (SDCS

  1. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  3. Assessment of Undiscovered Biogenic Gas Resources, North-Central Montana Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Application of a geology-based assessment methodology by the U.S. Geological Survey resulted in an estimated mean of 6,192 billion cubic feet of shallow biogenic (continuous) undiscovered gas in the North-Central Montana Province. Oil, gas, and natural gas liquids in conventional accumulations were not assessed.

  4. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  5. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  6. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  7. Hospital medical waste management in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gai, Ruoyan; Kuroiwa, Chushi; Xu, Lingzhong; Wang, Xingzhou; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chengchao; He, Jiangjian; Tang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    Medical waste refers to those hazardous waste materials generated by healthcare activities, including a broad range of materials, and remains as an issue on both public health and environment. In China, there was inadequate information on the implementation of management systems in hospitals based on the national regulatory framework. The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of medical waste management and to identify factors determining the implementation of a management system based on the national regulatory framework in hospitals. We investigated 23 general hospitals in both urban and rural areas of Shandong Province, China, by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The medical waste generation rate was 0.744, 0.558 and 1.534 kg bed(-1) day(-1) in tertiary hospitals, urban secondary hospitals and county hospitals, respectively. There is a wide disparity between implementation in tertiary, secondary and county hospitals. With increasing financial, technological, and materials investment, a management system has been established in tertiary and secondary hospitals. Financial support and administrative monitoring by the government is urgently needed to build a sound management system in hospitals located at remote and less-developed areas. In those areas issues in the financial, administrative and technical aspects should be further examined.

  8. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  9. Recent changes of rice heat stress in Jiangxi province, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Zhang, Fangmin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Around the intensity, frequency, duration, accumulated temperature, and even extremes of high-temperature events, nine selected temperature-related indices were used to explore the space and time changes of rice heat stress in Jiangxi province, southeast China. Several statistical methods including Mann-Kendall trend test (M-K test) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used in this study, and main results were listed as follows: (1) The changes in the intensity indices for high-temperature events were more significant, it was mainly embodied in that more than 80 % of stations had positive trends. (2) R-mode PCA was applied to the multiannual average values of nine selected indices of whole stations, and the results showed that the higher hazard for rice heat stress could be mainly detected in the middle and northeast area of Jiangxi. (3) S-mode PCA was applied to the integrated heat stress index series, and the results demonstrated that Jiangxi could be divided into four sub-regions with different variability in rice heat stress. However, all the sub-regions are dominated by increasing tendencies in rice heat stress since 1990. (4) Further analysis indicated that the western north Pacific sub-tropical high (WPSH) had the significant dominant influence on the rice heat stress in Jiangxi province.

  10. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  11. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China. PMID:27833429

  12. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  13. Characterizing wetland change at landscape scale in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Sheng, Sheng; Zhou, Wen; Cui, Lijuan; Liu, Maosong

    2011-08-01

    Human activities produced great impacts on wetlands worldwide. Taking Jiangsu Province, China, as a representative wetland region subject to extensive human activities, the aim of this study is to understand the conversion trajectory and spatial differentiation in wetland change from a multi-scale perspective. Based on multi-temporal Landsat images, it was found that the natural wetlands decreased by 11.2% from 1990 to 2006 in Jiangsu Province. Transition matrices showed that the conversion of natural wetlands to human-made wetlands (mostly aquaculture ponds) was the major form of natural wetland reduction, accounting for over 60% of the reduction. Percentage reduction and area reduc tion of natural wetlands were respectively quantified within different wetland cover zones using a moving window analysis. Average percentage reduction showed a decreasing tendency with increasing wetland cover. The high-cover and mid-cover zone presented the largest area reduction at the scales of 1-2 km and 4-8 km, respectively. Local hotspots of natural wetland reduction were mapped using the equal-interval and quantile classification schemes. The hotspots were mostly concentrated in the Lixiahe marshes and the coastal wetland areas. For the area reduction hotspots, the quantile classification presented larger area and more patches than the equal-interval classification; while an opposite result was shown for the percentage reduction hotspots. With respect to the discontinuous distribution of the natural wetlands, area reduction could be more appropriate to represent reduction hotspots than percentage reduction in the study area. These findings could have useful implications to wetland conservation.

  14. HPV genotype analysis for women in Shaanxi Province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Wang, Y Y; Tian, X F; Nan, X; Yan, T; Wang, P; Fu, Y L; Wang, G Q

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this study was to examine the subtype distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) in women in the Shaanxi Province of China. A DNA chip, along with polymerase chain reaction amplification and reverse dot blot technology, was adopted to analyze the HPV genotypes of 22,937 cases of cervical cell specimens. The HPV infection rate was 18.70%, wherein high-risk, low-risk, and high- and low-risk multiple infection rates were 15.75, 2.96 and 1.91%, respectively. High-risk infections accounted for 84.20% of total infections. The rate of HPV infection in women with rural residence, high school education or less, a low income, or age over 40 years was significantly higher than that in the control group (negative HPV infection women). Of the 18 detected high-risk HPV subtypes, the most common in single infections were, in the order of prevalence, HPV16, 58, 18, 52, 33, and 56. For multiple high-risk infections, the most common subtypes in the order of prevalence were HPV16, 52, 58, 18, 56, and 33. Age was a factor in the rate of infection, as the 41-50-year age group had a significantly higher risk of infection than the other groups (P < 0.05). In multiple infections, double infections were common, accounting for 77.10% of multiple infections, and triple or more infections were more common in women aged 51-60 years. In Shaanxi Province, high-risk HPV infection in women was mainly attributed to rural residence, age over 40 years, low income, and low education level.

  15. Mesozoic tectonic setting of rift basins in eastern North China and implications for destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guo-wei; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic due to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate has attracted a lot of recent interest, with numerous studies focusing on regional tectonics and associated magmatism. Although the peak ages for this event have been established, the timing of its initiation remains poorly understood. In this paper, two rift basins in the northern Hebei Province of China, the Diaoe Basin (DB) and Houcheng Basin (HB), are studied in order to constrain the timing of destruction of the northern margin of the NCC. Both NNE-striking basins developed on Proterozoic basement. The DB is a graben controlled by normal faults on its two margins, and the HB is a half-graben bounded by normal faults on its eastern side. Basin fills include detrital sediments and volcanic rocks, which are (from bottom to top) the Houcheng Formation (Fh), the Zhangjiakou Formation (Fzh), the Shijiayao Formation (Fs), and the Huajiying Formation (Fhj). The Fh is composed mainly of detrital sediments interlayered with andesite in its lower section, and interlayered with felsic volcanics (rhyolite) in its upper section. There exists a transitional change from the Fh to the thick felsic volcanic strata of the Fzh. Geochemically, the andesite layers in the lower Fh were most likely derived from mixing of crust and mantle melts, whereas the felsic rocks were derived from melting of the lower crust. U-Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded ages for the lower Fh andesites of ca. 165.7 Ma in the HB and ca. 157.4 Ma in the DB. The felsic rocks at the base of the Fzh yielded ages of ca. 155.1 Ma in the HB and ca. 149.2-143.4 Ma in the DB. The Fs and Fhj in the DB both yielded similar ages of ca. 136 Ma. The development of rift basins, together with the occurrence of massive felsic volcanic rocks, indicates a period of significant extension and thinning of the NCC. The ca. 165.7-155.1 Ma age for andesites not only represents the initial timing of crustal extension

  16. Relationship between endemic diseases and trace elements in the natural environment of Jilin province of China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.

    1986-01-01

    Jilin province is in the middle of the north eastern region of China. Several endemic diseases are recognized there: endemic goiter, endemic fluorosis, Kaschin - Beck disease and Keshan disease. Their etiology is uncertain but they are widely distributed in rural areas which are not contaminated by industrial waste. This study shows that there is a regular distribution of some trace elements (Se, Mo, I, F) in soil, crops and drinking water as the natural environmental factors (topography, climate, types of soil and plant) vary from east to west in the province. Endemic goiter is widely spread in the upland areas, which are deficient in iodine. Iodine levels in the drinking water were less than 5.0 ug/l which accounted for 60.72% of total samples. Endemic fluorosis was distributed only in the lowland areas of the plains. Fluorine contents in 80% of water samples were more than 2.1 mg/1 in the disease areas. Kaschin-Bec, disease and Keshan disease were distributed in the mountains and hills of the eastern part of the province. The selenium and molybdenum contents of soils, crops and drinking water in the disease areas were lower than those of non-disease areas. The difference between them was significant (p < 0.01). Kaschin-Beck disease also occurred in the local plains where there were selenium deficiencies in crops and drinking water. The relationship between Kaschin-Beck disease and selenium in grains (corn) presented a significant correlation Keshan disease is also associated with deficiency in selenium and molybdenum. 13 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2016-10-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  18. Webinar Presentation: Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China, was given at the STAR Black Carbon 2016 Webinar Series: Accounting for Impact, Emissions, and Uncertainty held on Nov. 7, 2016.

  19. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of early human evolution. Here we present a magneto-cyclochronology for the Acheulian assemblage from Sanmenxia Basin, Loess Plateau, North China. Our results place a sequence of stable normal and reversed paleomagnetic polarities within a regional lithostratigraphic context. The Acheulian assemblage is dated to be older than the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at 0.78 Ma, and is found in strata that are probably equivalent to a weak paleosol subunit within loess layer L9 in the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, which corresponds to marine isotope stage (MIS) 23, a relatively subdued interglacial period with age range of ∼0.89-0.92 Ma. This age of ∼0.9 Ma implies that Acheulian stone tools were unambiguously present in North China during the Early Pleistocene. It distinctly enlarges the geographic distribution of Acheulian technology and brings its occurrence in North China back into the Early Pleistocene, which is contemporaneous with its first emergence in Europe. Combined with other archeological records, the larger area over which Acheulian technology existed in East Asia during the terminal Early Pleistocene has important implications for understanding early human occupation of North China.

  20. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton.

  1. Impact of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Dai, J R; Liang, Y S; Huang, Y X; Coles, G C

    2009-01-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is currently the key, national, water-conservation project in China, designed to optimise the use of water resources and relieve the water shortages in the north of the country. As one of the main water intakes for the project, that of the Eastern Route Scheme (ERS), is a breeding site for Oncomelania hupensis (the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum), there is concern that the snail may be carried far to the north, in the water passing through the project. To see if they could survive and breed to the north of their current range in China, O. hupensis were collected in marshland near Nanjing City and transferred to cages, on the banks of fish ponds, in the cities of Zhenjiang (in Jiangsu province, at 32 degrees 10'N), Xuzhou (in the same province but at a latitude of 34 degrees 23'N) and Jining (in Shandong province, at 35 degrees 23'N). Except over the first 6 months in Xuzhou, the snails moved north of their natural distribution did not survive and reproduce as well as those in Zhenjiang, and all those transferred to Jining died out within 1 year. Although the snail populations in Xuzhou survived for 7-8 years and retained their infectivity to S. japonicum, histological and histochemical studies revealed abnormalities in the reproductive organs of these snails. It is concluded that, unless global warming significantly increases the minimum winter temperatures in northern China, the SNWDP is unlikely to result in the northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica.

  2. Willingness-to-accept and purchase genetically modified rice with high folate content in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Storozhenko, S; Liqun, G; Lambert, W; Van Der Straeten, D; Viaene, J

    2010-02-01

    Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are considered to be the most common congenital malformations. As Shanxi Province, a poor region in the North of China, has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of NTDs in the world, folate fortification of rice is an excellent alternative to low intake of folate acid pills in this region. This paper investigates the relations between socio-demographic indicators, consumer characteristics (knowledge, consumer perceptions on benefits, risks, safety and price), willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay genetically modified (GM) rice. The consumer survey compromises 944 face-to-face interviews with rice consumers in Shanxi Province, China. Multivariate analyses consist of multinomial logistic regression and multiple regression. The results indicate that consumers generally are willing-to-accept GM rice, with an acceptance rate of 62.2%. Acceptance is influenced by objective knowledge and consumers' perceptions on benefits and risks. Willingness-to-pay GM rice is influenced by objective knowledge, risk perception and acceptance. Communication towards the use of GM rice should target mainly improving knowledge and consumers' perceptions on high-risk groups within Shanxi Province, in particular low educated women.

  3. Complete genomic characterization of two European-genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in Fujian province of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Kui; Wei, Chun-Hua; Dai, Ai-Ling; Fan, Ke-Wei; Yang, Bing-Hui; Huang, Chun-Fang; Li, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is divided into two major genotypes, European (type 1) and the North American (type 2). Type 1 PRRSV have recently emerged in Fujian province (South China), and this might have a significant impact on the Chinese pig industry. From 2013 to 2014, two type 1 PRRSV strains, named FJEU13 and FJQEU14, were isolated from piglets and sows with respiratory problems and reproductive disorders in Fujian province. The full genome length of the two isolates was 14,869-15,062 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail. These isolates shared 86.0-89.9% sequence identity with the prototypic strains Lelystad virus (LV) and 82.8-92% with Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains, but only 59.9-60.1% with the North American reference strain VR-2332. However, they were 82.9% identical to each other. Nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) and ORF3-ORF5 were the most variable regions when compared to other type 1 PRRSV strains. Nsp2 and ORF3 contained multiple discontinuous deletions and a 204-bp deletion in NSP2 in isolate FJQEU14, which has never been described in other Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains. All of these results might be useful for understanding the epidemic status of type 1 PRRSV in China.

  4. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  5. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  6. Gridded field observations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane in the atmosphere of north China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Qiu, Xinghua; Lin, Yan; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-08-06

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important pollutants, yet few data on ambient BFRs levels have been available for North China, one of the most developed regions of the country. In this study, we investigated levels and spatial distributions of BFRs based on gridded field observations coupled with passive air sampling in the aforementioned region. A model incorporating both point and nonpoint sources was developed to simulate the spatial distribution and to achieve source apportionment. Although high concentration was observed at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site, the median level of the sum of tri-, tetra-, hepta-, hexa-, and hepta-PBDEs (∑10PBDEs) was 0.56 ng/sample, which was lower than those observed previously in mainland China. Source apportionment revealed that nonpoint emissions contributed nearly 78% of ∑10PBDEs observed in this study. In contrast, high levels of BDE-209 and DBDPE were observed, with median concentrations of 4.0 and 10.2 ng/sample, respectively. Point sources located in the region around Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province were the major sources, which contributed 31% of BDE-209 and 70% of DBDPE observed in this study, indicating that this manufacturing base was the most important source region for atmospheric deca-BFRs in North China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report source apportionment of atmospheric BFRs based on gridded field observations.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  9. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The...Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ’—WikiLeaks,” Agence France-Press, November 30, 2010. Accessed January 12, 2011. http

  10. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  11. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  12. Kimmeridgian Shales Total Petroleum System of the North Sea Graben Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    The North Sea Graben of northwestern Europe, World Energy Project Province 4025, is entirely offshore within the territorial waters of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Extensional tectonics and failed rifting are fundamental to the distribution of oil and gas in the province. Accordingly, the geologic history and reser-voir rocks of the province are considered in the context of their temporal relationship to the principal extension and rifting events. The oil and gas accumulations of the province are considered part of a single petroleum system: the Kimmeridg-ian Shales Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rocks of the Kimmeridgian Shales TPS were deposited in Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous time during the period of intensive exten-sion and rifting. The Kimmeridgian Shales contain typical 'type II' mixed kerogen. Oil and gas generation began locally in the North Sea Graben Province by Cretaceous time and has continued in various places ever since. Reservoirs are found in strata with ages ranging from Devonian to Eocene. Pre-rift reservoirs are found in fault-block structures activated during rifting and can be of any age prior to the Late Jurassic. Syn-rift reservoirs are restricted to strata actually deposited during maximum extension and include rocks of Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous age. Post-rift reservoirs formed after rifting and range in age from Early Cretaceous to Eocene. Seals are diverse, depending upon the structural setting and reservoir age. Pre-rift reservoirs com-monly have seals formed by fine-grained, post-rift sedimentary sequences that drape the Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous structures. Contemporaneous shales such as the Kimmeridge Clay seal many syn-rift reservoirs. Fields with post-rift res-ervoirs generally require seals in fine-grained Tertiary rocks. In most of the North Sea Graben, source rocks have been continuously buried since deposition. Structural trap forma-tion has also taken

  13. Flora, life forms and chorotypes of plants of Salok protected area (North Khorassan Province Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, M; Halimi, M Khalilabad

    2011-01-01

    Salok protected Area is located in the 37 degrees 15' to 37 degrees 08' of the North latitude and 57 degrees 16' to 57 degrees 06' of East longitude, in West North Esfarayen in North khorassan province. In this research 52 families, 174 genera and 213 species were identified. The largest plant family is Asteraceae (34 species), Poaceae (18 species), Brassicaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (17 species), respectively. Chief life forms are Hemicryptopytes (49.29%), Therophytes 23.47% and cryptophytes (12.67%). The most of plants chorotype with 62.91% is influenced by Irano-Touranina elements. Among 213 identified species of this region and 15 species endemic of Iran contain 0.87% of total endemic species of Iran's flora.

  14. New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China.

    PubMed

    Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J; Wei, Qi; Qiang, Xiaoke; Xiao, Guoqiao

    2013-01-01

    The Nihewan Basin in North China has a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites. Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in 1972. The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1.7-1.6 Ma. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene. The earliest hominids are argued to have lived in a habitat of open grasslands mixed with patches of forests close to the bank of the Nihewan paleolake as indicated from faunal compositions. Hominid migrations to East Asia during the Early Pleistocene are suggested to be a consequence of increasing cooling and aridity in Africa and Eurasia.

  15. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  16. Late Precambrian aulacogens of the North China craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, X.

    1985-01-01

    According to tectonic styles, the Precambrian evolution history of the North China craton may be subdivided into four stages: (1) Archean consolidation in 3.5 to 2.5 Ga, (2) Early Proterozoic rifting in 2.5 to 1.8 Ga, (3) Late Precambrian aulacogen in 1.8 to 0.8 Ga and (4) Platform regime after 0.8 Ga. In the Late Precambrian aulacogen stage of the North China craton there were two main aulacogens, Yanliao and Zhongtiao (Y and Z), developed in Middle Proterozoic time with an age 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. Their NE trend caused them to meet together in the central part of the craton and build up one great Y-Z aulacogen throughout the craton.

  17. Aerosol forcing of extreme summer drought over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixia; Wu, Peili; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of extreme summer drought has been increasing in North China during the past sixty years, which has caused serious water shortages. It remains unclear whether anthropogenic forcing has contributed to the increasing extreme droughts. Using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model simulations with various combinations of historical forcings, the authors investigated the driving mechanism behind the observed changes. Metrological drought is usually measured by precipitation anomalies, which show lower fidelity in current climate models compared to large-scale circulation patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR re-analysis, a linear relationship is firstly established between the weakest regional average 850 hPa southerly winds and extreme summer drought. This meridional winds index (MWI) is then used as a proxy for attribution of extreme North China drought using CMIP5 outputs. Examination of the CMIP5 simulations reveals that the probability of the extreme summer droughts with the first percentile of MWI for 1850–2004 under anthropogenic forcing has increased by 100%, on average, relative to a pre-industrial control run. The more frequent occurrence of extremely weak MWIs or drought over North China is ascribed from weakened climate and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation due to the direct cooling effect from increased aerosol.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  19. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  20. Rural youth and youth culture in north China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y

    1999-03-01

    This article describes how economic reforms have transformed the local world of village life in North China, specifically the emergence of a rural "youth culture" that reflects urban values and styles. This culture has both challenged and enriched rural China's tradition and its more recent communal structure, a change that reshapes the relations amongst family members of different age cohorts as well as between peasants and cadres, it is argued that this transformation in the Chinese countryside holds opportunities to improve living conditions and unmake the constraints of tradition and the modern nation-state on life chances and everyday experience. The sheer number of rural youth in China suggests that the future impact of this transformation on social realities could be enormous.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Liaoning Province, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Li, Hongkui; He, Jianbin; Mu, Mingyang; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-02-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern China. In the present study, serum samples from 566 domestic sheep were collected from Liaoning Province, northeastern China, to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies using an indirect hemagglutination antibody test. Twenty-five of 566 samples (4.4%) were seropositive at the cutoff of 1:64 serum dilution. No difference was found among 6 geographic regions (P > 0.05). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Liaoning Province.

  2. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants, rodents and ticks in Gansu, north-western China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Qing; Li, Youquan; Chen, Ze; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2013-02-01

    The zoonotic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a broad geographical distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. To determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province, north-western China, four ruminant species, one rodent and one tick species were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. DNA from Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected by nested PCR in blood samples from 21/49 sheep (42.9 %), 35/91 goats (38.5 %), 51/158 yaks (32.3 %) and 7/20 cattle-yaks (35.0 %), and in spleen samples from 2/12 rodents (16.7 %). For samples from tick larvae and nymphs, 105 pools were tested; one of 46 larval tick pools was positive and seven of 59 nymphal tick pools were positive. For adult ticks, 40/598 female ticks (6.7 %) and 26/528 male ticks (4.9 %) were positive. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in female ticks was higher than that in males, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strains in the study area were distinct from previously reported Anaplasma phagocytophilum in other continents. These results add new information on the epidemiology of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and indicate the tick-animal cycle of anaplasmosis in the area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Gansu Province in north-western China.

  3. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

  4. Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Paleozoic reconstructions of south China, north China and Tarim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangyou, Nie

    1991-10-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data provide the most useful latitudinal constraints for plate reconstructions. Distributions through the Paleozoic of five types of climatically sensitive sediments (coals, evaporites, reefs, dolomites and limestones) for south China, north China and Tarim are shown on 15 maps that include 1578 reliable data points. These paleoclimatic data agree reasonably well with available paleomagnetic directions, although significant divergence between the two exists for the Early Paleozoic. These data indicate the following: (1) South China was in low latitudes during the entire Paleozoic, with a subtropical position in the Cambrian. (2) North China also remained near the equator in the Early and Late Paleozoic, except for the Ordovian and the Late Permian when extensive evaporites suggest slightly higher latitudinal positions, while its Middle Paleozoic position is uncertain due to the missing stratigraphie record. (3) In south China, local tectonics appears to have played a dominant role in determining paleogeography and therefore marine sedimentation, especially after the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, because the areal coverage of marine sediments through time is distinctly different from what would be expected from published global sea-level curves. (4) Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic data are compatible with biogeographic data which suggest that south China was part of eastern Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic, but was widely separated from Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic, and the split between the two probably happened in the Devonian, giving rise to a major break-up unconformity in central south China.

  5. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E S; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  6. Invasion of the Red Seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica Spans Biogeographic Provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E. S.; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic. PMID:23638018

  7. Six Sinopoda species (Araneae: Sparassidae) from Fujian and Yunnan Provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yang; Cao, Xiaowei; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-02

    Five new Sinopoda species collected from China are diagnosed, described and illustrated: S. afflata sp. nov. (♀, Yunnan), S. horizontalis sp. nov. (♀, Fujian), S. liui sp. nov. (♀, Fujian), S. mamillata sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), S. separata sp. nov. (♀, Yunnan). The female of S. anguina Liu, Li & Jäger, 2008 is described for the first time from Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture and Baoshan City, Yunnan province, China.

  8. A new species of Zagrammosoma Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huan-Xi; La Salle, John; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The new species Zagrammosoma dulanense Cao & Zhu, sp. n., from Qinghai Province, China, is described and illustrated. All type specimens were reared from the pupae of Micrurapteryx sophorivora Kuznetzov & Tristan (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a leafmining moth attacking the plant Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br. (Fabaceae). A key to the three known Asian species of Zagrammosoma is provided. All specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection, the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. PMID:25061354

  9. Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Naranji area, NorthWest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Danishwar, Shuhab

    2003-12-01

    The drinking water of Naranji village and surrounding areas of the NorthWest Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, was analyzed for its fluoride content. The fluoride content of water samples from the springs in the Naranji village goes up to 13.52 mg kg(-1), which exceeds the permissible limit (1.5 mg kg(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study explores the source of fluoride contamination and attributes it to the alkaline rocks of the Ambela granitic complex and the Koga complex. The low-lying areas towards the south have a fluoride content within the permissible limit. The Naranji area therefore needs urgent remedial measures.

  10. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In addition, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  11. Shelf north of Falklands may be new S. Atlantic petroleum province

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S. ); Johnson, M. )

    1995-03-06

    Interpretation of new seismic data shows that all the elements of a favorable petroleum geology exist on the North Falkland shelf and therefore that the area will become an important petroleum province of the future. Spectrum Energy and Information Technology Ltd. acquired approximately 7,500 line km of speculative seismic data during 1993--94 over the continental shelf north of the Falkland Islands. These data have been interpreted geologically to determine the petroleum prospectivity of the area prior to the planned offshore Falkland Islands licensing round. In this article the authors outline this interpretation and show how it provides some important new information on regional geology and the break-up history of southern Gondwana. The paper describes plate tectonics and basin evolution; stratigraphy; basin structure; petroleum geology; source rock maturity; hydrocarbon generation; and petroleum prospectivity.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  13. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  14. MICA/B genotyping of Tujias from Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y J; Zhang, N J; Chen, E; Chen, C J; Bu, Y H; Yu, P

    2016-04-01

    One hundred eighty-seven Tujia individuals from Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China were genotyped at the MICA and MICB loci using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming and sequencing-based typing methods. MICA and MCB genotypes are consistent with expected HW proportions. These genotype data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database.

  15. Four new species of the genus Otacilia Thorell, 1897 from Hunan Province, China (Araneae, Phrurolithidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chi; Fu, Lina; Yin, Xiangchu; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of the genus Otacilia Thorell, 1897 are reported from Hunan Province, China: Otacilia hippocampa sp. n., Otacilia yangmingensis sp. n., Otacilia curvata sp. n., and Otacilia submicrostoma sp. n. All new species are described based on both sexes. In addition, the 55 known Otacilia species are divided into four species groups. PMID:27853406

  16. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  17. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  18. Higher Vocational Education in China: A Preliminary Critical Review of Developments and Issues in Liaoning Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, G. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the increasingly important economy of China and its associated higher vocational education and training (HVE) system. More specifically, the paper aims to present the findings of a critical review of recent developments in the HVE system in Liaoning province. Design/methodology/approach: As part of this review,…

  19. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  20. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tiedao; Jing, Min

    Universalizing primary education for girls and children in disadvantaged areas remains the most challenging task for developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. This evaluation report reviews the processes and outcomes of the Pilot Project on Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China, a…

  1. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  2. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  3. China’s Foreign Policy Toward North Korea: The Nuclear Issue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    instability in North Korea could lead to a massive refugee influx from the country. This would impose unrest on Chinese society. China also needs...against North Korea. Especially, the North Korean leader, Kim Jong Un, seems determined to set a course for political independence from Beijing, and since...he succeeded to power in 2011, the political relationships between China and North Korea have been frequently at odds.2 However, despite Beijing’s

  4. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  5. Paleozoic exhumation history of the North Qinling terrane,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Genser, Johann; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhao; Zhang, Guowei; Heberer, Bianca

    2010-05-01

    The Qinling mountain range lies between the North and South China blocks, and is bounded on the north by the Lushan fault and on the south by the Mianlue-Bashan-Xiangguang fault (Dong et al., 2008). The Qinling-Dabie orogen can be subdivided, from north to south, into the Southern North China block with the North Qinling terrane, the Shangdan suture, the South Qinling microcontinent block, the Mianlue suture and the South China block (Zhang et al., 1995; Meng et al., 1999; Li SZ et al., 2007). A number of models for the Qinling tectonic evolution have been proposed. Controversies, however, still exist, in particular on the timing of the joining and the processes of convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan suture zone. Most authors believe that the collision between the North and the South China blocks occurred after the closure of the Shangdan ocean. However, an increasing body of data is not consistent with simple collision models. This paper reports new U-Pb age zircon and 40Ar/39Ar hornblende and biotite ages from magmatic and metamorphic rocks from the Northern Qinling Terrane. Based on this new dataset, we discuss the exhumation and cooling history of the Northern Qinling Terrane in order to advance the understanding of the tectonic processes that operated during convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan zone. The amphibolite-grade North Qinling metamorphic unit forms the centre of the Qinling orogenic belt. Results of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon, 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and biotite dating reveal the Palaeozoic tectonic history. U-Pb zircon dating of migmatitic orthogneiss and granite dykes constrains the age of two possible stages of migmatization at 517 ±14 Ma and 445.4 ± 4.6 Ma. Subsequently, intrusion by granites occurred at 417.2 ± 1.6 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of amphibole, ranging from 397.1 ± 8.6 Ma to 432.3± 3.4 Ma constrain the cooling of the Qinling complex below ca. 540°C and biotite 40Ar/39

  6. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination.

  7. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  8. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Wei, Xuefang; Chang, Huali; Kundrát, Martin

    2015-01-16

    Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China

  9. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  10. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  11. JPRS Report, China, Shandong Province 1988 Economic Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    visits. All 982 motions, criti- cisms, and suggestions submitted by People’s Congress deputies and CPPCC members last year have been handled. The... suggestions . The province and various localities conducted many investi- gations and studies on reform, opening up, development of the commodity economy, and... suggestions submitted by people’s deputies to make sure that every one of them is concluded and answered. Second, we should maintain close ties between

  12. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  13. 77 FR 13171 - China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2012. It... accurate information concerning the securities of China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited (``NEP''),...

  14. [Spatiotemporal variation patterns of potential evapotranspiration in five provinces of Northwest China in 1960-2011].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Feng; Pan, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Jin-Shui; Lin, Zhi-Hui

    2013-09-01

    By using Penman-Monteith model and Hurst index model, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation patterns of potential evapotranspiration (ET0) in the five provinces of Northwest China in 1960-2011. In the meantime, the dominant factors driving the variations of the ET0 were quantitatively analyzed by using sensitivity analysis method. In 1960-2011, the ET0 in the five provinces presented an overall decreasing trend, with a drop rate of -0.72 mm x a(-1), but the ET0 increased gradually after 1993. An obvious spatial difference was shown in the annual average ET0. The average ET0 in the five provinces was 1158 mm (675-2282 mm), wit the maximum (2282 mm) in Qijiaojing of Xinjiang and the low values (>800 mm) in Qinba Mountains in south Shaanxi. Except in spring, the ET0 in other seasons showed a decreasing trend. In the analysis of future trend, the ET0 in most areas (81.4%) of Northwest China would present a trend from decrease to increase. Therefore, under the background of global warming, the warm and wet degree in Northwest China would be somewhat weakened, but the ET0 in the middle part of Xinjiang would be decreased continuously. Wind speed was the main factor affecting the ET0 in Northwest China at both annual and monthly scales, but the affecting extent of wind speed differed with seasons and areas. The spatial extent affected by the wind speed in winter expanded across the entire five provinces of Northwest China, while the spatial extent affected by the wind speed in summer included the entire Xinjiang and the northwest of Gansu and Qinghai.

  15. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  16. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  17. The arsenic contamination of rice in Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China: arsenic speciation and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Lu, Shaoyou; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuyi

    2015-04-01

    Rice is a staple food in China, but it may contain toxic heavy metals. Hence, the concentrations of arsenic (As) species (As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA) were evaluated in 260 rice samples from 13 cities of Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China. The levels of sum concentrations of As species in rice samples varied from non-detect to 225.58 ng g(-1), with an average value of 57.27 ng g(-1). The mean concentrations of the major As species detected in rice samples were in the order As(III) (34.77 ng g(-1)) > As(V) (9.34 ng g(-1)) > DMA (8.33 ng g(-1)) > MMA (4.82 ng g(-1)). The rice samples of Guangdong Province were categorized as inorganic As type. Significant geographical variation of As speciation existed in rice samples of 13 cities of Guangdong Province by chi-square test (p < 0.05). The average human weekly intakes of inorganic As via rice consumption in Guangdong Province, southern China, were 1.91 µg kg(-1) body weight. Hazard quotients of total As via rice consumption of adults in 13 cities ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, indicating the As contents in rice from Guangdong Province had no potential adverse impact on human health.

  18. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  19. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  20. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronal R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.65 billion barrels of oil, 1.85 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota.

  1. An Evaluation of the Viles Tok Ples Skul Scheme in the North Solomons Province. ERU Report No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpit, Lisa D.; Kemelfield, Graeme

    The local-language-medium schools of North Solomons Province are described and evaluated. The Viles Tok Ples Skuls (VTPS) provide education in both the indigenous languages (tok ples) and English as a means of integrating the past with modern development, as is preferred by the local people. The report contains seven chapters. The first gives the…

  2. Work-Related Well-Being of Educators in a District of the North-West Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the relationship between burnout, health, job demands and job resources in a sample of educators. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 266) were taken of educators in an area of the North-West Province. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Health…

  3. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province. PMID:28098799

  4. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  5. Spatial analysis of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Hualiang; Xin, Benqiang; Nie, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P < .01). Some spatial clusters of dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect.

