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Sample records for province north china

  1. A 1.78 Ga large igneous province in the North China craton: The Xiong'er Volcanic Province and the North China dyke swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Zhai, Mingguo; Ernst, Richard E.; Guo, Jinghui; Liu, Fu; Hu, Bo

    2008-03-01

    The 1.78 Ga Xiong'er Volcanic Province (XVP) and coeval North China giant mafic Dyke Swarm (NCDS) are the most important magmatic events occurring after the amalgamation of the North China craton (NCC). The XVP consists of 3-7 km of extrusive volcanics and some feeder dykes/sills located along the southern margin of the NCC and extending over an area > 0.06 M km 2. Compositions vary from basalt to rhyolite, but are predominantly intermediate in terms of silica content. There are also minor sedimentary intercalations and pyroclastic units. The sedimentary interlayers indicate an environment changing from continental-facies to oceanic-facies up-section. The XVP is characterized by fractional crystallization from an EM I type mantle source, and both continental arc (Andean-type) and rift environments have been proposed. The NCDS is widespread in the central NCC with an outcrop area > 0.1 M km 2, and are exposed at variable depths up to 20 km (deepest in the north). Dyke compositions vary from basalt to andesite and dacite, but are dominantly mafic, and comprise two series of magmatism. Previous studies revealed that the NCDS recorded assimilation and fractional crystallization of an EM I type magma source, with a minor DM contribution in the younger magmas. Both syn-collisional and intra-continental anorogenic environments have been proposed. Spatial and petrogenic correlations suggest a cogenetic relationship between the NCDS and XVP, and considered together, they define a Large Igneous Province (LIP) of > 0.1 M km 2 in area and > 0.1 M km 3 in volume, which is also notable for its continuous compositional range from mafic to felsic (with no gap at intermediate compositions). The petrology is explained by a common magma source that undergoes a silica-poor and iron-enriched fractionation trend at depth followed by a silica-rich and iron-poor fractionation trend in shallow-level magma conduits (dykes) and surface lavas. A mantle plume is favored as the cause of this

  2. Sandy desertification change and its driving forces in western Jilin Province, North China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Bai, Zhang; Wei, Su; Yanfen, He; Zongming, Wang; Kaishan, Song; Dianwei, Liu; Zhiming, Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the sandy desertification change between 1986 and 2000 in the western Jilin province, North China. Land use and land cover data were obtained from Landsat TM data by using a supervised classification approach. We summarized the total area of desertified land by each county, as well as the area for each of the four categories of desertified land. The changes of different types of land use and land cover between 1986 and 2000 were calculated and analyzed. Taking Tongyu and Qianan as examples, both human and natural driving forces of the sandy desertification were analyzed. Our analyses indicate that the material sources and windy, warm and dry climate are the immanent causes of potential land desertification, while the irrational human activities, such as deforestation, reclaiming and grazing in the grassland, are the external causes of potential land desertification. However, rational human activities, such as planting trees and restoring grassland can reverse the land desertification process. Furthermore, the countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable development in ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China are put forward.

  3. Giant Mesozoic gold provinces related to the destruction of the North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Wei; Bi, Shi-Jian; Selby, David; Chen, Lei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Thiede, David; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Li, Zhan-Ke; Qiu, Hua-Ning

    2012-10-01

    Lode gold deposits in Precambrian cratons represent the world's major gold source and were mostly generated during formation and stabilization of the cratons. However, there is an extraordinary exception in the North China craton (NCC), where lode gold deposits formed after prolonged stabilization of the craton. Molybdenite Re-Os and hydrothermal sericite and biotite 40Ar/39Ar dating of major gold deposits from the Xiaoqinling district, southern NCC, bracket their emplacement in the range of 154.1±1.1 to 118.9±1.2 Ma (n=23), postdating formation of the craton by more than 1.7 billion years. Fluid inclusions extracted from gold-bearing pyrite have elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.52-0.22 Ra) and mantle-like Ne isotopes (20Ne/22Ne=10.02-9.22 and 21Ne/22Ne=0.033-0.027), indicating presence of mantle-derived fluids in the ore system. Measured δ34S of pyrite and δD and δ18O of hydrothermal micas and fluid inclusion waters in auriferous quartz further confirm a magmatic/mantle source for sulfur and ore fluids. Gold deposits of similar ages also widely occur in the eastern and northern margins of the NCC, which, together with those in the Xiaoqinling district, have a total reserve of ˜2500 t gold, forming the only known giant late Mesozoic gold province in the world's Precambrian cratons. These deposits formed coevally with extensive felsic to mafic magmatism, development of intracontinental rift basins, and exhumation of metamorphic core complexes across the eastern NCC, events interpreted as indicating thinning and destruction of the lithosphere beneath the craton. Rising of asthenosphere coupled with destruction of the lithosphere has generated voluminous mafic and felsic magmas that provided sufficient fluids, sulfur and, by inference, other ore components to form the giant gold provinces.

  4. Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Maguire, Anne; Tianqui, Guan; Yanguo, Shi; Zohoori, Fatemeh V

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis. The products were categorised into 10 groups according to product type. F concentrations of the samples ranged from 0.012-1.625 mg/l with a mean of 0.189 mg/l and a median of 0.076 mg/l. More than half of the products (55%) had an F concentration of ≤0.1 mg/l, while <5% had a F concentration of >0.7 mg/l. The 'tea with milk' group contained the highest mean F concentration (1.350 mg/l), whereas the lowest mean F concentration (0.027 mg/l) was found for the 'fruit juice' group. For some products, such as tea, fruit juice and carbonated beverages, there were substantial variations in F concentration between batches, manufacturers and production sites. In conclusion, ready-to-drink products (apart from tea), sold in Heilongjiang province, China, when consumed in moderation are unlikely to constitute a substantial risk factor for the development of dental or skeletal fluorosis.

  5. Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-07

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, this image shows Heilongjiang, a province of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Farms are small and long skinny rectangles in shape, surrounding regularly spaced villages.

  6. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988–2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age–period–cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate

  7. Responses of tree-ring growth and crop yield to drought indices in the Shanxi province, North China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junyan; Liu, Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationships among the tree-ring chronology, meteorological drought (precipitation), agricultural drought (Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI), hydrological drought (runoff), and agricultural data in the Shanxi province of North China. Correlation analyses indicate that the tree-ring chronology is significantly correlated with all of the drought indices during the main growing season from March to July. Sign test analyses further indicate that the tree-ring chronology shows variation similar to that of the drought indices in both high and low frequencies. Comparisons of the years with narrow tree rings to the severe droughts reflected in all three indices from 1957 to 2008 reveal that the radial growth of the trees in the study region can accurately record the severe drought for which all three indices were in agreement (1972, 1999, 2000, and 2001). Comparisons with the dryness/wetness index indicate that tree-ring growth can properly record the severe droughts in the history. Correlation analyses among agricultural data, tree-ring chronology, and drought indices indicate that the per-unit yield of summer crops is relatively well correlated with the agricultural drought, as indicated by the PDSI. The PDSI is the climatic factor that significantly influences both tree growth and per-unit yield of summer crops in the study region. These results indicate that the PDSI and tree-ring chronology have the potential to be used to monitor and predict the yield of summer crops. Tree-ring chronology is an important tool for drought research and for wider applications in agricultural and hydrological research.

  8. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China. PMID:26125619

  9. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    d'Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China.

  10. Chemical Compositions of Precipitation at Three Non-urban Sites of Hebei Province, North China: Influence of Terrestrial Sources on Ionic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid economic development and increased energy demand have resulted in severe air pollution problems throughout China, and the increasing emissions of SO2 and NOx have led to significant deposition of acid rain in China. Despite high SO2 concentrations are observed in both southern and northern China, acid rain is mainly observed in the south area in history. It is believed that high content of alkaline matters in the soil in the North China is one of the key factors that contribute to the neutralization of acidic ions in the rainwater. However, an increasing trend of the precipitation acidity was observed at many sites in North, Central and East China after 2000, with more pronounced trends in the Beijing-Tianjin region and Bohai Sea surrounding area. In this study, precipitations were collected from April to October in 2008 at three non-urban sites (Chicheng, Huailai and Xuanhua) in Hebei Province, North China. The pH values of precipitation events ranged from 4.08 to 7.53 for the three sampling sites. About 61.8% of the total precipitation had a pH value higher than 6.0. The predominant ions in the precipitation were SO42-, NO3- and Ca2+, and their concentrations were significantly higher than other sites in South China. The high concentration of acidic ions reflects that atmospheric pollution has already been severe in this area. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of major ions and pH value showed obvious seasonal differences, precipitation in dry season had high pH values and VWM concentrations of major ions. According to the equivalent ratio of NP/AP and the results of neutralization factors, the strong acid neutralization is mainly brought about by Ca2+ followed by NH4+ and Mg2+. Using Na as an indicator of marine origin, the proportions of sea salt and non-sea-salt were estimated from elemental ratios. Combining with the results of correlation analysis and enrichment factors, the main acidic ions (SO42- and NO3-) and NH4+ were mainly derived from

  11. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin.

  12. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  13. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  14. Micro-scale characterization of iron ores from a banded iron formation in Yishui county, western Shandong province of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are widely distributed in North China Craton (NCC). Yishui BIF is located in Yishui county, western Shandong Province of NCC and is categorized as Algoma-type. The origin of iron and silica of BIFs in this region have been studied extensively for decades. The trace elemental concentrations of magnetite and hematite in iron ores from Yishui BIF are focused in this study to better understand the origins of BIF. To discuss micro-structural signatures of iron ores, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer, electron microprobe (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized. Overall geochemical data represents abundance of trace elements, oxygen fugacity (fO2) condition during the formation of iron oxides, depositional environment of Yishui BIF, implying the involvement of volcanic eruption and hydrothermal exhalation during the chemical deposition.

  15. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  16. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingqi; Shao, Xuemei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner’s ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb. PMID:26244548

  17. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    The Mesozoic Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) of the southeastern Liaoning province, North China, is an asymmetric Cordilleran-style complex with a west-rooting master detachment fault, the Jinzhou fault. A thick sequence of lower plate, fault-related mylonitic and gneissic rocks derived from Archean and Early Cretaceous crystalline protoliths has been transported ESE-ward from mid-crustal depths. U-Pb ages of lower plate syntectonic plutons (ca. 130-120 Ma), 40Ar- 39Ar cooling ages in the mylonitic and gneissic sequence (ca. 120-110 Ma), and a Cretaceous supradetachment basin attest to the Early Cretaceous age of this extensional complex. The recent discovery of the coeval and similarly west-rooting Waziyu mcc in western Liaoning [Darby, B.J., Davis, G.A., Zhang, X., Wu, F., Wilde, S., Yang, J., 2004. The newly discovered Waziyu metamorphic core complex, Yiwulushan, western Liaoning Province, North China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 145-155] indicates that the Gulf of Liaoning, which lies between the two complexes, was the center of a region of major crustal extension. Clockwise crustal rotation of a large region including eastern Liaoning province and the Korean Peninsula with respect to a non-rotated North China block has been conclusively documented by paleomagnetic studies over the past decade. The timing of this rotation and the reasons for it are controversial. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] proposed that a clockwise rotation of 22.5° ± 10.2° was largely post-Early Cretaceous in age, and was the consequence of extension within a crustal domain that tapers southwards towards the Bohai Sea (of which the Gulf of Liaoning is the northernmost part). Paleomagnetic studies of Early Cretaceous strata (ca 134-120 Ma) in the Yixian-Fuxin supradetachment basin of

  18. Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-11-01

    Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to examine the relationship between the monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2009 in the study areas. The relative risks (RRs) of the floods risk on the morbidity of dysentery were estimated in each city and the whole region. The RRs on dysentery were 11.47 (95% CI: 8.67-15.33), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-3.90) and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.36-4.85) in Kaifeng, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou, respectively. The RR on dysentery in the whole region was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.82). Our study confirms that flooding has significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study areas. Additionally, we observed that a sudden and severe flooding can contribute more risk to the morbidity of dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Our findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The 1.33-1.30 Ga Yanliao large igneous province in the North China Craton: Implications for reconstruction of the Nuna (Columbia) supercontinent, and specifically with the North Australian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Zhao, Yue; Li, Xian-Hua; Ernst, Richard E.; Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    The Yanliao rift zone in the northern North China Craton (NCC) is the location of the standard section for late Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic stratigraphy in China and is associated with the emplacement of large volumes of diabase sills. Detailed field investigations show that the sills are distributed over a region that is >600 km long and >200 km wide, with areal extent > 1.2 ×105 km2 and cumulative thickness of the sills in any one area ranging from 50 m to >1800 m. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) baddeleyite dating shows that emplacement of these sills occurred between about 1330 and 1305 Ma with a peak age of 1323 Ma. Emplacement of these diabase sills was accompanied by pre-magmatic uplift that started at about 1.35-1.34 Ga as indicated by the disconformity between the Changlongshan and Xiamaling formations and absence of sedimentation after the Xiamaling Formation in some areas. All the diabase sills exhibit similar geochemical features of tholeiitic compositions with intraplate characteristics. Given a relatively short duration of emplacement at 1.33-1.30 Ga, along with the large areal extent and volume, as well as intraplate character, this magmatic province constitutes a large igneous province (LIP). This Yanliao LIP and the accompanying pre-magmatic uplift were related either to a mantle plume and/or continental rifting during breakup of the NCC from the Nuna (Columbia) supercontinent. Paleomagnetic, ash bed and LIP data and other geological constraints suggest that the NCC had a close connection with Siberia, Laurentia, Baltica, North Australia and India crustal blocks. In particular, the most direct age match between the 1.33-1.30 Ga Yanliao LIP and the 1.33-1.30 Ga Derim Derim-Galiwinku LIP of the North Australian Craton (NAC), as well as the similarities between the late Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic stratigraphic units of the Yanliao rift in the NCC with the southeastern McArthur Basin in the NAC, indicate that the

  20. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  1. [Effects of scale-like pit and mulching measures on soil moisture of dryland jujube orchard in North Shaanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Chen; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Gao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Jia-Wen; Shi, Yin-Guang

    2014-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key factor affecting jujube growth in the semiarid Northern Shaanxi Province. The impacts of different engineering and mulching measures on soil moisture were investigated via in situ measurements in a typical dryland jujube orchard. The results showed that the mean soil moistures (0-180 cm) of scale-like pit + branch mulching, scale-like scale + straw mulching, and soil moisture of scale-like pit with no mulching were increased by 14.2%, 9.4%, and 4.8% than control, respectively. Different measures, especially for the scale-like pit + branch mulching, significantly increased the soil moisture in the soil surface (0-20 cm) and the main root zone layer (20-100 cm) during the jujube growth stage. Individual precipitation events had great impacts on soil moisture in the 0-100 cm, while its effect on soil moisture in deep layers was not apparent. There was no significant difference among the soil moistures in different soil depths of scale-like pit with no mulching when compared with the control under high, medium, and low soil humidity conditions. This study indicated that using the clipped jujube branches as mulching could both save materials cost and achieve the goal of reserving more water in dryland jujube orchard in north Shaanxi Province.

  2. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  3. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate.

  4. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  5. Identification and molecular survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sika deer (Cervus nippon) from Jilin Province, north-eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Bintao; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Junlong; Yin, Hong; Zeng, Qiaoying

    2017-02-01

    Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) is a common disease of domestic animals and wildlife worldwide. Sika deer is first-grade state-protected wildlife animals in China and have economic consequences for humans. It is reported that sika deer may serve as an important reservoir host for several species of B. burgdorferi s.l. and may transmit these species to humans and animals. However, little is known about the presence of Borrelia pathogens in sika deer in China. In this study, the existence and prevalence of Borrelia sp. in sika deer from four regions of Jilin Province in China was assessed. Seventy-one blood samples of sika deer were collected and tested by nested-PCRs based on 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), outer surface protein A (OspA), flagenllin (fla), and 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (5S-23S rRNA) genes of B. burgdorferi s.l. Six (8.45%) samples were positive for Borrelia sp. based on sequences of 4 genes. The positive samples were detected 18 for 16S rRNA, 10 for OspA, 16 for fla and 6 for 5S-23S, with the positive rates 25.35% (95% CI=3.8-35.6), 14.08% (95% CI=3.0-21.6), 22.54% (95% CI=4.3-36.9) and 8.45% (95% CI=1.7-22.9), respectively. Sequence analysis of the positive PCR products revealed that the partial 4 genes sequences in this study were all most similar to the sequences of B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), no other Borrelia genospecies were found. This is the first report of Borrelia pathogens in sika deer in China. The findings in this study indicated that sika deer as potential natural host and may spread Lyme disease pathogen to animals, ticks, and even humans.

  6. Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-01

    This pair of images, acquired 16 days apart by NASA Terra satellite in 2002 and 2007, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea, comparing a relatively clear day and an extremely dusty day.

  7. Mantle Provinces under Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.

    2010-12-01

    I present a survey of mantle provinces (large-scale seismic anomalies) under North America, from the surface down to approximately 1500 km depth, and with a focus on the eastern half of the continent. It is based on multi-frequency tomography, which uses systematically frequency-dependent traveltime and amplitude measurements of teleseismic P-waves, together with finite-frequency modeling. A novel kind of rendering technique (``color-banded 3-D maps'') is used to make the mantle model's considerable structural complexity accessible. In the transition zone and below, the North American mantle is dominated by seismically fast provinces, which appear to be distinct subduction episodes of the Farallon plate. I attempt to date and interpret the various slab fragments by reconciling their present positions with paleo-trench locations from plate tectonic reconstructions, and with major geological surface episodes. The first-order surface division between stable East and tectonic West is found to have its equivalent in the mantle: slabs that were laid down before or after (east or west of) a big slab break that happened between 50 and 60 Myr. Some of the mantle provinces have not been discussed much previously, including (1) a seismically slow blanket overlying the oldest Farallon subduction beneath the East Coast; (2) a transition zone slab co-eval with the Laramide orogeny (ca. 80-60 Myr), which I discuss in analogy to the ``stagnant slab'' subduction style commonly found in the Western Pacific today; (3) the surprisingly deep, lower-mantle root of present-day Cascadia subduction; and (4) the very sharp boundaries (plate tears and breaks) that delineate slab fragments. Because it can be dated, the stagnating ``Laramide'' fragment turns out to be an anchor piece, about halfway through the Farallon's subduction history, relative to which the other fragments may be evaluated. Large vertical offsets across co-eval slabs indicate that vertical sinking velocity was highly

  8. Chemical compositions of precipitation at three non-urban sites of Hebei Province, North China: Influence of terrestrial sources on ionic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yao; Xu, Zhifang; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Xuan; Jiang, Hao; Yu, Chong; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Xiaode

    2016-11-01

    Studies on precipitation chemistry were carried out from April to October in 2008 at three non-urban sites in North China. A total of 122 rainwater samples were collected, and all the samples were analyzed for pH, EC and major ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, K+, Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, and NH4+). The predominant ions in the precipitation were SO42 -, NO3- and Ca2 + at all sampling sites. The low VWM pH value (5.29) reflected the increasing air pollution in this region. But there was still more than 60% of the total precipitation had a pH value higher than 6.0, indicating the considerable neutralizing effects of alkaline aerosols in northern China. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of major ions and pH values showed obvious seasonal differences, the precipitation had higher pH values and VWM concentrations of major ions in dry season. This is mainly attributed to the different sources of air masses in different seasons and the dilution effect on suspended particles. According to the equivalent ratio of [nssCa2 + + NH4+] / [nssSO42- + NO3-] and the results of neutralization factors, the strong acid neutralization was mainly brought about by Ca2 + followed by NH4+ and Mg2 +. Using Na as an indicator of marine origin, the proportions of sea salt and non-sea-salt were estimated from elemental ratios. Combining with the results of correlation analysis, the main acidic ions (SO42 - and NO3-) and NH4+ were mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, and Ca2 + and Mg2 + mostly originated from terrestrial sources. In general, the results reflect that terrestrial source was an important source of major cations in rainwater and strongly influenced the precipitation chemistry, especially in dry season.

  9. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  10. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  11. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  12. Characterization of Dicrocoelium dendriticum isolates from small ruminants in Shaanxi Province, north-western China, using internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Bian, Q Q; Zhao, G H; Jia, Y Q; Fang, Y Q; Cheng, W Y; Du, S Z; Ma, X T; Lin, Q

    2015-01-01

    The genetic variations in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) spanning ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA of Dicrocoelium dendriticum, isolated from sheep and goats in four geographical regions in Shaanxi province, were examined. The lengths of ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences for D. dendriticum were 749 bp, 161 bp and 234 bp, respectively. Intra-specific sequence variations of D. dendriticum were 0-0.5% for ITS-1 and 0-1.3% for ITS-2 rDNA, while the inter-specific variations among species in genus Dicrocoelium in ITS-2 rDNA were 3.4-12.3%. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of ITS-2 rDNA showed that all D. dendriticum isolates in the present study were grouped with reference D. dendriticum isolates from sheep and goats, and D. dendriticum isolates from cattle and Japanese serow were clustered in a sister clade. However, the phylogenetic tree could not reveal geographically genetic relationships of D. dendriticum isolates in different origins and hosts. These findings provided basic information for further study of molecular epidemiology and control of D. dendriticum infection in Shaanxi province as well as in the world.

  13. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in the Horgos River Watershed in the NorthWestern Ili Basin in Sinkiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. H.; Jiang, J. Y.; Rao, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, hydrogeochemical and stable environmental isotopic (oxygen-18 and deuterium) data of groundwater in the Horgos River watershed in the north-western Ili Basin were examined to determine the groundwater chemical characteristics, as well as the origins of the groundwater and surface water. The quaternary aquifer's structure and spatial distribution is complex. Hydrogeochemical data shows that the groundwater is alkaline due to the presence of bicarbonate as the dominant anion. In the north, the dominant groundwater cation was Ca2+ while Mg2+ ions were highest in the south. In addition, water types varied from HCO3-SO4-Ca and HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg to HCO3-SO4-Mg-Ca and SO4-HCO3-Mg-Ca. Overall, the groundwater in this study showed high total hardness. The dissolving and evaporation inspissation were considered the main controlling factors. Isotopic data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) indicated that the Horgos River was the main recharge source for the groundwater, which rapidly infiltrated across sandstone macropores. Furthermore, surface water and shallow groundwater were significantly affected by evaporation.

  14. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  15. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River–Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Peña Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces.Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500–2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely

  16. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoarchean North Liaoning tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses of the North China Craton, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maojiang; Liu, Shuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kang; Yan, Ming; Guo, Boran; Bai, Xiang; Guo, Rongrong

    2016-12-01

    Tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses are dominant lithological assemblages in Archean high grade metamorphic terranes in the world. These TTG gneisses preserve important information in formation and evolution of Archean continental crust. Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock in North Liaoning Province (NLP) is one of the major Neoarchean metamorphic basement terranes in the northeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock is composed mainly of Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses, subordinate granodioritic to monzogranitic association (GMA) and minor supracrustal rocks. The tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses are divided into high MgO Group (HMG) and low MgO Group (LMG) based on their chemical compositions. Detailed petrogenetic investigations suggest that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and contaminated by the overlying mantle wedge during its ascent; whereas, magmatic precursors of the LMG samples were derived from the juvenile lower crust. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating analyses reveal that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were formed at 2553-2531 Ma. An older HMG tonalitic gneiss sample was discovered at Sandaoguan in the southmost of the studied area, with its magmatic precursor emplaced at 2680 Ma. The magmatic precursors of the LMG samples emplaced at 2595-2583 Ma. Combined with previous credible chronological data, our newly obtained zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that three episodes of magmatism at ∼2700-2680 Ma, ∼2600-2570 Ma and ∼2550-2510 Ma occurred in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock, and the TT gneisses in this microblock were subjected to generally amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼2520-2470 Ma. Based on the above Neoarchean crust-mantle thermal-dynamic processes, we propose that the Neoarchean magmatism and metamorphism in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock of North Liaoning Province occurred in

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  18. Healthcare system responsiveness in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jianqian; Lu, Boyang; Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Liguo; Jin, Hui; Liu, Pei

    2017-01-13

    The perceived responsiveness of a healthcare system reflects its ability to satisfy reasonable expectations of the public with respect to non-medical services. Recently, there has been increasing attention paid to responsiveness in evaluating the performance of a healthcare system in a variety of service settings. However, the factors that affect the responsiveness have been inconclusive so far and measures of improved responsiveness have not always thoroughly considered the factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the responsiveness of the healthcare system in Jiangsu Province, China, the factors that influence responsiveness and the measures of improved responsiveness considering it, as determined by a responsiveness survey. A multistage, stratified random sampling method was used to select 1938 adult residents of Jiangsu Province in 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-designed questionnaire modeled on the World Health Organization proposal. The final analysis was based on 1783 (92%) valid questionnaires. Canonical correlation analysis was used to assess the factors that affect responsiveness. The average score of all responsiveness-related domains in the surveyed healthcare system was satisfactory (7.50 out of a maximum 10.0). The two highest scoring domains were dignity and confidentiality, and the two lowest scoring domains choice and prompt attention. The factors affecting responsiveness were age, regional economic development level, and geographic area (urban vs. rural). The responsiveness regarding basic amenities was rated worse by the elderly than by younger respondents. Responsiveness ranked better by those with a poorer economic status. Choice in cities was better than in rural regions. The responsiveness of the Jiangsu healthcare system was considered to be satisfactory but could be improved by offering greater choice and providing more prompt attention. Perceptions of healthcare system responsiveness differ with age

  19. Phanerozoic magmatic tempos of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Detrital zircons from northeast China record cyclic magmatism along the northern and eastern margins of the North China block during late Paleozoic time and Mesozoic time, respectively. The late Paleozoic zircons record three magmatic flare-ups with a period of ∼60 m.y. that occurred within a magmatic arc constructed along the Paleoasian (northern) margin of North China, and are accompanied by negative εHf (t) excursions representing shortening and increased crustal melting over the duration of each flare-up. The intervening magmatic lulls are accompanied by rapid positive εHf (t) excursions signifying influxes of juvenile magma into the arc, probably during extension and foundering of underlying melt residua. The lack of similar isotopic patterns in zircons derived from contemporaneous intrusions into older continental settings inboard of the arc indicate that this process was restricted to the arc itself. Mesozoic magmatism in North China occurred along the Paleo-Pacific margin following closure of the Paleoasian Ocean, and exhibits a ∼50 m.y. periodicity that is out-of-phase with that of the Paleozoic arc. Although the tectonic setting of North China during Mesozoic time is complex and still controversial, it is possible that this younger periodicity is governed by similar processes as those that dominated the Paleozoic arc. This is a testable hypothesis that warrants further attention. Crustal shortening was widespread in North China during Mesozoic time, and documented lithosphere removal events in eastern North China occurred during the Mesozoic magmatic lulls. Lithospheric thickening/foundering cyclicity, well-documented in Cordilleran arc systems, may be a common process in continental arcs through space and time.

  20. Clinical malaria along the China-Myanmar border, Yunnan Province, China, January 2011-August 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guofa; Sun, Ling; Xia, Rongji; Duan, Yizhong; Xu, Jianwei; Yang, Henglin; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Xiang, Zheng; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2014-04-01

    Passive surveillance for malaria cases was conducted in Yunnan Province, China, along the China-Myanmar border. Infection with Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum protozoa accounted for 69% and 28% of the cases, respectively. Most patients were adult men. Cross-border travel into Myanmar was a key risk factor for P. falciparum malaria in China.

  1. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  2. Geographic mapping of Crohn's disease and its relation to affluence in jiangsu province, an eastern coastal province of china.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD.

  3. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  4. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in goats in Hunan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fen; Wang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Chang-Jian; He, Shi-Cheng; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. In the present investigation, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China between March 2014 and December 2015. A total of 1,028 serum samples collected from 14 administrative regions of Hunan province were evaluated by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for the detection of specific antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 124 serum samples (12%). The T. gondii seroprevalence ranged from 1.7% to 19% among different regions in subtropical China, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results of the present survey indicated that T. gondii infection is prevalent in goats in Hunan, which poses a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this province. PMID:27762212

  6. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  7. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    PubMed Central

    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Amir; Moslemizadeh, Narges; Peivandi, Sepideh; Barzegarnejad, Ayyub; Musanejad, Nadali; Jursarayee, Gholamali

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated. Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%. Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors. PMID:25356077

  8. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Chi, Yuanyuan; Cui, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Yan; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22-October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%).

  9. [Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China].

    PubMed

    Han, X; Jiang, Y; Shang, H

    2001-12-01

    To study the prevalence of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China. Nuclear acids were extracted from blood samples of 16 HIV-1 infected individuals collected locally in Liaoning province of China from Jun. 1997 to Dec. 2000. The 0.7 kb or 1.2 kb segments of HIV-1 env gene were amplified using nested-PCR and the HIV-1 genetic subtypes were then assayed by heteroduplex mobility assay. Fifteen of 16 samples were positive by PCR amplification of HIV-1 env region and samples were found to be genetic subtype A,B',C,E. The proportion due to sexual transmission in all HIV infection was 31.25% (5/15), among which subtype B' (3/5) was the majority. A man who returned from Africa together with his spouse both had type A (2/5) infection. Intravenous drug users (IDUs) took up 31.25% (5/15) of all the HIV infections. Subtype C (2/4) and E were predominant among intravenous drug users. However, there was one IDU with subtype B or E. Nearly all blood recipients and blood donors were B' (4/5) except one with C. There have been several subtypes of HIV-1 existed in Liaoning province, demonstrating the complexity of HIV epidemology in Liaoning province and the difficulty conducting prevention and treatment.

  10. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. Change in Rainfall Drives Malaria Re-Emergence in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Xiao; Tong, Shi-Lu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Li, Ya-Pin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Hong; Ma, Jia-Qi; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is re-emerging in Anhui Province, China after a decade long’ low level of endemicity. The number of human cases has increased rapidly since 2000 and reached its peak in 2006. That year, the malaria cases accounted for 54.5% of total cases in mainland China. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of human cases and factors underlying the re-emergence remain unclear. We established a database containing 20 years’ (1990–2009) records of monthly reported malaria cases and meteorological parameters. Spearman correlations were used to assess the crude association between malaria incidence and meteorological variables, and a polynomial distributed lag (PDL) time-series regression was performed to examine contribution of meteorological factors to malaria transmission in three geographic regions (northern, mid and southern Anhui Province), respectively. Then, a two-year (2008–2009) prediction was performed to validate the PDL model that was created by using the data collected from 1990 to 2007. We found that malaria incidence decreased in Anhui Province in 1990s. However, the incidence has dramatically increased in the north since 2000, while the transmission has remained at a relatively low level in the mid and south. Spearman correlation analyses showed that the monthly incidences of malaria were significantly associated with temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, and the multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation index with lags of 0–2 months in all three regions. The PDL model revealed that only rainfall with a 1–2 month lag was significantly associated with malaria incidence in all three regions. The model validation showed a high accuracy for the prediction of monthly incidence over a 2-year predictive period. Malaria epidemics showed a high spatial heterogeneity in Anhui Province during the 1990–2009 study periods. The change in rainfall drives the reemergence of malaria in the northern Anhui Province. PMID:22928015

  12. Change in rainfall drives malaria re-emergence in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Wang, Li-Ping; Liang, Song; Liu, Yong-Xiao; Tong, Shi-Lu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Li, Ya-Pin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Hong; Ma, Jia-Qi; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is re-emerging in Anhui Province, China after a decade long' low level of endemicity. The number of human cases has increased rapidly since 2000 and reached its peak in 2006. That year, the malaria cases accounted for 54.5% of total cases in mainland China. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of human cases and factors underlying the re-emergence remain unclear. We established a database containing 20 years' (1990-2009) records of monthly reported malaria cases and meteorological parameters. Spearman correlations were used to assess the crude association between malaria incidence and meteorological variables, and a polynomial distributed lag (PDL) time-series regression was performed to examine contribution of meteorological factors to malaria transmission in three geographic regions (northern, mid and southern Anhui Province), respectively. Then, a two-year (2008-2009) prediction was performed to validate the PDL model that was created by using the data collected from 1990 to 2007. We found that malaria incidence decreased in Anhui Province in 1990s. However, the incidence has dramatically increased in the north since 2000, while the transmission has remained at a relatively low level in the mid and south. Spearman correlation analyses showed that the monthly incidences of malaria were significantly associated with temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, and the multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation index with lags of 0-2 months in all three regions. The PDL model revealed that only rainfall with a 1-2 month lag was significantly associated with malaria incidence in all three regions. The model validation showed a high accuracy for the prediction of monthly incidence over a 2-year predictive period. Malaria epidemics showed a high spatial heterogeneity in Anhui Province during the 1990-2009 study periods. The change in rainfall drives the reemergence of malaria in the northern Anhui Province.

  13. The suicide rates in the Yunnan Province, a multi-ethnic province in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Xiao, Yize; Xu, Xiufeng; Shi, Qingping; Yang, Yunjuan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown a high rate and a unique pattern of suicide in China. We aim to present the current suicide rates and patterns in the Yunnan province, a multi-ethnic region in Southwestern China. This is a descriptive study based on the 3rd Chinese national mortality survey. We reported the suicide rates by sex, 5-year age group, region (urban or rural), and minority group from 2004 to 2005 in the Yunnan province. We estimated a mean annual suicide rate of 19.82 per 100,000 and a total of 8751 suicide deaths per year. Sex-specific rate estimates were 21.09 per 100,000 and 18.46 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. The male/female ratio was 1.14. Region-specific rate estimates were 20.60 per 100,000 and 19.18 per 100,000 for rural and urban regions, respectively. The rural-to-urban ratio was 1.07. Suicide accounted for 4.83% of all deaths in the Yunnan province and represented the fifth leading cause of death. In minority groups, the highest suicide rates were found in the Li su minority (50.75 per 100,000), the Jing po minority (36.38 per 100,000), the Meng gu minority (32.65 per 100,000) and the Miao minority (30.75 per 100,000). The lowest rates were found in the Hui minority (0.96 per 100,000) and the Ha ni minority (1.64 per 100,000). The suicide characteristics of this multi-ethnic region of China are different from those of the rest of China and the world, which indicates that the development of a special intervention strategy in multi-ethnic areas for suicide prevention is needed.

  14. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B S; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-08-30

    The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles kochi and

  15. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  16. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  17. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  18. Evaluation of Health Care System Reform in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the “Result Chain” logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  19. Lung cancer burden has increased during the last 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Li, Daojuan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2011, Hebei Province, located in North China with a population of 71 794 239, accounted for approximately 6% of the national population. It is well known as a heavily air polluted area. This study reports the lung cancer burden and mortality trend in Hebei Province from 1973 to 2011. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. The proportions, cumulative incidence/mortality rates, and median age at death of lung cancer were calculated. Lung cancer mortality data of 1973–1975, 1990–1992, and 2004–2005 were extracted from national death surveys. Data of lung cancer from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population‐based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated numbers of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province were 32 623 and 27 612, respectively. The crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 45.44/100 000. The age‐standardized incidence rate by world standard population was 39.01/100 000, ranking second among all cancers. The lung cancer mortality rate was 38.46/100 000, ranking first among all cancer deaths, with a significantly increasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973–1975 to 2010–2011, with an increased rate of 189.15%. Conclusion Hebei Province suffers a heavy disease burden of lung cancer and an obvious increasing trend has been observed over the past 40 years. Preventive and control strategies should be encouraged. PMID:27148418

  20. Study on the origin of kaolin tonsteins in North China and its processing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojie; Liu Qinfu; Li Qijun

    1998-12-31

    Kaolin Tonstein, occurring in Permo-Carboniferous Coal measures in North China, is a kind of kaolinitic clay material, which is different from that in Germany, France, Russia, US. and other European-American Countries, featuring thick-bedded, wide-spread and good quality coal. The thickness of kaolin tonsteins in North China is 70 cm or so, but that in the above-mentioned countries only 3 cm. From Hunjiang County, Jilin Province to Handan County, Gansu Province, from Huainan and Huaibei coal field to Inner Mongolia coalfield, kaolin tonstein deposits are scattered over vast areas on the North China Platform with great proved reserves of 1.6 billion tons. It is of great interest and high significance to study the mineralization mechanism of kaolin tonsteins for its processing and utilization. By means of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and organic chemistry, the origin of kaolin tonsteins has been systematically deliberated and the origin model of it has been proposed. On the basis of this, the processing technology of kaolin tonsteins has been put forward, which has been successfully employed in China.