  6. Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H.; Ge, L.; Song, L.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-07-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) is a worldwide fulminant infectious disease. Since the first HFRS cases in Hubei Province were reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of seriously affected areas in China. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS are still not entirely clear. Therefore, a systematic investigation of spatial and temporal distribution pattern of HFRS system is needed. In order to facilitate better prevention and control of HFRS in Hubei Province, in this paper, a GIS spatiotemporal analysis and modeling tool was developed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the HFRS epidemic, as well as providinga comprehensive examination the dynamic pattern of HFRS in Hubei over the past 30 years (1980-2009), to determine spatiotemporal change trends and the causes of HFRS. This paper describes the experiments and their results.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors. PMID:27882868

  8. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors.

  10. Min Bei Irradiation Center Food and Agriculture Organization project experience Jianou, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bruce John; Dan, Xu; Jingzhang, Ren

    1993-07-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), a Unitede Nations Organization, in an effort to increase food supplies by post harvest irradiation treatment participated in the development of the Min Bei Irradiation Center(MBIC) Located in Fujian Province, China. FAO inconjunction with Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research and Design Institute(SNERDI), MBIC staff, and the Ministry of Agriculture completed Project TCP CPR 6763/8961 culminating in the recent comissioning of one of China's nesest irradiation facilities. From the feasibility phase initiated in 1986, through the construction period and the eventual commissioning in 1991 FAO participated in the technical overview of the irradiation center. MBIC was developed both as a research and development center as well as a production irradiation facility for the primary purposes of reduction of post harvest food loss in Fujian Province. This retrospective review of the project provides a hindsight view for the development of MBIC.

  11. The pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province and the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre; Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2016-04-01

    Magmatism of the first known rifting phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle is surprisingly well preserved in the Caledonian nappes of central Scandinavia. The Särv and Seve Nappes are characterised by spectacular dyke complexes originally emplaced into continental sediments along the rifted margin of Iapetus. The intensity and structure of the pre-Caledonian Dyke Complex is comparable to that of the present passive margins of the North Atlantic large igneous province (NALIP) and U-Pb ages of 610-590 Ma suggest magmatism was short-lived. It can be described as a pre-Caledonian large igneous province (CLIP). To constrain the origin of CLIP magmatism we: (1) re-visited the dyke complexes of the Sarek, Kebnekaise and Tornetrask mountains of North Sweden; (2) compiled new and published geochemical data for the more than 950 km long, magma-rich segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides; and (3) extended reconstructions of the paleo-position of Baltica back to 600 Ma. Although the appearance of the dykes ranges from garnet amphibolite gneiss to pristine magmatic intrusions, all bulk rock compositions largely reflect the original magmatic rock. The compiled dataset includes 584 analyses that essentially forms a coherent suite of tholeiitic ferrobasalt (2-12 wt% MgO, 45-54 wt% SiO2; 6-16 wt% FeOtot; 0.7-4.0 wt% TiO2) akin to LIP basalts such as those of NALIP (61-54 Ma). A few samples (<20) are significantly contaminated with crust, but most are largely uncontaminated. The delta Nb value is a proxy for geochemical enrichment based on Nb-Zr-Y systematics and was defined for the present-day North Atlantic system to distinguish enriched Iceland basalts (positive delta Nb) from normal MORB basalts (negative delta Nb). The CLIP dykes are dominantly enriched with positive delta Nb (-0.07 to +0.9) in the central and southern portion, but stretching to more negative values (-0.6 to +0.5) in the northern portion (Sarek, Kebnekaise, Tornetrask). The few available rare earth element

  12. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  13. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  14. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province.

  15. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  16. Characteristics of groundwater recharge on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu-Cui; Wu, Jing-Wei; Cai, Shu-Ying; Yang, Jin-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important component of the groundwater system. On the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater is the main water supply. Because of large-scale overexploitation, the water table has declined, which has produced severe adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem. In this article, tracer experiment and watershed model were used to calculate and analyze NCP groundwater recharge. In the tracer experiment, average recharge was 108 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.16. With its improved irrigation, vegetation coverage and evapotranspiration modules, the INFIL3.0 model was used for calculation of groundwater recharge. Regional modeling results showed an average recharge of 102 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.14, for 2001-2009. These values are very similar to those from the field tracer experiment. Influences in the two methods were analyzed. The results can provide an important reference for NCP groundwater recharge.

  17. First evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in China: discovery of chytridiomycosis in introduced American bullfrogs and native amphibians in the Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Changming; Garner, Trenton W J; Li, Yiming

    2010-08-01

    Although the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the etiological agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in mass mortality and population declines on several continents around the world, there have been no reports on the presence of Bd infections in amphibians in China. We employed quantitative PCR and histological techniques to investigate the presence of Bd in introduced North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) (referred to hereafter as bullfrog) and native amphibians in bullfrog-invaded areas of the Yunnan Province, China. A total of 259 samples at five wild sites were collected between June and September in 2007 and 2008, including bullfrogs and four native amphibian species (Rana pleuraden, Rana chaochiaoensis, Odorrana andersonii, and Bombina maxima). In addition, 37 samples of adult bullfrogs were obtained from a food market. Bd infections were discovered in bullfrogs and three native amphibian species from all of the surveyed sites. Of the 39 Bd-positive samples, 35 were from wild-caught bullfrog tadpoles, postmetamorphic bullfrogs, R. pleuraden, R. chaochiaoensis, and O. andersonii, and four were from adult bullfrogs from the market. Our results provide the first evidence of the presence of Bd in Chinese amphibians, suggesting that native amphibian diversity in China is at risk from Bd. There is an urgent need to monitor the distribution of Bd in amphibians in China and understand the susceptibility of native amphibian species to chytridiomycosis. Strict regulations on the transportation of bullfrogs and the breeding of bullfrogs in markets and farms should be drafted in order to stop the spread of Bd by bullfrogs.

  18. Gridded inventories of historical usage for selected organochlorine pesticides in Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiangyang; Tian, Chongguo; Yang, Xianming; Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2013-10-01

    HCHs and DDTs were banned in 1983 in China; however, they are still remaining in various environmental media. Since endosulfan was introduced in China in 1994, it is widely used in agriculture. In this study, temporal and spatial uses of endosulfan, HCHs, and DDTs in Gansu province of China have been presented. It is estimated that the total usage is 701 tons for endosulfan between 1994 and 2007, 1,712 tons for HCHs between 1952 and 1983, and 462 tons for DDTs between 1951 and 1983, respectively. Endosulfan usage increased dramatically in 1998 due to its application on other crops except on cotton. The HCH and DDT usage displayed a rapid increase after 1972, reaching the peak in 1976 and in 1975, respectively; since then, they declined until being banned in 1983. The gridded usage inventories of these three kinds of organochlorine pesticides in Gansu province, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6° latitude resolution, have been created by using different crops for endosulfan and the area of dry farmland for HCHs and DDTs as surrogate data. The most intensive use was in northwestern regions for endosulfan and southeastern regions for HCHs and DDTs in Gansu province.

  19. Soil Carbonate Dynamics on Arid Cropland in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X.; Huang, S.; Liu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonate (PIC) is an important element for carbon sequestration. However, field data necessary to quantify carbon sequestration as carbonate have been lacking. Here, we report recent studies of carbonate accumulation in soils of the arid and semi-arid regions of north China. First study was carried out in southern Xinjiang, the Yanqi Basin, where more than 100 soil samples were collected from desert land, shrub land and cropland, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and inorganic carbon (SIC) and their stable 13C compositions were determined. This study showed that both SOC and SIC stocks were significantly higher on the cropland than on the desert land and shrub land. Our analyses suggested that cropping might have led to large PIC accumulation (24-116 g C m-2 year-1) in the Yanqi Basin. Second study was to evaluate carbon sequestration on cropland using archived soil samples from three long-term experiment (LTE) sites in north China: Urumqi, Yangling and Zhengzhou. SOC and SIC, and their stable 13C compositions were determined in two sets of soil samples (130 samples in total) collected in the early and late 2000's under various fertilization treatments. Our study showed an overall increase of SIC content in soil profiles over time, particularly under fertilizations. Accumulation rate of SIC stock over the 0-100 cm ranged from ~100 to 200 g C m-2 year-1, with the greatest rate found under the highest fertilization rate. Our analyses indicated that fertilization might have led to an average accumulation rate of > 60 g C m-2 year-1 for PIC on these arid croplands. Our studies showed that more carbon sequestrated in the form of carbonate than as SOC on arid and semi-arid lands, and suggests that increasing SOC stock through straw incorporation and manure application in the arid and semi-arid regions would also enhance carbonate accumulation in soil profiles over long-term.

  20. Climatic and tectonic controls on Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentation in northeastern Guangdong Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Krapež, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    Stratigraphic analyses document climatic and tectonic controls on the filling of a Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic (T3-J2) basin that developed on top of a young orogenic belt in southeastern South China. About 2700 m of Carnian to Bajocian sedimentary rocks is documented in the Meizhou region, Guangdong Province. The Carnian to Rhaetian sequence is characterized by deltaic facies that are succeeded by Hettangian fluvial, shallow marine and volcaniclastic facies, and by Sinemurian to early Toarcian interdistributary bay and floodplain facies. The late Toarcian to Bajocian sequence comprises proximal alluvial to lacustrine facies that changed upwards to fluvial facies. Fossil assemblages indicate that climatic conditions changed from tropical/subtropical warm humid, to temperate humid, and then to hot arid through the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic. Climatically induced changes (e.g., in precipitation, vegetation and erosion) exerted a strong influence on sediment supply, whereas tectonics played a dominant role in stratigraphic evolution, accommodation generation, sedimentation pattern and volcanism. Tectonostratigraphic analysis shows that the T3-J2 basin was initiated on an orogenic belt during late-stage orogeny, and evolved into shallow-marine and volcanic environments and then back to terrestrial facies during the post-orogenic stage. This was followed by regional uplift and the development of a basin-and-range province. The order of these events is similar to that of the central Rocky Mountains, western North America during the Palaeogene. The Mesozoic basin of South China and the Eocene basins of the central Rocky Mountains highlight the importance of subduction-related subsidence above young and broad orogens.

  1. Effects of Land Use on Soil Quality on the Loessplateau in North-West Shanxi Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Li; Ji, Ruirui; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Jianjie

    Northwest Shanxi is located at the eastern border of the Loess Plateau. In order to guard against wind, to conserve water and soil, to fix sand, a large area of Caragana microphylla was planted in the hilly loess plateau in the north-west soil properties and ultimately soil quality, a case study was conducted in Wuzhai (North-west Shanxi Province). Soil samples were collected from adjacent Caragana microphylla land, farm land, poplar forests, fallow land and mixed plantations of Caragana microphylla and poplar. Initially, soil properties under the five land-uses were studied separately. Then an evaluation indicator system was developed according to the principle of evaluation indicator selection. Subsequently, the method of multivariate analysis was used to carry through a complete scientific evaluation. Results showed a highest under the mixed plantation and, compared with the mixed plantation,the SQI of farmland decreased greatly. The SQI of fallow land was the lowest, but considering the soil nutrient content, land fallowing improved soil fertility to some extent. It was further shown that growing Caragana microphylla and mixed polar and Caragana microphylla plantation was the most sustainable ways of developing the loess plateau.

  2. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  3. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  4. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses. The HA gene of the isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1412 /2014(H5N1) virus belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1b. The isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1508/2015 (H5N1) virus was a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) virus with three internal genes (PB2, PB1 and M) from H9N2 virus and belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1c. PMID:27162026

  5. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-05-10

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses. The HA gene of the isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1412 /2014(H5N1) virus belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1b. The isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1508/2015 (H5N1) virus was a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) virus with three internal genes (PB2, PB1 and M) from H9N2 virus and belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1c.

  6. Comparison of Late Ordovician epicontinental seas and their relative bathymetry in North American and China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Fox, W.T. ); Jia-Yu, Rong )

    1989-02-01

    Six widely separated areas with Upper Ordovician strata in Canada and the United States are compared with six localities in southern China. Cyclic sedimentation, including evaporites, carbonates, and phosphatic black shales, occurred in relatively shallow epicontinental seas of North America. As many as three Ashgill cycles of regionally different styles may have been coeval throughout North America in response to modest changes in sea level. Environments in South China primarily included carbonates and black shales with a far more uniform distribution. Absence of comparable sedimentary cycles confirms that the platform bathymetry of South China was consistently deeper than in North America. The almost complete exposure of North China (Sino-Korean Plate) by Late Ordovician time underscores the fact that independent cratons have different bathymetric histories. By mid-Silurian time, South China also was fully exposed. Such hypsographic variation is critical to the intercontinental correlation of features related to eustasy, water chemistry, and even the patterns of extinctions.

  7. Molecular characterisation of clinical Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si-Ying; Lei, Yao; Kang, Mei; Xiao, Yu-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Xing

    2015-05-01

    Previous reports on the molecular characteristics of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus species in China have focused on isolates from southeast China. To obtain a more detailed molecular epidemiology, a total of 92 cryptococcal isolates were collected from Sichuan province. A total of 24 isolates from 12 other provinces were collected for comparative study. Genotypes and mating types of 116 Cryptococcus isolates were determined. Among the 116 isolates, 43 isolates (19 isolates from Sichuan and 24 isolates outside of Sichuan) were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). All 116 clinical isolates were mating type α. Most isolates (114/116) were molecular type VNI and the remaining two isolates were VGI and VGII respectively. MLST results revealed five sequence types (STs) of C. neoformans including two novel STs, with most isolates identified as ST5. The two C. gattii isolates identified in our study were ST44 and ST159. Based on our report and previous studies, there are 15 C. neoformans STs in China which can be divided into three subgroups. The C. gattii isolate from Sichuan could be a scattered subtype of VGII (ST44). Our findings demonstrated that C. neoformans isolates in Sichuan are genetically homogeneous, and ST5 is the epidemic clone of C. neoformans in China.

  8. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Meixner, T.; De La Cruz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is the primary source of aquifer replenishment, an important source of freshwater for human consumption and riparian area sustainability in semi-arid regions. It is critical to understand the current groundwater recharge regimes in groundwater basins throughout the Western U.S. and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change, land use change and management manipulations that impact the availability and composition of groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters, and variable summer precipitation. The horst-graben structure of these basins lends itself to orographic and continental precipitation effects that make mountain block and mountain front recharge critical components of annual recharge. The current assumption is that the relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation dominating in the northern parts of the region, and summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon extends its influence. To test this hypothesis, stable water isotope data of groundwater and precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to characterize and compare groundwater recharge regimes throughout the region. Preliminary stable water isotope results from the southernmost Rio San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico indicate that groundwater is composed of 64%±14% summer monsoon precipitation, in contrast to more northern basins where winter precipitation is the source of 79-90% of basin groundwater.

  9. Human Cases of Fascioliasis in Fujian Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lin; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica. The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole. PMID:28285507

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen infecting humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The most common sources of human infection are ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Methods Serum samples were collected from 711 and 738 slaughtered horses and donkeys, respectively, in 13 regions of Liaoning province. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to test the specific antibodies to T. gondii. Results In this study, 178 of 711 (25.0%) horses were seropositive for T. gondii with titers of 1:25 in 81, 1:50 in 62, 1:100 in 33, and 1:200 in 2, and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection from 13 regions ranged from 8.2% to 37.0%. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 of 738 (23.6%) donkeys with titers of 1:25 in 66, 1:50 in 54, 1:100 in 49, and 1:200 in 5, and seroprevalence varied in 13 different regions, ranging from 9.1% to 32.6%. Conclusions The results of the present study indicated that the rate of infection with T. gondii in horses and donkeys is a little high in Liaoning province, northeastern China in comparison to other surveys in China, which suggests that consumption of horse and donkey meat in this area may represent a potential source for human infection with T. gondii. PMID:23680297

  11. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax population in Anhui province of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the numbers of malaria cases in China have been declining in recent years, outbreaks of Plasmodium vivax malaria were still being reported in rural areas south of the Yellow River. To better understand the transmission dynamics of P. vivax parasites in China, the extent of genetic diversity of P. vivax populations circulating in Bozhou of Anhui province of China were investigated using three polymorphic genetic markers: merozoite surface proteins 1 and 3α (pvmsp-1 and pvmsp-3α) and circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp). Methods Forty-five P. vivax clinical isolates from Bouzhou of Anhui province were collected from 2009 to 2010 and were analysed using PCR/RFLP or DNA sequencing. Results Seven and six distinct allelic variants were identified using PCR/RFLP analysis of pvmsp-3α with HhaI and AluI, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of pvmsp-1 (variable block 5) revealed that there were Sal-I and recombinant types but not Belem type, and seven distinct allelic variants in pvmsp-1 were detected, with recombinant subtype 2 (R2) being predominant (66.7%). All the isolates carried pvcsp with VK210 type but not VK247 or P. vivax-like types in the samples. Sequence analysis of pvcsp gene revealed 12 distinct allelic variants, with VK210-1 being predominant (41.5%). Conclusions The present data indicate that there is some degree of genetic diversity among P. vivax populations in Anhui province of China. The genetic data obtained may assist in the surveillance of P. vivax infection in endemic areas or in tracking potential future disease outbreak. PMID:24401153

  12. Potential temperature, upwelling rate and eclogite in the formation of the North Atlantic large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. L.; Lesher, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    The volumes and compositions of basalts generated by adiabatic decompression melting of the Earth’s mantle depend on mantle potential temperature (T_P), upwelling rate and the fertility of the mantle source. The relative importance of these factors in generating the high productivity magmatism of the Paleogene - Recent North Atlantic large igneous province (NAIP) remains controversial. Each has been proposed as a primary factor in the region. To assess the significance of these mechanisms in NAIP magmatism, we apply our forward melting model, REEBOX PRO, which simulates the melting of a heterogeneous source comprised of peridotite and eclogite lithologies. The model accounts for the thermodynamics of adiabatic decompression melting of a heterogeneous source using constraints from laboratory melting experiments. Input values of T_P and eclogite abundance are used to calculate the buoyancy of the mantle source and maximum upwelling rates. Source buoyancy constrains the maximum amount of eclogite in the mantle source that can ascend beneath the rift axis. All melts generated within the melting regime are pooled to form magmatic crust according to the residual column method. Using the model, variations in magmatic crustal thickness (from geophysics) as a function of eclogite content (from geochemistry) can be related to T_P and upwelling rate. Models with no thermal anomaly, that call on either enhanced upwelling rates due to plate separation (edge - driven convection) or the melting of abundant (> 30%) eclogite at “ambient” T_P (1325 °C), cannot generate the observed igneous crustal thicknesses around the province. Rather, elevated mantle T_P (minimum thermal anomaly ~ 85 - 195 °C) and associated buoyancy - driven upwelling are needed to explain the volume of igneous crust in the province. Involvement of eclogite, while necessary to explain the compositions of many NAIP lavas, does not significantly enhance melt production. These factors, coupled with the long

  13. Epidemiology of the avian influenza A (H7N9) outbreak in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A novel influenza A virus infection was identified on March 31, 2013 in China and a total of 134 cases were identified in 12 provinces of China between March 25 and September 31, 2013. Of these, 46 cases occurred in Zhejiang Province and the number of patients is the largest in China. Methods Field investigations were conducted for each confirmed H7N9 case. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about demographics, exposure history, clinical signs and symptoms, timelines of medical visits and care after onset of illness, and close contacts. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Samples from the patients were collected and tested by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and viral culture. Results A total of 46 laboratory confirmed cases of H7N9 influenza infection were identified in the Zhejiang province between March 31 and September 31, 2013 of which 29 were male and 17 were female. The median age of patients was 61.5 years and 76.09% of cases occurred in persons aged ≥50 years old. Unlike other province, 34.78% of cases in Zhejiang Province were rural residents. Among 11 deaths, 9 were male, 10 were older than 60 years old, and 10 had underlying diseases. 30 of 38 cases with available data had a recent history of poultry exposures and 8 cases had multi-exposure history. The estimated median incubation period was two days which was shorter than corresponding data in other provinces. All cases were hospitalized and the median time from illness onset to hospitalization was 5 days. Symptoms at the onset of the illness included fever, cough, expectoration, shivering, fatigue, muscular aches, nausea, vomiting. Only 4.91% contacts developed respiratory symptoms, but their samples were tested negative for H7N9 virus designating lack of human-to-human transmission of the virus. Conclusions All cases were sporadic and there was no evidence of an epidemiologic

  14. Seasonal prediction of winter haze days in the north central North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the winter (December-February) haze pollution over the north central North China Plain (NCP) has become severe. By treating the year-to-year increment as the predictand, two new statistical schemes were established using the multiple linear regression (MLR) and the generalized additive model (GAM). By analyzing the associated increment of atmospheric circulation, seven leading predictors were selected to predict the upcoming winter haze days over the NCP (WHDNCP). After cross validation, the root mean square error and explained variance of the MLR (GAM) prediction model was 3.39 (3.38) and 53 % (54 %), respectively. For the final predicted WHDNCP, both of these models could capture the interannual and interdecadal trends and the extremums successfully. Independent prediction tests for 2014 and 2015 also confirmed the good predictive skill of the new schemes. The predicted bias of the MLR (GAM) prediction model in 2014 and 2015 was 0.09 (-0.07) and -3.33 (-1.01), respectively. Compared to the MLR model, the GAM model had a higher predictive skill in reproducing the rapid and continuous increase of WHDNCP after 2010.

  15. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  16. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dysentery in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Wang, Guoyong; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on dysentery transmission, the relationship between monthly dysentery cases in Shandong Province of China and the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a broad index of ENSO, was examined over the period 1991-2003. Spearman correlations and generalized linear models were calculated to detect the association between the SOI and dysentery cases. Data from 1991 to 2001 were used to estimate the parameters, while data from 2002 to 2003 were used to test the forecasting ability of the model. After controlling for seasonality, autocorrelation, and a time-lagged effect, the results indicate that there was a significant negative association between the number of dysentery cases and the SOI, with a lagged effect of 2 months. A one-standard-deviation decrease in the SOI might cause up to 207 more dysentery cases per month in Shandong Province. This is the first report of the impact of the Southern Oscillation on dysentery risk in China, indicating that the SOI may be a useful early indicator of potential dysentery risk in Shandong Province.

  17. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease.

  18. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  19. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  20. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event is mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 47.8 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 300 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 μg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. Feedbacks associated to Black Carbon (BC) account for about 50 % of the PM2.5 increases and 50 % of the PBL decreases in Shijiazhuang, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  1. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  2. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  3. The making and remaking of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.

    2004-12-01

    The North China Block (NCB) consists of two major Archaean crustal nuclei that collided together by ca. 1800 Ma (e.g., Zhao, 2001), although some argue that they came together as early as ca. 2500 Ma (e.g., Zhai and Liu, 2003; Kusky and Li, 2004). No orogenic event is known within the NCB from ca. 1800 Ma until Permian. The shape and lithospheric architecture of this seemingly stable continental block were significantly reworked by Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Continental collision between the NCB and South China Block (SCB) started from their eastern ends as early as Permian, leading to the initial continental subduction and subsequent exhumation of 240-235 Ma UHP metamorphic rocks (e.g., Hacker et al., 2000; Ayers et al., 2002) to the crustal level by ca. 220 Ma (Hacker et al., 2000). This was followed by the development of flake tectonics in the region east of the Tanlu Fault between Late Triassic and mid-Jurassic (Li, 1994, 1998), where the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the SCB continued to subduct beneath the NCB, whereas the upper crust of the SCB, along with the UHP rocks at the upper crustal level along the former plate margin, were obducted over the lower crust of the NCB for up to 500 km. We thus have a composite crust in the Sulu-Yellow Sea-central Korea region. Extensive thin- to thick-skinned thrusting also developed in both the Jiao-Liao region east of the Tanlu Fault and the Xu-Huai and Luxi regions west of the Tanlu Fault during this process, all within the upper crust of the NCB. This complex crustal architecture may still influence distribution of epicentres in the region. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thin-skinned thrusts were well developed along northern NCB (e.g., Davis et al., 1998) possibly due to the closure of the Mongolo-Okhotsk sea to the north. For reasons still being debated, eastern NCB underwent dramatic lithospheric thinning (locally total erosion of lithospheric mantle?) during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary (e.g., O'Reilly et

  4. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity. PMID:27658591

  5. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity.

  6. Concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in fish and shrimp in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianling; Fei, Zhiliang; Wu, Guanghong; Giesy, John P

    2007-08-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) concentrations were determined in 55 samples of fish, shrimp, crabs, frogs and turtles collected in Jiangsu Province and 55 freshwater shrimp samples collected from the Huiming Fish Market, Nanjing, China between 2003 and 2004. PCP concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit (MDL: 0.5 microg/kg ww) to 61 microg/kg ww, with a mean of 5.2 microg/kg ww in 55 samples collected across Jiangsu Province and a mean of 0.5 microg/kg ww for freshwater shrimp collected from the Huiming Fish Market. Concentrations of PCP in common carp (Carassius auratus) were significantly greater than concentrations of PCP in other species from all of the areas studied. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) contained the second greatest concentrations and crustacean species contained the least concentrations. Concentrations of PCP were greater in samples collected from Southern Jiangsu than those collected from other areas of Jiangsu Province. Concentrations of PCP in the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) from the Huiming Fish Market were greater in March and September than those collected in June and December. Based on the allowable daily intake (ADI) set by the US National Academy of Science, current concentrations of PCP measured in aquatic products from Jiangsu Province presented minimus health risks to humans.

  7. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  8. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  9. Reconstituting the epidemic history of mono lineage of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Guizhou province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Binlian; Li, Lingnuo; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yao; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Rongge

    2014-08-01

    Guizhou province, located between border provinces and Central province of China, plays a crucial role in the transmission of HIV-1, implying it is important to monitor the epidemic of HIV-1 in this region. Available HIV-1 infected patients' plasma (n=78) were collected from Tongren city, Eastern Guizhou. Full-length gag, partial pol and env gene sequences were amplified and analyzed using phylogenetic, recombinant and Bayesian molecular clock approaches. Phylogenetic and recombinant analyses showed that CRF01_AE predominated among injecting drug users and heterosexuals in Tongren city with 85.9% proportion, it was followed by B' (5.1%), CRF07_BC (3.8%), CRF08_BC (3.8%), and B (1.3%). Moreover, 98.5% of CRF01_AE strains belonged to the distinct lineage CRF01_AE-v previously found in Guangxi province. To infer the most probable origin of CRF01_AE-v in Guizhou province, we download all available full length of CRF01_AE gag, pol and env gene region sequences from China in Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that the expanding CRF01_AE-v epidemic in Guizhou province was the result of local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions of CRF01_AE-v strains from Guangxi province in early 2000s. High prevalence of CRF01_AE in Guizhou province may bridge the epidemic to Central China. It provides a new insight for the understanding of HIV-1 epidemic in Guizhou province and makes the evolutionary history of CRF01_AE in China more intact.

  10. Investigation of medical waste management in Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Wang, Yan; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Yao-Ling; Wang, Jun-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Medical waste is a special category of waste with potential health and environment risks. The present study aimed to explore the current status of medical waste management in western China. Seventy-four healthcare facilities were selected to assess the general status of medical waste management based upon a designed questionnaire survey. The surveyed results showed that the quantities of average medical waste generation were 0.79, 0.59 and 0.61 kg bed(-1) day(-1) in tertiary, secondary and primary hospitals, respectively. The incomplete segregation of domestic and medical waste generated a higher quantity of medical waste in primary hospitals (0.61 kg bed(-1) day(-1)) than that in secondary hospitals. Furthermore, the effective implementation of the medical waste management system depended on national regulations, occupational safety, internal policies and administration and the qualifications and competence of the directors of the waste management department in the healthcare facilities. Therefore, sufficient training programmes and protective measures should be provided by healthcare facilities to all relevant personnel and adequate financial support and effective administrative monitoring should be performed by local authorities.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province. PMID:28224883

  13. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  14. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  16. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties.

  17. Identification, phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of GDQY orf virus isolated from Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, southern China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chaohui; Liao, Meiying; Wang, Han; Luo, Xiaohong; Shao, Jing; Xu, Ying; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Luo, Shuhong

    2015-01-25

    Infection with the orf virus (ORFV) leads to contagious ecthyma, also called contagious pustular dermatitis, which usually affects sheep, goats and other small ruminants. It has a great distribution throughout the world and has also been reported to infect humans. Though many strains have been isolated from differing parts of mainland China, rarely has any strain been reported from the southern provinces of China. We studied a case of orf virus infection that occurred at Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province in southern China. An orf virus strain, GDQY, was successfully isolated and identified through cell culture techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Complete genes of ORFV011, ORFV059, ORFV106 and ORFV107 were amplified for the sequence analysis based on their nucleotide or amino acid level. In order to discuss the genetic variation, precise sequences were used to compare to other reference strains isolated from different districts or countries. Phylogenetic trees based on those strains were built up and evolutionary distances were calculated based on the alignment of their complete sequences. The typical structure of the orf virus was observed in cell-culture suspensions inoculated with GDQY, and the full-length of four genes was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GDQY is homologous to FJ-DS and CQ/WZ on ORFV011 nucleotides. ORFV059 may be more variable than ORFV011 based on the comparison between GDQY and other isolates. Genetic studies of ORFV106 and 107 are reported for the first time in the presented study.

  18. Biodegradation of imazapyr in typical soils in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Dong; Zhou, Su-Mei; Wang, Hui-Li; Fan, De-Fang

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of imazapyr in non-sterile and sterile soils from four sampling sites in Zhejiang, China was studied. The results showed that the half-lives of imazapyr in non-sterile soils were in the range of 30 to 45 d, while 81 to 133 d in sterile (by autoclaving) soils. It means the rate constants of imazapyr under non-sterile conditions were 2.3-4.4 times faster than that under sterile (by autoclaving) conditions, evidently indicating that the indigenous microorganisms in soil play an important role in the degradation of imazapyr. The different sterilization methods could result in different degradation rates of imazapyr. The heat of sterilization of soil largely decreased the degradation. However, the sterile treatment of soil by sodium azide had a different effect from that by autoclaving. Further more, the mechanism was also discussed. Biodegradation in four non-sterile soils accounted for 62% to 78% of imazapyr degradation. In contrast, less than 39% of imazapyr degradation was associated with chemical mechanisms. Therefore, the degradation mechanism was predominantly involved in biology including organisms and microorganisms in soil. Two imazapyr-degrading bacterial strains were isolated in enrichment culture technique and they were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescenes biotype II (ZJX-5) and Bacillus cereus (ZJX-9), respectively. When added at a concentration of 50 microg/g in mineral salts medium (MSM), ZJX-5 and ZJX-9 could degrade 81% and 87% imazapyr after 48 h of incubation. For the treatment of incorporation of ZJX-5 or ZJX-9 into soil, the degradation rate enhanced 3-4 fold faster than that for control samples, which showed an important value in quick decontamination of imazapyr in soil.

  19. MMI attenuation and historical earthquakes in the basin and range province of western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes in central Nevada (1932-1959) were used to develop a modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) attenuation model for estimating moment magnitude M for earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of interior western North America. M is 7.4-7.5 for the 26 March 1872 Owens Valley, California, earthquake, in agreement with Beanland and Clark's (1994) M 7.6 that was estimated from geologic field observations. M is 7.5 for the 3 May 1887 Sonora, Mexico, earthquake, in agreement with Natali and Sbar's (1982) M 7.4 and Suter's (2006) M 7.5, both estimated from geologic field observations. MMI at sites in California for earthquakes in the Nevada Basin and Range apparently are not much affected by the Sierra Nevada except at sites near the Sierra Nevada where MMI is reduced. This reduction in MMI is consistent with a shadow zone produced by the root of the Sierra Nevada. In contrast, MMI assignments for earthquakes located in the eastern Sierra Nevada near the west margin of the Basin and Range are greater than predicted at sites in California. These higher MMI values may result from critical reflections due to layering near the base of the Sierra Nevada.

  20. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-02-04

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  1. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. PMID:28165407

  2. A New System of Marginal Arc in the North of the South China Sea of Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N.; Dong, H.; Zhao, H.; Liu, H.; Shen, P.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) of today results from rupturing of the marginal continent of South China. Both its north and west margins are of typical passivity. Some records mirroring a Cretaceous active margin were reported in the study area. Generally they were attributed to westward subduction from the fossil Pacific plate. With respect of the problem, however, whether the subduction may induce response of an area far from the Pacific margin is an open question. The present approach has been primitively undertaken with the comparison of magmatic formation between the proto-SCS and the Pacific. The adakitic granite and Mg-rich andesite collected from the southern Hainan Island have their own petrologic and chemical characters as distinct from those igneous rocks from Zhejiang-Fujian province just bordering the western Pacific. Interestingly, the characters displayed in the Hainan are repeated in the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area, South Vietnam. According to Tapponier's model (1986), Indo-China block was SE-ward slid 500-700km along the Red River Fault since the late Eocene. If restoring it, the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area should be on the line extended westward from the Hainan Island. The above two sites constitute a latitudinal zone representing the active margin of the proto-SCS differing from the Pacific system. Actually some elements can be concentrated as follows to illustrate the framework in the northern margin of the SCS (fig. 1): (1) the late Jurassic to late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence drilled from the Chaoshan depression 150 mile off the Pearl River Delta, accumulating in the fore-arc environment, (2) the arc-related granite, diorite and monzodiorite (118-72Ma) drilled from the northern continental shelf, the SCS, (3) the Cretaceous andesite, andesitic basalt, granite, and pyroclastic sediments, afore-said, outcropping both in Hainan and South Vietnam, (4) granite-gneiss (75Ma) drilled in the Xisha foundation of reef platform, which might be the output of

  3. Sequestration of nonylphenol in sediment from Bohai Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fen; Hu, Jianying; Liu, Jinlin; Yang, Min; Wang, Fu; Wang, Hong

    2008-02-01

    The ubiquity of nonylphenol (NP) in aquatic environments has been well documented, and the long-term fate of NP in sediments is a concern from the viewpoint of risk assessment due to its endocrine-disrupting effects. This paper reports on the assessment of long-term fate of NP in marine sediments by determining extractable and nonextractable fractions of NP in surface sediments and a sediment core from Bohai Bay, North China. The extractable fraction was operationally defined as the fraction of NP that was extracted with a solvent mixture of methanol/methylene chloride, and the nonextractable fraction was the portion of NP that can be released from the sediments by alkaline hydrolyzing after the initial solvent extraction. The total concentrations (extractable and nonextractable) of NP were 3.4-34.3 ng/g dw in the surface sediments and 2.2-17.7 ng/g dw in the sediment core. Depending on the sedimentation time, the percentage of nonextractable NP relative to the total NP in the core ranged from 38 to 99%. Based on the relationship between the percentage of nonextractable NP in sediments and sedimentation time, the sequestration rate of NP in the sediment core from Bohai Bay was estimated to be 0.94% x a(-1). These results have important implications in understanding the geochemical fate of NP in sediments.

  4. Compilation of Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting, for Four Research Stations in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina, 2000-2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    tectonic belt in the Piedmont Physiographic Province and is underlain by quartz diorite and biotite gneiss rock types. Regionally, the LPRS is...Provinces in North Carolina (Daniel and Dahlen, 2002). The LPRS was selected to evaluate the effects of quartz diorite and massive (weakly foliated

  5. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  6. Determinants of health care demand in poor, rural China: the case of Gansu Province.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dongfu; Pong, Raymond W; Yin, Aitian; Nagarajan, K V; Meng, Qingyue

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants that influence health care demand decisions in rural areas of Gansu province, China. This represents the first effort to identify and quantify the effect of price of care on choice of provider in China, and is the first quantitative examination of this topic focusing on poor rural areas in China. In the three-tier health care system in rural China, we further distinguish the public village clinics and private village clinics using a mixed multinomial logit model. The results show that price and distance play significant roles in choice of health care provider. The price elasticity of demand for outpatients is higher for low-income groups than for high-income groups. When outpatients have particular concerns about provider quality or reputation, or when their health status is poor, distance tends to matter less, i.e. they are willing to travel further in order to obtain better treatment for their illness. Insurance status has a significant impact on the choice of public village clinics relative to self-treatment. Furthermore, age and the attributes of illness are also statistically significant factors. We discuss the policy implications of the results for meeting the health care needs of the poor in rural China.

  7. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  8. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ben-yan; Xiang, Yuan-xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-chun; Liang, Shu-ying; Wang, Yu-ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (P<0.05). PLWHAs who were males (OR=1.731) and had higher education level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  9. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Si-Li; SUN, Zhi-Yu; GUO, Yan-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  10. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on GIS modle on Shicheng Jiangxi province, china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wufu; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Xianfeng; Wang, Qinjun; Wei, Yongmin

    2017-02-01

    A GIS model-information index model was presented for landslide susceptibility mapping on Shicheng, Jiangxi province, China.140 landslides were identified from SPOT6 fusion image with 1.5 meters resolution, and they were verified by field investigation. Application of the information index model showed that the landslides more likely occur in areas nearby the road, the river and the lower vegetation covery. The high elevation accuracy of 71% was reached using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). The result indicates that the northeast and parts of the south of Shicheng County are highly susceptible to damages from landslides, which provides useful information for disaster management and decision making.

  11. Dietary exposure and risk assessment to lead of the population of Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yingliang; Liu, Pei; Sun, Jinfang; Wang, Cannan; Min, Jie; Zhang, Yafei; Wang, Shiyuan; Wu, Yongning

    2014-01-01

    The paper's main purpose is to estimate the dietary exposure to lead for the inhabitants of Jiangsu province, China. Lead concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring programme during 2007-10. Food samples (n = 2077) were collected from 23 food categories in Jiangsu province. Consumption data were derived from Chinese national nutrition and health survey in 2002, which included 3938 inhabitants from 1451 households in Jiangsu province. Concentration data were combined with consumption data to estimate the dietary intake for the inhabitants of 2-6, 7-17 and 18-80 years, respectively. The β-binomial-normal (BBN) model was used to estimate the long-term intake for the population in Jiangsu province. The distribution of individual margin of exposure (IMoE) was introduced to assess the health effect. Uncertainty of IMoE was quantified by Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods. The mean levels of dietary exposure to lead were estimated at 3.019 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children aged 2-6 years, 2.104 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for teenagers aged 7-17 years, and 1.601 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for adults aged 18-80 years. The mean intakes for the urban and rural populations were 1.494 and 1.822 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. From the 25th to 99.9th percentiles, IMoE was 0.125-2.057 for 2-6 years and 0.473-7.998 for 18-80 years, respectively. The distribution of IMoE could indicate a public health concern on lead for the Chinese population in Jiangsu. Control measures should be taken to reduce lead exposure in Jiangsu province.

  12. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus) originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64%) peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74%) and the adult birds (6.67%) (P > 0.05). The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08%) and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91%) (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014). Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province. PMID:22992281

  13. Alleviating the water scarcity in the North China Plain: the role of virtual water and real water transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuoying; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun

    2016-04-01

    The North China Plain is the most water scarce region in China. Its water security is closely relevant to interregional water movement, which can be realized by real water transfers and/or virtual water transfers. This study investigates the roles of virtual water trade and real water transfer using Interregional Input-Output model. The results show that the region is receiving 19.4 billion m3/year of virtual water from the interregional trade, while exporting 16.4 billion m3/year of virtual water in the international trade. In balance, the region has a net virtual water gain of 3 billion m3/year from outside. Its virtual water inflow is dominated by agricultural products from other provinces, totalling 16.6 billion m3/year, whilst its virtual water export is dominated by manufacturing sectors to other countries, totalling 11.7 billion m3/year. Both virtual water import and real water transfer from South to North Water Diversion Project are important water supplements for the region. The results of this study provide useful scientific references for the establishment of combating strategies to deal with the water scarcity in the future.

  14. Incorporating water consumption into crop water footprint: A case study of China's South-North Water Diversion Project.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhang; Tang, Deshan; Ding, Yifan; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-03-01

    The crop water footprint (WF) indicates the consumption of water for a crop during the planting period, mainly through evapotranspiration. However, as irrigated agriculture accounts for nearly 25% of the global agriculture water usage, evaluation of WF during transportation becomes essential to improve the efficiency of irrigated agriculture. This study aims at building an improved WF model to understand how much WF is produced due to water diversion and how much crop WF increases during the transfer. The proposed model is then used to calculate the WF of four major crops in five provinces along China's South-North Water Transfer Project in two steps. First, the WF of the water transfer project (WFeng) is assessed in a supply chain analysis method. Second, a WF allocation model is built to distribute the project WF for each crop/province. The results show that the evaporation and seepage are the main sources of WFeng. Out of five provinces, two namely Tianjin and Hebei present higher WFblue and WF increase. A positive correlation between water diversion distance and crop WF increase is noted. Among the four crops, cotton presents higher WFblue and WF increase. The crops with higher WFblue tend to be more strongly influenced by the water diversion project, due to high irrigation water dependency. This analysis may expand the WF concept from an evaporation-related term to a term reflecting crop biological processes and water consumption by artificial irrigation projects. Thus, it may serve as an indicator for optimizing future objectives and strategies associated to water resource planning in China and elsewhere.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in North Maluku province of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ramli; Agho, Kingsley E; Inder, Kerry J; Bowe, Steven J; Jacobs, Jennifer; Dibley, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate nutrition is needed to ensure optimum growth and development of infants and young children. Understanding of the risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province is important to guide Indonesian government public health planners to develop nutrition programs and interventions in a post conflict area. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province of Indonesia. Methods The health and nutritional status of children aged less than five years was assessed in North Maluku province of Indonesia in 2004 using a cross-sectional multi-stage survey conducted on 750 households from each of the four island groups in North Maluku province. A total of 2168 children aged 0-59 months were used in the analysis. Results Prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 29% (95%CI: 26.0-32.2) and 14.1% (95%CI: 11.7-17.0) for children aged 0-23 months and 38.4% (95%CI: 35.9-41.0) and 18.4% (95%CI: 16.1-20.9) for children aged 0-59 months, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for stunted children were child's age in months, male sex and number of family meals per day (≤2 times), for children aged 0-23 months, and income (poorest and middle-class family), child's age in months and male sex for children aged 0-59 months. The risk factors for severe stunting in children aged 0-23 months were income (poorest family), male sex and child's age in months and for children aged 0-59 months were income (poorest family), father's occupation (not working), male sex and child's age in months. Conclusion Programmes aimed at improving stunting in North Maluku province of Indonesia should focus on children under two years of age, of male sex and from families of low socioeconomic status. PMID

  16. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from apparently healthy animals of the Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Chai, T; Wang, L; Wang, H; Duan, H; Müller, W; Zucker, B A

    2007-10-01

    In a pilot study the presence and frequency of Clostridium (C.) perfringens was investigated among apparently healthy farm animals in the Shandong province of China. 748 faecal samples were collected from 9 pig-, 4 sheep-, 7 cattle- and 5 rabbit farms. C. perfringens was isolated from 124 samples (16.6%). The isolates were classified into major toxin types by using PCR analysis detecting the genes encoding these toxins. All isolates were identified as C perfringens toxin type A. There are also some reports from different regions in China linking C. perfringens toxin type A strains to gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore further investigations about the epidemiologic role of C perfringens toxin type A strains in the Shandong region are necessary. Currently, cases of enterotoxemia from this region are investigated for the presence of C perfringens.

  17. Remote impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xia; Yang, Daoyong; Zhou, Wen; Tan, Yanke; Yan, Hongming

    2017-03-01

    As an important oceanic signal, the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) affects not only the climate variability over East China and Northeast China but also can affect climate variability over southwestern China (SWC). Based on station rainfall data and reanalysis datasets, the present study investigates the relationship of North Atlantic SST with SWC rainfall during boreal spring for the period 1979-2016. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. The atmospheric circulation over southern Asia associated with North Atlantic SST is favorable for positive rainfall anomalies. Further analyses show that North Atlantic SST can induce a North Atlantic-western Russia-western Tibetan Plateau-SWC (NRTC) teleconnection wave train from upper level to low level. At low level, two anomalous anticyclones are found over the mid-high latitude of North Atlantic and the western Tibetan Plateau, and two anomalous cyclones are observed over the western Russia and Bay of Bengal (BOB), respectively. The NRTC teleconnection wave train plays a bridging role between the North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. Both the observational analysis and two numerical experiments suggest that the North Atlantic SST during boreal spring can induce an anomalous cyclone over BOB by the NRTC teleconnection pattern. The anomalous cyclone over BOB favors moisture transport to SWC, accompanying with significant anomalous ascending motion, and thus results in positive rainfall anomalies in SWC during boreal spring.

  18. Update on the distribution and phylogenetics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) populations in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Stephen W; Huo, Guan-Nan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In 1973 planorbid snails then identified as Biomphalaria straminea were discovered in Hong Kong, China. It was assumed that these snails had been introduced to Hong Kong via the import of tropical fish by air from South America. In 2012 Biomphalaria were found for the first time in Guangdong Province, China. In view of the renewed interest in these invasive snails, a morphological and DNA-sequence based phylogenetic study was undertaken for seven populations of Biomphalaria snails collected in Guangdong. Morphologically and phylogenetically, five of the populations clustered more closely with Biomphalaria kuhniana than with B. straminea. Levels of genetic diversity among the populations were about half those of autochthonous populations in Brazil, the phylogenetic relationships did not correlate with a radiation from any one international port in China, and different lineages appeared associated with different ports. Consequently in explaining the current distribution of the snails, multiple colonization events, each establishing a new local snail population near to maritime international container ports, were considered more likely than the spread of snails from Hong Kong to China. The displacement of B. straminea by B. kuhniana in Guangdong is considered as an explanation for the habitat changes observed among the snails between Hong Kong in the 1980s and the present. The conclusions of the study are that any risk of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in China is more likely to come from parasite importation in the intramolluscan stage, than from transmission by migrant workers from South America or Africa. In addition, although likely to be rare, sporadic outbreaks of imported schistosomiasis (caused by invading infected snails) could be a threat to public health in the vicinity of International container ports (not only in Guangdong Province). Further work is called for to investigate further the presence of B. kuhniana and its potential interactions with B

  19. Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian palynostratigraphy of the Baode section in the Ordos Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Huaicheng; Ouyang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Well-preserved miospores are recorded and illustrated from the Penchi to the lower part of the Sunjiagou formations in the Baode section of the Ordos Basin, North China. Eight palynological biozones are proposed for the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian interval. Among them, five biozones are refined from pre-existing biozones. The biozones are comparable throughout the North China Craton. In contrast, long distance palynological correlation between North China and Euramerica only extends to the end of the Bolsovian (early Moscovian). By reference of associated marine fossils and magnetostratigraphic data, approximate stratigraphic correlation with the international stages is possible in Ordos Basin. Quantitative abundances of spores and pollen from the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian reflect a wet-hot palaeoclimate in the Ordos Basin but with an increasing tendency of palaeoclimatic drying from the Early Kungurian. This drying tendency can be recognized throughout the North China Craton and seems to be related to the suturing process between North China Craton with the combined northeastern China blocks. Reduviasporonites which occurs often in relatively high frequencies in many Permian-Triassic boundary sections was recorded for the first time from the early Kungurian Shansiensis Biozone.

  20. Hypothesis of homeothermy evolution on isolated South China Craton that moved from equator to cold north latitudes 250-200Myr ago.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-07

    Based on avian and mammalian fossils found in the northeastern Chinese province of Liaoning and physiological traits linked to homeothermy, a hypothesis of evolution of homeothermic animals is proposed. It is based on the importance of muscle function in cold environment, as a strong selection pressure that favors endothermic metabolism during periods of cold climates. The presented hypothesis postulates that in progressively cooling environment, animals will develop thermal insulation, increased basal metabolism if food is available, and torpor when food is scarce. Since late Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous global temperatures were high, an exceptional place that gradually became cold was needed for the homeothermy evolution. South China Craton is here proposed as a plausible candidate for that role since it drifted across the Paleo-Tethys ocean, from equator to high northern latitudes in a journey that lasted from 250 to 200Myr ago. After this small continent collided with North China Craton some 200Myr ago, the already cold-adapted animals had spread to large, mostly empty spaces on the North China Craton, due to their evolutionary advantage of making active living in the cold environment. The most advantageous early homeothermic animals went further north to the cold Liaoning to start an oasis that delivered modern birds during next 50Myr. Modern mammals possibly evolved somewhere in the cold vicinity. This made Liaoning and similarly cold places the cradles of early birds and early mammals since for the following millions of years these places remained too cold for poikilotherms to enter and warm enough for homeotherms to dwell, until the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event and subsequent global cooling that diminished poikilotherms. Homeothermy was probably even more important as a survival advantage in cooler climates of Paleogene, when mammals and birds became dominant animals. This interpretation is probably supported by a recent report that a small

  1. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S) and litter interception storage capacity (C) were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1) the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2) rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax); Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin) showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3) litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4) a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin, indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5) Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics. PMID:23936188

  2. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  3. Health risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water from Anhui Province in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-jian; Jin, You-qian; Wei, Jun-ling

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes the concentrations and health risks of fluoride in 249 drinking water samples collected from different regions of Anhui Province in China. Results indicated that fluoride content in drinking water ranged from 0.12 to 1.94 mg L(-1) (mean = 0.57 mg L(-1)) in the following order: Huaibei plain region > Jianghuai hill region ≈ Dabieshan mountainous region > plain along the Yangtze River region > southern Anhui mountainous region. The fluoride contents were less than 0.50 mg L(-1) in 66.66 % of the drinking water samples, 0.51-1.0 mg L(-1) in 23.29 %, and higher than 1.0 mg L(-1) in 12.04 %. The fluoride levels in some samples were lower than the recommended values for controlling dental caries (0.50-1.0 mg L(-1)). The total fluoride intake from drinking water was between 0.14 and 2.33 mg per day in different regions of the province, supposing an individual consumes 1.2 L of water per day. Therefore, measures should be taken to increase fluoride intake in the Jianghuai hill region, Dabieshan mountainous region, plain along the Yangtze River, and southern Anhui mountainous region to control dental caries. On the other hand, the fluoride levels must be reduced in the Huaibei plain region to decrease endemic fluorosis. The results serve as crucial guidelines for managing fluoride safety in drinking water and controlling endemic fluorosis in different regions of Anhui Province.

  4. Changing characteristics of wet/dry spells during 1961-2008 in Sichuan province, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Jinchi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding variations in precipitation from a variety of aspects is important for the utilization of water resources. Based on daily precipitation records at 98 meteorological stations in Sichuan province, southwestern China, the spatial and temporal changes in wet/dry spells were investigated by using 14 precipitation indices. The Mann-Kendall trend test is used to detect trends in the index series. Results suggest that the decrease of precipitation in central and eastern Sichuan was significant in terms of decreasing tendencies of wet spell indices. However, the decreasing trend of dry spell indices suggested an increase in precipitation in western Sichuan province. A higher risk of droughts can be expected in autumn and wet spell indices in winter and spring are increasing, implying obvious seasonality and seasonal shifts of change in precipitation within this province. Wet/dry spells with short duration were accounted for a large proportion of spells in Sichuan. The occurrence and fractional contribution of short-duration wet spells were increasing. The same trend was found in dry spells with short and moderate duration in Sichuan

  5. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  6. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  7. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  8. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis amongst kindergartens and preschool children in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Afrakhteh, Narges; Marhaba, Zahra; Mahdavi, Seif Ali; Garoosian, Sahar; Mirnezhad, Reyhaneh; Vakili, Mahsa Eshkevar; Shahraj, Haniye Ahmadi; Javadian, Behzad; Rezaei, Rozita; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2016-12-01

    Enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) is probably the most common helminth, which infects humans. Amongst different age groups, prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in children is high compared to adults. Oxyuriasis is one of the most significant parasitic diseases of children. This nematode in children can result in loss of appetite, insomnia, grinding of the teeth, restlessness, endometritis, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and etc. Due to important complications of this parasite, the objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of enterobiasis in kindergarten and preschool children of Amol, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. A total number of 462 children from 32 kindergartens of Amol were examined for the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection, 2013. Adhesive cello-tape anal swab method was trained to parents for sampling. In addition, a questionnaire was designed and filled out to collect demographic information for each individual. Data were analyzed using Chi square test and multivariate logistic regression for each risk factor. The overall prevalence of E. vermicularis infection was 7.1 % (33). Although infection with E. vermicularis in girls 7.9 % was higher compared to boys 6.3 %, there was no significant difference between gender and age (p > 0.05) whereas binary logistic regression showed significant difference between enterobiasis and age (p < 0.05). The findings indicated that the prevalence of E. vermicularis in kindergarten and preschool children is relatively high and still is an important health problem and should not be underestimated due to being highly contagious infection. Therefore, educational programs and mass treatment should be carried out in order to reduce infection incidence in this area and regular parasitological test and attention to personal hygiene in kindergarten and preschool is of great importance.

  9. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  10. Biogas Technology on Supporting “Sustainable” Coffee Farmers in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, N.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been conducted in an area of coffee plantation in Samosir District, North Sumatera Province. The study was conducted in August until September 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefits of using biogas technology in supporting coffee farmers’ productivity to be sustainable, i.e. methane as energy source for coffee roasting proceed instead of fired wood and slurry as organic fertilizer. Coffee cherry causes environmental problem when it is dumped openly, hence it is used to mix with buffalo feces in biodigesters to produce methane and organic fertilizer. Five biodigesters were used with 5 differents designs of composition: T1) 100% buffalo feces, T2) 75% buffalo feces + 25% coffee cherry, T3) 50% buffalo feces + 50% coffee cherry, T4) 25% buffalo feces + 75% coffee cherry, and T5) 100% coffee cherry. The key parameters measured were methane production and slurry chemical compositions including NPK, pH, and C/N. It is found that designs T1 and T2 were superior in methane production, and about 400 liters of methane were used in roasting 3 kg coffee bean as opposed to 6,6 kg fired wood. Designs T1 and T2 were also better in slurry chemical compositions than the other 3 designs. It is recommeded that local coffee farmers utilize coffee cherry based biogas technology in order for their productivity to be sustainable. It is noteworthy that this study is continued with the next one in which the resulting slurries are implemented to foster the growth of the coffee plants during the period of October until December 2016.

  11. Hydrogeologic unit map of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, Charles C.; Payne, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The numerous geologic formations and rock types in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina have been grouped into 21 hydrogeologic units on the basis of their water-bearing potential as determined from rock origin, composition, and texture. All major classes of rocks--metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary--are present, although metamorphic rocks are the most abundant. The origin of the hydrogeologic units is indicated by the rock class or subclass (metaigneous, metavolanic, or metasedimentary). The composition of the igneous, metaigneous, and metavolcanic rocks is designated as felsic, intermediate, or mafic except for the addition in the metavolcanic group of epiclastic rocks and compositionally undifferentiated rocks. Composition is the controlling attribute in the classification of the metasedimentary units of gneiss (mafic or felsic), marble, quartzite. The other metasediments are designated primarily on the basis of texture (grain size, degree of metamorphism, and development of foliation). Sedimentary rocks occur in the Piedmont in several downfaulted basins. A computerized data file containing records from more than 6,200 wells was analyzed to determine average well yields in each of the 21 units. The well yields were adjusted to an average well depth of 154 feet and an average diameter of 6 inches, the average of all wells in the data set, to remove the variation in well yield attributed to differences in depth and diameter. Average yields range from a high of 23.6 gallons per minute for schist to a low 11.6 gallons per minute for sedimentary rocks of Triassic age.

  12. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  13. Detection of spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jimin; Lin, Junfen; Gong, Zhenyu; Chang, Yue; Ye, Xiaodong; Gu, Shiping; Pang, Weilong; Wang, Chengwei; Zheng, Xiaohua; Hou, Juan; Ling, Feng; Shi, Xuguang; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping; Lv, Huakun; Chai, Chengliang

    2015-03-01

    Tick species distribution and prevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks were investigated in Zhejiang Province, China in 2010 and 2011. PCR was used to detect SFGR and positive amplicons were sequenced, compared to published sequences and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA 4.0. A total of 292 adult ticks of ten species were captured and 7.5 % (22/292) of the ticks were PCR-positive for SFG Rickettsia. The PCR-positive rates were 5.5 % (6/110) for Haemaphysalis longicornis, 3.6 % (1/28) for Amblyomma testudinarium and 16 % (15/94) for Ixodes sinensis, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA genes detected in ticks indicated that there are two dominating groups of SFGR. Sequences of group one were closely related to Rickettsia monacensis, whereas sequences of group two were closest related to Rickettsia heilongjiangensis and Rickettsia japonica, which are human pathogens. Our findings underline the importance of these ticks in public health surveillance in Zhejiang Province, China.

  14. High rate of drug resistance among tuberculous meningitis cases in Shaanxi province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Feng, Guo-Dong; Pang, Yu; Liu, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Li, Qiao; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ping; Zhan, Li-Ping; Marais, Ben J; Zhao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and mycobacterial features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases in China are not well described; especially in western provinces with poor tuberculosis control. We prospectively enrolled patients in whom TBM was considered in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, over a 2-year period (September 2010 to December 2012). Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), as well as genotyping of all positive cultures. Among 350 patients included in the study, 27 (7.7%) had culture-confirmed TBM; 84 (24.0%) had probable and 239 (68.3%) had possible TBM. DST was performed on 25/27 (92.3%) culture positive specimens; 12/25 (48.0%) had “any resistance” detected and 3 (12.0%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Demographic and clinical features of drug resistant and drug susceptible TBM cases were similar. Beijing was the most common genotype (20/25; 80.0%) with 9/20 (45%) of the Beijing strains exhibiting drug resistance; including all 3 MDR strains. All (4/4) isoniazid resistant strains had mutations in the katG gene; 75% (3/4) of strains with phenotypic rifampicin resistance had mutations in the rpoB gene detected by Xpert MTB/RIF®. High rates of drug resistance were found among culture-confirmed TBM cases; most were Beijing strains. PMID:27143630

  15. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  16. Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Liu, Guo-Hua; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most important zoonotic pathogen that can infect almost all animals, including humans. However, little information is available regarding prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in sika deer. In the present study, the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China was examined using PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. 23 (7.06%) of 326 samples were tested E. bieneusi-positive, and the risk factor significantly associated with E. bieneusi prevalence was the age of sika deer. Sequence analysis of the ITS rRNA gene suggested that 8 genotypes of E. bieneusi were found in this study, with five known genotypes, namely J (n = 11), BEB6 (n = 4), EbpC (n = 1), CHN-DC1 (n = 1), KIN-1 (n = 1) and three novel genotypes, namely JLD-1 (n = 2), JLD-2 (n = 2) and JLD-3 (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that genotypes CHN-DC-1, KIN-1, EbpC, JLD-2 and JLD-3 fell into group 1, while other three genotypes (genotypes J, BEB6 and JLD-1) were clustered into group 2 (so-called bovine-specific groups). These findings indicated the presence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in Jilin province, Northeastern China. Effective strategies should be performed to control E. bieneusi infection in sika deer, other animals and humans.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  18. Residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Fang, Li; Wang, Junliang; Liu, Weiping; Yuan, Hejin; Jantunen, Liisa; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-03-28

    Studies on residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) facilitate the assessment of the contamination level, distribution, sources, transportation, and trend of these selected OCPs in China. In this work we investigated the concentration levels of endosulfans and chlordane, which are currently used, and the never used aldrin and dieldrin in the province of Zhejiang, a rainy, and hilly tea-growing province in eastern China. The average/mean residue levels of OCPs was in the order ∑endosulfan > ∑chlordane > aldrin > dieldrin. The residue level was in good agreement with the usage of OCPs in Zhejiang. The spatial distribution showed that the residues of OCPs in soils from the mountain area were always higher than those in soils from the plains. The distribution characteristics were related to usage for current-use OCPs and temperature for never used OCPs. The isomeric ratios and enantiomeric fractions are useful tools to identify the degradation preference of contaminants. The wide range of ratios between trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) indicated that the degradation of the two isomers of chlordane was different at different sites. Nonracemic residues of TC and CC were observed in most soils; this is significant since the enantiomers have different toxicities.

  19. Composition of the crust in the Grenville and Appalachian Provinces of North America inferred from VP/VS ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musacchio, G.; Mooney, W.D.; Luetgert, J.H.; Christensen, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    We use the ratios between P and S wave velocities (VP/VS), derived from seismic refraction data, to infer the composition of the crust in the Grenville and the Appalachian Provinces of North America. The crust exhibits VP/VS increasing with depth from 1.64 to 1.84; there is a clear distinction between the Grenville Province (average VP/VS=1.81) and the Appalachian Province (average VP/VS=1.73) which persists at all depths. The boundary between these provinces is east dipping extending for 100 km east of the Champlain thrust. In the Appalachian Province the increase in VP/VS ratios with depth from 1.67 to 1.74 ?? 0.02 may reflect a normal decrease of silica content in the continental crust. In the Grenville Province beneath the Central Granulite Terrane, an anomalous VP/VS ratio of 1.82 ?? 0.02 is observed extending to a depth of 10 km; this correlates with the abundance of Ca-plagioclase in the Marcy Anorthosite. At greater depth (15-20 km), where seismic lamination and high electrical conductivity is observed, VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and correlates with the Tahawus Complex, a layered mafic intrusion. Within the 25-km-thick lower crust of the Grenville Province the VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and P-velocity is 7.0 ?? 0.1 km/s, which are typical for plagioclase-bearing rocks (gabbro-norite). The high VP/VS ratio in the Grenville Province has not been reported in crust of any other age. Since the Grenville Province contains 75% of the world's known anorthosites, high VP/VS ratio is related to high plagioclase. We suggest that the composition of the Grenville lower crust was significantly modified by the emplacement of the anorthosites in the mid-Proterozoic. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  1. East-China Geochemistry Database (ECGD):A New Networking Database for North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ma, W.

    2010-12-01

    North China Craton is one of the best natural laboratories that research some Earth Dynamic questions[1]. Scientists made much progress in research on this area, and got vast geochemistry data, which are essential for answering many fundamental questions about the age, composition, structure, and evolution of the East China area. But the geochemical data have long been accessible only through the scientific literature and theses where they have been widely dispersed, making it difficult for the broad Geosciences community to find, access and efficiently use the full range of available data[2]. How to effectively store, manage, share and reuse the existing geochemical data in the North China Craton area? East-China Geochemistry Database(ECGD) is a networking geochemical scientific database system that has been designed based on WebGIS and relational database for the structured storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. It is integrated the functions of data retrieval, spatial visualization and online analysis. ECGD focus on three areas: 1.Storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. Research on the characters of geochemical data, including its composing and connecting of each other, we designed a relational database, which based on geochemical relational data model, to store a variety of geological sample information such as sampling locality, age, sample characteristics, reference, major elements, rare earth elements, trace elements and isotope system et al. And a web-based user-friendly interface is provided for constructing queries. 2.Data view. ECGD is committed to online data visualization by different ways, especially to view data in digital map with dynamic way. Because ECGD was integrated WebGIS technology, the query results can be mapped on digital map, which can be zoomed, translation and dot selection. Besides of view and output query results data by html, txt or xls formats, researchers also can

  2. Surveillance of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Domestic Ruminants in the Dongting Lake Region, Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinming; Zhu, Chunxia; Shi, Yaojun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lanpin; Qin, Shangtian; Kang, Saie; Huang, Yanpin; Jin, Yamei; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is prevalent in Asian countries and it remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic foci are the marsh and lake regions of southern China, particularly the Dongting Lake region bordering Hunan and Hubei provinces, and the Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi province. Domestic ruminants, especially bovines, have long been considered to play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. Methods and Findings A miracidial hatching technique was used to investigate the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in domestic ruminants and field feces collected from two towns located to the south and east of Dongting Lake, Hunan province, between 2005 and 2010. The overall prevalence of infection was not significantly reduced from 4.93% in 2005 to 3.64% in 2008, after which it was maintained at this level. Bovines comprised 23.5–58.2% of the total infected ruminants, while goats comprised 41.8–76.5%. Infection rates in cattle and goats were significantly higher than those found in buffalo in most study years. The prevalence in buffalo younger than three years was significantly higher than that in those aged over three years. All the positive field samples of feces were derived from bovines in Nandashan. In Matang Town, 61.22% of the positive field feces were from bovines, while the rest were from goats. The positive rates for field feces were approximately the same in April and November/October. Conclusions The present study found that bovines and goats are major sources of S. japonicum infection in the Dongting lake region and there was age-related resistance in buffalo. Both bovines and goats should be treated equally when controlling S. japonicum infections in the Dongting lake region. It is essential to conduct an additional mass treatment in late March or early April, in addition to the original treatment scheme. PMID:22359638

  3. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  5. Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  6. Reassembling the Paleogene Eocene North Atlantic igneous province: New paleomagnetic constraints from the Isle of Mull, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, Morgan; Smethurst, Mark A.; Rousse, Sonia; Torsvik, Trond H.; Prestvik, Tore

    2008-07-01

    The paleomagnetic data sets from the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP) have recently been criticized as being unreliable and discordant with data from elsewhere in the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) [Riisager et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276; Riisager et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214 (2003) 409-425]. We offer new paleomagnetic data for the extensive lava flow sequence on the Isle of Mull, Scotland, and can confirm the paleomagnetic pole positions emanating from important earlier studies. Our new north paleomagnetic pole position for Eurasia at 59 ± 0.2 Ma has latitude 73.3°N, longitude 166.2°E (dp/dm = 5.2/7.0). A re-evaluation and an inter-comparison of the paleomagnetic database emanating from the NAIP were carried out to test for sub-province consistency. We find a general agreement between the Eurasian part of NAIP (BTIP and Faeroes) and East Greenland data. However a compilation of West Greenland data displays a large and unexplained dispersion. We speculate on if this is related to different sense of block rotation of the Tertiary West Greenland constituents. Combining all data from the NAIP constituents, give a pole position at 75.0°N, 169.9°E ( N = 25, K = 84.3, A95 = 3.2) in Eurasian reference frame.