  1. Blood donation in Guangdong Province, China, from 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H

    2016-06-01

    To explore the trends in blood collection from 2006 to 2014 in Guangdong, China. Although the Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China was implemented in 1998, voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD) has been promoted fully for only a decade. The provincial and local governments of Guangdong, one of the most well-developed provinces in China, have promoted blood donation by various means. Official data on blood donation from 2006 to 2014, including the number of blood donations and the family replacement/mutual blood donation (FRMBD) rate, were collected from all blood collection and supply institutions in Guangdong. These data were analysed to explore trends in blood donation in Guangdong Province, and to detect differences among the province's four regions. The number of blood donations in Guangdong increased by 38·23% from 2006 to 2014; overall, the rate increased annually, although it fluctuated in the eastern region. Family replacement/mutual whole blood and platelet donation rates decreased dramatically from 2006 to 2014 (from 39·99% to 20·16% and from 64·15% to 26·51%, respectively), but remained high. Marked disparities in blood donation development were detected among the four regions. With nearly a decade of efforts, blood donation in Guangdong has developed rapidly and sustainably. All blood collection and supply institutions must strengthen efforts to improve awareness of blood donation among the population, retain repeat and regular donors and reduce the rate of FRMBD in favor of the development of VNRBD. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Paleomagnetism of large igneous provinces: case-study from West Greenland, North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, Janna; Riisager, Peter; Pedersen, Asger Ken

    2003-09-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model stereo photogrammetry data from lava sequences in the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). The joint analyses of paleomagnetic and photogrammetric data yield a well-defined paleomagnetic pole located at Lat=73.6°N, Long=160.5°E ( N=44, α95=6.2°, K=13.1; age ˜61-55 Ma), which is statistically indistinguishable from a pole recently obtained for the Eurasian part of the NAIP on Faroe Islands [Riisager et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276]. Combining the two datasets we obtain a joint NAIP paleomagnetic pole in Greenland coordinates: Lat=71.1°N, Long=161.1°E ( N=87, α95=4.3°, K=13.6; age ˜61-54 Ma). The results presented here represent the first study in which photogrammetry profiles were photographed at the exact same locations where paleomagnetic fieldwork was carried out, and a direct flow-to-flow comparison of the two datasets is possible. Photogrammetry is shown to be particularly useful because of (i) highly precise dip/strike measurements and (ii) detailed 'field observations' that can be made in the laboratory. Highly precise determination of the structural attitude of well-exposed Kanisut Mb lava sequences demonstrates that their apparently reliable in-field dip/strike measurements typically are up to ˜6° wrong. Erroneous dip/strike readings are particularly problematic as they offset paleomagnetic poles without affecting their confidence limits. Perhaps more important for large igneous provinces is the recognition of a variable temporal relationship between consecutive lava flows. We demonstrate how correct interpretation of paleosecular variation, facilitated by the detailed photogrammetry analysis, is crucial for the rapidly emplaced Vaigat Formation lavas. Inaccurate tectonic correction, non-averaged paleosecular variation and unrecognized excursional directions may, perhaps, explain why coeval paleomagnetic poles from large igneous provinces are often

  3. Genetic characterization of Shigella flexneri isolates in Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China.

  4. Spatial Analysis of China Province-level Perinatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kun; Song, Deyong

    2016-05-01

    Using spatial analysis tools to determine the spatial patterns of China province-level perinatal mortality and using spatial econometric model to examine the impacts of health care resources and different socio-economic factors on perinatal mortality. The Global Moran's I index is used to examine whether the spatial autocorrelation exists in selected regions and Moran's I scatter plot to examine the spatial clustering among regions. Spatial econometric models are used to investigate the spatial relationships between perinatal mortality and contributing factors. The overall Moran's I index indicates that perinatal mortality displays positive spatial autocorrelation. Moran's I scatter plot analysis implies that there is a significant clustering of mortality in both high-rate regions and low-rate regions. The spatial econometric models analyses confirm the existence of a direct link between perinatal mortality and health care resources, socio-economic factors. Since a positive spatial autocorrelation has been detected in China province-level perinatal mortality, the upgrading of regional economic development and medical service level will affect the mortality not only in region itself but also its adjacent regions.

  5. Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Xue; Zhao, Yan Lin; Jiang, Guang Lu; Liu, Yu Hong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Sheng Fen; Wang, Li Xia; Borgdorff, Martien W; van der Werf, Marieke J; van den Hof, Susan

    2008-12-11

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996-2004 to assess levels of drug resistance. Provincial drug resistance surveys included all isolates from newly diagnosed, smear-positive TB patients. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was carried out in the provincial laboratories. For purposes of quality assurance, a random sample (11.6%) was re-tested by the national reference laboratory (NRL). Of 14,059 patients tested 11,052 (79%) were new TB cases. The weighted mean prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among all cases was 9.3% (range 2.2%-10.4%); 5.4% (range 2.1% - 10.4%) among new cases and 25.6% (range 11.7%-36.9%) among previously treated cases. Adjusting the drug resistance proportions using the re-testing results did not change the estimated national mean prevalence significantly. However, in some individual provinces the estimated resistance proportions were greatly influenced, especially among re-treatment patients. MDR-TB levels varied greatly between provinces in China, but on average were high compared to the global estimated average of 4.8%. This study shows the importance of quality-assured laboratory performance. Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB, including high quality DST for patients at high risk of resistance and treatment with second-line drugs, should become the standard, especially in high MDR-TB settings.

  6. Spatiotemporal Trends and Climatic Factors of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Epidemic in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Li; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Qian, Quan; Li, Ya-Pin; Wei, Lan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. Methods and Findings Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV) transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV) transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it remained high in the

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  8. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A R M Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-05-15

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  9. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  10. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  11. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  12. Dust storm as an environmental problem in north China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yufu; Cai, Qiangguo; Tang, Haiping

    2003-10-01

    Dust storms in north China, which are associated with land deterioration from increasing human pressures, have intensified over the past decades. Although synoptic meteorological conditions and sedimental environments dictate the occurrence of dust storms, their increase in frequency in north China due to human activities can be expected. Sand stabilization and control projects may be compromised by the pursuit of short-term economic returns and lack of systematic and integrated understanding of land degradation. Two actions are recommended as positive responses to escalating dust storms in north China. A policy of long-term ecologically sustainable development strategies is needed as well as a scientific research initiative combining biophysical and socioeconomic aspects.

  13. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment.

  14. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  15. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing; Guo, Tiankang; Bao, Guoxian

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments.

  16. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  17. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-02-02

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition.

  18. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  19. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  20. Assessment of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiongfen; Yao, Yufeng; Shen, Yunsong; Cao, Danfeng; Li, Yalin; Zhang, Shuqiong; Cun, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Yu, Jiankun; Shi, Li; Dong, Shaozhong

    2016-12-23

    Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population. Genotype 3 was predominant, with a distribution frequency of 0.484, followed by genotype 1 (0.283), genotype 6 (0.133) and genotype 2 (0.100). HCV subtypes 3b (frequency 0.292) and 1b (frequency 0.283) were the most common subtypes. A comparison of the current data with previous results reported for IDUs showed that the distribution frequencies of genotypes 1, 2 and 6 were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDUs (P < 0.05). Among the HCV subtypes, the distribution frequencies of 1b, 2a, 6a, and 6n were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDU groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, Phylogenetic analyses showed that HCV subtype 6a strains isolated from IDUs and the GP were intermixed and not separately clustered. HCV subtype 6a was predominant not only among IDUs but also among those in the GP in the Guangdong Province and Vietnam. However, HCV subtype 6a was predominant only among IDUs and not among those in the GP in the Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces. Our results indicate that the HCV subtype 6a could rapidly spread across China.

  1. Air pollution characteristics and health risks in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fuzhen; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Nie, Dongyang; Tian, Li; Chen, Mindong

    2017-07-01

    Events of severe air pollution occurred frequently in China recently, thus understanding of the air pollution characteristics and its health risks is very important. In this work, we analyzed a two-year dataset (March 2014 - February 2016) including daily concentrations of six criteria pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3) from 18 cities in Henan province. Results reveal the serious air pollution status in Henan province, especially the northern part, and Zhengzhou is the city with the worst air quality. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations exceed the second grade of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (75μg/m(3)) at both 2014 and 2015. PM2.5 is typically the major pollutant, but ozone pollution can be significant during summer. Furthermore, as the commonly used air quality index (AQI) neglects the mutual health effects from multiple pollutants, we introduced the aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI) to evaluate the health risks. Results show that based on HAQI, the current AQI system likely significantly underestimate the health risks of air pollution, highlighting that the general public may need stricter health protection measures. The population-weighted two-year average HAQI data further demonstrates that all population in the studied cities in Henan province live with polluted air - 72% of the population is exposed to air that is unhealthy for sensitive people, while 28% of people is exposed to air that can be harmful to healthy people; and the health risks are much greater during winter than during other seasons. Future works should further improve the HAQI algorithm, and validate the links between the clinical/epidemiologic data and the HAQI values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  3. Resurgence of vivax malaria in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, A. C.; Liu, X. L.; Jackson, S.; Li, P.; Shang, L. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Henan Province (population, 90 million) in China has nonstable endemic malaria. After 1970 when 10.2 million cases of malaria were reported in the province, a huge control programme was undertaken, and in the mid-1980s indoor spraying and bednet impregnation with pyrethroids began. By 1992 only 318 cases were reported. In 1992 Henan declared "basic elimination of malaria" and in consequence spraying and bednet impregnation ceased after 1994. Subsequently, malaria broke out again in southern Henan. In 1995 we conducted a household survey for malaria transmission in southern Henan. Blood smears and serum samples for immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing were collected from 2329 people and 3.1% (73/2329) were positive for infection with Plasmodium vivax and 13% (301/2329) positive for malaria (titre > or = 1:20). All age groups were affected. Exophilic Anopheles sinensis occurs throughout the province; endo-anthropophilic A. anthropophagus, whose vectorial capacity is 20 times greater than that of A. sinensis, occurs mainly in southern Henan (S of latitude 33 degrees N) and was greatly reduced in numbers during 1985-92. Comparison of 1995 entomological data with historical data showed that A. anthropophagus increased in proportion to other anophelines after spraying activities and impregnation of bednets ceased. Over 10% of 9377 residents reported having malaria. The true number affected among the at-risk population of 700,000 must be larger. We conclude that impregnated bednets and malaria surveillance should continue even after an area is declared to have "basically eliminated" malaria. PMID:9744246

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage Distribution in Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; He, Li; Huang, Hairong; Shi, Chengmin; Ni, Xumin; Dai, Guangming; Ma, Liang; Li, Weimin

    2017-04-21

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes. Based on a robust lineage assignment, we tested the association between lineages and clinical characteristics by logistic regression. There are three major lineages of M. tuberculosis prevalent in Xinjiang, viz. the East Asian Lineage 2 (42.1%; 56/133), the Euro-American Lineage 4 (33.1%; 44/133), and the Indian and East African Lineage 3 (24.8%; 33/133); two lineages prevalent in Gansu province, which are the Lineage 2 (87%; 47/54) and the Lineage 4 (13%; 7/54). The topological structures of the MLSA-based phylogeny support the LSP-based identification of M. tuberculosis lineages. The statistical results suggest an association between the Lineage 2 and the hemoptysis/bloody sputum symptom, fever in Uygur patients. The pathogenicity of the Lineage 2 remains to be further investigated.

  5. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  6. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  7. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  8. Special Data Collection System Event Report. Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-20

    SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM EVENT REPORT Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977 Michael S. Dawkins Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne...fi,PECIAL ,PATA 5 OLLECTION SYSTEM ~ ~~~~ ( ~ Technical rep*~’. J~ ~i~Southern Sinkiang Province , China ~~~~~~~~ -- -——9 ______________ 5...Southern Sinkiang Province, China, (l6 F~~~~ar~~~977 2 This event report contains seismic data~ from the Special Data Collection System (SDCS

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mackenzie Delta province, North America, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitchell E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 40 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered nonassociated gas, a mean of 10.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil (with 46.6 trillion cubic feet of associated gas), and a mean of 4.0 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Mackenzie Delta Province of North America, exclusive of the unassessed deep-water portion of the province.

  10. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  11. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  12. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  13. Hospital medical waste management in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gai, Ruoyan; Kuroiwa, Chushi; Xu, Lingzhong; Wang, Xingzhou; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chengchao; He, Jiangjian; Tang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    Medical waste refers to those hazardous waste materials generated by healthcare activities, including a broad range of materials, and remains as an issue on both public health and environment. In China, there was inadequate information on the implementation of management systems in hospitals based on the national regulatory framework. The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of medical waste management and to identify factors determining the implementation of a management system based on the national regulatory framework in hospitals. We investigated 23 general hospitals in both urban and rural areas of Shandong Province, China, by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The medical waste generation rate was 0.744, 0.558 and 1.534 kg bed(-1) day(-1) in tertiary hospitals, urban secondary hospitals and county hospitals, respectively. There is a wide disparity between implementation in tertiary, secondary and county hospitals. With increasing financial, technological, and materials investment, a management system has been established in tertiary and secondary hospitals. Financial support and administrative monitoring by the government is urgently needed to build a sound management system in hospitals located at remote and less-developed areas. In those areas issues in the financial, administrative and technical aspects should be further examined.

  14. Mantle Redox Conditions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Gras, M. A.; Lesher, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    The North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) has long been viewed as a region of anomalous mantle upwelling related to plume activity, continental rifting, and a heterogeneous mantle source. Prior to continental rifting in the Tertiary, the northern portion of the region was the site of closure of the Iapetus ocean basin. This tectonic event may have contributed to heterogeneities within the upper mantle and altered its oxidation state relative to the ambient mantle. Vanadium has been shown to be a useful indicator of redox conditions due to its multiple valence states (e.g. [1-2]). In mantle minerals, vanadium becomes increasingly incompatible under more oxidizing conditions [3]. Because both scandium and vanadium are moderately incompatible during melting, the Sc/V ratio of primitive basalts can be used to investigate the oxidation state of the mantle [1-3]. We have examined the Sc/V ratios of primitive lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR), Iceland, and the East Greenland margin to determine if there are spatial or temporal variations in the oxidation state of the NAIP mantle. The Sc/V ratios for MAR basalts are 0.13-0.20 (GEOROC chemical database); while Icelandic basalts range from 0.10-0.25 with an average of 0.16 (1 σ =0.05). The entire range of Sc/V ratios of the Paleogene East Greenland basalts is 0.07-0.17 with an average of 0.10 (1 σ = 0.05). The Sc/V ratios of Icelandic basalts are similar to MAR basalts, but the East Greenland lavas are distinctly lower than both the MAR and Iceland. The Sc/V ratio also can vary as a function of mean pressure of melting (i.e. spinel versus garnet lherzolite). To test the relative importance of melting systematics, source composition, and oxygen fugacity on the Sc/V systematics for NAIP basalts, we incorporated the oxygen-fugacity-dependent V mineral-melt partitioning data of [3] into the polybaric decompression melting model REEBOX [4]. The best-fit model parameters for the majority of the Iceland and MAR basalts

  15. Service Needs and Provision in the North West Province.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, B. M., Ed.; Govind, V., Ed.; Schwabe, C. A., Ed.; Taylor, J. M., Ed.

    This book, one of a series that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to outline the need for and provision of services (education, health, housing, electricity, roads, telecommunications, postal services, and police services) in each of the nine South African provinces, presents a global view or indicator of the simultaneous influence of the…

  16. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  17. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #24: Shandong Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    This image of the Shandong Province, China was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft. This image is from the MISR Where on Earth...? Mystery Quiz #24.

  18. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  19. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran’s I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. PMID:24852390

  20. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  1. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China. PMID:27833429

  2. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  3. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  4. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  5. Recent changes of rice heat stress in Jiangxi province, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Zhang, Fangmin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Around the intensity, frequency, duration, accumulated temperature, and even extremes of high-temperature events, nine selected temperature-related indices were used to explore the space and time changes of rice heat stress in Jiangxi province, southeast China. Several statistical methods including Mann-Kendall trend test (M-K test) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used in this study, and main results were listed as follows: (1) The changes in the intensity indices for high-temperature events were more significant, it was mainly embodied in that more than 80 % of stations had positive trends. (2) R-mode PCA was applied to the multiannual average values of nine selected indices of whole stations, and the results showed that the higher hazard for rice heat stress could be mainly detected in the middle and northeast area of Jiangxi. (3) S-mode PCA was applied to the integrated heat stress index series, and the results demonstrated that Jiangxi could be divided into four sub-regions with different variability in rice heat stress. However, all the sub-regions are dominated by increasing tendencies in rice heat stress since 1990. (4) Further analysis indicated that the western north Pacific sub-tropical high (WPSH) had the significant dominant influence on the rice heat stress in Jiangxi province.

  6. Recent changes of rice heat stress in Jiangxi province, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Zhang, Fangmin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Around the intensity, frequency, duration, accumulated temperature, and even extremes of high-temperature events, nine selected temperature-related indices were used to explore the space and time changes of rice heat stress in Jiangxi province, southeast China. Several statistical methods including Mann-Kendall trend test (M-K test) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used in this study, and main results were listed as follows: (1) The changes in the intensity indices for high-temperature events were more significant, it was mainly embodied in that more than 80 % of stations had positive trends. (2) R-mode PCA was applied to the multiannual average values of nine selected indices of whole stations, and the results showed that the higher hazard for rice heat stress could be mainly detected in the middle and northeast area of Jiangxi. (3) S-mode PCA was applied to the integrated heat stress index series, and the results demonstrated that Jiangxi could be divided into four sub-regions with different variability in rice heat stress. However, all the sub-regions are dominated by increasing tendencies in rice heat stress since 1990. (4) Further analysis indicated that the western north Pacific sub-tropical high (WPSH) had the significant dominant influence on the rice heat stress in Jiangxi province.

  7. HPV genotype analysis for women in Shaanxi Province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Wang, Y Y; Tian, X F; Nan, X; Yan, T; Wang, P; Fu, Y L; Wang, G Q

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this study was to examine the subtype distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) in women in the Shaanxi Province of China. A DNA chip, along with polymerase chain reaction amplification and reverse dot blot technology, was adopted to analyze the HPV genotypes of 22,937 cases of cervical cell specimens. The HPV infection rate was 18.70%, wherein high-risk, low-risk, and high- and low-risk multiple infection rates were 15.75, 2.96 and 1.91%, respectively. High-risk infections accounted for 84.20% of total infections. The rate of HPV infection in women with rural residence, high school education or less, a low income, or age over 40 years was significantly higher than that in the control group (negative HPV infection women). Of the 18 detected high-risk HPV subtypes, the most common in single infections were, in the order of prevalence, HPV16, 58, 18, 52, 33, and 56. For multiple high-risk infections, the most common subtypes in the order of prevalence were HPV16, 52, 58, 18, 56, and 33. Age was a factor in the rate of infection, as the 41-50-year age group had a significantly higher risk of infection than the other groups (P < 0.05). In multiple infections, double infections were common, accounting for 77.10% of multiple infections, and triple or more infections were more common in women aged 51-60 years. In Shaanxi Province, high-risk HPV infection in women was mainly attributed to rural residence, age over 40 years, low income, and low education level.

  8. Characterizing wetland change at landscape scale in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Sheng, Sheng; Zhou, Wen; Cui, Lijuan; Liu, Maosong

    2011-08-01

    Human activities produced great impacts on wetlands worldwide. Taking Jiangsu Province, China, as a representative wetland region subject to extensive human activities, the aim of this study is to understand the conversion trajectory and spatial differentiation in wetland change from a multi-scale perspective. Based on multi-temporal Landsat images, it was found that the natural wetlands decreased by 11.2% from 1990 to 2006 in Jiangsu Province. Transition matrices showed that the conversion of natural wetlands to human-made wetlands (mostly aquaculture ponds) was the major form of natural wetland reduction, accounting for over 60% of the reduction. Percentage reduction and area reduc tion of natural wetlands were respectively quantified within different wetland cover zones using a moving window analysis. Average percentage reduction showed a decreasing tendency with increasing wetland cover. The high-cover and mid-cover zone presented the largest area reduction at the scales of 1-2 km and 4-8 km, respectively. Local hotspots of natural wetland reduction were mapped using the equal-interval and quantile classification schemes. The hotspots were mostly concentrated in the Lixiahe marshes and the coastal wetland areas. For the area reduction hotspots, the quantile classification presented larger area and more patches than the equal-interval classification; while an opposite result was shown for the percentage reduction hotspots. With respect to the discontinuous distribution of the natural wetlands, area reduction could be more appropriate to represent reduction hotspots than percentage reduction in the study area. These findings could have useful implications to wetland conservation.

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Biogenic Gas Resources, North-Central Montana Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Application of a geology-based assessment methodology by the U.S. Geological Survey resulted in an estimated mean of 6,192 billion cubic feet of shallow biogenic (continuous) undiscovered gas in the North-Central Montana Province. Oil, gas, and natural gas liquids in conventional accumulations were not assessed.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  11. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  12. Relationship between endemic diseases and trace elements in the natural environment of Jilin province of China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.

    1986-01-01

    Jilin province is in the middle of the north eastern region of China. Several endemic diseases are recognized there: endemic goiter, endemic fluorosis, Kaschin - Beck disease and Keshan disease. Their etiology is uncertain but they are widely distributed in rural areas which are not contaminated by industrial waste. This study shows that there is a regular distribution of some trace elements (Se, Mo, I, F) in soil, crops and drinking water as the natural environmental factors (topography, climate, types of soil and plant) vary from east to west in the province. Endemic goiter is widely spread in the upland areas, which are deficient in iodine. Iodine levels in the drinking water were less than 5.0 ug/l which accounted for 60.72% of total samples. Endemic fluorosis was distributed only in the lowland areas of the plains. Fluorine contents in 80% of water samples were more than 2.1 mg/1 in the disease areas. Kaschin-Bec, disease and Keshan disease were distributed in the mountains and hills of the eastern part of the province. The selenium and molybdenum contents of soils, crops and drinking water in the disease areas were lower than those of non-disease areas. The difference between them was significant (p < 0.01). Kaschin-Beck disease also occurred in the local plains where there were selenium deficiencies in crops and drinking water. The relationship between Kaschin-Beck disease and selenium in grains (corn) presented a significant correlation Keshan disease is also associated with deficiency in selenium and molybdenum. 13 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends during 1961-2010 in Hubei province, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ranghui; Li, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is an important climatic parameter, and its variability severely affects regional hydrological processes and water resource management. In order to explore the changing spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation-related indices, including precipitation amounts indices, extreme precipitation indices, and precipitation concentration indices, in Hubei province, central China during 1961-2010, several precipitation-related indices series were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test, and inverse distance weighted interpolation method in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) A clear south-north gradient is apparent in the spatial distribution of the majority of precipitation-related indices, while the distribution of other indices (i.e., CDD, PCD, and PCP) is just the opposite. Most part of Hubei province can experience mixed positive and negative trends in precipitation-related indices. (2) The majority of precipitation-related indices exhibit an increasing trend, but most of which are not significant. July has the largest positive trend, with a regional average of 14.76 mm/decade. As for extreme precipitation indices, there exist large variations in Hubei, especially in R95pTOT. Besides, no obvious trends are shown in precipitation concentration indices. (3) With the exception of consecutive dry days (CDD), most of extreme precipitation indices are strongly correlated with annual mean precipitation (AMP) in Hubei. And the extreme precipitation indices are well correlated with each other except CDD and consecutive wet days (CWD). For six precipitation-related indices (i.e., SDII, RX1day, RX5day, R95pTOT R99pTOT, and PCD), there are significant positive relationships with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) but significant negative relationships with Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). Furthermore, the majority of precipitation-related indices have significant negative correlations with East Asian summer monsoon

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2016-10-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  15. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Hua; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Meng, Yun; Su, Li; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-15

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The study aimed to determine the congenital hypothyroidism incidence by newborn screening programs in Henan Province, China. The screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism are based on the measurement of TSH in dried blood spots. The TSH concentration was measured in the dry blood spot specimen using a DELFIA fluoroimmunoassay. The TSH cutoff concentration was 8mU/l. The total coverage and the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism were 24.85% (5,142,148/20,694,441) and 0.37‰ (1992/5,142,148), respectively. The coverage and the incidence of CH were only 0.58% (4526/784,580) and 0.22‰ (1/4526) in 1997, respectively. However, the coverage and the incidence of CH were increased to 74.67% (1,203,278/1,611,582) and 0.32‰ (389/1,203,278). There were no significant differences in the number of congenital hypothyroidism between males and females (P>0.05). The number of congenital hypothyroidism was increased year after year. The newborn screening program for CH is successful and quite effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China

    Treesearch

    Yao Ge Huang; Branka Barl; Gerald. Ivanochko

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a brief account of the distribution, production, and use of some non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, medicinal and nutraceutical mushrooms, pharmaceutical insects, and "wild" vegetables in Jilin Province, China. All materials featured in this paper are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) inside and outside of China...

  17. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  18. Spatio-temporal evolution on geographic boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Xun; Wang, Zhi Qiang; Guo, Jing; Tang, Fang; Sun, Xiu Bin; Xue, Fu Zhong; Kang, Dian Min

    2013-12-01

    To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  19. Paleoclimatical signals from large aquifers: comparative study of North China Plain, North America and Great Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Major aquifers worldwide, under favorable conditions, can retain low temporal resolution information on climatic conditions at the time of recharge. Generally, this geochemical information can be used to better constrain reaction of the aquifer to climatic changes or even to assess long term groundwater sustainability. Understanding whether major aquifers at similar latitude world-wide share similar climatic responses and records is one of the objectives of the G@GPS (Groundwater@Global Palaeoclimatic Signals) network. Several flag basins were selected and many activities were carried out since 2011, when G@GPS was accepted as one IFG within TERPRO of INQUA. The presentation will cover the objectives, major actities and achievements in the past 5 years, with a focus on the case studies in North China Plain (NCP), Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia, and North America. 81Kr and 85Kr by using ATTA (atom trap trace analysis) to derive paleoclimate signals from deep aquifer was introduced in the workshop and training course in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province on Dec. 8-13, 2014, and some results are to be presented, combined with those from 14C. Paleoclimatic signals in the last 30-40 ka were reconstructed using stable isotopes and dated groundwater in three areas indicate climatic changes and several recharge events. The signal in NCP was compared and verified by the high resolution data series from two caves in China. The signals from the large aquifers could provide a reasonable regional and global record of paleoclimatic change.

  20. Willingness-to-accept and purchase genetically modified rice with high folate content in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Storozhenko, S; Liqun, G; Lambert, W; Van Der Straeten, D; Viaene, J

    2010-02-01

    Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are considered to be the most common congenital malformations. As Shanxi Province, a poor region in the North of China, has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of NTDs in the world, folate fortification of rice is an excellent alternative to low intake of folate acid pills in this region. This paper investigates the relations between socio-demographic indicators, consumer characteristics (knowledge, consumer perceptions on benefits, risks, safety and price), willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay genetically modified (GM) rice. The consumer survey compromises 944 face-to-face interviews with rice consumers in Shanxi Province, China. Multivariate analyses consist of multinomial logistic regression and multiple regression. The results indicate that consumers generally are willing-to-accept GM rice, with an acceptance rate of 62.2%. Acceptance is influenced by objective knowledge and consumers' perceptions on benefits and risks. Willingness-to-pay GM rice is influenced by objective knowledge, risk perception and acceptance. Communication towards the use of GM rice should target mainly improving knowledge and consumers' perceptions on high-risk groups within Shanxi Province, in particular low educated women. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Source Apportionment of Final Particulate Matterin North China Plain based on Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Wu, W.; Chang, X.; Wang, S.; Hao, J.

    2016-12-01

    Most Chinese cities in North China Plain are suffering from serious air pollution. To develop the regional air pollution control policies, we need to identify the major source contributions to such pollution and to design the control policy which is accurate, efficient and effective. This study used the air quality model with serval advanced technologies including ISAM and ERSM, to assess the source contributions from individual pollutants (incl. SO2, NOx, VOC, NH3, primary PM), sectors (incl. power plants, industry, transportation and domestic), and regions (Beijing, Hebei, Tianjing and surrounding provinces). The modeling period is two months in 2012 as January and July which represent winter and summer respectively. The non-linear relationship between air pollutant emissions and air quality will be addressed, and the integrated control of multi-pollutants and multi-regions in China will be suggested.

  2. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  3. Complete genomic characterization of two European-genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in Fujian province of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Kui; Wei, Chun-Hua; Dai, Ai-Ling; Fan, Ke-Wei; Yang, Bing-Hui; Huang, Chun-Fang; Li, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is divided into two major genotypes, European (type 1) and the North American (type 2). Type 1 PRRSV have recently emerged in Fujian province (South China), and this might have a significant impact on the Chinese pig industry. From 2013 to 2014, two type 1 PRRSV strains, named FJEU13 and FJQEU14, were isolated from piglets and sows with respiratory problems and reproductive disorders in Fujian province. The full genome length of the two isolates was 14,869-15,062 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail. These isolates shared 86.0-89.9% sequence identity with the prototypic strains Lelystad virus (LV) and 82.8-92% with Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains, but only 59.9-60.1% with the North American reference strain VR-2332. However, they were 82.9% identical to each other. Nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) and ORF3-ORF5 were the most variable regions when compared to other type 1 PRRSV strains. Nsp2 and ORF3 contained multiple discontinuous deletions and a 204-bp deletion in NSP2 in isolate FJQEU14, which has never been described in other Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains. All of these results might be useful for understanding the epidemic status of type 1 PRRSV in China.

  4. Mesozoic tectonic setting of rift basins in eastern North China and implications for destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guo-wei; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic due to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate has attracted a lot of recent interest, with numerous studies focusing on regional tectonics and associated magmatism. Although the peak ages for this event have been established, the timing of its initiation remains poorly understood. In this paper, two rift basins in the northern Hebei Province of China, the Diaoe Basin (DB) and Houcheng Basin (HB), are studied in order to constrain the timing of destruction of the northern margin of the NCC. Both NNE-striking basins developed on Proterozoic basement. The DB is a graben controlled by normal faults on its two margins, and the HB is a half-graben bounded by normal faults on its eastern side. Basin fills include detrital sediments and volcanic rocks, which are (from bottom to top) the Houcheng Formation (Fh), the Zhangjiakou Formation (Fzh), the Shijiayao Formation (Fs), and the Huajiying Formation (Fhj). The Fh is composed mainly of detrital sediments interlayered with andesite in its lower section, and interlayered with felsic volcanics (rhyolite) in its upper section. There exists a transitional change from the Fh to the thick felsic volcanic strata of the Fzh. Geochemically, the andesite layers in the lower Fh were most likely derived from mixing of crust and mantle melts, whereas the felsic rocks were derived from melting of the lower crust. U-Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded ages for the lower Fh andesites of ca. 165.7 Ma in the HB and ca. 157.4 Ma in the DB. The felsic rocks at the base of the Fzh yielded ages of ca. 155.1 Ma in the HB and ca. 149.2-143.4 Ma in the DB. The Fs and Fhj in the DB both yielded similar ages of ca. 136 Ma. The development of rift basins, together with the occurrence of massive felsic volcanic rocks, indicates a period of significant extension and thinning of the NCC. The ca. 165.7-155.1 Ma age for andesites not only represents the initial timing of crustal extension

  5. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  6. Elevated homocysteine and hypertension in Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hang; Lu, Zhen Hong; Li, Peng Gang; Wang, Ying Ying; Yan, Zhao Yang

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available comparing homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hypertension in different ethnic groups. This study sought to determine whether there are associations of blood pressure and Hcy levels in patients with hypertension from Xinjiang Province, China. We examined the serum total Hcy levels in a total of 451 Chinese of various ethnic groups (Han n=234 [51.9%], Uygur n=102 [22.6%], Kazak n=61 [13.5%], Hui n=54 [12.0%]) aged 18-78 years. Two groups of subjects were studied: 1) non-hypertensive, n=101; (2) hypertensive, n=350. We investigated the serum Hcy levels relationship with hypertension. Hcy levels of Kazak in no hypertension and hypertension patients were highest (11.9 +/- 9.8 vs 19.0 +/- 11.8 umol/L, respectively, unadjusted P=.004, adjusted P=.016). This pattern of higher Hcy values in hypertension patients was consistent across all ethnic groups even after adjustment (all P<0.05). The hypertension risks in the elevated Hcy (>13.9 umol/L) was 3.5 (95% CI, 2.2-5.4) times the normal Hcy (< or = 13.9 umol/L) (P<0.001). Even after adjustment for potential confounders, this difference remained 3.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.9-4.8) (P<.001). Bivariate correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship of Hcy with systolic or diastolic blood pressure across all ethnic groups. This study confirms the existence of a significant association between hypertension and Hcy in Chinese population groups.

  7. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton.

  8. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of early human evolution. Here we present a magneto-cyclochronology for the Acheulian assemblage from Sanmenxia Basin, Loess Plateau, North China. Our results place a sequence of stable normal and reversed paleomagnetic polarities within a regional lithostratigraphic context. The Acheulian assemblage is dated to be older than the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at 0.78 Ma, and is found in strata that are probably equivalent to a weak paleosol subunit within loess layer L9 in the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, which corresponds to marine isotope stage (MIS) 23, a relatively subdued interglacial period with age range of ∼0.89-0.92 Ma. This age of ∼0.9 Ma implies that Acheulian stone tools were unambiguously present in North China during the Early Pleistocene. It distinctly enlarges the geographic distribution of Acheulian technology and brings its occurrence in North China back into the Early Pleistocene, which is contemporaneous with its first emergence in Europe. Combined with other archeological records, the larger area over which Acheulian technology existed in East Asia during the terminal Early Pleistocene has important implications for understanding early human occupation of North China.

  9. Atmospheric PAHs in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of PAHs in North China, PAHs with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen PAHs in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of PAHs are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for PAH abatement in North China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Webinar Presentation: Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China, was given at the STAR Black Carbon 2016 Webinar Series: Accounting for Impact, Emissions, and Uncertainty held on Nov. 7, 2016.

  11. Impact of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Dai, J R; Liang, Y S; Huang, Y X; Coles, G C

    2009-01-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is currently the key, national, water-conservation project in China, designed to optimise the use of water resources and relieve the water shortages in the north of the country. As one of the main water intakes for the project, that of the Eastern Route Scheme (ERS), is a breeding site for Oncomelania hupensis (the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum), there is concern that the snail may be carried far to the north, in the water passing through the project. To see if they could survive and breed to the north of their current range in China, O. hupensis were collected in marshland near Nanjing City and transferred to cages, on the banks of fish ponds, in the cities of Zhenjiang (in Jiangsu province, at 32 degrees 10'N), Xuzhou (in the same province but at a latitude of 34 degrees 23'N) and Jining (in Shandong province, at 35 degrees 23'N). Except over the first 6 months in Xuzhou, the snails moved north of their natural distribution did not survive and reproduce as well as those in Zhenjiang, and all those transferred to Jining died out within 1 year. Although the snail populations in Xuzhou survived for 7-8 years and retained their infectivity to S. japonicum, histological and histochemical studies revealed abnormalities in the reproductive organs of these snails. It is concluded that, unless global warming significantly increases the minimum winter temperatures in northern China, the SNWDP is unlikely to result in the northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica.

  12. Gridded field observations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane in the atmosphere of north China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Qiu, Xinghua; Lin, Yan; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-08-06

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important pollutants, yet few data on ambient BFRs levels have been available for North China, one of the most developed regions of the country. In this study, we investigated levels and spatial distributions of BFRs based on gridded field observations coupled with passive air sampling in the aforementioned region. A model incorporating both point and nonpoint sources was developed to simulate the spatial distribution and to achieve source apportionment. Although high concentration was observed at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site, the median level of the sum of tri-, tetra-, hepta-, hexa-, and hepta-PBDEs (∑10PBDEs) was 0.56 ng/sample, which was lower than those observed previously in mainland China. Source apportionment revealed that nonpoint emissions contributed nearly 78% of ∑10PBDEs observed in this study. In contrast, high levels of BDE-209 and DBDPE were observed, with median concentrations of 4.0 and 10.2 ng/sample, respectively. Point sources located in the region around Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province were the major sources, which contributed 31% of BDE-209 and 70% of DBDPE observed in this study, indicating that this manufacturing base was the most important source region for atmospheric deca-BFRs in North China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report source apportionment of atmospheric BFRs based on gridded field observations.

  13. Water and food security in China: virtual water trade associated with crop trade between Chinese provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2013-12-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socio-economic development, diet shifts and climate change. Water availability presents a significant spatial heterogeneity in the country. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization to model inter-provincial crop trade in China. We combine these trade simulations with province-scale estimates of Virtual Water Content of these crops, from the H08 hydrological model to build the domestic virtual water trade network of China. We find that there is a wide heterogeneity in water-use efficiency among Chines provinces, with a few of the least water efficient provinces using disproportionately high amounts of irrigation water versus rainwater for crop production. We study the food trade patterns and the virtual water flows and savings associated with it.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Liaoning Province, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Li, Hongkui; He, Jianbin; Mu, Mingyang; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-02-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern China. In the present study, serum samples from 566 domestic sheep were collected from Liaoning Province, northeastern China, to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies using an indirect hemagglutination antibody test. Twenty-five of 566 samples (4.4%) were seropositive at the cutoff of 1:64 serum dilution. No difference was found among 6 geographic regions (P > 0.05). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Liaoning Province.

  18. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The...Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ’—WikiLeaks,” Agence France-Press, November 30, 2010. Accessed January 12, 2011. http

  19. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  20. Evaluation research on natural resource supply index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Huang, Li-Hua

    2017-08-01

    Promoting the development of the central region has become a basic national policy of China. Based on the data in 2015, this article has used factor analytic method to compare and evaluate the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China. The results show that Jiangxi province has the highest index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Hubei. However, Shanxi province has the lowest index.