  7. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  8. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  9. A new highly cave-adapted trechine genus and species from northern Guizhou Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A remarkable aphaenopsian beetle, a sympatric species of Qianotrechus tenuicollis Uéno, 2000, was newly discovered in Cave Mahuang Dong of Shuanghe Dong cave system, the longest cave system of China in Suiyang County, northern Guizhou Province. To categorize this striking but still unknown species, a new genus and species are proposed: Shuangheaphaenops elegans gen. n., sp. n. Relationships of Shuangheaphaenops and other highly modified aphaenopsian genera from southern China Karsts are discussed. PMID:28144179

  10. Constraining the History of the North Atlantic Igneous Province: a Palaeomagnetic and Geochronologic Ballad in the British Tertiary Volcanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, M.; Rousse, S.; Smethurst, M.; Prestvik, T.

    2006-12-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIP), overwhelmingly of basaltic affinity constitute the surface expressions of catastrophically rapid dissipation of large quantities of internal heat. Subsequent to their extrusion, most LIPs have changed position in the Earth's surface due to plate motions. With an estimated volume of ca 107 km3 the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) represents the third largest magmatic event on Earth during the last 150 Myr. The NAIP formed during two major magmatic phases: a pre- break-up phase (62-58 Ma) and a syn- break-up phase (56-54 Ma) contemporaneous with the onset of North Atlantic sea-floor spreading. The formation of the NAIP has been linked to the proto-Icelandic plume through paleogeographic reconstructions and geochemical observations. Since the late 1980's much of the research focus on the NAIP has been guided by the understanding of the genetic relationship between North Atlantic magmatism that began in the earliest Palaeocene, the genesis/position of the Iceland Hotspots and/or related mantle plume(s) through the Cenozoic, and the change at c. 54 Ma from a long period of continental rifting and thinning of sea- floor spreading. However, despite the number of data available, the temporal and physio-chemical ties between NAIP rocks, hotspot motion and continental break-up have not been demonstrated to fit a single regionally applicable and consistent geodynamic model. For example, discrepancies between recent palaeomagnetic poles from western Greenland and the Faeroe Islands (Riisager et al. 2002a,b) and older data from the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP) have questioned the reliability of the latest. Therefore, to ultimately understand the Tertiary evolution of the North Atlantic, extensive palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar sampling on the lava fields of the British Igneous Provinces (Isle of Skye, Isle of Mull, Antrim Plateau) has been initiated. Our findings are in agreement with older published poles from the BTIP and support

  11. HIV Prevalence and Associated Factors among Foreign Brides from Burma in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yin; Fu, Li Ru; Jia, Manhong; Dai, Genyin; Wang, Qing; Huang, Peng; Zheng, Hui; Peng, Zhihang; Wang, Lu; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background Many Burmese women have migrated to Yunnan Province and married local residents over the past few decades; however, limited information is available on their HIV prevalence and ability to cope with HIV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV and knowledge related to AIDS, as well as to discover possible risk factors of HIV infection among foreign brides from Burma in Yunnan Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was taken of all Burmese cross-border wives residing in Tengchong County using standardized questionnaires. HIV and syphilis testing was conducted at the same time. Results Among 600 Burmese brides, the HIV prevalence was 2.17%. Those aged 21–30, those with higher education levels and those who had resided in China less than one year had higher infection rates. The AIDS awareness rate of 39.50% was very low in this population. Only 28.67% of participants had ever been involved in prevention services. The rate of condom use was low. Classification by age, education, occupation, prior HIV testing and prior use of HIV prevention services showed a statistically significant association with mean knowledge score (p<0.05). Residing in China less than one year (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.09–13.70) and having casual sex in the last year (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.20–91.59) were risk factors for HIV infection. Conclusions Burmese brides in China are not only exposed to a high risk of HIV infection, but also seriously lack response capabilities. Educational interventions and control efforts are practical approaches that need to be strengthened among this population. PMID:25536087

  12. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  13. Integrated Seismic Arrays for Imaging the North China Craton: the ¡°Destruction of the North China Craton¡± Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chen, L.; Zheng, T.; Zhou, S.

    2007-12-01

    It has been known, mostly according to the petrological and geochemical studies particularly the xenolith's data, that the North China craton (NCC), which is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, had been reactivated since Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Currently the NCC is characterized by a thin lithosphere (as thin as 80 km according to published studies) and strong internal deformation, where over half of the eastern China's earthquakes occurred while the two major plate boundaries about China are thousands kilometers away. Although it is seismically quite active this region encompasses the China's capital and several mega cities which together hosts a large population and are very important to China's growing economy. Supported by the Chinese earth science community, the Chinese NSF recently started a major research program, the ¡°Destruction of the North China craton¡± (DNCC). About 150 million RMB (~ 20 million US dollars) will be allocated for this 5-year multi-disciplinary research program which is open for competition for all the earth scientists in China. Here we report one major seismic observation project of ¡°Integrated Seismic Arrays of DNCC¡± just funded during the first phase funding of DNCC. This observation-driven project integrates two groups at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University, and both institutions have their own broadband seismometers and have recently conducted pilot portable seismic array studies in North China. Up to seven linear broadband seismic arrays, each consists of 60-100 stations, are planned within the NCC. The principle objectives are to quantify the range and degree of the craton destruction in spatial domain with major focus on the east-west variation from the previously proposed intact craton in the west to the rejuvenated region in the east and the transition zone in the middle. With the expected

  14. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  15. Eco-Compensation in Multi-District River Networks in North Jiangsu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  16. [Degradation process and plant diversity of alfalfa grassland in North Loess Plateau of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyua; Shao, Ming'an

    2005-12-01

    Vegetation recovery and reconstruction is the key of ecosystem restoration in the North Loess Plateau. With the Liudaogou catchment of Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province as test area, this paper studied the dynamics of the plant diversity of artificial alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grassland during its degradation process. The results showed that the degradation process of the grassland could be divided into three stages, i.e., artificial alfalfa grassland stage (1-6 yrs), transitional stage from artificial to natural grassland (6-10 yrs), and secondary natural grassland stage dominated by Stipa bungeana ( >10 yrs). In the whole degradation process from 1-to 30-yrs, 32 species belonging to 13 families and 28 genera were found, of which, 90% appeared in the initial 6-yrs. The dynamics of accumulatively appeared family, genus, and species in the vegetation succession process were well described by logarithmic function. During the process of community succession, the species richness (Gleason index and Margalef index),plant diversity (Shannon-Wiener index), and Pielou evenness index were changed with a similar tendency, i.e., increased more rapidly at the first stage, and the climax phase appeared in the second stage. The plant diversity and evenness decreased slightly, and gradually became stable later. Planting alfalfa could markedly accelerate the natural vegetation succession process in the forest-steppe ecotone of Loess Plateau, mainly due to the intensive soil water consumption of artificial grassland, which accelerated the process of soil aridification. To develop artificial grasslands in the Loess Plateau is an optimal joint between accelerating natural vegetation recovery and increasing farmers' income by stockbreeding, and is also a favorable paradigm both for the ecological and for the economic benefits in the eco-environmental construction in West China.

  17. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  18. Eco-compensation in multi-district river networks in north Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  19. Understanding on Soil Inorganic Carbon Transformation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Yang, Lifang; Zhang, Chenglei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    Soil total carbon balance in long-term fertilization field experiments in North China Plain. Four long-term fertilization experiments (20-30 years) were investigated on SOC in 40 cm, calcium carbonate and active carbonate (AC) in 180 or 100 cm soil profile, δ13C values of SOC and δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate in soil profile, particle distribution of SOC and SIC in main soil layers, and ratios of pedogenic carbonate (PC) in SIC and C3-SOC in SOC. The most important conclusion is that fertilization of more than 20 years can produce detectable impact on pool size, profile distribution, ratio of active component and PC of SIC, which make it clear that SIC pool must be considered in the proper evaluation of the response of soil carbon balance to human activities in arid and semi-arid region. Land use impact on soil total carbon pool in Inner Mongolia. With the data of the second survey of soils in Inner Mongolia and the 58 soil profile data from Wu-lan-cha-bu-meng and Xi-lin-hao-te, combining with the 13C and 18O techniques, SIC density and stock in Inner Mongolia is estimated. The main conclusion is that soils in inner Mongolia have the same level of SOC and SIC, with the density in 100cm pedons of 8.97 kg•m-2 and 8.61 kg•m-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the significantly positive relationship between SOC and SIC in A layer indicates co-sequestration of SOC and SIC exist. Evaluation of the methods for measuring CA enzyme activity in soil. In laboratory, method in literature to measure CA activity in soil sample was repeated, and found it was not valid indeed. The failure could not attribute to the disturbance of common ions like NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The adsorption of CA to soil material was testified as the main reason for that failure. A series of extractants were tested but no one can extract the adsorbed CA and be used in measuring CA activity in soil sample. Carbonate transformation in field with straw returned and biochar added. In 2009, a field

  20. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  1. Third Wave of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus from Poultry, Guangdong Province, China, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shumin; Jia, Weixin; Lin, Yicun; Xing, Kaixiang; Ren, Xingxing; Qi, Wenbao; Liao, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Fourteen influenza A(H7N9) viruses were isolated from poultry or the environment in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China during 2014-2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all viruses were descended from viruses of the second wave of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections during 2013. These viruses can be divided into 2 branches.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Echovirus 18 Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Hebei Province, China, in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Su-zhen; Guo, Jia-yun; Li, Jing-jie

    2016-01-01

    Echovirus 18 is a member of the genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae, which can cause meningitis in children. Here, we report the echovirus 18 complete genome sequence, which was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a child with aseptic meningitis in Hebei Province, China. PMID:27789638

  3. Third Wave of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus from Poultry, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shumin; Jia, Weixin; Lin, Yicun; Xing, Kaixiang; Ren, Xingxing; Qi, Wenbao

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen influenza A(H7N9) viruses were isolated from poultry or the environment in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China during 2014−2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all viruses were descended from viruses of the second wave of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections during 2013. These viruses can be divided into 2 branches. PMID:26291620

  4. Identification of Phytophthora species baited and isolated from forest soil and streams in northwestern Yunnan province, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora species were surveyed by collecting soil samples and placing bait leaves in selected streams during June - October in the years 2005, 2006 and 2010 at three sites in oak forests in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of NW Yunnan province, China. Seventy-three isolates of Phytophthora ...

  5. Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope

  6. Features and geotectonic evolution of the Alxa Terrane at North Qilian Mountains in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; Zhengmin, Min

    2015-04-01

    The Alxa Terrane in west China, covered with Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts at the earth's surface, lies geographically on the north of the Qilian-Mountains Structural Belt and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with intense tectonic activities. The Mongolian Plateau with Cenozoic activities and the Ordos Plateau are on the north and east of the terrane separately. Tectonically the terrane lies among the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt in the Tarim Plate, and the North China Craton. In view of its special geotectonic location, the knowledge about the Alxa Terrane generation and evolution would be significant to the understanding of plates and terranes convergence and evolution in west China and to hydrocarbon exploration in those small and medium basins in the Hexi Corridor. The conclusions include (1) the Alxa Terrane is a component part in the west of the North China Plate instead of a part separated from the Tarim Plate. Neoarchean rocks occurring in the Beidashan area in west Alxa are mainly composed of granodiorite gneiss with typical TTG gneiss features. The age of the magmatic zircon nucleus is about 2522±30 Ma, which is basically consistent with that of TFG gneiss pervasively distributing in the North China Craton; (2) the Alxa Terrane was a relatively isolated small terrane in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras. The lithologies of the crystalline basement are different from those in the Tarim and North China Plates. Tectothermal events took place 800-1000 Ma and 400-600 Ma ago separately in Alxa, which had few signatures in the North China Plate. The North China Plate and the Alxa Terrane converged in the south and diverged in the north due to the impact of the Caledonian Movement and then merged at the early stage of the Middle Ordovician. During the Middle Hercynian Movement, the Paleoasian Ocean in the north closed and new crust appeared in the Early Permian to form the trench-arc-basin system at the north margin. During the Late

  7. Landsat analysis of the Yangjiatan tungsten district, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Yangjiatan tungsten district at latitude 27??28??? N. and longitude 111??54???E. is located about 140 km southwest of the city of Changsha and 35 km northeast of the town of Shaoyang, southeast Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The deposits, consisting largely of scheelite in veins (Wang, 1975), are contained in highly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age intruded by granitic plutons that are circular in plan view. The major faults and folds trend in a northeasterly direction; whereas, the plutons are clustered in a more easterly trending band across the Landsat image. Landsat image E-2338-02202, acquired December 26, 1975, is number 470 in the "Landsat Image Atlas of the People's Republic of China" printed by the Publishing House of Geology in 1979. A computer-compatible tape of the image was analyzed and used as a demonstration project under a United Nations technical assistance program. Supervised classification of soils, rocks, and vegetation; band ratioing to detect limonite alteration; and edge enhancement were all conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of interactive computer systems. Field evaluation of the results of this work will be conducted by colleagues of the Remote Sensing Center for Geology, Ministry of Geology, in China. ?? 1983.

  8. Late Neurosyphilis and Tertiary Syphilis in Guangdong Province, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Chen, Lei; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Due to challenges in diagnosis and the need for complex laboratory tests, misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis is common in China. We validated the diagnosis and examined the treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases reported between 2009 and 2014 in Guangdong, China. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the structural factors associated with correct diagnosis and standard treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis. Among the 3805 respondents (3805/3936, 96.7%), 1,837 (48.3%) met the misdiagnosed criteria. The misdiagnosis rate decreased over the study period (54.2% in 2009 and 41.8% in 2014). Only 27.1% and 24.9% of the correctly diagnosed late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases received standard treatment, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that departments of dermatology or STDs [aOR = 3.24, 95% CI: 2.66–3.95], county or township level hospitals [aOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.14–3.89], and hospitals situated outside of Pearl River Delta area [aOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.46–1.97] had higher likelihood in misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis, compared to the reference groups. Targeted trainings for physicians and expanded syphilis screening services are urgently needed. PMID:28338084

  9. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. Methods A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May–June 2015 and December 2015–January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Results Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Conclusions Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of “too low prices.” To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages. PMID:27780218

  10. Identification of Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from 8 Provinces of China

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Lulu; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Mingxiang; Tan, Yunhong; Zhang, Jingrui; Yu, Qin; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Haiyan; Lu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in incidence and prevalence worldwide. In this study, we identified NTM species of the clinical isolates from 8 provinces in China, in order to preliminarily provide some basic scientific data in the different species and distribution of NTM related to pulmonary disease in China. A total of 523 clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed clinically from 2005 to 2012 were identified to the species using conventional and molecular methods, including multilocus PCR, rpoB and hsp65 PCR-PRA, hsp65, rpoB, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The isolates were identified into 3 bacterium genera, including NTM, Gordonia bronchialis, and Nocardia farcinica, and, for the 488 NTM isolates, 27 species were identified. For all the 27 species of NTM which were found to cause pulmonary infections in humans, the most prevalent species was M. intracellulare, followed by M. avium and M. abscessus. And seven other species were for the first time identified in patients with TB in China. NTM species identification is very important for distinguishing between tuberculosis and NTM pulmonary diseases, and the species diversity drives the creation of diverse and integrated identification methods with higher accuracy and efficacy. PMID:27882322

  11. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenjing; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS). TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 95% (352/370) of the wheat samples were positive for more than one type of Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME) and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required. PMID:27792182

  12. Identification of Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from 8 Provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haican; Lian, Lulu; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Mingxiang; Tan, Yunhong; Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jingrui; Yu, Qin; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Haiyan; Lu, Bing; Wu, Yimou; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in incidence and prevalence worldwide. In this study, we identified NTM species of the clinical isolates from 8 provinces in China, in order to preliminarily provide some basic scientific data in the different species and distribution of NTM related to pulmonary disease in China. A total of 523 clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed clinically from 2005 to 2012 were identified to the species using conventional and molecular methods, including multilocus PCR, rpoB and hsp65 PCR-PRA, hsp65, rpoB, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The isolates were identified into 3 bacterium genera, including NTM, Gordonia bronchialis, and Nocardia farcinica, and, for the 488 NTM isolates, 27 species were identified. For all the 27 species of NTM which were found to cause pulmonary infections in humans, the most prevalent species was M. intracellulare, followed by M. avium and M. abscessus. And seven other species were for the first time identified in patients with TB in China. NTM species identification is very important for distinguishing between tuberculosis and NTM pulmonary diseases, and the species diversity drives the creation of diverse and integrated identification methods with higher accuracy and efficacy.

  13. Spatial effects of "informal urbanization" in China: the case of Fujian province.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y

    1998-03-01

    This study describes the patterns and characteristics of temporary migration and urbanization in Fujian province, China. China's urbanization is unique for developing countries in that the degree of primacy in the city system is declining. Agricultural population concentrations are being driven by the development of township and village enterprises (TVEs). Informal urbanization is characterized by rural-urban migration into villages and townships and flows of temporary migrants. Prior to 1978, urbanization was primarily a formal process that was officially recognized in the household registration system and counted in official statistics. After 1978, the size of nonagricultural cities was formed by temporary migrants and TVEs. TVE, in Fujian, has been far more important in rural-urban changes than official documentation. Fujian has been at the forefront of China's reform and socioeconomic development. TVE employees and temporary migrants tend to spatially reside outside existing cities. This analysis relies on a residential hierarchy that includes rural townships. Distribution of TVE employees by residential hierarchy is compared in 1995, to the distribution of the nonagricultural population and analyzed for its influence on the residential hierarchy and urban system. Analysis suggests that greater informal urbanization strengthens the lower level of residential hierarchy and urban system and leads to the creation of many new economic growth centers. Higher levels will be weakened. Thus towns and small cities will increase. Temporary migration tends to follow the patterns of nonagricultural population concentration.

  14. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  15. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health

  16. Mapping Water Use Efficiency for the Xinjiang Province in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W.; Li, Q.; Dong, Q.; van Roey, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Tarim river basin, one of the basins integrated in the UNESCO - HELP Programme, is located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in Northwestern China. It is one of the world's largest closed hydrological drainage systems, and has ideal soils for agriculture, if enough water is available. Farmers in the province produce one- sixth of China's total cotton production. Since the 1950's however, excessive land reclamation, over-grazing and increased utilization of water resources in the upper reaches of the basin intensified environmental degradation. This impacted on cattle stock reduction (by water shortage), withered poplars and vegetation, along the lower reaches of the basin. Riparian forest degraded with a reduction in its area of 200 000 ha in total. Higher water use combined with a gradual mean yearly temperature increase due to climate change caused serious hydrological problems in the basin. Since the 1970's a strong drying out of the lower region is elicited. This phenomenon degraded the basin's downstream ecosystems, with an expansion of desertification as a consequence. Quite conspicuously, the Tarim river has shortened by 320 km, onward the period mentioned above. In the lower region of the basin, the situation is very serious. It can in fact be described as an ecological disaster, with dying trees and vegetation, the drying out of rivers and as consequence a regression of the river fish population as well as increased salt deposits. In the ARCHIMOD bilateral project between Belgium and China, important objectives are the description of the phenomena cited above using hydraulic modelling for some sub-basins of the Tarim as well as the application of remote sensing to estimate evapotranspiration (ETR), soil moisture content (SMC) and water use efficiency (WUE) at the scale of the Xinjiang province. Te estimate WUE at this scale the carbon exchange model C-Fix was applied. Our paper focusses on the application of remote sensing to map WUE for the Xinjiang

  17. Impact of moisture source variation on decadal-scale changes of precipitation in North China from 1951 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhihong; Jiang, Shuai; Shi, Yi; Liu, Zhengyu; Li, Wei; Li, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory platform is employed in this study to simulate trajectories of air parcels in the rainy season in North China during last six decades (1951-2010), with the purpose of investigating moisture sources, their variation, and the eventual relationship with precipitation in North China. Climatological trajectories indicate that moisture in North China originates, respectively, from Eurasia (14.4%), eastern China (10.2%), the Bay of Bengal-South China Sea (33.8%), the Indian Ocean (10.7%), and the Pacific (30.9%). The spatiotemporal analysis of moisture trajectory based on extended empirical orthogonal function indicates that a decrease of precipitation in North China is caused mainly by a decrease of water vapor sources from the south, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the South China Sea, which overwhelms an increase of water vapor sources from the North, mainly Eurasia, eastern China, and northern western North Pacific Ocean. In particular, the significant decrease of precipitation in the late 1970s (by 11.6%) is mainly caused by a 10.6% decrease of moisture from all sources. The Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, and the Indian Ocean are dominant moisture source areas affecting the decadal-scale variation of precipitation in North China.

  18. Linear Mixed-Effects Models to Describe Individual Tree Crown Width for China-Fir in Fujian Province, Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xu; Yujun, Sun; Xinjie, Wang; Jin, Wang; Yao, Fu

    2015-01-01

    A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME) models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike’s information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)], and the compound symmetry structure (CS). Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2). For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models. PMID:25876178

  19. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. J.; Zhao, P. S.; Xu, J.; Meng, W.; Pu, W. W.; Dong, F.; He, D.; Shi, Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    A regional haze episode occurred in the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province (BTH) area in the North China Plain (NCP) from 16 to 19 January 2010. The chemical and optical properties of aerosols and the meteorological condition were investigated in this study with intensive measurement of aerosol and trace gases from 14 to 23 January 2010 at five sites. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and surface air stagnation under a high pressure system followed by a low pressure system. The concentrations of PM2.5 and trace gases increased significantly on a regional scale during this episode. The increased aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp), absorption coefficient (σap), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed the importance of aerosol extinction during this haze episode. The increase of secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) was observed simultaneously at four sites, especially in the plain area of BTH, which could be identified as a common characteristic of pollution haze in east China. The organic matter (OM) was different from secondary inorganic pollutants, which increased more significantly at Chengde (CD) site than the other three sites in plain area. The sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 were mainly formed through the heterogeneous reaction process in the urban area. The secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 only existed during haze days at CD but in both haze and normal days at the other three sites. The chemical characteristics of aerosols in PM2.5 indicated that the secondary formation of aerosol was one important mechanism in the formation of haze episode. The strong temperature inversion and descending air motions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) allowed pollutants to accumulate in a shallow layer. The weak surface wind speed produced high pollutants concentration within these source regions. The accumulation of pollutants was one main factor in the haze formation. The enhanced southwest wind in the last period of

  20. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  1. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Ni

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), and wavelet neural networks (WNN). In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily. PMID:27843718

  2. Governance reform, external support, and environmental regulation enforcement in rural China: the case of Guangdong province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines how configurations of external support factors have evolved alongside governance reform in recent years and how these evolving configurations have affected regulatory enforcement in four counties in Guangdong Province in China. Based on in-depth interviews with leading officials in the local environmental protection bureaus (EPBs), we show that there have been increases in government and societal support for local EPBs in their regulatory work, thanks partly to a number of recent governance reform efforts, but many problems have remained. Based on a questionnaire survey of enforcement officials, we examine how the perceptions of government and societal support are related to EPB officials' self-perception of effectiveness. It is found that both local government support and societal support have an influence on enforcement officials' self-assessment of effectiveness, but the relationships varied considerably depending on various dimensions of effectiveness and the patterns of interactions between government and societal support.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; He, Jin-Rong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ming-Hui; Cao, Jian-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Liu; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses.

  4. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  5. The Mesoproterozoic `seismite' at Laiyuan (Hebei Province, E China) re-interpreted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loon, A. J. (Tom) Van

    2014-07-01

    A 1-million m3 breccia near Laiyuan (Hebei Province, E China) occurs as a block-like lithological unit between dolo-stones of the 1.55-1.45 Ga (Early Mesoproterozoic) Wumishan Formation. It has previously been interpreted as a seismite, but it appears not to fulfil any of the commonly accepted criteria that jointly are considered diagnostic for seis-mites. Its presence in a graben-like structure with almost vertical bounding fault planes rather indicates an origin as a (submarine) valley fill. As the valley originated by tectonic activity in the form of faulting, the breccia can be considered as a secondary effect of seismic activity, but it does not represent a seismite.

  6. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  7. First application of airborne gravity to oil exploration in the Shengli oil province, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyong; Zhoud, Jianxin; Liu, Yanxu; Xu, Jianchun

    2015-07-01

    An airborne gravity survey was successfully conducted over the Dongying, Gudao and Gudong oilfields of Shengli oil province, eastern China. These survey areas cover onshore and offshore regions of the south-west Bohai Sea. The data were processed using the potential field transformation approach. The derived Bouguer gravity data correlate well with features such as known faults, swells and sags identified by earlier seismic survey and drilling data. The depth to the Cenozoic basement in the study area, including the Dongying, Gudao, and Gudong oilfields, was calculated by means of gravity inversion constrained by seismic and drilling data. The differences between the depths to the Cenozoic basement calculated from gravity anomaly and those determined by the earlier seismic and drilling data are less than 5%.

  8. Crustal structure of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, from seismic refraction profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kan, R.-J.; Hu, H.-X.; Zeng, R.-S.; Mooney, W.D.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics, on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile, but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  9. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately.

  10. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Ni; Huang, Daizheng

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), and wavelet neural networks (WNN). In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily.

  11. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V

    1986-10-24

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  12. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  13. Geochemical peculiarities of nitric thermal waters in Jiangxi Province (SE-China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Zippa, E. V.; Gao, B.

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition of nitric thermal waters in Jiangxi Province, SE-China, is considered. It is shown that the studied thermal waters are characterized by low TDS (293-412 mg/l), but they always have alkaline or highly alkaline pH values. It should be noted that the content of Na+, Si, F-, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, sometimes SO4 2- is predominant, on the other hand, the content of Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- is low. It has been established that the main factors responsible for low concentrations of some chemical elements and high concentrations of others are continuous dissolution of aluminosilicate minerals and simultaneous precipitation of the secondary minerals.

  14. Mesorhizobium spp. are the main microsymbionts of Caragana spp. grown in Liaoning Province of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue Rui; Chen, Wen Feng; Fu, Jun Fan; Lu, Yang Li; Xue, Cai Yun; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2007-06-01

    Caragana species are woody legumes widely distributed in the arid regions of China. These plants form root nodules but their nodule bacteria have not been clearly classified. A total of 112 symbiotic bacterial isolates were obtained from four Caragana species grown in Liaoning Province and were characterized with ARDRA, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, BOX-PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Most of them were classified as Mesorhizobium belonging to 11 putative species. Three isolates were identified as Rhizobium etli and Burkholderia spp. This study offers new information about the Caragana-rhizobia association and resource for selection of inoculants used in sustainable agriculture and for further studies on the Caragana rhizobia.

  15. A new species of Chleuastochoerus (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sukuan; Deng, Tao

    2014-10-13

    The Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China, is known for its abundant and well-preserved fossils. Here a new species, Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the upper Miocene deposits of the Linxia Basin, distinguishable from C. stehlini by the relatively long facial region, more anteromedial-posterolaterally compressed upper canine and more complicated cheek teeth. A cladistics analysis placed Chleuastochoerus in the subfamily Hyotheriinae, being one of the basal taxa of this subfamily. Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis and C. stehlini are considered to have diverged before MN 10. C. tuvensis from Russia represents a separate lineage of Chleuastochoerus, which may have a closer relationship to C. stehlini but bears more progressive P4/p4 and M3.

  16. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-04-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  18. Field Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Target Region in Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. J.; Wei, Y. M.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X. L.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A fine mineral identification model using the field Hyperspectral remote sensing was proposed to solve the problem of low mineral identification accuracy. Results show that the accuracy was improved by spectral noises removal, endmember optimization and mineral absorptions enhancement. A regional endmember library was established to improve the reliability by systematically considering of the mineral assemblage relationships. A fine mineral identification system (FMIS) was developed to help geologists to quickly identify minerals and it was applied in the Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang province, China in 2014 to newly find copper mineralized points. The improved model and the FMIS system are therefore not only of great significance to improve efficiency and save cost in remote sensing mineral exploration, but also of great economic value of the local economy development in the future.

  19. The Association of Maternal Lifestyle with Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Leilei; Kang, Yijun; Cheng, Yue; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The main objective was to investigate the burden of birth defects among alive infants and explore the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on the burden of birth defects in Northwest China. Methods A stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to study infants born during 2010–2013 (and their mothers) in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire, and medical records from the local hospitals were used to determine the final diagnosis of birth defects. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the association between maternal lifestyles during pregnancy and the burden of birth defects, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results We sampled 29098 infants, of whom 629 (i.e. 216.17 per 10000) were observed to have congenital defects. Cardiovascular system defects (77.32 per 10000) were found to be the most common. Mothers who had ever consumed alcohol during pregnancy were found to have infants with a higher prevalence of some categories of birth defects, including nervous system (Prevalence Rate Ratio, PRR:14.67, 95%CI:1.94, 110.92), cardiovascular system (PRR:3.22, 95%CI: 1.02, 10.16) and oral clefts (PRR:9.02, 95%CI: 2.08, 39.10) in contrast to infants of mothers without any alcohol consumption. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy lead to the increased burden of malformations of eye, ear, face and neck (PRR:1.95, 95%CI:1.15, 3.33), cardiovascular system (PRR:1.70, 95%CI: 1.25, 2.31) and respiratory system (PRR:9.94, 95%CI: 2.37, 41.76) in their newborns. Further, tea or coffee consumption during pregnancy was positively correlated with the burden of specific birth defects, such as cardiovascular system (PRR: 2.44, 95%CI: 1.33, 4.46) and genital organs (PRR:14.72, 95%CI: 1.87, 116.11) among infants. Conclusions The prevalence of birth defects was high in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. The unhealthy lifestyles of mothers during pregnancy may

  20. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012‒2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of- pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  1. Perinatal hepatitis B prevention program in Shandong Province, China. Evaluation and progress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ko, Stephen; Lv, Jingjing; Ji, Feng; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Fujie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) alone is highly effective in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and the World Health Organization recommends administering HepB to all infants within 24 h after delivery. Maternal screening for HBsAg and administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in addition to HepB for infants born to HBsAg-positive pregnant women can increase the effectiveness of post-exposure prophylaxis for perinatal HBV transmission. In Shangdong Province, China which has a high prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HepB birth dose and HBIG were integrated into the routine childhood immunization program in 2002 and July 2011 respectively. We assessed progress toward implementation of these measures. Hospital-based reporting demonstrated an increase in maternal screening from 70.7% to 96.9% from 2004-2012; HepB birth dose coverage (within 24 h) remained high (96.3-97.1%) during this period. For infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers, the coverage of HBIG increased from 85.0% (before July 2011) to 92.1% (after July 2011). However, HBIG coverage in western areas of Shandong Province remained at 81.1% among infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers. Preterm/low-birth-weight and illness after birth were the most commonly reported reasons for delay in the first dose of HepB to >24 h of birth. Additional education on the safety and immune protection from HepB and HBIG might help to correct delays in administering the HepB birth dose and low HBIG coverage in the western areas of the Shandong Province.

  2. The Expanding Burden of Elevated Blood Pressure in China: Evidence From Jiangxi Province, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Junxiu; Liu, Shiwei; Zhou, Haiming; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Liu, Jie; Li, Yichong; Tang, Ji; Zhou, Chunlian; Huang, Jiuling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) as a risk factor accounts for the biggest burden of disease worldwide and in China. This study aimed to estimate attributed mortality and life expectancy (LE) to elevated BP in Jiangxi province between 2007 and 2010. BP and mortality data (2007 and 2010 inclusive) were obtained from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey and Disease Surveillance Points system, respectively. Population-attributable fraction used in comparative risk assessment of the Global Burden of Disease study 2010 were followed to quantify the attributed mortality to elevated BP, subsequently life table methods were applied to estimate its effects on LE. Uncertainty analysis was conducted to get 95% uncertainty intervals (95% uncertainty interval [UI]) for each outcome. There are 35,482 (95% UI: 31,389–39,928) and 47,842 (42,323–53,837) deaths in Jiangxi province were caused by elevated BP in 2007 and 2010, respectively. 2.24 (1.87–2.65) years of LE would be gained if all the attributed deaths were eliminated in 2007, and increased to 3.04 (2.52–3.48) in 2010. If the mean value of elevated BP in 2010 was decreased by 5 and 10 mm Hg, 5324 (4710–5991) and 11,422 (10,104–12,853) deaths would be avoided, with 0.41 (0.37–0.48) and 0.85 (0.71–1.09) years of LE gained, respectively. The deaths attributable to elevated BP in Jiangxi province has increased by 35% from 2007 to 2010, with 0.8 years of LE loss, suggesting the necessity to take actions to control BP in Chinese population. PMID:26426647

  3. Vehicle emission trends and spatial distribution in Shandong province, China, from 2000 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shida; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions have become a major source of air pollution in Shandong province, which has experienced a sharp growth of vehicle numbers in recent years and now has the largest vehicle population in China. This paper combines the COPERT IV model with the vehicle age distribution to estimate the temporal trends and map the spatial distributions of vehicle emissions in Shandong province during the period ranging from 2000 to 2014. Both conventional air pollutants and greenhouse gases are included. In addition, a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory at the prefecture level is developed and mapped on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid based on road information. Our results show that the emissions of all of the conventional air pollutants have decreased to various extents over the recent past, but greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase due to the lack of effective control strategies. The total emissions of CO, NMVOC, NOX, PM10, CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Shandong vehicle fleet changed from 1734.5 Gg, 277.9 Gg, 177.0 Gg, 12.4 Gg, 19239.7 Gg, 11.3 Gg and 0.6 Gg, respectively, in 2000 to 1723.3 Gg, 234.2 Gg, 513.8 Gg, 29.5 Gg, 138,419.5 Gg, 15.3 Gg and 3.9 Gg, respectively, in 2014. Vehicle emissions were mainly concentrated in cities and became more dispersed in Shandong province between 2000 and 2014.

  4. Forest recovery and river discharge at the regional scale of Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Wei, Xiaohua; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Mingfang; Li, Yuelin; Qiao, Yuna; Liu, Haigui; Wang, Chunlin

    2010-09-01

    Information on how large-scale forest changes affect water resources is important in China as country-wide reforestation programs are being implemented and concerns have arisen over possible water reduction. In this study, water budget analysis and statistical methods were used to assess the effects of significant forest recovery on river discharge at Guangdong Province based on 50 years of data. We used realized water yield (RWY) as a balance term between the outflows from and inflows to the province to represent the river discharge produced solely in Guangdong Province. The relationship between forest recovery and RWY was inferred after quantitatively examining other contributing variables including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, development of impervious areas, human water consumption, and reservoir constructions. We applied time series analysis to test the statistical relationship between forest recovery and RWYs at annual, wet season, and dry season intervals. Both approaches showed that large-scale forest recovery did not cause significant water reduction over the past 50 years. This finding is contrary to the widely held perception of the trade-off relationship between carbon (reforestation) and water. There were no significant trends in precipitation or in RWY annually and in the wet season, but there was a significant increase of RWY in the dry season over the past 50 years. It is estimated that forest recovery may play a positive role in redistributing water from the wet season to the dry season and, consequently, in increasing water yield in the dry season. The implication of those research findings for future reforestation programs and water resource protection is also discussed.

  5. Dental caries status of Dai preschool children in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status. Methods An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the “dmft” index, and severe caries was assessed using the “pa” index, which is modified from the “pufa” index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children’s socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children’s parents. Results A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year. Conclusions The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status. PMID:24279504

  6. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  7. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  8. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong - the most developed province in Southern China?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010–2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R2 = 0.782) and elevation (R2 = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R2 above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R2 values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution. PMID:25096216

  9. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  10. Changes in HIV-1 incidence in heroin users in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lai, S; Liu, W; Chen, J; Yang, J; Li, Z J; Li, R J; Liang, F X; Liang, S L; Zhu, Q Y; Yu, X F

    2001-04-01

    Guangxi Province, China recently experienced an outbreak of HIV-1 infection among heroin users. We studied HIV-1 incidence rates and associated risk factors for HIV-1 infection among heroin users residing in Pingxiang City. A total of 318 heroin users were followed from February 1998 through January 1999 (median follow-up: 8.1 months). Of these, 130 were prospectively followed from January through September 1999 (median follow-up: 8.3 months). HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence rates for each period were calculated. A generalized estimating equation approach was implemented to identify independent risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection across both periods. Among 318 study participants, 97.2% were men. The median age was 22 years. Approximately 60% reported sharing needles. HIV-1 prevalence at baseline was 15.4%. During the first follow-up period, HIV-1 incidence was 2.38 per 100 person years (py), and HCV incidence was 26.8 per 100 py. During the second follow-up period, HIV-1 incidence was 6.86 per 100 py, and HCV incidence was 28.9 per 100 py. After controlling for age and other factors, HCV seropositivity, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and sharing needles were independently associated with HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that HIV-1 incidence was rising over time in Pingxiang City, Guangxi Province. The high incidence of HCV heightens the importance of enhanced prevention programs to reduce injection and needle sharing among heroin users.

  11. Design of agricultural insurance policy for tea tree freezing damage in Zhejiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Weiping; Sun, Shanlei

    2013-02-01

    This paper proposes a method to design freezing damage policy-based agricultural insurance contracts for tea trees (an economic crop) in the Zhejiang Province of China, using a weather index. Data of economic losses caused by freezing damage, and the beginning dates of tea plucking (BDTP) from the Agricultural Bureau of each county in Zhejiang Province and tea planters, and meteorological observations were collected to establish the prediction model for BDTP, and to determine the relationship between economic loss rates caused by freezing damage at or before BDTP, and the minimum temperatures for "Wuniuzao," "Longjing-43," and "Jiukeng" teas. Based on the information diffusion theoretical model, occurrence probabilities of BDTP from 1 February to 20 April and lower temperatures at different levels are calculated. Then, the insurance premium rates of the three tea tree species can be estimated. Lastly, the tea tree freezing damage insurance contracts are designed, combining the advantages of regional yield-based index insurance and weather-based index insurance.

  12. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Hui; Yuan, Yuqi; Sun, Na; Bi, Zhenwang; Guan, Bing; Shao, Kun; Wang, Tongzhan; Bi, Zhenqiang

    Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera. Low positive rates for tcpA, tcpI and ctxAB among isolates from after 2000 may be an influencing factor contributing to the contemporary decline in cholera incidence rates. Spatiotemporal serotype shifts (Ogawa, Inaba, Ogawa, Inaba and O139) generally correlated with the variations in the PFGE patterns (PIV, PIIIc, PIa, PIIIb, PIIIa, PIb, and PII). O1 strains from different years or regions also had similar PFGE patterns, while O139 strains exclusively formed one cluster and differed from all other O1 strains. These data indicate that V. cholerae isolates in Shandong Province have continually undergone spatiotemporal changes. The serotype switching between Ogawa and Inaba originated from indigenous strains, while the emergence of serogroup O139 appeared to be unrelated to endemic V. cholerae O1 strains.

  13. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan Province, southwest China bordering Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenpeng; Yin, Jianwen; Yang, Jianbin; Li, Chaoqun; Chen, Yujuan; Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen; Zhao, Shiwen; Liang, Junrong; Jing, Huaiqi; Fu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an important infectious pathogen causing serious human diarrhea. We analyzed 568 V. cholerae strains isolated from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan province, southwest China bordering Myanmar. Polymerase chain reactions for detecting virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility tests and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. The results showed all the strains were El Tor biotype from 1986. The ctxB subunit sequence analysis for all strains have shown that cholera between 1986 and 1995 was associated with mixed infections with El Tor and El Tor variants, while infections after 1996 were all caused by El Tor variant strains. All of the strains were sensitive to aminoglycosides and quinolone antibiotics while resistant to β-lactamase and carbapenem antibiotics increased gradually. 568 V. cholerae were divided into 218 PFGE-NotI patterns, and the isolates before 2001 and after 2011 were separated into two groups according to PFGE results. The strains isolated before 2001 were mainly referred to native cholera in Yunnan, and after 2011 were primarily referred to as imported strains from Myanmar, which showed the variation of V. cholerae in this area. The molecular characteristics of V. cholerae indicated regularity in bacterial variation and evolution in Yunnan province.

  14. [Assessment of ecological environment effects of coastal development in Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Tuo; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    Through the analysis of the development activities and the ecological environment in coastal of Hebei Province, China, an index system for evaluating the ecological environment effect, composed of 28 indices, was set up by the pressure, state and response subsystems. Using the comprehensive index evaluation method, the integrated effects of ecological environment index (EI) was calculated and its grading criterion was founded. The results showed that the ecological environment effect of Hebei Province coastal development varied from being relatively small, normal and then relatively large from 1984 to 2010, and its acceptance degree evolved from being acceptable to being unacceptable. Because the resource and environment pressures caused by coastal development were serious and a delay existed in the state relative to the response, the improvement of various measures in the response subsystem did not show a positive effect on the state, and the environmental quality of ocean showed a degrading trend. Due to the differences in coastal development pattern and strength, the ecological environment effect of development activities showed some spatial differences. The ecological environment effect of Qinhuangdao coastal development was the minimum, followed by Cangzhou and Tangshan. Cangzhou and Tangshan had reached unacceptable levels and needed to further strengthen the restoration and protection of ecological environment.

  15. Health promotion and education policy and practice in urban schools in Liaoning province, China.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Malcolm; Weng, Wenyan

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews the status of health education in urban schools in three cities in Liaoning province, China. The cities represent the upper, middle and lower levels of city economy based on the GDP per person within the province. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to 500 primary and secondary schools and 436 questionnaires (87.2%) were returned completed. The questionnaire assessed health education offerings in the schools, permitting the comparison of similarities and differences in school practices, and the identification of obstacles that prevent schools becoming health promoting. The analysis revealed that 0.7% of schools fulfilled criteria for good status of health education. The negative attitudes of school management, teachers and pupils towards health education, as well as the lack of in-service training for staff, were perceived as key obstacles to school health education. Few provincial and school-based policies mentioned pupil involvement in health policy development and only a small number of schools acknowledged the need to improve community and parental involvement. In this paper we discuss the challenges facing provincial education and health authorities, and make recommendations about how to assist Chinese schools to develop and implement high quality health education initiatives.

  16. High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-01

    A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province.

  17. Simulation of emissions from wildfires in Heilongjiang province, Northern China using dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venevsky, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The new global fire model SEVER-FIRE is a mechanistic model which calculates number of human-induced and lightning fires as well as area burnt and carbon and particle emissions for both cases. The model operates at a daily time step and uses climate data (daily minimum/maximum temperature, daily precipitation/convective precipitation and daily short-wave radiation) as an input. The model works in interactive mode with a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), which provides fuel content and moisture and receives back amount of biomass burnt. SEVER-FIRE applies at a variable spatial resolution and for regional and global scale. This model was applied for simulation of Russian wildfires in 2010. We calculated burnt area for a case study of Heilongjiang province, Northern China and compared it with GFED satellite data products and field statistics of forest authorities in the province for 1980-2010. It was found that carbon dioxide emissions from this fire prone area are slightly decreased in three decades.

  18. [Investigation of a Patient with Pre-vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yao; Wang, Suting; Zhang Xiao; Song, Lizhi; Tao, Zexin; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the genetic characteristics of a polio-I highly variant vaccine recombinant virus in Shandong Province (China) in 2011 and to identify isolates from healthy contacts, two stool specimens from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and 40 stool specimens from his contacts were collected for virus isolation. The complete genome of poliovirus and VP1 coding region of the non-polio enterovirus were sequenced. Homologous comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 sequences were undertaken among coxsackievirus (CV) B1, CV-B3 isolates, and those in GenBank. One poliovirus (P1/11186), CV-A4 and CV-A8 were isolated from the AFP patient; one CV-A2, Echovirus 3 (E-3), E-12 and E-14, ten CV-B1, and five CV-B3 strains were isolated from his contacts. These results led us to believe that there may be a human enterovirus epidemic in this area, and that surveillance must be enhanced. P1/11186 was a type-1 vaccine-related poliovirus; it combined with type-2 and type-3 polioviruses in 2A and 3A regions, respectively. There were 25 nucleotide mutations with 9 amino-acid alterations in the entire genome. There were 8 nucleotide mutations with 5 amino-acid alterations in the VP1 region compared with the corresponding Sabin strains. Homology analyses suggested that the ten CV-B1 isolates had 97.0%-100% nucleotide and 98.9%-100% amino-acid identities with each other, as well as 92.6%-100% nucleotide and 99.2%-100% amino-acid identities among the five CV-B3 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses on the complete sequences of VP1 among CV-B1 and CV-B3 isolates showed that Shandong strains, together with strains from other provinces in China, had a close relationship and belonged to the same group.

  19. Exploring Stakeholder Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Using Needle Exchange Programs in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, Morgan M.; FuJie, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use is an ongoing urban health crisis in China and one of the largest drivers of the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan province show upwards of 20% of injection drug users (IDUs) are HIV positive. Though the Ministry of Health has scaled-up needle exchange programs (NEPs), they have not received official government recognition nor have they been extensively evaluated to explore factors influencing their acceptability and feasibility. Using in-depth qualitative interviews conducted from February to July 2008 with 35 participants consisting of IDUs and other key stakeholders, we explored facilitators and barriers to accessing needle exchange programs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes including attitudes toward NEPs and harm reduction, barriers to access, and suggestions for improvement. Themes that emerged included fears of breached confidentiality and police interference at the exchange sites and tensions between the public health and law enforcement perspective. Low levels of NEP-related knowledge and awareness were uniformly reported among interviewees. Suggestions to facilitate an increase in NEP acceptance included raising awareness of harm reduction and HIV more generally, offering services such as psychological counseling, job training and behavioral therapy at NEPs, and increasing communication between police, government, and public health officials. High rates of HIV infection among injection drug users in China have prompted rapid scale up of NEPs. Additional adaptations are necessary, however, to increase needle exchange use among injection drug users. This study finds that an urgent need to raise awareness of NEPs among policy makers and IDUs and act upon identified steps for developing social-structural interventions to create enabling environments that facilitate increased access to NEPs among injection drug users in Kunming. PMID:24498286

  20. [The impact of maternal education on the dietary and nutritional status of preschool children--a case study in 8 provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Lü, B; Zhai, F; Jin, S; Popkin, B M

    1998-09-30

    This analysis is based on the data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in collaboration with University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill undertaken in 8 provinces of China from 1993 to 1996. Totally, 1098 mother-child pairs under age 6 were investigated. Descriptive analysis and stratified analysis are applied to investigate the impact of maternal education on the dietary and nutritional status of children. Both the crude analysis and after controlling for confounding variables, maternal education in the population remains statistically relevant to children's dietary and nutritional status. The proportion of low body weight and stunting children is the highest in the group with maternal education level being below preliminary school, the lowest in the group with education level being above high middle school. Moreover, in these three groups, the higher the level of maternal education, the greater the percentage of nutrients intake of China RDA, especially those from animal food. These results fully illustrate the importance of maternal education for the prevention of malnutrition in children.

  1. New evidence for geologically instantaneous emplacement of earliest Jurassic Central Atlantic magmatic province basalts on the North American margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, W. E.; Renne, P. R.; Ruppel, C.

    2000-09-01

    Dikes in the southeastern United States represent a major component of the Central Atlantic magmatic province and record kinematics of Pangean breakup near the critical, predrift junction of three major continental masses. Until now, the age of these dikes had not been determined with the same precision as those of Central Atlantic magmatic province basalts on other parts of the circum-Atlantic margin. Our new results for three dike samples from the South Carolina Piedmont yield plateau ages of 198.8 ± 2.2, 199.5 ± 1.8, and 199.7 ± 1.5 Ma. For comparison, we present new age determinations of the benchmark Watchung flows I and III of the Newark basin: 201.0 ± 2.1 and 198.8 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that basaltic volcanism responsible for the dikes, flows, and sills of eastern North America occurred within ˜1 m.y. of 200 Ma. The timing, brief duration, and extent of the Central Atlantic magmatism imply that it may have been causally related to Triassic-Jurassic mass extinctions. The distribution and timing of this magmatism and the absence of regional uplift or an identifiable hotspot track lead us to favor strong lithospheric control on the origin of the Central Atlantic magmatic province, consistent with the modern generation of plume incubation or edge-driven convection models.

  2. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  3. Seroprevalence of Enterovirus A71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in Healthy People in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Pei, Yao-wen; Sun, Da-peng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xian-jun; Xu, Wen-bo; Ding, Shu-jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease has become very common in mainland of China in recent years, and enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 are its major etiologic factors. Here we investigated the seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 based on a large group of healthy individuals in Shandong province, China. Methods A total of 1378 healthy individuals were tested for serum neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 using a micro neutralization test. Results The overall seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 neutralizing antibodies was 74.75%. It increased significantly from 48.84% in children aged 0–1 years old to 88.64% in those aged 20–29 years (p < 0.01) and decreased to 85.71% in adults > 40 years old with a significant gender-specific difference (p < 0.01). The overall coxsackievirus A16 antibody prevalence was 71.77%. It increased significantly from 39.53% in children aged 0–1 years to 80.68% in those aged 10–19 years (p < 0.01) and decreased to 75.63% in adults >40 years without a gender-specific difference. Nearly 50% of the children <1 year were susceptible to enterovirus A71 infection versus 40% to coxsackievirus A16 infection. Sample collection time and place also played a role in the enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 positive rates. The overall rates in January were significantly lower than those in April and August (p < 0.01); enterovirus A71 positive rates in Jinan city (capital city of Shandong province) were lower than those in Jining city and Zibo city (p < 0.05); and oxsackievirus A16 positive rates in Jining city were significantly higher than those in Jinan city and Zibo city (p < 0.01). Conclusion There were significant differences among age groups, locations, and time points in the seroprevalence rates of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 neutralizing antibodies in healthy people in Shandong province. PMID:27611441

  4. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  5. Contrasting extracellular enzyme activities of particle-associated bacteria from distinct provinces of the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Arnosti, Carol; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Amann, Rudolf; Passow, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities play a key role in the marine carbon cycle, processing much of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The composition of these communities varies by depth, season, and location in the ocean; the functional consequences of these compositional variations for the carbon cycle are only beginning to be explored. We measured the abilities of microbial communities in the large-particle fraction (retained by a 10-μm pore-size cartridge filter) to enzymatically hydrolyze high molecular weight substrates, and therefore initiate carbon remineralization in four distinct oceanic provinces: the boreal polar (BPLR), the Arctic oceanic (ARCT), the North Atlantic drift (NADR), and the North Atlantic subtropical (NAST) provinces. Since we expected the large-particle fraction to include phytoplankton cells, we measured the hydrolysis of polysaccharide substrates (laminarin, fucoidan, xylan, and chondroitin sulfate) expected to be associated with phytoplankton. Hydrolysis rates and patterns clustered into two groups, the BPLR/ARCT and the NADR/NAST. All four substrates were hydrolyzed by the BPLR/ARCT communities; hydrolysis rates of individual substrate varied by factors of ca. 1–4. In contrast, chondroitin was not hydrolyzed in the NADR/NAST, and hydrolytic activity was dominated by laminarinase. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the large-particle fraction post-incubation showed a substantial contribution (15–26%) of CF319a-positive cells (Bacteroidetes) to total DAPI-stainable cells. Concurrent studies of microbial community composition and of fosmids from these same stations also demonstrated similarities between BPLR and ARCT stations, which were distinct from the NADR/NAST stations. Together, these data support a picture of compositionally as well as functionally distinct communities across these oceanic provinces. PMID:23248623

  6. Tectonics of north Himalaya in China since early Oligocene (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The India-Asia collision resulted in the building-up of the huge Himalayan orogen, and the north Himalayan orogen began to experience extensional tectonics since Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), which formed such extensional structures as the south Tibet detachment system (STDS), the related north Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), and the north-south trending rifts (NSTR). The leucogranite intruding beneath the STDS caused by thickening-melting gives the youngest U-Pb age of about 35Ma, which is same to the oldest U-Pb age of the syn-kinematic leucogranite intruding along the STDS. This indicates a tectonic transformation from thickening to extension in north Himalaya when the STDS began to activate at EOT. The thickening before EOT caused the partial melting in middle-lower crust, which formed the weak root of the thickened crust or the so-called “channel flow”. This “channel flow” triggered the collapse of the orogen and the onset of the extensional tectonics of the STDS. There are similarities in main duration and geochemistry between the granitic magmatism along the STDS and that in the cores of the NHGDs, thus the formation of the NHGD has a direct relationship to the activity of the STDS. The STDS’s extension and the resultant thinning caused further partial melting of the crust, resulting in larger-scale emplacement of leucogranite in Miocene (27~13Ma). Diapirism of these plutons shaped the NHGD which exposed the greater Himalayan crystalline complex and the shear zones of the STDS in north Himalaya. In north Himalaya, the STDS was offset by the NSTRs, the STDS stopped deformation at about 13Ma when the NSTRs began to be active at the same time. This indicates another tectonic transformation in north Himalaya at about 13Ma, when the N-S extension of the STDS ceased and gave the way to E-W extension of the NSTRs, and the peak granitic magmatism in north Himalaya finished at this time. This change possibly represents the start of the eastward channel

  7. How to protect loess-palaeosol sequences? - Proposal of Loess Geopark in Vojvodina Province (North Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljević, Dj. A.; Marković, S. B.; Hose, T. A.; Lukić, T.; Basarin, B.; Vujičić, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    Loess-palaeosol sequences preserve the most important continental record of climatic and environmental changes during the Quaternary. As loess deposits in the Vojvodina region (North Serbia) could be regarded as one of the most important European terrestrial records of climatic and environmental changes during the last million years that makes them valuable scientific resource. Unfortunately, these sites, due to their economic (e.g. agriculture and brickyards) and functional (e.g. remote sections as waste disposals) values, are constantly endangered by numerous causes and could be degraded or exploited permanently. This study will give proposal of establishing loess geopark as protected area that would include the most significant loess sections in the investigated area. The study is based on analytical, theoretical and practical suggestions and rules according to the general Guidelines and Criteria for National Geoparks seeking UNESCO's assistance to join the Global Geoparks Network. Loess and loess like sediments cover more than 60 % of the area and are preserved in six separate loess plateaus: Bačka, Srem, Tamiš, Banat, south-east Banat, and Titel Loess Plateau, which make it a surface large enough to serve local economic and cultural development. As the dissemination of loess in Vojvodina has a dispersed character, the potential Geopark should also have a certain number of separate locations. A fragmented approach should require less effort during the geoconservation practice, with separate processes, but identical aim. Therefore, one the initial steps of protection and recognition of (loess) geosites should be first achieved by national or provincial legislation and/or by management policies before inscription on the World Heritage List of recognition as a Global Geopark because these organisations by themselves do not provide any protection. As unique protected area of this kind in Europe and wider, role model for this loess geopark could be China, the

  8. GNSS Positioning by CORS and EGM2008 in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Kang, Jingyu; Li, Shuwen; Zhen, Jianing; Li, Hongqing

    2015-12-04

    The Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) technique has been widely applied in land resource management, surveying, mapping, deformation monitoring, precise navigation, etc. This article analyzed the positioning method using EGM2008 and CORS of Jilin Province, China. The vertical transformation of EGM2008 from WGS84 to China's CGCS2000 datum and the horizontal coordinate transformation from CGCS2000 to a triangulation coordinate system were discussed. The results indicated that a local geoid with respect to CGCS2000 can be transferred from EGM2008 with the same accuracy, and the geoid correction between CGCS2000 and WGS84 varied from 0.023 m to 0.111 m. The coordinate transformation method based on the curve surface approximation method indicated that the theoretical error was less than 0.09 m in the grid within 10° longitudinal and 5° latitudinal, and less than 0.3 m in large area and 0.1 m in small area in field validation. The method proposed in this article expanded the positioning result and its application for JLCORS and other CORS with local datum.

  9. Previously unrecognized ornithuromorph bird diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history.

  10. Study and analysis of the state of rare disease research in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng; Cui, Yazhou; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhang, Xiumei; Xu, Shuangqing; Han, Jinxiang

    2012-11-01

    As the world's most populous country, China has the world's largest number of rare disease groups in terms of prevalence. However, the country has no system of registering cases of most rare diseases, so there is very little documented information on the epidemiology of those diseases. The purpose of this study was to study the state of rare disease research and survey doctors in Shandong Province regarding their level of awareness of rare diseases. Types of rare diseases and numbers of cases were tallied and their geographical distribution over the decades was analyzed. Eight hundred and twenty-four doctors in tertiary hospitals and maternity and child care hospitals were surveyed by questionnaire. Data were descriptively analyzed and a map of disease distribution was created. Articles about rare diseases were retrieved from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database to provide pertinent data. This study yielded 5,749 cases of 323 different types of rare diseases. The survey found that doctors lack awareness of research on rare diseases. An authoritative and information-rich platform for rare disease research is urgently needed. Key steps are to study epidemiological and statistical techniques and then obtain available data to provide a basis for the definition and regulation of rare diseases in China.

  11. Non-carcinogenic risks induced by metals in drinking source water of Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Ni, Tianhua; Xia, Jing; Dai, Mingzhong; He, Chunyin; Lu, Genfa

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the levels of eight metallic elements in source water of 40 tap water treatment plants (TWTPs) located along Yangtze River, Taihu Lake and Huaihe River in the section of Jiangsu Province, China during 2007-2009 and assessed the non-carcinogenic risks induced by the metals. Among the metals, Fe had the highest concentration (121.5 μg L( - 1)) and Pb contributed most (32.4%) to the average hazard index (HI) of 40 TWTPs, followed by Cd (24.7%) and Cr (21.6%). The average concentration of each metal was below the permissible limit of China and USA except for Pb. Both hazard quotients of individual metals and HI of total non-carcinogenic risk in each TWTP were lower than 1.0, suggesting that these pollutants posed negligible hazards to public health of local residents. Temporal and spatial comparisons showed that high HIs occurred more frequently in low water seasons, and the three TWTPs located along Huaihe River (Dongtai, Jinhu and Yishuichang) had relatively higher HIs.

  12. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats from six provinces of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jinhong; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Anaplasma are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Here, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. in 621 sheep and 710 goats from six provinces of China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis and A. bovis targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA or the major surface protein 4 gene. PCR revealed Anaplasma in 39.0% (240/621) of sheep and 45.5% (323/710) of goats. The most frequently detected species was A. ovis (88/621, 14.2% for sheep; 129/710, 18.2% for goats), followed by A. bovis (60/621, 9.7% for sheep; 74/710, 10.4% for goats) and A. phagocytophilum (33/621, 5.3% for sheep; 15/710, 2.1% for goats). Additionally, eight sheep and 20 goats were found to be infected with three pathogens simultaneously. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of these three Anaplasma species in the investigated areas, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was geographic segregation to a certain extent, as well as a relationship between the host and cluster of A. ovis. The results of the present study provide valuable data that helps understand the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in ruminants from China. PMID:27456776

  13. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation.

  14. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future.

  15. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  16. Non-polio enteroviruses from acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Shandong Province, China, 1988-2013.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Guifang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Li, Manshi; Wang, Suting; Ji, Feng; Feng, Lei; Xiong, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Yi; Fan, Qingying; Yang, He; Yang, Jing; Chen, Peng; Li, Wenfeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Lizhi

    2014-08-22

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are important human pathogens associated with various clinical syndromes. This study represents an overview of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Shandong Province, China from 1988 to 2013. Altogether 792 and 170 NPEV isolates were isolated from stool specimens of 9263 AFP cases and 1059 contacts, respectively. Complete VP1 sequencing and typing on all 962 isolates revealed 53 NPEV types in which echovirus (E) 6 (7.6%), E14 (7.6%), E11 (7.4%), coxsackievirus (CV) B3 (7.4%), E25 (5.6%), CVB5 (4.9%), E7 (4.5%) and EV-A71 (4.4%) were the eight most commonly reported serotypes. Distinct summer-fall seasonality was observed, with June-October accounting for 79.3% of isolation from AFP cases with known month of specimen collection. Increase of isolation of EV-A71 and CVA--the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease--was observed in recent years. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region of EV-A71 and E6 suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. The results described in this study provide valuable information on the circulation and emergence of different EV types in the context of limited EV surveillance in China.

  17. Provider payment reform in China: the case of hospital reimbursement in Hainan province.

    PubMed

    Yip, W; Eggleston, K

    2001-06-01

    This paper develops a simple model of payment incentives and empirically evaluates provider payment reform in Hainan Province, China. We use a pre-post study design with a control group to analyse two years of claims data to assess the impact of a January 1997 change to prospective payment for a sub-sample of the hospitals. This difference-in-difference empirical strategy allows us to isolate the supply-side payment reform effects from demand-side changes, in contrast with previous studies of China's reforms. Our results validate the theory that Chinese providers' behavioural response to payment incentives is similar to that reported in the literature derived from the experience of industrialized countries. We find that prepayment is associated with a slower rate of growth of overall expenditures, programme spending and patient co-payments per inpatient admission, compared to fee-for-service (FFS). These findings suggest cautious optimism regarding the effectiveness of prospective payment for controlling costs and should be encouraging for policymakers in developing and transitional economies considering replacement of FFS with more aggregated forms of provider payment.

  18. Estimating health damage cost from secondary sulfate particles--a case study of Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ji-Ming; Li, Ji; Ye, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Tian-Le

    2003-09-01

    China's coal-dominated energy pattern has resulted in large amount of SO2 emissions. Estimate of the sulfur-related health damage cost is necessary to help perform systematic cost-benefit analysis and set national energy and emissions control priorities. Current researches were confined to gaseous SO2 in urban areas; however, secondary sulfate (SO4(2-)) particles can exert serious impact in a wider region. Based on the concept of "intake fraction", CALPUFF long-range dispersion model and 180 sample emission sources, multiple regression equation was obtained with good correlation( r = 0.85), which illustrates that populations were key parameters to determine intake fraction but source characteristics were insignificant. Based on the formula and the population distribution data, county-level intake fractions were mapped for Hunan Province(range: 1.1 x 10(-6) - 3.2 x 10(-6)) of China. A combination of county-level SO2 emissions with the intake fractions yields a total 1.98 tons of sulfate(SO4(2-)) inhalation, and resulting total health damage cost to be 0.76(willingness to pay approach, WTP) or 0.16 (human capital approach, HC) billion USD in 1997, about 2.1% or 0.45% of GDP in Hunan in 1997. Average health damage cost per ton of SO2 emission is 930(WTP) or 200 USD(HC). The results demonstrated that more stringent regulation should be forced.

  19. Did North Atlantic Igneous Province igneous sills trigger or maintain Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Karina; Jones, Stephen M.; Schofield, Nick; Clayton, Geoff

    2010-05-01

    Igneous sills of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) were intruded into organic-rich sediments, generating methane and carbon dioxide by thermal maturation. These greenhouse gases escaped to the ocean and atmosphere through hydrothermal vents above the sills that have been observed on seismic reflection data and by drilling. It has been suggested that the NAIP sills provided a significant component of the greenhouse gases that forced warming during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Here we consider whether methane released by NAIP sills could have triggered, as well as maintained, the PETM warming. Warming resulting from the PETM trigger began a few thousand years before the major upheaval in the carbon cycle that was associated with the PETM itself. Recent organic geochemical investigations have suggested that methane was involved in the trigger. Since the lifetime of methane in the atmosphere was approximately one decade during the Paleocene, the triggering methane pulse probably contained on the order of 100 Gt or more of carbon and was probably released in a period of c. 10 years or less. We use recent field observations of fluidized country rocks around sills to speculate on a model for sill emplacement, greenhouse gas generation and escape. The observation of fluidized sediments associated with lobe and finger structures along inward-dipping sections of many sills suggests that these sill rims propagated laterally by fluidizing a restricted volume of country rock, allowing the magma to advance into the fluidized region as a viscous fingering front. At this stage, the fluidized region was not connected to the surface by a conduit, so greenhouse gases could not escape rapidly. Eventually, as the sill rim propagated laterally and upward, a hydrothermal conduit was initiated and propagated rapidly upward to the surface. This model, based on field observations implies that the gases which initially escaped up the hydrothermal conduit were

  20. Study on the genesis of Yishui banded iron formation (BIF) in the North China Craton: geochemical characteristics and tectonic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Yishui BIFs are located in the Taishan Group, Shandong province of Eastern Block of North China Craton. The iron ore samples were collected from the mine pits. Major elements were analyzed by X-ray Fluoresence Spectromemter (XRF). Trace elements and REY (REE + Y) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses of iron ores and their wall rock (amphibolite) were conducted to trace the genesis of Yishui BIF. Iron ores of Yishui BIF are mainly composed of SiO2 and Fe2O3T (SiO2+ Fe2O3T= 85.8 to 98.8 wt%) and consistent with major mineral components which are quartz and iron oxide such as magnetite and hematite. Low contents of TiO2 (0.01 to 0.09 wt%) , Al2O3 (0.42 to 1.18 wt%) and HFSE indicate no or little effect of detrital contamination. Iron ores have positive La, Eu, Gd, Er and Y anomalies with enriched HREE in PAAS normalized REY graph. The REY patterns of iron ores were used as a fingerprint to trace the source of iron and silica. Distinctive positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 2.44-4.19), Y anomalies (Y/Y*=0.97 - 4.19), slightly negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*= 0.87-0.97) and enriched HREE ((La/Yb)SN= 0.17-0.32) indicate that mixture of seawater and high-temperature hydrothermal fluid (>250 ◦C). Depositional environment in North China Craton implies that Yishui BIFs were formed at Neoarchean and associated arc-related tectonic setting. All these data suggest that Yishui BIFs belong to typical Algoma-type BIF.