  1. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  2. Kimmeridgian Shales Total Petroleum System of the North Sea Graben Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    The North Sea Graben of northwestern Europe, World Energy Project Province 4025, is entirely offshore within the territorial waters of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Extensional tectonics and failed rifting are fundamental to the distribution of oil and gas in the province. Accordingly, the geologic history and reser-voir rocks of the province are considered in the context of their temporal relationship to the principal extension and rifting events. The oil and gas accumulations of the province are considered part of a single petroleum system: the Kimmeridg-ian Shales Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rocks of the Kimmeridgian Shales TPS were deposited in Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous time during the period of intensive exten-sion and rifting. The Kimmeridgian Shales contain typical 'type II' mixed kerogen. Oil and gas generation began locally in the North Sea Graben Province by Cretaceous time and has continued in various places ever since. Reservoirs are found in strata with ages ranging from Devonian to Eocene. Pre-rift reservoirs are found in fault-block structures activated during rifting and can be of any age prior to the Late Jurassic. Syn-rift reservoirs are restricted to strata actually deposited during maximum extension and include rocks of Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous age. Post-rift reservoirs formed after rifting and range in age from Early Cretaceous to Eocene. Seals are diverse, depending upon the structural setting and reservoir age. Pre-rift reservoirs com-monly have seals formed by fine-grained, post-rift sedimentary sequences that drape the Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous structures. Contemporaneous shales such as the Kimmeridge Clay seal many syn-rift reservoirs. Fields with post-rift res-ervoirs generally require seals in fine-grained Tertiary rocks. In most of the North Sea Graben, source rocks have been continuously buried since deposition. Structural trap forma-tion has also taken

  3. Neoarchean ductile deformation of the Northeastern North China Craton: The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boran; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Liang, Chenyue

    2017-05-01

    Archean granitic gneiss domes and greenstone belts are well-preserved in eastern North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest Archean terrains in the world. The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei Province is located between an Archean granitic gneiss dome and a greenstone belt within an uplift in eastern NCC. Supracrustal rocks from the Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups, and some Archean granitic gneisses were involved in the shearing along the eastern margin. In the southern part, the narrow NE-trending shear zone dips NW with dip angles of 40-60° and, in the northern part, the shear zone dips NWN with dip angles of 70-85°. Microstructural and EBSD fabric analyses suggest that the shear zone was developed at upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies conditions with deformation temperatures of 400-550 °C. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of mylonitized granitic rocks and undeformed quartz diorite cutting the shear zone suggest that the Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone was formed between 2550 Ma and 2452 Ma. Detailed kinematic studies of the shear zone show a clear sinistral shear sense with a slightly oblique-slip component in the northern part and a sinistral transtensional slip component in the southern part. It is therefore suggested that the shear zone was formed during the Anziling doming with respect to the down-slipping Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups. The difference in kinematics along the southern and the northern sections is interpreted to be caused by the doming with an uneven clockwise spiral rotation. The BIF-rich supracrustal rocks have higher density than their neighboring granitic gneisses, and therefore can easily sink to form synclines by sagduction processes. The sagduction is mainly triggered by gravitational inversion of high density supracrustal rocks with respect to relatively light granitic gneisses within the dome. As a result, the gneisses synchronously moved upward. A shear zone

  4. A new species of Zagrammosoma Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huan-Xi; La Salle, John; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The new species Zagrammosoma dulanense Cao & Zhu, sp. n., from Qinghai Province, China, is described and illustrated. All type specimens were reared from the pupae of Micrurapteryx sophorivora Kuznetzov & Tristan (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a leafmining moth attacking the plant Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br. (Fabaceae). A key to the three known Asian species of Zagrammosoma is provided. All specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection, the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. PMID:25061354

  5. Six Sinopoda species (Araneae: Sparassidae) from Fujian and Yunnan Provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yang; Cao, Xiaowei; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-02

    Five new Sinopoda species collected from China are diagnosed, described and illustrated: S. afflata sp. nov. (♀, Yunnan), S. horizontalis sp. nov. (♀, Fujian), S. liui sp. nov. (♀, Fujian), S. mamillata sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), S. separata sp. nov. (♀, Yunnan). The female of S. anguina Liu, Li & Jäger, 2008 is described for the first time from Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture and Baoshan City, Yunnan province, China.

  6. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  7. Flora, life forms and chorotypes of plants of Salok protected area (North Khorassan Province Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, M; Halimi, M Khalilabad

    2011-01-01

    Salok protected Area is located in the 37 degrees 15' to 37 degrees 08' of the North latitude and 57 degrees 16' to 57 degrees 06' of East longitude, in West North Esfarayen in North khorassan province. In this research 52 families, 174 genera and 213 species were identified. The largest plant family is Asteraceae (34 species), Poaceae (18 species), Brassicaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (17 species), respectively. Chief life forms are Hemicryptopytes (49.29%), Therophytes 23.47% and cryptophytes (12.67%). The most of plants chorotype with 62.91% is influenced by Irano-Touranina elements. Among 213 identified species of this region and 15 species endemic of Iran contain 0.87% of total endemic species of Iran's flora.

  8. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  9. New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China.

    PubMed

    Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J; Wei, Qi; Qiang, Xiaoke; Xiao, Guoqiao

    2013-01-01

    The Nihewan Basin in North China has a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites. Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in 1972. The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1.7-1.6 Ma. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene. The earliest hominids are argued to have lived in a habitat of open grasslands mixed with patches of forests close to the bank of the Nihewan paleolake as indicated from faunal compositions. Hominid migrations to East Asia during the Early Pleistocene are suggested to be a consequence of increasing cooling and aridity in Africa and Eurasia.

  10. Late Precambrian aulacogens of the North China craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, X.

    1985-01-01

    According to tectonic styles, the Precambrian evolution history of the North China craton may be subdivided into four stages: (1) Archean consolidation in 3.5 to 2.5 Ga, (2) Early Proterozoic rifting in 2.5 to 1.8 Ga, (3) Late Precambrian aulacogen in 1.8 to 0.8 Ga and (4) Platform regime after 0.8 Ga. In the Late Precambrian aulacogen stage of the North China craton there were two main aulacogens, Yanliao and Zhongtiao (Y and Z), developed in Middle Proterozoic time with an age 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. Their NE trend caused them to meet together in the central part of the craton and build up one great Y-Z aulacogen throughout the craton.

  11. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In addition, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  12. Taming the Red Dragon: Peace Operations in North China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited TAMING THE RED DRAGON: PEACE OPERATIONS IN NORTH CHINA A Monograph by Major Robert L...AY 2014-001 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI-Std Z39-18 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public ...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT After the Allies defeated the Japanese in

  13. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  14. Higher Vocational Education in China: A Preliminary Critical Review of Developments and Issues in Liaoning Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, G. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the increasingly important economy of China and its associated higher vocational education and training (HVE) system. More specifically, the paper aims to present the findings of a critical review of recent developments in the HVE system in Liaoning province. Design/methodology/approach: As part of this review,…

  15. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  16. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  17. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Among Primary School Children in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yao, Zong-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection in primary school children has been investigated in many countries, limited surveys have been available in primary school children in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Sera from 6,000 primary school children were evaluated for T. gondii antibodies with ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 16.0% (961/6,000), of which 14.5% (870/6,000) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, 3.4% (206/6,000) positive for IgM, and 1.9% (115/6,000) were positive for both IgG and IgM. The results of the present investigation indicated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control T. gondii infection in primary school children in this province. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in primary school children in Shandong province, China.

  19. Higher Vocational Education in China: A Preliminary Critical Review of Developments and Issues in Liaoning Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, G. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the increasingly important economy of China and its associated higher vocational education and training (HVE) system. More specifically, the paper aims to present the findings of a critical review of recent developments in the HVE system in Liaoning province. Design/methodology/approach: As part of this review,…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  1. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  2. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tiedao; Jing, Min

    Universalizing primary education for girls and children in disadvantaged areas remains the most challenging task for developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. This evaluation report reviews the processes and outcomes of the Pilot Project on Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China, a…

  3. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  4. MICA/B genotyping of Tujias from Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y J; Zhang, N J; Chen, E; Chen, C J; Bu, Y H; Yu, P

    2016-04-01

    One hundred eighty-seven Tujia individuals from Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China were genotyped at the MICA and MICB loci using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming and sequencing-based typing methods. MICA and MCB genotypes are consistent with expected HW proportions. These genotype data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database.

  5. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  6. Four new species of the genus Otacilia Thorell, 1897 from Hunan Province, China (Araneae, Phrurolithidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chi; Fu, Lina; Yin, Xiangchu; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of the genus Otacilia Thorell, 1897 are reported from Hunan Province, China: Otacilia hippocampa sp. n., Otacilia yangmingensis sp. n., Otacilia curvata sp. n., and Otacilia submicrostoma sp. n. All new species are described based on both sexes. In addition, the 55 known Otacilia species are divided into four species groups. PMID:27853406

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  8. Aerosol forcing of extreme summer drought over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixia; Wu, Peili; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of extreme summer drought has been increasing in North China during the past sixty years, which has caused serious water shortages. It remains unclear whether anthropogenic forcing has contributed to the increasing extreme droughts. Using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model simulations with various combinations of historical forcings, the authors investigated the driving mechanism behind the observed changes. Metrological drought is usually measured by precipitation anomalies, which show lower fidelity in current climate models compared to large-scale circulation patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR re-analysis, a linear relationship is firstly established between the weakest regional average 850 hPa southerly winds and extreme summer drought. This meridional winds index (MWI) is then used as a proxy for attribution of extreme North China drought using CMIP5 outputs. Examination of the CMIP5 simulations reveals that the probability of the extreme summer droughts with the first percentile of MWI for 1850-2004 under anthropogenic forcing has increased by 100%, on average, relative to a pre-industrial control run. The more frequent occurrence of extremely weak MWIs or drought over North China is ascribed from weakened climate and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation due to the direct cooling effect from increased aerosol.

  9. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  10. Rural youth and youth culture in north China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y

    1999-03-01

    This article describes how economic reforms have transformed the local world of village life in North China, specifically the emergence of a rural "youth culture" that reflects urban values and styles. This culture has both challenged and enriched rural China's tradition and its more recent communal structure, a change that reshapes the relations amongst family members of different age cohorts as well as between peasants and cadres, it is argued that this transformation in the Chinese countryside holds opportunities to improve living conditions and unmake the constraints of tradition and the modern nation-state on life chances and everyday experience. The sheer number of rural youth in China suggests that the future impact of this transformation on social realities could be enormous.

  11. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of North China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, T.; Zuan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocens Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pole in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point.

  12. Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Paleozoic reconstructions of south China, north China and Tarim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangyou, Nie

    1991-10-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data provide the most useful latitudinal constraints for plate reconstructions. Distributions through the Paleozoic of five types of climatically sensitive sediments (coals, evaporites, reefs, dolomites and limestones) for south China, north China and Tarim are shown on 15 maps that include 1578 reliable data points. These paleoclimatic data agree reasonably well with available paleomagnetic directions, although significant divergence between the two exists for the Early Paleozoic. These data indicate the following: (1) South China was in low latitudes during the entire Paleozoic, with a subtropical position in the Cambrian. (2) North China also remained near the equator in the Early and Late Paleozoic, except for the Ordovian and the Late Permian when extensive evaporites suggest slightly higher latitudinal positions, while its Middle Paleozoic position is uncertain due to the missing stratigraphie record. (3) In south China, local tectonics appears to have played a dominant role in determining paleogeography and therefore marine sedimentation, especially after the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, because the areal coverage of marine sediments through time is distinctly different from what would be expected from published global sea-level curves. (4) Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic data are compatible with biogeographic data which suggest that south China was part of eastern Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic, but was widely separated from Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic, and the split between the two probably happened in the Devonian, giving rise to a major break-up unconformity in central south China.

  13. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants, rodents and ticks in Gansu, north-western China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Qing; Li, Youquan; Chen, Ze; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2013-02-01

    The zoonotic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a broad geographical distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. To determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province, north-western China, four ruminant species, one rodent and one tick species were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. DNA from Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected by nested PCR in blood samples from 21/49 sheep (42.9 %), 35/91 goats (38.5 %), 51/158 yaks (32.3 %) and 7/20 cattle-yaks (35.0 %), and in spleen samples from 2/12 rodents (16.7 %). For samples from tick larvae and nymphs, 105 pools were tested; one of 46 larval tick pools was positive and seven of 59 nymphal tick pools were positive. For adult ticks, 40/598 female ticks (6.7 %) and 26/528 male ticks (4.9 %) were positive. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in female ticks was higher than that in males, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strains in the study area were distinct from previously reported Anaplasma phagocytophilum in other continents. These results add new information on the epidemiology of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and indicate the tick-animal cycle of anaplasmosis in the area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Gansu Province in north-western China.

  14. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

  15. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Wei, Xuefang; Chang, Huali; Kundrát, Martin

    2015-01-16

    Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China

  16. Invasion of the Red Seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica Spans Biogeographic Provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E. S.; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic. PMID:23638018

  17. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E S; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  18. Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Naranji area, NorthWest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Danishwar, Shuhab

    2003-12-01

    The drinking water of Naranji village and surrounding areas of the NorthWest Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, was analyzed for its fluoride content. The fluoride content of water samples from the springs in the Naranji village goes up to 13.52 mg kg(-1), which exceeds the permissible limit (1.5 mg kg(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study explores the source of fluoride contamination and attributes it to the alkaline rocks of the Ambela granitic complex and the Koga complex. The low-lying areas towards the south have a fluoride content within the permissible limit. The Naranji area therefore needs urgent remedial measures.

  19. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  20. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs from Henan province of China in 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Liu, Huisheng; Ding, Ke; Peng, Chunping; Xue, Qiao; Yu, Zuhua; Xue, Yun

    2016-07-04

    There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology and molecular characterization of CPV circulating in Henan province from 2009 to 2014. Nineteen thousand nine hundred seven dogs from pet hospitals in the cities of Luoyang, Anyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia, Xinxiang, Zhengzhou in Henan province between 2009 and 2014 were investigated. Over the 6-year period, 1169 CPV-positive cases were identified and the morbidity of CPV infection ranged from 4.16 to 8.06 %, although morbidity was not significant (P > 0.05) between 2009 and 2014. Factors associated with morbidity included sampling season, dog age, breed, vaccination status, and sex. CPV co-infection with coccidium (10.00 %), canine distemper virus (4.79 %), hookworm (2.40 %), canine coronavirus (1.11 %), roundworm (1.03 %), tapeworm (0.17 %) and Babesia spp. (0.09 %) were observed. The new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent than the new CPV-2b variant in Henan province. CPV 2c was not observed in this study. The epidemiology of CPV infection and identification of the circulating genotypes in Henan province, China from 2009 to 2014 determined that the new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent.

  1. Shelf north of Falklands may be new S. Atlantic petroleum province

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S. ); Johnson, M. )

    1995-03-06

    Interpretation of new seismic data shows that all the elements of a favorable petroleum geology exist on the North Falkland shelf and therefore that the area will become an important petroleum province of the future. Spectrum Energy and Information Technology Ltd. acquired approximately 7,500 line km of speculative seismic data during 1993--94 over the continental shelf north of the Falkland Islands. These data have been interpreted geologically to determine the petroleum prospectivity of the area prior to the planned offshore Falkland Islands licensing round. In this article the authors outline this interpretation and show how it provides some important new information on regional geology and the break-up history of southern Gondwana. The paper describes plate tectonics and basin evolution; stratigraphy; basin structure; petroleum geology; source rock maturity; hydrocarbon generation; and petroleum prospectivity.

  2. JPRS Report, China, Shandong Province 1988 Economic Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    visits. All 982 motions, criti- cisms, and suggestions submitted by People’s Congress deputies and CPPCC members last year have been handled. The... suggestions . The province and various localities conducted many investi- gations and studies on reform, opening up, development of the commodity economy, and... suggestions submitted by people’s deputies to make sure that every one of them is concluded and answered. Second, we should maintain close ties between

  3. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  4. Emergency obstetric care availability, accessibility and utilization in eight districts in Pakistan's North West Frontier Province.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moazzam; Ayaz, Mohammad; Rizwan, Humayun; Hashim, Saima; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2006-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is a critical issue in Pakistan. Do public health care centers in Pakistan's North West Frontier Province (NWFP) comply with minimum UN recommendations for availability, use, and quality of basic and comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) as measured by UN process indicators? All public health facilities providing EmOC (n = 50) in 30% of districts in NWFP province (n = 8 districts) sampled randomly in September 2003 were included in a cross-sectional study. Data came from health facility records. Almost all indicators were below minimum recommended UN levels. The number of facilities providing basic EmOC services was much too low to be called providing comprehensive coverage. A low percentage of births took place in hospital and few women with complications reached EmOC facilities. Caesarean section was either underutilized or unavailable. The case fatality rate was low, perhaps due to poor record-keeping. The findings of this first needs assessment in NWFP province can serve as a benchmark for monitoring future progress. In resource-poor countries like Pakistan, it is important to upgrade existing facilities, giving special emphasis to facilities that provide basic EmOC services, since many problems can be resolved at the most basic level. Health policy makers and planners need to take immediate, appropriate rectifying measures to, inter alia, improve staffing in rural areas, enhance staff skills through training, upgrade management and supervision, ensure medical supply availability, mandate proper record-keeping, and observe progress by monitoring process indicators regularly.

  5. [Spatiotemporal variation patterns of potential evapotranspiration in five provinces of Northwest China in 1960-2011].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Feng; Pan, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Jin-Shui; Lin, Zhi-Hui

    2013-09-01

    By using Penman-Monteith model and Hurst index model, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation patterns of potential evapotranspiration (ET0) in the five provinces of Northwest China in 1960-2011. In the meantime, the dominant factors driving the variations of the ET0 were quantitatively analyzed by using sensitivity analysis method. In 1960-2011, the ET0 in the five provinces presented an overall decreasing trend, with a drop rate of -0.72 mm x a(-1), but the ET0 increased gradually after 1993. An obvious spatial difference was shown in the annual average ET0. The average ET0 in the five provinces was 1158 mm (675-2282 mm), wit the maximum (2282 mm) in Qijiaojing of Xinjiang and the low values (>800 mm) in Qinba Mountains in south Shaanxi. Except in spring, the ET0 in other seasons showed a decreasing trend. In the analysis of future trend, the ET0 in most areas (81.4%) of Northwest China would present a trend from decrease to increase. Therefore, under the background of global warming, the warm and wet degree in Northwest China would be somewhat weakened, but the ET0 in the middle part of Xinjiang would be decreased continuously. Wind speed was the main factor affecting the ET0 in Northwest China at both annual and monthly scales, but the affecting extent of wind speed differed with seasons and areas. The spatial extent affected by the wind speed in winter expanded across the entire five provinces of Northwest China, while the spatial extent affected by the wind speed in summer included the entire Xinjiang and the northwest of Gansu and Qinghai.

  6. Traditional plant-based therapies for respiratory diseases found in North Jeolla Province, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to record and conserve orally transmitted traditional plant-based therapies for respiratory diseases in North Jeolla Province, Korea. Data were collected with semistructured questionnaires through the participatory rural appraisal method. This study reveals that overall, 14 respiratory diseases have been treated with a total of 43 species of medicinal plants belonging to 40 genera in 26 families. This study also reports 149 different modes of plant-based therapeutic application of medicinal material. The informant consensus factor for the common cold is 0.84, the highest among 14 different respiratory ailments, followed by whooping cough, asthma, nosebleed, bronchitis, cough, and so on. Medicinal plants used to treat seven respiratory ailments had a 100% fidelity level. This study can help to preserve the traditional knowledge and local health traditions of North Jeolla Province amid rapid industrialization and urbanization. The findings of this study warrant follow-up clinical research to determine the most effective traditional remedies toward development of herbal medicinal products for integration into the Korean health care system.

  7. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  8. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  9. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination.

  10. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  11. Paleozoic exhumation history of the North Qinling terrane,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Genser, Johann; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhao; Zhang, Guowei; Heberer, Bianca

    2010-05-01

    The Qinling mountain range lies between the North and South China blocks, and is bounded on the north by the Lushan fault and on the south by the Mianlue-Bashan-Xiangguang fault (Dong et al., 2008). The Qinling-Dabie orogen can be subdivided, from north to south, into the Southern North China block with the North Qinling terrane, the Shangdan suture, the South Qinling microcontinent block, the Mianlue suture and the South China block (Zhang et al., 1995; Meng et al., 1999; Li SZ et al., 2007). A number of models for the Qinling tectonic evolution have been proposed. Controversies, however, still exist, in particular on the timing of the joining and the processes of convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan suture zone. Most authors believe that the collision between the North and the South China blocks occurred after the closure of the Shangdan ocean. However, an increasing body of data is not consistent with simple collision models. This paper reports new U-Pb age zircon and 40Ar/39Ar hornblende and biotite ages from magmatic and metamorphic rocks from the Northern Qinling Terrane. Based on this new dataset, we discuss the exhumation and cooling history of the Northern Qinling Terrane in order to advance the understanding of the tectonic processes that operated during convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan zone. The amphibolite-grade North Qinling metamorphic unit forms the centre of the Qinling orogenic belt. Results of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon, 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and biotite dating reveal the Palaeozoic tectonic history. U-Pb zircon dating of migmatitic orthogneiss and granite dykes constrains the age of two possible stages of migmatization at 517 ±14 Ma and 445.4 ± 4.6 Ma. Subsequently, intrusion by granites occurred at 417.2 ± 1.6 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of amphibole, ranging from 397.1 ± 8.6 Ma to 432.3± 3.4 Ma constrain the cooling of the Qinling complex below ca. 540°C and biotite 40Ar/39

  12. The arsenic contamination of rice in Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China: arsenic speciation and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Lu, Shaoyou; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuyi

    2015-04-01

    Rice is a staple food in China, but it may contain toxic heavy metals. Hence, the concentrations of arsenic (As) species (As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA) were evaluated in 260 rice samples from 13 cities of Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China. The levels of sum concentrations of As species in rice samples varied from non-detect to 225.58 ng g(-1), with an average value of 57.27 ng g(-1). The mean concentrations of the major As species detected in rice samples were in the order As(III) (34.77 ng g(-1)) > As(V) (9.34 ng g(-1)) > DMA (8.33 ng g(-1)) > MMA (4.82 ng g(-1)). The rice samples of Guangdong Province were categorized as inorganic As type. Significant geographical variation of As speciation existed in rice samples of 13 cities of Guangdong Province by chi-square test (p < 0.05). The average human weekly intakes of inorganic As via rice consumption in Guangdong Province, southern China, were 1.91 µg kg(-1) body weight. Hazard quotients of total As via rice consumption of adults in 13 cities ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, indicating the As contents in rice from Guangdong Province had no potential adverse impact on human health.

  13. Fertility Intention, Son Preference, and Second Childbirth: Survey Findings from Shaanxi Province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Ying; Sanchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-02-01

    China is characterized by a low fertility intention, a strong preference for sons, as well as a stringent birth control policy. In this study, we used data from a Fertility Intention and Behavior Survey of 2101 questionnaires conducted in 2013 in Shaanxi Province of northwestern China, and event history analysis methods to examine the effect of fertility intention and preference for sons on the probability of having a second child. The results not only validate the correlation of fertility intention with having a second child empirically, even in the low fertility intention and stringent birth control context of China, but also show that women with a preference for sons were less likely to have a second child. Women with son preference turn to sex-selective abortion to ensure that their first child is a son, thus reducing the likelihood of a second child and decreasing the fertility rate. Our findings also shed light on China's potential fertility policy adjustment.

  14. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  15. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  16. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  17. Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H.; Ge, L.; Song, L.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-07-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) is a worldwide fulminant infectious disease. Since the first HFRS cases in Hubei Province were reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of seriously affected areas in China. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS are still not entirely clear. Therefore, a systematic investigation of spatial and temporal distribution pattern of HFRS system is needed. In order to facilitate better prevention and control of HFRS in Hubei Province, in this paper, a GIS spatiotemporal analysis and modeling tool was developed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the HFRS epidemic, as well as providinga comprehensive examination the dynamic pattern of HFRS in Hubei over the past 30 years (1980-2009), to determine spatiotemporal change trends and the causes of HFRS. This paper describes the experiments and their results.

  18. Spatial analysis of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Hualiang; Xin, Benqiang; Nie, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P < .01). Some spatial clusters of dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect.

  19. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors. PMID:27882868

  2. Min Bei Irradiation Center Food and Agriculture Organization project experience Jianou, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bruce John; Dan, Xu; Jingzhang, Ren

    1993-07-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), a Unitede Nations Organization, in an effort to increase food supplies by post harvest irradiation treatment participated in the development of the Min Bei Irradiation Center(MBIC) Located in Fujian Province, China. FAO inconjunction with Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research and Design Institute(SNERDI), MBIC staff, and the Ministry of Agriculture completed Project TCP CPR 6763/8961 culminating in the recent comissioning of one of China's nesest irradiation facilities. From the feasibility phase initiated in 1986, through the construction period and the eventual commissioning in 1991 FAO participated in the technical overview of the irradiation center. MBIC was developed both as a research and development center as well as a production irradiation facility for the primary purposes of reduction of post harvest food loss in Fujian Province. This retrospective review of the project provides a hindsight view for the development of MBIC.

  3. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  4. The Epidemic Characteristics and Changing Trend of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Hui; Ge, Liang; Liu, Li; Huo, Xi-Xiang; Xiong, Hai-Rong; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Dong-Ying; Luo, Fan; Li, Jin-Lin; Ling, Jia-Xin; Chen, Wen; Liu, Jing; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Hong; Yang, Zhan-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by different hantaviruses within the Bunyaviridae family. HFRS is a fulminant, infectious disease that occurs worldwide and is endemic in all 31 provinces of China. Since the first HFRS case in Hubei Province was reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of the seriously affected areas in China with the greatest number of reported HFRS cases in the 1980's. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS in Hubei are still not entirely clear and long-term, systematic investigations of this epidemic area have been very limited. Methods The spatiotemporal distribution of HFRS was investigated using data spanning the years 1980 to 2009. The annual HFRS incidence, fatality rate and seasonal incidence between 1980 and 2009 were calculated and plotted. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of HFRS. A spatial statistical analysis, using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic, was performed to identify clustering of HFRS. Results A total of 104,467 HFRS cases were reported in Hubei Province between 1980 and 2009. Incidence of and mortality due to HFRS declined after the outbreak in 1980s and HFRS cases have been sporadic in recent years. The locations and scale of disease clusters have changed during the three decades. The seasonal epidemic pattern of HFRS was characterized by the shift from the unimodal type (autumn/winter peak) to the bimodal type. Conclusions Socioeconomic development has great influence on the transmission of hantaviruses to humans and new epidemic characteristics have emerged in Hubei Province. It is necessary to reinforce preventative measures against HFRS according to the newly-presented seasonal variation and to intensify these efforts especially in the urban areas of Hubei Province. PMID:24658382

  5. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  6. Assessment of iodine status and associated factors in vulnerable populations in Henan Province, China, in 2012.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Zheng, Heming; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Lin; Hao, Zongyu; Chen, Gan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Iodine content in table salt was adjusted from 30-50 mg/kg to 21-39 mg/kg from March of 2012 in Henan Province, China. The vulnerable population may be at risk of iodine deficiency. To determine whether the iodine intake was sufficient in vulnerable populations and to investigate what factors may be associated with iodine status in these vulnerable populations in Henan Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 cities in Henan Province, China, from April 2012 to December 2012 to assess the iodine status in vulnerable populations, including women of reproductive-age (n=2648), pregnant women (n=39684), lactating women (n=6859), infants <2 years of age (n=16481), and children aged 8-10 years (n=3198). Questionnaires (n=4865) related to demographic and dietary factors were collected from the investigated women to identify factors that were related to iodine intake and iodine status. The median urinary iodine concentrations (mUICs) were 205 μg/L, 198 μg/L, 167 μg/L, 205 μg/L and 200 μg/L, respectively, in reproductiveage, pregnant and lactating women, infants <2 years of age and children aged 8-10 years. Higher income, and consuming more poultry and fish in the diet had positive impact on UIC levels. Low salt intake, consuming more rice and vegetables in the diet were negative factors for UIC. Iodine status of the vulnerable populations was generally adequate in Henan Province, China, according to WHO criteria. But the mUICs were slightly above the adequate level in reproductive-age women and children aged 8-10 years. It's important to monitor the iodine status in vulnerable populations after the adjustment on iodine content in table salt.

  7. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  8. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province.

  9. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  10. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Li, Shen; Dong, Jian-Hua; Tian, Hui; Chowell, Gerardo; Tian, Huai-Yu; Lv, Wen; Han, Zong-Qi; Xu, Bing; Yu, Peng-Bo; Wang, Jing-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in China in 2009. In July 2013, the first human infection with SFTS virus (SFTSV) was detected in Shaanxi Province, Western China. A seroprevalence study among humans was carried out in an SFTS endemic village; specifically, serum samples were collected from 363 farmers in an SFTS endemic village in Shaanxi Province. The presence of SFTSV antibodies in serum was determined using an ELISA. SFTSV antibodies were found in a total of 20 people (5.51%), with no significant difference between males and females (6.93% and 4.42%, respectively; Chi-square=1.29, p=0.25). Moreover, the SFTSV antibody positive rate was not significantly different across different age groups (Chi-square=2.23, p=0.69). SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Gridded inventories of historical usage for selected organochlorine pesticides in Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiangyang; Tian, Chongguo; Yang, Xianming; Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2013-10-01

    HCHs and DDTs were banned in 1983 in China; however, they are still remaining in various environmental media. Since endosulfan was introduced in China in 1994, it is widely used in agriculture. In this study, temporal and spatial uses of endosulfan, HCHs, and DDTs in Gansu province of China have been presented. It is estimated that the total usage is 701 tons for endosulfan between 1994 and 2007, 1,712 tons for HCHs between 1952 and 1983, and 462 tons for DDTs between 1951 and 1983, respectively. Endosulfan usage increased dramatically in 1998 due to its application on other crops except on cotton. The HCH and DDT usage displayed a rapid increase after 1972, reaching the peak in 1976 and in 1975, respectively; since then, they declined until being banned in 1983. The gridded usage inventories of these three kinds of organochlorine pesticides in Gansu province, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6° latitude resolution, have been created by using different crops for endosulfan and the area of dry farmland for HCHs and DDTs as surrogate data. The most intensive use was in northwestern regions for endosulfan and southeastern regions for HCHs and DDTs in Gansu province.

  12. First evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in China: discovery of chytridiomycosis in introduced American bullfrogs and native amphibians in the Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Changming; Garner, Trenton W J; Li, Yiming

    2010-08-01

    Although the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the etiological agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in mass mortality and population declines on several continents around the world, there have been no reports on the presence of Bd infections in amphibians in China. We employed quantitative PCR and histological techniques to investigate the presence of Bd in introduced North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) (referred to hereafter as bullfrog) and native amphibians in bullfrog-invaded areas of the Yunnan Province, China. A total of 259 samples at five wild sites were collected between June and September in 2007 and 2008, including bullfrogs and four native amphibian species (Rana pleuraden, Rana chaochiaoensis, Odorrana andersonii, and Bombina maxima). In addition, 37 samples of adult bullfrogs were obtained from a food market. Bd infections were discovered in bullfrogs and three native amphibian species from all of the surveyed sites. Of the 39 Bd-positive samples, 35 were from wild-caught bullfrog tadpoles, postmetamorphic bullfrogs, R. pleuraden, R. chaochiaoensis, and O. andersonii, and four were from adult bullfrogs from the market. Our results provide the first evidence of the presence of Bd in Chinese amphibians, suggesting that native amphibian diversity in China is at risk from Bd. There is an urgent need to monitor the distribution of Bd in amphibians in China and understand the susceptibility of native amphibian species to chytridiomycosis. Strict regulations on the transportation of bullfrogs and the breeding of bullfrogs in markets and farms should be drafted in order to stop the spread of Bd by bullfrogs.

  13. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  14. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  15. Geographic distribution and epidemiology of lung cancer during 2011 in Zhejiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xia-Lu; Chen, Yan; Gong, Wei-Wei; Wu, Zhao-Fan; Zou, Bao-Bo; Zhao, Jin-Shun; Gu, Hua; Jiang, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    To explore etiology for providing scientific clues for the prevention of lung cancer. Data for lung cancer incidence and meteorological geographic factors from 25 counties in Zhejiang province of China during 2011 were studied. Stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis were performed to analyze the geographic distribution and epidemiology of lung cancer. 8,291 new cases (5,998 in males and 2,293 females) of lung cancer during 2011 in Zhejiang province were reported in the 25 studied counties. Reported and standardized incidence rates for lung cancer were 58.0 and 47.0 per 100,000 population, respectively. The incidence of lung cancer increased with age. Geographic distribution analysis shows that the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer in northeastern Zhejiang province were higher than in the southwestern part, such as in Nanhu, Fuyang, Wuxing and Yuyao counties, where the rates were more than 50 per 100,000 population. In the southwestern Zhejiang province, for instance, in Yueqing, Xianju and Jiande counties, the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer were lower than 37 per 100,000 population. Spearman correlation tests showed that forest coverage rate, air quality index (AQI), and annual precipitation level are associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Lung cancer in Zhejiang province shows obvious regional differences. High incidence appears associated with low forest coverage rate, poor air quality and low annual precipitation. Therefore, increasing the forest coverage rate and controlling air pollution may play an important role in lung cancer prevention.

  16. The impacts of the Indian summer rainfall on North China summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a connection between interannual variations of the Indian and North China summer rainfall. An atmospheric circulation wave pattern over the mid-latitude Asia plays an important role in the connection. The present study compares the influence of the above-normal and below-normal Indian summer rainfall on the North China summer rainfall variations. Composite analysis shows that the mid-latitude Asian atmospheric circulation and the North China rainfall anomalies during summer tend to be anti-symmetric in above-normal and below-normal Indian rainfall years. Analysis indicates that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relation tends to be stronger when larger Indian rainfall anomaly occurs during a higher mean rainfall period. The observed long-term change in the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship cannot be explained by the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present study evaluates the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship in climate models. Analysis shows that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship differs largely among different climate models and among different simulations of a specific model. The relationship also displays obvious temporal variations in both individual and ensemble mean model simulations. This suggests an important role of the atmospheric internal variability in the change of the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship.

  17. 77 FR 13171 - China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2012. It... accurate information concerning the securities of China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited (``NEP''),...

  18. Climatic and tectonic controls on Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentation in northeastern Guangdong Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Krapež, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    Stratigraphic analyses document climatic and tectonic controls on the filling of a Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic (T3-J2) basin that developed on top of a young orogenic belt in southeastern South China. About 2700 m of Carnian to Bajocian sedimentary rocks is documented in the Meizhou region, Guangdong Province. The Carnian to Rhaetian sequence is characterized by deltaic facies that are succeeded by Hettangian fluvial, shallow marine and volcaniclastic facies, and by Sinemurian to early Toarcian interdistributary bay and floodplain facies. The late Toarcian to Bajocian sequence comprises proximal alluvial to lacustrine facies that changed upwards to fluvial facies. Fossil assemblages indicate that climatic conditions changed from tropical/subtropical warm humid, to temperate humid, and then to hot arid through the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic. Climatically induced changes (e.g., in precipitation, vegetation and erosion) exerted a strong influence on sediment supply, whereas tectonics played a dominant role in stratigraphic evolution, accommodation generation, sedimentation pattern and volcanism. Tectonostratigraphic analysis shows that the T3-J2 basin was initiated on an orogenic belt during late-stage orogeny, and evolved into shallow-marine and volcanic environments and then back to terrestrial facies during the post-orogenic stage. This was followed by regional uplift and the development of a basin-and-range province. The order of these events is similar to that of the central Rocky Mountains, western North America during the Palaeogene. The Mesozoic basin of South China and the Eocene basins of the central Rocky Mountains highlight the importance of subduction-related subsidence above young and broad orogens.

  19. Spatiotemporal variations in rainfall erosivity during the period of 1960-2011 in Guangdong Province, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinghe; Liu, Qian; Ma, Lijiao; Ding, Shengyan; Xu, Shanshan; Wu, Changsong; Liu, Pu

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall erosivity, which shows a potential risk of soil loss caused by water erosion, is an important factor in soil erosion process. In consideration of the critical condition of soil erosion induced by rainfall in Guangdong Province of southern China, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall erosivity based on daily rainfall data observed at 25 meteorological stations during the period of 1960-2011. The methods of global spatial autocorrelation, kriging interpolation, Mann-Kendall test, and continuous wavelet transform were used. Results revealed that the annual rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province, which spatially varied with the maximum level observed in June, was classified as high erosivity with two peaks that occur in spring and summer. In the direction of south-north, mean annual rainfall erosivity, which showed significant relationships with mean annual rainfall and latitude, gradually decreased with the high values mainly distributed in the coastal area and the low values mainly occurring in the lowlands of northwestern Guangdong. Meanwhile, a significant positive spatial autocorrelation which implied a clustered pattern was observed for annual rainfall erosivity. The spatial distribution of seasonal rainfall erosivity exhibited clustering tendencies, except spring erosivity with Moran's I and Z values of 0.1 and 1.04, respectively. The spatial distribution of monthly rainfall erosivity presented clustered patterns in January-March and July-October as well as random patterns in the remaining months. The temporal trend of mean rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province showed no statistically significant trend at the annual, seasonal, and monthly scales. However, at each station, 1 out of 25 stations exhibited a statistically significant trend at the annual scale; 4 stations located around the Pearl River Delta presented significant trends in summer at the seasonal scale; significant trends were observed in March (increasing

  20. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-05-10

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses. The HA gene of the isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1412 /2014(H5N1) virus belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1b. The isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1508/2015 (H5N1) virus was a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) virus with three internal genes (PB2, PB1 and M) from H9N2 virus and belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1c.

  1. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) viruses with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses. The HA gene of the isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1412 /2014(H5N1) virus belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1b. The isolated A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1508/2015 (H5N1) virus was a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N1) virus with three internal genes (PB2, PB1 and M) from H9N2 virus and belongs to the subclade 2.3.2.1c. PMID:27162026

  2. A geochronological study of mafic and acidic lavas from Veneto Volcanic province (North-East Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, Valentina; Webb, Laura; Bonadiman, Costanza; Marzoli, Andrea; Coltorti, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the North-East of Italy represents one of the most important magmatic province of the Adria Plate. VVP magmatism occurred in a period ranging from late Paleocene to late Oligocene (De Vecchi et al., 1976). Five main volcanic districts can be defined from north-west to south-east: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Lessini Hills, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas, ranging in compostion from mela-nephelinites to quartz-normative tholeiites (Beccaluva et al., 2007). By contrast in the Euganean Hills volcanic and subvolcanic rocks range from subordinate basalts to prevalently acidic types, mostly quartz-trachytes and rhyolites (Milani et al., 1999). Despite of the deep petrological knowledge about this province, the radioisotopic ages of the related volcanic activities for each district are still poorly defined or even totally missing. 40Ar/39Ar ages on 9 samples have been obtained to determine the age range for the VVP. 40Ar/39Ar whole rock step heating analyses yielded ages ranging from 40.7 ± 0.2 Ma to 23.3 ± 1.5 Ma for basanites of Val d'Adige and Marosticano area, respectively. For the Lessinean district, 40Ar/39Ar whole rock analyses for two basanites, one trachybasalt and one alkali basalt close to 40 Ma, while a tholeiite from the same area yielded the youngest age for this district (i.e. 32.9 ± 1.8 Ma). This young age is comparable to 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained for the Euganean Hills intermediate-acidic rocks (Jourdan, pers. comm., 2016), suggesting a time-related shift from more alkaline to Si-saturated magmatism in the whole province. References Barbieri G., Medizza F. (1969). Contributo alla conoscenza geologica della regione di Bolca (Monti Lessini). Memorie dell'Istituto di Geologia e Mineralogia dell'Università di Padova, 27, 1-36. Beccaluva L., Bianchini G., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Milani L., Salvini L., Siena F., Tassinari R. (2007). Intraplate

  3. Disease and mortality in small ruminants in the North West Province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndamukong, K J; Sewell, M M; Asanji, M F

    1989-08-01

    Mortality rates and the prevalence of disease were assessed in 115 flocks of traditionally managed sheep and goats in two Divisions of the North West Province of Cameroon by means of a questionnaire to the owners. The mortality rate was significantly higher in sheep than in goats and also higher in young stock than in adults. Tethering the animals during the day resulted in significantly lower mortality in both adult and young sheep and also in kids. Disease problems of small ruminants, identified on the basis of signs reported by their owners, included intestinal parasitism, especially helminthiasis, tick infestation and associated diseases, pneumonia, goat plague (peste des petits ruminants) and Oestrus ovis infestation. Treatment of sick animals was only practised on a very small scale, often by possibly ineffective traditional methods. The owners identified tick infestation and diarrhoea as common causes of death. Recommendations are made on control measures suitable for application in this area.

  4. Molecular characterisation of clinical Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si-Ying; Lei, Yao; Kang, Mei; Xiao, Yu-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Xing

    2015-05-01

    Previous reports on the molecular characteristics of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus species in China have focused on isolates from southeast China. To obtain a more detailed molecular epidemiology, a total of 92 cryptococcal isolates were collected from Sichuan province. A total of 24 isolates from 12 other provinces were collected for comparative study. Genotypes and mating types of 116 Cryptococcus isolates were determined. Among the 116 isolates, 43 isolates (19 isolates from Sichuan and 24 isolates outside of Sichuan) were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). All 116 clinical isolates were mating type α. Most isolates (114/116) were molecular type VNI and the remaining two isolates were VGI and VGII respectively. MLST results revealed five sequence types (STs) of C. neoformans including two novel STs, with most isolates identified as ST5. The two C. gattii isolates identified in our study were ST44 and ST159. Based on our report and previous studies, there are 15 C. neoformans STs in China which can be divided into three subgroups. The C. gattii isolate from Sichuan could be a scattered subtype of VGII (ST44). Our findings demonstrated that C. neoformans isolates in Sichuan are genetically homogeneous, and ST5 is the epidemic clone of C. neoformans in China.

  5. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  6. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province. PMID:28098799

  7. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  8. Work-Related Well-Being of Educators in a District of the North-West Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the relationship between burnout, health, job demands and job resources in a sample of educators. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 266) were taken of educators in an area of the North-West Province. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Health…

  9. An Evaluation of the Viles Tok Ples Skul Scheme in the North Solomons Province. ERU Report No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpit, Lisa D.; Kemelfield, Graeme

    The local-language-medium schools of North Solomons Province are described and evaluated. The Viles Tok Ples Skuls (VTPS) provide education in both the indigenous languages (tok ples) and English as a means of integrating the past with modern development, as is preferred by the local people. The report contains seven chapters. The first gives the…

  10. Occupational Stress and Strain of Support Staff at a Higher Education Institution in the North West Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahomed, F. E.; Naude, J. L. P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stressors and strains for support staff at a higher education institution in the North West Province, and to assess the differences between the stressors and strains of different biographical groups. A cross-sectional survey design (N = 315) was used. The ASSET and a biographical…

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  12. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronal R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.65 billion barrels of oil, 1.85 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota.

  13. [Survey of infections of intestinal parasites and related factors in north-west Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Miao, Feng; Kong, Xiang-Li; Wang, Yong-Bin; Bu, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Ben-Guang; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xi-Xin

    2014-10-01

    To understand the infection status of intestinal parasites and related knowledge and behavior factors of the residents in north-west Shandong Province, so as to provide the evidence for taking targeted preventive measures. Eighteen villages were randomly selected as survey spots by the stratified multi-stage sample method. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect intestinal parasite eggs among the residents and the cellophane tape anus test was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among 3-12 years old children. Questionnaires were applied to investigate related knowledge and behavior factors about the intestinal parasite infections in the residents. Totally 6 366 residents were detected for intestinal parasites and the infection rate was 0.28% (18 cases). Totally 895 children were detected for E. vermicularis and the infection rate was 5.70% (51 cases). Totally 2 915 residents were investigated by questionnaires and the awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 26.72%. The formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC, washing fruit and vegetable before eating, never drinking unboiled water were 55.42%, 42.87%, 43.54% and 83.04% respectively. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases of 3-12 years old children was 12.24%; and the formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC were 47.04% and 30.44% respectively. The total infection rate of intestinal parasites is low but the E. vermicularis infection rate is high among children in north-west Shandong Province. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases and the formation rates of healthy behaviors are all low. Therefore, the targeted health education should be taken to increase the awareness rate and guide the residents to develop their healthy behaviors.

  14. The Beiminghe skarn iron deposit, eastern China: Geochronology, isotope geochemistry and implications for the destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Feng; Santosh, M.; Li, Sheng-Rong; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Yin, Na; Dong, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Juan; Ma, Guang-Gang; Yu, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The Beiminghe (BMH) iron ore in the southern part of the Taihang Mountain (TM), Hebei province, is one of the largest skarn iron deposits in China. Here we report phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar and zircon U-Pb age data, as well as sulfur, lead, and He-Ar isotope geochemistry of pyrite from the ores and skarnitized rocks in the deposit in an attempt to constrain the timing and mechanism of formation of the mineralization. The phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data show markedly consistent ages constraining the timing of ore formation as 136-137 Ma. The presence of several inherited zircons with late Archean or Paleoproterozoic ages indicates the participation of the basement rocks during the ore-forming process. The δ34S values of pyrite from the ores range from 12.2 to 16.5‰, with 206Pb/204Pb = 17.84-18.79, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.46-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.93-39.75, suggesting that continental crust is the major contributor. This is further confirmed by the He-Ar isotope data (3He/4He = 0.0648-0.1886 Ra, mean 0.1237Ra; 40Ar/36Ar = 311.7-22909.4; and 40Ar*/4He = 0.036-0.421). The Mesozoic magmatism and metallogeny in the BMH correlate well with the peak event of lithospheric thinning and destruction of the North China Craton during this process, the early Precambrian lower crustal rocks in the region were re-melted through underplating of mantle magmas, leading to the formation of the Beiminghe monzodioritic pluton. Minor mantle input occurred during the evolution of the monzodiorite magma, which scavenged the ore-forming materials from the lower crust. Interaction of the magmas and fluids with the surrounding rocks resulted in the formation of the Beiminghe skarn iron deposits. The magmatism and metallogeny in the Taihang Mountain are signatures of the extensive craton destruction and lithospheric thinning in the eastern part of the North China Craton during Mesozoic, probably associated with Pacific slab subduction.

  15. Hierarchical, quantitative biogeographic provinces for all North American turtles and their contribution to the biogeography of turtles and the continent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Hoagstrom, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Our study represents the first attempt to describe biogeographic provinces for North American (México, United States, and Canada) turtles. We analyzed three nested data sets separately: (1) all turtles, (2) freshwater turtles, and (3) aquatic turtles. We georeferenced North American turtle distributions, then we created presence–absence matrices for each of the three data sets. We used watershed unit as biogeographic units. We conducted an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis on each Jaccard index distance matrix from our watershed species matrices to delineate biogeographic provinces. Provinces were then tested for significant differences in species compositions in a global model with the use of a one-way analysis of similarity. We conducted a best subset of environmental variables with maximum (rank) correlation with community dissimilarities that determined the best model of abiotic variables explaining province delineation (i.e., climate, topography, and stream channel). To identify which species contributed the most to province delineations, we conducted an indicator species analysis and a similarity-percentage analysis. There were 16 all-turtle provinces, 15 freshwater provinces, and 13 aquatic provinces. Species compositions delineating the provinces were explained by abiotic variables, including mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation seasonality, and diversity of streams. Province delineations correspond closely with geographical boundaries, many of which have Pleistocene origins. For example, rivers with a history of carrying glacial runoff (e.g., Arkansas, Mississippi) sometimes dissect upland provinces, especially for aquatic and semiaquatic turtles. Compared with freshwater fishes, turtles show greater sensitivity to decreased temperature with restriction of most taxa south of the last permafrost maximum. Turtles also exhibit higher sensitivity to climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic instability, with richness

  16. The spatial distribution of health vulnerability to heat waves in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Luo, Yuan; Zeng, Weilin; Zeng, Siqing; Wei, Yao; Chu, Cordia; Baum, Scott; Du, Yaodong; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    International literature has illustrated that the health impacts of heat waves vary according to differences in the spatial variability of high temperatures and the social and economic characteristics of populations and communities. However, to date there have been few studies that quantitatively assess the health vulnerability to heat waves in China. To assess the spatial distribution of health vulnerability to heat waves in Guangdong Province, China. A vulnerability framework including dimensions of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was employed. The last two dimensions were called social vulnerability. An indicator pool was proposed with reference to relevant literatures, local context provided by relevant local stakeholder experts, and data availability. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a principal component analysis were used to determine the weight of indicators. A multiplicative vulnerability index (VI) was constructed for each district/county of Guangdong province, China. A total of 13 items (two for exposure, six for sensitivity, and five for adaptive capacity) were proposed to assess vulnerability. The results of an AHP revealed that the average VI in Guangdong Province was 0.26 with the highest in the Lianzhou and Liannan counties of Qingyuan (VI=0.50) and the lowest in the Yantian district of Shenzhen (VI=0.08). Vulnerability was gradiently distributed with higher levels in northern inland regions and lower levels in southern coastal regions. In the principal component analysis, three components were isolated from the 11 social vulnerability indicators. The estimated vulnerability had a similar distribution pattern with that estimated by AHP (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.98, p<0.01). Health vulnerability to heat waves in Guangdong Province had a distinct spatial distribution, with higher levels in northern inland regions than that in the southern coastal regions.

  17. The spatial distribution of health vulnerability to heat waves in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Luo, Yuan; Zeng, Weilin; Zeng, Siqing; Wei, Yao; Chu, Cordia; Baum, Scott; Du, Yaodong; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-12-01

    Background International literature has illustrated that the health impacts of heat waves vary according to differences in the spatial variability of high temperatures and the social and economic characteristics of populations and communities. However, to date there have been few studies that quantitatively assess the health vulnerability to heat waves in China. Objectives To assess the spatial distribution of health vulnerability to heat waves in Guangdong Province, China. Methods A vulnerability framework including dimensions of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was employed. The last two dimensions were called social vulnerability. An indicator pool was proposed with reference to relevant literatures, local context provided by relevant local stakeholder experts, and data availability. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a principal component analysis were used to determine the weight of indicators. A multiplicative vulnerability index (VI) was constructed for each district/county of Guangdong province, China. Results A total of 13 items (two for exposure, six for sensitivity, and five for adaptive capacity) were proposed to assess vulnerability. The results of an AHP revealed that the average VI in Guangdong Province was 0.26 with the highest in the Lianzhou and Liannan counties of Qingyuan (VI=0.50) and the lowest in the Yantian district of Shenzhen (VI=0.08). Vulnerability was gradiently distributed with higher levels in northern inland regions and lower levels in southern coastal regions. In the principal component analysis, three components were isolated from the 11 social vulnerability indicators. The estimated vulnerability had a similar distribution pattern with that estimated by AHP (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.98, p<0.01). Conclusions Health vulnerability to heat waves in Guangdong Province had a distinct spatial distribution, with higher levels in northern inland regions than that in the southern coastal regions.

  18. Critical Care Resources in Guangdong Province of China: Three Surveys from 2005 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Feng; Pei, Fei; Ouyang, Bin; Chen, Juan; Li, Yi-Min; Feng, Yong-Wen; Guo, Fa-Liang; Zhou, Li-Xin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Ying-Jun; Lin, Qin-Han; Li, Zhan-Peng; Ling, Yun; Li, Li; Deng, Lie-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Ping; Dai, Jian-Wei; Luo, Shu-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Rong; Luo, Wei-Wen; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Wei-Ying; Wang, Wei-Chuan; Cai, Wen-Yang; Luo, Qiong-Xiang; Guan, Xiang-Dong

    2017-09-08

    Data about the critical care resources in China remain scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation and distribution of critical care resources in Guangdong province from 2005 to 2015. Data in regard to critical care resources were collected through questionnaires and visits every 5 years from 2005. All hospitals in Guangdong province were screened and hospitals that provide critical care services were enrolled. None. One hundred eleven, 158, and 284 hospitals that provide critical care services were enrolled in the three consecutive surveys respectively. The number of ICUs, ICU beds, intensivists, and nurses increased to 324, 3,956, 2,470, and 7,695, respectively, by 2015. Adjusted by population, the number of ICU beds per 100,000 (100,000) population increased by 147.7% from 2005 to 2015, and the number of intensivists and nurses per 100,000 population increased by 35.3% and 55.1% from 2011 to 2015. However, the numbers in the Pearl River Delta, a richer area, were higher than those in the non-Pearl River Delta area (ICU beds: 4.64 vs 2.58; intensivists: 2.90 vs 1.61; nurses: 9.30 vs 4.71 in 2015). In terms of staff training, only 17.85% of intensivists and 14.29% of nurses have completed a formal accredited critical care training program by 2015. Our study was the first one to investigate the trend and distribution of critical care resources in China. The quantity of ICU beds and staff has been increasing rapidly, but professional training for staff was inadequate. The distribution of critical care resources was unbalanced. Our study can be beneficial for healthcare policymaking and the allocation of critical care resources in Guangdong province and other provinces in China.

  19. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax population before elimination of malaria in Hainan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Guang-Ze; Meng, Feng; Zeng, Wen; He, Chang-hua; Hu, Xi-Min; Wang, Shan-Qing

    2015-02-14

    Hainan Province is one of the most severe endemic regions with high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in China. However, the incidence of P. falciparum and P. vivax has dropped dramatically since 2007 and a national elimination malaria programme (NEMP) was launched after 2010. To better understand the genetic information on P. vivax population before elimination of malaria in Hainan Province, the extent of genetic diversity of P. vivax isolates in Hainan Province was investigated using four polymorphic genetic markers, including P. vivax merozoite surface proteins 1, 3α, and 3β (pvmsp-1, pvmsp-3α, and pvmsp-3β) and circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp). Isolates of P. vivax (n = 27) from Hainan Province were collected from 2009 to 2010 and pvmsp-1 and pvcsp were analysed by DNA sequencing, respectively. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism were analysed in pvmsp-3α, and pvmsp-3β. The DNA sequencing analysis on pvmsp1 revealed that there were three allele types: Salvador-1 (Sal-1), Belem and recombinant (R) types. Among them, Sal-1 type was a dominant strain with eight variant subtypes (88.9%), whereas R- (3.7%) and Belem-type strains (7.4%) had one variant subtypes, respectively. All the isolates carried pvcsp with VK210 type accounting for 85.2% (23/27 isolates) and VK247 type accounting for 14.8% (4/27). Only type A and type B alleles were successfully amplified in pvmsp-3α gene, and a high level of polymorphism was observed in pvmsp-3α. Considering pvmsp-3β gene, type A was the predominant type in 17 isolates (63%), whereas type B was dominant in only ten isolates (37%). The present data indicate that there was high degree of genetic diversity among P. vivax population in Hainan Province of China during the pre-elimination stage of malaria, with 26 unique haplotypes observed among 27 samples.

  20. Human Cases of Fascioliasis in Fujian Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lin; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica. The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole. PMID:28285507

  1. Matching supply and demand for blood in Guizhou province, China: an unresolved challenge.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Problems with blood supply in China in the 1990s stimulated measures to achieve 100% voluntary donation but supply remains inadequate to meet demand. Review of official policies, supplemented with observation of practice and interviews with key informants (potential and actual donors and health workers) in Guizhou province in Southern China. Interviewees perceived the transfusion system as a mutual social contract. However, some individuals were unwilling to donate because of concerns about health risks, the idea of transferring blood between people, wastage or profits being made from blood. Inappropriate incentives, including cash, were used to encourage donation. Recent reforms have increased confidence in donation and transfusion safety although concerns persist about misuse. There is a need to reduce unnecessary use of blood and its products. China still relies heavily on blood supplies obtained through quota, purchase or use of incentives. There is scope to expand voluntary donation further. However, as a priority it will be necessary to reduce overuse.

  2. The pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province and the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre; Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2016-04-01

    Magmatism of the first known rifting phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle is surprisingly well preserved in the Caledonian nappes of central Scandinavia. The Särv and Seve Nappes are characterised by spectacular dyke complexes originally emplaced into continental sediments along the rifted margin of Iapetus. The intensity and structure of the pre-Caledonian Dyke Complex is comparable to that of the present passive margins of the North Atlantic large igneous province (NALIP) and U-Pb ages of 610-590 Ma suggest magmatism was short-lived. It can be described as a pre-Caledonian large igneous province (CLIP). To constrain the origin of CLIP magmatism we: (1) re-visited the dyke complexes of the Sarek, Kebnekaise and Tornetrask mountains of North Sweden; (2) compiled new and published geochemical data for the more than 950 km long, magma-rich segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides; and (3) extended reconstructions of the paleo-position of Baltica back to 600 Ma. Although the appearance of the dykes ranges from garnet amphibolite gneiss to pristine magmatic intrusions, all bulk rock compositions largely reflect the original magmatic rock. The compiled dataset includes 584 analyses that essentially forms a coherent suite of tholeiitic ferrobasalt (2-12 wt% MgO, 45-54 wt% SiO2; 6-16 wt% FeOtot; 0.7-4.0 wt% TiO2) akin to LIP basalts such as those of NALIP (61-54 Ma). A few samples (<20) are significantly contaminated with crust, but most are largely uncontaminated. The delta Nb value is a proxy for geochemical enrichment based on Nb-Zr-Y systematics and was defined for the present-day North Atlantic system to distinguish enriched Iceland basalts (positive delta Nb) from normal MORB basalts (negative delta Nb). The CLIP dykes are dominantly enriched with positive delta Nb (-0.07 to +0.9) in the central and southern portion, but stretching to more negative values (-0.6 to +0.5) in the northern portion (Sarek, Kebnekaise, Tornetrask). The few available rare earth element

  3. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-09-19

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Seroprevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, dogs and cats from Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Nian; Nie, XinWen; Peng, Qun-Yi; Mu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Meng-Yuan; Min, Shao-ju

    2015-04-10

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, domesticated and wild animals. Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity with the dominance of the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9 named as "Chinese 1". However, there is not much published information regarding its prevalence in domestic animals from Guizhou province, a subtropical region in Southwest China. The objectives of this study were to determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T .gondii in pigs, dogs and cats in Guizhou province, Southwest China. The anti-T. gondii IgG were detected in 70.0%(49/70) pigs, 20.56%(22/107) dogs and 63.16(12/19) cats. The anti-T. gondii IgM were found in 0.93%(1/107) dogs, 21.53%(4/19) cats, but not in pigs. In addition, the toxoplasma circulating antigen (CAG) were detected in 16.9%18/70)pigs, 13.1% (14/107) dogs and 10.5%(2/19) cats. The T. gondii DNA were detected in 31.5%(22/70) pigs, 3.7%(4/107) dogs and 52.63%(10/19) cats. Five T. gondii isolates were obtained(3 from pigs and 2 from cats). The genotype of these five isolates belonged to the predominant genotype "Chinese 1". The high prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs,cats and dogs indicated that the T. gondii infection is common in Guizhou province. Additionally, the T. gondii genotype "Chinese 1" was dominant in Southwest China.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen infecting humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The most common sources of human infection are ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Methods Serum samples were collected from 711 and 738 slaughtered horses and donkeys, respectively, in 13 regions of Liaoning province. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to test the specific antibodies to T. gondii. Results In this study, 178 of 711 (25.0%) horses were seropositive for T. gondii with titers of 1:25 in 81, 1:50 in 62, 1:100 in 33, and 1:200 in 2, and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection from 13 regions ranged from 8.2% to 37.0%. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 of 738 (23.6%) donkeys with titers of 1:25 in 66, 1:50 in 54, 1:100 in 49, and 1:200 in 5, and seroprevalence varied in 13 different regions, ranging from 9.1% to 32.6%. Conclusions The results of the present study indicated that the rate of infection with T. gondii in horses and donkeys is a little high in Liaoning province, northeastern China in comparison to other surveys in China, which suggests that consumption of horse and donkey meat in this area may represent a potential source for human infection with T. gondii. PMID:23680297

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Mu, Ming-Yang; Yuan, Gao-Ming; Zhang, Guo-xin; Li, Hong-Kui; He, Jian-Bin

    2013-05-16

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen infecting humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The most common sources of human infection are ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in horses and donkeys in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Serum samples were collected from 711 and 738 slaughtered horses and donkeys, respectively, in 13 regions of Liaoning province. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to test the specific antibodies to T. gondii. In this study, 178 of 711 (25.0%) horses were seropositive for T. gondii with titers of 1:25 in 81, 1:50 in 62, 1:100 in 33, and 1:200 in 2, and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection from 13 regions ranged from 8.2% to 37.0%. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 of 738 (23.6%) donkeys with titers of 1:25 in 66, 1:50 in 54, 1:100 in 49, and 1:200 in 5, and seroprevalence varied in 13 different regions, ranging from 9.1% to 32.6%. The results of the present study indicated that the rate of infection with T. gondii in horses and donkeys is a little high in Liaoning province, northeastern China in comparison to other surveys in China, which suggests that consumption of horse and donkey meat in this area may represent a potential source for human infection with T. gondii.

  7. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax population in Anhui province of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the numbers of malaria cases in China have been declining in recent years, outbreaks of Plasmodium vivax malaria were still being reported in rural areas south of the Yellow River. To better understand the transmission dynamics of P. vivax parasites in China, the extent of genetic diversity of P. vivax populations circulating in Bozhou of Anhui province of China were investigated using three polymorphic genetic markers: merozoite surface proteins 1 and 3α (pvmsp-1 and pvmsp-3α) and circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp). Methods Forty-five P. vivax clinical isolates from Bouzhou of Anhui province were collected from 2009 to 2010 and were analysed using PCR/RFLP or DNA sequencing. Results Seven and six distinct allelic variants were identified using PCR/RFLP analysis of pvmsp-3α with HhaI and AluI, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of pvmsp-1 (variable block 5) revealed that there were Sal-I and recombinant types but not Belem type, and seven distinct allelic variants in pvmsp-1 were detected, with recombinant subtype 2 (R2) being predominant (66.7%). All the isolates carried pvcsp with VK210 type but not VK247 or P. vivax-like types in the samples. Sequence analysis of pvcsp gene revealed 12 distinct allelic variants, with VK210-1 being predominant (41.5%). Conclusions The present data indicate that there is some degree of genetic diversity among P. vivax populations in Anhui province of China. The genetic data obtained may assist in the surveillance of P. vivax infection in endemic areas or in tracking potential future disease outbreak. PMID:24401153

  8. [Characteristics of agricultural climate resources in three provinces of northeast China under global climate change].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-juan; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng; Li, Ke-nan; Zhang, Xiao-yu

    2009-09-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 weather data from 72 meteorological stations in three provinces of Northeast China, the change characteristics of agricultural climatic factors including yearly and temperature-defined growing season's mean air temperature, > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and sunshine hours were analyzed. In 1961-2007, the yearly mean air temperature in the three provinces had an increasing trend, with a rate of 0.38 degrees C x 10 a(-1). The > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature in temperature-defined growing season also had an increasing trend, and the border of > or =10 degrees C accumulated temperature belt moved northward and eastward. The area of > or =3200 degrees C x d accumulated temperature increased by 2.2 x 10(4) km2. The belt of 2800-3200 degrees C x d moved northward about 0.85 degrees and eastward about 0.67 degrees, while that of 2400-2800 degrees C x d moved northward about 1.1 degrees. The sunshine hours decreased significantly, especially in the east part of Songnen Plain, central and west plains of Jilin Province, and west part of Liaohe River Plain. The area with sunshine hours > 2800 h decreased from 13.6 x 10(4) km2 to 4. 1 x 10(4) km2, and the zone with sunshine hours 2600-2800 h moved westward about 1.5 degrees. The average sunshine hour in temperature-defined growing season was 1174 h. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the region with more sunshine hours in temperature-defined growing season in 1981-2007 narrowed significantly, and the zone with sunshine hours 1200-1400 h moved westward about 0.9 degrees. In 1961-2007, both the yearly and the temperature-defined growing season's precipitation decreased, and the yearly reference evapotranspiration increased in Heilongjiang Province and in the eastern mountain areas of Jilin Province but decreased in the central and west plains of Jilin Province and in Liaoning Province. Comparing with that in 1961-1980, the zone of

  9. Epidemiology of the avian influenza A (H7N9) outbreak in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A novel influenza A virus infection was identified on March 31, 2013 in China and a total of 134 cases were identified in 12 provinces of China between March 25 and September 31, 2013. Of these, 46 cases occurred in Zhejiang Province and the number of patients is the largest in China. Methods Field investigations were conducted for each confirmed H7N9 case. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about demographics, exposure history, clinical signs and symptoms, timelines of medical visits and care after onset of illness, and close contacts. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Samples from the patients were collected and tested by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and viral culture. Results A total of 46 laboratory confirmed cases of H7N9 influenza infection were identified in the Zhejiang province between March 31 and September 31, 2013 of which 29 were male and 17 were female. The median age of patients was 61.5 years and 76.09% of cases occurred in persons aged ≥50 years old. Unlike other province, 34.78% of cases in Zhejiang Province were rural residents. Among 11 deaths, 9 were male, 10 were older than 60 years old, and 10 had underlying diseases. 30 of 38 cases with available data had a recent history of poultry exposures and 8 cases had multi-exposure history. The estimated median incubation period was two days which was shorter than corresponding data in other provinces. All cases were hospitalized and the median time from illness onset to hospitalization was 5 days. Symptoms at the onset of the illness included fever, cough, expectoration, shivering, fatigue, muscular aches, nausea, vomiting. Only 4.91% contacts developed respiratory symptoms, but their samples were tested negative for H7N9 virus designating lack of human-to-human transmission of the virus. Conclusions All cases were sporadic and there was no evidence of an epidemiologic

  10. Genetic diversity and drug sensitivity studies on Eimeria tenella field isolates from Hubei Province of China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Li, Yalin; Yang, Xin; Ke, Qiyun; Lei, Weiqiang; Mughal, Mudassar Niaz; Fang, Rui; Zhou, Yanqin; Shen, Bang; Zhao, Junlong

    2017-03-09

    Avian coccidiosis is an intracellular intestinal parasitic disease, caused by intracellular intestinal parasites from the genus Eimeria, among which Eimeria tenella is one of the most pathogenic species and causes great economic losses. Frequent applications of anticoccidial drugs have resulted in the development of drug-resistance in E. tenella. In the present study, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of E. tenella isolates prevalent in chicken farms in Hubei Province of China and examine their sensitivity to three anticoccidial drugs. The results provide useful information for the prevention and control of coccidiosis in this region. Eimeria tenella oocysts were isolated from faecal samples collected from different commercial broiler production farms in Hubei Province, China. After oocyst sporulation and animal inoculation for expansion of the field isolates, DNA and RNA were extracted from excysted sporozoites for molecular characterization. Species identification of field isolates were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used for population genetic analysis. Subsequently, sequences of the major sporozoite surface antigen (SAG), micronemal protein 2 (MIC-2) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes from genomic DNA, and the Eimeria tenella cation-transport ATPase (EtCat ATPase) gene from cDNA were obtained for genotyping using multi-sequence alignments. Finally, sensitivity of the field isolates to three commonly used anticoccidial drugs (diclazuril, decoquinate and maduramycin) were tested to assess the prevalence of drug resistance in E. tenella in Hubei Province of China. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences indicated that all the isolates were E. tenella. RAPD analysis and multi-sequence alignments of the SAG, MIC-2, EtCat ATPase and cytb showed genetic diversity among these isolates. Finally, drug sensitivity tests demonstrated

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p < 0.001) and indigenous cases (relative risk = 153.56, p < 0.001) occurred in the Pearl River Delta Area; while a secondary cluster of indigenous cases occurred in one district of the Chao Shan Area (relative risk = 471.25, p < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high

  12. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjie; Yin, Wenwu; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Yansha; Zhang, Yonghui; Wang, Jinfeng; Hu, Wenbiao; Yang, Weizhong

    2012-06-12

    Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p < 0.001) and indigenous cases (relative risk = 153.56, p < 0.001) occurred in the Pearl River Delta Area; while a secondary cluster of indigenous cases occurred in one district of the Chao Shan Area (relative risk = 471.25, p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  13. Isolation, characterization, and phylogenic analysis of three new severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus strains derived from Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Shen, Shu; Shi, Junming; Su, Zhengyuan; Li, Mingyue; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Mengmeng; Hu, Zhihong; Peng, Cheng; Zheng, Xin; Deng, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Hubei Province is a major epidemic area of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) in China. However, to date, a few SFTSV strains have been isolated from Hubei Province, preventing effective studies of epidemic outbreaks. Here, we report three confirmed patients (2015-2016) with typical symptoms of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome disease (SFTS) who were farmers resident in different regions in Hubei Province. Three new SFTSV strains were isolated from the serum samples of each patient. Characterization of viral growth properties showed that there were no significant differences in virus production. All strains were completely sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis showed that unlike the other strains from Hubei province, which belonged to the SFTSV C3 genotype, one of the three strains belonged to the SFTSV C2 genotype. These results suggested that multiple SFTSV genotypes have been circulating in Hubei Province, providing insights into SFTSV evolution and improving our understanding of SFTSV prevalence in Hubei Province.

  14. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  15. Diagnosis, treatment and outcome of glutaric aciduria type I in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Yin, Huaiming; Yang, Rongwang; Huang, Xinwen

    2011-07-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I (GA I; MIM 231670) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. This article reports our experience in the diagnosis, treatment and outcome of GA I patients in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 129,415 newborns (accounting for approximately one-tenth of the annual births in Zhejiang Province) and 9640 high-risk infants were screened for inborn errors of metabolism in the Neonatal Screening Center of Zhejiang Province during a 3-year period. Tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for diagnosis of the patients. Dietary modification, carnitine supplementation and aggressive treatment of intercurrent illnesses were adapted for GA I patients. Three infants were diagnosed with GA I by high-risk screening (detection rate: 1/3,213) and 2 were diagnosed by newborn screening (incidence: 1/64,708). Four patients (3 by high-risk screening and 1 by neonatal screening) undergoing MRI examination showed remarkable changes on T2-weighted image. Four patients accepted timely treatment, and in the patient diagnosed by neonatal screening, treatment was delayed until hypotonia appeared 3 months later. Neuropsychological assessment showed mental and motor retardation in 3 patients after treatment, including the patient diagnosed by neonatal screening. Individualized timely treatment and close monitoring of GA I patients needs to be optimized in China. Appropriate communication with parents may help to achieve successful management of GA I patients.

  16. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Slaughter Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Ya-Lin; Yang, Zhao; Li, Xi-Lai; Li, Zong-Ren; Lin, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important food-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite, which can infect endothermic animals, including pigs. However, data on T. gondii in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province were still lacking. To detect the seroprevalence and analyze the risk factors of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China, a total of 784 serum samples were collected from four administrative regions and detected by indirect hemagglutination test for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.9% (156/784) slaughter pigs. Moreover, the seropositive rate was different among rearing systems (31% in nonintensive pig farms and 6.7% in intensive pig farms), genders (19.8% in male and 20.0% in female), and regions (ranging from 6.7% in Shenmu to 38.2% in Zhouzhi). Rearing system and region were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results showed that T. gondii is highly prevalent in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, and it could cause a serious risk to public health. This study provided fundamental information for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in China.

  17. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  18. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dysentery in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Wang, Guoyong; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on dysentery transmission, the relationship between monthly dysentery cases in Shandong Province of China and the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a broad index of ENSO, was examined over the period 1991-2003. Spearman correlations and generalized linear models were calculated to detect the association between the SOI and dysentery cases. Data from 1991 to 2001 were used to estimate the parameters, while data from 2002 to 2003 were used to test the forecasting ability of the model. After controlling for seasonality, autocorrelation, and a time-lagged effect, the results indicate that there was a significant negative association between the number of dysentery cases and the SOI, with a lagged effect of 2 months. A one-standard-deviation decrease in the SOI might cause up to 207 more dysentery cases per month in Shandong Province. This is the first report of the impact of the Southern Oscillation on dysentery risk in China, indicating that the SOI may be a useful early indicator of potential dysentery risk in Shandong Province.

  19. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province. PMID:21457538

  1. Effects of Land Use on Soil Quality on the Loessplateau in North-West Shanxi Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Li; Ji, Ruirui; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Jianjie

    Northwest Shanxi is located at the eastern border of the Loess Plateau. In order to guard against wind, to conserve water and soil, to fix sand, a large area of Caragana microphylla was planted in the hilly loess plateau in the north-west soil properties and ultimately soil quality, a case study was conducted in Wuzhai (North-west Shanxi Province). Soil samples were collected from adjacent Caragana microphylla land, farm land, poplar forests, fallow land and mixed plantations of Caragana microphylla and poplar. Initially, soil properties under the five land-uses were studied separately. Then an evaluation indicator system was developed according to the principle of evaluation indicator selection. Subsequently, the method of multivariate analysis was used to carry through a complete scientific evaluation. Results showed a highest under the mixed plantation and, compared with the mixed plantation,the SQI of farmland decreased greatly. The SQI of fallow land was the lowest, but considering the soil nutrient content, land fallowing improved soil fertility to some extent. It was further shown that growing Caragana microphylla and mixed polar and Caragana microphylla plantation was the most sustainable ways of developing the loess plateau.

  2. Investigation of medical waste management in Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Wang, Yan; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Yao-Ling; Wang, Jun-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Medical waste is a special category of waste with potential health and environment risks. The present study aimed to explore the current status of medical waste management in western China. Seventy-four healthcare facilities were selected to assess the general status of medical waste management based upon a designed questionnaire survey. The surveyed results showed that the quantities of average medical waste generation were 0.79, 0.59 and 0.61 kg bed(-1) day(-1) in tertiary, secondary and primary hospitals, respectively. The incomplete segregation of domestic and medical waste generated a higher quantity of medical waste in primary hospitals (0.61 kg bed(-1) day(-1)) than that in secondary hospitals. Furthermore, the effective implementation of the medical waste management system depended on national regulations, occupational safety, internal policies and administration and the qualifications and competence of the directors of the waste management department in the healthcare facilities. Therefore, sufficient training programmes and protective measures should be provided by healthcare facilities to all relevant personnel and adequate financial support and effective administrative monitoring should be performed by local authorities.

  3. Soil Carbonate Dynamics on Arid Cropland in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X.; Huang, S.; Liu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonate (PIC) is an important element for carbon sequestration. However, field data necessary to quantify carbon sequestration as carbonate have been lacking. Here, we report recent studies of carbonate accumulation in soils of the arid and semi-arid regions of north China. First study was carried out in southern Xinjiang, the Yanqi Basin, where more than 100 soil samples were collected from desert land, shrub land and cropland, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and inorganic carbon (SIC) and their stable 13C compositions were determined. This study showed that both SOC and SIC stocks were significantly higher on the cropland than on the desert land and shrub land. Our analyses suggested that cropping might have led to large PIC accumulation (24-116 g C m-2 year-1) in the Yanqi Basin. Second study was to evaluate carbon sequestration on cropland using archived soil samples from three long-term experiment (LTE) sites in north China: Urumqi, Yangling and Zhengzhou. SOC and SIC, and their stable 13C compositions were determined in two sets of soil samples (130 samples in total) collected in the early and late 2000's under various fertilization treatments. Our study showed an overall increase of SIC content in soil profiles over time, particularly under fertilizations. Accumulation rate of SIC stock over the 0-100 cm ranged from ~100 to 200 g C m-2 year-1, with the greatest rate found under the highest fertilization rate. Our analyses indicated that fertilization might have led to an average accumulation rate of > 60 g C m-2 year-1 for PIC on these arid croplands. Our studies showed that more carbon sequestrated in the form of carbonate than as SOC on arid and semi-arid lands, and suggests that increasing SOC stock through straw incorporation and manure application in the arid and semi-arid regions would also enhance carbonate accumulation in soil profiles over long-term.

  4. Concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in fish and shrimp in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianling; Fei, Zhiliang; Wu, Guanghong; Giesy, John P

    2007-08-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) concentrations were determined in 55 samples of fish, shrimp, crabs, frogs and turtles collected in Jiangsu Province and 55 freshwater shrimp samples collected from the Huiming Fish Market, Nanjing, China between 2003 and 2004. PCP concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit (MDL: 0.5 microg/kg ww) to 61 microg/kg ww, with a mean of 5.2 microg/kg ww in 55 samples collected across Jiangsu Province and a mean of 0.5 microg/kg ww for freshwater shrimp collected from the Huiming Fish Market. Concentrations of PCP in common carp (Carassius auratus) were significantly greater than concentrations of PCP in other species from all of the areas studied. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) contained the second greatest concentrations and crustacean species contained the least concentrations. Concentrations of PCP were greater in samples collected from Southern Jiangsu than those collected from other areas of Jiangsu Province. Concentrations of PCP in the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) from the Huiming Fish Market were greater in March and September than those collected in June and December. Based on the allowable daily intake (ADI) set by the US National Academy of Science, current concentrations of PCP measured in aquatic products from Jiangsu Province presented minimus health risks to humans.