  1. Simulation of Groundwater Conditions in The Alluvial Plains of The Taihang Mountains of The North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Jensen, K. H.; Villholth, K. G.; Sandholt, I.; Lei, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The hydrological model, MIKE SHE, has been applied to the Hebei province of the North China Plain to examine the components of the groundwater balance and to assess the groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge by taking into consideration the spatial patterns of soil characteristics, land use and irrigation. Recharge is the most important input to the groundwater system while groundwater abstraction for irrigation is the dominant output from the system. The model was auto-calibrated against daily observations of groundwater heads from a number of wells spread across the region and actual evapotranspiration measured at an agricultural station the period 1996-2002. The model simulations compared well with observations and reasonable values were obtained for both root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R). The model analysis documented that groundwater tables in the region are subject to sharp declines due to heavy overexploitation of the groundwater resources by irrigation. The calibrated model was subsequently used for scenario simulations of the effect of different cropping patterns. The results showed that the crop rotation irrigated winter wheat and summer maize has the most significant impact on groundwater mining as irrigation requirements for winter wheat are extensive. Currently this is the most widespread crop rotation in North China Plain. In contract, the cultivation pattern of summer crop and winter fallow, like winter fallow and sweet potato, winter fallow and cotton, winter fallow and millet, and winter fallow and summer maize, cause less groundwater mining and some also can reverse water tables declining. The scenario simulations suggest that conversion of the crop rotations into rainfed summer crop and winter fallow is a potential solution for reversing the current decline in groundwater tables.

  2. High incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shangshang; Fu, Ying; Zhang, Qijing; Qi, Hui; Wen, Jian Guo; Xu, Hui; Xu, Lijuan; Zeng, Li; Tian, Hao; Rong, Lijuan; Li, Yonghong; Shan, Lihong; Xu, Hongde; Yu, Yunsong; Feng, Xianju; Liu, Hong-Min

    2014-08-01

    The emergence and spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to human health. In China, the bla(NDM-1 gene has been reported mostly in Acinetobacter spp. but is rarely found in Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we report a high incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-producing CRE in Henan Province in China. Sixteen (33.3%) of the 48 CRE isolates obtained from patients during June 2011 to July 2012 were positive for bla(NDM-1), and the gene was found to be carried on plasmids of various sizes (∼ 55 to ∼ 360 kb). These plasmids were readily transferrable to recipient Escherichia coli by conjugation, conferred resistance to multiple antibiotics, and belonged to multiple replicon types. The bla(NDM-1)-positive CRE isolates were genetically diverse, and six new multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types were linked to the carriage of NDM-1. Five of the isolates were classified as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates, four of which also carried the fosA3 gene conferring resistance to fosfomycin, an alternative drug for treating infections by CRE. In each bla(NDM-1)-positive CRE isolate, the bla(NDM-1) gene was downstream of an intact ISAba125 element and upstream of the bleMBL gene. Furthermore, gene environment analysis suggested the possible transmission of bla(NDM-1)-containing sequences from Acinetobacter spp. to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. These findings reveal the emergence and active transmission of NDM-1-positive CRE in China and underscore the need for heightened measures to control their further spread.

  3. Patient–physician mistrust and violence against physicians in Guangdong Province, China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Cheng, Yu; Wong, Bonnie; Gong, Ni; Nie, Jing-Bao; Zhu, Wei; McLaughlin, Megan M; Xie, Ruishi; Deng, Yinghui; Huang, Meijin; Wong, William C W; Lan, Ping; Liu, Huanliang; Miao, Wei; Kleinman, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Objective To better understand the origins, manifestations and current policy responses to patient–physician mistrust in China. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews focused on personal experiences of patient–physician mistrust and trust. Setting Guangdong Province, China. Participants One hundred and sixty patients, patient family members, physicians, nurses and hospital administrators at seven hospitals varying in type, geography and stages of achieving goals of health reform. These interviews included purposive selection of individuals who had experienced both trustful and mistrustful patient–physician relationships. Results One of the most prominent forces driving patient–physician mistrust was a patient perception of injustice within the medical sphere, related to profit mongering, knowledge imbalances and physician conflicts of interest. Individual physicians, departments and hospitals were explicitly incentivised to generate revenue without evaluation of caregiving. Physicians did not receive training in negotiating medical disputes or humanistic principles that underpin caregiving. Patient–physician mistrust precipitated medical disputes leading to the following outcomes: non-resolution with patient resentment towards physicians; violent resolution such as physical and verbal attacks against physicians; and non-violent resolution such as hospital-mediated dispute resolution. Policy responses to violence included increased hospital security forces, which inadvertently fuelled mistrust. Instead of encouraging communication that facilitated resolution, medical disputes sometimes ignited a vicious cycle leading to mob violence. However, patient–physician interactions at one hospital that has implemented a primary care model embodying health reform goals showed improved patient–physician trust. Conclusions The blind pursuit of financial profits at a systems level has eroded patient–physician trust in China. Restructuring incentives

  4. High Incidence and Endemic Spread of NDM-1-Positive Enterobacteriaceae in Henan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shangshang; Fu, Ying; Zhang, Qijing; Qi, Hui; Wen, Jian Guo; Xu, Hui; Xu, Lijuan; Zeng, Li; Tian, Hao; Rong, Lijuan; Li, Yonghong; Shan, Lihong; Xu, Hongde; Yu, Yunsong

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to human health. In China, the blaNDM-1 gene has been reported mostly in Acinetobacter spp. but is rarely found in Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we report a high incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-producing CRE in Henan Province in China. Sixteen (33.3%) of the 48 CRE isolates obtained from patients during June 2011 to July 2012 were positive for blaNDM-1, and the gene was found to be carried on plasmids of various sizes (∼55 to ∼360 kb). These plasmids were readily transferrable to recipient Escherichia coli by conjugation, conferred resistance to multiple antibiotics, and belonged to multiple replicon types. The blaNDM-1-positive CRE isolates were genetically diverse, and six new multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types were linked to the carriage of NDM-1. Five of the isolates were classified as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates, four of which also carried the fosA3 gene conferring resistance to fosfomycin, an alternative drug for treating infections by CRE. In each blaNDM-1-positive CRE isolate, the blaNDM-1 gene was downstream of an intact ISAba125 element and upstream of the bleMBL gene. Furthermore, gene environment analysis suggested the possible transmission of blaNDM-1-containing sequences from Acinetobacter spp. to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. These findings reveal the emergence and active transmission of NDM-1-positive CRE in China and underscore the need for heightened measures to control their further spread. PMID:24777095

  5. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  6. Curie Point Depths in North China Craton Based on Spectral Analysis of Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ya; Hao, Tianyao; Zeyen, Hermann; Nan, Fangzhou

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly analysis is an important method to study the structure of deep crust. With the assumption of random magnetization sources, the structure of a magnetic layer can be inverted via spectral analysis. Curie point depth (CPD), the depth at which rocks lose their ferromagnetic properties, is the bottom of a magnetic layer. In this study, we estimate from the magnetic anomaly data of EMAG2 dataset the CPD and the top of the magnetic layer in North China. With a moving window of 180 km × 180 km, we calculate the average top and centroid depth of the magnetic layer in each window and determine the regional CPD distribution across North China. The CPD of North China varies from 18 to 32 km. In addition, the CPD in the western part of the North China Craton is deeper than that in the eastern part. The shallowest CPD is located near the Bohai Sea. When compared to available heat flow data, the estimated CPD values are consistent with thermal conductivity of 1.8-3.2 Wm-1 K-1 and on heat production value of 0.4-1.3 µWm-3.

  7. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  8. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-05-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China.

  9. Patterns in Japanese Comparative Education Practices: A Contrast with North America and Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the convergence and divergence in the discourses and practices of comparative education in Japan, North America, and Greater China. Research demands, institutional settings, and social and historical background determine the nature of the research discussed and practiced in each place. Some particular patterns were identified…

  10. Spatial and temporal evaluation of long term trend (2005-2014) of OMI retrieved NO2 and SO2 concentrations in Henan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leishi; Lee, Chih Sheng; Zhang, Ruiqin; Chen, Liangfu

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric NO2 and SO2 concentrations are of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. Due to lack of surface monitoring stations, this study analyzes long term trend of NO2 and SO2 levels (2005-2014), retrieved from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) board on the NASA's Aura satellite, in an important region of China - Henan Province. Henan Province, located in North China Plain, has encountered serious air pollution problems including extremely high PM2.5 concentrations and as one of the most polluted region in China. The satellite spatial images clearly show that high levels of both NO2 and SO2 are concentrated in north and northeastern regions with much lower levels observed in other parts of Henan. Both pollutants exhibit the highest levels in winter with the least in summer/spring. The temporal trend analysis based on moving average of deseasonalized and decyclic data indicates that for NO2, there is a continuous increasing pattern from 2005 to 2011 at 6.4% per year, thereafter, it shows a decreasing trend (10.6% per year). As for SO2, the increasing trend is about 16% per year from 2005 to 2007 with decreasing rate 7% per year from 2007 to 2014. The economic development with incredible annual 11% GDP growth in Henan is responsible for increasing levels of NO2 and SO2. The observed decreasing SO2 level starting in 2007 is due to reduced SO2 emission, utilization of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and to some extent, in preparation of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. On the other hand, increasing vehicle numbers (155% from 2006 to 2012) and coal consumption (37% during the same span), along with the lack of denitration process for removing flue/exhaust gas NOx are responsible for increasing NO2 trend until 2011. The ratio of SO2/NO2 started decreasing in 2007 and dropped significantly from 2011 to 2013 indicating good performance of FGD and ever increasing NOx contribution from mobile sources. Unlike those

  11. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  12. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  13. The pattern of curved mafic dike swarm in a Hercynian(?) granitic body, eastern Tianshan orogen (Northern mountain, Gangsu province, northwestern China): genesis and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Y.; Suen, B.; Qiao, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In the Northern mountain, northwest of Gangsu province, northwestern China there occurs a set of curved dike swarm in an elliptical Hercynian(?) granitic body (about 35km×15km). This phenomenon is only visible on satellite image. Based upon the abutting and crosscutting relationships observed in the field, four dike sets are recognized in the intrusive body. The first is felsic, and the others mafic. The second set predominates, and makes up the phenomenon of curved dike swarm in the granitic body: a set of densely spaced dikes appears to change their azimuths systematically from the north-northeast in the north to the north-to-south in the middle to the northwest in the south. A simple explanation about the phenomenon is the existence of a single buckle that consists of these curved dikes. However, our field observations do not support this model. They in turn make us believe that the curved dike swarm should have formed to propagate along the curved trajectory of the maximum horizontal principal stress that resulted from local stress perturbation by preexisting fault(s). From the divergent distribution of the first dike set, we argue the presence of a hidden strike-slip fault beneath the granitic body, trending the west to east. Poly3D numerical software was used to address this stress perturbation. The results showed that a relatively large amount of dexterous strike slip along the fault was required to produce the curved stress trajectory in the area. The consolidation of this post-orogenic intrusive body seemed not to have completely healed the hidden fault(s), probably deep-rooted, along which it might have migrated upwards and/or emplaced. A satellite image of curved dike swarm in a granitic body from the Northern mountain, Gangsu, northwestern China. (downloaded from Google Earth)

  14. The North Atlantic Igneous Province reconstructed and its relation to the Plume Generation Zone: the Antrim Lava Group revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, M.; Smethurst, M. A.; Torsvik, T. H.; Prestvik, T.; Rousse, S.; McKenna, C.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Hendriks, B. W. H.

    2010-07-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) have recently been suggested to originate at the edges of low-velocity zones on the core mantle boundary (Plume Generation Zones). If true, LIPs can potentially be used to constrain paleolongitude in plate tectonic reconstructions. To validate the hypothesis, it is essential to study LIPs of which the paleolongitude can be constrained by other methods, such as hotspot reference frames. An ideal candidate to this end is the early Cenozoic North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). Despite being the largest volcanic unit of the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP, part of the NAIP), the age and paleoposition of the Antrim Lava Group (ALG) in Northern Ireland, which is key to the NAIP as a whole, was hitherto poorly constrained. In this paper, we therefore present an integrated high-resolution paleomagnetic and geochronological study. The ALG is divided into three formations: the Lower Basalt Formation (LBF), Interbasaltic Formation (IBF) and the Upper Basalt Formation (UBF). The IBF is mostly lateritic and encloses the Tardree rhyolite. We offer new age constraints from all three formations using the 40Ar/39Ar method and propose that 62.6 +/- 0.3, 61.3 +/- 0.3 and 59.6 +/- 0.3 Ma (1σ, internal uncertainties) are sound estimates of the age of emplacement of the LBF, Tardree rhyolite (IBF) and UBF, respectively. This constrains the nominal duration of emplacement of the ALG to 3 +/- 0.6 Ma (1σ). This reevaluation of the magnetic signature in the ALG revealed reverse polarity remanence in all three formations and an overall paleomagnetic north pole at latitude 78.9°N, longitude 167°E (A95 = 6.3; age ~61 Ma) in the European reference system. This appears consistent with paleomagnetic poles from the rest of the NAIP; both in Europe and Greenland, as well as predictions from modern apparent polar wander paths. The new radiometric ages span magnetochron C26r, C27n and C27r. The normal polarity chron C27n most probably occurred during the

  15. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    PubMed

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes.

  16. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Li, Chun-Hua; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear. Results Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts—hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash—were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants. Conclusions Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber) are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant. PMID:26735973

  17. Termination time of peak decratonization in North China: Geochemical evidence from mafic igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical and petrological data indicate destruction of the cratonic lithosphere in North China in the Mesozoic, resulting in replacement of the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by the juvenile SCLM. However, it remains to be answered when the craton destruction would have been terminated in the Mesozoic. This question is resolved by studying the two types of mafic igneous rocks with contrasting geochemical compositions from North China. The first type of mafic igneous rock shows arc-like trace element distribution patterns and enriched radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The mafic magmatism is absent in a period from 200 Ma to 135 Ma, recording the thinning of cratonic lithosphere due to the westward flat subduction of the Paleo-Pacific slab beneath the North China Craton. In contrast, the second type of mafic igneous rocks exhibits oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Early Cretaceous to Cenozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an age of 121 Ma for the geochemical transformation between the two types of mafic igneous rocks. This age marks a dramatic demarcation in the composition of their mantle sources. As such, the nature of mantle lithosphere in North China was changed from the ancient SCLM to the juvenile SCLM at 121 Ma. Thus, this age not only signifies the tectonic transition from the enriched mantle to the depleted mantle in the Early Cretaceous, but also dates the termination of peak decratonization in North China. Therefore, the craton destruction in the Early Cretaceous is temporally and spatially associated with the dramatic changes in the geochemical composition of mantle lithosphere.

  18. [Relationship between geopolitical political structure and distribution of dao-di herbs in frontier provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Dao-di herbs have both natural and humanistic attribute. Geopolitical political structure of Northeast, Mongolian, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces form frontier inland of China were summarized in this paper. The relationship between distribution of the Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure in above-mentioned provinces were described. In a strict sense, humanistic attribute of Dao-di herbs belonged to medical culture of Han Nationality. Distribution range of Dao-di herbs was determined by sphere of influence of central plains dynasty. Development of Dao-di herbs in the frontier inland area was unbalanced. The relationship between distribution of Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure proofed that natural attribute and humanistic attribute were inseparable. Recognition of this relationship is helpful to understand and develop genuine medicinal materials in frontier provinces.

  19. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban) and −0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban) and −0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,–0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Changjun; Zhou, Minghao; Hu, Jianli; Tang, Fenyang; Guo, Xiling; Jiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Wenshuai; Luo, Peilin; Li, Luxun; Zhu, Kuanyuan; Tan, Wenwen; Lu, Qimei; Ge, Hengming; Chen, Abao

    2014-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), which is caused by a novel bunyavirus, is an emerging infectious disease in China. In 2011, this new virus was designated as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of SFTSV infection. The investigation was conducted among the general population in Jiangsu Province, China in 2011. A total of 2,510 serum samples were collected. Testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of SFTSV infection. Result showed that the overall seroprevalence of SFTSV infection was 0.44% (11 of 2,510) in seven counties in Jiangsu Province. Multiple variable logistic regression analysis showed that raising goats, farming, and grazing were risk factors for SFTSV infection. Raising goats, farming, and grazing might be important risk factors for virus exposure, and appropriate health education could be useful in preventing infections.

  1. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  2. LC-MS/MS determination of acrylamide in instant noodles from supermarkets in the Hebei province of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.

  3. An assessment of climate change impacts on maize yields in Hebei Province of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongfu; Han, Xinru; Si, Wei; Wu, Zhigang; Chien, Hsiaoping; Okamoto, Katsuo

    2017-03-01

    The climate change impacts on maize yields are quantified in this paper using statistical models with panel data from 3731 farmers' observations across nine sample villages in Hebei Province of China. The marginal impacts of climate change and the simulated impacts on maize yields based on scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 from the global climate models of Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate version 5 (MIROC5) and Meteorological Research Institute Coupled General Circulation Model version 3 (MRI-CGCM3) were then calculated, analyzed, and explained. The results indicate that, first, the most important finding was that climate change impacts on maize yields were significant and a 1°C warming or a 1mm decrease in precipitation resulted in a 150.255kg or a 1.941kg loss in maize yields per hectare, respectively. Second, villages with latitudes of less than 39.832 and longitudes of more than 114.839 in Hebei province suffered losses due to warm weather. Third, the simulated impacts for the full sample are all negative based on scenarios from MIROC5, and their magnitudes are more than those of MRI-CGCM3 are. Based on scenarios in the 2050s, the biggest loss for maize yields per hectare for the full sample accounts for about one-tenth of the mean maize yield from 2004 to 2010, and all of the villages are impacted. Hence, it is important to help farms adopt an adaptation strategy to tackle the risk of loss for maize yields from climate change, and it is necessary to develop agricultural synthesis services as a public adaptation policy at the village level to interact with the adaptation strategy at the farm level.

  4. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was analyzed under three perspectives of the framework: individual, social, and structural perspectives. In this village, there were 2335 residents, 484 (20.3%) were former donors, 107 (4.6%) were PLWHA, and 96.3% of PLWHA were infected through commercial blood donation. Individually, low education and plasma donation were the risky factors of HIV/AIDS infection. Socially, the epidemic was geography-, kinship-, and conformity-related. Structurally, the related macrostructure factor was policy endorsement of national blood products. The microstructure factors were poverty and value belief on male child in passing down generations. It is concluded that commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS epidemic in the village are symbiotically related. The epidemic is temporary and socially determined.

  5. A survey of levels of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages in 2009-2012, Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Hu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Results of a survey of levels of ethyl carbamate (EC) (urethane) in alcoholic beverages carried out in four successive years from 2009 to 2012 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are presented. The beverages were purchased for sampling from Hebei Province of China, including eight main areas of production. The samples comprised wines (n = 212), grain spirits (n = 143) and wine sauces (n = 164). The data show that the average EC content in these kinds of alcoholic beverages remains nearly constant over the years. The results provide valuable data for food authorities to establish maximum limits for EC in China.

  6. Bridging the gap between education and practice in public health, with particular reference to less-developed provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, B; Lu, L; Zhang, Z Y; Ma, Z Y

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing healthcare system reform is one of the most important issues in China. There is an increasing awareness that public health education should be reformed to meet the demands of public health practice. This paper summarizes the current status of increasing public healthcare demand and public health service capacity in China, especially in less-developed provinces, and introduces the current public health educational system and public health administration structure. The paper also provides evidence for a considerable gap between public health education and practice, and suggests possible measures to bridge the gap.

  7. Epidemiological Characteristics and Environmental Risk Factors of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Hubei Province, China, from 2011 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tang; Li, Xin-Lou; Liu, Man; Song, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yu-Bin; Tian, Bao-Pin; Xing, Xue-Sen; Li, Shi-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne viral disease affecting hundreds of people in China each year. To better understand the epidemiological characteristics and environmental risk factors associated with the incidence of SFTS in Hubei Province, China, we conducted a retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of SFTS from 2011 to 2016. Although, the incidence and epidemic areas of SFTS are increasing, the fatality rate has decreased. Elderly farmers are the population most commonly infected with SFTS virus between May and July in the northeast Hubei Province, which seems to be consistent with local agricultural activities and the seasonal abundance of ticks. Spatial scanning showed that regions bordering with Xinyang City, Henan Province accounted for most of the SFTS cases in Hubei Province, and there was a significant association of SFTS incidence with temporal changes in the climate within these clusters. Multivariate modeling analysis identified density of cattle, rain-fed cropland, built-up land, temperature, and relative humidity as independent risk factors for the distribution of SFTS. Future epidemiological and serological studies are warranted to elucidate the dynamics and immunity patterns of local SFTS disease and to optimize interventions. PMID:28337190

  8. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  9. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  10. Disaster resilience in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as a hospital’s ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining critical functions, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one. This study aims to explore the status of resilience among tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province, China. Methods A stratified random sample (n = 50) was derived from tertiary A, tertiary B, and tertiary C hospitals in Shandong Province, and was surveyed by questionnaire. Data on hospital characteristics and 8 key domains of hospital resilience were collected and analysed. Variables were binary, and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies. Results A response rate of 82% (n = 41) was attained. Factor analysis identified four key factors from eight domains which appear to reflect the overall level of disaster resilience. These were hospital safety, disaster management mechanisms, disaster resources and disaster medical care capability. The survey demonstrated that in regard to hospital safety, 93% had syndromic surveillance systems for infectious diseases and 68% had evaluated their safety standards. In regard to disaster management mechanisms, all had general plans, while only 20% had specific plans for individual hazards. 49% had a public communication protocol and 43.9% attended the local coordination meetings. In regard to disaster resources, 75.6% and 87.5% stockpiled emergency drugs and materials respectively, while less than a third (30%) had a signed Memorandum of Understanding with other hospitals to share these resources. Finally in regard to medical care, 66% could dispatch an on-site medical rescue team, but only 5% had a ‘portable hospital’ function and 36.6% and 12% of the hospitals could surge their beds and staff capacity respectively. The average beds surge capacity within 1 day was 13%. Conclusions This study validated the broad utility of a framework for understanding and measuring the

  11. Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs in Sidi Kacem Province (North-West Morocco).

    PubMed

    Dakkak, A; El Berbri, I; Petavy, A F; Boué, F; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Welburn, S; Ducrotoy, M J

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the Province of Sidi Kacem in northwest Morocco between April 2010 and March 2011. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus (Eg) infection in owned dogs. This province was selected as a case study because of the social conditions, geographic and climatic diversity making it a model representative of many parts of Morocco. The survey was carried out in 23 rural communes and in the 5 municipalities (urban districts) of the Province and sampling was undertaken in randomly selected households. A total of 273 owned dogs comprising 232 from the 23 rural communes (rural dogs) and 41 from the 5 municipalities (urban dogs) were tested. Arecoline hydrobromide purgation was selected as the diagnostic method of choice to enable visualisation of expelled worms by dog owners, thereby imparting messages on the transmission mode of Eg to humans and farm animals. Of the 273 dogs tested, purgation was effective in a total of 224 dogs (82.1%). The overall estimated prevalence of Eg infection was 35.3% (79/224, 95% CI 22.3-47.0%). Dogs inhabiting rural communes were at greater risk of infection (38.0%, 95% CI 31.1-45.3%) than dogs roaming in municipalities or urban areas (18.8%, 95% CI 7.2-36.4%) and the prevalence of infection was higher in those inhabiting rural communes with slaughterhouses (62.7%, 95% CI 48.1-75.9%) than in communes without (29.1%, 95% CI 21.7-37.2%). This first assessment of Eg infection in Sidi Kacem Province indicates a key role of rural slaughterhouses in parasite transmission to dogs.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  13. Educational Assessment in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province: Practices, Issues, and Challenges for Educating Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouleta, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan's former North-West Frontier Province, and its provincial educational assessment policies and practices. These policies and practices affect millions of Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional (CLDE) children who live in rural and remote areas, and areas afflicted by…

  14. Magmatism and Eurekan deformation in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province: Age and geological constraints from North Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, C.; Storey, M.; Holm, P. M.; Thorarinsson, S. B.; Zhao, X.; Tappe, S.; Heaman, L.; Knudsen, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Age, compositional and geological data show the High Arctic Large Igneous Province is unusual on two counts: first, magmatism was prolonged and include an initial tholeiitic phase (130-80 Ma) and a second alkaline phase (85-60 Ma); second, it was subsequently deformed during the Eurekan orogeny. New 40Ar-39Ar and U-Pb dating provides emplacement ages of 71-68 Ma for most of the Kap Washington alkaline volcanics of North Greenland, but with activity continuing down to 61 Ma. A thermal resetting age of 49-47 Ma is also identified in 40Ar-39Ar whole-rock data for trachyte flows. Patch perthite feldspars and coeval resetting of Rb-Sr isotopes by hydrothermal fluids provide further support for thermal overprinting, interpreted as a result of Eurekan compressional tectonism. The formation of the tholeiitic suite (130-80 Ma) appears to be associated with the opening of the Canada Basin and may have involved mantle plume action. Formation of the alkaline suite (85-60 Ma) is attributed to continental rifting in the Lincoln Sea area linked to seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay. The alkaline and tholeiitic suites of the High Arctic may therefore be unrelated. It is striking that High Arctic volcanism terminates at about the same time (c. 60 Ma) as magmatism in the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province begins. We suggest this is a corollary of a change from extensional to compressional tectonism in the High Arctic. In the period when Greenland moved together with Eurasia (>60 Ma), the separation from North America resulted in rift-related alkaline magmatism in the High Arctic. When Greenland subsequently moved as a separate plate (60-35 Ma), overlapping spreading on both sides pushed it northwards and volcanism in the High Arctic stopped due to compression. Evaluation of plate kinematic models shows that the relative northwards movement of Greenland culminated in the Eocene, coinciding with thermal resetting. We conclude that compression in North

  15. Quantitative Determination of Aflatoxin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Wheat Silos in Golestan Province, North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    NAMJOO, Mohadeseh; SALAMAT, Faezeh; RAJABLI, Niloofar; HAJIHOSEEINI, Reza; NIKNEJAD, Farhad; KOHSAR, Faramarz; JOSHAGHANI, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxins that contaminate crops. They are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Wheat (Tricitumaestivum) is one of the most important staple foods used in Iran, and the environmental conditions in the north of Iran are favorable to fungal growth. This study was designed in order to determine the aflatoxin concentration in wheat samples from silos in Golestan Province north of Iran. Methods: Samples were collected from three silos of Golestan province. First, aflatoxins were isolated using immunoaffinity chromatography. Then the aflatoxin concentrations were determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and fluorescence detector. Results: Ten out of 34 samples (29.4% of samples) were contaminated by aflatoxins.No concentration was found above permitted aflatoxin levels in Iran (15 ng/g). In one sample (2.9%), aflatoxin B1 was seen over the permissible limits in Iran. The highest level found in samples for total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 were 7.08 ng/g, 6.91 ng/g, 0.29 ng/g, 1.37 ng/g and 0.23 ng/g, respectively. No correlation was found between humidity levels in wheat samples contained aflatoxin and wheat samples without aflatoxin. Conclusion: Despite the total aflatoxins determined in samples were below the permissible limits in Iran, the 29% aflatoxin contamination rate can negatively affect health factors and it should not be neglected. So, it is predictable that if the storage duration of samples increases, the aflatoxin contamination levels will increase. PMID:27516997

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in five provinces of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Ma, Xusheng; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Jia-Ping; Ba, Heng-Xing; Rui-Du; Xing, Xiu Mei; Wang, Quan-Kai; Zhao, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The disease microsporidiosis is found worldwide and is mainly caused by Enterocytozoon bieneusi. E. bieneusi can infect a wide range of hosts; however, information regarding the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi infection in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is limited. Therefore, in 2015, we examined 305 faecel samples from 80 farmed raccoon dogs in Jilin Province, from 54 in Hebei Province, from 72 in Liaoning Province, from 29 in Shandong Province, and from 40 in Heilongjiang Province. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs was 22.30%. Logistic regression analysis suggests that age, gender and region of raccoon dogs were highly related to the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection. Moreover, six E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences, including four known genotypes, namely D, CHN-DC1, NCF2, and CHN-F1, and two novel genotypes (NCR1 and NCR2), were identified in the present study. The present study firstly indicated the existence of E. bieneusi genotypes NCF2, NCR1, NCR2and CHN-F1 in infected raccoon dogs in Northern China. Integrated control strategies should be implemented to limit E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs, and to prevent transmission of this disease to other animals and humans.

  17. Direct Radiative Effects Caused By Crop Burning Over the North China Plain During the Harvest Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y.; Song, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The north China Plain, a major agriculture zone with dense population, suffers from severe aerosol pollution for the open burning of wheat straw residue during Junes, the harvest season. This study updated the inventory of crop burning in June 2013 based on detailed census data and MODIS thermal anomalies/fire products and then investigated the direct radiative effects by using the fully coupled model WRF-Chem model over the North China Plain. The simulation results were compared well with the PM2.5 chemical compositions and meteorological data. The results indicated that open burning of wheat straw from the south to the north was the dominator to EC concentration during harvest seasons, which could reach 85.2ug/m3 during night. Contribution of crop burning to EC concentration could be as high as 92.2% in the pollution episode. The EC was estimated to produce positive radiative effects with + 6.1 W/m2 at the top of atmosphere over the North China Plain. It is necessary for scientists and government to pay more attention to the pollution caused by the open burning of crop residue.

  18. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  19. Maiden Outbreak of Chikungunya in Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China: Epidemiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xinguang, Zhong; Haojie, Zhong; Fan, Ding; Zhiquan, Liu; Shiwen, Wang; Zhenyu, Huang; Yonghui, Zhang; Changwen, Ke; Dakang, Yuan; Wenjia, Liang; Deqiong, Li; Pinghua, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify epidemiological characteristics of the first documented CHIK fever outbreak in China and evaluate the effect of the preventive measures taken. Methodology/Principal Findings From September 1 to October 29, 2010, China's first documented outbreak of CHIK fever occurred in the Xincun community of Wanjiang District of Dongguan city, Guangdong province; 253 case-patients were recorded, of which 129 were laboratory confirmed, with an attack rate of 1%. Before September 18th the number of CHIK fever cases remained relatively low in the Xincun community; from September 19th onwards, the number of cases increased drastically, with an outbreak peak on October 4th. Cases were distributed across nine small village groups in the Xincun community, with an attack rate of 0–12% at the village level. The household attack rates ranged between 20% and 100%. No significant difference was found in the attack rate between males and females. There was a significant difference in the attack rate in different age groups (chi-square = 18.35, p = 0.005); highest in patients aged 60 years or older and the lowest in patients aged under 10. The major clinical characteristics of patients are fever (100%), joint pain (79%) and rash (54%). Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene on the five earliest confirmed cases showed that the strains of CHIKV isolated from their sera were highly homologous (up to 99%) with isogeneic strains isolated in Thailand in 2009. After control measures were taken, including killing adult mosquitoes and cleaning breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes, the Breteau index and Mosq-ovitrap index decreased rapidly, and the outbreak ended on October 29. Conclusion/Significance The infection source of the outbreak was imported. Cases showed obvious temporal, spatial, and population aggregation during the outbreak. Comprehensive control measures based on reducing the density of Aedes mosquitoes were effective in controlling

  20. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  1. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  2. Effects of vegetation on debris flow mitigation: A case study from Gansu province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siyuan; Meng, Xingmin; Chen, Guan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Muqi; Zeng, Runqiang

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are traditionally controlled using civil engineering structures such as check dams. However, the misuse of such strategies may sometimes trigger environmental hazards such as the catastrophic landslide in 2010 in Zouqu county, China, and therefore other methods such as the use of vegetation as an eco-engineering tool are increasingly being adopted. The aim of the present research was to investigate the bioengineering effects of vegetation over time in an area prone to debris flows in Gansu province, China. We collected detailed data from 2012 to 2014 on vegetation type, density, and root system morphology, and measured profiles across the valley. In addition, we assessed the increased soil cohesion provided by the root development of three monospecific stands of Robinia pseudoacacia of different ages growing within the debris valley, and on a larger scale, their effects on channel morphology. These data were incorporated into a modified form of BSTEM (Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model) and a cellular braided-stream model. The results indicate that with increasing age, the FOS (factor of safety) of the bank would be significantly increased, and that the flooded area in the valley caused by simulated flood events would be decreased by 18-24%, on average. Subsequently, field data were incorporated into a cellular model to simulate sediment movement and the effects of vegetation on the channel dynamics. The results demonstrate that the stability provided by vegetation could result in a less active valley system and that overall the development of debris-controlling vegetation could make a major contribution to ecosystem restoration. However, careful management is essential for making optimum use of the vegetation.