  5. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  6. [Carbon losses from forest fire in Jiangxi Province, China in 1950-2008].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Shao, Quan-qin; Liu, Ji-yuan

    2010-09-01

    The annual occurrence of forest fire in Jiangxi Province of China in 1950-2008 was averaged 762 times and covering 1.578 x 10(4) hm2. Based on the forest fire statistic data, meteorological data, forest inventory data, and other parameters, this paper analyzed the characters of forest fire in the province, and estimated its carbon release and transfer. In the province, the total forest biomass loss from forest fire in 1950-2008 was about 61. 155 Tg, and the biomass carbon loss was about 30.993 Tg C, accounting for 15.92% of the vegetation carbon pool in the whole province. Before the 1970s, the biomass carbon loss occupied 74.3% of the total loss in 1950-2008, but after the 1990s, this loss decreased rapidly, with an annual average carbon loss less than 0.097 Tg C. The released CO2, CH4, and CO from the forest fire were about 5.408 Tg, 0.047 Tg, and 0.486 Tg, respectively, and led to 22.436 Tg of biomass carbon transferred into soil carbon. The snow and ice disaster in the beginning of 2008 resulted in high frequency forest fire, and led to a 0.463 Tg biomass carbon loss, which was 2. 56 times of the average value (0.181 Tg) in 2003-2007.

  7. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity. PMID:27658591

  8. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity.

  9. Class 1 integrons, selected virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from the Minjiang River, Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Zheng, Weiwen; Yu, Ying; Huang, Wenwen; Zheng, Siping; Zhang, Yun; Guan, Xiong; Zhuang, Yiting; Chen, Ning; Topp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Widespread fecal pollution of surface waters in developing countries is a threat to public health and may represent a significant pathway for the global dissemination of antibiotic resistance. The Minjiang River drainage basin in Fujian Province is one of China's most intensive livestock and poultry production areas and is home to several million people. In the study reported here, Escherichia coli isolates (n = 2,788) were sampled (2007 and 2008) from seven surface water locations in the basin and evaluated by PCR for carriage of selected genes encoding virulence factors, primarily for swine disease. A subset of isolates (n = 500) were evaluated by PCR for the distribution and characteristics of class 1 integrons, and a subset of these (n = 200) were evaluated phenotypically for resistance to a range of antibiotics. A total of 666 (24%) E. coli isolates carried at least one of the virulence genes elt, fedA, astA, fasA, estA, stx(2e), paa, and sepA. Forty-one percent of the isolates harbored class 1 integrons, and these isolates had a significantly higher probability of resistance to tobramycin, cefoperazone, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, azitromycin, and rifampin than isolates with no class 1 integron detected. Frequencies of resistance to selected antibiotics were as high as or higher than those in fecal, wastewater, and clinical isolates in published surveys undertaken in China, North America, and Europe. Overall, E. coli in the Minjiang River drainage basin carry attributes with public health significance at very high frequency, and these data provide a powerful rationale for investment in source water protection strategies in this important agricultural and urban setting in China.

  10. Biodegradation of imazapyr in typical soils in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Dong; Zhou, Su-Mei; Wang, Hui-Li; Fan, De-Fang

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of imazapyr in non-sterile and sterile soils from four sampling sites in Zhejiang, China was studied. The results showed that the half-lives of imazapyr in non-sterile soils were in the range of 30 to 45 d, while 81 to 133 d in sterile (by autoclaving) soils. It means the rate constants of imazapyr under non-sterile conditions were 2.3-4.4 times faster than that under sterile (by autoclaving) conditions, evidently indicating that the indigenous microorganisms in soil play an important role in the degradation of imazapyr. The different sterilization methods could result in different degradation rates of imazapyr. The heat of sterilization of soil largely decreased the degradation. However, the sterile treatment of soil by sodium azide had a different effect from that by autoclaving. Further more, the mechanism was also discussed. Biodegradation in four non-sterile soils accounted for 62% to 78% of imazapyr degradation. In contrast, less than 39% of imazapyr degradation was associated with chemical mechanisms. Therefore, the degradation mechanism was predominantly involved in biology including organisms and microorganisms in soil. Two imazapyr-degrading bacterial strains were isolated in enrichment culture technique and they were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescenes biotype II (ZJX-5) and Bacillus cereus (ZJX-9), respectively. When added at a concentration of 50 microg/g in mineral salts medium (MSM), ZJX-5 and ZJX-9 could degrade 81% and 87% imazapyr after 48 h of incubation. For the treatment of incorporation of ZJX-5 or ZJX-9 into soil, the degradation rate enhanced 3-4 fold faster than that for control samples, which showed an important value in quick decontamination of imazapyr in soil.

  11. Reconstituting the epidemic history of mono lineage of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Guizhou province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Binlian; Li, Lingnuo; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yao; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Rongge

    2014-08-01

    Guizhou province, located between border provinces and Central province of China, plays a crucial role in the transmission of HIV-1, implying it is important to monitor the epidemic of HIV-1 in this region. Available HIV-1 infected patients' plasma (n=78) were collected from Tongren city, Eastern Guizhou. Full-length gag, partial pol and env gene sequences were amplified and analyzed using phylogenetic, recombinant and Bayesian molecular clock approaches. Phylogenetic and recombinant analyses showed that CRF01_AE predominated among injecting drug users and heterosexuals in Tongren city with 85.9% proportion, it was followed by B' (5.1%), CRF07_BC (3.8%), CRF08_BC (3.8%), and B (1.3%). Moreover, 98.5% of CRF01_AE strains belonged to the distinct lineage CRF01_AE-v previously found in Guangxi province. To infer the most probable origin of CRF01_AE-v in Guizhou province, we download all available full length of CRF01_AE gag, pol and env gene region sequences from China in Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that the expanding CRF01_AE-v epidemic in Guizhou province was the result of local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions of CRF01_AE-v strains from Guangxi province in early 2000s. High prevalence of CRF01_AE in Guizhou province may bridge the epidemic to Central China. It provides a new insight for the understanding of HIV-1 epidemic in Guizhou province and makes the evolutionary history of CRF01_AE in China more intact.

  12. Comparison of Late Ordovician epicontinental seas and their relative bathymetry in North American and China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Fox, W.T. ); Jia-Yu, Rong )

    1989-02-01

    Six widely separated areas with Upper Ordovician strata in Canada and the United States are compared with six localities in southern China. Cyclic sedimentation, including evaporites, carbonates, and phosphatic black shales, occurred in relatively shallow epicontinental seas of North America. As many as three Ashgill cycles of regionally different styles may have been coeval throughout North America in response to modest changes in sea level. Environments in South China primarily included carbonates and black shales with a far more uniform distribution. Absence of comparable sedimentary cycles confirms that the platform bathymetry of South China was consistently deeper than in North America. The almost complete exposure of North China (Sino-Korean Plate) by Late Ordovician time underscores the fact that independent cratons have different bathymetric histories. By mid-Silurian time, South China also was fully exposed. Such hypsographic variation is critical to the intercontinental correlation of features related to eustasy, water chemistry, and even the patterns of extinctions.

  13. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties.

  14. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  15. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus in rural China: results from Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Qian, D; Chen, J; Hu, D; Hou, M; Chen, S; Wang, P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes in rural areas in Shandong Province, China. The Luxemburg-WHO-Shandong Project on Rural Health Personnel Training and Chronic Disease Control, a cross-sectional study, examined 16 375 rural residents aged 25 years and over using multistage cluster sampling in April 2007. An overnight fasting blood specimen was collected to measure plasma glucose and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among people with a fasting blood glucose of ≥ 6.1 mmol/l. Information on the history of diabetes and hypoglycaemic medication was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Overall, the prevalence rates for diabetes, prediabetes and previously diagnosed diabetes in the rural population were estimated to be 3.5%, 6.0% and 1.2%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 34.8% were aware of their condition, 30.6% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 11.5% achieved glycaemic control. These results indicate that diabetes has become a public health problem in poor rural areas of China and the rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes were relatively low. There is an urgent need for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes in the rural population in Shandong Province, China. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  16. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-25

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Using a PCR approach, we amplified and sequenced the 18S rRNA gene from 322 giant pandas fecal samples (122 from 122 captive individuals and 200 collected from four habitats) in Sichuan province, China. The Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified via a BLAST comparison against published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank followed by phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that both captive and wild giant pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni, at a prevalence of 15.6% (19/122) and 0.5% (1/200) in captive and wild giant pandas, respectively. The present study revealed the existence of C. andersoni in both captive and wild giant panda fecal samples for the first time, and also provided useful fundamental data for further research on the molecular epidemiology and control of Cryptosporidium infection in giant pandas.

  17. Identification, phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of GDQY orf virus isolated from Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, southern China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chaohui; Liao, Meiying; Wang, Han; Luo, Xiaohong; Shao, Jing; Xu, Ying; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Luo, Shuhong

    2015-01-25

    Infection with the orf virus (ORFV) leads to contagious ecthyma, also called contagious pustular dermatitis, which usually affects sheep, goats and other small ruminants. It has a great distribution throughout the world and has also been reported to infect humans. Though many strains have been isolated from differing parts of mainland China, rarely has any strain been reported from the southern provinces of China. We studied a case of orf virus infection that occurred at Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province in southern China. An orf virus strain, GDQY, was successfully isolated and identified through cell culture techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Complete genes of ORFV011, ORFV059, ORFV106 and ORFV107 were amplified for the sequence analysis based on their nucleotide or amino acid level. In order to discuss the genetic variation, precise sequences were used to compare to other reference strains isolated from different districts or countries. Phylogenetic trees based on those strains were built up and evolutionary distances were calculated based on the alignment of their complete sequences. The typical structure of the orf virus was observed in cell-culture suspensions inoculated with GDQY, and the full-length of four genes was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GDQY is homologous to FJ-DS and CQ/WZ on ORFV011 nucleotides. ORFV059 may be more variable than ORFV011 based on the comparison between GDQY and other isolates. Genetic studies of ORFV106 and 107 are reported for the first time in the presented study.

  18. Determinants of Emergency Medical Services Utilization Among Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients in Hubei Province in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoxv; Yang, Tingting; Gong, Yanhong; Zhou, Yanfeng; Li, Wenzhen; Song, Xingyue; Wang, Mengdie; Hu, Bo; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-03-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) can effectively shorten the prehospital delay for patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to investigate EMS utilization and its associated factors in patients with acute ischemic stroke in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015, which included 2096 patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke from 66 hospitals in Hubei province in China. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression model was undertaken to identify the factors associated with EMS utilization. Of the 2096 participants, only 323 cases (15.4%) used EMS. Those acute ischemic stroke patients who previously used EMS (odds ratio [OR] =9.8), whose National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was ≥10 (OR=3.7), who lived in urban communities (OR=2.5), who had sudden onset of symptoms (OR=2.4), who experienced their first stroke (OR=1.8), and who recognized initial symptom as stroke (OR=1.4) were more likely to use EMS. Additionally, when acute ischemic stroke patients' stroke symptom were noticed first by others (OR=2.1), rather than by the patients, EMS was more likely to be used. A very low proportion of patients with acute ischemic stroke used the EMS in Hubei province in China. Considerable education programs are required regarding knowledge of potential symptoms and the importance of EMS for stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  20. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province. PMID:28224883

  2. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  4. Estimation of Arable Land Loss in Shandong Province, China based on BFAST Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and rise of industrialization, China has been one of the countries which has the fastest urbanization process. From 2001 to 2005, China lost over 2000 km2 fertile arable land every year because of urban expansion. Arable land area declining continuously poses a threat to China's food security. Land survey is the direct way to statistic the arable land status, which lasts long time and needs mounts of financial support. Remote sensing is a perfect way to survey land use and its dynamics at large scale. This paper aims to evaluate the detailed status of agricultural land loss of Shandong Province, China by using BFAST (Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend) model. First, the 30m spatial resolution global land cover products GlobeLand30 in 2000 and 2010 are used to locate pixels transforming from agricultural land to artificial cover during this period. Within a MODIS pixel (250m) area, if over half of GlobeLand30 pixels have changed from arable land to artificial cover, then the responding MODIS pixel is classified as changed area, whose phenology reflected by NDVI time series curve will also change. Then, BFAST is used to detect the break point which represents the time of change occurred using MODIS NDVI time series data. From 2002 to 2010, Shandong Province lost its 1063.03 km2 arable land in total. Arable land loss has a declining trend in each year and most loss occurred in 2002 and 2003. Spatially, cities which has higher level of economic development in central and eastern regions lost more arable land. Finally, compare this result with statistical data from China's national Bureau of Statistics, there is a strong positive relationship.

  5. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-02-04

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  6. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. PMID:28165407

  7. Molecular detection and identification of piroplasms in sika deer (Cervus nippon) from Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junlong; Yang, Jifei; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Aihong; Wang, Bingjie; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-03-16

    Piroplasmosis is an important disease of domestic animals and wildlife and is caused by organisms from the genera Theileria and Babesia. Wildlife such as sika deer play an important role as reservoir hosts for several species of Theileria and Babesia. Using blood samples collected from sika deer, we investigated the epidemiology of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sika deer from Jilin Province in China and identified those species that cause pathogenic infections in sika deer. Sixty-eight blood samples of sika deer were collected from three areas of the Jilin Province in Northeast China. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA of the piroplasms was amplified using the nested PCR method. The selected positive samples were sequenced to identify species of Babesia and Theileria. PCR detection revealed that 24 samples were positive for Theileria and Babesia spp. (35.29 %, 95 % CI = 11.8-46.8). After alignment, a sequenced fragment for Theileria cervi was found to be the most prevalent from the obtained samples (22.06 %, 95 % CI = 11.8-49.6). Six sika deer samples were identified as being infected with a Theileria sp. that was similar to a Theileria sp. found from spotted deer in India. In addition to the results above, for the first time, we identified T. annulata infection from one sample of sika deer and Babesia sp. from two samples, which showed high identity with Babesia motasi found in sheep from China. The present study offers new data on the pathogens of piroplasmosis in sika deer in northeastern China. For the first time, sika deer was confirmed as a reservoir host for the T. annulata of cattle and the B. motasi of sheep, which was found in China.

  8. First Insight into the Genotypic Diversity of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Haican; Lu, Bing; Wan, Kanglin

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in China have indicated a significant regional distribution. The aim of this study was to characterize the genotypes of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from Gansu, which has a special geographic location in China. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 467 clinical M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Gansu Province were genotyped by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units–variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping. The results showed that 445 isolates belonged to six known spoligotype lineages, whereas 22 isolates were unknown. The Beijing genotype was the most prevalent (87.58%, n = 409), while the shared type 1 was the dominant genotype (80.94%, n = 378). The second most common lineage was the T lineage, with 25 isolates (5.35%), followed by the H lineage with 5 isolates (1.07%), the MANU family (0.64%, 3 isolates), the U family (0.43%, 2 isolates) and the CAS lineage with 1 isolate (0.21%). By using the VNTR15China method, we observed 15 groups and 228 genotypes among the 467 isolates. We found no association between the five larger groups (including the Beijing genotype) and sex, age, or treatment status, and there was no noticeable difference in the group analysis in different areas. In the present study, seven of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci were highly or moderately discriminative according to their Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. Conclusions/Significance The Beijing genotype is the predominant genotype in Gansu province. We confirm that VNTR15China is suitable for typing Beijing strains in China and that it has a better discriminatory power than spoligotyping. Therefore, the use of both methods is the most suitable for genotyping analysis of M. tuberculosis. PMID:24911588

  9. Determinants of health care demand in poor, rural China: the case of Gansu Province.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dongfu; Pong, Raymond W; Yin, Aitian; Nagarajan, K V; Meng, Qingyue

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants that influence health care demand decisions in rural areas of Gansu province, China. This represents the first effort to identify and quantify the effect of price of care on choice of provider in China, and is the first quantitative examination of this topic focusing on poor rural areas in China. In the three-tier health care system in rural China, we further distinguish the public village clinics and private village clinics using a mixed multinomial logit model. The results show that price and distance play significant roles in choice of health care provider. The price elasticity of demand for outpatients is higher for low-income groups than for high-income groups. When outpatients have particular concerns about provider quality or reputation, or when their health status is poor, distance tends to matter less, i.e. they are willing to travel further in order to obtain better treatment for their illness. Insurance status has a significant impact on the choice of public village clinics relative to self-treatment. Furthermore, age and the attributes of illness are also statistically significant factors. We discuss the policy implications of the results for meeting the health care needs of the poor in rural China.

  10. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  11. Spatio-temporal Transmission and Environmental Determinants of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Sun, Liqian; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD), and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps showed that schistosomiasis prevalence remained at a low level and schistosomiasis risk mainly evolved along the Yangtze River. Schistosomiasis risk also followed a focal spatial pattern, fluctuating temporally with a peak (the largest spatial extent) in 2005 and then contracting gradually but with a scattered distribution until 2010. Conclusion The fitted spatio-temporal kriging model can capture variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time. Combined with techniques of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS), this approach facilitates and enriches risk modeling of schistosomiasis, which in turn helps to identify prior areas for effective and sustainable control of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province and perhaps elsewhere in China. PMID:25659112

  12. Genetic source tracking of an anthrax outbreak in Shaanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Li; Wei, Jian-Chun; Chen, Qiu-Lan; Guo, Xue-Jun; Zhang, En-Min; He, Li; Liang, Xu-Dong; Ma, Guo-Zhu; Zhou, Ti-Cao; Yin, Wen-Wu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Kai; Shi, Yi; Ji, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Fa-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Kai; Zhou, Hang; Yu, Hong-Jie; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Feng; Li, Wei

    2017-01-17

    Anthrax is an acute zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis. From 26 July to 8 August 2015, an outbreak with 20 suspected cutaneous anthrax cases was reported in Ganquan County, Shaanxi province in China. The genetic source tracking analysis of the anthrax outbreak was performed by molecular epidemiological methods in this study. Three molecular typing methods, namely canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis, were used to investigate the possible source of transmission and identify the genetic relationship among the strains isolated from human cases and diseased animals during the outbreak. Five strains isolated from diseased mules were clustered together with patients' isolates using canSNP typing and MLVA. The causative B. anthracis lineages in this outbreak belonged to the A.Br.001/002 canSNP subgroup and the MLVA15-31 genotype (the 31 genotype in MLVA15 scheme). Because nine isolates from another four provinces in China were clustered together with outbreak-related strains by the canSNP (A.Br.001/002 subgroup) and MLVA15 method (MLVA15-31 genotype), still another SNR analysis (CL10, CL12, CL33, and CL35) was used to source track the outbreak, and the results suggesting that these patients in the anthrax outbreak were probably infected by the same pathogen clone. It was deduced that the anthrax outbreak occurred in Shaanxi province, China in 2015 was a local occurrence.

  13. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ben-yan; Xiang, Yuan-xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-chun; Liang, Shu-ying; Wang, Yu-ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (P<0.05). PLWHAs who were males (OR=1.731) and had higher education level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  14. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  15. A survey on the current status of pediatric nursing human resources in Sichuan province of China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xingli; Feng, Xianqiong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the status of pediatric nurses in Sichuan province of China, and to compare the status with the national standards. This study used a convenience sample of hospitals with pediatric departments in Sichuan province. A list of hospitals was obtained from the Health and Family Planning Commission of Sichuan province. Fifty hospitals with pediatric departments were selected to receive questionnaires. Thirty-nine hospitals responded and 38 responses were valid. Bed-to-nurse ratios were evaluated. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the bed-to-nurse ratios among the studied hospitals and the Chinese national standard. In the 38 surveyed hospitals, the average bed-to-nurse ratio was 1:0.57 and the average physician-to-nurse ratio was 1:1.53. The average bed-to nurse ratio in the pediatric departments was 1:0.51. The average bed-to-nurse ratio in the pediatric inpatient wards was 1:0.40. There were significant differences in the average bed-to-nurse ratios in the pediatric departments (Z = -2.149, P = 0.032) and the pediatric inpatient wards (Z = -2.328, P = 0.020) between general hospitals and specialty hospitals. There were significant differences between the average bed-to-nurse ratios in tertiary-level hospitals (Z = -4.178, P < 0.0001) and the pediatric inpatient wards of the surveyed hospitals (Z = -4.518, P < 0.0001) and the national standard. There is a nursing shortage in tertiary-level hospitals and some grade-A specialty hospitals in Sichuan, China. The shortage is worse in pediatric inpatient wards, especially in the general hospitals and some grade-B specialty hospitals. Hospital administrations need to understand the situation and offer strategies to cope for routine nursing management as well as disaster management. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Tertiary volcanism of the Galatia province, north-west Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Marjorie; Tankut, Ayla; Guleç, Nilgün

    1997-12-01

    Large volumes of trachyandesitic-dacitic lava flows and pyroclastics of Miocene age are associated with small volumes of alkali basalt lava flows in the Galatia volcanic province, northwest Central Anatolia, Turkey. The volcanism postdates continental collision, occurring in a transtensional tectonic setting associated with movement along the North Anatolian Fault zone. Major and trace element (including REE) and Sr-Nd isotope data and K-Ar ages for representative samples of mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks have been obtained from a series of localities within the province. The K-Ar age data indicate that alkali basalts were erupted during two distinct time periods in the Early Miocene (17-19 Ma) and Late Miocene (< 10 Ma). The two groups of basalts are inferred to have been derived from different mantle sources, based on their Sr-Nd isotope and geochemical characteristics. The Late Miocene basalts were derived from a more depleted mantle source than the Early Miocene basalts, which were generated by partial melting of an incompatible element enriched, subduction-modified, mantle source. The depleted source component is inferred to reside within the asthenosphere and has some affinities with the source of HIMU oceanic island basalts. On the basis of a comprehensive major and trace element and Nd-Sr isotope dataset for the intermediate-acid volcanics and the alkali basalts, it is possible to demonstrate a cogenetic relationship between the alkali basalts and the intermediate volcanics of Early Miocene age, involving fractional crystallisation and assimilation of a heterogeneous upper crustal component.

  17. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Meixner, T.; De La Cruz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is the primary source of aquifer replenishment, an important source of freshwater for human consumption and riparian area sustainability in semi-arid regions. It is critical to understand the current groundwater recharge regimes in groundwater basins throughout the Western U.S. and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change, land use change and management manipulations that impact the availability and composition of groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters, and variable summer precipitation. The horst-graben structure of these basins lends itself to orographic and continental precipitation effects that make mountain block and mountain front recharge critical components of annual recharge. The current assumption is that the relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation dominating in the northern parts of the region, and summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon extends its influence. To test this hypothesis, stable water isotope data of groundwater and precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to characterize and compare groundwater recharge regimes throughout the region. Preliminary stable water isotope results from the southernmost Rio San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico indicate that groundwater is composed of 64%±14% summer monsoon precipitation, in contrast to more northern basins where winter precipitation is the source of 79-90% of basin groundwater.

  18. Birth weight and other determinants of infant and child mortality in three provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Dankert, G; van Ginneken, J

    1991-10-01

    Information on levels, trends and determinants of infant and child mortality was available from the 1985 In-depth Fertility Survey which was conducted in three provinces of China. Mortality of children below age 5 varied from 49 per 1000 live births in Shaanxi to 20 in Shanghai in 1980-85 and has declined substantially since 1960, from 206 in Shaanxi and 66 in Shanghai. Male mortality was considerably higher than female mortality in the neonatal and post-neonatal period, and at ages 1-5 years. Birth weight, place of residence and mother's education were found to be important determinants of mortality; age of mother and parity were less important.

  19. A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Si-Li; SUN, Zhi-Yu; GUO, Yan-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Triplophysa yajiangensis sp. nov. is described from the upper and middle reaches of the Yalong River, Yangtze Basin, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the following characters: body surface smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed and tapered slightly; lower jaw shovel-shaped; head shorter than caudal peduncle; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin reaches or exceeds anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine spiral type with 3-5 winding coils. PMID:26452694

  20. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on GIS modle on Shicheng Jiangxi province, china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wufu; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Xianfeng; Wang, Qinjun; Wei, Yongmin

    2017-02-01

    A GIS model-information index model was presented for landslide susceptibility mapping on Shicheng, Jiangxi province, China.140 landslides were identified from SPOT6 fusion image with 1.5 meters resolution, and they were verified by field investigation. Application of the information index model showed that the landslides more likely occur in areas nearby the road, the river and the lower vegetation covery. The high elevation accuracy of 71% was reached using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). The result indicates that the northeast and parts of the south of Shicheng County are highly susceptible to damages from landslides, which provides useful information for disaster management and decision making.

  1. Potential temperature, upwelling rate and eclogite in the formation of the North Atlantic large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. L.; Lesher, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    The volumes and compositions of basalts generated by adiabatic decompression melting of the Earth’s mantle depend on mantle potential temperature (T_P), upwelling rate and the fertility of the mantle source. The relative importance of these factors in generating the high productivity magmatism of the Paleogene - Recent North Atlantic large igneous province (NAIP) remains controversial. Each has been proposed as a primary factor in the region. To assess the significance of these mechanisms in NAIP magmatism, we apply our forward melting model, REEBOX PRO, which simulates the melting of a heterogeneous source comprised of peridotite and eclogite lithologies. The model accounts for the thermodynamics of adiabatic decompression melting of a heterogeneous source using constraints from laboratory melting experiments. Input values of T_P and eclogite abundance are used to calculate the buoyancy of the mantle source and maximum upwelling rates. Source buoyancy constrains the maximum amount of eclogite in the mantle source that can ascend beneath the rift axis. All melts generated within the melting regime are pooled to form magmatic crust according to the residual column method. Using the model, variations in magmatic crustal thickness (from geophysics) as a function of eclogite content (from geochemistry) can be related to T_P and upwelling rate. Models with no thermal anomaly, that call on either enhanced upwelling rates due to plate separation (edge - driven convection) or the melting of abundant (> 30%) eclogite at “ambient” T_P (1325 °C), cannot generate the observed igneous crustal thicknesses around the province. Rather, elevated mantle T_P (minimum thermal anomaly ~ 85 - 195 °C) and associated buoyancy - driven upwelling are needed to explain the volume of igneous crust in the province. Involvement of eclogite, while necessary to explain the compositions of many NAIP lavas, does not significantly enhance melt production. These factors, coupled with the long

  2. Dietary exposure and risk assessment to lead of the population of Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yingliang; Liu, Pei; Sun, Jinfang; Wang, Cannan; Min, Jie; Zhang, Yafei; Wang, Shiyuan; Wu, Yongning

    2014-01-01

    The paper's main purpose is to estimate the dietary exposure to lead for the inhabitants of Jiangsu province, China. Lead concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring programme during 2007-10. Food samples (n = 2077) were collected from 23 food categories in Jiangsu province. Consumption data were derived from Chinese national nutrition and health survey in 2002, which included 3938 inhabitants from 1451 households in Jiangsu province. Concentration data were combined with consumption data to estimate the dietary intake for the inhabitants of 2-6, 7-17 and 18-80 years, respectively. The β-binomial-normal (BBN) model was used to estimate the long-term intake for the population in Jiangsu province. The distribution of individual margin of exposure (IMoE) was introduced to assess the health effect. Uncertainty of IMoE was quantified by Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods. The mean levels of dietary exposure to lead were estimated at 3.019 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children aged 2-6 years, 2.104 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for teenagers aged 7-17 years, and 1.601 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for adults aged 18-80 years. The mean intakes for the urban and rural populations were 1.494 and 1.822 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. From the 25th to 99.9th percentiles, IMoE was 0.125-2.057 for 2-6 years and 0.473-7.998 for 18-80 years, respectively. The distribution of IMoE could indicate a public health concern on lead for the Chinese population in Jiangsu. Control measures should be taken to reduce lead exposure in Jiangsu province.

  3. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus) originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64%) peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74%) and the adult birds (6.67%) (P > 0.05). The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08%) and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91%) (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014). Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province. PMID:22992281

  4. Diversity of tick species on domestic animals in Shandong Province, China, using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiling; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Zhong

    2017-08-28

    Ticks are considered to be second only to mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. In recent years, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, a new emerging tick-borne disease has been detected in many areas of China, including Shandong Province, Eastern China. Here, we report the tick species diversity based on surveys between 2014 and 2016 covering 16 locations in seven cities of Shandong. Based on DNA barcoding, 1859 ticks belonging to three species were identified: Haemaphysalis longicornis, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Haemaphysalis verticalis. Samples of the same species clustered together in a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, with intraspecific distances between 0 and 3.0% and interspecific distances ranged between 15.5 and 24.3%. Goats and dogs were the major hosts of ticks and H. longicornis was regarded as predominant tick species of Shandong. In order to reduce tick populations and prevent tick-borne diseases, effective control measures should be implemented on human and domestic animals, respectively.

  5. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from apparently healthy animals of the Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Chai, T; Wang, L; Wang, H; Duan, H; Müller, W; Zucker, B A

    2007-10-01

    In a pilot study the presence and frequency of Clostridium (C.) perfringens was investigated among apparently healthy farm animals in the Shandong province of China. 748 faecal samples were collected from 9 pig-, 4 sheep-, 7 cattle- and 5 rabbit farms. C. perfringens was isolated from 124 samples (16.6%). The isolates were classified into major toxin types by using PCR analysis detecting the genes encoding these toxins. All isolates were identified as C perfringens toxin type A. There are also some reports from different regions in China linking C. perfringens toxin type A strains to gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore further investigations about the epidemiologic role of C perfringens toxin type A strains in the Shandong region are necessary. Currently, cases of enterotoxemia from this region are investigated for the presence of C perfringens.

  7. Characterization of a new isolate of pepper chlorotic spot virus from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kuanyu; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Rahman, Md Siddiqur; Su, Xiaoxia; Wu, Kuo; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongkai; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-05-19

    A new isolate, 14YV733, of pepper chlorotic spot virus (PCSV) from chili peppers in Yunnan province of China was identified. The typical tospoviral particles of 80-120 nm in diameter were observed by electron microscopy. The virus caused systemic symptoms in several solanaceous plants and the Brassica rapa L. Chinensis group with mechanical inoculation. The sap from infected leaves reacted positively to a rabbit antibody to the N protein of watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) in immunoblotting. The S, M, and L RNAs of PCSV-14YV733 are 3310 nts, 4711 nts, and 8913 nts long, respectively. This is the first report of complete sequences of PCSV in mainland China. Phylogenetic analysis of all tospoviral proteins indicated that PCSV-14YV733 is closely related to members of the WSMoV serogroup.

  8. Spatial transmission and meteorological determinants of tuberculosis incidence in Qinghai Province, China: a spatial clustering panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hua-Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Juan; Ren, Wen; Zhang, Xue-Lei; Ma, Yong-Cheng; Shi, Yan; Ma, Bin-Zhong; Wang, Xiang; Wei, Zhen; Wang, Hua-Fang; Qiu, Li-Xia

    2016-06-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the notifiable infectious disease with the second highest incidence in the Qinghai province, a province with poor primary health care infrastructure. Understanding the spatial distribution of TB and related environmental factors is necessary for developing effective strategies to control and further eliminate TB. Our TB incidence data and meteorological data were extracted from the China Information System of Disease Control and Prevention and statistical yearbooks, respectively. We calculated the global and local Moran's I by using spatial autocorrelation analysis to detect the spatial clustering of TB incidence each year. A spatial panel data model was applied to examine the associations of meteorological factors with TB incidence after adjustment of spatial individual effects and spatial autocorrelation. The Local Moran's I method detected 11 counties with a significantly high-high spatial clustering (average annual incidence: 294/100 000) and 17 counties with a significantly low-low spatial clustering (average annual incidence: 68/100 000) of TB annual incidence within the examined five-year period; the global Moran's I values ranged from 0.40 to 0.58 (all P-values < 0.05). The TB incidence was positively associated with the temperature, precipitation, and wind speed (all P-values < 0.05), which were confirmed by the spatial panel data model. Each 10 °C, 2 cm, and 1 m/s increase in temperature, precipitation, and wind speed associated with 9 % and 3 % decrements and a 7 % increment in the TB incidence, respectively. High TB incidence areas were mainly concentrated in south-western Qinghai, while low TB incidence areas clustered in eastern and north-western Qinghai. Areas with low temperature and precipitation and with strong wind speeds tended to have higher TB incidences.

  9. Molecular detection and genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in wild waterfowls in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Kai; Wang, Hai-Jun; Qin, Si-Yuan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Lou, Zhi-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Quan

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost warm-blooded animals, including humans. Limited information about T. gondii infection in wild waterfowls is available in China. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and genotype T. gondii infection in 11 wild waterfowl species in Jilin Province, northeastern China. A total of 249 wild waterfowls were sampled between April and July 2013 from Jilin Province, and the tissue samples were collected for the detection of T. gondii by a semi-nested PCR targeting the B1 gene. The positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in the wild waterfowls was 7.2% (18/249, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-10.4), with the highest prevalence (22.0%, 95% CI 10.5-33.5) in Anas formosa, followed by Anas platyrhynchos (20.0%, 95% CI 6.0-44.0), Falcated teal (12.5%, 95% CI 0.0-35.4), and Fulica atra (4.0%, 95% CI 0.0-11.7). Of 18 positive samples, only 2 samples (TgWfjl1 and TgWfjl2) were genotyped completely, and one genotype, namely ToxoDB #9, was revealed. The result of this survey has implications for better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. gondii in China. This is the first report of prevalence and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in wild waterfowls in northeastern China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Update on the distribution and phylogenetics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) populations in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Stephen W; Huo, Guan-Nan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In 1973 planorbid snails then identified as Biomphalaria straminea were discovered in Hong Kong, China. It was assumed that these snails had been introduced to Hong Kong via the import of tropical fish by air from South America. In 2012 Biomphalaria were found for the first time in Guangdong Province, China. In view of the renewed interest in these invasive snails, a morphological and DNA-sequence based phylogenetic study was undertaken for seven populations of Biomphalaria snails collected in Guangdong. Morphologically and phylogenetically, five of the populations clustered more closely with Biomphalaria kuhniana than with B. straminea. Levels of genetic diversity among the populations were about half those of autochthonous populations in Brazil, the phylogenetic relationships did not correlate with a radiation from any one international port in China, and different lineages appeared associated with different ports. Consequently in explaining the current distribution of the snails, multiple colonization events, each establishing a new local snail population near to maritime international container ports, were considered more likely than the spread of snails from Hong Kong to China. The displacement of B. straminea by B. kuhniana in Guangdong is considered as an explanation for the habitat changes observed among the snails between Hong Kong in the 1980s and the present. The conclusions of the study are that any risk of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in China is more likely to come from parasite importation in the intramolluscan stage, than from transmission by migrant workers from South America or Africa. In addition, although likely to be rare, sporadic outbreaks of imported schistosomiasis (caused by invading infected snails) could be a threat to public health in the vicinity of International container ports (not only in Guangdong Province). Further work is called for to investigate further the presence of B. kuhniana and its potential interactions with B

  11. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  12. Seroepidemiological investigation of lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis among people living in forest areas of eight provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Geng, Zhen; Hou, Xue Xia; Tian, Zhen; Yang, Xiu Jun; Jiang, Wei Jia; Shi, Yan; Zhan, Zhi Fei; Li, Guo Hua; Yu, De Shan; Wang, Hua Yong; Xu, Jian Guo; Wan, Kang Lin

    2013-03-01

    Lyme disease and Human granulocytic anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum respectively. We have investigated infection and co-infection of the two diseases in the population of forest areas of eight provinces in China by measuring seroprevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum. Forest areas in 8 provinces were chosen for investigation using whole sampling and questionnaire survey methods. 3 669 serum samples from people in the forest areas were tested for the presence of antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Seroprevalence against B. burgdorferi was 3% to 15% and against A. phagocytophilum was 2% to 18% in the study sites in the 8 provinces in China. We also found co-infection of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in 7 of the 8 provinces (the exception being the Miyun area in Beijing). The seroprevalence for both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher among people exposed to ticks than among people who were not exposed to ticks. We conclude that both pathogens are endemic in the forest areas in the eight provinces, but the prevalence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum differs between the provinces. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event is mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 47.8 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 300 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 μg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. Feedbacks associated to Black Carbon (BC) account for about 50 % of the PM2.5 increases and 50 % of the PBL decreases in Shijiazhuang, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  14. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  15. Hospitalized pediatric burns in North China: a 10-year epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqiang; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Jingcheng; Liu, Yong; Shi, Fusheng; Yi, Dong

    2013-08-01

    Retrospective surveys of all hospitalized pediatric burns under the age of 15 years were conducted in 18 hospitals from 5 provinces and municipal cities of North China between 2001 and 2010. A total of 17,770 patients were included in this study. The epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized pediatric burns and influencing factors of length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost were analyzed. In this study, children accounted for 43.57% of all hospitalized burns, with a gradually increasing trend (P=0.003). Among children hospitalized burns, the percentage of children younger than three years was 69.9%, with an upward trend (P<0.001). The ratio of male to female was 1.53:1. Scald burns accounted for 89.79% and 71.54% had burns of <10% total body surface area, with increasing trends (P≤0.001). The medians of length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost were eight days and 2469 RMB yuan respectively. The most important factors affecting length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost were burned surface area, surgery and treatment outcome. Children under three years of age, boys and children with a small area of mild scald burns should be made the focus of childhood burn prevention. Improving the medical insurance system for children is urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  17. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of north China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, Tong; Huang Zuan

    1988-02-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocene Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pools in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point. Hydrocarbon exploration began in 1971, but only a few small oil fields were found in the 1970s. Recently, by applying digital seismic techniques, the subsurface geological structure has been accurately mapped and new production technology has enabled the high-our-point oil to be produced. Thus, important achievements in hydrocarbon exploration were made during the 1980s.

  18. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  19. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  20. Seasonal prediction of winter haze days in the north central North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the winter (December-February) haze pollution over the north central North China Plain (NCP) has become severe. By treating the year-to-year increment as the predictand, two new statistical schemes were established using the multiple linear regression (MLR) and the generalized additive model (GAM). By analyzing the associated increment of atmospheric circulation, seven leading predictors were selected to predict the upcoming winter haze days over the NCP (WHDNCP). After cross validation, the root mean square error and explained variance of the MLR (GAM) prediction model was 3.39 (3.38) and 53 % (54 %), respectively. For the final predicted WHDNCP, both of these models could capture the interannual and interdecadal trends and the extremums successfully. Independent prediction tests for 2014 and 2015 also confirmed the good predictive skill of the new schemes. The predicted bias of the MLR (GAM) prediction model in 2014 and 2015 was 0.09 (-0.07) and -3.33 (-1.01), respectively. Compared to the MLR model, the GAM model had a higher predictive skill in reproducing the rapid and continuous increase of WHDNCP after 2010.

  1. The making and remaking of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.

    2004-12-01

    The North China Block (NCB) consists of two major Archaean crustal nuclei that collided together by ca. 1800 Ma (e.g., Zhao, 2001), although some argue that they came together as early as ca. 2500 Ma (e.g., Zhai and Liu, 2003; Kusky and Li, 2004). No orogenic event is known within the NCB from ca. 1800 Ma until Permian. The shape and lithospheric architecture of this seemingly stable continental block were significantly reworked by Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Continental collision between the NCB and South China Block (SCB) started from their eastern ends as early as Permian, leading to the initial continental subduction and subsequent exhumation of 240-235 Ma UHP metamorphic rocks (e.g., Hacker et al., 2000; Ayers et al., 2002) to the crustal level by ca. 220 Ma (Hacker et al., 2000). This was followed by the development of flake tectonics in the region east of the Tanlu Fault between Late Triassic and mid-Jurassic (Li, 1994, 1998), where the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the SCB continued to subduct beneath the NCB, whereas the upper crust of the SCB, along with the UHP rocks at the upper crustal level along the former plate margin, were obducted over the lower crust of the NCB for up to 500 km. We thus have a composite crust in the Sulu-Yellow Sea-central Korea region. Extensive thin- to thick-skinned thrusting also developed in both the Jiao-Liao region east of the Tanlu Fault and the Xu-Huai and Luxi regions west of the Tanlu Fault during this process, all within the upper crust of the NCB. This complex crustal architecture may still influence distribution of epicentres in the region. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thin-skinned thrusts were well developed along northern NCB (e.g., Davis et al., 1998) possibly due to the closure of the Mongolo-Okhotsk sea to the north. For reasons still being debated, eastern NCB underwent dramatic lithospheric thinning (locally total erosion of lithospheric mantle?) during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary (e.g., O'Reilly et

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  3. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  4. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China.

  5. Infant Formula Crisis in China: A Cohort Study in Sichuan Province

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers’ opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers’ opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China. PMID:25995728

  6. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure.

    PubMed

    Masilo, Gaboipolelwe M; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu

    2016-08-16

    Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS) reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP) 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch's method of open coding was used to analyse data. Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  7. Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in the North of Caldas Province, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Mercado, Marcela; De la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Pérez, Jorge E.; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rickettsia typhi and R. felis are the etiological agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever, respectively. Both are emerging acute febrile zoonotic diseases for which fleas are vectors; they also have similar clinical characteristics and global distribution. In 2005, we identified the circulation of murine typhus in 6 towns within the mountainous coffee-growing area north of Caldas, Colombia. We now report the specific seroprevalence against R. typhi and R. felis, and associated risk factors in 7 towns of this province. The combined seroprevalence against the 2 flea-borne rickettsioses is the highest yet reported in the literature: 71.7% (17.8% for R. felis, 25.2% for R. typhi, and 28.7% for both). We also report a prospective analysis of 26 patients with a febrile illness compatible with rickettsioses, including murine typhus; 9 of these patients had a rickettsiosis. This supports our sero-epidemiological results and highlights the diagnostic complexity of febrile syndromes in this region. PMID:23473218

  8. MMI attenuation and historical earthquakes in the basin and range province of western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes in central Nevada (1932-1959) were used to develop a modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) attenuation model for estimating moment magnitude M for earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of interior western North America. M is 7.4-7.5 for the 26 March 1872 Owens Valley, California, earthquake, in agreement with Beanland and Clark's (1994) M 7.6 that was estimated from geologic field observations. M is 7.5 for the 3 May 1887 Sonora, Mexico, earthquake, in agreement with Natali and Sbar's (1982) M 7.4 and Suter's (2006) M 7.5, both estimated from geologic field observations. MMI at sites in California for earthquakes in the Nevada Basin and Range apparently are not much affected by the Sierra Nevada except at sites near the Sierra Nevada where MMI is reduced. This reduction in MMI is consistent with a shadow zone produced by the root of the Sierra Nevada. In contrast, MMI assignments for earthquakes located in the eastern Sierra Nevada near the west margin of the Basin and Range are greater than predicted at sites in California. These higher MMI values may result from critical reflections due to layering near the base of the Sierra Nevada.

  9. Molecular Epidemiological Characterization and Health Burden of Thalassemia in Jiangxi Province, P. R. China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Guo; Wang, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Lin, Fen; Tong, Xin; Yang, Hui-Tian; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Hu, Rong; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Yang, Hui; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Li, Wen-Yu; Yang, Li-Ye

    2014-01-01

    Background Thalassemia is the most common inherited disease in southern China. However, this disorder is usually ignored by Jiangxi provincial health system and government due to lack of epidemiological data. Materials and Methods A total of 9489 samples from Hakka Han and Gan-speaking Han in three geographical areas of Jiangxi Province were analyzed for both complete blood cell (CBC) count and reverse dot blot (RDB) gene chip for thalassemia. Results 1182 cases of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCV<82 fL) were found by CBC count, and were tested by RDB gene chip to reveal a total of 594 mutant chromosomes, including 433 α-thalassemia mutant chromosomes and 172 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. Our results indicated a higher prevalence of thalassemia with the heterozygote frequency of 9.49% in southern Jiangxi province, whereas the low frequency was found in middle (3.90%) and northern Jiangxi (2.63%). Conclusions Based on the epidemiological data, the estimated numbers of pregnancies in Jiangxi province in which the fetus is at risk for β-thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb H disease are 34 (95% CI, 16 to 58), 79 (95% CI, 50 to 114) and 39 (95% CI, 27 to 58) per year, respectively. We suggested that prevention network of thalassemia should be established, especially in high prevalent southern Jiangxi (Hakka Han), including establishment of thalassemia database collection, hematological analysis laboratories, genetic counselling clinics, prenatal diagnosis centers and neonatal screening centers. PMID:25000193

  10. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  11. The Prevalence and Spectrum of α-Thalassemia in Guizhou Province of South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Yin; Liu, Xing-Mei; Zhou, Man; Li, Gui-Fang; An, Bang-Quan; Su, Li; Wu, Xian; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases in the world and is especially frequent in tropical and subtropical regions, including South China. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of α-thal in Guizhou Province as this information was unknown. A total of 40 α-thal carriers were determined in 1219 newborn umbilical cord blood samples by hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis combined with DNA analysis, which revealed that the carrier rate of α-thal in Guizhou Province was 3.28%. One thousand and forty-five individuals referred to our hospital were tested for α-thal mutations. Two hundred and twenty-four cases were determined as α-thal carriers or patients. A total of 11 genotypes and five different α-thal mutations were identified in these 224 cases. Of these mutations, more than 96.0% were deletions, including - -(SEA) (65.89%), -α(3.7) (rightward) (22.87%) and -α(4.2) (leftward) (7.74%). The other two nondeletional mutations, Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α(CS)α, HBA2: c.427T > C) and Hb Quong Sze [Hb QS, α(QS)α, HBA2: c.377T > C (or HBA1)] account for 2.71% and 0.78%, respectively. The results of this study will be useful in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND) of α-thal in Guizhou Province.

  12. Health risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water from Anhui Province in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-jian; Jin, You-qian; Wei, Jun-ling

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes the concentrations and health risks of fluoride in 249 drinking water samples collected from different regions of Anhui Province in China. Results indicated that fluoride content in drinking water ranged from 0.12 to 1.94 mg L(-1) (mean = 0.57 mg L(-1)) in the following order: Huaibei plain region > Jianghuai hill region ≈ Dabieshan mountainous region > plain along the Yangtze River region > southern Anhui mountainous region. The fluoride contents were less than 0.50 mg L(-1) in 66.66 % of the drinking water samples, 0.51-1.0 mg L(-1) in 23.29 %, and higher than 1.0 mg L(-1) in 12.04 %. The fluoride levels in some samples were lower than the recommended values for controlling dental caries (0.50-1.0 mg L(-1)). The total fluoride intake from drinking water was between 0.14 and 2.33 mg per day in different regions of the province, supposing an individual consumes 1.2 L of water per day. Therefore, measures should be taken to increase fluoride intake in the Jianghuai hill region, Dabieshan mountainous region, plain along the Yangtze River, and southern Anhui mountainous region to control dental caries. On the other hand, the fluoride levels must be reduced in the Huaibei plain region to decrease endemic fluorosis. The results serve as crucial guidelines for managing fluoride safety in drinking water and controlling endemic fluorosis in different regions of Anhui Province.

  13. Changing characteristics of wet/dry spells during 1961-2008 in Sichuan province, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Jinchi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding variations in precipitation from a variety of aspects is important for the utilization of water resources. Based on daily precipitation records at 98 meteorological stations in Sichuan province, southwestern China, the spatial and temporal changes in wet/dry spells were investigated by using 14 precipitation indices. The Mann-Kendall trend test is used to detect trends in the index series. Results suggest that the decrease of precipitation in central and eastern Sichuan was significant in terms of decreasing tendencies of wet spell indices. However, the decreasing trend of dry spell indices suggested an increase in precipitation in western Sichuan province. A higher risk of droughts can be expected in autumn and wet spell indices in winter and spring are increasing, implying obvious seasonality and seasonal shifts of change in precipitation within this province. Wet/dry spells with short duration were accounted for a large proportion of spells in Sichuan. The occurrence and fractional contribution of short-duration wet spells were increasing. The same trend was found in dry spells with short and moderate duration in Sichuan

  14. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  15. Genetic screening and evaluation for chromosomal abnormalities of infertile males in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Fan, H-T; Zhang, Q-S; Wang, X-Y; Yang, X; Tian, W-J; Li, R-W

    2015-12-08

    Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of male infertility, particularly in cases of azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomal rearrangement may interrupt an important gene or exert position effects. The functionality of genes at specific breakpoints, perhaps with a specific role in spermatogenesis, may be altered by such rearrangements. Structural chromosome abnormalities are furthermore known to increase the risk of pregnancy loss. In this study, we aimed to assess chromosomal defects in infertile men from Jilin Province, China, by genetic screening and to evaluate the relationship between structural chromosome abnormalities and male infertility. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities among the study participants (receiving genetic counseling in Jilin Province, China) was 10.55%. The most common chromosome abnormality was Klinefelter syndrome, and the study findings suggested that azoospermia and oligospermia may result from structural chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 1 was shown to be most commonly involved in male infertility and balanced chromosomal translocation was identified as one of the causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomes 4, 7, and 10 were the most commonly involved chromosomes in male partners of women experiencing repeated abortion.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  17. High rate of drug resistance among tuberculous meningitis cases in Shaanxi province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Feng, Guo-Dong; Pang, Yu; Liu, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Li, Qiao; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ping; Zhan, Li-Ping; Marais, Ben J; Zhao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and mycobacterial features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases in China are not well described; especially in western provinces with poor tuberculosis control. We prospectively enrolled patients in whom TBM was considered in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, over a 2-year period (September 2010 to December 2012). Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), as well as genotyping of all positive cultures. Among 350 patients included in the study, 27 (7.7%) had culture-confirmed TBM; 84 (24.0%) had probable and 239 (68.3%) had possible TBM. DST was performed on 25/27 (92.3%) culture positive specimens; 12/25 (48.0%) had “any resistance” detected and 3 (12.0%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Demographic and clinical features of drug resistant and drug susceptible TBM cases were similar. Beijing was the most common genotype (20/25; 80.0%) with 9/20 (45%) of the Beijing strains exhibiting drug resistance; including all 3 MDR strains. All (4/4) isoniazid resistant strains had mutations in the katG gene; 75% (3/4) of strains with phenotypic rifampicin resistance had mutations in the rpoB gene detected by Xpert MTB/RIF®. High rates of drug resistance were found among culture-confirmed TBM cases; most were Beijing strains. PMID:27143630

  18. Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Liu, Guo-Hua; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most important zoonotic pathogen that can infect almost all animals, including humans. However, little information is available regarding prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in sika deer. In the present study, the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China was examined using PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. 23 (7.06%) of 326 samples were tested E. bieneusi-positive, and the risk factor significantly associated with E. bieneusi prevalence was the age of sika deer. Sequence analysis of the ITS rRNA gene suggested that 8 genotypes of E. bieneusi were found in this study, with five known genotypes, namely J (n = 11), BEB6 (n = 4), EbpC (n = 1), CHN-DC1 (n = 1), KIN-1 (n = 1) and three novel genotypes, namely JLD-1 (n = 2), JLD-2 (n = 2) and JLD-3 (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that genotypes CHN-DC-1, KIN-1, EbpC, JLD-2 and JLD-3 fell into group 1, while other three genotypes (genotypes J, BEB6 and JLD-1) were clustered into group 2 (so-called bovine-specific groups). These findings indicated the presence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in Jilin province, Northeastern China. Effective strategies should be performed to control E. bieneusi infection in sika deer, other animals and humans.

  19. Evaluation, in three provinces, of the introduction and impact of China's National Essential Medicines Scheme.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ying, Cui; Sufang, Guo; Brant, Philippa; Bin, Li; Hipgrave, David

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate implementation of the National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) in rural China. Two rural counties/districts in each of three provinces where NEMS had been implemented were surveyed. Information was collected from NEMS staff at the province, county/district, township and village levels; patients with chronic disease were also interviewed. Service provision, finances, prescriptions, inpatient records and the expenditures of patients with certain diagnoses were investigated in township hospitals and village clinics. The results were compared with the corresponding data recorded before NEMS was introduced. Following the introduction of NEMS, drug procurement in each study location was systematized. Total drug costs declined. This, and improved prescribing, reduced the costs of outpatient and inpatient care and led, apparently, to increased uptake of health services. However, the prices of some drugs had increased and the availability of others had declined. The compensation of health-care providers for NEMS-related reductions in their incomes had been largely ineffective. As a result of the introduction of NEMS, health facilities relied more on public financing. Many health-care providers complained about higher workloads and lower incomes. Although it was well conceived, the introduction of NEMS into China's decentralized, fee-for-service system of health care has not been straightforward. It has highlighted the problems associated with attempts to modernize health care and health financing for patients' benefit. Sustainable mechanisms to compensate health-care providers for lost income are needed to ensure that NEMS is a success.

  20. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingling; Zhang, Enmin; Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax.

  1. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Anthrax Outbreaks in Liaoning Province, China, 2001-2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xuesheng; Zhang, Huijuan; Cai, Hong; Liang, Xudong; Sun, Yingwei; Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Wei, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a continuous threat in China, especially in rural regions. In July 2015, an anthrax outbreak occurred in Xifeng County, Liaoning Province. A total of 10 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported, with 210 people under medical observation. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreak occurred in Liaoning Province were described, and all cases were caused by butchering and contacting sick animal. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationship between outbreak-related isolates/samples of the year 2015 and previous Bacillus anthracis strains was analyzed by means of canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers and single-nucleotide repeats (SNR) analysis. There are two canSNP subgroups found in Liaoning, A.Br.001/002 and A.Br.Ames, and a total of six MLVA 15 genotypes and five SNR genotypes were observed. The strain collected from anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015 was classified as A.Br.001/002 subgroup and identified as MLVA15-29 genotype, with same SNR profile (CL10: 17, CL12: 15, CL33: 29, and CL35: 13). So we conclude that the same clone of B.anthracis caused the anthrax outbreak in Xifeng County in 2015, and this clone is different to previous isolates. Strengthening public health education in China is one of the most important measures to prevent and control anthrax. PMID:27299730

  2. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  3. Detection of spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jimin; Lin, Junfen; Gong, Zhenyu; Chang, Yue; Ye, Xiaodong; Gu, Shiping; Pang, Weilong; Wang, Chengwei; Zheng, Xiaohua; Hou, Juan; Ling, Feng; Shi, Xuguang; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping; Lv, Huakun; Chai, Chengliang

    2015-03-01

    Tick species distribution and prevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks were investigated in Zhejiang Province, China in 2010 and 2011. PCR was used to detect SFGR and positive amplicons were sequenced, compared to published sequences and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA 4.0. A total of 292 adult ticks of ten species were captured and 7.5 % (22/292) of the ticks were PCR-positive for SFG Rickettsia. The PCR-positive rates were 5.5 % (6/110) for Haemaphysalis longicornis, 3.6 % (1/28) for Amblyomma testudinarium and 16 % (15/94) for Ixodes sinensis, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA genes detected in ticks indicated that there are two dominating groups of SFGR. Sequences of group one were closely related to Rickettsia monacensis, whereas sequences of group two were closest related to Rickettsia heilongjiangensis and Rickettsia japonica, which are human pathogens. Our findings underline the importance of these ticks in public health surveillance in Zhejiang Province, China.

  4. Residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Fang, Li; Wang, Junliang; Liu, Weiping; Yuan, Hejin; Jantunen, Liisa; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-03-28

    Studies on residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) facilitate the assessment of the contamination level, distribution, sources, transportation, and trend of these selected OCPs in China. In this work we investigated the concentration levels of endosulfans and chlordane, which are currently used, and the never used aldrin and dieldrin in the province of Zhejiang, a rainy, and hilly tea-growing province in eastern China. The average/mean residue levels of OCPs was in the order ∑endosulfan > ∑chlordane > aldrin > dieldrin. The residue level was in good agreement with the usage of OCPs in Zhejiang. The spatial distribution showed that the residues of OCPs in soils from the mountain area were always higher than those in soils from the plains. The distribution characteristics were related to usage for current-use OCPs and temperature for never used OCPs. The isomeric ratios and enantiomeric fractions are useful tools to identify the degradation preference of contaminants. The wide range of ratios between trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) indicated that the degradation of the two isomers of chlordane was different at different sites. Nonracemic residues of TC and CC were observed in most soils; this is significant since the enantiomers have different toxicities.

  5. Is Pertussis Infection Neglected in China? Evidence from a Seroepidemiology Survey in Zhejiang, an Eastern Province of China.

    PubMed

    He, Hanqing; Yao, Pingping; Zhou, Yang; Deng, Xuan; Pan, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    The resurgence of pertussis has occurred in many countries. However, the epidemiological profiles of pertussis cannot be well understood by the current surveillance system in China. This study was designed to investigate the age specific serologic evidence of antibodies against pertussis, and to offer information regarding the existence of pertussis infection in Zhejiang Province, China. A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out in 6 counties of Zhejiang Province during September and October of 2014. The immunoglobulin G-pertussis toxin (IgG-PT) levels were measured quantitatively with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody activities were expressed in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-U/ml and a level ≥30 FDA-U/ml was considered seropositive. An IgG-PT >80 FDA-U/ml indicated recent pertussis infection if the patient had not received immunization with the pertussis vaccine within the last year. The mean IgG-PT seropositivity rate among the 2107 subjects was 33.32% with a geometric mean concentration of 17.73 (95% confidence interval: 16.90-18.60) FDA-U/ml. The difference in the seropositivity rates reached significant means among the different age groups (waldχ2 = 198.41, P<0.0005), and children aged 3 years had the highest percentage (63.24%) of undetectable IgG-PT level. Of the 1707 subjects ≥3 years of age, 169 (9.90%) had evidence of a recent infection. The highest proportion of IgG-PT levels ≥80 FDA-U/ml was found in ≥60 years age group followed by 11-15 and 16-25 years age groups. This study indicates the rather lower IgG-PT level sustained 1 year after the acellular pertussis vaccine booster dose, and substantial proportion of population susceptibility to pertussis in Zhejiang Province, China. Moreover, pertussis infection is not uncommon; it was estimated that 10% of subjects were recently infected approximately within the last 100 days. We highly suggest that the surveillance capacity should be

  6. A New System of Marginal Arc in the North of the South China Sea of Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N.; Dong, H.; Zhao, H.; Liu, H.; Shen, P.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) of today results from rupturing of the marginal continent of South China. Both its north and west margins are of typical passivity. Some records mirroring a Cretaceous active margin were reported in the study area. Generally they were attributed to westward subduction from the fossil Pacific plate. With respect of the problem, however, whether the subduction may induce response of an area far from the Pacific margin is an open question. The present approach has been primitively undertaken with the comparison of magmatic formation between the proto-SCS and the Pacific. The adakitic granite and Mg-rich andesite collected from the southern Hainan Island have their own petrologic and chemical characters as distinct from those igneous rocks from Zhejiang-Fujian province just bordering the western Pacific. Interestingly, the characters displayed in the Hainan are repeated in the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area, South Vietnam. According to Tapponier's model (1986), Indo-China block was SE-ward slid 500-700km along the Red River Fault since the late Eocene. If restoring it, the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area should be on the line extended westward from the Hainan Island. The above two sites constitute a latitudinal zone representing the active margin of the proto-SCS differing from the Pacific system. Actually some elements can be concentrated as follows to illustrate the framework in the northern margin of the SCS (fig. 1): (1) the late Jurassic to late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence drilled from the Chaoshan depression 150 mile off the Pearl River Delta, accumulating in the fore-arc environment, (2) the arc-related granite, diorite and monzodiorite (118-72Ma) drilled from the northern continental shelf, the SCS, (3) the Cretaceous andesite, andesitic basalt, granite, and pyroclastic sediments, afore-said, outcropping both in Hainan and South Vietnam, (4) granite-gneiss (75Ma) drilled in the Xisha foundation of reef platform, which might be the output of

  7. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing a large outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian-Peng; He, Jian-Feng; Deng, Ai-Ping; Lin, Hua-Liang; Song, Tie; Peng, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Li, Zhi-Hao; Rutherford, Shannon; Zeng, Wei-Lin; Li, Xing; Ma, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Hui

    2016-05-03

    Dengue cases have been reported each year for the past 25 years in Guangdong Province, China with a recorded historical peak in 2014. This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics of this large outbreak in order to better understand its epidemic factors and to inform control strategies. Data for clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases in 2014 were extracted from the China Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of imported and indigenous cases in terms of population, temporal and spatial distributions. A total of 45 224 dengue fever cases and 6 deaths were notified in Guangdong Province in 2014, with an incidence of 47.3 per 100 000 people. The elderly (65+ years) represented 11.7 % of total indigenous cases with the highest incidence (72.3 per 100 000). Household workers and the unemployed accounted for 23.1 % of indigenous cases. The majority of indigenous cases occurred in the 37(th) to 44(th) week of 2014 (September and October) and almost all (20 of 21) prefecture-level cities in Guangdong were affected. Compared to the non-Pearl River Delta Region, the Pearl River Delta Region accounted for the majority of dengue cases and reported cases earlier in 2014. Dengue virus serotypes 1 (DENV-1), 2 (DENV-2) and 3 (DENV-3) were detected and DENV-1 was predominant (88.4 %). Dengue fever is a serious public health problem and is emerging as a continuous threat in Guangdong Province. There is an urgent need to enhance dengue surveillance and control, especially for the high-risk populations in high-risk areas.

  9. Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  10. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  11. Surveillance of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Domestic Ruminants in the Dongting Lake Region, Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinming; Zhu, Chunxia; Shi, Yaojun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lanpin; Qin, Shangtian; Kang, Saie; Huang, Yanpin; Jin, Yamei; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is prevalent in Asian countries and it remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic foci are the marsh and lake regions of southern China, particularly the Dongting Lake region bordering Hunan and Hubei provinces, and the Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi province. Domestic ruminants, especially bovines, have long been considered to play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. Methods and Findings A miracidial hatching technique was used to investigate the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in domestic ruminants and field feces collected from two towns located to the south and east of Dongting Lake, Hunan province, between 2005 and 2010. The overall prevalence of infection was not significantly reduced from 4.93% in 2005 to 3.64% in 2008, after which it was maintained at this level. Bovines comprised 23.5–58.2% of the total infected ruminants, while goats comprised 41.8–76.5%. Infection rates in cattle and goats were significantly higher than those found in buffalo in most study years. The prevalence in buffalo younger than three years was significantly higher than that in those aged over three years. All the positive field samples of feces were derived from bovines in Nandashan. In Matang Town, 61.22% of the positive field feces were from bovines, while the rest were from goats. The positive rates for field feces were approximately the same in April and November/October. Conclusions The present study found that bovines and goats are major sources of S. japonicum infection in the Dongting lake region and there was age-related resistance in buffalo. Both bovines and goats should be treated equally when controlling S. japonicum infections in the Dongting lake region. It is essential to conduct an additional mass treatment in late March or early April, in addition to the original treatment scheme. PMID:22359638

  12. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  13. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  14. Compilation of Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting, for Four Research Stations in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina, 2000-2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    tectonic belt in the Piedmont Physiographic Province and is underlain by quartz diorite and biotite gneiss rock types. Regionally, the LPRS is...Provinces in North Carolina (Daniel and Dahlen, 2002). The LPRS was selected to evaluate the effects of quartz diorite and massive (weakly foliated

  15. [Evapotranspiration of winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiaxuan; Li, Yuzhong; Yan, Chang-Rong; Zhao, Quansheng; Mei, Xurong

    2006-12-01

    By using eddy covariance and remote sensing techniques, the relationships between winter wheat soil moisture content and farmland evapotranspiration or canopy temperature were analyzed at field scale under various environmental conditions in the North China Plain. The results showed that when the soil moisture content was below 65% of field capacity, the evaporative fraction under full canopy was low and stable during the middle part of clear days. Under clear sky condition, there was a good non-linear correlation between latent heat flux and crop canopy temperature with diurnal and seasonal patterns. The temperature difference between crop canopy and air as well as the relative evapotranspiration had a close link to the relative moisture content of 0 - 100 cm soil layer. Based on the in situ measurements of daily evapotranspiration amount (ET(d)), daily net radiation flux (Rn(d), mm), average canopy temperature (T(e), degrees C) from 13 : 30 to 14: 00, and daily maximum air temperature (T(a max), degrees C) during the field experiment, the parameters of simplified estimation model for daily evapotranspiration were established.

  16. Sequestration of nonylphenol in sediment from Bohai Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fen; Hu, Jianying; Liu, Jinlin; Yang, Min; Wang, Fu; Wang, Hong

    2008-02-01

    The ubiquity of nonylphenol (NP) in aquatic environments has been well documented, and the long-term fate of NP in sediments is a concern from the viewpoint of risk assessment due to its endocrine-disrupting effects. This paper reports on the assessment of long-term fate of NP in marine sediments by determining extractable and nonextractable fractions of NP in surface sediments and a sediment core from Bohai Bay, North China. The extractable fraction was operationally defined as the fraction of NP that was extracted with a solvent mixture of methanol/methylene chloride, and the nonextractable fraction was the portion of NP that can be released from the sediments by alkaline hydrolyzing after the initial solvent extraction. The total concentrations (extractable and nonextractable) of NP were 3.4-34.3 ng/g dw in the surface sediments and 2.2-17.7 ng/g dw in the sediment core. Depending on the sedimentation time, the percentage of nonextractable NP relative to the total NP in the core ranged from 38 to 99%. Based on the relationship between the percentage of nonextractable NP in sediments and sedimentation time, the sequestration rate of NP in the sediment core from Bohai Bay was estimated to be 0.94% x a(-1). These results have important implications in understanding the geochemical fate of NP in sediments.

  17. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  18. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  19. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  20. Maternal Mortality in Henan Province, China: Changes between 1996 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    You, Fengzhi; Huo, Kaiming; Wang, Ruili; Xu, Dongmei; Deng, Jie; Wei, Ying; Shi, Fenglian; Liu, Hongyang; Cheng, Guomei; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Ping; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiaoyang; Jacobsson, Bo; Zhu, Changlian

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal deaths occur mostly in developing countries and the majority of them are preventable. This study analyzes changes in maternal mortality and related causes in Henan Province, China, between 1996 and 2009, in an attempt to provide a reliable basis for introducing effective interventions to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), part of the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Methods and Findings This population-based maternal mortality survey in Henan Province was carried out from 1996 to 2009. Basic information was obtained from the health care network for women and children and the vital statistics system, from specially trained monitoring personnel in 25 selected monitoring sites and by household survey in each case of maternal death. This data was subsequently reported to the Henan Provincial Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital. The total MMR in Henan Province declined by 78.4%, from 80.1 per 100 000 live births in 1996 to 17.3 per 100 000 live births in 2009. The decline was more pronounced in rural than in urban areas. The most common causes of maternal death during this period were obstetric hemorrhage (43.8%), pregnancy-induced hypertension (15.8%), amniotic fluid embolism (13.9%) and heart disease (8.0%). The MMR was higher in rural areas with lower income, less education and poorer health care. Conclusion There was a remarkable decrease in the MMR in Henan Province between 1996 and 2009 mainly in the rural areas and MMR due to direct obstetric causes such as obstetric hemorrhage. This study indicates that improving the health care network for women, training of obstetric staff at basic-level units, promoting maternal education, and increasing household income are important interventional strategies to reduce the MMR further. PMID:23071740

  1. A new highly cave-adapted trechine genus and species from northern Guizhou Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A remarkable aphaenopsian beetle, a sympatric species of Qianotrechus tenuicollis Uéno, 2000, was newly discovered in Cave Mahuang Dong of Shuanghe Dong cave system, the longest cave system of China in Suiyang County, northern Guizhou Province. To categorize this striking but still unknown species, a new genus and species are proposed: Shuangheaphaenops elegans gen. n., sp. n. Relationships of Shuangheaphaenops and other highly modified aphaenopsian genera from southern China Karsts are discussed. PMID:28144179

  2. Alleviating the water scarcity in the North China Plain: the role of virtual water and real water transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuoying; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun

    2016-04-01

    The North China Plain is the most water scarce region in China. Its water security is closely relevant to interregional water movement, which can be realized by real water transfers and/or virtual water transfers. This study investigates the roles of virtual water trade and real water transfer using Interregional Input-Output model. The results show that the region is receiving 19.4 billion m3/year of virtual water from the interregional trade, while exporting 16.4 billion m3/year of virtual water in the international trade. In balance, the region has a net virtual water gain of 3 billion m3/year from outside. Its virtual water inflow is dominated by agricultural products from other provinces, totalling 16.6 billion m3/year, whilst its virtual water export is dominated by manufacturing sectors to other countries, totalling 11.7 billion m3/year. Both virtual water import and real water transfer from South to North Water Diversion Project are important water supplements for the region. The results of this study provide useful scientific references for the establishment of combating strategies to deal with the water scarcity in the future.

  3. Incorporating water consumption into crop water footprint: A case study of China's South-North Water Diversion Project.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhang; Tang, Deshan; Ding, Yifan; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-03-01

    The crop water footprint (WF) indicates the consumption of water for a crop during the planting period, mainly through evapotranspiration. However, as irrigated agriculture accounts for nearly 25% of the global agriculture water usage, evaluation of WF during transportation becomes essential to improve the efficiency of irrigated agriculture. This study aims at building an improved WF model to understand how much WF is produced due to water diversion and how much crop WF increases during the transfer. The proposed model is then used to calculate the WF of four major crops in five provinces along China's South-North Water Transfer Project in two steps. First, the WF of the water transfer project (WFeng) is assessed in a supply chain analysis method. Second, a WF allocation model is built to distribute the project WF for each crop/province. The results show that the evaporation and seepage are the main sources of WFeng. Out of five provinces, two namely Tianjin and Hebei present higher WFblue and WF increase. A positive correlation between water diversion distance and crop WF increase is noted. Among the four crops, cotton presents higher WFblue and WF increase. The crops with higher WFblue tend to be more strongly influenced by the water diversion project, due to high irrigation water dependency. This analysis may expand the WF concept from an evaporation-related term to a term reflecting crop biological processes and water consumption by artificial irrigation projects. Thus, it may serve as an indicator for optimizing future objectives and strategies associated to water resource planning in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heat and mortality for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in 12 cities of Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Chen, Kai; Chen, Xiaodong; Jing, Yuanshu; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-12-01

    Little evidence exists on the relationship between heat and subtypes of stroke mortality, especially in China. Moreover, few studies have reported the effect modification by individual characteristics on heat-related stroke mortality. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of heat exposure on total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke mortality and its individual modifiers in 12 cities in Jiangsu Province, China during 2009 to 2013. We first used a distributed lag non-linear model with quasi-Poisson regression to examine the city-specific heat-related total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke mortality risks at 99th percentile vs. 75th percentile of daily mean temperature in the whole year for each city, while adjusting for long-term trend, season, relative humidity, and day of the week. Then, we used a random-effects meta-analysis to pool the city-specific risk estimates. We also considered confounding by air pollution and effect modification by gender, age, education level, and death location. Overall, the heat-related mortality risk in 12 Jiangsu cities was 1.54 (95%CI: 1.44 to 1.65) for total stroke, 1.63 (95%CI: 1.48 to 1.80) for ischemic stroke, and 1.36 (95%CI: 1.26 to 1.48) for hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. Estimated total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke mortality risks were higher for women versus men, older people versus younger people, those with low education levels versus high education levels, and deaths that occurred outside of hospital. Air pollutants did not significantly influence the heat-related stroke mortality risk. Heat exposure significantly increased both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke mortality risks in Jiangsu Province, China. Females, the elderly, and those with low education levels are particularly vulnerable to this effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological Surveillance of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (LPAIV) from Poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi; Xie, Zhi-xun; Liu, Jia-bo; Pang, Yao-shan; Deng, Xian-wen; Xie, Zhi-qin; Xie, Li-ji; Fan, Qing; Luo, Si-si

    2013-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world “influenza epicenter”, due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8%) were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7%) in chicken and 282 (9.1%) in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11) and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8). The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%). The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area. PMID:24204754

  6. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat–mortality associations outside of cities. Objective: We investigated whether heat–mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. Methods: We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009–2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population < 57.11%) counties using a Bayesian hierarchical model. To explain the spatial variation in associations by county, county-level characteristics affecting heat vulnerability were also examined. Results: We found that the overall mortality risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863–1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204 PMID:27152420

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases related health resources allocation in hunan province of china.

    PubMed

    Bei, Chengli; Hu, Anmei; Liu, Huayun; Chen, Ping; Jia, Xiujie; Zhou, Guisheng; Cai, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Information about Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)-related health resources allocation in China is very limited. The aim of the study was to explore the distribution of COPD-related health resources allocation among different levels public hospitals (PHs) in Hunan Province of central south China. We randomly collected data from 57 Public Hospitals (PHs) at 3 different levels in Hunan province as well as 893 pulmonary physicians (PPs) who worked there in 2009. Questionnaires based on the recommendations of COPD guideline were designed, including availability of spirometers, inhaled agents for COPD and COPD-related health education for local residents, as well as PPs' educational levels. Spirometers equipped ratio in 3(rd) level PHs was much higher than 1(st), 2(nd) PHs. The disparity varied vastly form 0% to 100%. The inhaled agents equipped ratio was 5.56%, 70.85% and 100% respectively for the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) levels PHs. No 1(st) level PHs launched COPD-related healthcare education for local residents, only 10 of 24 for the 2(nd) level PHs and 10 of 15 for the 3(rd) level PHs. PPs of high educational levels concentrate in 3(rd) levels PHs, however, PPs working in 1(st) levels PHs and 2(nd) levels PHs were mainly low and median educational levels PPs' knowledge of COPD of 3(rd) levels PHs was much better than of 1(st) levels PHs and 2(nd) levels PHs. The extreme imbalance and disparity existed in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels PHs in central south China. Inequity and insufficient in COPD-related health resources in 1(st) and 2(nd) levels PHs should be improved.