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health. PMID:27800493

  4. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guiqin; Chen, Jingqi; Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yanqin; Wang, Yazhe; Yao, Meiling

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of child physical maltreatment (CPM) in children with autism aged 2-5 years in Henan province (China), and to explore the risk factors for severe CPM in these children. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Psychology Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2012 and September 2013 with 180 parents of children with autism. Children and parents had no history of any cognitive therapy. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was used to evaluate the severity of autism in children. Data on parental CPM during the past 3 months were collected from parental self-reporting. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors of severe CPM. CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism. One hundred and fifty four of these cases were in the minor CPM group (86%) and 64 in the severe CPM group (36%). Most cases of severe CPM were unlikely to have caused injury. Univariate analyses showed that child's age (p=.018), age started to speak (p=.043) and CARS score (p=.048) were associated with severe CPM. Child's age (p=.011) and CARS score (p=.041) were independently associated with severe CPM. The risk of severe CPM increased with age and CARS score. Our findings showed that CPM is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism, particularly in cases of severe autism (those with high CARS scores).

  5. [Genetic Characteristics of Type 2 Vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shanxi Province (China) in 2014].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongrei; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianfang; Zhu, Shuangli; Wang, Dongyan; Zhang, Chuangye; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization redefined the type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in 2010. To study the genetic characteristics and evolution of type 2 VDPV under this new definition, we conducted genome sequencing and analyses of type 2 VDPVs isolated from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis in Shanxi province (China) in 2014. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length of type 2 VDPV is 7439 bases encoding 2207 amino acids with no insertion or deletion of nucleotides compared with Sabin2. One nucleotide substitution identified as a key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (A-G reversion at nucleotide nt 481 in the 5-end of the untranslated region) had reverted in the Shanxi type 2 VDPV. The other known key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (U-->C reversion at nt2909 in the VP1 coding region that caused a Ile143Thr substitution in VP1) had not reverted in the Shanxi VDPV. The Shanxi type 2 VDPV was S2/S1 recombinant, the crossover site of which mapped to the 3-end of the 3D region (between nt 6247 and nt 6281). A phylogentic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that evolution of the Shanxi type 2 VDPV was independent of other type 2 VDPVs detected worldwide. We estimated that the strain circulated for approximately = 11 months in the population according to the known evolution rate. The present study confirmed that the Chinese Polio Laboratory Network could discover the VDPV promptly and that it played an important part in maintenance of a polio-free China.

  6. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health.

  7. Evaluation of the Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults in Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yefei; Xu, Weiguo; Bao, Changjun; Peng, Hong; Bian, Qian; Yang, Haitao; Wang, Hua; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B immunization programs for newborns, children, and adolescents in China have shown remarkable results. To establish whether there would be any benefit in extending the program to cover older individuals, we examined both the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the coverage of hepatitis B vaccinations among adults born before routine vaccinations were implemented. We then evaluated the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults aged 20–59 years. A large-scale cross-sectional epidemiological survey of HBV infection was performed in the province of Jiangsu, south-east China, between September 2009 and March 2010. A total of 86,732 adults aged 20–59 years were included, of which 8,615 (9.9%, 95% CI = 9.7–10.1%) were HBsAg sero-positive. Self-reported vaccination status suggested that the coverage was approximately 23.7% (95% CI = 23.4–24.0%). It was shown that higher HBV vaccination coverage was associated with a lower rate of HBsAg seropositivity among adults. There was a negative correlation between hepatitis B vaccination coverage and HBsAg prevalence (correlation coefficient = −0.805, p = 0.016), which might demonstrate the combined effects of vaccination and pre-vaccination HBsAg screening. In the unvaccinated group, the HBsAg-positive rate had an obvious upward trend with age growing among 20–39 year-olds (Trend χ2 = 22.605, P<0.001), while the vaccinated group showed no such trend (Trend χ2 = 3.462, P = 0.063). Overall, hepatitis B vaccination in adults might reduce the rate of HBsAg positivity. Therefore, routine immunization of adults aged 20–39 years should be seriously considered. PMID:24979048

  8. Novel hepatitis B virus subgenotype in the southern Yunnan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Gao, Jian-mei; Zou, Yun-Lian; Dong, Hong; Yan, Xin-Min

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly prevalent in China. To identify the genotypes of HBV in the southern Yunnan Province of China, full-length HBV genomes were extracted from 1 Dai and 4 Hani HBV carriers and linked with the pMD T-18 vector. For each patient, 3-10 clones were sequenced directly and a consensus sequence was created. Genotypic and serotypic analysis revealed 4 HBV/B (2 B2 with adw2 and 2 new subgenotypes with ayw1) and 1 HBV/C (C1 with adrq+) genotypes. The divergences of the entire genome sequences of the new subgenotype were 0-0.9% and 2.99-6.48% between other known HBV/B. Divergences in other coding regions revealed that it was more similar to B3 and B4 in the precore/core gene (2.02 and 2.09%, respectively), and similar to B3 and B5 in the preS1/S2/S gene (2.24 and 2.78%, respectively). Phylogenetic trees using the precore/core and X genes both revealed a new clad separating from the major trunk of genotype B with a 99% bootstrap value. These results show that the 2 consensus isolates are a mosaic of B3-B5, which we designated to subgenotype B6. Considering the geographical distances, the relationship between B6 and other HBV/B subgenotypes (B3-B5) and HBV evolution needs to be further studied.

  9. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils from Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taoxiang; Wang, Haizhen; Wu, Laosheng; Lou, Jun; Wu, Jianjun; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is recognized as a hazardous microorganism in the environment and for public health. The E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics were investigated in 12 representative soils from Jiangsu Province, where the largest E. coli O157:H7 infection in China occurred. It was observed that E. coli O157:H7 declined rapidly in acidic soils (pH, 4.57 - 5.14) but slowly in neutral soils (pH, 6.51 - 7.39). The survival dynamics were well described by the Weibull model, with the calculated td value (survival time of the culturable E. coli O157:H7 needed to reach the detection limit of 100 CFU g(-1)) from 4.57 days in an acidic soil (pH, 4.57) to 34.34 days in a neutral soil (pH, 6.77). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that soil pH and soil organic carbon favored E. coli O157:H7 survival, while a high initial ratio of Gram-negative bacteria phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to Gram-positive bacteria PLFAs, and high content of exchangeable potassium inhibited E. coli O157:H7 survival. Principal component analysis clearly showed that the survival profiles in soils with high pH were different from those with low pH.

  10. (Assessment of the potential of Yunnan Province, China to grow and convert biomass to electricity)

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1990-10-15

    The purpose of the trip was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of biomass energy development in Yunnan Province, China. The evaluation included an assessment of the potential to grow and convert biomass to electricity, and an evaluation of the institutional relationships, which would be critical to the establishment of a collaborative biomass energy development project. This site visit was undertaken to evaluate the potential of an integrated biomass energy project, including the growing and handling of biomass feedstocks and its conversion to electricity. Based on this site visit, it was concluded that biomass production risks are real and further research on species screening and experiments is necessary before proceeding to the conversion phase of this project. The location of potential sites inspected and the logistics required for handling and transporting biomass may also be a concern. The commitment of support (labor and land) and leadership to this project by the Chinese is overwhelming exceeding all pre-site visit expectations. In sum, there is a definite opportunity in Yunnan for an integrated biomass energy project and a potential market for US technology.

  11. Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China, and the surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changlong; Xu, Weijin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Mengtan

    2017-03-01

    Taiyuan is a city in Shanxi Province, China, and possesses serious seismic hazard. In this study, we constructed a time-dependent seismic hazard model for Taiyuan and the surrounding area based on several major-earthquake seismogenic structures for which historical and paleoseismic event data were available. With the time-dependent model, we calculated the distribution of peak ground acceleration with 10% probability of exceedance in the next 50 years in Taiyuan and the surrounding area, and compared the results with those calculated using the time-independent model. The results showed that the entire area around Taiyuan has a higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. The Jiaocheng and Hengshan faults have much higher seismic hazard. Applying the model only to Taiyuan showed that the city has higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. In particular, in the western part of Taiyuan, the seismic hazard is quite high because of the proximity of the area to the Jiaocheng Fault.

  12. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  13. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms. PMID:28205592

  14. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Results Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40–49 years group and women aged 50–59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Conclusions Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors. PMID:26075708

  15. Microgeographic Heterogeneity of Border Malaria During Elimination Phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Hu, Yue; Ruan, Yonghua; Fan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    To identify township-level high-risk foci of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, China, along the international border, we retrospectively reviewed data collected in hospitals and clinics of 58 townships in 4 counties during 2011–2013. We analyzed spatiotemporal distribution, especially hot spots of confirmed malaria, using geographic information systems and Getis-Ord Gi*(d) cluster analysis. Malaria incidence, transmission seasonality, and Plasmodium vivax:P. falciparum ratio remained almost unchanged from 2011 to 2013, but heterogeneity in distribution increased. The number of townships with confirmed malaria decreased significantly during the 3 years; incidence became increasingly concentrated within a few townships. High-/low-incidence clusters of P. falciparum shifted in location and size every year, whereas the locations of high-incidence P. vivax townships remained unchanged. All high-incidence clusters were located along the China–Myanmar border. Because of increasing heterogeneity in malaria distribution, microgeographic analysis of malaria transmission hot spots provided useful information for designing targeted malaria intervention during the elimination phase. PMID:27433877

  16. Epidemiological study and control trial of taeniid cestode infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhihong; Li, Wei; Peng, Mao; Duo, Hong; Shen, Xiuying; Fu, Yong; Irie, Takao; Gan, Tiantian; Kirino, Yumi; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2014-03-01

    An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5-10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region.

  17. A small short-necked hupehsuchian from the lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely.

  18. Evaluating the fate of three HCHs in the typically agricultural environment of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenyu; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yang, Fenglin

    2009-08-01

    The LRBPOP model has been developed to calculate the long-term fate of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the lower reach of Liaohe River basin, a typically agricultural environment in Liaoning Province, China. For this purpose, seasonally existent crop compartment, time-variant emission rates, and seasonal model parameters are provided in the model calculation. Besides, crop processing factor (PF) is also introduced to calculate the concentration in foodstuff produced by crop. The fate of three HCHs from 1952 to 2011 is calculated. Sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis, and model comparison are conducted to evaluate the model. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the LRBPOP model is most sensitive to air and water advection, HCHs applied rate, and reaction half-life in soil. Model comparison shows that absolute levels, partitioning between media, temporal trends, and ratios between HCHs reproduce well within an order of magnitude, often within a factor of 3. The predicted results indicate that the study area has been subject to severe contamination of HCHs in the early of 1980s, and the residues of three HCHs decrease largely with different vanishing rates after 1983. According to modeling results, the 97.5th percentiles of SigmaHCH residues in surface water, agricultural soil, and crop food are lower than the corresponding maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 2008, 2005, and 2005, respectively.

  19. Prevalence and burden of headache disorders in two neighboring provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ning; Qi, Weiwei; Tong, Wangxia; Tan, Feng; Zhang, Qian; He, Jianmin; Zou, Daliang; Cao, Xiutang; Xu, Xuehua; Bai, Hua; Ou, Jiangang; Wu, Haike; Chen, Zilong; Zhou, Yane; Wan, Saiying; Hong, Yan; Wang, Jingliang; Ding, Minghui; Zhang, Aiwu; Zhu, Daoyuan; Fang, Yannan

    2014-10-01

    To our knowledge, studies concerning the prevalence and burden of primary headache in China are limited to specific regions without comparison of different districts. A survey in a different area with similar climate and culture may enhance our knowledge of the factors causing primary headache and the burden of headache. We conducted a 1 year survey on the prevalence and burden of primary headache in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Our study also evaluated the factors behind similarities and differences affecting prevalence in the two regions of study. The survey methodology, which was used in an Expanded Program on Immunization by the World Health Organization, was adopted to investigate the prevalence and burden of headache patients. Random samples of 372 local residents in Guangdong and 182 local residents in Guangxi aged 18-65 years were invited to a face-to-face interview. The education level and mean household income were higher in Guangdong (p<0.05). The 1 year prevalence of primary headache was 22.6% (84/372) in Guangdong and 41.2% (75/182) in Guangxi (p<0.001). The average financial burden of primary headache is 2.1% and 3.7% of the mean household income in Guangdong and Guangxi, respectively (p=0.001). The district with lower economic status had a higher prevalence of primary headache, and inevitably bears a heavier burden even with the same disease cost.

  20. An enterovirus 71 epidemic in Guangdong Province of China, 2008: epidemiological, clinical, and virogenic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-mei; Zheng, Huan-ying; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Guo, Xue; He, Jian-feng; Guan, Da-wei; Kang, Min; Liu, Zheng; Ke, Chang-wen; Li, Jian-sen; Liu, Leng; Guo, Ru-ning; Yoshida, Hiromu; Lin, Jin-yan

    2011-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is shown to be a major causative agent in outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) reported in Guangdong (GD) Province of China in 2008. A total of 48,876 HFMD cases (131 severe and 21 fatal) were reported to the GD HFMD web-based surveillance system, which covers 871 clinics. The main causes of death included central nervous system damage, heart failure, and pulmonary edema. The incidence rate was 52 per 100,000, and the epidemic peak appeared in May and June. EV71 was found in 59% and coxsackievirus A16 in 26% of 936 laboratory-confirmed cases. Other viruses are likely to be responsible for the remaining 15% of cases. Of the 185 EV71 cases collected, 62% were mild, 27% were severe, and the remaining 11% were fatal. A total of 17 EV71 isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of the entire VP1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the GD EV71 strains belonged to the C4 subgenotype and that EV71 circulates at a national rather than a regional level. A Comparison with the VP1 gene from a different clinical case showed that there was no obvious virulence determinant in this locus. Furthermore, this study found that most deaths occurred in rural areas, thereby indicating that delayed diagnosis and incorrect treatment may play an important role.

  1. Contents and occurrence of cadmium in the coals from Guizhou Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Dangyu Song; Mingshi Wang; Junying Zhang; Chuguang Zheng

    2008-10-15

    Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of 1.09 ppm. In comparison with the arithmetic means of Cd in Chinese coal (0.25 ppm), this is much higher. In order to find its occurrence in coal, float-sink analysis and a coal flotation test by progressive release were conducted on two raw coal samples. The content of the Cd and ash yield of the flotation products were determined. The organic matter was removed by low-temperature ashing (LTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to differentiate the main, minor, and trace minerals in the LTA from different flotation subproducts. Quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, and calcite were found to dominate the mineral matters, with a proportion of anatase, muscovite, and illite. Then quantitative analysis of minerals in LTA was conducted using material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) based on the Rietveld refinement method. Results show that Cd has a strong association with kaolinite.

  2. A Small Short-Necked Hupehsuchian from the Lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely. PMID:25517113

  3. Spousal role and caregiver burden in HIV affected families in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Julie; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Luo, Sitong; Ji, Guoping

    2017-03-09

    This study examined the burden experienced by various roles of family caregivers of people living with HIV (PLH), in particular spouses vs. non-spouses. A total of 475 family members of PLH were recruited from Anhui Province, China. Participants responded to a survey using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview method. The assessment collected data on demographic characteristics and their perceived caregiver burden, which was compared between spouses and non-spouses. Multiple regression models were built to identify factors associated with caregiver burden. About 64.4% of our study participants were female and the mean age was 42.1 years. Among various relationships to PLH, almost half reported being a spouse. Spouses reported significantly higher caregiver burden than non-spouses. In addition, older age and lower family income were significantly associated with higher level of caregiver burden. Among the subsample of spouses, significantly higher level of caregiver burden was identified among wives. Future studies should give special consideration to address the needs of female spouses in order to reduce their caregiver burden.

  4. Survey of 11 mycotoxins in wheat flour in Hebei province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Lu, Yang; Wang, Liying; Chang, Fengqi; Yang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 11 mycotoxins in 348 wheat flour samples marketed in Hebei province of China were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, was carried out. The selected mycotoxins consisted of four aflatoxins (AFs: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and seven Fusarium toxins, i.e. deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, Fusarenon-X and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside. Results indicated that most of the wheat samples analysed were contaminated with mycotoxins. Wheat was most susceptible to DON (91.4% contamination), with a mean level of 240 μg kg(-1). On average the probable daily intake (PDI, expressed as µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) of mycotoxins was within the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI, 2.0 µg kg(-1) of body weight day(-1)) as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Nevertheless, exposure assessment revealed that the maximum PDI of mycotoxins was 4.06 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), which was twice the PMTDI value. Thus, consistent monitoring is recommended, as to keep the contamination level under control.

  5. Utilizing the resource of twins reared apart: their distribution across nine provinces or cities of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenjing; Zhou, Bin; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2015-04-01

    Twins reared apart provide a fascinating experiment to distinguish genetic from environmental influences. However, there is as yet no broad report on distribution of twins reared apart, especially in the Chinese population. In this study, information on 18,295 volunteer twin pairs of all age groups was compiled in nine provinces or cities of China, and questionnaires were used for zygosity determination. It was discovered that twins reared apart from 0 to 10 years of age accounted for 2.2% of all twin interviewees, with the proportion of this 0-10 group separated before 1, 2, and 5 years old, accounting for 65.3%, 76.1%, and 91.3%, respectively. The proportion of twins reared apart is not significantly related to zygosity or gender, but it is related to region and twin age. As the age of twins lowers, the proportion of those reared apart gradually decreases. Twins reared apart will become rarer in the future and therefore should be cherished as a resource.

  6. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

  7. Rare earth elements and hypertension risk among housewives: A pilot study in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Huo, Wenhua; Lu, Qun; Cheng, Zixi; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls). We analyzed 15 REEs (lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), Yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd)) and calcium (Ca) accumulated in housewives hair over a period of two years. The results revealed that, with the exception of Eu, concentrations of the REEs in hair were higher in the cases than in the controls. The univariate odds ratios (ORs) of the 14 REEs were >1, and four of the REEs (Dy, Tm, Yb, and Y) also had adjusted ORs > 1. The increasing dose-response trends of the four REEs further indicated the potential for increased hypertension risk. Moreover, the REEs were negatively correlated with Ca content in hair. These results might suggest an antagonistic effect of REEs on Ca in the human body. It was concluded that high intake of REEs might increase the risk of hypertension among housewives.

  8. Typical Geo-Hazards and Countermeasures of Mines in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Qi, Wufu; Huang, Qianrui; Zhao, Xueqiong; Fang, Rong; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Mining-induced geo-hazards have caused enormous destruction and threat to mines. Known as the "kingdom of nonferrous metals" and located in Southwest China, Yunnan Province developed mining-induced geo-hazards well with characteristics of multiple types, widespread distribution and serious damage. Landslides and debris flows are two common sub-types of geohazards causing most serious damage in Yunnan, and some of them were very representative in the world. Two landslides and two debris flows were chosen to analyze deeply. Both Laojinshan Landslide and Sunjiaqing Landslide possess the characteristic of rock avalanches. The high sliding speed and long distance made the landslides translate into clastic flows with impact force and caused enormous destruction. Rainstorm and mining waste rock were two main factors to induce debris flows in Yunnan mines. Heishan valley debris flow of Dongchuan copper mine was a super large rainstorm type viscose debris flow with very low frequency, which brought a good caution to utilize valleys which looked an unlikely debris flow. Nandagou Valley of Jinding lead-zinc mine in Lanping County was a rainstorm stimulating, gully-type, high frequency and large scale debris flow, which was induced by mining activities. Many countermeasures have been used for Yunnan mines, including engineering treatment technology and ecological remediation, monitoring and forecasting, relocation and public administration.

  9. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  10. Immunologic treatment failure among HIV-infected adult patients in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Tao; Ding, Ping; Fu, Gengfeng; Huan, Xiping; Xu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Zhi; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Haitao; Mandel, Jeff; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Yan, Hongjing

    2017-01-01

    The National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program was implemented in Jiangsu Province, China in 2005. We conducted a retrospective, open cohort study to determine treatment failure rates and associated risk factors. Data were obtained from the national web-based antiretroviral treatment database. WHO criteria were used to define immunologic treatment failure. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine treatment failure rates and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify risk factors. A total of 5,083 (87.8%) having at least one CD4 cell count measure were included from 2005 to 2013. Overall, 30.4% had immunologic treatment failure with cumulative treatment failure rates increasing to 50.5% at month 60 and 64.1% at month 90. Factors predicting treatment failure included being treated in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention system (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.14–2.50, p = 0.009) or jail hospital (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08–1.34, p = 0.001), and having a baseline CD4 count >350 cells/uL (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.94–2.89. p < 0.001). Immunologic treatment failure was moderate to substantial among treated HIV patients. Providing second-line regimens and shifting treatment providers to professional hospitals should be considered to consolidate gains in averting morbidity and mortality. PMID:28220792

  11. Neurological sequelae of hospitalized Japanese encephalitis cases in Gansu province, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zundong; Wang, Xuxia; Li, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Li, Junhong; Ning, Guijun; Li, Fengqin; Liang, Xuefeng; Gao, Li; Liang, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a follow-up survey for 55 Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases 1-2 years after hospital discharge in Gansu province, China. Community-, education-, and gender-matched healthy individuals without history of neurologic disease were selected as the comparison group. All subjects received neurological examination, intelligence quotient (IQ) measurement, adaptive behavior measurement, and Wechsler memory scale (WMS) assessment. We found 43.6% JE cases had at least one nervous system sequelae compared with 3.6% healthy individuals. Among JE cases, 22.4% had subnormal IQ, 18.4% subnormal verbal IQ (VIQ), 20.4% subnormal performance IQ (PIQ), and 78.4% had subnormal memory quotient (MQ). Among healthy individuals, 2.0% had subnormal IQ, VIQ, or PIQ and 8.1% had subnormal MQ. Among adult JE cases, 47.8% and 39.1% had adaptive behavior impairments and intellectual disability, respectively, compared with 18.8% and 9.7% among young cases, respectively. The results showed both adult and young surviving JE cases had significant neurological sequelae and mental disability 1-2 years after discharged.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  13. Occurrence of triazines in surface and drinking water of Liaoning Province in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Gfrerer, Marion; Wenzl, Thomas; Quan, Xie; Platzer, Bernhard; Lankmayr, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    The Liaoning Province in Eastern China has a prosperous economy and traditional agricultural background. Steadily increasing water demand implies the direct use of surface water for drinking water support and foodstuff production. Due to the extensive use, high persistence, water solubility and relatively weak adsorptivity, the chloro s-triazines contaminate the aquatic environment and are therefore regularly and most frequently detected in ground and surface water. Water sample enrichment procedures were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using different materials. During a 1-year monitoring program on the Liao-He River, water sample enrichment was performed using C(18)-SPE cartridges. These SPE cartridges showed low recoveries for the atrazine metabolites, although high triazine values were detected. Based on these results, a pilot sampling on drinking water in the Liao-He region was performed. This time, in addition to the C(18)-SPE cartridges, a new polymer SPE sorbent made from a balance ratio of two monomers, the lipophilic divinylbenzene and the hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone, was used. Both materials were characterized by establishing breakthrough curves for the investigated analytes and up to large volumes.

  14. Contents and occurrence of cadmium in the coals from Guizhou province, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Dangyu; Wang, Mingshi; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2008-10-01

    Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of 1.09 ppm. In comparison with the arithmetic means of Cd in Chinese coal (0.25 ppm), this is much higher. In order to find its occurrence in coal, float-sink analysis and a coal flotation test by progressive release were conducted on two raw coal samples. The content of the Cd and ash yield of the flotation products were determined. The organic matter was removed by low-temperature ashing (LTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to differentiate the main, minor, and trace minerals in the LTA from different flotation subproducts. Quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, and calcite were found to dominate the mineral matters, with a proportion of anatase, muscovite, and illite. Then quantitative analysis of minerals in LTA was conducted using material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) based on the Rietveld refinement method. Results show that Cd has a strong association with kaolinite.

  15. Geochemistry of the barkinite liptobiolith (Late Permian) from the Jinshan Mine, Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Lin, Mingyue; Qin, Peng; Zhao, Cunliang; Jin, Kankun

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the geochemistry and mineralogy of the barkinite liptobiolith of the Late Permian age from the Jinshan Mine, Guangde County, Anhui Province, China. Samples were examined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion-selective electrode, sequential chemical extraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray, and optical microscopy. The coal is a medium-ash and high-sulfur resource. Minerals in the coal are composed of kaolinite, pyrite, calcite, and quartz. Pyrite and calcite are derived from seawater during peat accumulation. Quartz in the coal is of authigenic origin. Part of the kaolinite is from a land-source region, and part occurs as cell-fillings and is of authigenic origin. The results also indicate that the barkinite liptobiolith contains some toxic elements in high concentrations. Elements including Li, Be, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ga, Se, Y, Zr, Mo, the rare earth elements (REEs), W, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U in the coals are enriched in the barkinite liptobiolith. Results of sequential chemical extraction showed that Li, Sc, Ti, Cr, Y, Zr, REEs, and Th in the coal mainly occur as silicates, while Be and W are related to organic matter. Pyrite is the dominant source of S, Mo, Hg, Tl, and Pb. Gallium only occurs in silicate, and U and V occur both in organic and silicate associations.

  16. The costs and benefits of reforestation in Liping County, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S; Yin, Y; Xu, W; Ji, Z; Caldwell, I; Ren, J

    2007-11-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is becoming a pressing issue for the global community. Afforestation and reforestation are promoted worldwide as an effective means of sequestering carbon. For its national interest and global concerns, China has made great efforts to protect its existing forests and develop programs of afforestation and reforestation. Based on two surveys recently conducted in Liping County, Guizhou province, this paper investigates the economic changes associated with the implementation of the "Grain For Green" policy. Based on the analytical framework of benefit cost analysis, this paper concludes that the implementation of the reforestation of sloping agricultural land policy would not be possible if there were no government subsidies for the peasants. The short term economic returns of land and labour from forestation are substantially lower than those generated from grain or cash crop production on the steep slope lands. The government subsidies provide great economic incentives for peasants to take part in the project. The subsidies in fact have elevated peasant income in rural Liping. The estimated potential economic returns of plantations over the long run indicate that the removal of the government financial subsidies would not create an economic crisis for the peasants if the current market conditions continue.

  17. [Grain for Green Project: willingness evaluation of the farmers in northern Shaanxi Province of China].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shi-Xiong; Chen, Li; Yu, Xin-Xiao

    2009-02-01

    To understand the social-economic effects of the policies about ecological restoration in northern Shaanxi Province of China, an investigation to the farmers was made in 2007 about the effects of Grain for Green Project (GGP) on their livelihoods, and the concerns raised by this Project. Most farmers appreciated the compensation policy of GGP, but a few of them (8.9% and 2.2%, respectively) considered the planting of trees and of forage species to be a priority. Although only 19.1% of the farmers felt that their livelihoods were adversely affected by the GGP and 63.8% of the farmers supported the project, a large proportion (37.2%) still planned to return to cultivating forested areas and grassland, once the project was over. Therefore, the vegetations restored by the Project were at the risk of being converted once more into farmland and rangeland when the Project's subsidies ended, compromising the sustainability of the Project's environmental achievements. For the success of the programs about environmental restoration, the GGP should give rational compensation to the farmers for their costs, make technical progress to increase the output of per unit land, and create jobs and training programs to transfer the rural surplus labor.

  18. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  19. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  20. Identification and Characterization of Porcine Kobuvirus Variant Isolated from Suckling Piglet in Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengtao; Sun, Heting; Ying, Ying; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Yicong; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2013-01-01

    Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3′UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%–86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution. PMID:24145960

  1. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  2. Hepatitis B virus with a proposed genotype I was found in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenbin; He, Jilan; Sun, Li; He, Shusen; Qi, Qi

    2012-06-01

    To date, eight hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, A-H, have been designated, and two additional genotypes, I and J, have also been proposed. A serological survey targeting children in difficult-to-reach vaccination areas was carried out in remote counties of Sichuan Province, China. HBV genotypes and serotypes were also determined from HBsAg-positive serum samples by direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed two strains isolated from the Yi ethnic children clustered with the proposed genotype I. The pairwise genome genetic distance was 7.5% between genotypes I and C, and ranged from 8.4% to 15.2% between genotype I and other genotypes, except genotype C. Grouping Scan analyses of the two strains revealed apparent recombination events between an unknown genotype and genotype C. Two out of four HBV strains isolated from the Yi ethnic children were confirmed to be genotype I, suggesting widespread circulation and common infection with genotype I HBV in the local Yi population. High prevalence of HBsAg and low hepatitis B vaccination coverage indicated that additional efforts are needed to control HBV infection in those areas.

  3. GNSS Positioning by CORS and EGM2008 in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Kang, Jingyu; Li, Shuwen; Zhen, Jianing; Li, Hongqing

    2015-01-01

    The Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) technique has been widely applied in land resource management, surveying, mapping, deformation monitoring, precise navigation, etc. This article analyzed the positioning method using EGM2008 and CORS of Jilin Province, China. The vertical transformation of EGM2008 from WGS84 to China’s CGCS2000 datum and the horizontal coordinate transformation from CGCS2000 to a triangulation coordinate system were discussed. The results indicated that a local geoid with respect to CGCS2000 can be transferred from EGM2008 with the same accuracy, and the geoid correction between CGCS2000 and WGS84 varied from 0.023 m to 0.111 m. The coordinate transformation method based on the curve surface approximation method indicated that the theoretical error was less than 0.09 m in the grid within 10° longitudinal and 5° latitudinal, and less than 0.3 m in large area and 0.1 m in small area in field validation. The method proposed in this article expanded the positioning result and its application for JLCORS and other CORS with local datum. PMID:26690150

  4. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  5. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of pseudorabies in Shandong province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dongfang; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Zhendong; Xiao, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Shandong province of China to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity due to pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in small- and medium-sized farrow-to-finish herds following outbreaks of variant PRV strains. A total of 6,035 blood samples from 224 randomly selected herds were screened. The results showed that 25.0% of the herds and 56.7% of the serum samples were seropositive for field strains of PRV. Herds consisting of 50–100 breeding sows had higher herd seroprevalence and serum sample seroprevalence than larger herds. Both the highest herd seroprevalence and highest serum sample seroprevalence were observed in western Shandong, followed northern Shandong. Based on univariate analysis, the following risk factors were utilized in subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis: region, herd size, weight of purchased gilts, and all-in/all-out practice. Upon multivariate analysis, region, herd size, weight of purchased gilts and all-in/all-out practice were significantly associated with PRV herd seropositivity. These findings indicate that we are facing a serious situation in the prevention and control of pseudorabies. The results could help predict the next outbreak and set out control measures. PMID:26726021

  6. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China's Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingna; Gao, Weiqi; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing age-related cataract (ARC). Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, and the objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the association between the intakes of the five flavonoid subclasses and the risk of ARC. Subjects/methods A population-based case-control study (249 cases and 66 controls) was carried out in Heilongjiang province, which is located in the northeast of China, and where intakes and availability of fresh vegetables and fruits can be limited. Dietary data gathered by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results No linear associations between risk of developing ARC and intakes of total dietary flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ol, flavanone, total flavones or total flavonols were found, but quercetin and isorhamnetin intake was inversely associated with ARC risk (OR 11.78, 95% CI: 1.62–85.84, p<0.05, and OR 6.99, 95% CI: 1.12–43.44, p<0.05, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, respectively). Conclusion As quercetin is contained in many plant foods and isorhamnetin in very few foods, we concluded that higher quercetin intake may be an important dietary factor in the reduction of the risk of ARC. PMID:26652740

  7. Geology of the fushun coalfield, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Fushun coalfield is located in Liaoning Province 45 km east of Shenyang in a relatively small east-west-trending exposure of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks surrounded by Precambrian terrane. The coal is included in a sequence of early Tertiary rocks consisting of Paleocene basalt and tuff, and Eocene coal, oil shale and mudstone. These units have been folded into a syncline that plunges gently to the east. The overturned north limb of this fold has been partly removed by a thrust fault. The principal coal beds are low-sulfur subbituminous and bituminous in rank, are of limnic origin, and are contained in the 55-m-thick Eocene Guchengzi Formation. The field, which has been active since the turn of the century, has both open pit and underground mines. The largest operation is the West Open Pit mine, which measures 2.0 km wide, 6.6 km long, and 300 m deep. Coal is mined by means of power shovels, trucks, and an electric rail system. Oil shale from the Eocene Jijuntun Formation is also mined. ?? 1990.