  8. HIV Prevalence and Associated Factors among Foreign Brides from Burma in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yin; Fu, Li Ru; Jia, Manhong; Dai, Genyin; Wang, Qing; Huang, Peng; Zheng, Hui; Peng, Zhihang; Wang, Lu; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background Many Burmese women have migrated to Yunnan Province and married local residents over the past few decades; however, limited information is available on their HIV prevalence and ability to cope with HIV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV and knowledge related to AIDS, as well as to discover possible risk factors of HIV infection among foreign brides from Burma in Yunnan Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was taken of all Burmese cross-border wives residing in Tengchong County using standardized questionnaires. HIV and syphilis testing was conducted at the same time. Results Among 600 Burmese brides, the HIV prevalence was 2.17%. Those aged 21–30, those with higher education levels and those who had resided in China less than one year had higher infection rates. The AIDS awareness rate of 39.50% was very low in this population. Only 28.67% of participants had ever been involved in prevention services. The rate of condom use was low. Classification by age, education, occupation, prior HIV testing and prior use of HIV prevention services showed a statistically significant association with mean knowledge score (p<0.05). Residing in China less than one year (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.09–13.70) and having casual sex in the last year (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.20–91.59) were risk factors for HIV infection. Conclusions Burmese brides in China are not only exposed to a high risk of HIV infection, but also seriously lack response capabilities. Educational interventions and control efforts are practical approaches that need to be strengthened among this population. PMID:25536087

  9. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population < 57.11%) counties using a Bayesian hierarchical model. To explain the spatial variation in associations by county, county-level characteristics affecting heat vulnerability were also examined. We found that the overall mortality risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Related Health Resources Allocation in Hunan Province of China

    PubMed Central

    BEI, Chengli; HU, Anmei; LIU, Huayun; CHEN, Ping; JIA, Xiujie; ZHOU, Guisheng; CAI, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Background Information about Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)-related health resources allocation in China is very limited. The aim of the study was to explore the distribution of COPD-related health resources allocation among different levels public hospitals (PHs) in Hunan Province of central south China. Methods: We randomly collected data from 57 Public Hospitals (PHs) at 3 different levels in Hunan province as well as 893 pulmonary physicians (PPs) who worked there in 2009. Questionnaires based on the recommendations of COPD guideline were designed, including availability of spirometers, inhaled agents for COPD and COPD-related health education for local residents, as well as PPs’ educational levels. Results: Spirometers equipped ratio in 3rd level PHs was much higher than 1st, 2nd PHs. The disparity varied vastly form 0% to 100%. The inhaled agents equipped ratio was 5.56%, 70.85% and 100% respectively for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels PHs. No 1st level PHs launched COPD-related healthcare education for local residents, only 10 of 24 for the 2nd level PHs and 10 of 15 for the 3rd level PHs. PPs of high educational levels concentrate in 3rd levels PHs, however, PPs working in 1st levels PHs and 2nd levels PHs were mainly low and median educational levels PPs’ knowledge of COPD of 3rd levels PHs was much better than of 1st levels PHs and 2nd levels PHs. Conclusion: The extreme imbalance and disparity existed in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels PHs in central south China. Inequity and insufficient in COPD-related health resources in 1st and 2nd levels PHs should be improved. PMID:23967421

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in North Maluku province of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ramli; Agho, Kingsley E; Inder, Kerry J; Bowe, Steven J; Jacobs, Jennifer; Dibley, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate nutrition is needed to ensure optimum growth and development of infants and young children. Understanding of the risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province is important to guide Indonesian government public health planners to develop nutrition programs and interventions in a post conflict area. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province of Indonesia. Methods The health and nutritional status of children aged less than five years was assessed in North Maluku province of Indonesia in 2004 using a cross-sectional multi-stage survey conducted on 750 households from each of the four island groups in North Maluku province. A total of 2168 children aged 0-59 months were used in the analysis. Results Prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 29% (95%CI: 26.0-32.2) and 14.1% (95%CI: 11.7-17.0) for children aged 0-23 months and 38.4% (95%CI: 35.9-41.0) and 18.4% (95%CI: 16.1-20.9) for children aged 0-59 months, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for stunted children were child's age in months, male sex and number of family meals per day (≤2 times), for children aged 0-23 months, and income (poorest and middle-class family), child's age in months and male sex for children aged 0-59 months. The risk factors for severe stunting in children aged 0-23 months were income (poorest family), male sex and child's age in months and for children aged 0-59 months were income (poorest family), father's occupation (not working), male sex and child's age in months. Conclusion Programmes aimed at improving stunting in North Maluku province of Indonesia should focus on children under two years of age, of male sex and from families of low socioeconomic status. PMID

  12. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  13. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  14. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  15. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenjing; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS). TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 95% (352/370) of the wheat samples were positive for more than one type of Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME) and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required. PMID:27792182

  16. Identification of Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from 8 Provinces of China

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Lulu; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Mingxiang; Tan, Yunhong; Zhang, Jingrui; Yu, Qin; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Haiyan; Lu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in incidence and prevalence worldwide. In this study, we identified NTM species of the clinical isolates from 8 provinces in China, in order to preliminarily provide some basic scientific data in the different species and distribution of NTM related to pulmonary disease in China. A total of 523 clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed clinically from 2005 to 2012 were identified to the species using conventional and molecular methods, including multilocus PCR, rpoB and hsp65 PCR-PRA, hsp65, rpoB, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The isolates were identified into 3 bacterium genera, including NTM, Gordonia bronchialis, and Nocardia farcinica, and, for the 488 NTM isolates, 27 species were identified. For all the 27 species of NTM which were found to cause pulmonary infections in humans, the most prevalent species was M. intracellulare, followed by M. avium and M. abscessus. And seven other species were for the first time identified in patients with TB in China. NTM species identification is very important for distinguishing between tuberculosis and NTM pulmonary diseases, and the species diversity drives the creation of diverse and integrated identification methods with higher accuracy and efficacy. PMID:27882322

  17. Late Neurosyphilis and Tertiary Syphilis in Guangdong Province, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Chen, Lei; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Due to challenges in diagnosis and the need for complex laboratory tests, misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis is common in China. We validated the diagnosis and examined the treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases reported between 2009 and 2014 in Guangdong, China. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the structural factors associated with correct diagnosis and standard treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis. Among the 3805 respondents (3805/3936, 96.7%), 1,837 (48.3%) met the misdiagnosed criteria. The misdiagnosis rate decreased over the study period (54.2% in 2009 and 41.8% in 2014). Only 27.1% and 24.9% of the correctly diagnosed late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases received standard treatment, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that departments of dermatology or STDs [aOR = 3.24, 95% CI: 2.66–3.95], county or township level hospitals [aOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.14–3.89], and hospitals situated outside of Pearl River Delta area [aOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.46–1.97] had higher likelihood in misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis, compared to the reference groups. Targeted trainings for physicians and expanded syphilis screening services are urgently needed. PMID:28338084

  18. Landsat analysis of the Yangjiatan tungsten district, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Yangjiatan tungsten district at latitude 27??28??? N. and longitude 111??54???E. is located about 140 km southwest of the city of Changsha and 35 km northeast of the town of Shaoyang, southeast Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The deposits, consisting largely of scheelite in veins (Wang, 1975), are contained in highly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age intruded by granitic plutons that are circular in plan view. The major faults and folds trend in a northeasterly direction; whereas, the plutons are clustered in a more easterly trending band across the Landsat image. Landsat image E-2338-02202, acquired December 26, 1975, is number 470 in the "Landsat Image Atlas of the People's Republic of China" printed by the Publishing House of Geology in 1979. A computer-compatible tape of the image was analyzed and used as a demonstration project under a United Nations technical assistance program. Supervised classification of soils, rocks, and vegetation; band ratioing to detect limonite alteration; and edge enhancement were all conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of interactive computer systems. Field evaluation of the results of this work will be conducted by colleagues of the Remote Sensing Center for Geology, Ministry of Geology, in China. ?? 1983.

  19. Identification of Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from 8 Provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haican; Lian, Lulu; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Mingxiang; Tan, Yunhong; Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jingrui; Yu, Qin; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Haiyan; Lu, Bing; Wu, Yimou; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in incidence and prevalence worldwide. In this study, we identified NTM species of the clinical isolates from 8 provinces in China, in order to preliminarily provide some basic scientific data in the different species and distribution of NTM related to pulmonary disease in China. A total of 523 clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed clinically from 2005 to 2012 were identified to the species using conventional and molecular methods, including multilocus PCR, rpoB and hsp65 PCR-PRA, hsp65, rpoB, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The isolates were identified into 3 bacterium genera, including NTM, Gordonia bronchialis, and Nocardia farcinica, and, for the 488 NTM isolates, 27 species were identified. For all the 27 species of NTM which were found to cause pulmonary infections in humans, the most prevalent species was M. intracellulare, followed by M. avium and M. abscessus. And seven other species were for the first time identified in patients with TB in China. NTM species identification is very important for distinguishing between tuberculosis and NTM pulmonary diseases, and the species diversity drives the creation of diverse and integrated identification methods with higher accuracy and efficacy.

  20. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. Methods A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May–June 2015 and December 2015–January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Results Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Conclusions Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of “too low prices.” To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages. PMID:27780218

  1. Spatial effects of "informal urbanization" in China: the case of Fujian province.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y

    1998-03-01

    This study describes the patterns and characteristics of temporary migration and urbanization in Fujian province, China. China's urbanization is unique for developing countries in that the degree of primacy in the city system is declining. Agricultural population concentrations are being driven by the development of township and village enterprises (TVEs). Informal urbanization is characterized by rural-urban migration into villages and townships and flows of temporary migrants. Prior to 1978, urbanization was primarily a formal process that was officially recognized in the household registration system and counted in official statistics. After 1978, the size of nonagricultural cities was formed by temporary migrants and TVEs. TVE, in Fujian, has been far more important in rural-urban changes than official documentation. Fujian has been at the forefront of China's reform and socioeconomic development. TVE employees and temporary migrants tend to spatially reside outside existing cities. This analysis relies on a residential hierarchy that includes rural townships. Distribution of TVE employees by residential hierarchy is compared in 1995, to the distribution of the nonagricultural population and analyzed for its influence on the residential hierarchy and urban system. Analysis suggests that greater informal urbanization strengthens the lower level of residential hierarchy and urban system and leads to the creation of many new economic growth centers. Higher levels will be weakened. Thus towns and small cities will increase. Temporary migration tends to follow the patterns of nonagricultural population concentration.

  2. Identification of Phytophthora species baited and isolated from forest soil and streams in northwestern Yunnan province, China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora species were surveyed by collecting soil samples and placing bait leaves in selected streams during June - October in the years 2005, 2006 and 2010 at three sites in oak forests in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of NW Yunnan province, China. Seventy-three isolates of Phytophthora ...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Echovirus 18 Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Hebei Province, China, in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Su-zhen; Guo, Jia-yun; Li, Jing-jie

    2016-01-01

    Echovirus 18 is a member of the genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae, which can cause meningitis in children. Here, we report the echovirus 18 complete genome sequence, which was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a child with aseptic meningitis in Hebei Province, China. PMID:27789638

  4. Third Wave of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus from Poultry, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shumin; Jia, Weixin; Lin, Yicun; Xing, Kaixiang; Ren, Xingxing; Qi, Wenbao

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen influenza A(H7N9) viruses were isolated from poultry or the environment in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China during 2014−2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all viruses were descended from viruses of the second wave of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections during 2013. These viruses can be divided into 2 branches. PMID:26291620

  5. Mapping alteration using imagery from the Tiangong-1 hyperspectral spaceborne system: Example for the Jintanzi gold province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Feng, Jilu; Rivard, Benoit; Xu, Xinliang; Zhou, Jun; Han, Ling; Yang, Junlu; Ren, Guangli

    2017-07-01

    Due to a production error, the following article ;Mapping alteration using imagery from the Tiangong-1 hyperspectral spaceborne system: Example for the Jintanzi gold province, China; was wrongly included as part of the issue 59C. This article is now replaced with this note and will be included in the correct issue [SI: Geological remote sensing].

  6. Third Wave of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus from Poultry, Guangdong Province, China, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shumin; Jia, Weixin; Lin, Yicun; Xing, Kaixiang; Ren, Xingxing; Qi, Wenbao; Liao, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Fourteen influenza A(H7N9) viruses were isolated from poultry or the environment in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China during 2014-2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all viruses were descended from viruses of the second wave of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections during 2013. These viruses can be divided into 2 branches.

  7. [Enterobius vermicularis infection status among children in 9 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Dan; Wang, Ju-Jun; Zhu, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Ting-Jun; Zang, Wei; Qian, Men-Bao; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Chang-Hai; Wang, Guo-Fei; Xu, Long-Qi

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis among children in 9 Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/A/M) of China, and analyze its risk factors. From April to December 2011, one provincial capital (prefecture-level city) and one county (city, district) were chosen as investigation spots from Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Anhui and Guizhou, respectively. Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube. Information of children's family condition, health behavior and school environment were collected by questionnairing. 14 964 children were examined, and 14 582 qualified questionnaires were collected. The total prevalence was 17.8% (2 659/14 964). Of the 9 P/A/M, the prevalence was highest in Hainan Province (51.1%, 869/1 701) and lowest in Anhui Province (0.8%, 13/1 589). The prevalence in urban areas (7.3%, 552/7 581) was lower than that of rural areas (28.5%, 2 107/7 383) (chi2 = 1156.73, P < 0.01). The highest prevalence in urban and rural areas was found in Haikou City(38.0%, 322/847) and Wanning City (64.1%, 547/854) of Hainan Province. The prevalence rate in males and females was 17.4% (1 410/8 128) and 18.3% (1249/6 834), respectively (chi2 = 2.192, P > 0.05). The highest prevalence in males (61.2%, 300/490) and females (67.9%, 247/364) was found in children of Wanning City. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that residence, education level of parents, occupation of parents, nail biting, types of classroom ground and type of boarding were the risk factors on E. vermicularis infection. The prevalence of enterobiasis in children is still high in many areas of China, and the prevention and control measures should be taken according to the risk factors.

  8. Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope

  9. Hypothesis of homeothermy evolution on isolated South China Craton that moved from equator to cold north latitudes 250-200Myr ago.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-07

    Based on avian and mammalian fossils found in the northeastern Chinese province of Liaoning and physiological traits linked to homeothermy, a hypothesis of evolution of homeothermic animals is proposed. It is based on the importance of muscle function in cold environment, as a strong selection pressure that favors endothermic metabolism during periods of cold climates. The presented hypothesis postulates that in progressively cooling environment, animals will develop thermal insulation, increased basal metabolism if food is available, and torpor when food is scarce. Since late Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous global temperatures were high, an exceptional place that gradually became cold was needed for the homeothermy evolution. South China Craton is here proposed as a plausible candidate for that role since it drifted across the Paleo-Tethys ocean, from equator to high northern latitudes in a journey that lasted from 250 to 200Myr ago. After this small continent collided with North China Craton some 200Myr ago, the already cold-adapted animals had spread to large, mostly empty spaces on the North China Craton, due to their evolutionary advantage of making active living in the cold environment. The most advantageous early homeothermic animals went further north to the cold Liaoning to start an oasis that delivered modern birds during next 50Myr. Modern mammals possibly evolved somewhere in the cold vicinity. This made Liaoning and similarly cold places the cradles of early birds and early mammals since for the following millions of years these places remained too cold for poikilotherms to enter and warm enough for homeotherms to dwell, until the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event and subsequent global cooling that diminished poikilotherms. Homeothermy was probably even more important as a survival advantage in cooler climates of Paleogene, when mammals and birds became dominant animals. This interpretation is probably supported by a recent report that a small

  10. Biogas Technology on Supporting “Sustainable” Coffee Farmers in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, N.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been conducted in an area of coffee plantation in Samosir District, North Sumatera Province. The study was conducted in August until September 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefits of using biogas technology in supporting coffee farmers’ productivity to be sustainable, i.e. methane as energy source for coffee roasting proceed instead of fired wood and slurry as organic fertilizer. Coffee cherry causes environmental problem when it is dumped openly, hence it is used to mix with buffalo feces in biodigesters to produce methane and organic fertilizer. Five biodigesters were used with 5 differents designs of composition: T1) 100% buffalo feces, T2) 75% buffalo feces + 25% coffee cherry, T3) 50% buffalo feces + 50% coffee cherry, T4) 25% buffalo feces + 75% coffee cherry, and T5) 100% coffee cherry. The key parameters measured were methane production and slurry chemical compositions including NPK, pH, and C/N. It is found that designs T1 and T2 were superior in methane production, and about 400 liters of methane were used in roasting 3 kg coffee bean as opposed to 6,6 kg fired wood. Designs T1 and T2 were also better in slurry chemical compositions than the other 3 designs. It is recommeded that local coffee farmers utilize coffee cherry based biogas technology in order for their productivity to be sustainable. It is noteworthy that this study is continued with the next one in which the resulting slurries are implemented to foster the growth of the coffee plants during the period of October until December 2016.

  11. Guidelines for support to mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province.

    PubMed

    Masilo, Gaboipolelwe M; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu

    2017-07-25

    South Africa is reported to have the highest rate of sexual assault in the world with over 40% of cases occurring among children. Children who are sexually abused have support programmes and policies to assist them in coping, but there are no support programmes for mothers or caretakers. Caretakers need support for themselves and assisting them will incrementally benefit children under their care. Often mothers of these children experience shock, anger, disbelief and suffer secondary trauma such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following their children's sexual abuse disclosure and yet there are no guidelines for support to these mothers within North-West province (NWP)Objectives: The study seeks to develop guidelines for support to mothers of sexually abused children in NWP. Concurrent convergence triangulation mixed method design was employed in this study. The population consisted of mothers of sexually abused children (SAC) (n = 17 participants for the qualitative component and n = 180 participants for the quantitative component). A sample of mothers of SAC was purposely selected. The participants indicated significant levels of depression because of lack of support by stakeholders. Guidelines for support to assist mothers cope with their secondary trauma were developed based on the literature review, study findings as well as an ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women's mental health. The results also showed extreme PTSD (47.8%), little support (38.8%), not coping (76.1%) and depression (36.1%). The stakeholders should consider a positive approach to support mothers whose children are sexually abused.

  12. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis amongst kindergartens and preschool children in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Afrakhteh, Narges; Marhaba, Zahra; Mahdavi, Seif Ali; Garoosian, Sahar; Mirnezhad, Reyhaneh; Vakili, Mahsa Eshkevar; Shahraj, Haniye Ahmadi; Javadian, Behzad; Rezaei, Rozita; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2016-12-01

    Enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) is probably the most common helminth, which infects humans. Amongst different age groups, prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in children is high compared to adults. Oxyuriasis is one of the most significant parasitic diseases of children. This nematode in children can result in loss of appetite, insomnia, grinding of the teeth, restlessness, endometritis, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and etc. Due to important complications of this parasite, the objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of enterobiasis in kindergarten and preschool children of Amol, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. A total number of 462 children from 32 kindergartens of Amol were examined for the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection, 2013. Adhesive cello-tape anal swab method was trained to parents for sampling. In addition, a questionnaire was designed and filled out to collect demographic information for each individual. Data were analyzed using Chi square test and multivariate logistic regression for each risk factor. The overall prevalence of E. vermicularis infection was 7.1 % (33). Although infection with E. vermicularis in girls 7.9 % was higher compared to boys 6.3 %, there was no significant difference between gender and age (p > 0.05) whereas binary logistic regression showed significant difference between enterobiasis and age (p < 0.05). The findings indicated that the prevalence of E. vermicularis in kindergarten and preschool children is relatively high and still is an important health problem and should not be underestimated due to being highly contagious infection. Therefore, educational programs and mass treatment should be carried out in order to reduce infection incidence in this area and regular parasitological test and attention to personal hygiene in kindergarten and preschool is of great importance.

  13. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  14. Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived over 50 years in the area. The average age of the informants was 74 (with a minimum age of 56 to maximum 84). Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observation using semi-structured questionnaires. Ethnobotanical inventory possessed by the residents included 183 species of plants distributed in 156 genera belonging to 68 families and were used in 626 use-reports. Among them, the medicinal plants were comprised as 42 families, 75 genera, and 83 species in usage in 195 ways. A total of 71 ailments were treated with 222 kinds of remedies using medicinal plants. Parts of plant that were used as treatments total up to 17 and the methods of preparation for medicinal materials add up to 28. Informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that the muscular-skeletal disorders had the highest agreement measure (1.0) followed by cuts and wounds (0.87) and respiratory system disorders (0.77). Overall, 29 plant species showed fidelity level of 100%. This study is noteworthy in that it records rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a time period of pressing environmental changes with regard to the newly built sea wall, eventually leading more or less to the immigration of the seaside inhabitants and the familiarization of the modern medical systems to the farmland inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogeologic unit map of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, Charles C.; Payne, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The numerous geologic formations and rock types in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina have been grouped into 21 hydrogeologic units on the basis of their water-bearing potential as determined from rock origin, composition, and texture. All major classes of rocks--metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary--are present, although metamorphic rocks are the most abundant. The origin of the hydrogeologic units is indicated by the rock class or subclass (metaigneous, metavolanic, or metasedimentary). The composition of the igneous, metaigneous, and metavolcanic rocks is designated as felsic, intermediate, or mafic except for the addition in the metavolcanic group of epiclastic rocks and compositionally undifferentiated rocks. Composition is the controlling attribute in the classification of the metasedimentary units of gneiss (mafic or felsic), marble, quartzite. The other metasediments are designated primarily on the basis of texture (grain size, degree of metamorphism, and development of foliation). Sedimentary rocks occur in the Piedmont in several downfaulted basins. A computerized data file containing records from more than 6,200 wells was analyzed to determine average well yields in each of the 21 units. The well yields were adjusted to an average well depth of 154 feet and an average diameter of 6 inches, the average of all wells in the data set, to remove the variation in well yield attributed to differences in depth and diameter. Average yields range from a high of 23.6 gallons per minute for schist to a low 11.6 gallons per minute for sedimentary rocks of Triassic age.

  16. Remote impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xia; Yang, Daoyong; Zhou, Wen; Tan, Yanke; Yan, Hongming

    2017-03-01

    As an important oceanic signal, the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) affects not only the climate variability over East China and Northeast China but also can affect climate variability over southwestern China (SWC). Based on station rainfall data and reanalysis datasets, the present study investigates the relationship of North Atlantic SST with SWC rainfall during boreal spring for the period 1979-2016. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. The atmospheric circulation over southern Asia associated with North Atlantic SST is favorable for positive rainfall anomalies. Further analyses show that North Atlantic SST can induce a North Atlantic-western Russia-western Tibetan Plateau-SWC (NRTC) teleconnection wave train from upper level to low level. At low level, two anomalous anticyclones are found over the mid-high latitude of North Atlantic and the western Tibetan Plateau, and two anomalous cyclones are observed over the western Russia and Bay of Bengal (BOB), respectively. The NRTC teleconnection wave train plays a bridging role between the North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. Both the observational analysis and two numerical experiments suggest that the North Atlantic SST during boreal spring can induce an anomalous cyclone over BOB by the NRTC teleconnection pattern. The anomalous cyclone over BOB favors moisture transport to SWC, accompanying with significant anomalous ascending motion, and thus results in positive rainfall anomalies in SWC during boreal spring.

  17. Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian palynostratigraphy of the Baode section in the Ordos Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Huaicheng; Ouyang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Well-preserved miospores are recorded and illustrated from the Penchi to the lower part of the Sunjiagou formations in the Baode section of the Ordos Basin, North China. Eight palynological biozones are proposed for the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian interval. Among them, five biozones are refined from pre-existing biozones. The biozones are comparable throughout the North China Craton. In contrast, long distance palynological correlation between North China and Euramerica only extends to the end of the Bolsovian (early Moscovian). By reference of associated marine fossils and magnetostratigraphic data, approximate stratigraphic correlation with the international stages is possible in Ordos Basin. Quantitative abundances of spores and pollen from the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian reflect a wet-hot palaeoclimate in the Ordos Basin but with an increasing tendency of palaeoclimatic drying from the Early Kungurian. This drying tendency can be recognized throughout the North China Craton and seems to be related to the suturing process between North China Craton with the combined northeastern China blocks. Reduviasporonites which occurs often in relatively high frequencies in many Permian-Triassic boundary sections was recorded for the first time from the early Kungurian Shansiensis Biozone.

  18. Demographic transition and the dynamics of measles in six provinces in China: A modeling study.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Ma, Chao; Hao, Lixin; Su, Qiru; An, Zhijie; Ma, Fubao; Xie, Shuyun; Xu, Aiqiang; Zhang, Yanyang; Ding, Zhengrong; Li, Hui; Cairns, Lisa; Wang, Huaqing; Luo, Huiming; Wang, Ning; Li, Li; Ferrari, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    Industrialization and demographic transition generate nonstationary dynamics in human populations that can affect the transmission and persistence of infectious diseases. Decades of increasing vaccination and development have led to dramatic declines in the global burden of measles, but the virus remains persistent in much of the world. Here we show that a combination of demographic transition, as a result of declining birth rates, and reduced measles prevalence, due to improved vaccination, has shifted the age distribution of susceptibility to measles throughout China. We fit a novel time-varying catalytic model to three decades of age-specific measles case reporting in six provinces in China to quantify the change in the age-specific force of infection for measles virus over time. We further quantified the impact of supplemental vaccination campaigns on the reduction of susceptible individuals. The force of infection of measles has declined dramatically (90%-97% reduction in transmission rate) in three industrialized eastern provinces during the last decade, driving a concomitant increase in both the relative proportion and absolute number of adult cases, while three central and western provinces exhibited dynamics consistent with endemic persistence (24%-73% reduction in transmission rate). The reduction in susceptible individuals due to supplemental vaccination campaigns is frequently below the nominal campaign coverage, likely because campaigns necessarily vaccinate those who may already be immune. The impact of these campaigns has significantly improved over time: campaigns prior to 2005 were estimated to have achieved less than 50% reductions in the proportion susceptible in the target age classes, but campaigns from 2005 onwards reduced the susceptible proportion by 32%-87%. A limitation of this study is that it relies on case surveillance, and thus inference may be biased by age-specific variation in measles reporting. The age distribution of measles cases

  19. Mapping Water Use Efficiency for the Xinjiang Province in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W.; Li, Q.; Dong, Q.; van Roey, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Tarim river basin, one of the basins integrated in the UNESCO - HELP Programme, is located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in Northwestern China. It is one of the world's largest closed hydrological drainage systems, and has ideal soils for agriculture, if enough water is available. Farmers in the province produce one- sixth of China's total cotton production. Since the 1950's however, excessive land reclamation, over-grazing and increased utilization of water resources in the upper reaches of the basin intensified environmental degradation. This impacted on cattle stock reduction (by water shortage), withered poplars and vegetation, along the lower reaches of the basin. Riparian forest degraded with a reduction in its area of 200 000 ha in total. Higher water use combined with a gradual mean yearly temperature increase due to climate change caused serious hydrological problems in the basin. Since the 1970's a strong drying out of the lower region is elicited. This phenomenon degraded the basin's downstream ecosystems, with an expansion of desertification as a consequence. Quite conspicuously, the Tarim river has shortened by 320 km, onward the period mentioned above. In the lower region of the basin, the situation is very serious. It can in fact be described as an ecological disaster, with dying trees and vegetation, the drying out of rivers and as consequence a regression of the river fish population as well as increased salt deposits. In the ARCHIMOD bilateral project between Belgium and China, important objectives are the description of the phenomena cited above using hydraulic modelling for some sub-basins of the Tarim as well as the application of remote sensing to estimate evapotranspiration (ETR), soil moisture content (SMC) and water use efficiency (WUE) at the scale of the Xinjiang province. Te estimate WUE at this scale the carbon exchange model C-Fix was applied. Our paper focusses on the application of remote sensing to map WUE for the Xinjiang

  20. Remote Sensing of Agro-droughts in Guangdong Province of China Using MODIS Satellite Data

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Maofang; Qin, Zhihao; Zhang, Hong'ou; Lu, Liping; Zhou, Xia; Yang, Xiuchun

    2008-01-01

    A practical approach was developed in the study for drought monitoring in Guangdong province of China on the basis of vegetation supply water index (VSWI) and precipitation distance index (PDI). A comprehensive index for assessment of agro-drought severity (SADI) was then established from the normalized VSWI and PDI. Using MODIS satellite images and precipitation data from ground-observed meteorological stations, we applied the approach to Guangdong for drought monitoring in 2006. The monitoring results showed that the drought severity on average was very low in the province during the main growing season from May to September in 2006. However, seasonal variation of the severity was also obvious in difference counties of the province. Higher severity of drought could be seen in the periods of late-June (In China each month is traditionally divided into 3 periods. Each is with 10 days and has different names. This division system is mainly with consideration of farming seasons hence has been widely used as the basis of drought monitoring periods in China. In order to keep this tradition, we define, for example, for June, the early-June as the period from 1st to 10th of June, the mid-June as the period from 11th to 20th, and the late-June as the period from 21st to 30th. So mid-August denotes the period from 11th to 20th of August, and early-July the period from 1st to 10th of July, and so on.), early-July, mid-August and late-September. Regionally, Leizhou Peninsula in the west had the most serious drought before mid-May. Validation indicated that our monitoring results were generally consistent with the drought statistics data and the results from Chinese National Satellite Meteorological Center (CNSMC), which used only remote sensing data. This consistence confirmed the applicability of our approach for drought monitoring. Our better identification of drought severity in Leizhou Peninsula of western Guangdong than that of CNSMC might suggest that the approach

  1. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health

  2. Impact of climate variability on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan; Yu, Weiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yuming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Tong, Shilu

    2013-12-17

    Malaria remains a public health problem in the remote and poor area of Yunnan Province, China. Yunnan faces an increasing risk of imported malaria infections from Mekong river neighboring countries. This study aimed to identify the high risk area of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, and to estimate the effects of climatic variability on the transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the identified area. We identified spatial clusters of malaria cases using spatial cluster analysis at a county level in Yunnan Province, 2005-2010, and estimated the weekly effects of climatic factors on P. vivax and P. falciparum based on a dataset of daily malaria cases and climatic variables. A distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall up to 10-week lags on both types of malaria parasite after adjusting for seasonal and long-term effects. The primary cluster area was identified along the China-Myanmar border in western Yunnan. A 1°C increase in minimum temperature was associated with a lag 4 to 9 weeks relative risk (RR), with the highest effect at lag 7 weeks for P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.05) and 6 weeks for P. falciparum (RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.11); a 10-mm increment in rainfall was associated with RRs of lags 2-4 weeks and 9-10 weeks, with the highest effect at 3 weeks for both P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.04) and P. falciparum (RR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.06); and the RRs with a 10% rise in relative humidity were significant from lag 3 to 8 weeks with the highest RR of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10, 1.41) for P. vivax at 5-week lag. Our findings suggest that the China-Myanmar border is a high risk area for malaria transmission. Climatic factors appeared to be among major determinants of malaria transmission in this area. The estimated lag effects for the association between temperature and malaria are consistent with the life cycles of both mosquito vector and malaria

  3. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4-7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to

  4. Composition of the crust in the Grenville and Appalachian Provinces of North America inferred from VP/VS ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musacchio, G.; Mooney, W.D.; Luetgert, J.H.; Christensen, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    We use the ratios between P and S wave velocities (VP/VS), derived from seismic refraction data, to infer the composition of the crust in the Grenville and the Appalachian Provinces of North America. The crust exhibits VP/VS increasing with depth from 1.64 to 1.84; there is a clear distinction between the Grenville Province (average VP/VS=1.81) and the Appalachian Province (average VP/VS=1.73) which persists at all depths. The boundary between these provinces is east dipping extending for 100 km east of the Champlain thrust. In the Appalachian Province the increase in VP/VS ratios with depth from 1.67 to 1.74 ?? 0.02 may reflect a normal decrease of silica content in the continental crust. In the Grenville Province beneath the Central Granulite Terrane, an anomalous VP/VS ratio of 1.82 ?? 0.02 is observed extending to a depth of 10 km; this correlates with the abundance of Ca-plagioclase in the Marcy Anorthosite. At greater depth (15-20 km), where seismic lamination and high electrical conductivity is observed, VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and correlates with the Tahawus Complex, a layered mafic intrusion. Within the 25-km-thick lower crust of the Grenville Province the VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and P-velocity is 7.0 ?? 0.1 km/s, which are typical for plagioclase-bearing rocks (gabbro-norite). The high VP/VS ratio in the Grenville Province has not been reported in crust of any other age. Since the Grenville Province contains 75% of the world's known anorthosites, high VP/VS ratio is related to high plagioclase. We suggest that the composition of the Grenville lower crust was significantly modified by the emplacement of the anorthosites in the mid-Proterozoic. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. East-China Geochemistry Database (ECGD):A New Networking Database for North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ma, W.

    2010-12-01

    North China Craton is one of the best natural laboratories that research some Earth Dynamic questions[1]. Scientists made much progress in research on this area, and got vast geochemistry data, which are essential for answering many fundamental questions about the age, composition, structure, and evolution of the East China area. But the geochemical data have long been accessible only through the scientific literature and theses where they have been widely dispersed, making it difficult for the broad Geosciences community to find, access and efficiently use the full range of available data[2]. How to effectively store, manage, share and reuse the existing geochemical data in the North China Craton area? East-China Geochemistry Database(ECGD) is a networking geochemical scientific database system that has been designed based on WebGIS and relational database for the structured storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. It is integrated the functions of data retrieval, spatial visualization and online analysis. ECGD focus on three areas: 1.Storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. Research on the characters of geochemical data, including its composing and connecting of each other, we designed a relational database, which based on geochemical relational data model, to store a variety of geological sample information such as sampling locality, age, sample characteristics, reference, major elements, rare earth elements, trace elements and isotope system et al. And a web-based user-friendly interface is provided for constructing queries. 2.Data view. ECGD is committed to online data visualization by different ways, especially to view data in digital map with dynamic way. Because ECGD was integrated WebGIS technology, the query results can be mapped on digital map, which can be zoomed, translation and dot selection. Besides of view and output query results data by html, txt or xls formats, researchers also can

  6. Linear Mixed-Effects Models to Describe Individual Tree Crown Width for China-Fir in Fujian Province, Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xu; Yujun, Sun; Xinjie, Wang; Jin, Wang; Yao, Fu

    2015-01-01

    A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME) models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike’s information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)], and the compound symmetry structure (CS). Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2). For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models. PMID:25876178

  7. Linear mixed-effects models to describe individual tree crown width for China-fir in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xu; Yujun, Sun; Xinjie, Wang; Jin, Wang; Yao, Fu

    2015-01-01

    A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME) models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike's information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)], and the compound symmetry structure (CS). Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2). For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models.

  8. The epidemiology of adolescent acne in North East China.

    PubMed

    Wei, B; Pang, Y; Zhu, H; Qu, L; Xiao, T; Wei, H-C; Chen, H-D; He, C-D

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent acne impacts self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents and its aetiology is not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological features of adolescent acne in North East China and determine the impact of genetic and environmental factors on the pathogenesis of acne. Data were collected from 5696 undergraduates (2920 patients and 2776 controls) using questionnaire. The survey data were analysed using spss version 13.0 and heritability of adolescent acne was calculated using Falconer's method. Total prevalence of adolescent acne was 51.30% (52.74% in males, 49.65% in females). The difference between genders was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Adolescents with a family history of acne had earlier age of onset (P < 0.001). The prevalence of acne in first- and second-degree relatives of acne patients was 22.5% and 7.19%, respectively, significantly higher than in controls (P < 0.001). Heritability of adolescent acne was 78.47 +/- 2.05% in first-degree relatives and 75.05 +/- 3.18% in second-degree relatives. Risk factors to the acne suffers include (in descending order of occurrence), acne family history, mental stress, menstrual disorder, frequent insomnia, high fat diet, being male, dysmenorrhoea, anxiety, sleeping < 8 h per day, depression, fried food, study pressure, spicy food, oily skin and mixed type skin. Protective factors include (presented in descending order of occurrence) dry skin, neutral skin, frequent fruit consumption and computer access time < 2 h daily. Adolescent acne includes a familial genetic predisposition. Additional environmental factors of psychological stress, skin oiliness and high caloric diets may also contribute to the onset of acne in Chinese adolescents.

  9. Mesoproterozoic biogenic thrombolites from the North China platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dongjie; Shi, Xiaoying; Jiang, Ganqing

    2013-03-01

    Thrombolites are abundant in the subtidal dolostones of the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation (ca 1.50-1.45 Ga) in the North China platform. Three major components are identified within the thrombolites: irregular mesoclots, micritic matrix and spar-filled voids. The mesoclot generally comprises a relatively organic-rich micritic core and a microsparitic outer layer that consists of fibrous aragonite (pseudocrystals) with less organic matter. In the core of mesoclots, abundant fossilized organic remnants, such as putative coccoidal and filamentous bacteria and mucus- to film-like extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), are closely associated with organominerals including nanoglobules and submicron-scale polyhedrons. In exceptionally well-preserved mesoclots, their outer layers commonly contain micropores displaying as bacterial molds and filamentous bacteria fossils. The matrix of mesoclots consists mainly of micropeloids (20-30 μm in diameter) and minor terrigenous detritus. Some mesoclots have denticulate edges and their matrix shows growth laminations that envelope the outlines of mesoclots. These features indicate that the mesoclots are primary and they were mineralized earlier than the surrounding matrix. The mineralization of mesoclots may have proceeded in two stages: (1) organomineralization of the cores through replacement of organic matter by minute organominerals resulting from anaerobic degradation of bacteria and EPS and (2) inorganic precipitation of the outer layers fostered by an increase in carbonate alkalinity in micro-environment due to organic matter decomposition. The thrombolites from the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation may have formed through complex interactions between microbes and environments and represent the earliest known Precambrian biogenic thrombolites.

  10. Geography of Food Consumption Patterns between South and North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangfang; Cho, Mi Sook

    2017-05-05

    The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in each of the two regions. Using factor analysis, each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1 < T2 < T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%: 1.01, 1.68) (OR: Odds Ratio), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%: 1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased compared T1 to T3. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.