  8. Traffic violations in Guangdong Province of China: speeding and drunk driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Gong, Xiangpu

    2014-03-01

    The number of speeding- and drunk driving-related injuries in China surged in the years immediately preceding 2004 and then began to decline. However, the percent decrease in the number of speeding and drunk driving incidents (decrease by 22%) is not proportional to the corresponding percent decrease in number of automobile accident-related injuries (decrease by 47%) from the year 2004 to 2010 (Traffic Management Bureau, Ministry of Public Security, Annual Statistical Reports on Road Traffic Accidents). Earlier studies have established traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. In this study, we examine in greater detail two important types of traffic violation events, speeding and drunk driving, and attempt to identify significant risk factors associated with these types of traffic violations. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze the speeding (N=11,055) and drunk driving (N=10,035) data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report and are the only comprehensive and official source of traffic accident data in China. Significant risk factors associating with speeding and drunk driving are identified. We find that several factors are associated with a significantly higher probability of both speeding and drunk driving, particularly male drivers, private vehicles, the lack of street lighting at night and poor visibility. The impact of other specific and unique risk factors for either speeding or drunk driving, such as hukou, road type/grades, commercial vehicles, compulsory third party insurance and vehicle safety status, also require particular attention. Legislative or regulatory measures targeting different vehicle types and/or driver groups with respect to the various driver

  9. Effects of vegetation type on soil microbial community structure and catabolic diversity assessed by polyphasic methods in North China.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-mei; Wang, Ren-qing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Meng-cheng; Zhou, Juan; Guo, Wei-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soil microbes play a major role in ecological processes and are closely associated with the aboveground plant community. In order to understand the effects of vegetation type on the characteristics of soil microbial communities, the soil microbial communities were assessed by plate counts, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and Biolog microplate techniques in five plant communities, i.e., soybean field (SF), artificial turf (AT), artificial shrub (AS), natural shrub (NS), and maize field (MF) in Jinan, Shandong Province, North China. The results showed that plant diversity had little discernible effect on microbial biomass but a positive impact on the evenness of utilized substrates in Biolog microplate. Legumes could significantly enhance the number of cultural microorganisms, microbial biomass, and community catabolic diversity. Except for SF dominated by legumes, the biomass of fungi and the catabolic diversity of microbial community were higher in less disturbed soil beneath NS than in frequently disturbed soils beneath the other vegetation types. These results confirmed that high number of plant species, legumes, and natural vegetation types tend to support soil microbial communities with higher function. The present study also found a significant correlation between the number of cultured bacteria and catabolic diversity of the bacterial community. Different research methods led to varied results in this study. The combination of several approaches is recommended for accurately describing the characteristics of microbial communities in many respects.

  10. Illite/Smectite diagenesis in the NanXiang, Yitong, and North China Permian-carboniferous basins: Application to petroleum exploration in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xinhua Deng; Youngchuan Sun; Xinrong Lei

    1996-02-01

    The NanXiang basin in Henan Province and the Yitong basin in Jilin Province, located in the eastern part of China, are composed mainly of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences that thicken to more than 4000-5000 m. The North China Permian-Carboniferous basin consists of Permian-Carboniferous systems composed of marine and nonmarine coal-bearing sequences. Clay diagenesis in these basins was studied by systematic x-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineralogy consists of illite, smectite, mixed-layered illite/smectite (I/S), kaolinite, and chlorite. The major clay reaction is the illitization of smectite with depth and temperature. The reactions generally involve discrete smectite stage to smectite, plus the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0 in the Reichweite nomenclature), followed by the first rapid change (1) to the ordered I/S of short-range stacking (R = 1) and the second rapid change (11) to the metastable stage (with the ordered I/S of long-range stacking-R {ge}3). The first rapid change leads to the appearance of I/S-ordered I/S and disappearance of discrete smectite. The proportion of smectite layers (Ps) in the I/S in the metastable stage remained unchanged (15-20%) over a thick burial interval. The discrete illite stage finally occurs in highly mature areas. Potassium-feldspar (K-feldspar) in rocks and K ions in present formation waters are available for the I/S reactions; I/S reactions in these areas responded mainly to temperature. The I/S transition from the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0) to the ordered I/S occurred at 80-95{degrees}C and coincided with the onset of the oil window in source rocks and with secondary porosity enhancement of sand-stones. Integrating the I/S reactions with thermal histories, hydrological regimes, structure, sedimentation, and sandstone diagenesis of each basin allows formulation of clay diagenetic models for each specific basin.

  11. Women with Disabilities in the North West Province of Cameroon: Resilient and Deserving of Greater Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiani, Shirin

    2009-01-01

    Cameroonian women living with disabilities face three-fold discrimination as a result of their sex, perceived inability and low socio-economic status. A needs assessment using focus groups (two focus groups, n = 24) and key participant interviews (n = 12) was conducted to explore the experiences of women with disabilities in the North West…

  12. Breast cancer in Ardabil province in the north-west of Iran: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Nasrin; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Amani, Firooz; Ali-Mohammadi, Hossein; Lotf, Ilshan; Mazaheri, Effat

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer accounts for about 26% of all newly diagnosed cancers in women aged 20 to 59 years. As part of a basic program for cancer control, the present cross sectional descriptive study was conducted with the objective of determining the epidemiology of breast cancer in Ardabil province during 2003-2010. Necessary information on 469 recorded cases of breast cancer in the registry were collected by check list from patient's files and then analyzed by statistical methods with SPSS.16 software. Some 455 of the patients (97%) were female, 329 (70.1%) residing in Ardabil. The mean age was 46.8 ± 13.6 and most were in the age group of 40 - 60. The most prevalent pathologic form was infiltrative ductal carcinoma with 316 cases (67.4%), the largest proportion being grade II (30.6%), but very many belonged to grades III and IV (40.5%). Breast cancer in Ardabil province appeared to slightly increase over the period studied. The results were similar to other places in Asia. With regard to this, more widespread studies are required to determine factors influencing the prevalence at low age and also how to promote early detection.

  13. Juvenile Middle Proterozoic crust in the Adirondack Highlands, Grenville province, northeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.S. ); McLelland, J.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Nd isotope data indicate that minimal amounts of significantly older crust have contributed to the genesis of the oldest (ca. 1.3-13.5 Ga) plutons in the Adirondack Highlands. These are magmatic arc tonalites with positive initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values and Sm-Nd depleted mantle model ages (t{sub DM}) that are within 70 m.y. of the time of their crystallization. Granitoids of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite suite, dated at 1,156-1,134 Ma, as well as the 1,100-1,050 Ma plutons, associated with the Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian orogenic cycle, also have positive initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values and t{sub DM} ages similar to the tonalites. Derivation of both groups of granitoids by crustal melting of the magmatic arc is consistent with the available isotopic and geochemical data. Juvenile late Middle Proterozoic crust that formed during or just prior to the Grenville cycle appears to dominate the southwestern Grenville province as well as the Grenville inliers to the south. In contrast, most of the contiguous Grenville province in Canada comprises largely reworked older crust.

  14. Ectoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces, North and Center of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Fattahi, Roohollah; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces in fall and winter in 2013(December to March). Methods: Seventy dogs in 2013, from these Provinces were examined for ectoparasite infestation and diagnosis of them based on parasitological methods and identification keys was done. Results: The rate of infestation in these areas was 100%, 68.5% and 93.3% respectively. Fleas were the most common ectoparasites on dogs in this study followed by lice, ticks, flies and mites respectively. The isolated arthropods were fleas in 77.5%, lice in 50%, ticks in 8.6%, flies in 6.8% and mites in 5.1% of infested dogs. The ectoparasite of the dogs included 4 flea species: Ctenocephalides canis (29.8%), C. felis (19.9%), Pulex iritans (2.9%) and Xenopsiella cheopis (0.7%), 1 louse species: Trichodectes canis (41.3%), 1 tick species: Rhipicephalus sanguinus (0.7%), 1 fly species: Hippobosca sp. (1.1%) and 1 mite species: Sarcoptes scabiei (3.6%). Conclusion: Fleas and lice were the most common ectoparasites in stray dogs of the studied area. Some ectoparasites transmit important human disease, therefore regular monitoring of them is a major concern to control the arthropods and arthropods-borne diseases. PMID:27308294

  15. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  16. [Effects of climate change on winter wheat growth and yield in North China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Chunyi; He, Yong

    2006-07-01

    With the combination of crop model and climate mode, this paper simulated and predicted the effects of climate change on the winter wheat production of North China in future 100 years. The results showed that from 2000 to 2004, the variation trend of simulated winter wheat production in North China was accordant with the measured one, and the difference of winter wheat's lifecycle and yield was not obvious. In the future 100 years, the lifecycle of winter wheat would be shortened by 8.4 days, and its yield would be decreased to different extent, with 10.1% as the average. If proper measures such as adjusting crop parameters and management measures were adopted, the decline of winter wheat yield could be mitigated effectively.

  17. Palaeomagnetism of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks of the Huabei Shield: the North China Block in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Rui, Zhang Qi

    1997-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study is reported of reddened facies (Fengtai Formation) of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks which underlie Early Cambrian rocks with disconformity in the Huabei (North China/Sino-Korean) Block. The diamictite (preferred age 620-600 Ma) carries a dual polarity remanence residing in hematite of the red matrix. The mean direction derived from 62 samples is {D}/{I} = {205.9}/{- 32.4°} ( α95 = 3.9°) yielding a pole position at 233°E, 62°N. Tests on the matrix deformed beneath dropstones suggest that remanence was fixed before full compaction, although clasts near the base of the formation are largely overprinted. Overlying Early Cambrian sediments of the Houjiashan and Yutaishan formations have a similar remanence also of dual polarity ( {D}/{I} = {205.5}/{- 32.1°}, α95 = 3.9°, 32 samples). The magnetisation in the diamictite is therefore interpreted to have been acquired during loading by the ice sheet and/or the overlying Cambrian succession. Red shales from the Liulaobei Formation (˜890-840 Ma) near the base of the Neoproterozoic succession in the Huabei Block yield a contrasting remanence of {D}/{I} = {59.4}/{75.3°} ( α95 = 7.1°, 19 samples) equivalent to a pole position at 150°E, 43°N. Pole positions from this study accord with Lower-Middle Cambrian poles from the Australian and South China Blocks with North China sited adjacent to northeastern Australia in accordance with recent biogeographic and palaeogeographic models. Although the palaeolatitude derived from the Fengtai diamictite (17°) is Cambrian in age and probably later than the glaciation, the correlation with Australia implies that glaciation in North China took place in low palaeolatitudes (˜20°) and reinforces the view that late Neoproterozoic glaciation, at least at this perimeter of Gondwana, occurred at low latitudes. Neoproterozoic-Cambrian poles from North China, South China and Australia fail to conform to the popular Rodinia reconstruction with the latter blocks

  18. Multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport during a rainstorm process in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengxin; Gao, Shouting; Liang, Li; Deng, Difei; Gong, Hainan

    2014-08-01

    A rainstorm process that occurred in North China from July 24-25, 2011 was accurately simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport were studied based on the simulated results. The results indicated that water vapor was carried to North China mainly by the southwest low-level jet and easterly flow, with the former playing a principal role. The enhancement and northward extension of the southwesterly wind were consistent with the increase of magnitude and northward propulsion of the moisture flux. The variation of the winds mirrored fluctuations in the amount of precipitation. In addition, the water vapor from low latitudes to North China was transported first near the boundary layer over 15°N-21°N and then primarily at 850 hPa over 21°N-30°N, 900 hPa over 30°N-39°N, and 800 hPa over the region north of 39°N. The net budget of water vapor in North China was always positive during the rainstorm process because the zonal deficit was much smaller than the meridional surplus. The contribution of the water vapor advection was larger than that of the water vapor convergence in the prior period of rainfall, and the subsequent moisture aggregation relied on the water vapor convergence. The rainband in North China presented frontal mesoscale characteristics, and the short-term aggregation of moisture was closely related to the genesis and development of the mesoscale convective system that was triggered mainly by the cold air intrusion near the boundary layer. The underlying cold air not only lifted the warm air to trigger the convection, but it also influenced the development of the low pressure system in the lower levels, which further intensified the convergence and benefited the rapid accumulation of moisture to the convective zone near the boundary layer. The moisture transport reached its maximum an hour before the rainstorm occurred.

  19. Field scale interaction and nutrient exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater in the Baiyang Lake region, North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Brauns, Bentje; Bjerg, Poul L; Song, Xianfang; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-07-01

    Fertilizer input for agricultural food production, as well as the discharge of domestic and industrial water pollutants, increases pressures on locally scarce and vulnerable water resources in the North China Plain. In order to: (a) understand pollutant exchange between surface water and groundwater, (b) quantify nutrient loadings, and (c) identify major nutrient removal pathways by using qualitative and quantitative methods, including the geochemical model PHREEQC) a one-year study at a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) double cropping system in the Baiyang Lake area in Hebei Province, China, was undertaken. The study showed a high influence of low-quality surface water on the shallow aquifer. Major inflowing pollutants into the aquifer were ammonium and nitrate via inflow from the adjacent Fu River (up to 29.8mg/L NH4-N and 6.8mg/L NO3-N), as well as nitrate via vertical transport from the field surface (up to 134.8mg/L NO3-N in soil water). Results from a conceptual model show an excess nitrogen input of about 320kg/ha/a. Nevertheless, both nitrogen species were only detected at low concentrations in shallow groundwater, averaging at 3.6mg/L NH4-N and 1.8mg/L NO3-N. Measurement results supported by PHREEQC-modeling indicated cation exchange, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with partial denitrification as major nitrogen removal pathways. Despite the current removal capacity, the excessive nitrogen fertilization may pose a future threat to groundwater quality. Surface water quality improvements are therefore recommended in conjunction with simultaneous monitoring of nitrate in the aquifer, and reduced agricultural N-inputs should be considered.

  20. Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: Novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define M. leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of

  1. New Precambrian paleomagnetic and geochronological results from the North China Craton and their implications for supercontinent Nuna reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2013-05-01

    A recent update of available global paleomagnetic data demonstrate that a coherent Nuna formed by ca. 1.75 Ga, and lasted till at least ca. 1.4 Ga (Zhang et al, 2012). This paleomagnetism-based reconstruction of Nuna is also in agreement with those proposed, geologically based models, including the SAMBA connection between Baltica, Amazonia and Western Africa (Johansson, 2009), the Nuna core connection between Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia (Evans and Mitchell, 2011), the proto-SWEAT connection between Laurentia, Mawson block and Australian blocks (Payne et al., 2009) and the NCB-India connection (Zhao et al., 2011). The North China Craton (NCC) is positioned by superimposing its four high quality poles between 1.78 Ga and ~1.44 Ga atop coeval poles from the combined cratonic assemblage, including Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia and Australian blocks. In this reconstruction, the present south margin of the NCB represented an active continental margin in Nuna and likely faced an open ocean, whilst its north margin was connected to a large landmass. Recently, Su et al (2012) reported a precise age of 1611±8 Ma (zircon U-Pb LA-MC- ICPMS) obtained from a tuff bed in the Luoyukou Formation in western Henan Province. This age suggested that two high quality paleomagnetic poles from the Baicaoping and Yunmengshan formations in this region, which were considered as of 1.2-1.3 Ga, should be of ~1.61 - 1.78 Ga. Although with poor age constraint, the two poles also support the NCC's position in the Nuna. In addition, new paleomagnetic results have been obtained from the well dated ~1.33 Ga mafic sills in the northern NCC (Zhang et al, 2011; Chen et al, 2013). However, because there is no coeval pole from other major cratons, whether the NCC had still connected with them is not conclusive.

  2. Giving Lip Service with an Attitude: North Korea’s China Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    border human trafficking , polygamy, underage sex slavery, illegal opium production in the mountains, drug smuggling from Manchuria to the North...often tear families apart, put human lives in danger and outside the law, and tend to result in a drama of personal disappointment, abuse, and loss...they do nothing to remedy the situation because it suits their parochial interests just fine. On a national level, underground human traffic to China

  3. Is tuberculosis health education reaching the public in China? A cross-sectional survey in Guizhou Province

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Yang; Yang, Haiqin; Ehiri, John; Chen, Zaiping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Mei; Liu, Shili; Tang, He; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) is important for TB control, and China's national TB control guidelines emphasise TB health promotion. A 2010 national TB epidemiology survey showed that the general public had limited knowledge and awareness of TB. Objective To assess the level of TB knowledge after 5 years of TB health promotion in Guizhou Province, one of the regions with the highest TB burden in China. Design and setting A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10 237 residents of Guizhou Province from June to August 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with core TB knowledge and TB health education among respondents. Results Overall, residents of Guizhou Province had inadequate knowledge of TB. The overall awareness of TB was 41.5%. Less than 30% of respondents were familiar with China's policy of free treatment for TB or knew that the disease could be cured. Factors associated with core TB knowledge included gender, age, ethnicity, education, occupation, region, and having received TB health education. Women, older adults, people employed in non-government institutions, and those living in counties with low TB burdens had little access to TB health education, whereas people with higher education levels had greater access. Respondents' sources of TB knowledge did not necessarily match their preferred channels for delivery of TB health education. Conclusions Our findings indicate that TB health education should be further strengthened in China and other countries with a high TB burden. TB health education programmes require further formative and implementation research in order to improve programme effectiveness. PMID:27670524

  4. Geochemistry of magnetite from Proterozoic Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian metallogenic province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei Terry; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Hu, Ruizhong

    2015-10-01

    Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian Fe-Cu metallogenic province, SW China, are hosted in Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic-sedimentary sequences and are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions. Several well-known examples are the giant Lala, Dahongshan, and Yinachang deposits. They have a common paragenetic sequence of an early Fe-oxide stage associated with sodic alteration and a late Cu-sulfide stage associated with potassic-carbonate alteration. Magnetite dominates the Fe-oxide stage of these deposits but is also present in the Cu-sulfide stage of the Lala deposit. This study uses trace element compositions of magnetite to examine the nature and origin of the ore-forming fluids. The magnetite has variable concentrations of Ti, Al, Mg, Mn, Si, V, Cr, Ca, Co, Ni, Sc, Zn, Cu, Mo, Sn, and Ga, which are thought to have been controlled mainly by fluid compositions and/or intensive parameters (e.g., temperature and oxygen fugacity ( fO2)). Fluid-rock interaction and coprecipitating mineral phases appear to be less important in controlling the magnetite compositions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits have comparable trace element compositions and were likely precipitated from chemically similar fluids. High Ni contents of magnetite in both deposits, coupled with previous isotopic data and the fact that the two deposits are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions, strongly suggest that the ore-forming fluids were genetically related to the mafic magmas that formed the intrusions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Yinachang deposit have much lower V and Ni but higher Sn and Mo contents than those of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits and are thus thought to have precipitated from more oxidized and Mo-Sn-rich fluids that may have evolved from relatively felsic magmas. Magnetite grains from the Cu-sulfide and Fe-oxide stages of the Lala deposit are broadly similar in composition, but those in the Cu

  5. Seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of genotype 4 hepatitis E virus in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Jiang, Mei; Jin, Min; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Cui, Wei-Hong; Wang, Da-Ning; Gong, Lian-Feng; Li, Bo; Wang, Xin-Wei; Li, Jun-Wen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and assess the ancestor of HEVs in China’s Shandong Province. METHODS: A total of 2028 serum, 60 fecal and 82 bile samples were collected from the general human population, patients and swine, respectively. This seroepidemiological study was conducted using an immunnosorbent assay and HEV RNA was detected by the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method. Complete genome sequences of the prevalent strains (CH-YT-HEV01, CH-YT-HEV02 and CH-YT-sHEV01) were determined, and the sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. In addition, the evolutionary dynamics of three HEV isolates were determined using the framework of coalescent analysis in the program package BEAST, and the time of the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) of China-indigenous genotype 4 HEV isolates was calculated. RESULTS: The overall viral burden in the general human population was 0.1%, and the positive rates of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum specimens were 25.1% (509/2028) and 2.3% (51/2028), respectively. In addition, IgG positivity increased with age. The phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length nucleotide sequences showed that the strain CH-YT-HEV02 was directly related to CH-YT-sHEV01 with a 94% identity, suggesting that they were involved in cross-species transmission. The isolate CH-YT-HEV01 was close to HB-3 and CHN-SD-sHEV with a bootstrap value of 100%, sharing a 96.1%-96.4% identity with each other. Surprisingly, the HB-3 strain was a representative strain prevalent in swine in Hubei, and the isolate CHN-SD-sHEV was obtained from swine in Shandong in a previous report. TMRCA for the clade of CH-YT-HEV01 and HB-3 was 2003, which was consistent with the TMRCA for the clade of CHN-SD-sHEV and HB-3, and they were both earlier than the TMRCA for the clade of CH-YT-HEV01 and CHN-SD-sHEV (2004). CONCLUSION: The strains CH-YT-HEV01, CHN-SD-sHEV and HB-3 are involved

  6. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Ningxu; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world’s highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China’s government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world’s average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area. Methods In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley’s k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS) software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads. Results In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05) reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on

  7. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province. PMID:26149866

  8. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province.

  9. Pilot studies of seismic hazard and risk in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Effendi, I.; Kertapati, E.K.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    Earthquake ground motions in North Sulawesi on soft soil that have a 90% probability of not been exceeded in 560 years are estimated to be 0.63 g (63% of the acceleration of gravity) at Palu, 0.31 g at Gorontalo, and 0.27 g at Manado. Estimated ground motions for rock conditions for the same probability level and exposure time are 56% of those for soft soil. The hazard estimates are obtained from seismic sources that model the earthquake potential to a depth of 100 km beneath northern and central Sulawesi and include the Palu fault zone of western Sulawesi, the North Sulawesi subduction zone, and the southern most segment of the Sangihe subduction zone beneath the Molucca Sea. An attenuation relation based on Japanese strong-motion data and considered appropriate for subduction environments of the western Pacific was used in determination of ground motions. Following the 18 April 1990 North Sulawesi earthquake (Ms 7.3) a seismic hazard and risk assessment was carried out. -from Authors

  10. Surveillance of Avian H7N9 Virus in Various Environments of Zhejiang Province, China before and after Live Poultry Markets Were Closed in 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Shelan; Mao, Haiyan; Yu, Zhao; Chen, Enfu; Chai, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there have been a total of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus across mainland China, with 28% (179/637) of these reported in Zhejiang Province. Surveillance of avian H7N9 virus was conducted to investigate environmental contamination during H7N9 outbreaks. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of H7N9 in the environment, and the effects of poultry market closures on the incidence of human H7N9 cases. Methods We collected 6740 environmental samples from 751 sampling sites across 11 cities of Zhejiang Province (China) between January 2013 and March 2014. The presence of H7N9 was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, with prevalence compared between sites and over time. The relationship between environmental contamination and human cases of H7N9 infection were analyzed using Spearman’s ranked correlation coefficient. Results Of the 6740 samples, 10.09% (680/6740) were H7N9-positive. The virus was found to circulate seasonally, and peaked during the spring and winter of 2013–2014. The prevalence of the virus decreased from the north to the southeast of the province, coinciding with the geographical distribution of human H7N9 cases. Compared with other sampling sites, live poultry markets (LPMs) had the highest prevalence of H7N9 virus at 13.94% (667/4784). Of the various sample types analyzed, virus prevalence was highest for chopping board swabs at 15.49% (110/710). The prevalence of the virus in the environment positively correlated with the incidence of human H7N9 cases (r2 = 0.498; P < 0.01). Cities with a higher incidence of human H7N9 cases also had a higher prevalence of H7N9 among samples and at sampling sites. Following the closure of LPMs at the end of January 2014, the prevalence of H7N9 decreased from 19.18% (487/2539) to 6.92% (79/1141). This corresponded with a decrease in the number of human H7N9 cases reported. Conclusions The prevalence of H7N9 virus in

  11. Holocene explosive volcanism of the Jan Mayen (island) volcanic province, North-Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerløw, Eirik; Haflidason, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2016-07-01

    The volcanic island Jan Mayen, located in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, hosts the active stratovolcano of Beerenberg, the northernmost active subaerial volcano in the world. At least five eruptions are known from the island following its discovery in the 17th century, but its eruptive history prior to this is basically unknown. In this paper two sediment cores retrieved close to Jan Mayen have been studied in detail to shed light on the Holocene history of explosive volcanism from the Jan Mayen volcanic province. Horizons with elevated tephra concentrations were identified and tephra from these was analysed to determine major element chemistry of the tephra. The tephra chemistry was used to provide a link between the two cores and the land based tephra records from Jan Mayen Island. We managed to link two well-developed tephra peaks in the cores by their geochemical composition and age to Jan Mayen. One of these peaks represents the 1732 AD eruption of Eggøya while the other peak represents a previously undescribed eruption dated to around 10.3 ka BP. Two less prominent tephra peaks, one in each core, dated to approximately 2.3 and 3.0 ka BP, also have a distinct geochemical character linking them to Jan Mayen volcanism. However, the most prominent tephra layer in the cores located close to Jan Mayen and numerous other cores along the Jan Mayen ridge is the 12.1 ka BP Vedde Ash originating from the Iceland volcanic province. We find that the Holocene volcanism on Jan Mayen is much less explosive than volcanism in Iceland, and propose that either low amounts of explosive volcanic activity from the summit region of Beerenberg or small to absent glacier cover on Beerenberg is responsible for this.

  12. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  13. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted.

  14. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-12-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  15. Current pesticide profiles in blood serum of adults in Jiangsu Province of China and a comparison with other countries.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chunxin; Chen, Minjian; Gao, Jiawei; Luo, Jia; Wu, Keqin; Dong, Tianyu; Zhou, Kun; He, Xiaowei; Hu, Weiyue; Wu, Wei; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Meeker, John D; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2017-03-08

    Although various pesticides were used globally, the pesticides profiles in human blood serum remain largely unknown. We determined pesticide exposure profiles using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography tandem with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in 200 human blood serum samples from the adult population in Jiangsu Province, China. A systematic and comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify the articles investigating pesticide exposure and compare exposure data. Of the 88 pesticides, 76 were found in the blood serum of the population in Jiangsu Province. To the best of our knowledge, 58 pesticides were reported in human blood serum for the first time, and among these pesticides, parathion-methyl, pyrimethanil, fluacrypyrim, simazine, cloquintocet-mexyl and barban were debatable in more than half of the samples. By statistical comparison of the blood serum levels of pesticides between this study and other countries, we found the levels of several organochlorine pesticides were significantly higher in the female population of Jiangsu Province. Health risks related to the pesticide profiling were then revealed, which identified higher carcinogenic toxicity and teratogenic toxicity risk in the female adults of Jiangsu Province caused by organochlorine pesticide exposure. This study not only provides a high-throughput pesticide screening method for future studies of the exposome, but also presents the first human data on exposure to a number of pesticides. It may provide a knowledge database for the risk assessment and management of the pesticides.

  16. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  17. Geographical information systems-based spatial analysis and implications for syphilis interventions in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yue-Jia; Norris, Jessie; Bao, Chang-Jun; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Wu, Ying; Tang, Fen-Yang; Liu, Wen-Dong; Ding, Ke-Qin; Zhao, Yang; Peng, Zhi-Hang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hua; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Spatial distribution rules and risk factors for syphilis were studied in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China during 2005 and 2009. Trend surface analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatio-temporal clustering were applied with the incidence rates of the various counties in the province to determine spatial distribution rules and risk factors. Syphilis was found to be most severe in the southern region of the province where many counties could be shown to be hotspots with positive autocorrelation. Clusters were detected in the south-western region of Jiangsu with the county-level city of Yixing as the centre. Temperature, distance from railways and highways, and the normalised difference vegetation index were determined as supporting variables with regard to the transmission of the disease by both univariate and multivariate spatial correlation analyses. Interventions, including health education and awareness campaigns, should be strengthened throughout the province targeting the south-western areas, especially the clusters and hotspots detected in order to improve the situation.

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of reference evapotranspiration trends in Karst area: a case study in Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Peng, Shizhang; Wang, Weiguang; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2016-10-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the essential part of hydrological cycle and crop irrigation system (watering system framework). To reveal the change pattern of annual and seasonal ET0 and its corresponding dominated factors aspects of karst regions in China, daily meteorological data of 19 meteorological stations during 1959-2011 in Guizhou Province were collected. ET0 trends in seasonal and annual time series were detected by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The results indicated (demonstrated) that the annual ET0 for the entire Guizhou Province performed a decreasing trend by 0.4476 mm/year. The seasonal ET0 in spring and summer performed the an alike decreasing trend, while it presented an increasing trend in autumn and winter. According to the rotated empirical orthogonal function clustering method, Guizhou Province was divided into four parts. Annual ET0 performed (executed) the ascendant trend in western area, while the descendent trend occurred in middle, northwestern, and southwestern areas. The sensitivity and the attribution analysis indicated (specified) that the relative humidity was identified as the most sensitive variable to the annual ET0 and sunshine duration as the essential main thrusts for the declined annual ET0 in Guizhou Province. In addition, the more severe of karst landform development, the more obvious decreasing trend in ET0.

  19. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with two amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin protein, detected from vaccinated carnivores in North-Eastern China in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Martella, Vito; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yangang; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hao; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Xiqun; Wu, Wei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    A total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in North-Eastern China between the end of 2011 and 2013. Upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type CDV from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 CDV strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 (tyrosine to histidine) of the haemagglutinin protein coding sequence. The change at residue 542 generated a potentially novel N-glycosylation site. Masking of antigenic epitopes by sugar moieties might represent a mechanism for evasion of virus neutralising antibodies and reduced protection by vaccination.

  20. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs.

  1. [Phytoplankton community structure in Shijiuyang constructed wetland of Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province of east China in winter].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei-dong; Wang, Li-qing; Zhang, Rui-lei; Chen, Qing-hua

    2011-09-01

    Aimed to explore the purification effect of constructed wetland on phytoplankton community structure, an investigation was conducted on the species composition, biomass, and community diversity of phytoplankton in the water body of Shijiuyang constructed drinking water source wetland of Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province of East China in winter, 2010. A total of 77 phytoplankton species were identified, belonging to 39 genera of 7 phyla. The main phylum was Bacillariophyta, with 33 species of 14 genera. The dominant species were Melosira varians, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Nitzschia sp., Chroococcus sp., Dactylococcopsis rhaphidioides, Scendesmus quadricauda, and Tribonema bombycium, among which, C. meneghiniana had the highest dominance (0.144). The phytoplankton density in winter was averagely 1.28 x 10(6) cell x L(-1), with the minimum (6.80 x 10(5) cell x L(-1)) in the water outlet, and the density of Cyanophyta in the water outlet was significantly lower than that in the water inlet (P < 0.05), only occupying 14.9% of the latter. The Shannon index of the phytoplankton community at the sampling sites ranged from 0.94 to 1.27. According to the cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS), the phytoplankton community was classified into five phytoplankton community groups, i.e., root-channels littoral community, root-channels flow community (2 styles), highly purified area community, and headwater region community. Diverse ecological environment and water flow velocity at the sampling sites were found to be the main contributors to the formation of the five phytoplankton community groups.

  2. Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a salt mine in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-08-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, KC1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Kuche county, Xinjiang province, China. Cells were observed to be Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile with flagella. Strain KC1(T) was found to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum 8.0) and NaCl 0-10 % (v/v) (optimum 4 %). The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was found to be the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The cell-wall diamino acid was found to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol and a glycolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KC1(T) showed low similarity (<96 %) to other validly named species. The phylogenetic trees showed that strain KC1(T) is closely related to Bacillus azotoformans DSM 1046(T) and Bacillus methanolicus DSM 16454(T). Both these type strains showed 95.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain KC1(T). The DNA G+C content of strain KC1(T) was determined to be 39.0 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain KC1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC1(T) (=JCM 19760(T) = CGMCC 1.12810(T)).

  3. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, K Darwin; Liu, Liping; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-11-15

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1.5%) of trematode infections (Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae). Integrated systems using animal manure and latrine wastes as fertilizer did not show a higher prevalence