  11. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S) and litter interception storage capacity (C) were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1) the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2) rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax); Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin) showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3) litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4) a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin, indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5) Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics. PMID:23936188

  12. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanxiang; Wong, William Oki; Shi, Gongle; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-11-16

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to

  13. Nutritional status of the elderly in rural North China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Li, Y; Wang, T D; Meng, H-X; Min, G-W; Fang, Y-L; Niu, X-Y; Ma, L-S; Guo, J-H; Zhang, J; Sun, M-Z; Li, C-X

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the nutritional status of elderly people living in a rural area of North China. Community-based, cross-sectional prevalence survey. 3 rural towns of Lvliang City, Shanxi Province, China. A sample of 1845 community residents (29.1% of those eligible) 55 years or older (birth before 1958-01-01). The participants were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, height, weight, as well as having a physical examination and blood sampling for serum cholesterol, total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and vitamin B12 levels. 991 (53.7%) were female and 139 (7.5%) did not complete the anthropometric measurement. Prevalence of underweight and obesity was 3.5% and 24.9% in men and 6.7% and 31.0% in women (P = 0.003, P = 0.005, respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypocholesterolemia was 13.5% and 52.6% in men and 25.0% and 34.3% in women (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Prevalence of high LDL-c concentrations was 8.8% in men and 16.8% in women (P < 0.001). The mean serum tHcy in men (28.8 ± 20.1 μmmol/l) was significantly higher than in women (21.0 ± 15.1 μmmol/L, P < 0.001). Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (defined as > 15μmmol/L) was 79.7% in men and 65.5% in women (P < 0.001). Prevalence of low folate (defined as < 11 nmol/L) and vitamin B12 levels (defiend as < 185 pmol/L) was 70.8 % and 76.8% in men and 56.5% and 72.6% in women (P < 0.001, P = 0.036, respectively). Correlation coefficients between tHcy, folate, and vitamin B12 indicated an inverse linear correlation (r = -0.21, P < 0.001, r = -0.35, P < 0.001, respectively). As China's economic climate has developed, the nutritional status of elderly people in the rural parts of the country has improved in some aspects. However, the trend toward obesity will lead to a shift in the burden of obesity-related chronic diseases. In addition, rurally-located elderly people are at high risk of death that may be associated with abnormal serum cholesterol. The data also

  14. Reassembling the Paleogene Eocene North Atlantic igneous province: New paleomagnetic constraints from the Isle of Mull, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, Morgan; Smethurst, Mark A.; Rousse, Sonia; Torsvik, Trond H.; Prestvik, Tore

    2008-07-01

    The paleomagnetic data sets from the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP) have recently been criticized as being unreliable and discordant with data from elsewhere in the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) [Riisager et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276; Riisager et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214 (2003) 409-425]. We offer new paleomagnetic data for the extensive lava flow sequence on the Isle of Mull, Scotland, and can confirm the paleomagnetic pole positions emanating from important earlier studies. Our new north paleomagnetic pole position for Eurasia at 59 ± 0.2 Ma has latitude 73.3°N, longitude 166.2°E (dp/dm = 5.2/7.0). A re-evaluation and an inter-comparison of the paleomagnetic database emanating from the NAIP were carried out to test for sub-province consistency. We find a general agreement between the Eurasian part of NAIP (BTIP and Faeroes) and East Greenland data. However a compilation of West Greenland data displays a large and unexplained dispersion. We speculate on if this is related to different sense of block rotation of the Tertiary West Greenland constituents. Combining all data from the NAIP constituents, give a pole position at 75.0°N, 169.9°E ( N = 25, K = 84.3, A95 = 3.2) in Eurasian reference frame.

  15. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  16. Geochemical peculiarities of nitric thermal waters in Jiangxi Province (SE-China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Zippa, E. V.; Gao, B.

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition of nitric thermal waters in Jiangxi Province, SE-China, is considered. It is shown that the studied thermal waters are characterized by low TDS (293-412 mg/l), but they always have alkaline or highly alkaline pH values. It should be noted that the content of Na+, Si, F-, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, sometimes SO4 2- is predominant, on the other hand, the content of Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- is low. It has been established that the main factors responsible for low concentrations of some chemical elements and high concentrations of others are continuous dissolution of aluminosilicate minerals and simultaneous precipitation of the secondary minerals.

  17. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-04-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors.

  18. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Ni; Huang, Daizheng

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), and wavelet neural networks (WNN). In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily.

  19. Mesorhizobium spp. are the main microsymbionts of Caragana spp. grown in Liaoning Province of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue Rui; Chen, Wen Feng; Fu, Jun Fan; Lu, Yang Li; Xue, Cai Yun; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2007-06-01

    Caragana species are woody legumes widely distributed in the arid regions of China. These plants form root nodules but their nodule bacteria have not been clearly classified. A total of 112 symbiotic bacterial isolates were obtained from four Caragana species grown in Liaoning Province and were characterized with ARDRA, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, BOX-PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Most of them were classified as Mesorhizobium belonging to 11 putative species. Three isolates were identified as Rhizobium etli and Burkholderia spp. This study offers new information about the Caragana-rhizobia association and resource for selection of inoculants used in sustainable agriculture and for further studies on the Caragana rhizobia.

  20. A new species of Chleuastochoerus (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sukuan; Deng, Tao

    2014-10-13

    The Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China, is known for its abundant and well-preserved fossils. Here a new species, Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the upper Miocene deposits of the Linxia Basin, distinguishable from C. stehlini by the relatively long facial region, more anteromedial-posterolaterally compressed upper canine and more complicated cheek teeth. A cladistics analysis placed Chleuastochoerus in the subfamily Hyotheriinae, being one of the basal taxa of this subfamily. Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis and C. stehlini are considered to have diverged before MN 10. C. tuvensis from Russia represents a separate lineage of Chleuastochoerus, which may have a closer relationship to C. stehlini but bears more progressive P4/p4 and M3.

  1. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  2. Crustal structure of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, from seismic refraction profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kan, R.-J.; Hu, H.-X.; Zeng, R.-S.; Mooney, W.D.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics, on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile, but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  3. Development of community nursing in Zhejiang Province, China: a report of the driving measures.

    PubMed

    Fu, W; Bao, J; Meng, J

    2010-06-01

    Community nursing is playing an important role in health care worldwide. We reviewed recent developments in community nursing in the Zhejiang province of China and reported that the locally tailored practical guidelines, education programmes and management models are the driving measures for promoting local community nursing. In 2008, Zhejiang had 1200 community primary health-care service centres, an increase of 56% and 6789 service stations, a twofold increase, compared with 2004. At present, 27 000 community nurses, together with the same number of family doctors, are working in community health-care service centres and stations. Community nursing in Zhejiang has grown not only by numbers but also by the greatly improved infrastructures and functions of its community primary health care. It is the multi-pronged approach that has led to the change being successful in a local health-care system.

  4. A new species of Scutellaria (Scutellarioideae, Lamiaceae) from Sichuan Province in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Liu, En-De; Peng, Hua; Xiang, Chun-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Scutellaria wuana, a new species discovered from a xeric valley in Muli County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, the new species shares similarities with S. mairei, but can be readily distinguished by a suite of morphological characters including a white-pubescent erect stem, conspicuous leaf petioles, and a yellow corolla with a trapeziform lower-middle lip lobe. The habitat and distribution of S. wuana are also distinctive. The position of the new species within Scutellaria is examined in a phylogenetic context using the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers. Additionally, we examine leaf epidermal and pollen grain micromorphology of the new species and putative relatives.

  5. Sterilization and financial penalties imposed on registered peasant couples, Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cooney, R S; Li, J

    2001-03-01

    Using fertility survey data from the 1980s for registered Han peasant couples in Hebei Province, this study examines whether China's family planning policy reflects couples' voluntary compliance with policy regulations, their coercion by means of government sanctions, or a combination of both. Three family planning regulations are considered: birth-quota status, contraceptive use, and length of prior birth interval. The results of the study provide support for both compliance and sanction perspectives and suggest that by the late 1980s, the state was less willing than it had been previously to negotiate with couples who had had three children. Evidence is found of cooperation between couples and the state to ensure that each family had at least one son.

  6. Prevalence and drug resistance of avian Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Lan, L-H; Sun, B-B; Zuo, B-X-Z; Chen, X-Q; Du, A-F

    2017-07-01

    In this study, coccidia were isolated and identified from 5 main poultry farms located in Zhejiang province, eastern China. The overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 30.7% (95 of 310). Five common species were observed: E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. necatrix, and E. mitis. Two isolates (HZ and QZ) were tested for sensitivity to 8 anticoccidial drugs using 4 indexes including anticoccidial index (ACI), percent of optimum anticoccidial activity (POAA), reduction of lesion scores (RLS), and relative oocyst production (ROP): sulfachloropyrazine, toltrazuril, diclazuril, sulfamonomethoxine/trimethoprim, and amprolium; sulfaquinoxaline/sulfadimethoxine, nicarbazin, and halofuginone. The results showed that the 2 isolates have developed various degrees of resistance to most of the tested drugs. The multi-resistance coccidia are a potential threat to local poultry farming. Rotation of anticoccidial drugs and shuttle programs are recommended to prevent further economic losses caused by coccidiosis. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Occurrence of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U in groundwater in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, W; Iida, T; Yang, X

    2001-01-01

    222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U were determined in a total of 552 groundwater samples collected throughout Fujian Province of China. The geometric mean concentrations of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and total U in the groundwater were 147.8 kBq m-3, 12.7 Bq m-3, 30.2 Bq m-3 and 0.54 microgram kg-1, respectively. High groundwater 222Rn was explained by the predominantly granitic rock aquifers in Fujian. A lifetime risk of 1.7 x 10(-3) was estimated for the ingestion of groundwater 222Rn. High ratios of 228Ra to 226Ra contents (geometric mean of 2.4) and their disproportion suggest that 228Ra should also be measured in the assessment of population doses from drinking water in the regions of high rock or soil 232Th. No significant correlation between the 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and air was found.

  8. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately.

  9. First application of airborne gravity to oil exploration in the Shengli oil province, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyong; Zhoud, Jianxin; Liu, Yanxu; Xu, Jianchun

    2015-07-01

    An airborne gravity survey was successfully conducted over the Dongying, Gudao and Gudong oilfields of Shengli oil province, eastern China. These survey areas cover onshore and offshore regions of the south-west Bohai Sea. The data were processed using the potential field transformation approach. The derived Bouguer gravity data correlate well with features such as known faults, swells and sags identified by earlier seismic survey and drilling data. The depth to the Cenozoic basement in the study area, including the Dongying, Gudao, and Gudong oilfields, was calculated by means of gravity inversion constrained by seismic and drilling data. The differences between the depths to the Cenozoic basement calculated from gravity anomaly and those determined by the earlier seismic and drilling data are less than 5%.

  10. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V

    1986-10-24

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  11. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  12. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Methods Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the premarital screening program. Results The premarital screening rate was 34.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 31.0% to 38.5%). Several demographic factors (age, residence, profession), awareness, knowledge, and attitudes towards premarital screening all had significant influence on participation in the premarital screening program. Conclusions Promotion activities and health education to improve knowledge and attitudes to premarital screening will help increase the rate of voluntary premarital screening. PMID:23497086

  13. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peigang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Min; Vander Weele, Tyler J

    2013-03-11

    To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the premarital screening program. The premarital screening rate was 34.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 31.0% to 38.5%). Several demographic factors (age, residence, profession), awareness, knowledge, and attitudes towards premarital screening all had significant influence on participation in the premarital screening program. Promotion activities and health education to improve knowledge and attitudes to premarital screening will help increase the rate of voluntary premarital screening.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; He, Jin-Rong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ming-Hui; Cao, Jian-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Liu; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses.

  15. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Ni

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), and wavelet neural networks (WNN). In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily. PMID:27843718

  16. Governance reform, external support, and environmental regulation enforcement in rural China: the case of Guangdong province.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines how configurations of external support factors have evolved alongside governance reform in recent years and how these evolving configurations have affected regulatory enforcement in four counties in Guangdong Province in China. Based on in-depth interviews with leading officials in the local environmental protection bureaus (EPBs), we show that there have been increases in government and societal support for local EPBs in their regulatory work, thanks partly to a number of recent governance reform efforts, but many problems have remained. Based on a questionnaire survey of enforcement officials, we examine how the perceptions of government and societal support are related to EPB officials' self-perception of effectiveness. It is found that both local government support and societal support have an influence on enforcement officials' self-assessment of effectiveness, but the relationships varied considerably depending on various dimensions of effectiveness and the patterns of interactions between government and societal support.

  17. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  18. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-01-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors. PMID:19353749

  19. The Mesoproterozoic `seismite' at Laiyuan (Hebei Province, E China) re-interpreted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loon, A. J. (Tom) Van

    2014-07-01

    A 1-million m3 breccia near Laiyuan (Hebei Province, E China) occurs as a block-like lithological unit between dolo-stones of the 1.55-1.45 Ga (Early Mesoproterozoic) Wumishan Formation. It has previously been interpreted as a seismite, but it appears not to fulfil any of the commonly accepted criteria that jointly are considered diagnostic for seis-mites. Its presence in a graben-like structure with almost vertical bounding fault planes rather indicates an origin as a (submarine) valley fill. As the valley originated by tectonic activity in the form of faulting, the breccia can be considered as a secondary effect of seismic activity, but it does not represent a seismite.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  1. Field Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Target Region in Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. J.; Wei, Y. M.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X. L.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A fine mineral identification model using the field Hyperspectral remote sensing was proposed to solve the problem of low mineral identification accuracy. Results show that the accuracy was improved by spectral noises removal, endmember optimization and mineral absorptions enhancement. A regional endmember library was established to improve the reliability by systematically considering of the mineral assemblage relationships. A fine mineral identification system (FMIS) was developed to help geologists to quickly identify minerals and it was applied in the Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang province, China in 2014 to newly find copper mineralized points. The improved model and the FMIS system are therefore not only of great significance to improve efficiency and save cost in remote sensing mineral exploration, but also of great economic value of the local economy development in the future.

  2. Dental caries status of Dai preschool children in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status. Methods An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the “dmft” index, and severe caries was assessed using the “pa” index, which is modified from the “pufa” index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children’s socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children’s parents. Results A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year. Conclusions The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status. PMID:24279504

  3. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Japanese encephalitis virus genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Hongming; Chai, Chunxia; He, Bo; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-06-01

    The genome of JEV strain SC201301, which was isolated from an aborted fetal piglet in 2013 in Sichuan province in China, was completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Sequence alignments showed that the SC201301 strain shared 97-100% sequence identity with other genotype III strains but showed less similarity to genotype I representative JEVs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SC201301 strain belonged to genotype III and was most closely related to representative strains such as SA14-14-2, HW and SH0601. Our findings suggest that JEV genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China, and thus, there is an urgent need to monitor the infection status of JEV among swine herds in China.

  4. The Association of Maternal Lifestyle with Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Leilei; Kang, Yijun; Cheng, Yue; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The main objective was to investigate the burden of birth defects among alive infants and explore the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on the burden of birth defects in Northwest China. Methods A stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to study infants born during 2010–2013 (and their mothers) in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire, and medical records from the local hospitals were used to determine the final diagnosis of birth defects. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the association between maternal lifestyles during pregnancy and the burden of birth defects, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results We sampled 29098 infants, of whom 629 (i.e. 216.17 per 10000) were observed to have congenital defects. Cardiovascular system defects (77.32 per 10000) were found to be the most common. Mothers who had ever consumed alcohol during pregnancy were found to have infants with a higher prevalence of some categories of birth defects, including nervous system (Prevalence Rate Ratio, PRR:14.67, 95%CI:1.94, 110.92), cardiovascular system (PRR:3.22, 95%CI: 1.02, 10.16) and oral clefts (PRR:9.02, 95%CI: 2.08, 39.10) in contrast to infants of mothers without any alcohol consumption. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy lead to the increased burden of malformations of eye, ear, face and neck (PRR:1.95, 95%CI:1.15, 3.33), cardiovascular system (PRR:1.70, 95%CI: 1.25, 2.31) and respiratory system (PRR:9.94, 95%CI: 2.37, 41.76) in their newborns. Further, tea or coffee consumption during pregnancy was positively correlated with the burden of specific birth defects, such as cardiovascular system (PRR: 2.44, 95%CI: 1.33, 4.46) and genital organs (PRR:14.72, 95%CI: 1.87, 116.11) among infants. Conclusions The prevalence of birth defects was high in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. The unhealthy lifestyles of mothers during pregnancy may

  5. Constraining the History of the North Atlantic Igneous Province: a Palaeomagnetic and Geochronologic Ballad in the British Tertiary Volcanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, M.; Rousse, S.; Smethurst, M.; Prestvik, T.

    2006-12-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIP), overwhelmingly of basaltic affinity constitute the surface expressions of catastrophically rapid dissipation of large quantities of internal heat. Subsequent to their extrusion, most LIPs have changed position in the Earth's surface due to plate motions. With an estimated volume of ca 107 km3 the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) represents the third largest magmatic event on Earth during the last 150 Myr. The NAIP formed during two major magmatic phases: a pre- break-up phase (62-58 Ma) and a syn- break-up phase (56-54 Ma) contemporaneous with the onset of North Atlantic sea-floor spreading. The formation of the NAIP has been linked to the proto-Icelandic plume through paleogeographic reconstructions and geochemical observations. Since the late 1980's much of the research focus on the NAIP has been guided by the understanding of the genetic relationship between North Atlantic magmatism that began in the earliest Palaeocene, the genesis/position of the Iceland Hotspots and/or related mantle plume(s) through the Cenozoic, and the change at c. 54 Ma from a long period of continental rifting and thinning of sea- floor spreading. However, despite the number of data available, the temporal and physio-chemical ties between NAIP rocks, hotspot motion and continental break-up have not been demonstrated to fit a single regionally applicable and consistent geodynamic model. For example, discrepancies between recent palaeomagnetic poles from western Greenland and the Faeroe Islands (Riisager et al. 2002a,b) and older data from the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP) have questioned the reliability of the latest. Therefore, to ultimately understand the Tertiary evolution of the North Atlantic, extensive palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar sampling on the lava fields of the British Igneous Provinces (Isle of Skye, Isle of Mull, Antrim Plateau) has been initiated. Our findings are in agreement with older published poles from the BTIP and support

  6. Vehicle emission trends and spatial distribution in Shandong province, China, from 2000 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shida; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions have become a major source of air pollution in Shandong province, which has experienced a sharp growth of vehicle numbers in recent years and now has the largest vehicle population in China. This paper combines the COPERT IV model with the vehicle age distribution to estimate the temporal trends and map the spatial distributions of vehicle emissions in Shandong province during the period ranging from 2000 to 2014. Both conventional air pollutants and greenhouse gases are included. In addition, a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory at the prefecture level is developed and mapped on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid based on road information. Our results show that the emissions of all of the conventional air pollutants have decreased to various extents over the recent past, but greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase due to the lack of effective control strategies. The total emissions of CO, NMVOC, NOX, PM10, CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Shandong vehicle fleet changed from 1734.5 Gg, 277.9 Gg, 177.0 Gg, 12.4 Gg, 19239.7 Gg, 11.3 Gg and 0.6 Gg, respectively, in 2000 to 1723.3 Gg, 234.2 Gg, 513.8 Gg, 29.5 Gg, 138,419.5 Gg, 15.3 Gg and 3.9 Gg, respectively, in 2014. Vehicle emissions were mainly concentrated in cities and became more dispersed in Shandong province between 2000 and 2014.

  7. The Expanding Burden of Elevated Blood Pressure in China: Evidence From Jiangxi Province, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Junxiu; Liu, Shiwei; Zhou, Haiming; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Liu, Jie; Li, Yichong; Tang, Ji; Zhou, Chunlian; Huang, Jiuling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) as a risk factor accounts for the biggest burden of disease worldwide and in China. This study aimed to estimate attributed mortality and life expectancy (LE) to elevated BP in Jiangxi province between 2007 and 2010. BP and mortality data (2007 and 2010 inclusive) were obtained from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey and Disease Surveillance Points system, respectively. Population-attributable fraction used in comparative risk assessment of the Global Burden of Disease study 2010 were followed to quantify the attributed mortality to elevated BP, subsequently life table methods were applied to estimate its effects on LE. Uncertainty analysis was conducted to get 95% uncertainty intervals (95% uncertainty interval [UI]) for each outcome. There are 35,482 (95% UI: 31,389–39,928) and 47,842 (42,323–53,837) deaths in Jiangxi province were caused by elevated BP in 2007 and 2010, respectively. 2.24 (1.87–2.65) years of LE would be gained if all the attributed deaths were eliminated in 2007, and increased to 3.04 (2.52–3.48) in 2010. If the mean value of elevated BP in 2010 was decreased by 5 and 10 mm Hg, 5324 (4710–5991) and 11,422 (10,104–12,853) deaths would be avoided, with 0.41 (0.37–0.48) and 0.85 (0.71–1.09) years of LE gained, respectively. The deaths attributable to elevated BP in Jiangxi province has increased by 35% from 2007 to 2010, with 0.8 years of LE loss, suggesting the necessity to take actions to control BP in Chinese population. PMID:26426647

  8. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012‒2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of- pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  9. Seroprevalence and distribution of hepatitis E virus in various ethnic groups in Gansu province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongren; Feng, Ruofei; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J; Li, Mingsheng; Qiao, Zilin; Feng, Yuping; Wang, Youchun

    2010-07-01

    Gansu province is located in northwestern China and is home to 45 ethnic groups including Han, Hui, Zang and others. Different ethnic groups have varying involvement with livestock and meat consumption, especially pork. To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and the distribution of HEV genotypes among the major ethnic groups in Gansu province, 2090 serum samples were collected from individuals from four regions and three ethnic groups, the Han, Hui and Zang. All serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies, as well as HEV antigen, and selected samples were then tested for HEV RNA. The data showed that the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in the Hui, Han and Zang ethnic groups from the four regions was 8.9%, 18.7% and 32.9%, respectively, and these differed significantly (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibody for each ethnic group varied among the different regions. In general, within the same region, the three ethnic groups also show differences. Genomic analysis indicated that HEV isolated from humans belonged to genotype 4, and resembled closely swine HEV isolates from Gansu province. The seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies was in accordance with the amount of contact with pigs in the different regions. Pigs are the primary host for HEV, so people in frequent contact with pigs may be at risk of zoonotic infection. However, populations that have rare contact with pigs are more likely to be susceptible to HEV when exposed, suggesting that should be the target of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001). During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001). Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases. Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.

  11. [Study on seasonal characteristics and pathogenic distribution of influenza in Gansu province of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, X T; Liu, X F; He, J; Yu, D S; Liu, D P; Li, H Y; Li, B D; Bai, Y N

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To study the epidemiologic characteristics of influenza in Gansu province of China and to optimize the related vaccination program. Methods: Weekly influenza surveillance data from the first week of 2010 to the fortieth week of 2016 were collected, in Gansu province. χ(2) test was used to compare the differences of nucleic acid positive rate and the virus types in the four seasons. Time series seasonal decomposition (TSSD) was used to explore seasonal patterns and characteristics of influenza epidemics in Gansu. Results: 59 791 specimens were tested, with 8 501 positive for influenza virus and positive rates as 14.22%. Types A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and type B were accounted for 98.76% of all the positive specimens. Proportions of the positive rate of influenza virus appeared in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 15.12%, 0.98%, 4.02% and 24.26% respectively. The predominant type of virus in autumn and winter was A(H3N2), with B mainly in spring. Influenza in Gansu province showed typical single-peak type distribution, with epidemic peak appeared from December to next January. The type A(H3N2) related peak appeared the earliest, followed by A(H1N1) pdm09, with type B the latest. Conclusions: Peaks and the duration of influenza seasonal epidemics were related to the types of dominant strains. Annual influenza vaccination campaigns should start in October, to provide effective protection during the epidemic period.

  12. Perinatal hepatitis B prevention program in Shandong Province, China. Evaluation and progress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ko, Stephen; Lv, Jingjing; Ji, Feng; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Fujie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) alone is highly effective in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and the World Health Organization recommends administering HepB to all infants within 24 h after delivery. Maternal screening for HBsAg and administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in addition to HepB for infants born to HBsAg-positive pregnant women can increase the effectiveness of post-exposure prophylaxis for perinatal HBV transmission. In Shangdong Province, China which has a high prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HepB birth dose and HBIG were integrated into the routine childhood immunization program in 2002 and July 2011 respectively. We assessed progress toward implementation of these measures. Hospital-based reporting demonstrated an increase in maternal screening from 70.7% to 96.9% from 2004-2012; HepB birth dose coverage (within 24 h) remained high (96.3-97.1%) during this period. For infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers, the coverage of HBIG increased from 85.0% (before July 2011) to 92.1% (after July 2011). However, HBIG coverage in western areas of Shandong Province remained at 81.1% among infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers. Preterm/low-birth-weight and illness after birth were the most commonly reported reasons for delay in the first dose of HepB to >24 h of birth. Additional education on the safety and immune protection from HepB and HBIG might help to correct delays in administering the HepB birth dose and low HBIG coverage in the western areas of the Shandong Province.

  13. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001). During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001). Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases. Conclusions Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  14. Forest recovery and river discharge at the regional scale of Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Wei, Xiaohua; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Mingfang; Li, Yuelin; Qiao, Yuna; Liu, Haigui; Wang, Chunlin

    2010-09-01

    Information on how large-scale forest changes affect water resources is important in China as country-wide reforestation programs are being implemented and concerns have arisen over possible water reduction. In this study, water budget analysis and statistical methods were used to assess the effects of significant forest recovery on river discharge at Guangdong Province based on 50 years of data. We used realized water yield (RWY) as a balance term between the outflows from and inflows to the province to represent the river discharge produced solely in Guangdong Province. The relationship between forest recovery and RWY was inferred after quantitatively examining other contributing variables including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, development of impervious areas, human water consumption, and reservoir constructions. We applied time series analysis to test the statistical relationship between forest recovery and RWYs at annual, wet season, and dry season intervals. Both approaches showed that large-scale forest recovery did not cause significant water reduction over the past 50 years. This finding is contrary to the widely held perception of the trade-off relationship between carbon (reforestation) and water. There were no significant trends in precipitation or in RWY annually and in the wet season, but there was a significant increase of RWY in the dry season over the past 50 years. It is estimated that forest recovery may play a positive role in redistributing water from the wet season to the dry season and, consequently, in increasing water yield in the dry season. The implication of those research findings for future reforestation programs and water resource protection is also discussed.

  15. [Investigation of a Patient with Pre-vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yao; Wang, Suting; Zhang Xiao; Song, Lizhi; Tao, Zexin; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the genetic characteristics of a polio-I highly variant vaccine recombinant virus in Shandong Province (China) in 2011 and to identify isolates from healthy contacts, two stool specimens from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and 40 stool specimens from his contacts were collected for virus isolation. The complete genome of poliovirus and VP1 coding region of the non-polio enterovirus were sequenced. Homologous comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 sequences were undertaken among coxsackievirus (CV) B1, CV-B3 isolates, and those in GenBank. One poliovirus (P1/11186), CV-A4 and CV-A8 were isolated from the AFP patient; one CV-A2, Echovirus 3 (E-3), E-12 and E-14, ten CV-B1, and five CV-B3 strains were isolated from his contacts. These results led us to believe that there may be a human enterovirus epidemic in this area, and that surveillance must be enhanced. P1/11186 was a type-1 vaccine-related poliovirus; it combined with type-2 and type-3 polioviruses in 2A and 3A regions, respectively. There were 25 nucleotide mutations with 9 amino-acid alterations in the entire genome. There were 8 nucleotide mutations with 5 amino-acid alterations in the VP1 region compared with the corresponding Sabin strains. Homology analyses suggested that the ten CV-B1 isolates had 97.0%-100% nucleotide and 98.9%-100% amino-acid identities with each other, as well as 92.6%-100% nucleotide and 99.2%-100% amino-acid identities among the five CV-B3 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses on the complete sequences of VP1 among CV-B1 and CV-B3 isolates showed that Shandong strains, together with strains from other provinces in China, had a close relationship and belonged to the same group.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses and donkeys in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. There have been limited reports about the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids around the world and little is known about the seroprevalence of T. gondii in equids in southwestern China, in particular in Yunnan Province. The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids in this area. Methods A total of 399 serum samples (266 from horses and 133 from donkeys) were collected in 2012, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) test using a commercially available kit. Results A total of 108 (27.1%) equids, including 81 (30.5%) horses and 27 (20.3%) donkeys were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 18.8% to 37.5% among different sampling areas. The seroprevalence was 27.4% and 26.8% for male and female equids, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence ranged from 21% to 32.9% among different age groups, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the existence of high T. gondii seroprevalence in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which has significant public health concern. Therefore, it is imperative that improved integrated measures be carried out to prevent and control T. gondii infection in equids in the studied region. PMID:23742078

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students Aged 7-22 Years in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Musa, Taha Hussein; Wei, Li; Li, Xiao Shan; Pu, Yue Pu; Wei, Ping Min

    2016-10-01

    To report the prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity among students aged 7-22 years in Jiangsu, 2010 to 2013. This cross-sectional study was carried out as part of students physical fitness and health survey in Jiangsu province. A total of 255,581 subjects (50.03% males and 49.97% females) enrolled in 82 school and 10 universities in Jiangsu. Weights and heights were obtained for each subject and its body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the Chinese Working Group on Obesity in China (CWGO). Anthropometric measurement including bodyweight, height, BMI and bust were significantly different between males in urban compared to females living rural areas (P<0.001). The total prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.4% and 5.7%. Males had a significantly higher rate than in female's student. The prevalence of overweight and obesity by age groups was (14.5%, 10.3%) at age 7-11 years, (11.2%, 6.8%) at age 12-14 years, (11.7%, 3.1%) at age 15-17 years, and (11.4%, 2.3%) at age 18-22 years. By regions; the highest prevalence of overweight obesity reported in Taizhou (10%, 14.2%), Xuzhou (9.4%, 12.5%), and Nanjing (9.2%, 15.6%), respectively. The finding declares that overweight and obesity are important health problems among students in Jiangsu Province. Early intervention programme are needed to address this problems. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring Stakeholder Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Using Needle Exchange Programs in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, Morgan M.; FuJie, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use is an ongoing urban health crisis in China and one of the largest drivers of the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan province show upwards of 20% of injection drug users (IDUs) are HIV positive. Though the Ministry of Health has scaled-up needle exchange programs (NEPs), they have not received official government recognition nor have they been extensively evaluated to explore factors influencing their acceptability and feasibility. Using in-depth qualitative interviews conducted from February to July 2008 with 35 participants consisting of IDUs and other key stakeholders, we explored facilitators and barriers to accessing needle exchange programs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes including attitudes toward NEPs and harm reduction, barriers to access, and suggestions for improvement. Themes that emerged included fears of breached confidentiality and police interference at the exchange sites and tensions between the public health and law enforcement perspective. Low levels of NEP-related knowledge and awareness were uniformly reported among interviewees. Suggestions to facilitate an increase in NEP acceptance included raising awareness of harm reduction and HIV more generally, offering services such as psychological counseling, job training and behavioral therapy at NEPs, and increasing communication between police, government, and public health officials. High rates of HIV infection among injection drug users in China have prompted rapid scale up of NEPs. Additional adaptations are necessary, however, to increase needle exchange use among injection drug users. This study finds that an urgent need to raise awareness of NEPs among policy makers and IDUs and act upon identified steps for developing social-structural interventions to create enabling environments that facilitate increased access to NEPs among injection drug users in Kunming. PMID:24498286

  19. Economy-wide material input/output and dematerialization analysis of Jilin Province (China).

    PubMed

    Li, MingSheng; Zhang, HuiMin; Li, Zhi; Tong, LianJun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, both direct material input (DMI) and domestic processed output (DPO) of Jilin Province in 1990-2006 were calculated and then based on these two indexes, a dematerialization model was established. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) both direct material input and domestic processed output increase at a steady rate during 1990-2006, with average annual growth rates of 4.19% and 2.77%, respectively. (2) The average contribution rate of material input to economic growth is 44%, indicating that the economic growth is visibly extensive. (3) During the studied period, accumulative quantity of material input dematerialization is 11,543 x 10(4) t and quantity of waste dematerialization is 5,987 x10(4) t. Moreover, dematerialization gaps are positive, suggesting that the potential of dematerialization has been well fulfilled. (4) In most years of the analyzed period, especially 2003-2006, the economic system of Jilin Province represents an unsustainable state. The accelerated economic growth relies mostly on excessive resources consumption after the Revitalization Strategy of Northeast China was launched.

  20. [Assessment of ecological environment effects of coastal development in Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Tuo; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    Through the analysis of the development activities and the ecological environment in coastal of Hebei Province, China, an index system for evaluating the ecological environment effect, composed of 28 indices, was set up by the pressure, state and response subsystems. Using the comprehensive index evaluation method, the integrated effects of ecological environment index (EI) was calculated and its grading criterion was founded. The results showed that the ecological environment effect of Hebei Province coastal development varied from being relatively small, normal and then relatively large from 1984 to 2010, and its acceptance degree evolved from being acceptable to being unacceptable. Because the resource and environment pressures caused by coastal development were serious and a delay existed in the state relative to the response, the improvement of various measures in the response subsystem did not show a positive effect on the state, and the environmental quality of ocean showed a degrading trend. Due to the differences in coastal development pattern and strength, the ecological environment effect of development activities showed some spatial differences. The ecological environment effect of Qinhuangdao coastal development was the minimum, followed by Cangzhou and Tangshan. Cangzhou and Tangshan had reached unacceptable levels and needed to further strengthen the restoration and protection of ecological environment.

  1. Health promotion and education policy and practice in urban schools in Liaoning province, China.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Malcolm; Weng, Wenyan

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews the status of health education in urban schools in three cities in Liaoning province, China. The cities represent the upper, middle and lower levels of city economy based on the GDP per person within the province. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to 500 primary and secondary schools and 436 questionnaires (87.2%) were returned completed. The questionnaire assessed health education offerings in the schools, permitting the comparison of similarities and differences in school practices, and the identification of obstacles that prevent schools becoming health promoting. The analysis revealed that 0.7% of schools fulfilled criteria for good status of health education. The negative attitudes of school management, teachers and pupils towards health education, as well as the lack of in-service training for staff, were perceived as key obstacles to school health education. Few provincial and school-based policies mentioned pupil involvement in health policy development and only a small number of schools acknowledged the need to improve community and parental involvement. In this paper we discuss the challenges facing provincial education and health authorities, and make recommendations about how to assist Chinese schools to develop and implement high quality health education initiatives.

  2. Community physicians' knowledge of secondary prevention after ischemic stroke: a questionnaire survey in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Qiao, Xiaoyuan; Kang, Huijie; Ding, Ling; Bai, Lixia; Wang, Jintao

    2015-11-03

    This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, conducted in Shanxi Province, China, evaluated the knowledge of community physicians of secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). A total of 1910 physicians practicing at 832 community-based clinics, hospitals and other care centers in 11 prefectures of Shanxi Province completed the questionnaires between 1 July and 30 September 2013. Over 90 % of participants were aware of the most common risk factors for stroke, but lifestyle-related factors were seen as of low or medium importance for secondary prevention. Only about 50 % of physicians were aware of the existence of commonly used stroke scales, and fewer said that they would use those scales in their clinical practice. There were slight differences in the responses to some of the questions on risk factors and stroke scales were associated with the physicians' gender, academic qualifications, practice duration and location. Less than half of the participants were aware of the secondary prevention recommendations included in the most recent guidelines. The survey revealed a huge gap in knowledge of current guidelines for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and TIA among the physicians surveyed. Continuing education and training of community physicians, administered as a public health program, is needed to improve the healthcare of ischemic stroke and TIA patients.

  3. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong - the most developed province in Southern China?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010–2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R2 = 0.782) and elevation (R2 = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R2 above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R2 values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution. PMID:25096216

  4. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  5. Mycotoxins in wheat flour and intake assessment in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zhou, Jingyang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Fengjia

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the occurrence and contamination levels of eight mycotoxins were investigated in wheat flour samples (n = 359) from Shandong Province of China. Samples were determined using a multi-mycotoxin method based on isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol (DON) (97.2%), nivalenol (40.4%) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (33.4%), and mean contamination levels in positive samples were 86.7, 3.55 and 3.34 µg kg(-1), respectively. The obtained data were further used to estimate the daily intake of the local population, and indicated that wheat flour consumption contributes little to DON exposure. However, with the aim to keep the contamination levels under control and to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Shandong Province, more sample data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in the future.

  6. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Hui; Yuan, Yuqi; Sun, Na; Bi, Zhenwang; Guan, Bing; Shao, Kun; Wang, Tongzhan; Bi, Zhenqiang

    Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera. Low positive rates for tcpA, tcpI and ctxAB among isolates from after 2000 may be an influencing factor contributing to the contemporary decline in cholera incidence rates. Spatiotemporal serotype shifts (Ogawa, Inaba, Ogawa, Inaba and O139) generally correlated with the variations in the PFGE patterns (PIV, PIIIc, PIa, PIIIb, PIIIa, PIb, and PII). O1 strains from different years or regions also had similar PFGE patterns, while O139 strains exclusively formed one cluster and differed from all other O1 strains. These data indicate that V. cholerae isolates in Shandong Province have continually undergone spatiotemporal changes. The serotype switching between Ogawa and Inaba originated from indigenous strains, while the emergence of serogroup O139 appeared to be unrelated to endemic V. cholerae O1 strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupling predicted model of arsenic in groundwater with endemic arsenism occurrence in Shanxi Province, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Rodriguez-Lado, Luis; Liu, Juan; Johnson, C Annette; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2013-11-15

    Statistical modeling has been used to predict high risk area of arsenic (As) hazard, but information about its application on endemic arsenism is limited. In this study, we aim to link the prediction model with population census data and endemic arsenicosis in Shanxi Province, Northern China. 23 explanatory variables from different sources were compiled in the format of grid at 1km resolution in a GIS environment. Logistic regression was applied to describe the relationship between binary-coded As concentrations data and the auxiliary predictors. 61 endemic arsenism villages were geo-located and combined with output maps of the prediction model. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship between arsenicosis occurrence rate and predictive As probability at village level. Our results show that 6 explanatory environmental variables were significantly contributed to the final model. Area of 3000 km(2) was found to have high risk of As concentrations above 50 μg L(-1). The linear regression indicates that 13% of the variation in arsenicosis occurrence rate can be predicted using predictive probability of As concentration above 50 μg L(-1) in Shanxi Province. These results suggest that As prediction model may be helpful for identifying As-contaminated area and endemic arsenism village. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of three feline calicivirus strains from domestic cats in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Ying, Ying; Wang, Kai; Dong, Hongwei; Gao, Chao; Yang, Songtao; Hu, Guixue

    2017-05-06

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly prevalent pathogen that can cause infectious felid upper respiratory tract disease. The majority of complete genome sequences of FCV strains reported to date are from the USA. In this study, three FCV strains, CH-JL1, CH-JL2 and